WorldWideScience

Sample records for global physical processes

  1. Physical Processes for Driving Ionospheric Outflows in Global Simulations

    Moore, Thomas Earle; Strangeway, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess the importance of processes thought to drive ionospheric outflows, linking them as appropriate to the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field, and to the spatial and temporal distribution of their magnetospheric internal responses. These begin with the diffuse effects of photoionization and thermal equilibrium of the ionospheric topside, enhancing Jeans' escape, with ambipolar diffusion and acceleration. Auroral outflows begin with dayside reconnexion and resultant field-aligned currents and driven convection. These produce plasmaspheric plumes, collisional heating and wave-particle interactions, centrifugal acceleration, and auroral acceleration by parallel electric fields, including enhanced ambipolar fields from electron heating by precipitating particles. Observations and simulations show that solar wind energy dissipation into the atmosphere is concentrated by the geomagnetic field into auroral regions with an amplification factor of 10-100, enhancing heavy species plasma and gas escape from gravity, and providing more current carrying capacity. Internal plasmas thus enable electromagnetic driving via coupling to the plasma, neutral gas and by extension, the entire body " We assess the Importance of each of these processes in terms of local escape flux production as well as global outflow, and suggest methods for their implementation within multispecies global simulation codes. We complete 'he survey with an assessment of outstanding obstacles to this objective.

  2. Global building physics

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...

  3. Global Building Physics

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper...

  4. An improved hindcast approach for evaluation and diagnosis of physical processes in global climate models

    Ma, H.-Y.; Chuang, C. C.; Klein, S. A.; Lo, M.-H.; Zhang, Y.; Xie, S.; Zheng, X.; Ma, P.-L.; Zhang, Y.; Phillips, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present an improved procedure of generating initial conditions (ICs) for climate model hindcast experiments with specified sea surface temperature and sea ice. The motivation is to minimize errors in the ICs and lead to a better evaluation of atmospheric parameterizations' performance in the hindcast mode. We apply state variables (horizontal velocities, temperature, and specific humidity) from the operational analysis/reanalysis for the atmospheric initial states. Without a data assimilation system, we apply a two-step process to obtain other necessary variables to initialize both the atmospheric (e.g., aerosols and clouds) and land models (e.g., soil moisture). First, we nudge only the model horizontal velocities toward operational analysis/reanalysis values, given a 6 h relaxation time scale, to obtain all necessary variables. Compared to the original strategy in which horizontal velocities, temperature, and specific humidity are nudged, the revised approach produces a better representation of initial aerosols and cloud fields which are more consistent and closer to observations and model's preferred climatology. Second, we obtain land ICs from an off-line land model simulation forced with observed precipitation, winds, and surface fluxes. This approach produces more realistic soil moisture in the land ICs. With this refined procedure, the simulated precipitation, clouds, radiation, and surface air temperature over land are improved in the Day 2 mean hindcasts. Following this procedure, we propose a "Core" integration suite which provides an easily repeatable test allowing model developers to rapidly assess the impacts of various parameterization changes on the fidelity of modeled cloud-associated processes relative to observations.

  5. Global physical activity levels

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  6. Global Warming: Physics and Facts

    Levi, B.G.; Hafemeister, D.; Scribner, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO 2 ; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment

  7. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    ... кий Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global strategy development ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on Physical Activity ...

  8. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  9. Exoplanet atmospheres physical processes

    Seager, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, astronomers have identified hundreds of extrasolar planets--planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Recent research in this burgeoning field has made it possible to observe and measure the atmospheres of these exoplanets. This is the first textbook to describe the basic physical processes--including radiative transfer, molecular absorption, and chemical processes--common to all planetary atmospheres, as well as the transit, eclipse, and thermal phase variation observations that are unique to exoplanets. In each chapter, Sara Seager offers a conceptual introduction, examples that combine the relevant physics equations with real data, and exercises. Topics range from foundational knowledge, such as the origin of atmospheric composition and planetary spectra, to more advanced concepts, such as solutions to the radiative transfer equation, polarization, and molecular and condensate opacities. Since planets vary widely in their atmospheric properties, Seager emphasizes the major p...

  10. Physics as Information Processing

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2011-01-01

    I review some recent advances in foundational research at Pavia QUIT group. The general idea is that there is only Quantum Theory without quantization rules, and the whole Physics - including space-time and relativity - is emergent from the quantum-information processing. And since Quantum Theory itself is axiomatized solely on informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms: this is the It from bit of J. A. Wheeler.The review is divided into four parts: a) the informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; b) how space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from quantum computation; c) what is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and of (ℎ/2π), and how the quantum field emerges; d) an observational consequence of the new quantum field theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will conclude with the research lines that will follow in the immediate future.

  11. Space plasma physics stationary processes

    Hasegawa, Akira

    1989-01-01

    During the 30 years of space exploration, important discoveries in the near-earth environment such as the Van Allen belts, the plasmapause, the magnetotail and the bow shock, to name a few, have been made. Coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere and energy transfer processes between them are being identified. Space physics is clearly approaching a new era, where the emphasis is being shifted from discoveries to understanding. One way of identifying the new direction may be found in the recent contribution of atmospheric science and oceanography to the development of fluid dynamics. Hydrodynamics is a branch of classical physics in which important discoveries have been made in the era of Rayleigh, Taylor, Kelvin and Helmholtz. However, recent progress in global measurements using man-made satellites and in large scale computer simulations carried out by scientists in the fields of atmospheric science and oceanography have created new activities in hydrodynamics and produced important new discover...

  12. Global economic processes and Ukraine

    Svitlana Radzievska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents main trends in global economic development and impact thereof on Ukraine. A characteristic feature of the contemporary world is acceleration of globalization caused by achievements of the scientific and technological progress, which have provided technical means for successful overcoming the factors of time and space, whereby making the world more compact and ensuring the possibility of functioning as a single economic mechanism. Growing of opportunities for solving global problems is accompanied by aggravation of the latter such as: population growth, depletion of natural resources, deterioration of the environment, the mounting danger of climatic changes, potential failure to provide people with foods and potable water. Growth of social inequality in the world is also observed, as is increased differentiation of population by income level, which intensifies migration processes and thereby creates new problems related to coexistence of people belonging to different civilizations, cultures and value systems. An integral part of globalization is formation of regional associations which requires Ukraine to participate in this phase of globalization by means of becoming a member of a regional integration association with the purpose of improving its competitiveness and ensuring decent living for Ukrainian people under conditions of humanity functioning as a single planetary organism

  13. Global trends in radiation processing

    Defalco, Gerry

    2002-01-01

    A global leader in radioisotope technology with three business units: - Nuclear Medicine supplies about two-thirds of the world requirements for molybdenum-99 and other isotopes used to diagnose disease - Radiation Therapy business unit supplied more than over 2,300 cobalt cancer treatment machines and is a leader in treatment planning - Ion Technologies is the world's leading supplier of cobalt 60 and innovative gamma irradiation systems About Ion Technologies · Supply over 70% of world's cobalt-60 sources · Custom-designed and built irradiation systems · Comprehensive engineering, physics, logistics, installation and marketing services · Canadian Irradiation Center for unique 'hands on' training, R and D product irradiation

  14. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity.

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L

    2005-08-24

    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  15. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    Craig Cora L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet. International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  16. The physics and history of global warming

    Hu Yongyun

    2012-01-01

    Global warming is not only a hot research area in atmospheric sciences and even all Earth sciences but is also a controversial topic in the international community. The purpose of this paper is not to clarify these controversies, but instead, to address the physical basis on which our understanding of global warming is founded, and to briefly review the nearly 200-year history of global warming sciences. We hope the paper will help readers, who have no background in the atmospheric and climate sciences, understand scientific issues of global warming. (author)

  17. Global properties of physically interesting Lorentzian spacetimes

    Nawarajan, Deloshan; Visser, Matt

    Under normal circumstances most members of the general relativity community focus almost exclusively on the local properties of spacetime, such as the locally Euclidean structure of the manifold and the Lorentzian signature of the metric tensor. When combined with the classical Einstein field equations this gives an extremely successful empirical model of classical gravity and classical matter — at least as long as one does not ask too many awkward questions about global issues, (such as global topology and global causal structure). We feel however that this is a tactical error — even without invoking full-fledged “quantum gravity” we know that the standard model of particle physics is also an extremely good representation of some parts of empirical reality; and we had better be able to carry over all the good features of the standard model of particle physics — at least into the realm of semi-classical quantum gravity. Doing so gives us some interesting global features that spacetime should possess: On physical grounds spacetime should be space-orientable, time-orientable, and spacetime-orientable, and it should possess a globally defined tetrad (vierbein, or in general a globally defined vielbein/n-bein). So on physical grounds spacetime should be parallelizable. This strongly suggests that the metric is not the fundamental physical quantity; a very good case can be made for the tetrad being more fundamental than the metric. Furthermore, a globally-defined “almost complex structure” is almost unavoidable. Ideas along these lines have previously been mooted, but much is buried in the pre-arXiv literature and is either forgotten or inaccessible. We shall revisit these ideas taking a perspective very much based on empirical physical observation.

  18. PHYSICS UPDATE: The global positioning system

    Walton, Alan J.; Black, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    A hand-held global positioning system receiver displays the operator's latitude, longitude and velocity. Knowledge of GCSE-level physics will allow the basic principles of the system to be understood; knowledge of A-level physics will allow many important aspects of their implementation to be comprehended. A discussion of the system provides many simple numerical calculations relevant to school and first-year undergraduate syllabuses.

  19. Spherical Process Models for Global Spatial Statistics

    Jeong, Jaehong

    2017-11-28

    Statistical models used in geophysical, environmental, and climate science applications must reflect the curvature of the spatial domain in global data. Over the past few decades, statisticians have developed covariance models that capture the spatial and temporal behavior of these global data sets. Though the geodesic distance is the most natural metric for measuring distance on the surface of a sphere, mathematical limitations have compelled statisticians to use the chordal distance to compute the covariance matrix in many applications instead, which may cause physically unrealistic distortions. Therefore, covariance functions directly defined on a sphere using the geodesic distance are needed. We discuss the issues that arise when dealing with spherical data sets on a global scale and provide references to recent literature. We review the current approaches to building process models on spheres, including the differential operator, the stochastic partial differential equation, the kernel convolution, and the deformation approaches. We illustrate realizations obtained from Gaussian processes with different covariance structures and the use of isotropic and nonstationary covariance models through deformations and geographical indicators for global surface temperature data. To assess the suitability of each method, we compare their log-likelihood values and prediction scores, and we end with a discussion of related research problems.

  20. Cosmoglobalistics: Interrelation of Global and Cosmic Processes

    Ursul Tatiana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops the concept antropogeocosmizm, emanating from the fact that the main purpose of space activity in the short term is the historical use of space to solve global problems and in the long term socio-natural transition to the sustainable development of the planet. In this study based on the ideological origins and formation of a new direction and globalization, exploring the relationship of global and cosmic factors, the impact of the latter on the development of global processes and systems, the problem of space on the planet and escalating global processes in space. It is about the relationship of space and planetary processes, the transformation of the global response to space activities (and their interaction, and global development in the cosmic evolution. Taken as the position that global studies examining global processes and systems, and global processes are understood by the natural, social and socio-natural processes unfolding on planet Earth and have evolutionary significance. It is shown that global processes and issues affecting the world at large, is to some extent a manifestation of the global-space character of the contradictions associated with the expansion of spatial boundaries of human activity, including the conquest of space. Special attention is paid to the potential global catastrophes and geospatial software security. Considering the introduction of a substantive field cosmoglobalistiks natural processes, prospects globally exoplanet space research, as well as "global methodology" search for extraterrestrial intelligence. We consider the discovery of dark matter forms that give rise to a very substantial transformation attitude and stimulate the formation of global-cosmological research, which will consider mainly the global characteristics of matter, manifested in three main fragments of the Universe.

  1. Global Software Engineering: A Software Process Approach

    Richardson, Ita; Casey, Valentine; Burton, John; McCaffery, Fergal

    Our research has shown that many companies are struggling with the successful implementation of global software engineering, due to temporal, cultural and geographical distance, which causes a range of factors to come into play. For example, cultural, project managementproject management and communication difficulties continually cause problems for software engineers and project managers. While the implementation of efficient software processes can be used to improve the quality of the software product, published software process models do not cater explicitly for the recent growth in global software engineering. Our thesis is that global software engineering factors should be included in software process models to ensure their continued usefulness in global organisations. Based on extensive global software engineering research, we have developed a software process, Global Teaming, which includes specific practices and sub-practices. The purpose is to ensure that requirements for successful global software engineering are stipulated so that organisations can ensure successful implementation of global software engineering.

  2. IOMP - Challenges for advancing medical physic globally

    Nusslin, F.

    2010-01-01

    IOMP stands for International Organization for Medical Physics. The determinants of health care include; science, research, academia, education, technology, engineering, industry, politics, economic, society, ethics, culture and medicine. However, physics and engineering are the driving forces of progress in health care. Medical Physics is a branch of Applied Physics, pursued by medical physicists, which uses physics principles, methods and techniques in practice and research for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases with a specific goal of improving human health and well-being. How can we achieve Health Care improvement through Medical Physics globally? By forming international alliances in the Medical Physics community to develop and implement coherent concepts of • Appropriate University / Hospital Structures • Education & Training and Certification Schemes • Research & Development Platforms • Professional Career Development • International Cooperation within the Science Community IOMP represents ca. 18.000 medical physicists worldwide, it is affiliated to 80 national member organizations, six regional organizations as Members plus Corporate Members. The mission of IOMP is to advance medical physics practice worldwide by disseminating scientific and technical information, fostering the educational and professional development of medical physics and promoting the highest quality medical services for patients. 6 Medical physicists are professionals with education and specialist training in the concepts and techniques of applying physics in medicine. They work in clinical, academic or research institutions. Challenges, Efforts and Achievements of the International Organization for Medical Physics Recognition of the Medical Physics profession by the National Health Authorities. Medical Physicists are essential to ensure adequate and safe use of radiation equipment, Radiation Protection of patients, workers and public in a clinical

  3. Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics

    Midorikawa, Katsumi; 12th International Conference on Multiphoton Processes; 3rd International Conference on Attosecond Physics

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in ultrashort pulsed laser technology have opened new frontiers in atomic, molecular and optical sciences. The 12th International Conference on Multiphoton Processes (ICOMP12) and the 3rd International Conference on Attosecond Physics (ATTO3), held jointly in Sapporo, Japan, during July 3-8, showcased studies at the forefront of research on multiphoton processes and attosecond physics. This book summarizes presentations and discussions from these two conferences.

  4. Global Conference on Applied Physics and Mathematics

    2016-01-01

    The Global Conference on Applied Physics and Mathematics is organized by academics and researchers belonging to different scientific areas of the C3i/Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre (Portugal) and the University of Extremadura (Spain) with the technical support of ScienceKnow Conferences. The event has the objective of creating an international forum for academics, researchers and scientists from worldwide to discuss worldwide results and proposals regarding to the soundest issues related to Applied Physics and Mathematics. This event will include the participation of renowned keynote speakers, oral presentations, posters sessions and technical conferences related to the topics dealt with in the Scientific Program as well as an attractive social and cultural program. The papers will be published in the Proceedings e-books. The proceedings of the conference will be sent to possible indexing on Thomson Reuters (selective by Thomson Reuters, not all-inclusive) and Google Scholar. Those communications con...

  5. Export Processing Zones and Global Class Formation

    Neveling, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with one of the most striking developments in the global political economy of capitalism after the Second World War; the rise of export processing zones and special economic zones. Building on long-term ethnohistorical research on the zones’ global spread from one zone in

  6. Global trends in radiation processing

    Defalco, G.

    2003-01-01

    There will be a brief introduction of the companies of MDS serving the Medical, Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical sectors worldwide. MDS Nordion will be introduced in more detail focused on the products and services of our Nuclear Medicine and Ion Technologies business units. World Trends and issues in Radiation Processing will be discussed on: Sterilization of Medical Devices, Pharmaceuticals, Cosmetics and Consumer products and finally I will present an overview on Food Irradiation progress worldwide

  7. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development.

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2007-05-22

    This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health). The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy.

  8. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development

    Magnusson Roger S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO, World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy.

  9. EUROPEAN UNION AND THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Mihail CARADAICĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available What is the relation between globalization and the process of European integration? Does the European integration have its own way, or is it deeply dependent on globalization? Those are the main questions I will try to answer in this paper by using an alternative critical approach: neo-gramscianism. Neo-gramscianism is a historical materialist view on the European integration process and international political economy which offers a better understanding of the social changes in terms of social forces agency and super structural influence (the neoliberal ideology of globalization and European integration. My aim is to analyze the globalization process through a neo-gramscian theoretical framework and to observe how its main components affect European Integration. I will do this by assuming the definition of globalization provided by Andreas Bieler, who understands this process through three main pillars: transnationalization of finance, transnationalization of production and ideological shift from Keynesianism to neoliberalism. Finally I will try to formulate some conclusions regarding the emergence of European Round Table of Industrialists – the first lobby group of big capital at the European Union level – and Economic and Monetary Union – the internal market program that symbolizes the shift to neo-liberalism.

  10. Physical Education and Health: Global Perspectives and Best Practice

    Chin, Ming-Kai, Ed.; Edginton, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    "Physical Education and Health: Global Perspectives and Best Practice" draws together global scholars, researchers, and practitioners to provide a review and analysis of new directions in physical education and health worldwide. The book provides descriptive information from 40 countries regarding contemporary practices, models, and…

  11. Romanian Insurance Market Facing Globalization Process

    Dumitru G. Badea

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian insurance market has passed through a permanent process of growth which ended up in 2004 to exceed the threshold of 1 billion Euros, in the frame of a small awareness and confidence of the population towards insurance, even now after 15 years. The globalization process of the financial markets affected also the Romanian market even before Romania became member of the European Union. The globalization brought about benefits (especially under the form of increase in the quality of the services provided to clients but also disadvantages for local companies (significant costs in logistics and training in order to cope with the international groups.

  12. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  13. Stochastic processes in chemical physics

    Shuler, K E

    2009-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics.

  14. Global processing takes time: A meta-analysis on local-global visual processing in ASD

    Van der Hallen, Ruth; Evers, Kris; Brewaeys, K.; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-01-01

    What does an individual with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perceive first: the forest or the trees? In spite of 30 years of research and influential theories like the weak central coherence (WCC) theory and the enhanced perceptual functioning (EPF) account, the interplay of local and global visual processing in ASD remains only partly understood. Research findings vary in indicating a local processing bias or a global processing deficit, and often contradict each other. We have applied a for...

  15. A Global Sensitivity Analysis Methodology for Multi-physics Applications

    Tong, C H; Graziani, F R

    2007-02-02

    Experiments are conducted to draw inferences about an entire ensemble based on a selected number of observations. This applies to both physical experiments as well as computer experiments, the latter of which are performed by running the simulation models at different input configurations and analyzing the output responses. Computer experiments are instrumental in enabling model analyses such as uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. This report focuses on a global sensitivity analysis methodology that relies on a divide-and-conquer strategy and uses intelligent computer experiments. The objective is to assess qualitatively and/or quantitatively how the variabilities of simulation output responses can be accounted for by input variabilities. We address global sensitivity analysis in three aspects: methodology, sampling/analysis strategies, and an implementation framework. The methodology consists of three major steps: (1) construct credible input ranges; (2) perform a parameter screening study; and (3) perform a quantitative sensitivity analysis on a reduced set of parameters. Once identified, research effort should be directed to the most sensitive parameters to reduce their uncertainty bounds. This process is repeated with tightened uncertainty bounds for the sensitive parameters until the output uncertainties become acceptable. To accommodate the needs of multi-physics application, this methodology should be recursively applied to individual physics modules. The methodology is also distinguished by an efficient technique for computing parameter interactions. Details for each step will be given using simple examples. Numerical results on large scale multi-physics applications will be available in another report. Computational techniques targeted for this methodology have been implemented in a software package called PSUADE.

  16. Globalization and Integration Processes in Europe

    Beti Godnič

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: In the article we highlight the issue of whether Integration processes in the European Union are only a manifestation of these Globalization processes and if there are differences in the the old member States EU (15 and the new EU member states in changed micro and macro environment? Purpose: We wanted to determine how the old member States EU (15 and the new EU member states adapt to the new circumstances and other changes in the micro and macro environment. Method: Analysing complexity of the changes of the state of economic system, and complex fundamental global processes, which have been occurred in long period of time, need to supplement the pure scientific approach with other types of research work, more holistic approach, which is commonly used in Comparative economics. We have taken such an approach in this article. Results: In the article we studied the geopolitical changes in the micro and macro environment. We found that the development in the old EU member states EU-15 and in the new EU member states is different. EU havent addopted the harmonised economic policy which will solve the »North-South« problem and cross-state cultural consensus and find a way to operate systemically in global environment. Organization: The findings can be used to support undestanding of micro and macro envirnment of the companys and contribute for better strategic planning and design of the entire supply chain. Society: The findings can contribute to better understanding of integrative processes in the EU. Limitations/Future Research: The complexity of the problem and the dynamic changes in the functioning of the global market requires in-depth studiying of changes in the micro and macro environment of logistics companie

  17. Global processing takes time: A meta-analysis on local-global visual processing in ASD.

    Van der Hallen, Ruth; Evers, Kris; Brewaeys, Katrien; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-05-01

    What does an individual with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perceive first: the forest or the trees? In spite of 30 years of research and influential theories like the weak central coherence (WCC) theory and the enhanced perceptual functioning (EPF) account, the interplay of local and global visual processing in ASD remains only partly understood. Research findings vary in indicating a local processing bias or a global processing deficit, and often contradict each other. We have applied a formal meta-analytic approach and combined 56 articles that tested about 1,000 ASD participants and used a wide range of stimuli and tasks to investigate local and global visual processing in ASD. Overall, results show no enhanced local visual processing nor a deficit in global visual processing. Detailed analysis reveals a difference in the temporal pattern of the local-global balance, that is, slow global processing in individuals with ASD. Whereas task-dependent interaction effects are obtained, gender, age, and IQ of either participant groups seem to have no direct influence on performance. Based on the overview of the literature, suggestions are made for future research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Physical processes in relativistic plasmas

    Svensson, R.

    1984-01-01

    The continuum emission in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs) extend to 100 keV and beyond (e.g. Rothschild et al. 1983). In thermal models of the continuum emission this implies temperatures above 10 9 K or kT of order mc 2 . In such a plasma the electrons are at least mildly relativistic and furthermore the particles and the photons are energetic enough to produce electron-positron pairs. The physics of such hot plasmas has only recently been studied in any detail and here we review the results of those studies. Significant electron-positron pair production may also occur in non-thermal models of the continuum emission if the optical depth to photon-photon pair production is greater than unity. We review the few results obtained regarding this interesting but not very well studied possibility. First, however, we briefly discuss the processes taking place in relativistic plasmas and the standard models for the continuum emission from AGNs. We then summarize the effects pair production have on these models and the observational implications of the presence of electron-positron pairs. (orig./WL)

  19. Digital technology in physical education: global perspectives

    Koekoek, Jeroen; van Hilvoorde, I.M.

    2018-01-01

    The rapid development of digital technologies has opened up new possibilities for how Physical Education is taught. This book offers a comprehensive, practice-oriented and critical exploration of the actual and potential applications of digital technologies in PE. It considers the opportunities that

  20. Global Precipitation Responses to Land Hydrological Processes

    Lo, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have established that soil moisture increases after adding a groundwater component in land surface models due to the additional supply of subsurface water. However, impacts of groundwater on the spatial-temporal variability of precipitation have received little attention. Through the coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model (NCAR Community Atmosphere Model + Community Land Model) simulations, this study explores how groundwater representation in the model alters the precipitation spatiotemporal distributions. Results indicate that the effect of groundwater on the amount of precipitation is not globally homogeneous. Lower tropospheric water vapor increases due to the presence of groundwater in the model. The increased water vapor destabilizes the atmosphere and enhances the vertical upward velocity and precipitation in tropical convective regions. Precipitation, therefore, is inhibited in the descending branch of convection. As a result, an asymmetric dipole is produced over tropical land regions along the equator during the summer. This is analogous to the "rich-get-richer" mechanism proposed by previous studies. Moreover, groundwater also increased short-term (seasonal) and long-term (interannual) memory of precipitation for some regions with suitable groundwater table depth and found to be a function of water table depth. Based on the spatial distributions of the one-month-lag autocorrelation coefficients as well as Hurst coefficients, air-land interaction can occur from short (several months) to long (several years) time scales. This study indicates the importance of land hydrological processes in the climate system and the necessity of including the subsurface processes in the global climate models.

  1. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  2. Processing multidimensional nuclear physics data

    Becker, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Modern Ge detector arrays for gamma-ray spectroscopy are producing data sets unprecedented in size and event multiplicity. Gammasphere, the DOE sponsored array, has the following characteristics: (1) High granularity (110 detectors); (2) High efficiency (10%); and (3) Precision energy measurements (Delta EE = 0.2%). Characteristics of detector line shape, the data set, and the standard practice in the nuclear physics community to the nuclear gamma-ray cascades from the 4096 times 4096 times 4096 data cube will be discussed.

  3. Global simulations of aerosol processing in clouds

    C. Hoose

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An explicit and detailed representation of in-droplet and in-crystal aerosol particles in stratiform clouds has been introduced in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The new scheme allows an evaluation of the cloud cycling of aerosols and an estimation of the relative contributions of nucleation and collision scavenging, as opposed to evaporation of hydrometeors in the global aerosol processing by clouds. On average an aerosol particle is cycled through stratiform clouds 0.5 times. The new scheme leads to important changes in the simulated fraction of aerosol scavenged in clouds, and consequently in the aerosol wet deposition. In general, less aerosol is scavenged into clouds with the new prognostic treatment than what is prescribed in standard ECHAM5-HAM. Aerosol concentrations, size distributions, scavenged fractions and cloud droplet concentrations are evaluated and compared to different observations. While the scavenged fraction and the aerosol number concentrations in the marine boundary layer are well represented in the new model, aerosol optical thickness, cloud droplet number concentrations in the marine boundary layer and the aerosol volume in the accumulation and coarse modes over the oceans are overestimated. Sensitivity studies suggest that a better representation of below-cloud scavenging, higher in-cloud collision coefficients, or a reduced water uptake by seasalt aerosols could reduce these biases.

  4. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate

    Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  5. WE-E-19A-01: Globalization of Medical Physics

    Rehani, M; Meghzifene, A; Tsapaki, V; Padovani, R; Pipman, Y; Lief, E

    2014-01-01

    Following successful 2012–2013 International Professional Symposiums as a part of Annual AAPM meetings, representatives of AAPM and International Organization of Medical Physics (IOMP) suggested to make this tradiational Symposium a permanent part of Annual AAPM meetings in future. Following the tradition, this session includes presentations of representatives of AAPM, IOMP, European Federation of Medical Physics (EFOMP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP). The speakers will cover various aspects of International collaboration such as educational, professional, and scientific issues, as well as help to developing countries. With further developments of medicine and technology and increased communication with our colleagues overseas, Medical Physics becomes more and more global profession. Use of the same technology, significant progress in medical physics research and developing practical regulations worldwide makes it increasingly useful to organize global collaboration of medical physicists. Several international organizations are tasked to promote such collaboration and provide help to developing countries. Not all AAPM members are fully aware of these international efforts. It is very useful for medical physicists to know about success of our profession in other countries. Different schools present different approaches to the same problem, which allows to find the best solution. By communicating with colleagues overseas, one can learn more than from just reading scientific publications. At this session the attendees will receive a glimpse of International Medical Physics activities. Learning Objectives: Understand the globalization of Medical Physics profession and advantages of collaboration with foreign colleagues. See what role AAPM is playing in establishing contacts with colleagues overseas. Understand the role of IOMP and main directions of its activity. Learn about IAEA and how it helps

  6. WE-E-19A-01: Globalization of Medical Physics

    Rehani, M; Meghzifene, A [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Tsapaki, V [EFOMP/IOMP (United Kingdom); Padovani, R [EFOMP (United Kingdom); Pipman, Y [Forest Hills, NY (United States); Lief, E [Marsden Medical Physics Associates, Pelham, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Following successful 2012–2013 International Professional Symposiums as a part of Annual AAPM meetings, representatives of AAPM and International Organization of Medical Physics (IOMP) suggested to make this tradiational Symposium a permanent part of Annual AAPM meetings in future. Following the tradition, this session includes presentations of representatives of AAPM, IOMP, European Federation of Medical Physics (EFOMP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP). The speakers will cover various aspects of International collaboration such as educational, professional, and scientific issues, as well as help to developing countries. With further developments of medicine and technology and increased communication with our colleagues overseas, Medical Physics becomes more and more global profession. Use of the same technology, significant progress in medical physics research and developing practical regulations worldwide makes it increasingly useful to organize global collaboration of medical physicists. Several international organizations are tasked to promote such collaboration and provide help to developing countries. Not all AAPM members are fully aware of these international efforts. It is very useful for medical physicists to know about success of our profession in other countries. Different schools present different approaches to the same problem, which allows to find the best solution. By communicating with colleagues overseas, one can learn more than from just reading scientific publications. At this session the attendees will receive a glimpse of International Medical Physics activities. Learning Objectives: Understand the globalization of Medical Physics profession and advantages of collaboration with foreign colleagues. See what role AAPM is playing in establishing contacts with colleagues overseas. Understand the role of IOMP and main directions of its activity. Learn about IAEA and how it helps

  7. Evidence of Reduced Global Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Booth, Rhonda D. L.; Happé, Francesca G. E.

    2018-01-01

    Frith's original notion of 'weak central coherence' suggested that increased local processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) resulted from reduced global processing. More recent accounts have emphasised superior local perception and suggested intact global integration. However, tasks often place local and global processing in direct trade-off,…

  8. Global Advocacy for Physical Activity (GAPA): global leadership towards a raised profile.

    Blanchard, Claire; Shilton, Trevor; Bull, Fiona

    2013-12-01

    Physical inactivity has been recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the leading causes of death due to non-communicable disease (NCD), worldwide. The benefits of action over inactivity can cut across health, environment, transportation, sport, culture and the economy. Despite the evidence, the policies and strategies to increase population-wide participation in physical activity receive insufficient priority from across high, middle and low-income countries; where physical inactivity is a rapidly-emerging issue. There is an increased need for all countries to invest in policies, strategies and supportive environments that inform, motivate and support individuals and communities to be active in ways that are safe, accessible and enjoyable. This commentary presents some recent efforts towards physical activity promotion globally, led by the Global Advocacy for Physical Activity (GAPA). It provides an overview of the background and history of GAPA; describes GAPA and the council's key achievements and milestones; places physical activity promotion within the global NCD agenda; presents GAPA flagships; and reflects on the lessons learned, ingredients for success and the major challenges that remain. The commentary documents insights into the effectiveness and challenges faced by a small non-governmental organisation (NGO) in mounting global advocacy. These lessons may be transferrable to other areas of health promotion advocacy.

  9. The Influence of the Internet on globalization process

    Artur Borcuch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We are being influenced by the rush of economic and social forces. Internet is perhaps the most visible aspect of globalization and in many ways its driving force. The process of globalization can be understood as the global reach of communications technology and capital movements. The globalization of financial markets means that the movement of exchange rates, interest rates, and stock prices in various countries are intimately interconnected. From the social point of view, globalization is changing the nature of global social relations. The aim of this article is to demonstrate (in a few examples, how does Internet affect the process of globalization?

  10. Dynamical processes in atomic and molecular physics

    Ogurtsov, Gennadi

    2012-01-01

    Atomic and molecular physics underlie a basis for our knowledge of fundamental processes in nature and technology and in such applications as solid state physics, chemistry and biology. In recent years, atomic and molecular physics has undergone a revolutionary change due to great achievements in computing and experimental techniques. As a result, it has become possible to obtain information both on atomic and molecular characteristics and on dynamics of atomic and molecular processes. This e-book highlights the present state of investigations in the field of atomic and molecular physics. Rece

  11. Spin physics through unpolarized processes

    Lu, Zhun

    2016-02-01

    This article presents a review of our present understanding of the spin structure of the unpolarized hadron. Particular attention is paid to the quark sector at leading twist, namely, the quark Boer-Mulders function, which describes the transverse polarization of the quark inside an unpolarized hadron. After introducing the operator definition of the Boer-Mulders function, a detailed treatment of different non-perturbative calculations of the Boer-Mulders functions is provided. The phenomenology in Drell-Yan processes and semi-inclusive leptoproduction, including the extraction of the quark and antiquark Boer-Mulders functions from experimental data, is presented comprehensively. Finally, prospects for future theoretical studies and experimental measurements are presented in brief.

  12. Physical description of decay processes

    Henin, F.; Mayne, F.

    1981-01-01

    A dynamical formulation of quasi-particles corresponding to complex poles of Green's functions has been provided in the frame of 'Liapounov' transformations in a superoperator formalism. In this formalism, two different superorperators are associated with the hamiltonian, on the one hand an energy superoperator H, and on the other hand, an evolution superoperator L. In the case of systems with continuous spectrum it is possible to diagonalize the transform of H, the diagonal elements being the energies found by the Green's functions methods. This can be achieved without diagonalizing at the same time, the transform of L: the inverse lifetimes and the collision processes are obtained in this way. We show here on the Friedrichs model, that we can specify uniquely such a transformation in agreement with our previous 'new quantum rules for dissipative systems'. This method can be generalized to more complex systems. (orig.)

  13. Soil physical land degradation processes

    Horn, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    According to the European Soil Framework Directive (2006) soil compaction is besides water and wind erosion one of the main physical reasons and threats of soil degradation. It is estimated, that 32% of the subsoils in Europe are highly degraded and 18% moderately vulnerable to compaction. The problem is not limited to crop land or forest areas (especially because of non-site adjusted harvesting machines) but is also prevalent in rangelands and grassland, and even in so called natural non-disturbed systems. The main reasons for an intense increase in compacted agricultural or forested regions are the still increasing masses of the machines as well the increased frequency of wheeling under non favorable site conditions. Shear and vibration induced soil deformation enhances the deterioration of soil properties especially if the soil water content is very high and the internal soil strength very low. The same is true for animal trampling in combination with overgrazing of moist to wet pastures which subsequently causes a denser (i.e. reduced proportion of coarse pores with smaller continuity) but still structured soil horizons and will finally end in a compacted platy structure. In combination with high water content and shearing due to trampling therefore results in a complete muddy homogeneous soil with no structure at all. (Krümmelbein et al. 2013) Site managements of arable, forestry or horticulture soils requires a sufficiently rigid pore system which guarantees water, gas and heat exchange, nutrient transport and adsorption as well as an optimal rootability in order to avoid subsoil compaction. Such pore system also guarantees a sufficient microbial activity and composition in order to also decompose the plant etc. debris. It is therefore essential that well structured horizons dominate in soils with at best subangular blocky structure or in the top A- horizons a crumbly structure due to biological activity. In contrast defines the formation of a platy

  14. Transport processes in space physics and astrophysics

    Zank, Gary P

    2014-01-01

    Transport Processes in Space Physics and Astrophysics' is aimed at graduate level students to provide the necessary mathematical and physics background to understand the transport of gases, charged particle gases, energetic charged particles, turbulence, and radiation in an astrophysical and space physics context. Subjects emphasized in the work include collisional and collisionless processes in gases (neutral or plasma), analogous processes in turbulence fields and radiation fields, and allows for a simplified treatment of the statistical description of the system. A systematic study that addresses the common tools at a graduate level allows students to progress to a point where they can begin their research in a variety of fields within space physics and astrophysics. This book is for graduate students who expect to complete their research in an area of plasma space physics or plasma astrophysics. By providing a broad synthesis in several areas of transport theory and modeling, the work also benefits resear...

  15. Physical processes in the Indian seas

    Swamy, G.N.; Das, V.K.; Antony, M.K.

    The proceedings volume comprise 38 papers covering air-sea boundary problems, open-ocean dynamics, nearshore processes, observational and analysis techniques, etc. This volume helps in taking stock of physical oceanographic activities in India...

  16. The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on ...

    The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on forced migration in modern Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... On its part, globalization is about pauperizing and victimizing more and more people ...

  17. A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature

    van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Eikelboom, Tessa; van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2012-09-01

    Temperature determines a range of physical properties of water and exerts a strong control on surface water biogeochemistry. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime directly affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism and indirectly through their tolerance to parasites and diseases. Models used to predict surface water temperature range between physically based deterministic models and statistical approaches. Here we present the initial results of a physically based deterministic model of global freshwater surface temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modeled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff, and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by shortwave and longwave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We use the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global freshwater surface temperature at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of 0.5° on a regular grid for the period 1976-2000. We opt to parameterize the model with globally available data and apply it without calibration in order to preserve its physical basis with the outlook of evaluating the effects of atmospheric warming on freshwater surface temperature. We validate our simulation results with daily temperature data from rivers and lakes (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), limited to the USA) and compare mean monthly temperatures with those recorded in the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) data set. Results show that the model is able to capture the mean monthly surface temperature for the majority of the GEMS stations, while the interannual variability as derived from the USGS and NOAA data was captured reasonably well. Results are poorest for

  18. Spherical Process Models for Global Spatial Statistics

    Jeong, Jaehong; Jun, Mikyoung; Genton, Marc G.

    2017-01-01

    Statistical models used in geophysical, environmental, and climate science applications must reflect the curvature of the spatial domain in global data. Over the past few decades, statisticians have developed covariance models that capture

  19. Physical and mathematical modelling of extrusion processes

    Arentoft, Mogens; Gronostajski, Z.; Niechajowics, A.

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the work is to study the extrusion process using physical modelling and to compare the findings of the study with finite element predictions. The possibilities and advantages of the simultaneous application of both of these methods for the analysis of metal forming processes...

  20. A Physical Mechanism and Global Quantification of Breast Cancer.

    Chong Yu

    Full Text Available Initiation and progression of cancer depend on many factors. Those on the genetic level are often considered crucial. To gain insight into the physical mechanisms of breast cancer, we construct a gene regulatory network (GRN which reflects both genetic and environmental aspects of breast cancer. The construction of the GRN is based on available experimental data. Three basins of attraction, representing the normal, premalignant and cancer states respectively, were found on the phenotypic landscape. The progression of breast cancer can be seen as switching transitions between different state basins. We quantified the stabilities and kinetic paths of the three state basins to uncover the biological process of breast cancer formation. The gene expression levels at each state were obtained, which can be tested directly in experiments. Furthermore, by performing global sensitivity analysis on the landscape topography, six key genes (HER2, MDM2, TP53, BRCA1, ATM, CDK2 and four regulations (HER2⊣TP53, CDK2⊣BRCA1, ATM→MDM2, TP53→ATM were identified as being critical for breast cancer. Interestingly, HER2 and MDM2 are the most popular targets for treating breast cancer. BRCA1 and TP53 are the most important oncogene of breast cancer and tumor suppressor gene, respectively. This further validates the feasibility of our model and the reliability of our prediction results. The regulation ATM→MDM2 has been extensive studied on DNA damage but not on breast cancer. We notice the importance of ATM→MDM2 on breast cancer. Previous studies of breast cancer have often focused on individual genes and the anti-cancer drugs are mainly used to target the individual genes. Our results show that the network-based strategy is more effective on treating breast cancer. The landscape approach serves as a new strategy for analyzing breast cancer on both the genetic and epigenetic levels and can help on designing network based medicine for breast cancer.

  1. Public action in the globalization process

    Ion Bucur

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The types of public investments change from a stage to another. The state always had economical objectives, even if these were not so explicit. However, its role of economy manager developed in the postwar period. The intervention systems diversified and their manipulation becomes more and more frequent. The establishment of intervention types and mechanisms must submit to the requirements. The essential problem is not the global reduction of the state investment, but its efficiency increase. In the current age, the characteristics of a public action are conditioned by the effects of globalization on the state sovereignty, power and capacity. At the end of the past century, debates on this subject were the main focus of the mass media and they emphasized some profound dissensions regarding the nature and implications of globalization.

  2. Physical processes in the interstellar medium

    Spitzer, Lyman

    2008-01-01

    Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium discusses the nature of interstellar matter, with a strong emphasis on basic physical principles, and summarizes the present state of knowledge about the interstellar medium by providing the latest observational data. Physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium are treated, with frequent references to observational results. The overall equilibrium and dynamical state of the interstellar gas are described, with discussions of explosions produced by star birth and star death and the initial phases of cloud collapse leading to star formation.

  3. Physical activity (PA) and the disablement process

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Holst, Claus

    2012-01-01

    . Among older women, the association between RPA and incidence of disability was attenuated in analyses that controlled for baseline mobility function. Thus, the association between physical activity and mortality reflected processes different from those underlying a simple relation between physical...... activity, disability and mortality. Physical activity was an ubiquitous predictor of longevity, but only for women....... community-living persons, aged 75-83 years, we evaluated the 1021 who reported no disability in basic activities of daily living. Participants were followed for a median of 8.34 years in public registers to determine onset of disability and mortality. RPA predicted mortality in older women (HR=1.77, 95%CI=1...

  4. Global wind power potential: Physical and technological limits

    Castro, Carlos de; Mediavilla, Margarita; Miguel, Luis Javier; Frechoso, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This paper is focused on a new methodology for the global assessment of wind power potential. Most of the previous works on the global assessment of the technological potential of wind power have used bottom-up methodologies (e.g. ). Economic, ecological and other assessments have been developed, based on these technological capacities. However, this paper tries to show that the reported regional and global technological potential are flawed because they do not conserve the energetic balance on Earth, violating the first principle of energy conservation (). We propose a top-down approach, such as that in , to evaluate the physical-geographical potential and, for the first time, to evaluate the global technological wind power potential, while acknowledging energy conservation. The results give roughly 1 TW for the top limit of the future electrical potential of wind energy. This value is much lower than previous estimates and even lower than economic and realizable potentials published for the mid-century (e.g. ). - Highlights: → Reported wind power potentials are flawed because they violate energy conservation. → For the first time, it is evaluated the technological wind power potential with a top-down approach. → Our results show 1 TWe for the limit of wind power energy, which is much lower than previous estimates.

  5. GLOBALIZATION AND THE POTENTIAL FOR FROZEN POTATO PROCESSING IN MEXICO

    Phillips, Jon C.

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the potential for the establishment and survival of frozen potato processing in Mexico is provided. Tools used include demand analysis (including demographic data and elasticities) and Porter's competitive forces model. The process of globalization is reviewed, from an agribusiness perspective. Prepared for the "Globalization and Its (Dis) Contents: Multiple Perspectives" Conference held April 3-4, 1998, East Lansing, Michigan.

  6. Cultural Variations in Global versus Local Processing: A Developmental Perspective

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Jaswal, Vikram K.; Lillard, Angeline S.; Mizokawa, Ai; Hitokoto, Hidefumi; Tsutsui, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    We conducted 3 studies to explore cultural differences in global versus local processing and their developmental trajectories. In Study 1 ("N" = 363), we found that Japanese college students were less globally oriented in their processing than American or Argentine participants. We replicated this effect in Study 2 ("N" =…

  7. Global and photospheric physical parameters of active dwarf stars

    Pettersen, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    Physical parameters (temperature, luminosity, radius, mass and chemical abundance) of the photospheres of red dwarf flare stars and spotted stars are determined for quiescent conditions. The interrelations between these quantities are compared to the results of theoretical investigation for low mass stars. The evolutionary state of flare stars is discussed. Observational results from spectroscopic and photometric methods to determine the rotation of active dwarfs are reviewed. The possibilities of global oscillations in dwarf stars are considered and preliminary results of a photometric search for oscillation in red dwarf luminosities are presented. (orig.)

  8. Bridging scales in polymer physics and processing

    Hütter, M.; Kröger, M.; Öttinger, H.C.; Schweizer, T.

    2001-01-01

    Understanding both the flow behavior of polymers during processing and the end-use properties offinished plastic products from a molecular picture of the constituent polymers has been a long-standing dreamin polymer engineering and science. It is the goal of our work in the Polymer Physics Group to

  9. Global Envelope Tests for Spatial Processes

    Myllymäki, Mari; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Grabarnik, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Envelope tests are a popular tool in spatial statistics, where they are used in goodness-of-fit testing. These tests graphically compare an empirical function T(r) with its simulated counterparts from the null model. However, the type I error probability α is conventionally controlled for a fixed d......) the construction of envelopes for a deviation test. These new tests allow the a priori selection of the global α and they yield p-values. We illustrate these tests using simulated and real point pattern data....

  10. Global envelope tests for spatial processes

    Myllymäki, Mari; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Grabarnik, Pavel

    Envelope tests are a popular tool in spatial statistics, where they are used in goodness-of-fit testing. These tests graphically compare an empirical function T(r) with its simulated counterparts from the null model. However, the type I error probability α is conventionally controlled for a fixed......) the construction of envelopes for a deviation test. These new tests allow the a priori selection of the global α and they yield p-values. We illustrate these tests using simulated and real point pattern data....

  11. Physical and chemical characterization of bioaerosols - Implications for nucleation processes

    Ariya, P. A.; Sun, J.; Eltouny, N. A.; Hudson, E. D.; Hayes, C. T.; Kos, G.

    The importance of organic compounds in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, and as cloud condensation and ice-forming nuclei, has been recognized for several decades. Organic compounds comprise a significant fraction of the suspended matter mass, leading to local (e.g. toxicity, health hazards) and global (e.g. climate change) impacts. The state of knowledge of the physical chemistry of organic aerosols has increased during the last few decades. However, due to their complex chemistry and the multifaceted processes in which they are involved, the importance of organic aerosols, particularly bioaerosols, in driving physical and chemical atmospheric processes is still very uncertain and poorly understood. Factors such as solubility, surface tension, chemical impurities, volatility, morphology, contact angle, deliquescence, wettability, and the oxidation process are pivotal in the understanding of the activation processes of cloud droplets, and their chemical structures, solubilities and even the molecular configuration of the microbial outer membrane, all impact ice and cloud nucleation processes in the atmosphere. The aim of this review paper is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols with a focus on those properties important in nucleation processes. We herein discuss the potential importance (or lack thereof) of physical and chemical properties of bioaerosols and illustrate how the knowledge of these properties can be employed to study nucleation processes using a modeling exercise. We also outline a list of major uncertainties due to a lack of understanding of the processes involved or lack of available data. We will also discuss key issues of atmospheric significance deserving future physical chemistry research in the fields of bioaerosol characterization and microphysics, as well as bioaerosol modeling. These fundamental questions are to be addressed prior to any definite conclusions on the

  12. SOLVING GLOBAL PROBLEMS USING COLLABORATIVE DESIGN PROCESSES

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Mejborn, Christina Okai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we argue that use of collaborative design processes is a powerful means of bringing together different stakeholders and generating ideas in complex design situations. The collaborative design process was used in a workshop with international participants where the goal was to propos...

  13. Physical processes in hot cosmic plasmas

    Fabian, A.G.; Giovannelli, F.

    1990-01-01

    The interpretation of many high energy astrophysical phenomena relies on a detailed knowledge of radiation and transport processes in hot plasmas. The understanding of these plasma properties is one of the aims of terrestrial plasma physics. While the microscopic properties of astrophysical plasmas can hardly be determined experimentally, laboratory plasmas are more easily accessible to experimental techniques, but transient phenomena and the interaction of the plasma with boundaries often make the interpretation of measurements cumbersome. This book contains the talks given at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on astro- and plasma-physics in Vulcano, Sicily, May 29-June 2, 1989. The book focuses on three main areas: radiation transport processes in hot (astrophysical and laboratory) plasmas; magnetic fields; their generation, reconnection and their effects on plasma transport properties; relativistic and ultra-high density plasmas

  14. Physical processes in spin polarized plasmas

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Valeo, E.J.; Cowley, S.

    1984-05-01

    If the plasma in a nuclear fusion reactor is polarized, the nuclear reactions are modified in such a way as to enhance the reactor performance. We calculate in detail the modification of these nuclear reactions by different modes of polarization of the nuclear fuel. We also consider in detail the various physical processes that can lead to depolarization and show that they are by and large slow enough that a high degree of polarization can be maintained

  15. NOx from lightning: 1. Global distribution based on lightning physics

    Price, Colin; Penner, Joyce; Prather, Michael

    1997-03-01

    This paper begins a study on the role of lightning in maintaining the global distribution of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the troposphere. It presents the first global and seasonal distributions of lightning-produced NOx (LNOx) based on the observed distribution of electrical storms and the physical properties of lightning strokes. We derive a global rate for cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes of 20-30 flashes/s with a mean energy per flash of 6.7×109 J. Intracloud (IC) flashes are more frequent, 50-70 flashes/s but have 10% of the energy of CG strokes and, consequently, produce significantly less NOx. It appears to us that the majority of previous studies have mistakenly assumed that all lightning flashes produce the same amount of NOx, thus overestimating the NOx production by a factor of 3. On the other hand, we feel these same studies have underestimated the energy released in CG flashes, resulting in two negating assumptions. For CG energies we adopt a production rate of 10×1016 molecules NO/J based on the current literature. Using a method to simulate global lightning frequencies from satellite-observed cloud data, we have calculated the LNOx on various spatial (regional, zonal, meridional, and global) and temporal scales (daily, monthly, seasonal, and interannual). Regionally, the production of LNOx is concentrated over tropical continental regions, predominantly in the summer hemisphere. The annual mean production rate is calculated to be 12.2 Tg N/yr, and we believe it extremely unlikely that this number is less than 5 or more than 20 Tg N/yr. Although most of LNOx, is produced in the lowest 5 km by CG lightning, convective mixing in the thunderstorms is likely to deposit large amounts of NOx, in the upper troposphere where it is important in ozone production. On an annual basis, 64% of the LNOx, is produced in the northern hemisphere, implying that the northern hemisphere should have natural ozone levels as much as 2 times greater than the southern hemisphere

  16. PHYSICAL RESOURCES OF INFORMATION PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Mikhail O. Kolbanev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study. The paper describes basic information technologies for automating of information processes of data storage, distribution and processing in terms of required physical resources. It is shown that the study of these processes with such traditional objectives of modern computer science, as the ability to transfer knowledge, degree of automation, information security, coding, reliability, and others, is not enough. The reasons are: on the one hand, the increase in the volume and intensity of information exchange in the subject of human activity and, on the other hand, drawing near to the limit of information systems efficiency based on semiconductor technologies. Creation of such technologies, which not only provide support for information interaction, but also consume a rational amount of physical resources, has become an actual problem of modern engineering development. Thus, basic information technologies for storage, distribution and processing of information to support the interaction between people are the object of study, and physical temporal, spatial and energy resources required for implementation of these technologies are the subject of study. Approaches. An attempt is made to enlarge the possibilities of traditional cybernetics methodology, which replaces the consideration of material information component by states search for information objects. It is done by taking explicitly into account the amount of physical resources required for changes in the states of information media. Purpose of study. The paper deals with working out of a common approach to the comparison and subsequent selection of basic information technologies for storage, distribution and processing of data, taking into account not only the requirements for the quality of information exchange in particular subject area and the degree of technology application, but also the amounts of consumed physical resources. Main findings. Classification of resources

  17. Regionalism and Economic Processes with Global Impact

    Marina TABAC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regionalism has become one of the most discussed topics at the moment, in recent years and become one of the central challenges of the future in the modern system of international relations. Finally, in the XIX-XX centuries, scientists have expressed it a worldwide phenomenon through a process of radical change "external environment" and significant internal changes. It can be expressed in the world in one way or another, even if it has not been shown modest form until recently. Currently, regionalism and regional integration are considered as key indicators of international developments in the research of foreign policy and international relations. Theory followed the end of the era of "Cold War" and entered the post-bipolar world, multi-faceted development stage. The attention of researchers has grown to regionalization and regional integration by increasing the role and activities of regional organizations such as the EU, ASEAN, APEC and NAFTA, which coordinates the process of decision-making at supranational level, as well as issues of international regulation.

  18. Delayed processing of global shape information in developmental prosopagnosia

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja K.; Petersen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    individuals with DP in Navon’s paradigm we find evidence of a reduced global precedence effect: The DPs are slower than controls to process global but not local shape information. Importantly, and in contrast to previous studies, we demonstrate that the DPs perform normally in a comprehensive test of visual......There is accumulating evidence suggesting that a central deficit in developmental prosopagnosia (DP), a disorder characterized by profound and lifelong difficulties with face recognition, concerns impaired holistic processing. Some of this evidence comes from studies using Navon’s paradigm where...... individuals with DP show a greater local or reduced global bias compared with controls. However, it has not been established what gives rise to this altered processing bias. Is it a reduced global precedence effect, changes in susceptibility to interference effects or both? By analyzing the performance of 10...

  19. Process of globalization and basic traits of Serbian national character

    Atlagić Marko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary world globalization, along with many perplexities, increasingly takes on the universal/cosmopolitan character in spite of all geographical, national, racial, religious and alignment barriers. Information exchange, scientific achievements and technology are nowadays world process. Economy increasingly becomes global. Serbia and Serbian people have their own specific character, which is defined by three significant characteristics: sovereignty and territorial integrity, aspirations to social justice, the rule of people and democracy. The creators of global society should take into consideration these three important characteristics of Serbian people with which Serbian political elite is to familiarize them, for the sake of more rapid and complete process of integration of Serbs into global processes from both Serbia and its neighboring countries would benefit.

  20. Going global in physical therapist education: International Service-Learning in US-based programmes.

    Pechak, Celia; Thompson, Mary

    2011-12-01

     Internationalization is expanding its presence in higher education in the United States. Reflecting this trend that includes incorporating global perspectives in the curricula, physical therapist education programmes increasingly offer international opportunities such as International Service-Learning (ISL) to their students. Service-learning, a teaching strategy that integrates community service with structured learning activities, has gained broad acceptance in health professions education including physical therapy, and is therefore the focus of this paper. The specific purposes of this paper were to identify and analyse the commonalities that existed among established ISL programmes within physical therapist education programmes in terms of structures and processes, and to consider its broader implications for physical therapist education.   A descriptive, exploratory study was performed using grounded theory. Snowball and purposive, theoretical sampling yielded 14 faculty members with experience in international service, international learning or ISL in physical therapist education programmes. Faculty were interviewed by phone. Interview transcriptions and course documents were analysed applying grounded theory methodology. Data from eight programmes which met the operational definition of established ISL were used to address the purposes of this paper.   Five phases of establishing an ISL programme were identified: development, design, implementation, evaluation, and enhancement. Although no single model exists for ISL in physical therapist education; commonalities in structures and processes were identified in each phase. However, attention to service objectives and outcomes is lacking.   While analysis revealed that each programme shared commonalities and demonstrated differences in structures and processes compared with the other programmes, the study demonstrated a general lack of focus on formal community outcomes which raises ethical

  1. Nuclear Data Processing for Reactor Physics Calculation

    Suwoto; Zuhair; Pandiangan, Tumpal

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear data processing for reactor physics calculation has been done. Raw nuclear data cross-sections on file ENDF should be prepared and processed before it used in neutronic calculation. The processing code system such as NJOY-PC code has been used from linearization of nuclear cross-sections data and background contribution of resonance parameter (MF2) using RECONR module (0K) with energy range from 10 -5 to 10 7 eV. Afterward, the neutron cross-sections data should be processed and broadened to desire temperature (i.e. 293K) by using BROADR module. The Grouper and Therma modules will be applied for multi-groups calculation which suitable for WIMS/D4 (69 groups) and thermalization of nuclear constants. The final stage of processing nuclear cross-sections is updating WIMS/D4 library. The WIMSR module in NJOY-PC and WILLIE code will be applied in this stage. The evaluated nuclear data file, especially for 1 H 1 isotope, was taken from JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI for preliminary study. The results of nuclear data processing 1 H 1 shows that the old-WIMS (WIMS-lama) library have much discrepancies comparing with JENDL-3.2 or ENDF/B-VI files, especially in energy around 5 keV

  2. Process and Impact of Globalization in Nepalese Women

    Manju Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of globalization in Nepalese women. The changes on the women’s way of life due to globalization can be seen directly in the economy, media, IT sectors, various parts of society and ultimately in the culture. When the Nepalese women entered into the globalization process the Hindu norms and values of the society (where more than 82 percent are Hindu has creolized with the global way of life. The women are becoming more self- reliant and empowered due to globalization but at the same time they are entering more risky markets to fulfill the desires that floated by the globalization. Similarly, globalization has offered various employment opportunities and exposure in international arena, but it also creates mental anxiety, depression and sexual abuse for those remaining in or outside the country. As there is very limited research and study on the impact of globalization in the Nepalese society, it is too early to conclude the impact of globalization as good or bad on Nepalese women.

  3. Girdler-sulfide process physical properties

    Neuburg, H.J.; Atherley, J.F.; Walker, L.G.

    1977-05-01

    Physical properties of pure hydrogen sulfide and of gaseous and liquid solutions of the H 2 S-H 2 O system have been formulated. Tables for forty-nine different properties in the pressure and temperature range of interest to the Girdler-Sulfide (GS) process for heavy water production are given. All properties are presented in SI units. A computer program capable of calculating properties of the pure components as well as gaseous mixtures and liquid solutions at saturated and non-saturated conditions is included. (author)

  4. Stochastic processes from physics to finance

    Paul, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces the theory of stochastic processes with applications taken from physics and finance. Fundamental concepts like the random walk or Brownian motion but also Levy-stable distributions are discussed. Applications are selected to show the interdisciplinary character of the concepts and methods. In the second edition of the book a discussion of extreme events ranging from their mathematical definition to their importance for financial crashes was included. The exposition of basic notions of probability theory and the Brownian motion problem as well as the relation between conservative diffusion processes and quantum mechanics is expanded. The second edition also enlarges the treatment of financial markets. Beyond a presentation of geometric Brownian motion and the Black-Scholes approach to option pricing as well as the econophysics analysis of the stylized facts of financial markets, an introduction to agent based modeling approaches is given.

  5. Residence time and physical processes in lakes

    Nicoletta SALA

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The residence time of a lake is highly dependent on internal physical processes in the water mass conditioning its hydrodynamics; early attempts to evaluate this physical parameter emphasize the complexity of the problem, which depends on very different natural phenomena with widespread synergies. The aim of this study is to analyse the agents involved in these processes and arrive at a more realistic definition of water residence time which takes account of these agents, and how they influence internal hydrodynamics. With particular reference to temperate lakes, the following characteristics are analysed: 1 the set of the lake's caloric components which, along with summer heating, determine the stabilizing effect of the surface layers, and the consequent thermal stratification, as well as the winter destabilizing effect; 2 the wind force, which transfers part of its momentum to the water mass, generating a complex of movements (turbulence, waves, currents with the production of active kinetic energy; 3 the water flowing into the lake from the tributaries, and flowing out through the outflow, from the standpoint of hydrology and of the kinetic effect generated by the introduction of these water masses into the lake. These factors were studied in the context of the general geographical properties of the lake basin and the watershed (latitude, longitude, morphology, also taking account of the local and regional climatic situation. Also analysed is the impact of ongoing climatic change on the renewal of the lake water, which is currently changing the equilibrium between lake and atmosphere, river and lake, and relationships

  6. Promotion of Scientific Literacy on Global Warming by Process Drama

    Pongsophon, Pongprapan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Boujaoude, Saouma B.

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24) and upper (n = 7) secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively…

  7. Providing Context for Complexity: Using Infographics and Conceptual Models to Teach Global Change Processes

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding modern and historical global changes requires interdisciplinary knowledge of the physical and life sciences. The Understanding Global Change website from the UC Museum of Paleontology will use a focal infographic that unifies diverse content often taught in separate K-12 science units. This visualization tool provides scientists with a structure for presenting research within the broad context of global change, and supports educators with a framework for teaching and assessing student understanding of complex global change processes. This new approach to teaching the science of global change is currently being piloted and refined based on feedback from educators and scientists in anticipation of a 2016 website launch. Global change concepts are categorized within the infographic as causes of global change (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, volcanism), ongoing Earth system processes (e.g., ocean circulation, the greenhouse effect), and the changes scientists measure in Earth's physical and biological systems (e.g., temperature, extinctions/radiations). The infographic will appear on all website content pages and provides a template for the creation of flowcharts, which are conceptual models that allow teachers and students to visualize the interdependencies and feedbacks among processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. The development of this resource is timely given that the newly adopted Next Generation Science Standards emphasize cross-cutting concepts, including model building, and Earth system science. Flowchart activities will be available on the website to scaffold inquiry-based lessons, determine student preconceptions, and assess student content knowledge. The infographic has already served as a learning and evaluation tool during professional development workshops at UC Berkeley, Stanford University, and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. At these workshops, scientists and educators used the infographic

  8. Physical characteristics of welding arc ignition process

    Shi, Linan; Song, Yonglun; Xiao, Tianjiao; Ran, Guowei

    2012-07-01

    The existing research of welding arc mainly focuses on the stable combustion state and the research on the mechanism of welding arc ignition process is quite lack. The tungsten inert gas(TIG) touch arc ignition process is observed via a high speed camera and the high time resolution spectral diagnosis system. The changing phenomenon of main ionized element provided the electrons in the arc ignition is found. The metallic element is the main contributor to provide the electrons at the beginning of the discharging, and then the excitated shielding gas element replaces the function of the metallic element. The electron density during the period of the arc ignition is calculated by the Stark-broadened lines of Hα. Through the discussion with the repeatability in relaxation phenomenon, the statistical regularity in the arc ignition process is analyzed. The similar rules as above are observed through the comparison with the laser-assisted arc ignition experiments and the metal inert gas(MIG) arc ignition experiments. This research is helpful to further understanding on the generation mechanism of welding arc ignition and also has a certain academic and practical significance on enriching the welding physical theoretical foundation and improving the precise monitoring on automatic arc welding process.

  9. A good week for global collaboration in particle physics

    2015-01-01

    This has been a good week for global collaboration in particle physics. On Wednesday, the CERN family grew by one Associate Member when we received official confirmation that the accession agreement signed last year had been ratified by the Turkish parliament, and on Thursday, we signed a new cooperation agreement with the US.   The signature of a new cooperation agreement between CERN and the US at the White House on Thursday, 7 May marks both a renewal of a long-standing friendship and a commitment to take the partnership further. Signed between CERN, the US Department of Energy and the US National Science Foundation, it is a framework agreement that paves the way for detailed accords on continued US participation in CERN’s scientific programme, and on European collaboration in projects hosted in the US, including prospective neutrino facilities. It is an agreement that is tacitly renewed every five years, unless one of the signatories signals a need to end or amend it. I am part...

  10. Conceptualizing psychological processes in response to globalization: Components, antecedents, and consequences of global orientations.

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Lam, Ben C P; Hui, Bryant P H; Ng, Jacky C K; Mak, Winnie W S; Guan, Yanjun; Buchtel, Emma E; Tang, Willie C S; Lau, Victor C Y

    2016-02-01

    The influences of globalization have permeated various aspects of life in contemporary society, from technical innovations, economic development, and lifestyles, to communication patterns. The present research proposed a construct termed global orientation to denote individual differences in the psychological processes of acculturating to the globalizing world. It encompasses multicultural acquisition as a proactive response and ethnic protection as a defensive response to globalization. Ten studies examined the applicability of global orientations among majority and minority groups, including immigrants and sojourners, in multicultural and relatively monocultural contexts, and across Eastern and Western cultures. Multicultural acquisition is positively correlated with both independent and interdependent self-construals, bilingual proficiency and usage, and dual cultural identifications. Multicultural acquisition is promotion-focused, while ethnic protection is prevention-focused and related to acculturative stress. Global orientations affect individuating and modest behavior over and above multicultural ideology, predict overlap with outgroups over and above political orientation, and predict psychological adaptation, sociocultural competence, tolerance, and attitudes toward ethnocultural groups over and above acculturation expectations/strategies. Global orientations also predict English and Chinese oral presentation performance in multilevel analyses and the frequency and pleasantness of intercultural contact in cross-lagged panel models. We discuss how the psychological study of global orientations contributes to theory and research on acculturation, cultural identity, and intergroup relations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Living is information processing: from molecules to global systems

    Farnsworth, Keith D.; Nelson, John; Gershenson, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    We extend the concept that life is an informational phenomenon, at every level of organisation, from molecules to the global ecological system. According to this thesis: (a) living is information processing, in which memory is maintained by both molecular states and ecological states as well as the more obvious nucleic acid coding; (b) this information processing has one overall function - to perpetuate itself; and (c) the processing method is filtration (cognition) of, and synthesis of, info...

  12. Bringing life to soil physical processes

    Hallett, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    When Oklahoma's native prairie grass roots were replaced by corn, the greatest environmental (and social) disaster ever to hit America ensued. The soils lost structure, physical binding by roots was annihilated and when drought came the Great Dust Bowl commenced. This form of environmental disaster has repeated over history and although not always apparent, similar processes drive the degradation of seemingly productive farmland and forests. But just as negative impacts on biology are deleterious to soil physical properties, positive impacts could reverse these trends. In finding solutions to soil sustainability and food security, we should be able to exploit biological processes to improve soil physical properties. This talk will focus on a quantitative understanding of how biology changes soil physical behaviour. Like the Great Dust Bowl, it starts with reinforcement mechanisms by plant roots. We found that binding of soil by cereal (barley) roots within 5 weeks of planting can more than double soil shear strength, with greater plant density causing greater reinforcement. With time, however, the relative impact of root reinforcement diminishes due to root turnover and aging of the seedbed. From mechanical tests of individual roots, reasonable predictions of reinforcement by tree roots are possible with fibre bundle models. With herbaceous plants like cereals, however, the same parameters (root strength, stiffness, size and distribution) result in a poor prediction. We found that root type, root age and abiotic factors such as compaction and waterlogging affect mechanical behaviour, further complicating the understanding and prediction of root reinforcement. For soil physical stability, the interface between root and soil is an extremely important zone in terms of resistance of roots to pull-out and rhizosphere formation. Compounds analogous to root exudates have been found with rheological tests to initially decrease the shear stress where wet soils flow, but

  13. Digital Signal Processing applied to Physical Signals

    Alberto, Diego; Musa, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that many of the scientific and technological discoveries of the XXI century will depend on the capability of processing and understanding a huge quantity of data. With the advent of the digital era, a fully digital and automated treatment can be designed and performed. From data mining to data compression, from signal elaboration to noise reduction, a processing is essential to manage and enhance features of interest after every data acquisition (DAQ) session. In the near future, science will go towards interdisciplinary research. In this work there will be given an example of the application of signal processing to different fields of Physics from nuclear particle detectors to biomedical examinations. In Chapter 1 a brief description of the collaborations that allowed this thesis is given, together with a list of the publications co-produced by the author in these three years. The most important notations, definitions and acronyms used in the work are also provided. In Chapter 2, the last r...

  14. Validity of the global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ) in Bangladesh.

    Mumu, Shirin Jahan; Ali, Liaquat; Barnett, Anthony; Merom, Dafna

    2017-08-10

    Feasible and cost-effective as well as population specific instruments for monitoring physical activity (PA) levels are needed for the management and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The WHO-endorsed Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) has been widely used in developing countries, but the evidence base for its validity, particularly for rural populations, is still limited. The aim of the study was to validate GPAQ among rural and urban residents in Bangladesh. A total of 162 healthy participants of both genders aged 18-60 years were recruited from Satia village (n = 97) and Dhaka City (n = 65). Participants were invited to take part in the study and were asked to wear an accelerometer (GT3X) for 7 days, after which they were invited to answer the GPAQ in a face to face interview. Valid accelerometer data (i.e., ≥10 h of wear times over ≥3 days) were received from 155 participants (rural = 94, urban = 61). The mean age was 35 (SD = ±9) years, 55% were females and 19% of the participants had no schooling, which was higher in the rural area (21% vs 17%). The mean ± SD steps/day was 9998 ± 3936 (8658 ± 2788 and 12,063 ± 4534 for rural and urban respectively, p = 0.0001) and the mean ± SD daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 58 ± 30 min (51 ± 26 for rural and 69 ± 34 for the urban, p = 0.001) for accelerometer. In case of GPAQ, rural residents reported significantly higher moderate work related PA (MET-minutes/week: 600 vs. 360 p = 0.02). Spearman correlation coefficients between GPAQ total MVPA MET-min/day and accelerometer MVPA min/day, counts per minute (CPM) or steps counts/day were acceptable for urban residents (rho: 0.46, 0.55 and 0.63, respectively; p activity levels for urban and rural residents. GPAQ is an acceptable measure for physical activity surveillance in Bangladesh particularly for urban residents, women and people with high education. Given waist worn

  15. Validity of the global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ in Bangladesh

    Shirin Jahan Mumu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feasible and cost-effective as well as population specific instruments for monitoring physical activity (PA levels are needed for the management and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The WHO-endorsed Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ has been widely used in developing countries, but the evidence base for its validity, particularly for rural populations, is still limited. The aim of the study was to validate GPAQ among rural and urban residents in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 162 healthy participants of both genders aged 18–60 years were recruited from Satia village (n = 97 and Dhaka City (n = 65. Participants were invited to take part in the study and were asked to wear an accelerometer (GT3X for 7 days, after which they were invited to answer the GPAQ in a face to face interview. Results Valid accelerometer data (i.e., ≥10 h of wear times over ≥3 days were received from 155 participants (rural = 94, urban = 61. The mean age was 35 (SD = ±9 years, 55% were females and 19% of the participants had no schooling, which was higher in the rural area (21% vs 17%. The mean ± SD steps/day was 9998 ± 3936 (8658 ± 2788 and 12,063 ± 4534 for rural and urban respectively, p = 0.0001 and the mean ± SD daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA was 58 ± 30 min (51 ± 26 for rural and 69 ± 34 for the urban, p = 0.001 for accelerometer. In case of GPAQ, rural residents reported significantly higher moderate work related PA (MET-minutes/week: 600 vs. 360 p = 0.02. Spearman correlation coefficients between GPAQ total MVPA MET-min/day and accelerometer MVPA min/day, counts per minute (CPM or steps counts/day were acceptable for urban residents (rho: 0.46, 0.55 and 0.63, respectively; p < 0.01 but poor for rural residents. The overall correlation between the GPAQ and accelerometer for sitting was low (rho: 0.23; p < 0.001. GPAQ-Accelerometer correlation for MVPA

  16. Physical processes in collapse driven supernova

    Mayle, R.W.

    1985-11-01

    A model of the supernova explosion is discussed. The method of neutrino transport is discussed, since the explosive mechanism depends on neutrino heating of the material behind the accretion shock. The core region of these exploding stars becomes unstable to convective motions during the supernova evolution. Convective mixing allows more neutrinos to escape from under the neutrinosphere, and thus increases the amount of heating by neutrinos. An approximate method of incorporating convection is described, and some results of including convection in a computer model is presented. Another phenomena is seen in computer simulations of supernova, oscillations in the neutrino luminosity and mass accretion rate onto the protoneutron star. The last topic discussed in this thesis describes the attempt to understand this oscillation by perturbation of the steady state solution to equations approximating the complex physical processes occurring in the late time supernova. 42 refs., 31 figs.

  17. Thermodynamics principles characterizing physical and chemical processes

    Honig, Jurgen M

    1999-01-01

    This book provides a concise overview of thermodynamics, and is written in a manner which makes the difficult subject matter understandable. Thermodynamics is systematic in its presentation and covers many subjects that are generally not dealt with in competing books such as: Carathéodory''s approach to the Second Law, the general theory of phase transitions, the origin of phase diagrams, the treatment of matter subjected to a variety of external fields, and the subject of irreversible thermodynamics.The book provides a first-principles, postulational, self-contained description of physical and chemical processes. Designed both as a textbook and as a monograph, the book stresses the fundamental principles, the logical development of the subject matter, and the applications in a variety of disciplines. This revised edition is based on teaching experience in the classroom, and incorporates many exercises in varying degrees of sophistication. The stress laid on a didactic, logical presentation, and on the relat...

  18. Physical processes in collapse driven supernova

    Mayle, R.W.

    1985-11-01

    A model of the supernova explosion is discussed. The method of neutrino transport is discussed, since the explosive mechanism depends on neutrino heating of the material behind the accretion shock. The core region of these exploding stars becomes unstable to convective motions during the supernova evolution. Convective mixing allows more neutrinos to escape from under the neutrinosphere, and thus increases the amount of heating by neutrinos. An approximate method of incorporating convection is described, and some results of including convection in a computer model is presented. Another phenomena is seen in computer simulations of supernova, oscillations in the neutrino luminosity and mass accretion rate onto the protoneutron star. The last topic discussed in this thesis describes the attempt to understand this oscillation by perturbation of the steady state solution to equations approximating the complex physical processes occurring in the late time supernova. 42 refs., 31 figs

  19. Collaboration in Global Software Engineering Based on Process Description Integration

    Klein, Harald; Rausch, Andreas; Fischer, Edward

    Globalization is one of the big trends in software development. Development projects need a variety of different resources with appropriate expert knowledge to be successful. More and more of these resources are nowadays obtained from specialized organizations and countries all over the world, varying in development approaches, processes, and culture. As seen with early outsourcing attempts, collaboration may fail due to these differences. Hence, the major challenge in global software engineering is to streamline collaborating organizations towards a successful conjoint development. Based on typical collaboration scenarios, this paper presents a structured approach to integrate processes in a comprehensible way.

  20. Interocular suppression in amblyopia for global orientation processing.

    Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Pi-Chun; Hess, Robert F

    2013-04-22

    We developed a dichoptic global orientation coherence paradigm to quantify interocular suppression in amblyopia. This task is biased towards ventral processing and allows comparison with two other techniques-global motion processing, which is more dorsally biased, and binocular phase combination, which most likely reflects striate function. We found a similar pattern for the relationship between coherence threshold and interocular contrast curves (thresholds vs. interocular contrast ratios or TvRs) in our new paradigm compared with those of the previous dichoptic global motion coherence paradigm. The effective contrast ratios at balance point (where the signals from the two eyes have equal weighting) in our new paradigm were larger than those of the dichoptic global motion coherence paradigm but less than those of the binocular phase combination paradigm. The measured effective contrast ratios in the three paradigms were also positively correlated with each other, with the two global coherence paradigms having the highest correlation. We concluded that: (a) The dichoptic global orientation coherence paradigm is effective in quantifying interocular suppression in amblyopia; and (b) Interocular suppression, while sharing a common suppression mechanism at the early stage in the pathway (e.g., striate cortex), may have additional extra-striate contributions that affect both dorsal and ventral streams differentially.

  1. Delayed processing of global shape in developmental prosopagnosia

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi

    2017-01-01

    and fragmented objects. In contrast, their visual short-term memory capacity, visual processing speed, efficiency of top-down selectivity, and spatial allocation of attentional resources were within the normal range. This suggests that the reduced global bias effect found in the DP-sample reflects a perceptual...... 10 subjects with DP and 20 matched controls on Navon's paradigm with compound letters. We also assessed visual attention and object recognition in both groups. The DP-group exhibited a reduced global precedence effect compared with the control group. They were also impaired recognizing silhouette...... rather than an attentional deficit. To examine whether the reduction in the global precedence effect was systematically related to the face recognition impairment of the DPs we examined the correlation between the magnitude of the global precedence effect and performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test...

  2. An Investigation of Adolescent Girls' Global Self-Concept, Physical Self-Concept, Identified Regulation, and Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Physical Education

    Beasley, Emily Kristin; Garn, Alex C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among identified regulation, physical self-concept, global self-concept, and leisure-time physical activity with a sample of middle and high school girls (N = 319) enrolled in physical education. Based on Marsh's theory of self-concept, it was hypothesized that a) physical self-concept would mediate the…

  3. Long-run evolution of the global economy: 1. Physical basis

    Garrett, Timothy J.

    2014-04-01

    Climate change is a two-way street during the Anthropocene: civilization depends upon a favorable climate at the same time that it modifies it. Yet studies that forecast economic growth employ fundamentally different equations and assumptions than those used to model Earth's physical, chemical, and biological processes. In the interest of establishing a common theoretical framework, this article treats humanity like any other physical process; that is, as an open, nonequilibrium thermodynamic system that sustains existing circulations and furthers its material growth through the consumption and dissipation of energy. The link of physical to economic quantities comes from a prior result that establishes a fixed relationship between rates of global energy consumption and a historical accumulation of global economic wealth. What follows are nonequilibrium prognostic expressions for how wealth, energy consumption, and the Gross World Product (GWP) grow with time. This paper shows that the key components that determine whether civilization "innovates" itself toward faster economic growth include energy reserve discovery, improvements to human and infrastructure longevity, and reductions in the amount of energy required to extract raw materials. Growth slows due to a combination of prior growth, energy reserve depletion, and a "fraying" of civilization networks due to natural disasters. Theoretical and numerical arguments suggest that when growth rates approach zero, civilization becomes fragile to such externalities as natural disasters, and the risk is for an accelerating collapse.

  4. The physics of global climate change: challenges for research

    Artaxo, Paulo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: There are major issues in our scientific understanding of the functioning of our planet Earth. The growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, changing in surface albedo, changes in distribution and lifetime of clouds, alteration in aerosol properties and distribution, are all key issues in the radiation balance that controls the climate of our planet. Earth is a non linear highly complex system. Since the industrial revolution, concentration of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide and methane have increase by 30 to 100%. The fraction of infrared radiation trapped in the atmosphere has increased by about 1.6 watts/m{sup 2}. This additional energy has increased the average temperature by 0.79 degrees centigrade, with certain regions. But, we know very little of the physics, chemistry and biology that controls emissions, sinks and effects in Earth climate. Every week new important scientific findings are published in this area, and models that could predict the future of Earth climate are quite primitive and lack key issues. The hard science of global change is closely associated with socio-economic issues. Humanity have taken the main control role on Earth climate, and the potential for an average increase in temperature of 3 to 5 degrees is large, although there are tentative to limit the average temperature growth to 2 degrees. But even with this ambitious target, Amazonia and the Arctic will probably be much hotter than 3-4 degrees, with important feedbacks in the climate system. The talk will deal with these issues and new research that is needed to increase our knowledge on how the climate of our planet works and which climate we could have in the next decades. (author)

  5. Global Optimization Employing Gaussian Process-Based Bayesian Surrogates

    Roland Preuss

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of complex physics models may lead to enormous computer running times. Since the simulations are expensive it is necessary to exploit the computational budget in the best possible manner. If for a few input parameter settings an output data set has been acquired, one could be interested in taking these data as a basis for finding an extremum and possibly an input parameter set for further computer simulations to determine it—a task which belongs to the realm of global optimization. Within the Bayesian framework we utilize Gaussian processes for the creation of a surrogate model function adjusted self-consistently via hyperparameters to represent the data. Although the probability distribution of the hyperparameters may be widely spread over phase space, we make the assumption that only the use of their expectation values is sufficient. While this shortcut facilitates a quickly accessible surrogate, it is somewhat justified by the fact that we are not interested in a full representation of the model by the surrogate but to reveal its maximum. To accomplish this the surrogate is fed to a utility function whose extremum determines the new parameter set for the next data point to obtain. Moreover, we propose to alternate between two utility functions—expected improvement and maximum variance—in order to avoid the drawbacks of each. Subsequent data points are drawn from the model function until the procedure either remains in the points found or the surrogate model does not change with the iteration. The procedure is applied to mock data in one and two dimensions in order to demonstrate proof of principle of the proposed approach.

  6. Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography

    Banine, V Y; Swinkels, G H P M; Koshelev, K N

    2011-01-01

    The source is an integral part of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tool. Such a source, as well as the EUVL tool, has to fulfil very high demands both technical and cost oriented. The EUVL tool operates at a wavelength of 13.5 nm, which requires the following new developments. - The light production mechanism changes from conventional lamps and lasers to relatively high-temperature emitting plasmas. - The light transport, mainly refractive for deep ultraviolet (DUV), should be reflective for EUV. - The source specifications as derived from the customer requirements on wafer throughput mean that the output EUV source power has to be hundreds of watts. This in its turn means that tens to hundreds of kilowatts of dissipated power has to be managed in a relatively small volume. - In order to keep lithography costs as low as possible, the lifetime of the components should be as long as possible and at least of the order of thousands of hours. This poses a challenge for the sources, namely how to design and manufacture components robust enough to withstand the intense environment of high heat dissipation, flows of several keV ions as well as the atomic and particular debris within the source vessel. - As with all lithography tools, the imaging requirements demand a narrow illumination bandwidth. Absorption of materials at EUV wavelengths is extreme with extinguishing lengths of the order of tens of nanometres, so the balance between high transmission and spectral purity requires careful engineering. All together, EUV lithography sources present technological challenges in various fields of physics such as plasma, optics and material science. These challenges are being tackled by the source manufacturers and investigated extensively in the research facilities around the world. An overview of the published results on the topic as well as the analyses of the physical processes behind the proposed solutions will be presented in this paper. (topical review)

  7. Developing Intercultural Competence through Global Link Experiences in Physical Education

    Ko, Bomna; Boswell, Boni; Yoon, Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recognition of the importance of the development of intercultural competence (ICC) has placed intense pressure on teacher education programs to infuse a global perspective into their programs. Several studies have proposed integration of global elements into teacher education programs. Although the use of online tools for…

  8. Statistical physics of media processes: Mediaphysics

    Kuznetsov, Dmitri V.; Mandel, Igor

    2007-04-01

    The processes of mass communications in complicated social or sociobiological systems such as marketing, economics, politics, animal populations, etc. as a subject for the special scientific subbranch-“mediaphysics”-are considered in its relation with sociophysics. A new statistical physics approach to analyze these phenomena is proposed. A keystone of the approach is an analysis of population distribution between two or many alternatives: brands, political affiliations, or opinions. Relative distances between a state of a “person's mind” and the alternatives are measures of propensity to buy (to affiliate, or to have a certain opinion). The distribution of population by those relative distances is time dependent and affected by external (economic, social, marketing, natural) and internal (influential propagation of opinions, “word of mouth”, etc.) factors, considered as fields. Specifically, the interaction and opinion-influence field can be generalized to incorporate important elements of Ising-spin-based sociophysical models and kinetic-equation ones. The distributions were described by a Schrödinger-type equation in terms of Green's functions. The developed approach has been applied to a real mass-media efficiency problem for a large company and generally demonstrated very good results despite low initial correlations of factors and the target variable.

  9. The effect of sadness on global-local processing.

    von Mühlenen, Adrian; Bellaera, Lauren; Singh, Amrendra; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2018-05-04

    Gable and Harmon-Jones (Psychological Science, 21(2), 211-215, 2010) reported that sadness broadens attention in a global-local letter task. This finding provided the key test for their motivational intensity account, which states that the level of spatial processing is not determined by emotional valence, but by motivational intensity. However, their finding is at odds with several other studies, showing no effect, or even a narrowing effect of sadness on attention. This paper reports two attempts to replicate the broadening effect of sadness on attention. Both experiments used a global-local letter task, but differed in terms of emotion induction: Experiment 1 used the same pictures as Gable and Harmon-Jones, taken from the IAPS dataset; Experiment 2 used a sad video underlaid with sad music. Results showed a sadness-specific global advantage in the error rates, but not in the reaction times. The same null results were also found in a South-Asian sample in both experiments, showing that effects on global/local processing were not influenced by a culturally related processing bias.

  10. The impact of global nuclear mass model uncertainties on r-process abundance predictions

    Mumpower M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid neutron capture or ‘r-process’ nucleosynthesis may be responsible for half the production of heavy elements above iron on the periodic table. Masses are one of the most important nuclear physics ingredients that go into calculations of r-process nucleosynthesis as they enter into the calculations of reaction rates, decay rates, branching ratios and Q-values. We explore the impact of uncertainties in three nuclear mass models on r-process abundances by performing global monte carlo simulations. We show that root-mean-square (rms errors of current mass models are large so that current r-process predictions are insufficient in predicting features found in solar residuals and in r-process enhanced metal poor stars. We conclude that the reduction of global rms errors below 100 keV will allow for more robust r-process predictions.

  11. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in developing physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seeds.

    Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Pingzhi; Zhang, Sheng; Song, Chi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jia, Yongxia; Fang, Xiaohua; Chen, Fan; Wu, Guojiang

    2012-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP). The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29-41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production.

  12. Visual form-processing deficits: a global clinical classification.

    Unzueta-Arce, J; García-García, R; Ladera-Fernández, V; Perea-Bartolomé, M V; Mora-Simón, S; Cacho-Gutiérrez, J

    2014-10-01

    Patients who have difficulties recognising visual form stimuli are usually labelled as having visual agnosia. However, recent studies let us identify different clinical manifestations corresponding to discrete diagnostic entities which reflect a variety of deficits along the continuum of cortical visual processing. We reviewed different clinical cases published in medical literature as well as proposals for classifying deficits in order to provide a global perspective of the subject. Here, we present the main findings on the neuroanatomical basis of visual form processing and discuss the criteria for evaluating processing which may be abnormal. We also include an inclusive diagram of visual form processing deficits which represents the different clinical cases described in the literature. Lastly, we propose a boosted decision tree to serve as a guide in the process of diagnosing such cases. Although the medical community largely agrees on which cortical areas and neuronal circuits are involved in visual processing, future studies making use of new functional neuroimaging techniques will provide more in-depth information. A well-structured and exhaustive assessment of the different stages of visual processing, designed with a global view of the deficit in mind, will give a better idea of the prognosis and serve as a basis for planning personalised psychostimulation and rehabilitation strategies. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Local and global processing of music in high-functioning persons with autism: beyond central coherence?

    Mottron, L; Peretz, I; Ménard, E

    2000-11-01

    A multi-modal abnormality in the integration of parts and whole has been proposed to account for a bias toward local stimuli in individuals with autism (Frith, 1989; Mottron & Belleville, 1993). In the current experiment, we examined the utility of hierarchical models in characterising musical information processing in autistic individuals. Participants were 13 high-functioning individuals with autism and 13 individuals of normal intelligence matched on chronological age, nonverbal IQ, and laterality, and without musical experience. The task consisted of same-different judgements of pairs of melodies. Differential local and global processing was assessed by manipulating the level, local or global, at which modifications occurred. No deficit was found in the two measures of global processing. In contrast, the clinical group performed better than the comparison group in the detection of change in nontransposed, contour-preserved melodies that tap local processing. These findings confirm the existence of a "local bias" in music perception in individuals with autism, but challenge the notion that it is accounted for by a deficit in global music processing. The present study suggests that enhanced processing of elementary physical properties of incoming stimuli, as found previously in the visual modality, may also exist in the auditory modality.

  14. Finite element meshing approached as a global minimization process

    WITKOWSKI,WALTER R.; JUNG,JOSEPH; DOHRMANN,CLARK R.; LEUNG,VITUS J.

    2000-03-01

    The ability to generate a suitable finite element mesh in an automatic fashion is becoming the key to being able to automate the entire engineering analysis process. However, placing an all-hexahedron mesh in a general three-dimensional body continues to be an elusive goal. The approach investigated in this research is fundamentally different from any other that is known of by the authors. A physical analogy viewpoint is used to formulate the actual meshing problem which constructs a global mathematical description of the problem. The analogy used was that of minimizing the electrical potential of a system charged particles within a charged domain. The particles in the presented analogy represent duals to mesh elements (i.e., quads or hexes). Particle movement is governed by a mathematical functional which accounts for inter-particles repulsive, attractive and alignment forces. This functional is minimized to find the optimal location and orientation of each particle. After the particles are connected a mesh can be easily resolved. The mathematical description for this problem is as easy to formulate in three-dimensions as it is in two- or one-dimensions. The meshing algorithm was developed within CoMeT. It can solve the two-dimensional meshing problem for convex and concave geometries in a purely automated fashion. Investigation of the robustness of the technique has shown a success rate of approximately 99% for the two-dimensional geometries tested. Run times to mesh a 100 element complex geometry were typically in the 10 minute range. Efficiency of the technique is still an issue that needs to be addressed. Performance is an issue that is critical for most engineers generating meshes. It was not for this project. The primary focus of this work was to investigate and evaluate a meshing algorithm/philosophy with efficiency issues being secondary. The algorithm was also extended to mesh three-dimensional geometries. Unfortunately, only simple geometries were tested

  15. Probing new physics in rare charm processes

    Hewett, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    The possibility of using the charm system to search for new physics is addressed. Phenomena such as D 0 - bar D 0 mixing and rare decays of charmed mesons are first examined in the Standard Model to test the present understanding and to serve as benchmarks for signals from new sources. The effects of new physics from various classes of non-standard dynamical models on D 0 - bar D 0 mixing are investigated

  16. Laser isotope separation: the physics of the process

    Lapierre, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The physics of the AVLIS process is analysed. The intricacy of physics considerations, technology and economic forecast is developed. The scaling of a production unit is a complicated optimization which takes into account the limitations imposed by physics laws (spectroscopy, plasma physics,...), technology (vapor production, laser industry,...), and economy. But the only philosophy which prevails for such R and D programs is to be cheaper than competitive processes and to reach the goal first to get the market

  17. Paladin Enterprises: Monolithic particle physics models global climate.

    2002-01-01

    Paladin Enterprises presents a monolithic particle model of the universe which will be used by them to build an economical fusion energy system. The model is an extension of the work done by James Clerk Maxwell. Essentially, gravity is unified with electro-magnetic forces and shown to be a product of a closed loop current system, i.e. a particle - monolithic or sub atomic. This discovery explains rapid global climate changes which are evident in the geological record and also provides an explanation for recent changes in the global climate.

  18. Creative Industries: Development Processes Under Contemporary Conditions of Globalization

    Valerija Kontrimienė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the processes of developing creative industries under conditions of a growth in the worldwide economy and globalization, discloses the role of the sector of creative industries and shows its place in the system of the modern global economy. The paper presents a comparative analysis of theories and theoretical approaches intended for the sector of creative industries and its development as well as defines regularities and specificities characteristic of the development of creative industries. Particular attention is shifted on the growth and development of creative industries considering the current challenges of globalization and on the most important specificities of the developing sector in the context of the challenges of economic globalization. The paper examines the trends reflecting the place of the sector of creative industries in the economy of the modern world, including the tendencies indicating changes in the export of the products created in this sector. The article considers the issues of developing creative industries and reveals priorities of future research.

  19. A Process-based Model of Global Lichen Productivity

    Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens and biotic crusts are abundant in most ecosystems of the world. They are the main autotrophic organisms in many deserts and at high altitudes and they can also be found in large amounts as epiphytes in some forests, especially in the boreal zone. They are characterised by a great variety of physiological properties, such as growth form, productivity or color. Due to the vast land surface areas covered by lichens, they may contribute significantly to the global terrestrial net carbon uptake. Furthermore, they potentially play an important role with respect to nutrient cycles in some ecosystems and they have the ability to enhance weathering at the surface on which they grow. A possible way to quantify these processes at the global scale is presented here in form of a process-based lichen model. This approach is based on the concepts used in many dynamical vegetation models and extends these methods to account for the specific properties of lichens. Hence, processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and water exchange are implemented as well as important trade-offs like photosynthetic capacity versus respiratory load and water content versus CO2 conductivity. The great physiological variability of lichens is incorporated directly into the model through ranges of possible parameter values, which are randomly sampled. In this way, many artificial lichen "species" are created and climate then acts as a filter to determine the species which are able to survive permanently. By averaging over the surviving "species", the model predicts lichen productivity as a function of climate input data such as temperature, radiation and precipitation at the global scale. Consequently, the contribution of lichens to the global carbon balance can be quantified. Moreover, global patterns of lichen biodiversity and other properties can be illustrated. The model can be extended to account for the nutrient dynamics of lichens, such as nitrogen fixation and the acquisition and

  20. Global and Local Sensitivity Analysis Methods for a Physical System

    Morio, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is the study of how the different input variations of a mathematical model influence the variability of its output. In this paper, we review the principle of global and local sensitivity analyses of a complex black-box system. A simulated case of application is given at the end of this paper to compare both approaches.…

  1. Adjusting process count on demand for petascale global optimization

    Sosonkina, Masha; Watson, Layne T.; Radcliffe, Nicholas R.; Haftka, Rafael T.; Trosset, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    There are many challenges that need to be met before efficient and reliable computation at the petascale is possible. Many scientific and engineering codes running at the petascale are likely to be memory intensive, which makes thrashing a serious problem for many petascale applications. One way to overcome this challenge is to use a dynamic number of processes, so that the total amount of memory available for the computation can be increased on demand. This paper describes modifications made to the massively parallel global optimization code pVTdirect in order to allow for a dynamic number of processes. In particular, the modified version of the code monitors memory use and spawns new processes if the amount of available memory is determined to be insufficient. The primary design challenges are discussed, and performance results are presented and analyzed.

  2. Delayed processing of global shape information in developmental prosopagnosia

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja K.; Petersen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence suggesting that a central deficit in developmental prosopagnosia (DP), a disorder characterized by profound and lifelong difficulties with face recognition, concerns impaired holistic processing. Some of this evidence comes from studies using Navon’s paradigm where...... that this reduced global precedence effect correlates both with the DPs’ face recognition abilities, as well as their ability to recognize degraded (non-face) objects. We suggest that the DPs’ impaired performance in all three domains (Navon, face and object recognition) may be related to the same dysfunction...

  3. Process evaluation of a worksite social and physical environmental intervention

    Coffeng, J.K.; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Boot, C.R.L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of implementation of a social and physical environmental intervention and to explore differences regarding this process between both interventions. METHODS:: Context, recruitment, dose delivered, fidelity, reach, dose received, satisfaction, and implementation

  4. Stepping back to see the big picture: when obstacles elicit global processing.

    Marguc, Janina; Förster, Jens; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2011-11-01

    Can obstacles prompt people to look at the "big picture" and open up their minds? Do the cognitive effects of obstacles extend beyond the tasks with which they interfere? These questions were addressed in 6 studies involving both physical and nonphysical obstacles and different measures of global versus local processing styles. Perceptual scope increased after participants solved anagrams in the presence, rather than the absence, of an auditory obstacle (random words played in the background; Study 1), particularly among individuals low in volatility (i.e., those who are inclined to stay engaged and finish what they do; Study 4). It also increased immediately after participants encountered a physical obstacle while navigating a maze (Study 3A) and when compared with doing nothing (Study 3B). Conceptual scope increased after participants solved anagrams while hearing random numbers framed as an "obstacle to overcome" rather than a "distraction to ignore" (Study 2) and after participants navigated a maze with a physical obstacle, compared with a maze without a physical obstacle, but only when trait (Study 5) or state (Study 6) volatility was low. Results suggest that obstacles trigger an "if obstacle, then start global processing" response, primarily when people are inclined to stay engaged and finish ongoing activities. Implications for dealing with life's obstacles and related research are discussed.

  5. Decision Making Processes for Global Product Development - a Case Study

    Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Global Product Development (GPD), outsourcing and offshoring of product development is a widespread phenomenon on today’s global economy, and consequently most engineering manufacturing companies will have to make decisions regarding how to organise their product development activities globally...

  6. Impact of Physics Parameterization Ordering in a Global Atmosphere Model

    Donahue, Aaron S.; Caldwell, Peter M.

    2018-02-01

    Because weather and climate models must capture a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales, they rely heavily on parameterizations of subgrid-scale processes. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that the assumptions used to couple these parameterizations have an important effect on the climate of version 0 of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) General Circulation Model (GCM), a close relative of version 1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Like most GCMs, parameterizations in E3SM are sequentially split in the sense that parameterizations are called one after another with each subsequent process feeling the effect of the preceding processes. This coupling strategy is noncommutative in the sense that the order in which processes are called impacts the solution. By examining a suite of 24 simulations with deep convection, shallow convection, macrophysics/microphysics, and radiation parameterizations reordered, process order is shown to have a big impact on predicted climate. In particular, reordering of processes induces differences in net climate feedback that are as big as the intermodel spread in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. One reason why process ordering has such a large impact is that the effect of each process is influenced by the processes preceding it. Where output is written is therefore an important control on apparent model behavior. Application of k-means clustering demonstrates that the positioning of macro/microphysics and shallow convection plays a critical role on the model solution.

  7. Electrical Storm Simulation to Improve the Learning Physics Process

    Martínez Muñoz, Miriam; Jiménez Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Gutiérrez de Mesa, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This work is part of a research project whose main objective is to understand the impact that the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has on the teaching and learning process on the subject of Physics. We will show that, with the use of a storm simulator, physics students improve their learning process on one hand they understand…

  8. [The Process of Healing Child Physical Abuse: Sprouting and Twining].

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Feng, Jui-Ying; Tseng, Ren-Mei

    2018-06-01

    Child physical abuse impacts the physical and psychological health of survivors. Healing child abuse is an essential process that helps survivors reorganize the meaning of the trauma and pursue a normal life. Considering the trauma of child physical abuse within the social context allows the experiences of individual survivors to be reflected in their process of healing. To explore the social interaction and construction process of healing experienced by survivors of child physical abuse. A qualitative research design using grounded theory was applied. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to recruit survivors of childhood physical abuse who had experienced healing. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were used and data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. The process of healing child physical abuse in this study was a process of sprouting and twining. Three core categories emerged: thriving, relationships, and ethics. The healing process was analogous to a seed growing in poor soil, sprouting out from the ground, and striving to live by seeking support. The survivors constantly established interactive relationships with their selves and with others and struggled to keep family bonds grounded and growing within the frame of ethics. The healing process of sprouting and twining for child physical abuse survivors in Taiwan integrates thriving, relationships, and ethics. Professionals working with child-physical-abuse survivors must recognize conflicts in ethics. Strategies should be developed to assist survivors to cope with the impact of childhood trauma in order to facilitate the healing process.

  9. Impact of physical permafrost processes on hydrological change

    Hagemann, Stefan; Blome, Tanja; Beer, Christian; Ekici, Altug

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost or perennially frozen ground is an important part of the terrestrial cryosphere; roughly one quarter of Earth's land surface is underlain by permafrost. As it is a thermal phenomenon, its characteristics are highly dependent on climatic factors. The impact of the currently observed warming, which is projected to persist during the coming decades due to anthropogenic CO2 input, certainly has effects for the vast permafrost areas of the high northern latitudes. The quantification of these effects, however, is scientifically still an open question. This is partly due to the complexity of the system, where several feedbacks are interacting between land and atmosphere, sometimes counterbalancing each other. Moreover, until recently, many global circulation models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) lacked the sufficient representation of permafrost physics in their land surface schemes. Within the European Union FP7 project PAGE21, the land surface scheme JSBACH of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology ESM (MPI-ESM) has been equipped with the representation of relevant physical processes for permafrost studies. These processes include the effects of freezing and thawing of soil water for both energy and water cycles, thermal properties depending on soil water and ice contents, and soil moisture movement being influenced by the presence of soil ice. In the present study, it will be analysed how these permafrost relevant processes impact projected hydrological changes over northern hemisphere high latitude land areas. For this analysis, the atmosphere-land part of MPI-ESM, ECHAM6-JSBACH, is driven by prescribed SST and sea ice in an AMIP2-type setup with and without the newly implemented permafrost processes. Observed SST and sea ice for 1979-1999 are used to consider induced changes in the simulated hydrological cycle. In addition, simulated SST and sea ice are taken from a MPI-ESM simulation conducted for CMIP5 following the RCP8.5 scenario. The

  10. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in developing physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    Huawu Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP. The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29-41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production.

  11. Build Locally, Link Globally: The Social Forum Process in Italy

    Donatella della Porta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Considered an innovation because of its capacity to develop transnational processes, the World Social Forum however also has strong local roots as well as effects on organizational models and collective identities at the domestic level. Focusing on the Italian case, this article shows how local social forums, as arenas for exchanges of ideas, played a cognitive role in the import, but also the translation of new ideas, as well as helping the emergence of dense network structures and tolerant identities. The first section of the article examines how local social forums contributed to innovation in the organizational formulas of the Global Justice Movement—considering both structure (organizations and process (methodologies aspects—through the development of different, more participatory conceptions of internal decision making. It then addresses the innovations in the definition of collective identities, stressing the linkages of local struggles and global framing as well as the development of a cross-issue discourse around an anti-neoliberal frame. The final section will discuss the contribution of local social forums to contemporary social movements, stressing the role of these new arenas for the cross-fertilization among different movement families and spreading a method of working together that becomes part of the repertoire of action of local social movement organizations. The empirical research consists mainly of in-depth interviews and focus groups with activists from social movement organizations which were involved in local social forums.

  12. Local and global limits on visual processing in schizophrenia.

    Marc S Tibber

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia has been linked to impaired performance on a range of visual processing tasks (e.g. detection of coherent motion and contour detection. It has been proposed that this is due to a general inability to integrate visual information at a global level. To test this theory, we assessed the performance of people with schizophrenia on a battery of tasks designed to probe voluntary averaging in different visual domains. Twenty-three outpatients with schizophrenia (mean age: 40±8 years; 3 female and 20 age-matched control participants (mean age 39±9 years; 3 female performed a motion coherence task and three equivalent noise (averaging tasks, the latter allowing independent quantification of local and global limits on visual processing of motion, orientation and size. All performance measures were indistinguishable between the two groups (ps>0.05, one-way ANCOVAs, with one exception: participants with schizophrenia pooled fewer estimates of local orientation than controls when estimating average orientation (p = 0.01, one-way ANCOVA. These data do not support the notion of a generalised visual integration deficit in schizophrenia. Instead, they suggest that distinct visual dimensions are differentially affected in schizophrenia, with a specific impairment in the integration of visual orientation information.

  13. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of

  14. The plasma physics of plasma processing

    Shohet, L.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma processing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. It has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both high-technology and the more traditional industries. Plasma processing takes on a wide variety of apparently different forms in industry, but the techniques share many common characteristics and problems. Control of the generation and flux of ions, electrons and free radicals in the plasma and their incidence on a surface is vital. Diagnostics, sensors, modeling techniques, and associated statistical methods are needed. However, without an in-depth understanding of the variety of phenomena taking place and their application to the industrial environment, advances in this technology, and its efficient use, will occur at a diminishing rate

  15. Global process industry initiatives to reduce major accident hazards

    Pitblado, Robin [DNV Energy Houston, TX (United States). SHE Risk Management; Pontes, Jose [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Americas Region; Oliveira, Luiz [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Since 2000, disasters at Texas City, Toulouse, Antwerp, Buncefield, P-36 and several near total loss events offshore in Norway have highlighted that major accident process safety is still a serious issue. Hopes that Process Safety Management or Safety Case regulations would solve these issues have not proven true. The Baker Panel recommended to BP several actions mainly around leadership, incentives, metrics, safety culture and more effective implementation of PSM systems. In Europe, an approach built around mechanical integrity and safety barriers, especially relating to technical safety systems, is being widely adopted. DNV has carried out a global survey of process industry initiatives, by interview and by literature review, for both upstream and downstream activities, to identify what the industry itself is planning to implement to enhance process safety in the next 5 - 10 years. This shows that an approach combining Baker Panel and EU barrier approaches and some nuclear industry real-time risk management approaches might be the best means to achieve a factor of 3-4 improvement in process safety. (author)

  16. Markov processes an introduction for physical scientists

    Gillespie, Daniel T

    1991-01-01

    Markov process theory is basically an extension of ordinary calculus to accommodate functions whos time evolutions are not entirely deterministic. It is a subject that is becoming increasingly important for many fields of science. This book develops the single-variable theory of both continuous and jump Markov processes in a way that should appeal especially to physicists and chemists at the senior and graduate level.Key Features* A self-contained, prgamatic exposition of the needed elements of random variable theory* Logically integrated derviations of the Chapman-Kolmogorov e

  17. Automatically processing physical data from LHD experiments

    Emoto, M., E-mail: emoto.masahiko@nifs.ac.jp; Ida, K.; Suzuki, C.; Yoshida, M.; Akiyama, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshinuma, M.

    2014-05-15

    Physical data produced by large helical device (LHD) experiments is supplied by the Kaiseki server, and registers more than 200 types of diagnostic data. Dependencies exist amongst the data; i.e., in many cases, the calculation of one data requires other data. Therefore, to obtain unregistered data, one needs to calculate not only the diagnostic data itself but also the dependent data; however, because the data is registered by different scientists, each scientist must separately calculate and register their respective data. To simplify this complicated procedure, we have developed an automatic calculation system called AutoAna. The calculation programs of AutoAna are distributed on a network, and the number of such programs can be easily increased dynamically. Our system is therefore scalable and ready for substantial increases in the size of the target data.

  18. Physical and biochemical processes in composting material

    Ginkel, van J.T.

    1996-01-01


    In the composting process temperature and oxygen concentrations are essential parameters. A main objective of this thesis is to formulate a mathematical model which can predict these parameters. In this model a number of important material properties must be used: composition in terms of

  19. Integrated biological, chemical and physical processes kinetic ...

    ... for C and N removal, only gas and liquid phase processes were considered for this integrated model. ... kLA value for the aeration system, which affects the pH in the anoxic and aerobic reactors through CO2 gas exchange. ... Water SA Vol.

  20. Global Threat Reduction Initiative Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project: Sample Management Plan

    Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pereira, Mario M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steen, Franciska H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This sample management plan provides guidelines for sectioning, preparation, acceptance criteria, analytical path, and end-of-life disposal for the fuel element segments utilized in the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project. The Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project is tasked with analysis of irradiated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Molybdenum (U-Mo) fuel element samples to support the GTRI conversion program. Sample analysis may include optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fuel-surface interface analysis, gas pycnometry (density) measurements, laser flash analysis (LFA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis with mass spectroscopy (TG /DTA-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrophotometry (ICP), alpha spectroscopy, and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS). The project will utilize existing Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) operating, technical, and administrative procedures for sample receipt, processing, and analyses. Test instructions (TIs), which are documents used to provide specific details regarding the implementation of an existing RPL approved technical or operational procedure, will also be used to communicate to staff project specific parameters requested by the Principal Investigator (PI). TIs will be developed, reviewed, and issued in accordance with the latest revision of the RPL-PLN-700, RPL Operations Plan. Additionally, the PI must approve all project test instructions and red-line changes to test instructions.

  1. The factor of local cultural specificity and process of globalization.

    Rudnev, Viacheslav

    2012-12-01

    is important today. Actually, Glocalization can assist in adaptation process of harmonizing local and global needs to a way of Sustainability. Glocalization puts globalization problems down to the human scale. The age of Globalization has made the problem of cultural dialog extra actual, otherwise the Mankind has no chance to survive. The Glocalization is the process of creation of a harmony in Nature, Society and Humans system in the context of Sustainability.

  2. Life Courses in the Globalization Process : The Development of Social Inequalities in Modern Societies

    Buchholz, Sandra; Hofaecker, Dirk; Mills, Melinda; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Kurz, Karin; Hofmeister, Heather; Hofäcker, D.

    This article examines the impact of the globalization process on individual life courses and employment careers in modern societies from an international comparative perspective. Empirical results are summarized from the GLOBALIFE research project (Life Courses in the Globalization Process), which

  3. Abrupt global events in the Earth's history: a physics perspective

    Ryskin, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The timeline of the Earth's history reveals quasi-periodicity of the geological record over the last 542 Myr, on timescales close, in the order of magnitude, to 1 Myr. What is the origin of this quasi-periodicity? What is the nature of the global events that define the boundaries of the geological time scale? I propose that a single mechanism is responsible for all three types of such events: mass extinctions, geomagnetic polarity reversals, and sea-level fluctuations. The mechanism is fast, and involves a significant energy release. The mechanism is unlikely to have astronomical causes, both because of the energies involved and because it acts quasi-periodically. It must then be sought within the Earth itself. And it must be capable of reversing the Earth's magnetic field. The last requirement makes it incompatible with the consensus model of the origin of the geomagnetic field-the hydromagnetic dynamo operating in the Earth's fluid core. In the second part of the paper, I show that a vast amount of seemingly unconnected geophysical and geological data can be understood in a unified way if the source of the Earth's main magnetic field is a ∼200 km thick lithosphere, repeatedly magnetized as a result of methane-driven oceanic eruptions, which produce ocean flow capable of dynamo action. The eruptions are driven by the interplay of buoyancy forces and exsolution of dissolved gas, which accumulates in the oceanic water masses prone to stagnation and anoxia. Polarity reversals, mass extinctions and sequence boundaries are consequences of these eruptions. Unlike the consensus model of geomagnetism, this scenario is consistent with the paleomagnetic data showing that 'directional changes during a reversal can be astonishingly fast, possibly occurring as a nearly instantaneous jump from one inclined dipolar state to another in the opposite hemisphere'.

  4. How does Software Process Improvement Address Global Software Engineering?

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Diebold, Philipp; Münch, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    a systematic mapping study on the state-of-the-art in SPI from a general perspective, we observed Global Software Engineering (GSE) becoming a topic of interest in recent years. Therefore, in this paper, we provide a detailed investigation of those papers from the overall systematic mapping study that were......For decades, Software Process Improvement (SPI) programs have been implemented, inter alia, to improve quality and speed of software development. To set up, guide, and carry out SPI projects, and to measure SPI state, impact, and success, a multitude of different SPI approaches and considerable...... experience are available. SPI addresses many aspects ranging from individual developer skills to entire organizations. It comprises for instance the optimization of specific activities in the software lifecycle as well as the creation of organization awareness and project culture. In the course of conducting...

  5. Impact of global investment processes on ukrainian share market

    O.К. Zotsenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effects of financial and investment processes on the Ukrainian share market. The research analyzed and estimated investment climate in Ukraine. The study highlights a comparison of the domestic share market with share markets of other countries. In terms of share capitalization of listed companies in the GDP determined that equity is the most developed in the USA and UK. Largest share markets with highest capitalization rate characterized. The regional distribution of the share market capitalization by continents are shown. The study of the dynamics of Ukrainian and global share indexes revealed that the Ukrainian share market indexes show a constant volatility and unpredictability. Correlation Ukrainian stock indexes with indexes in Europe, Russia and America is very weak, which is a very negative trend of the stock market of Ukraine. The key problems and risks of the domestic investments are defined which are consequences of downturn in the Ukrainian share market.

  6. Global optimization numerical strategies for rate-independent processes

    Benešová, Barbora

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2011), s. 197-220 ISSN 0925-5001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LC06052 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : rate-independent processes * numerical global optimization * energy estimates based algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2011 http://math.hnue.edu.vn/portal/rss.viewpage.php?id=0000037780&ap=L3BvcnRhbC9ncmFiYmVyLnBocD9jYXRpZD0xMDEyJnBhZ2U9Mg==

  7. Physics of Laser Materials Processing Theory and Experiment

    Gladush, Gennady G

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the basic mechanisms, theory, simulations and technological aspects of Laser processing techniques. It covers the principles of laser quenching, welding, cutting, alloying, selective sintering, ablation, etc. The main attention is paid to the quantitative description. The diversity and complexity of technological and physical processes is discussed using a unitary approach. The book aims on understanding the cause-and-effect relations in physical processes in Laser technologies. It will help researchers and engineers to improve the existing and develop new Laser machining techniques. The book addresses readers with a certain background in general physics and mathematical analysis: graduate students, researchers and engineers practicing laser applications.

  8. Evolving models for medical physics education and training: a global perspective.

    Sprawls, P

    2008-01-01

    There is a significant need for high-quality medical physics education and training in all countries to support effective and safe use of modern medical technology for both diagnostic and treatment purposes. This is, and will continue to be, achieved using appropriate technology to increase both the effectiveness and efficiency of educational activities everywhere in the world. While the applications of technology to education and training are relatively new, the successful applications are based on theories and principles of the learning process developed by two pioneers in the field, Robert Gagne and Edgar Dale.The work of Gagne defines the different levels of learning that can occur and is used to show the types and levels of learning that are required for the application of physics and engineering principles to achieve appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic results from modern technology. The learning outcomes are determined by the effectiveness of the learning activity or experience. The extensive work of Dale as formulated in his Cone of Experience relates the effectiveness to the efficiency of educational activities. A major challenge in education is the development and conduction of learning activities (classroom discussions, laboratory and applied experiences, individual study, etc) that provide an optimum balance between effectiveness and efficiency. New and evolving models of the educational process use technology as the infrastructure to support education that is both more effective and efficient.The goal is to use technology to enhance human performance for both learners (students) and learning facilitators (teachers). A major contribution to global education is the trend in the development of shared educational resources. Two models of programs to support this effort with open and free shared resources are Physical Principles of Medical Imaging Online (http://www.sprawls.org/resources) and AAPM Continuing Education Courses (http://www.aapm.org/international).

  9. Global physical and numerical stability of a nuclear reactor core

    Morales-Sandoval, Jaime; Hernandez-Solis, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Low order models are used to investigate the influence of integration methods on observed power oscillations of some nuclear reactor simulators. The zero-power point reactor kinetics with six-delayed neutron precursor groups are time discretized using explicit, implicit and Crank-Nicholson methods, and the stability limit of the time mesh spacing is exactly obtained by locating their characteristic poles in the z-transform plane. These poles are the s to z mappings of the inhour equation roots and, except for one of them, they show little or no dependence on the integration method. Conditions for stable power oscillations can be also obtained by tracking when steady state output signals resulting from reactivity oscillations in the s-Laplace plane cross the imaginary axis. The dynamics of a BWR core operating at power conditions is represented by a reduced order model obtained by adding three ordinary differential equations, which can model void and Doppler reactivity feedback effects on power, and collapsing all delayed neutron precursors in one group. Void dynamics are modeled as a second order system and fuel heat transfer as a first order system. This model shows rich characteristics in terms of indicating the relative importance of different core parameters and conditions on both numerical and physical oscillations observed by large computer code simulations. A brief discussion of the influence of actual core and coolant conditions on the reduced order model is presented

  10. Strengthening CERN and particle physics in a changing global environment

    2016-01-01

    As we welcome Romania as our 22nd Member State in late July, now is a good time to reflect on the geographical enlargement process that was initiated in 2010.   Let me begin by setting the context. CERN operates in an increasingly complex and globalised world. Political and economic developments in the European neighbourhood and well beyond can have an impact on our work – directly or indirectly, in the short term or in a much longer perspective. We need to anticipate that change as far as we can, while also being agile enough to meet the challenges that we do not expect. The UK’s EU referendum on 23 June is a case in point. Because CERN is an organisation founded to facilitate cooperation across borders, Brexit is an uncomfortable truth to many of us. It is, nevertheless, the outcome of the political processes of one of our founding Member States, and is something we must respect. Whatever direction the UK now takes, we will be working with the country’s particle ph...

  11. ERP differences between processing of physical characteristics and personality attributes

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited data from behavioral and brain-imaging studies indicate that personality traits and physical characteristics are processed differently by the brain. Additionally, electrophysiological results of studies comparing the processing of positive and negative words have produced mixed results. It is therefore not clear how physical and personality attributes with emotional valence (i.e., positive and negative valence) are processed. Thus, this study aimed to examine the neural activity associated with words describing personality traits and physical characteristics with positive or negative emotional valence using Event Related Potentials (ERPs). Methods A sample of 15 healthy adults (7 men, 8 women) participated in a computerized word categorization task. Participants were asked to categorize visual word stimuli as physical characteristics or personality traits, while ERPs were recorded synchronously. Results Behavioral reaction times to negative physical stimuli were shorter compared to negative personality words, however reaction times did not significantly differ for positive stimuli. Electrophysiological results showed that personality stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC (Late Positive Component) amplitudes compared to physical stimuli, regardless of negative or positive valence. Moreover, negative as compared with positive stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC amplitudes. Conclusion Personality and physical stimuli were processed differently regardless of positive or negative valence. These findings suggest that personality traits and physical characteristics are differentially classified and are associated with different motivational significance. PMID:22967478

  12. Evaluation process of global environmental impact: assessment guidelines

    Memon, A.R.; Mahar, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    In developed and developing countries, the EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) is becoming mandatory for the approval of Industrial projects and projects of Environmental hazards. The approving authority of each country has its own guidelines to get projects approved and make project proponents responsible to submit Environmental Impact Statement for the its detailed assessment. In this paper authors have studied an existing EIA Global guidelines and its evaluation process of altogether 40 countries from four continents, Asia, Pacific/Middle East, Europe, Australia and America/Canada. This evaluation process is recorded in the tabulation form and it has been formulated stage wise in which stage one highlights the inception of EIA guidelines of each country and stage two and three gives implementation process. The inception stage of guidelines gives an idea that when EIA was started and an implementation stages provide all information that when EIA become a part of legislation that provide an opportunity to the reader to understand the decision making process for project approvals. The main objective of writing EIA guidelines is to monitor the sustain ability of various types of the projects under different sectoral guidelines, therefore Projects related with different Sectors have been chosen and a detailed record in tabulation form gives an idea to understand the interaction of these guidelines. To make this paper more comprehensive, authors have gone thorough the sectoral guidelines of altogether 64 countries and studied 21 sector oriented project fields. These are of Agriculture/Irrigation, Biodiversity, Coastal/Marine, Community Participation, Extractive industries, Fisheries, Forestry, Hazard Risk, Health, Human settlement, Industry, Multi sectorial, Ports and Harbors, Power, refugees/resettlement, Social, Strategies/Planning, Tourism/Recreational, transportation, Waste Pollution and Wetlands/Water resources. (author)

  13. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seedlings exposed to salt stress.

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Chao; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang

    2014-01-01

    Salt stress interferes with plant growth and production. Plants have evolved a series of molecular and morphological adaptations to cope with this abiotic stress, and overexpression of salt response genes reportedly enhances the productivity of various crops. However, little is known about the salt responsive genes in the energy plant physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). Thus, excavate salt responsive genes in this plant are informative in uncovering the molecular mechanisms for the salt response in physic nut. We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of physic nut plants (roots and leaves) 2 hours, 2 days and 7 days after the onset of salt stress. A total of 1,504 and 1,115 genes were significantly up and down-regulated in roots and leaves, respectively, under salt stress condition. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of physiological process revealed that, in the physic nut, many "biological processes" were affected by salt stress, particular those categories belong to "metabolic process", such as "primary metabolism process", "cellular metabolism process" and "macromolecule metabolism process". The gene expression profiles indicated that the associated genes were responsible for ABA and ethylene signaling, osmotic regulation, the reactive oxygen species scavenging system and the cell structure in physic nut. The major regulated genes detected in this transcriptomic data were related to trehalose synthesis and cell wall structure modification in roots, while related to raffinose synthesis and reactive oxygen scavenger in leaves. The current study shows a comprehensive gene expression profile of physic nut under salt stress. The differential expression genes detected in this study allows the underling the salt responsive mechanism in physic nut with the aim of improving its salt resistance in the future.

  14. Dispersal from deep ocean sources: physical and related scientific processes

    Robinson, A.R.; Kupferman, S.L.

    1985-02-01

    This report presents the results of the workshop ''Dispersal from Deep Ocean Sources: Physical and Related Scientific Processes,'' together with subsequent developments and syntheses of the material discussed there. The project was undertaken to develop usable predictive descriptions of dispersal from deep oceanic sources. Relatively simple theoretical models embodying modern ocean physics were applied, and observational and experimental data bases were exploited. All known physical processes relevant to the dispersal of passive, conservative tracers were discussed, and contact points for inclusion of nonconservative processes (biological and chemical) were identified. Numerical estimates of the amplitude, space, and time scales of dispersion were made for various mechanisms that control the evolution of the dispersal as the material spreads from a bottom point source to small-, meso-, and world-ocean scales. Recommendations for additional work are given. The volume is presented as a handbook of dispersion processes. It is intended to be updated as new results become available

  15. A Preliminary Evaluation of the GFS Physics in the Navy Global Environmental Model

    Liu, M.; Langland, R.; Martini, M.; Viner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Global extended long-range weather forecast is a goal in the near future at Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC). In an effort to improve the performance of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) operated at FNMOC, and to gain more understanding of the impact of atmospheric physics in the long-range forecast, the physics package of the Global Forecast System (GFS) of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction is being evaluated in the framework of NAVGEM. That is GFS physics being transported by NAVGEM Semi-Lagrangian Semi-Implicit advection, and update-cycled by the 4D-variational data assimilation along with the assimilated land surface data of NASA's Land Information System. The output of free long runs of 10-day GFS physics forecast in a summer and a winter season are evaluated through the comparisons with the output of NAVGEM physics long forecast, and through the validations with observations and with the European Center's analyses data. It is found that the GFS physics is able to effectively reduce some of the modeling biases of NAVGEM, especially wind speed of the troposphere and land surface temperature that is an important surface boundary condition. The bias corrections increase with forecast leads, reaching maximum at 240 hours. To further understand the relative roles of physics and dynamics in extended long-range forecast, the tendencies of physics components and advection are also calculated and analyzed to compare their forces of magnitudes in the integration of winds, temperature, and moisture. The comparisons reveal the strength and limitation of GFS physics in the overall improvement of NAVGEM prediction system.

  16. Like a Fish in Water: Physical Education Policy and Practice in the Era of Neoliberal Globalization

    Macdonald, Doune

    2011-01-01

    Globally, Physical Education (PE) carries the stamp of neoliberalism and as a field we are keen, it seems, to accrue more of the vestiges of this ideology. While neoliberal positions and practices are not necessarily harmful to the long-term interests of the field or the students we teach, indeed it may be strategic to take them up, the field…

  17. Global self-esteem, perceived athletic competence, and physical activity in children : A longitudinal cohort study

    Noordstar, Johannes J.; van der Net, Janjaap; Jak, Suzanne; Helders, Paul J M; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Exercise and Self-Esteem Model is used as a theoretical framework to describe associations between global self-esteem and physical activity, mediated by perceived athletic competence. We know little about how these associations develop over time in elementary school children. We

  18. Physical Activity and Global Self-worth in a Longitudinal Study of Children.

    Reddon, Hudson; Meyre, David; Cairney, John

    2017-08-01

    Physical activity is associated with an array of physical and mental health benefits among children and adolescents. The development of self-worth/self-esteem has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the mental health benefits derived from physical activity. Despite several studies that have analyzed the association between physical activity and self-worth, the results have been inconsistent. It is also uncertain how related physical health measures, such as sedentary behavior, body composition, and fitness, influence the relationship between physical activity and self-worth over time. In the present study, we 1) analyzed if the association between physical activity and self-worth remained constant over time and whether this relationship varied by sex and 2) investigated if changes in body composition and fitness level mediated the relationship between physical activity and self-worth. Data from the Physical Health Activity Study Team were used for this analysis. The Physical Health Activity Study Team is a prospective cohort study that included 2278 children at baseline (ages 9-10 yr) and included eight follow-up contacts for a 4-yr study period. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate global self-worth (GSW) over follow-up. Increased physical activity was associated with greater GSW across all waves of data collection, and this relationship did not vary significantly over time or between sexes. Aerobic fitness was positively associated with GSW, whereas body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to GSW. Both aerobic fitness and BMI appeared to mediate the association between physical activity and GSW. Sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with GSW. Physical activity is associated with greater GSW, and this relationship appears to be mediated by BMI and aerobic fitness. These findings reinforce the importance of physical behaviors and physical characteristics in shaping GSW in children.

  19. Programs for low-energy nuclear physics data processing

    Antuf'ev, Yu.P.; Dejneko, A.S.; Ekhichev, O.I.; Kuz'menko, V.A.; Mashkarov, Yu.G.; Nemashkalo, B.A.; Skakun, E.A.; Storizhko, V.E.; Shlyakhov, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose of six computer programs developed in KhPTI of AN USSR for the processing of the experimental data on low energy nuclear physics ia friendly described. The programs are written in Algol-60 language. They are applied to some types of nuclear reactions and permit to process differential cross sections and γ spectra, to compute statistical tensors and excitation functions as well as to analyze some processes by means of theoretical models

  20. Gold processing residue from Jacobina Basin: chemical and physical properties

    Lima, Luiz Rogério Pinho de Andrade; Bernardez, Letícia Alonso; Barbosa, Luís Alberto Dantas

    2007-01-01

    p. 848-852 Gold processing residues or tailings are found in several areas in the Itapicuru River region (Bahia, Brazil), and previous studies indicated significant heavy metals content in the river sediments. The present work focused on an artisanal gold processing residue found in a site from this region. Samples were taken from the processing residue heaps and used to perform a physical and chemical characterization study using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, neutron...

  1. Physical processes and the maintenance of nutrient-rich euphotic zones

    Gargett, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Oceanic euphotic zones characterized by high macronutrients but low primary productivity are found in the upwelling gyres of the world ocean. This paper reviews the physical processes which interact to maintain high nutrient concentrations in the near-surface ocean in such regions, illustrating the range of relevant forcing functions with regional examples. Predictions of the direction of change of the physical systems in these areas under increasing greenhouse gas concentrations can be based on the present generation of coupled ocean-atmosphere global circulation models, but these results have significant uncertainty

  2. The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics: Global Perspectives, Common Concerns, Worldwide Views

    Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2009-03-01

    The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP), held in Seoul, Korea, in October 2008, brought together 300 participants from 57 countries, including a diverse 22-member U.S. Delegation, for a 3-day summit of stimulating discussions, thought-provoking presentations, inspirational posters, and networking. Held under the auspices of the Working Group on Women in Physics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), this meeting built on the successes of the 1^st (Paris, 2002) and 2^nd (Rio de Janeiro, 2005) Conferences and further clarified the importance of diversifying the field of physics worldwide. Although considerable progress has been made since 2002, it was clear that the global scientific workforce is still under-utilizing a large percentage of the available female talent pool. If human society is to benefit to its fullest from various contributions that the field of physics can offer in addressing global issues of economic crisis, energy, environment, water, health, poverty, and hunger, women of all races and nationalities need to become fully included and engaged in the national and international physical community. To address these and many other issues, the ICWIP unanimously approved a five-part resolution to IUPAP recommending actions to promote the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in physics and related fields.

  3. Greenhouse climate : from physical processes to a dynamic model

    Bot, G.P.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis greenhouse climate has been studied as the set of environmental conditions in a greenhouse in so far as they affect crop growth and development. In chapter 2 this set has been defined in terms of temperatures and vapour pressures. Moreover we have indicated which physical processes co-operate in the greenhouse. So the dependency of the greenhouse climate on the outside weather, the physical properties of the greenhouse construction and the way ventilation and heating is perform...

  4. Physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays

    Candy, James V; Clague, David S; Lee, Christopher L; Rudd, Robert E; Burnham, Alan K; Tringe, Joseph W

    2013-11-19

    A method of using physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays. The methods utilize deflection of a micromachined cantilever that represents the chemical, biological, or physical element being detected. One embodiment of the method comprises the steps of modeling the deflection of the micromachined cantilever producing a deflection model, sensing the deflection of the micromachined cantilever and producing a signal representing the deflection, and comparing the signal representing the deflection with the deflection model.

  5. Robert A. Millikan Award Lecture (August 2002): Global Study of the Role of the Laboratory in Physics Education.

    George, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Presents the lecture given by the Millikan Award winner on a global study of the role of the laboratory in physics education. Discusses physics education in India, Malaysia, Great Britain, and the United States. (NB)

  6. Drowning unconformities: Palaeoenvironmental significance and involvement of global processes

    Godet, Alexis

    2013-07-01

    level rise and fall cycles, and may be linked to strengthened upwelling currents. With the return to more oligotrophic conditions during the late Barremian, photozoan, Urgonian-type communities took up again. Their development has been abruptly stopped at the end of the early Aptian by a major emersion phase. The subsequent drowning is documented in various peritethyan areas. This initial crisis is followed by three other drowning phases that ultimately led to the replacement of shallow ecosystems by a deeper marine sedimentation in the Cenomanian. This long-term trend in the evolution of the Helvetic carbonate platform and of other peritethyan ecosystems may have been driven by more global phenomena. In particular, the progressive opening of the northern and equatorial Atlantic may have impacted sea level by creating new oceanic basins. The emplacement of submarine volcanic plateaus may have triggered sea level rise and fertilized deep oceanic waters through hydrothermal processes. Drowning unconformities thus record the interplay of local with long-term processes, and constitute regional sedimentary archives of global phenomena.

  7. Global optimization of silicon nanowires for efficient parametric processes

    Vukovic, Dragana; Xu, Jing; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a global optimization of silicon nanowires for parametric single-pump mixing. For the first time, the effect of surface roughness-induced loss is included in the analysis, significantly influencing the optimum waveguide dimensions.......We present a global optimization of silicon nanowires for parametric single-pump mixing. For the first time, the effect of surface roughness-induced loss is included in the analysis, significantly influencing the optimum waveguide dimensions....

  8. Reflector antenna analysis using physical optics on Graphics Processing Units

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Sørensen, Hans Henrik Brandenborg; Dammann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The Physical Optics approximation is a widely used asymptotic method for calculating the scattering from electrically large bodies. It requires significant computational work and little memory, and is thus well suited for application on a Graphics Processing Unit. Here, we investigate the perform......The Physical Optics approximation is a widely used asymptotic method for calculating the scattering from electrically large bodies. It requires significant computational work and little memory, and is thus well suited for application on a Graphics Processing Unit. Here, we investigate...

  9. Roles of medical image processing in medical physics

    Arimura, Hidetaka

    2011-01-01

    Image processing techniques including pattern recognition techniques play important roles in high precision diagnosis and radiation therapy. The author reviews a symposium on medical image information, which was held in the 100th Memorial Annual Meeting of the Japan Society of Medical Physics from September 23rd to 25th. In this symposium, we had three invited speakers, Dr. Akinobu Shimizu, Dr. Hideaki Haneishi, and Dr. Hirohito Mekata, who are active engineering researchers of segmentation, image registration, and pattern recognition, respectively. In this paper, the author reviews the roles of the medical imaging processing in medical physics field, and the talks of the three invited speakers. (author)

  10. High resolution global flood hazard map from physically-based hydrologic and hydraulic models.

    Begnudelli, L.; Kaheil, Y.; McCollum, J.

    2017-12-01

    The global flood map published online at http://www.fmglobal.com/research-and-resources/global-flood-map at 90m resolution is being used worldwide to understand flood risk exposure, exercise certain measures of mitigation, and/or transfer the residual risk financially through flood insurance programs. The modeling system is based on a physically-based hydrologic model to simulate river discharges, and 2D shallow-water hydrodynamic model to simulate inundation. The model can be applied to large-scale flood hazard mapping thanks to several solutions that maximize its efficiency and the use of parallel computing. The hydrologic component of the modeling system is the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) hydrologic model. HRR simulates hydrological processes using a Green-Ampt parameterization, and is calibrated against observed discharge data from several publicly-available datasets. For inundation mapping, we use a 2D Finite-Volume Shallow-Water model with wetting/drying. We introduce here a grid Up-Scaling Technique (UST) for hydraulic modeling to perform simulations at higher resolution at global scale with relatively short computational times. A 30m SRTM is now available worldwide along with higher accuracy and/or resolution local Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in many countries and regions. UST consists of aggregating computational cells, thus forming a coarser grid, while retaining the topographic information from the original full-resolution mesh. The full-resolution topography is used for building relationships between volume and free surface elevation inside cells and computing inter-cell fluxes. This approach almost achieves computational speed typical of the coarse grids while preserving, to a significant extent, the accuracy offered by the much higher resolution available DEM. The simulations are carried out along each river of the network by forcing the hydraulic model with the streamflow hydrographs generated by HRR. Hydrographs are scaled so that the peak

  11. Higher levels of depression are associated with reduced global bias in visual processing.

    de Fockert, Jan W; Cooper, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Negative moods have been associated with a tendency to prioritise local details in visual processing. The current study investigated the relation between depression and visual processing using the Navon task, a standard task of local and global processing. In the Navon task, global stimuli are presented that are made up of many local parts, and the participants are instructed to report the identity of either a global or a local target shape. Participants with a low self-reported level of depression showed evidence of the expected global processing bias, and were significantly faster at responding to the global, compared with the local level. By contrast, no such difference was observed in participants with high levels of depression. The reduction of the global bias associated with high levels of depression was only observed in the overall speed of responses to global (versus local) targets, and not in the level of interference produced by the global (versus local) distractors. These results are in line with recent findings of a dissociation between local/global processing bias and interference from local/global distractors, and support the claim that depression is associated with a reduction in the tendency to prioritise global-level processing.

  12. The physical drivers of historical and 21st century global precipitation changes

    Thorpe, Livia; Andrews, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Historical and 21st century global precipitation changes are investigated using data from the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Atmosphere-Ocean-General-Circulation-Models (AOGCMs) and a simple energy-balance model. In the simple model, precipitation change in response to a given top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing is calculated as the sum of a response to the surface warming and a direct ‘adjustment’ response to the atmospheric radiative forcing. This simple model allows the adjustment in global mean precipitation to atmospheric radiative forcing from different forcing agents to be examined separately and emulates the AOGCMs well. During the historical period the AOGCMs simulate little global precipitation change despite an increase in global temperature—at the end of the historical period, global multi-model mean precipitation has increased by about 0.03 mm day −1 , while the global multi-model mean surface temperature has warmed by about 1 K, both relative to the pre-industrial control means. This is because there is a large direct effect from CO 2 and black carbon atmospheric forcing that opposes the increase in precipitation from surface warming. In the 21st century scenarios, the opposing effect from black carbon declines and the increase in global precipitation due to surface warming dominates. The cause of the spread between models in the global precipitation projections (which can be up to 0.25 mm day −1 ) is examined and found to come mainly from uncertainty in the climate sensitivity. The spatial distribution of precipitation change is found to be dominated by the response to surface warming. It is concluded that AOGCM global precipitation projections are in line with expectations based on our understanding of how the energy and water cycles are physically linked. (letters)

  13. 22nd International Conference on Medical Physics 2016, Bangkok, Thailand; Medical physics propelling global health.

    Tsapaki, Virginia; Ibbott, Geoff; Krisanachinda, Anchali; Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Suh, Tae-Suk; Tabakov, Slavik; Damilakis, John

    2017-12-01

    As medical technology evolves and patient needs increase, the need for well-trained and highly professional medical physicists (MPs) becomes even more urgent. The roles and responsibilities of MPs in various departments within the hospital are diverse and demanding. It is obvious that training, continuing education and professional development of MPs have become essential. One of the ways for an MP to advance his or her knowledge is to participate in conferences and congresses. Last year, the 22nd International Conference of Medical Physics (ICMP 2016) took place in Bangkok, Thailand. The event attracted 584 delegates with most of the participants coming from Asia. It attracted also delegates from 42 countries. The largest delegations were from Thailand, Japan and South Korea. ICMP 2016 included 367 oral presentations and e-posters, most of these being in the fields of Radiation Therapy, Medical Imaging and Radiation Safety. All abstracts were published as an e-book of Abstracts in a supplement to the official IOMP Journal. Many companies had exhibition stands at ICMP2016, thus allowing the participants to see the latest developments in the medical physics-related industry. The conference included 42 mini-symposia, part of the first "IOMP School" activity, covering various topics of importance for the profession and this special issue follows from the success of the conference. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relaxation processes and physical aging in metallic glasses

    Ruta, B.; Pineda, E.; Evenson, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Since their discovery in the 1960s, metallic glasses have continuously attracted much interest across the physics and materials science communities. In the forefront are their unique properties, which hold the alluring promise of broad application in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental science and engineering. However, a major obstacle to their wide-spread commercial use is their inherent temporal instability arising from underlying relaxation processes that can dramatically alter their physical properties. The result is a physical aging process which can bring about degradation of mechanical properties, namely through embrittlement and catastrophic mechanical failure. Understanding and controlling the effects of aging will play a decisive role in our on-going endeavor to advance the use of metallic glasses as structural materials, as well as in the more general comprehension of out-of-equilibrium dynamics in complex systems. This review presents an overview of the current state of the art in the experimental advances probing physical aging and relaxation processes in metallic glasses. Similarities and differences between other hard and soft matter glasses are highlighted. The topic is discussed in a multiscale approach, first presenting the key features obtained in macroscopic studies, then connecting them to recent novel microscopic investigations. Particular emphasis is put on the occurrence of distinct relaxation processes beyond the main structural process in viscous metallic melts and their fate upon entering the glassy state, trying to disentangle results and formalisms employed by the different groups of the glass-science community. A microscopic viewpoint is presented, in which physical aging manifests itself in irreversible atomic-scale processes such as avalanches and intermittent dynamics, ascribed to the existence of a plethora of metastable glassy states across a complex energy landscape. Future experimental challenges and the comparison with

  15. MANAGING TRANSITION PROCESSES OF MANUFACTURING NETWORKS OF GLOBAL OPERATIONS

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2012-01-01

    rather than the pure product. Incidentally, products and services are often inseparable and the sale of a product would lead to a relationship where services could be sold over an extended period of time (Levitt, 1983). Thereby, many manufacturers have sought growth through the increased sale of products......Western companies have now started to compete on the basis of value delivered by shifting their market focus from manufacturing to more product-service oriented systems. This is linked to the view that manufacturing companies are becoming more oriented to the use of the product-service offering......-services offerings. Localizing and globalizing these products-services offerings have inherent complexities which have been under researched. Facing the intense global competition, companies are seeking higher levels of efficiency and effectiveness by configuring their discrete value-added activities on a global...

  16. Brownian Motion as a Limit to Physical Measuring Processes

    Niss, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the history of the idea that noise presents a fundamental limit to physical measuring processes. This idea had its origins in research aimed at improving the accuracy of instruments for electrical measurements. Out of these endeavors, the Swedish physicist Gustaf A. Ising...

  17. Greenhouse climate : from physical processes to a dynamic model

    Bot, G.P.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis greenhouse climate has been studied as the set of environmental conditions in a greenhouse in so far as they affect crop growth and development. In chapter 2 this set has been defined in terms of temperatures and vapour pressures. Moreover we have indicated which physical processes

  18. Multiscale physical processes of fine sediment in an estuary

    Wan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study presented in this book investigates micro- and macro- scale physical processes of a large-scale fine sediment estuarine system with a moderate tidal range as well as a highly seasonal-varying freshwater inflow. Based on a series measured, experimented and modeled results, the research

  19. Physical processes in the Gulf of Kachchh: A review

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.

    A brief review of various physical processes acting in the Gulf of Kachchh (GoK), which have prominent roles in Gulf dynamics, is presented in this article. The eddies present in the GoK confirm that they are permanent features of the Go...

  20. Upper ocean physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean

    Rao, L.V.G.; Ram, P.S.

    This monograph is the outcome of an attempt by the authors to present a synthesis of the studies on physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) in relation to air-sea interaction, monsoon/climate variability and biological productivity...

  1. Three Eras in Global Tobacco Control: How Global Governance Processes Influenced Online Tobacco Control Networking.

    Wipfli, Heather; Chu, Kar-Hai; Lancaster, Molly; Valente, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Online networks can serve as a platform to diffuse policy innovations and enhance global health governance. This study focuses on how shifts in global health governance may influence related online networks. We compare social network metrics (average degree centrality [AVGD], density [D] and clustering coefficient [CC]) of Globalink, an online network of tobacco control advocates, across three eras in global tobacco control governance; pre-Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policy transfer (1992-1998), global regime formation through the FCTC negotiations (1999-2005), and philanthropic funding through the Bloomberg Initiative (2006-2012). Prior to 1999, Globalink was driven by a handful of high-income countries (AVGD=1.908 D=0.030, CC=0.215). The FCTC negotiations (1999-2005) corresponded with a rapid uptick in the number of countries represented within Globalink and new members were most often brought into the network through relationships with regional neighbors (AVGD=2.824, D=0.021, CC=0.253). Between 2006 and 2012, the centrality of the US in the network increases significantly (AVGD=3.414, D=0.023, CC=0.310). The findings suggest that global institutionalization through WHO, as with the FCTC, can lead to the rapid growth of decentralized online networks. Alternatively, private initiatives, such as the Bloomberg Initiative, can lead to clustering in which a single source of information gains increasing influence over an online network.

  2. Stimuli & Task characteristics in the global and local processing

    Caridad Zalabarod

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La primacía de los rasgos globales de una forma visual sobre los locales, o viceversa, es todavía una cuestión sin resolver. Algunos autores han señalado que la precedencia global sucede cuando se iguala la excentricidad de los niveles global y local mediante la utilización de estímulos concéntricos. Sin embargo, otras investigaciones con patrones visuales similares han obtenido precedencia local. El presente trabajo incluye dos experimentos planificados para arrojar luz sobre la interpretación de estos resultados inconsistentes. En conjunto, se pretende analizar si la diferencia en la densidad estimular utilizada en los distintos experimentos o la diferencia en el tipo de tarea pueden ser hipótesis plausibles para explicar la obtención de los resultados contradictorios. En el primer experimento, bajo condiciones de atención selectiva y dividida, se incluye una tarea de detección de una figura-objetivo en el estímulo con un tiempo de exposición de 150 msg. y con estímulos concéntricos con mayor número de elementos locales que los empleados en experimentos previos (Blanca, López, Luna, Zalabardo y Rando, 2000; 2001. Los resultados apuntan a una ausencia de ventaja global o local y a una interferencia bidireccional para la condición de atención selectiva, y bidreccional pero asimétrica para la condición de atención dividida, siendo mayor la interferencia global. En el segundo experimento, se instruye a los sujetos para que indiquen la dirección, izquierda o derecha, de la apertura de un semicírculo en el nivel pertinente, según la condición de dirección de la atención. Los estímulos se presentan con un tiempo de exposición de 150 msg. o ilimitado. Los resultados muestran una ventaja global, tanto bajo condiciones de atención dividida como selectiva, la cual es independiente del tiempo de exposición del estímulo. La comparación de los resultados extraídos de los dos experimentos, junto

  3. Soil Heat Flow. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Simpson, James R.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Soil heat flow and the resulting soil temperature distributions have ecological consequences…

  4. Physical mechanisms of spring and summertime drought related with the global warming over the northern America

    Choi, W.; Kim, K. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Drought during the growing season (spring through summer) is severe natural hazard in the large cropland over the northern America. It is important to understand how the drought is related with the global warming and how it will change in the future. This study aims to investigate the physical mechanism of global warming impact on the spring and summertime drought over the northern America using Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Function (CSEOF) analysis. The Northern Hemisphere surface warming, the most dominant mode of the surface air temperature, has resulted in decreased relative humidity and precipitation over the mid-latitude region of North America. For the viewpoint of atmospheric water demand, soil moisture and evaporation have also decreased significantly, exacerbating vulnerability of drought. These consistent features of changes in water demand and supply related with the global warming can provide a possibility of credible insight for future drought change.

  5. The Processes of Inclusion and Exclusion in Physical Education

    Jensen, Mette Munk; Agergaard, Sine

    2015-01-01

    Existing research on inclusion and exclusion processes in physical education (PE) has particularly focused on exclusion from PE as something being done to students and attributed to specific social categories such as (female) gender, (low) physical skills or (minority) ethnic background....... This article aims to develop a social-relational perspective on inclusion and exclusion processes defined as students’ participation or non-participation in PE interpreted as a community of practice. In so doing, the article examines how students’ experiences of participation and non-participation in PE...... or non-participation is important not only in terms of how we talk about students as passive victims or active agents, but also in terms of future intervention aimed at promoting inclusion processes in PE....

  6. Advanced statistics to improve the physical interpretation of atomization processes

    Panão, Miguel R.O.; Radu, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Finite pdf mixtures improves physical interpretation of sprays. ► Bayesian approach using MCMC algorithm is used to find the best finite mixture. ► Statistical method identifies multiple droplet clusters in a spray. ► Multiple drop clusters eventually associated with multiple atomization mechanisms. ► Spray described by drop size distribution and not only its moments. -- Abstract: This paper reports an analysis of the physics of atomization processes using advanced statistical tools. Namely, finite mixtures of probability density functions, which best fitting is found using a Bayesian approach based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. This approach takes into account eventual multimodality and heterogeneities in drop size distributions. Therefore, it provides information about the complete probability density function of multimodal drop size distributions and allows the identification of subgroups in the heterogeneous data. This allows improving the physical interpretation of atomization processes. Moreover, it also overcomes the limitations induced by analyzing the spray droplets characteristics through moments alone, particularly, the hindering of different natures of droplet formation. Finally, the method is applied to physically interpret a case-study based on multijet atomization processes

  7. Designing quantum information processing via structural physical approximation.

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2017-10-01

    In quantum information processing it may be possible to have efficient computation and secure communication beyond the limitations of classical systems. In a fundamental point of view, however, evolution of quantum systems by the laws of quantum mechanics is more restrictive than classical systems, identified to a specific form of dynamics, that is, unitary transformations and, consequently, positive and completely positive maps to subsystems. This also characterizes classes of disallowed transformations on quantum systems, among which positive but not completely maps are of particular interest as they characterize entangled states, a general resource in quantum information processing. Structural physical approximation offers a systematic way of approximating those non-physical maps, positive but not completely positive maps, with quantum channels. Since it has been proposed as a method of detecting entangled states, it has stimulated fundamental problems on classifications of positive maps and the structure of Hermitian operators and quantum states, as well as on quantum measurement such as quantum design in quantum information theory. It has developed efficient and feasible methods of directly detecting entangled states in practice, for which proof-of-principle experimental demonstrations have also been performed with photonic qubit states. Here, we present a comprehensive review on quantum information processing with structural physical approximations and the related progress. The review mainly focuses on properties of structural physical approximations and their applications toward practical information applications.

  8. Managing two cultural identities: the malleability of bicultural identity integration as a function of induced global or local processing.

    Mok, Aurelia; Morris, Michael W

    2012-02-01

    Increasingly, individuals identify with two or more cultures. Prior research has found the degree to which individuals chronically integrate these identities (bicultural identity integration; BII) moderates responses to cultural cues: High BII individuals assimilate (adopting biases that are congruent with norms of the cued culture), whereas low BII individuals contrast (adopting biases that are incongruent with these norms). The authors propose BII can also be a psychological state and modulated by shifts in processing styles. In four experiments, the authors induced a global or local processing style using physical posture (Experiment 1) and cognitive manipulations (Experiments 2-4) and found that BII is enhanced in contexts facilitating a more global processing style (i.e., smiling, high-level construal, and similarity focus). The authors also found that contrastive responses to cultural cues are diminished when BII is situationally enhanced. Implications for research on processing style, identity integration, and performance in culture-based situations are discussed.

  9. Contextualization processes and the initial education of physics teachers

    Cristina Cândida de Macedo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Contextualization of school contents has been seen as a possibility of facilitating students’ learning, since it makes the educative process more significant to them. However, there is no agreement as to the meaning and the forms of applying such processes. Particularly in the area of Science teaching, the creation of thematic projects has been seen as a way of contextualizing school contents. It is noteworthy that the experience with the education of Physics teachers shows that the creation and execution of such projects brings many difficulties to teachers, the main obstacle being the understanding of what contextualized educative processes are. Having this in mind, a project has been elaborated with the objective of analyzing the comprehension Physics teachers that are going through teacher education courses have of the processes of contextualization. The data for this investigation has been obtained from students who attended a course of the Physics Teacher Education module at the Federal University of Itajubá. It is significant to mention that in this course students are asked to create three versions of a thematic project. In order to analyze the data, the procedure of Thematic Content and Category Analysis was adopted. This research shows that Physics teachers to be incorporate the discourses of the educative ideas throughout the course. However, there is a series of obstacles they face as they attempt to understand and carry out contextualized educative processes. Those difficulties are connected to their experience with this kind of educative process throughout the years they spend at school and in the teacher education course. We conclude thus that it is essential that contextualized educative activities be part of the reality of teacher education programs.

  10. Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes A global perspective

    Liou, K.-N.

    1986-01-01

    Current understanding and knowledge of the composition and structure of cirrus clouds are reviewed and documented in this paper. In addition, the radiative properties of cirrus clouds as they relate to weather and climate processes are described in detail. To place the relevance and importance of cirrus composition, structure and radiative properties into a global perspective, pertinent results derived from simulation experiments utilizing models with varying degrees of complexity are presented; these have been carried out for the investigation of the influence of cirrus clouds on the thermodynamics and dynamics of the atmosphere. In light of these reviews, suggestions are outlined for cirrus-radiation research activities aimed toward the development and improvement of weather and climate models for a physical understanding of cause and effect relationships and for prediction purposes.

  11. Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy

    Johnson, David Kelley

    In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.

  12. Global Consultation Processes: Lessons Learned from Refugee Teacher Consultation Research in Malaysia

    O'Neal, Colleen R.; Gosnell, Nicole M.; Ng, Wai Sheng; Clement, Jennifer; Ong, Edward

    2018-01-01

    The process of global consultation has received little attention despite its potential for promoting international mutual understanding with marginalized communities. This article details theory, entry, implementation, and evaluation processes for global consultation research, including lessons learned from our refugee teacher intervention. The…

  13. Reflections on the Process of Bilingual Education in Latin America: A Perspective from Globalization

    Joya, Magdalena; Cerón, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to explain how education can be understood as a process that involves the transmission of culture, knowledge, manners and values; meanwhile, globalization implies an evolving process of constructing a global system of languages. In this way, the relationship between the educational and economic systems can become stronger…

  14. Acute physical exercise affected processing efficiency in an auditory attention task more than processing effectiveness.

    Dutke, Stephan; Jaitner, Thomas; Berse, Timo; Barenberg, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Research on effects of acute physical exercise on performance in a concurrent cognitive task has generated equivocal evidence. Processing efficiency theory predicts that concurrent physical exercise can increase resource requirements for sustaining cognitive performance even when the level of performance is unaffected. This hypothesis was tested in a dual-task experiment. Sixty young adults worked on a primary auditory attention task and a secondary interval production task while cycling on a bicycle ergometer. Physical load (cycling) and cognitive load of the primary task were manipulated. Neither physical nor cognitive load affected primary task performance, but both factors interacted on secondary task performance. Sustaining primary task performance under increased physical and/or cognitive load increased resource consumption as indicated by decreased secondary task performance. Results demonstrated that physical exercise effects on cognition might be underestimated when only single task performance is the focus.

  15. Levels of processing and picture memory: the physical superiority effect.

    Intraub, H; Nicklos, S

    1985-04-01

    Six experiments studied the effect of physical orienting questions (e.g., "Is this angular?") and semantic orienting questions (e.g., "Is this edible?") on memory for unrelated pictures at stimulus durations ranging from 125-2,000 ms. Results ran contrary to the semantic superiority "rule of thumb," which is based primarily on verbal memory experiments. Physical questions were associated with better free recall and cued recall of a diverse set of visual scenes (Experiments 1, 2, and 4). This occurred both when general and highly specific semantic questions were used (Experiments 1 and 2). Similar results were obtained when more simplistic visual stimuli--photographs of single objects--were used (Experiments 5 and 6). As in the case of the semantic superiority effect with words, the physical superiority effect for pictures was eliminated or reversed when the same physical questions were repeated throughout the session (Experiments 4 and 6). Conflicts with results of previous levels of processing experiments with words and nonverbal stimuli (e.g., faces) are explained in terms of the sensory-semantic model (Nelson, Reed, & McEvoy, 1977). Implications for picture memory research and the levels of processing viewpoint are discussed.

  16. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

    Sullivan Debra K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI. It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control. Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control, which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity.

  17. Geneva University: Experiments in Physics: Hands-on Creative Processes

    Université de Genève

    2011-01-01

    Geneva University Physics Department 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Tel: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92   Lundi 3 octobre 2011, 17h00 Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg «Experiments in Physics : Hands-on Creative Processes» Prof. Manfred Euler Leibniz-Institute for Mathematics and Science Education (IPN) University of Kiel, Deutschland Experiments play a variety of different roles in knowledge generation. The lecture will focus on the function of experiments as engines of intuition that foster insights into complex processes. The experimental presentations consider self-organization phenomena in various domains that range from the nanomechanics of biomolecules to perception and cognition. The inherent universality contributes to elucidating the enigmatic phenomenon of creativity. Une verrée en compagnie du conférencier sera offerte après le colloque.       &...

  18. Integrating Unified Gravity Wave Physics into the NOAA Next Generation Global Prediction System

    Alpert, J. C.; Yudin, V.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Akmaev, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Unified Gravity Wave Physics (UGWP) project for the Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) is a NOAA collaborative effort between the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), Environemntal Modeling Center (EMC) and the University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CU-CIRES) to support upgrades and improvements of GW dynamics (resolved scales) and physics (sub-grid scales) in the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS)†. As envisioned the global climate, weather and space weather models of NEMS will substantially improve their predictions and forecasts with the resolution-sensitive (scale-aware) formulations planned under the UGWP framework for both orographic and non-stationary waves. In particular, the planned improvements for the Global Forecast System (GFS) model of NEMS are: calibration of model physics for higher vertical and horizontal resolution and an extended vertical range of simulations, upgrades to GW schemes, including the turbulent heating and eddy mixing due to wave dissipation and breaking, and representation of the internally-generated QBO. The main priority of the UGWP project is unified parameterization of orographic and non-orographic GW effects including momentum deposition in the middle atmosphere and turbulent heating and eddies due to wave dissipation and breaking. The latter effects are not currently represented in NOAA atmosphere models. The team has tested and evaluated four candidate GW solvers integrating the selected GW schemes into the NGGPS model. Our current work and planned activity is to implement the UGWP schemes in the first available GFS/FV3 (open FV3) configuration including adapted GFDL modification for sub-grid orography in GFS. Initial global model results will be shown for the operational and research GFS configuration for spectral and FV3 dynamical cores. †http://www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/index.php?branch=NEMS

  19. The physical dimension of international trade. Part 1. Direct global flows between 1962 and 2005

    Dittrich, Monika; Bringezu, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The physical dimension of international trade is attaining increased importance. This article describes a method to calculate complete physical trade flows for all countries which report their trade to the UN. The method is based on the UN Comtrade database and it was used to calculate world-wide physical trade flows for all reporting countries in nine selected years between 1962 and 2005. The results show increasing global trade with global direct material trade flows reaching about 10 billion tonnes in 2005, corresponding to a physical trade volume of about 20 billion tonnes (adding both total imports and total exports). The share from European countries is declining, mainly in favour of Asian countries. The dominant traded commodity in physical units was fossil fuels, mainly oil. Physical trade balances were used to identify the dominant resource suppliers and demanders. Australia was the principal resource supplier over the period with a diverse material export structure. It was followed by mainly oil-exporting countries with varying volumes. As regards to regions, Latin America, south-east Asian islands and central Asia were big resource exporters, mostly with increasing absolute amounts of net exports. The largest net importers were Japan, the United States and single European countries. Emerging countries like the 'Asian Tigers' with major industrial productive sectors are growing net importers, some of them to an even higher degree than European countries. Altogether, with the major exception of Australia and Canada, industrialized countries are net importers and developing countries and transition countries are net exporters, but there are important differences within these groups. (author)

  20. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  1. Physical exercise, inflammatory process and adaptive condition: an overview

    Silva, Fernando Oliveira Catanho da; Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise induces inflammation, a physiological response that is part of immune system activity and promotes tissue remodeling after exercise overload. The activation of the inflammatory process is local and systemic and is mediated by different cells and secreted compounds. The objective is to reestablish organ homeostasis after a single bout of exercise or after several exercise sessions. The acute-phase response involves the combined actions of activated leukocytes, cytokines, acut...

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes

    Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

    1995-01-01

    During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

  3. Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.

    Dudziak, Martin Joseph

    Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of non-linear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logico-physical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting non-locality and other non -classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as non-locality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the process-network dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental action-events within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higher-scale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain

  4. Process depending morphology and resulting physical properties of TPU

    Frick, Achim, E-mail: achim.frick@hs-aalen.de; Spadaro, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.spadaro@hs-aalen.de [Institute of Polymer Science and Processing (iPSP), Aalen University (Germany)

    2015-12-17

    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a rubber like material with outstanding properties, e.g. for seal applications. TPU basically provides high strength, low frictional behavior and excellent wear resistance. Though, due to segmented structure of TPU, which is composed of hard segments (HSs) and soft segments (SSs), physical properties depend strongly on the morphological arrangement of the phase separated HSs at a certain ratio of HSs to SSs. It is obvious that the TPU deforms differently depending on its bulk morphology. Basically, the morphology can either consist of HSs segregated into small domains, which are well dispersed in the SS matrix or of few strongly phase separated large size HS domains embedded in the SS matrix. The morphology development is hardly ruled by the melt processing conditions of the TPU. Depending on the morphology, TPU provides quite different physical properties with respect to strength, deformation behavior, thermal stability, creep resistance and tribological performance. The paper deals with the influence of important melt processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure and shear conditions, on the resulting physical properties tested by tensile and relaxation experiments. Furthermore the morphology is studied employing differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), transmission light microscopy (TLM), scanning electron beam microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron beam microscopy (TEM) investigations. Correlations between processing conditions and resulting TPU material properties are elaborated. Flow and shear simulations contribute to the understanding of thermal and flow induced morphology development.

  5. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases.

    Ding, Ding; Lawson, Kenny D; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Finkelstein, Eric A; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; van Mechelen, Willem; Pratt, Michael

    2016-09-24

    The pandemic of physical inactivity is associated with a range of chronic diseases and early deaths. Despite the well documented disease burden, the economic burden of physical inactivity remains unquantified at the global level. A better understanding of the economic burden could help to inform resource prioritisation and motivate efforts to increase levels of physical activity worldwide. Direct health-care costs, productivity losses, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to physical inactivity were estimated with standardised methods and the best data available for 142 countries, representing 93·2% of the world's population. Direct health-care costs and DALYs were estimated for coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, and colon cancer attributable to physical inactivity. Productivity losses were estimated with a friction cost approach for physical inactivity related mortality. Analyses were based on national physical inactivity prevalence from available countries, and adjusted population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity for each disease outcome and all-cause mortality. Conservatively estimated, physical inactivity cost health-care systems international $ (INT$) 53·8 billion worldwide in 2013, of which $31·2 billion was paid by the public sector, $12·9 billion by the private sector, and $9·7 billion by households. In addition, physical inactivity related deaths contribute to $13·7 billion in productivity losses, and physical inactivity was responsible for 13·4 million DALYs worldwide. High-income countries bear a larger proportion of economic burden (80·8% of health-care costs and 60·4% of indirect costs), whereas low-income and middle-income countries have a larger proportion of the disease burden (75·0% of DALYs). Sensitivity analyses based on less conservative assumptions led to much higher estimates. In addition to morbidity and premature mortality, physical inactivity is

  6. Application of structured flowsheets to global evaluation of tank waste processing alternatives

    Jansen, G.; Knutson, B.J.; Niccoli, L.G.; Frank, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation of the Hanford waste tanks requires integration of chemical technologies and evaluation of alternatives from the perspective of the overall Hanford cleanup purpose. The use of Design/IDEF (R) logic to connect chemical process functions to the overall cleanup mission in the Hanford Strategic Analysis (HSA) and to Aspen Plus (R) process models can show the effect of each process step on global performance measures such as safety, cost, and public perception. This hybrid of chemical process analysis and systems engineering produces structured material balance flowsheets at any level of process aggregation within the HSA. Connectivity and consistent process and stream nomenclature are automatically transferred between detailed process models, the HSA top purpose, and the global material balance flowsheet evaluation. Applications to separation processes is demonstrated for a generic Truex-Sludge Wash flowsheet with many process options and for the aggregation of a Clean Option flowsheet from a detailed chemical process level to a global evaluation level

  7. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  8. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  9. Financial security of the state in terms of globalization processes escalation

    Svitlana Tkalenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides review of the globalization and global integration processes impact on the financial sector formation characterized by an increase in financial flows with the lead role played by transnational corporations and transnational banks. The globalization study has been already reflected by numerous scientific publications and various issues of reputable international academic journals describing the process as irreversible and objective along with demonstrating globalization merits and demerits, etc. In the 21st century, globalization is an issue discussed by everyone: ranging from presidents, prime ministers and members of parliament supposed to solve problems of any scale taking into consideration the global development phenomenon, to ordinary citizens. Today, globalization has obviously become a major trend of the modern world development, which is why issues implying sound development assurance become pressing for each country. The article dwells upon the main component of economic security — the financial one (Ukraine case study. Thus, we are engaged in studying the global development trend in terms of assuring security of the state under conditions of financial flows globalization and existence of global integration processes.

  10. Graphene growth process modeling: a physical-statistical approach

    Wu, Jian; Huang, Qiang

    2014-09-01

    As a zero-band semiconductor, graphene is an attractive material for a wide variety of applications such as optoelectronics. Among various techniques developed for graphene synthesis, chemical vapor deposition on copper foils shows high potential for producing few-layer and large-area graphene. Since fabrication of high-quality graphene sheets requires the understanding of growth mechanisms, and methods of characterization and control of grain size of graphene flakes, analytical modeling of graphene growth process is therefore essential for controlled fabrication. The graphene growth process starts with randomly nucleated islands that gradually develop into complex shapes, grow in size, and eventually connect together to cover the copper foil. To model this complex process, we develop a physical-statistical approach under the assumption of self-similarity during graphene growth. The growth kinetics is uncovered by separating island shapes from area growth rate. We propose to characterize the area growth velocity using a confined exponential model, which not only has clear physical explanation, but also fits the real data well. For the shape modeling, we develop a parametric shape model which can be well explained by the angular-dependent growth rate. This work can provide useful information for the control and optimization of graphene growth process on Cu foil.

  11. The Bahasa Melayu version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire: reliability and validity study in Malaysia.

    Soo, K L; Wan Abdul Manan, W M; Wan Suriati, W N

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the reliability and concurrent validity of the Bahasa Melayu version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ-M) by comparing it with the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-S) and objectively measuring physical activity using a Yamax DigiWalker (Yamax, Tokyo, Japan) pedometer. A total of 100 adults aged between 20 and 58 years from Kelantan in Malaysia voluntarily participated in this study. The Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis showed no significant differences in 2-week test-retest scores for total metabolic equivalent∙minutes∙per week and 4 domains of the GPAQ-M. There was a low but significant relationship between time spent on total physical activity measured by the GPAQ-M and average steps per day recorded using the pedometer (r s = .265, P = .013). Significant correlations were also found between GPAQ-M and the IPAQ-S for varying levels of intensity during physical activities (r s = .309-.466, P < .01). © 2012 APJPH.

  12. Global/local processing style: Explaining the relationship between trait anxiety and binge eating.

    Becker, Kendra R; Plessow, Franziska; Coniglio, Kathryn A; Tabri, Nassim; Franko, Debra L; Zayas, Lazaro V; Germine, Laura; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T

    2017-11-01

    Anxiety is a risk factor for disordered eating, but the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes disordered eating are poorly understood. One possibility is local versus global cognitive processing style, defined as a relative tendency to attend to details at the expense of the "big picture." Anxiety may narrow attention, in turn, enhancing local and/or compromising global processing. We examined relationships between global/local processing style, anxiety, and disordered eating behaviors in a transdiagnostic outpatient clinical sample. We hypothesized that local (vs. global) processing bias would mediate the relationship between anxiety and disordered eating behaviors. Ninety-three participants completed the eating disorder examination-questionnaire (EDE-Q), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-trait subscale, and the Navon task (a test of processing style in which large letters are composed of smaller letters both congruent and incongruent with the large letter). The sample was predominantly female (95%) with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 12.1 years). Binge eating, but not fasting, purging, or excessive exercise, was correlated with lower levels of global processing style. There was a significant indirect effect between anxiety and binge eating via reduced global level global/local processing. In individuals with disordered eating, being more generally anxious may encourage a detailed-oriented bias, preventing individuals from maintaining the bigger picture and making them more likely to engage in maladaptive behaviors (e.g., binge eating). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Global/local processing style: Explaining the relationship between trait anxiety and binge eating

    Becker, Kendra R.; Plessow, Franziska; Coniglio, Kathryn A.; Tabri, Nassim; Franko, Debra L; Zayas, Lazaro V.; Germine, Laura; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Eddy, Kamryn T.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Anxiety is a risk factor for disordered eating, but the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes disordered eating are poorly understood. One possibility is local versus global cognitive processing style, defined as a relative tendency to attend to details at the expense of the “big picture.” Anxiety may narrow attention, in turn, enhancing local and/or compromising global processing. We examined relationships between global/local processing style, anxiety, and disordered eating behaviors in a transdiagnostic outpatient clinical sample. We hypothesized that local (vs. global) processing bias would mediate the relationship between anxiety and disordered eating behaviors. Method Ninety-three participants completed the eating disorder examination—questionnaire (EDE-Q), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)—trait subscale, and the Navon task (a test of processing style in which large letters are composed of smaller letters both congruent and incongruent with the large letter). The sample was predominantly female (95%) with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 12.1 years). Results Binge eating, but not fasting, purging, or excessive exercise, was correlated with lower levels of global processing style. There was a significant indirect effect between anxiety and binge eating via reduced global level global/local processing. Discussion In individuals with disordered eating, being more generally anxious may encourage a detailed-oriented bias, preventing individuals from maintaining the bigger picture and making them more likely to engage in maladaptive behaviors (e.g., binge eating). PMID:28963792

  14. Development of international labor migration in the dynamics of globalization processes

    Rubinskaya Eteri, D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current characteristics of international migration caused by the qualitative changes that occur in the global economy under influence of increasing globalization. The paper attempts to suggest periodization of the global economy development and to identify features of international labor migration occurred under the influence of deep changes in the world economy. During this period, the author identifies three stages in the formation of globalization, the transition criterion from one to other is the degree of world economy changes under the influence of the productive forces development and the major social and political transformations resulted in qualitative changes in the processes of international labor migration. At the same time in the context of globalization the place and role of international labor migration changes in the global economy system: migration becomes a means of promoting the globalization of countries and regions, the most important factor of demographic development and economic growth.

  15. Image processing applications: From particle physics to society

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Citraro, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Luciano, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Giannetti, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present an embedded system for extremely efficient real-time pattern recognition execution, enabling technological advancements with both scientific and social impact. It is a compact, fast, low consumption processing unit (PU) based on a combination of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and the full custom associative memory chip. The PU has been developed for real time tracking in particle physics experiments, but delivers flexible features for potential application in a wide range of fields. It has been proposed to be used in accelerated pattern matching execution for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (biomedical applications), in real time detection of space debris trails in astronomical images (space applications) and in brain emulation for image processing (cognitive image processing). We illustrate the potentiality of the PU for the new applications.

  16. Health physics aspects of processing EBR-I coolant

    Burke, L.L.; Thalgott, J.O.; Poston, J.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium-potassium reactor coolant removed from the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One after a partial reactor core meltdown had been stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for 40 years. The State of Idaho considered this waste the most hazardous waste stored in the state and required its processing. The reactor coolant was processed in three phases. The first phase converted the alkali metal into a liquid sodium-potassium hydroxide. The second phase converted this caustic to a liquid sodium-potassium carbonate. The third phase solidified the sodium-potassium carbonate into a form acceptable for land disposal. Health physics aspects and dose received during each phase of the processing are discussed

  17. Detectors and signal processing for high-energy physics

    Rehak, P.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles of the particle detection and signal processing for high-energy physics experiments are presented. It is shown that the optimum performance of a properly designed detector system is not limited by incidental imperfections, but solely by more fundamental limitations imposed by the quantum nature and statistical behavior of matter. The noise sources connected with the detection and signal processing are studied. The concepts of optimal filtering and optimal detector/amplifying device matching are introduced. Signal processing for a liquid argon calorimeter is analyzed in some detail. The position detection in gas counters is studied. Resolution in drift chambers for the drift coordinate measurement as well as the second coordinate measurement is discussed

  18. Physics Colloquium: The optical route to quantum information processing

    Université de Genève

    2011-01-01

    Geneva University Physics Department 24, Quai Ernest Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Monday 11 April 2011 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg The optical route to quantum information processing Prof. Terry Rudolph/Imperial College, London Photons are attractive as carriers of quantum information both because they travel, and can thus transmit information, but also because of their good coherence properties and ease in undergoing single-qubit manipulations. The main obstacle to their use in information processing is inducing an effective interaction between them in order to produce entanglement. The most promising approach in photon-based information processing architectures is so-called measurement-based quantum computing. This relies on creating upfront a multi-qubit highly entangled state (the cluster state) which has the remarkable property that, once prepared, it can be used to perform quantum computation by making only single qubit measurements. In this talk I will discuss generically the...

  19. Holistic simulation of geotechnical installation processes numerical and physical modelling

    2015-01-01

    The book provides suitable methods for the simulations of boundary value problems of geotechnical installation processes with reliable prediction for the deformation behavior of structures in static or dynamic interaction with the soil. It summarizes the basic research of a research group from scientists dealing with constitutive relations of soils and their implementations as well as contact element formulations in FE-codes. Numerical and physical experiments are presented providing benchmarks for future developments in this field. Boundary value problems have been formulated and solved with the developed tools in order to show the effectivity of the methods. Parametric studies of geotechnical installation processes in order to identify the governing parameters for the optimization of the process are given in such a way that the findings can be recommended to practice for further use. For many design engineers in practice the assessment of the serviceability of nearby structures due to geotechnical installat...

  20. Physical Properties for Lipids Based Process and Product Design

    Ana Perederic, Olivia; Kalakul, Sawitree; Sarup, Bent

    Lipid processing covers several oil and fats technologies such as: edible oil production, biodieselproduction, oleochemicals (e.g.: food additives, detergents) and pharmaceutical product manufacturing. New demands regarding design and development of better products and more sustainable processes...... related to lipids technology, emerge according to consumers demanding improved product manufacturing from sustainable resources and new legislation regarding environmental safety [1]. Physical and thermodynamic property data and models for prediction of pure compound properties and mixtures properties...... involving lipids represent the basic and most important requirements for process product design, simulation and optimization. Experimentally measured values of involved compounds are desirable, but in most of the cases these are not available for all the compounds and properties needed. The lack...

  1. Spin physics and inclusive processes at short distances

    Craigie, N.S.

    1982-10-01

    The following aspects of spin physics at short distances are studied: 1. the factorization theorem in perturbative QCD and helicity asymmetries in inclusive processes, 2. the effect of higher order radiative corrections on helicity asymmetries, 3. the higher order power mechanism and spin asymmetries, 4. difficulties in understanding transverse spin in perturbative QCD, 5. helicity asymmetries of short distances as a means of recognizing supersymmetric interactions. Experiments are suggested for the verification of theoretical conclusions. Although spin-physics at short distances is difficult to demonstrate experimentally it may provide a valuable tool to show how perturbative QCD operates in the presence of the non-perturbative hadronic structure. It may also prove valuable to show new interactions which might occur at very short distances

  2. Determining the thermal and physicals properties of oil processing products

    Viktoria I. Kryvda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades both technological process’ improvement and primary energy resources saving are the main tasks of oil refineries. Using various oil products does impose an accurate knowledge of their properties. The dispersion analysis applied makes possible to construct a model simulating the primary oil refining products’ and raw materials’ thermal physical properties. As a result of data approximation there were obtained polynomials with coefficients differing from attributable to the studied oil products fractions. The research represents graphic dependences of thermal physical properties on temperature values for diesel oil fraction. The linear character of density and calorific capacity dependencies from temperature is represented with a proportional error in calculations. The relative minimum error is below 2% that confirms the implemented calculations’ adequacy. The resulting model can be used in calculations for further technological process improvements.

  3. Mission Concept to Connect Magnetospheric Physical Processes to Ionospheric Phenomena

    Dors, E. E.; MacDonald, E.; Kepko, L.; Borovsky, J.; Reeves, G. D.; Delzanno, G. L.; Thomsen, M. F.; Sanchez, E. R.; Henderson, M. G.; Nguyen, D. C.; Vaith, H.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Spanswick, E.; Marshall, R. A.; Donovan, E.; Neilson, J.; Carlsten, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    On the Earth's nightside the magnetic connections between the ionosphere and the dynamic magnetosphere have a great deal of uncertainty: this uncertainty prevents us from scientifically understanding what physical processes in the magnetosphere are driving the various phenomena in the ionosphere. Since the 1990s, the space plasma physics group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working on a concept to connect magnetospheric physical processes to auroral phenomena in the ionosphere by firing an electron beam from a magnetospheric spacecraft and optically imaging the beam spot in the ionosphere. The magnetospheric spacecraft will carry a steerable electron accelerator, a power-storage system, a plasma contactor, and instruments to measure magnetic and electric fields, plasma, and energetic particles. The spacecraft orbit will be coordinated with a ground-based network of cameras to (a) locate the electron beam spot in the upper atmosphere and (b) monitor the aurora. An overview of the mission concept will be presented, including recent enabling advancements based on (1) a new understanding of the dynamic spacecraft charging of the accelerator and plasma-contactor system in the tenuous magnetosphere based on ion emission rather than electron collection, (2) a new understanding of the propagation properties of pulsed MeV-class beams in the magnetosphere, and (3) the design of a compact high-power 1-MeV electron accelerator and power-storage system. This strategy to (a) determine the magnetosphere-to-ionosphere connections and (b) reduce accelerator- platform charging responds to one of the six emerging-technology needs called out in the most-recent National Academies Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics. [LA-UR-17-23614

  4. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  5. The global topography of Bennu: altimetry, photoclinometry, and processing

    Perry, M. E.; Barnouin, O. S.; Daly, M. G.; Seabrook, J.; Palmer, E. E.; Gaskell, R. W.; Craft, K. L.; Roberts, J. H.; Philpott, L.; Asad, M. Al; Johnson, C. L.; Nair, A. H.; Espiritu, R. C.; Nolan, M. C.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2017-09-01

    The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission will spend two years observing (101955) Bennu and will then return pristine samples of carbonaceous material from the asteroid [1]. Launched in September 2016, OSIRISREx arrives at Bennu in August 2018, acquires a sample in July 2020, and returns the sample to Earth in September 2023. The instruments onboard OSIRIS-REx will measure the physical and chemical properties of this B-class asteroid, a subclass within the larger group of C-complex asteroids that might be organic-rich. At approximately 500m in average diameter [2], Bennu is sufficiently large to retain substantial regolith and as an Apollo asteroid with a low inclination (6°), it is one of the most accessible primitive near-Earth asteroid.

  6. System for measurements and data processing in neutron physics researches

    Kadashevich, V.I.; Kondurov, I.A.; Nikolaev, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.F.

    1976-01-01

    A system of measuring and computing means created for automation of studies in the field of the neutron physics is discussed. Within the framework of this system each experiment is provided with its individual measuring station which consists of a set of analog and digital modules implemented in accordance with the CAMAC standard. On the higher level of this system there are measuring-computing centres (MCC) which simultaneously serve a number of physical installations. These MCCs are based on ''Minsk-22'' computers whose computational facilities are used for the preliminary processing and for creation of temporary data archives. In its turn, all the MCCs are users of the time-sharing system on the basis of the ''Minsk-32'' computers. This system extends possibilities for user's fast data processing, archive creation and provides transfer of required information to the main computing system based on the BESM-6 computer. Transfer of information and preliminary processing are performed by remote terminals with the help of a special directive language

  7. How Does Software Process Improvement Address Global Software Engineering?

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Diebold, Philipp; Münch, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    For decades, Software Process Improvement (SPI) programs have been implemented, inter alia, to improve quality and speed of software development. To set up, guide, and carry out SPI projects, and to measure SPI state, impact, and success, a multitude of different SPI approaches and considerable...

  8. Our Journal Unites Us: Global Responsibilities and Possibilities for Pediatric Physical Therapy.

    Van Sant, Ann F

    2018-04-01

    This article was designed to describe personal and social responsibilities for strengthening the science of pediatric physical therapy and effective international research collaboration and communication. Common flaws in research design and analysis are reviewed with recommendations for developing research students' design and analytical skills. Our social responsibility to be informed by global knowledge is highlighted. Barriers to scientific collaboration and communication including international disparities in scientific development and language barriers are presented. Suggestions to reduce these barriers are outlined. The importance of free access to scientific literature in developing countries is reviewed. The journal should assume a leadership role in building a strong science of pediatric physical therapy through encouraging personal and social responsibility in research and serving as a model of international collaboration and communication. Treatment for children with movement disorders will be improved by stronger science, international collaboration, and communication.

  9. The Role of Musical Experience in Hemispheric Lateralization of Global and Local Auditory Processing.

    Black, Emily; Stevenson, Jennifer L; Bish, Joel P

    2017-08-01

    The global precedence effect is a phenomenon in which global aspects of visual and auditory stimuli are processed before local aspects. Individuals with musical experience perform better on all aspects of auditory tasks compared with individuals with less musical experience. The hemispheric lateralization of this auditory processing is less well-defined. The present study aimed to replicate the global precedence effect with auditory stimuli and to explore the lateralization of global and local auditory processing in individuals with differing levels of musical experience. A total of 38 college students completed an auditory-directed attention task while electroencephalography was recorded. Individuals with low musical experience responded significantly faster and more accurately in global trials than in local trials regardless of condition, and significantly faster and more accurately when pitches traveled in the same direction (compatible condition) than when pitches traveled in two different directions (incompatible condition) consistent with a global precedence effect. In contrast, individuals with high musical experience showed less of a global precedence effect with regards to accuracy, but not in terms of reaction time, suggesting an increased ability to overcome global bias. Further, a difference in P300 latency between hemispheres was observed. These findings provide a preliminary neurological framework for auditory processing of individuals with differing degrees of musical experience.

  10. Communication Policies Reflection on Globalization Process and the Role of Advertisement in Integrated Communication Environment

    ÖZKAN, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Globalization process has created important changes and transformations across the world. These political, social, economic and cultural changes have considerably affected communication. The number of mass media instruments have increased, informatics has improved and also reaching information has become easier after the globalization of communication. New communication instruments and environments have been created. Globalised communication has also affected people, reaching the information ...

  11. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global market. This study assesses

  12. Everyday discrimination and physical health: Exploring mental health processes.

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Santilli, Alycia; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-10-01

    Goals of this study were to examine the mental health processes whereby everyday discrimination is associated with physical health outcomes. Data are drawn from a community health survey conducted with 1299 US adults in a low-resource urban area. Frequency of everyday discrimination was associated with overall self-rated health, use of the emergency department, and one or more chronic diseases via stress and depressive symptoms operating in serial mediation. Associations were consistent across members of different racial/ethnic groups and were observed even after controlling for indicators of stressors associated with structural discrimination, including perceived neighborhood unsafety, food insecurity, and financial stress. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. A Global Vision over Benchmarking Process: Benchmarking Based Enterprises

    Sitnikov, Catalina; Giurca Vasilescu, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Benchmarking uses the knowledge and the experience of others to improve the enterprise. Starting from the analysis of the performance and underlying the strengths and weaknesses of the enterprise it should be assessed what must be done in order to improve its activity. Using benchmarking techniques, an enterprise looks at how processes in the value chain are performed. The approach based on the vision “from the whole towards the parts” (a fragmented image of the enterprise’s value chain) redu...

  14. The global survey of physicists: A collaborative effort illuminates the situation of women in physics

    Ivie, Rachel; Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Czujko, Roman; Chu, Raymond

    2013-03-01

    The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with approximately 15,000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

  15. C-GLORSv5: an improved multipurpose global ocean eddy-permitting physical reanalysis

    A. Storto; S. Masina

    2016-01-01

    Global ocean reanalyses combine in situ and satellite ocean observations with a general circulation ocean model to estimate the time-evolving state of the ocean, and they represent a valuable tool for a variety of applications, ranging from climate monitoring and process studies to downstream applications, initialization of long-range forecasts and regional studies. The purpose of this paper is to document the recent upgrade of C-GLORS (version 5), the latest ocean reanalysi...

  16. The r-process nucleosynthesis: Nuclear physics challenges

    Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-10-20

    About half of the nuclei heavier than iron observed in nature are produced by the socalled rapid neutron capture process, or r-process, of nucleosynthesis. The identification of the astrophysics site and the specific conditions in which the r-process takes place remains, however, one of the still-unsolved mysteries of modern astrophysics. Another underlying difficulty associated with our understanding of the r-process concerns the uncertainties in the predictions of nuclear properties for the few thousands exotic neutron-rich nuclei involved and for which essentially no experimental data exist. The present contribution emphasizes some important future challenges faced by nuclear physics in this problem, particularly in the determination of the nuclear structure properties of exotic neutron-rich nuclei as well as their radiative neutron capture rates and their fission probabilities. These quantities are particularly relevant to determine the composition of the matter resulting from the r-process. Their impact on the r-abundance distribution resulting from the decompression of neutron star matter is discussed.

  17. A STUDY OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS PROCESSES AT MIDDLE SCHOOL

    Mykola I. Sadovyi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the problem of new technology usage for the physics’ experiment in the quantum physics modeling. Currency of investigation consists in the need of physics experiment organization and realization in high energy physics with the consistent usage of activity method in middle education institutions. This kind of method considerably stirs up the process of model usage and modeling, abstracting, idealization and analogy. Idealized objects’ creation, elementary part transmutation, in particular, that does not exist in the objective reality, but possesses definite prototypes in the real world that help in their first approximation to the truth. The program Macromedia Flesh has been used in the article. This program has a range of advantages comparing to other possible software according to their possibilities and usage simplicity. The program uses all kinds of computer graph (raster, vectorial, which gives great opportunities for graphic objects’ creation, and prepared files take minimum of the constant memory. A part of developed experiments of the modeling character is given in the article. Demonstrations are done in dynamic rate.

  18. Influence of wheat kernel physical properties on the pulverizing process.

    Dziki, Dariusz; Cacak-Pietrzak, Grażyna; Miś, Antoni; Jończyk, Krzysztof; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-10-01

    The physical properties of wheat kernel were determined and related to pulverizing performance by correlation analysis. Nineteen samples of wheat cultivars about similar level of protein content (11.2-12.8 % w.b.) and obtained from organic farming system were used for analysis. The kernel (moisture content 10 % w.b.) was pulverized by using the laboratory hammer mill equipped with round holes 1.0 mm screen. The specific grinding energy ranged from 120 kJkg(-1) to 159 kJkg(-1). On the basis of data obtained many of significant correlations (p kernel physical properties and pulverizing process of wheat kernel, especially wheat kernel hardness index (obtained on the basis of Single Kernel Characterization System) and vitreousness significantly and positively correlated with the grinding energy indices and the mass fraction of coarse particles (> 0.5 mm). Among the kernel mechanical properties determined on the basis of uniaxial compression test only the rapture force was correlated with the impact grinding results. The results showed also positive and significant relationships between kernel ash content and grinding energy requirements. On the basis of wheat physical properties the multiple linear regression was proposed for predicting the average particle size of pulverized kernel.

  19. Matérn-based nonstationary cross-covariance models for global processes

    Jun, Mikyoung

    2014-01-01

    -covariance models, based on the Matérn covariance model class, that are suitable for describing prominent nonstationary characteristics of the global processes. In particular, we seek nonstationary versions of Matérn covariance models whose smoothness parameters

  20. Global land-atmosphere coupling associated with cold climate processes

    Dutra, Emanuel, 1983-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Ciências Geofísicas e da Geoinformação (Meteorologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 This dissertation constitutes an assessment of the role of cold processes, associated with snow cover, in controlling the land-atmosphere coupling. The work was based on model simulations, including offline simulations with the land surface model HTESSEL, and coupled atmosphere simulations with the EC-EARTH climate model. A revised snow scheme was developed and t...

  1. Monitoring of global geodynamic processes using satellite observations

    S.K. Tatevian

    2014-06-01

    One of the active tectonic zones of Egypt located in Aswan, is characterized by regional basement rock uplift and regional faulting. In 1997, the African Regional Geodynamic Network was developed around the northern part of Lake Nasser, consists of 11 points, on both sides of the Lake. Its main goal is to study the geodynamical behavior around the northern part of the lake. The collected data were processed using the Bernese software version 5.0. From the velocity results, including also the African plate motion, it can be noticed that all stations of this network are moved to the northeast direction and it is typically the direction of the African plate motion.

  2. Framework for understanding LENR processes, using conventional condensed matter physics

    Chubb, Scott R.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C and C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that, implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without. the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C and C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent. processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nano-scale crystals. In the case of PdD x , these fluctuations begin to occur as x → 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdD x the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. (authors)

  3. Framework for understanding LENR processes, using conventional condensed matter physics

    Chubb, Scott R. [Research Systems Inc., 9822 Pebble Weigh Ct., Burke VA 22015-3378 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C and C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that, implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without. the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C and C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent. processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nano-scale crystals. In the case of PdD{sub x}, these fluctuations begin to occur as x {yields} 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdD{sub x} the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. (authors)

  4. Consistency check of photon beam physical data after recommissioning process

    Kadman, B; Chawapun, N; Ua-apisitwong, S; Asakit, T; Chumpu, N; Rueansri, J

    2016-01-01

    In radiotherapy, medical linear accelerator (Linac) is the key system used for radiation treatments delivery. Although, recommissioning was recommended after major modification of the machine by AAPM TG53, but it might not be practical in radiotherapy center with heavy workloads. The main purpose of this study was to compare photon beam physical data between initial commissioning and recommissioning of 6 MV Elekta Precise linac. The parameters for comparing were the percentage depth dose (PDD) and beam profiles. The clinical commissioning test cases followed IAEA-TECDOC-1583 were planned on REF 91230 IMRT Dose Verification Phantom by Philips’ Pinnacle treatment planning system. The Delta 4PT was used for dose distribution verification with 90% passing criteria of the gamma index (3%/3mm). Our results revealed that the PDDs and beam profiles agreed within a tolerance limit recommended by TRS430. Most of the point doses and dose distribution verification passed the acceptance criteria. This study showed the consistency of photon beam physical data after recommissioning process. There was a good agreement between initial commissioning and recommissioning within a tolerance limit, demonstrated that the full recommissioning process might not be required. However, in the complex treatment planning geometry, the initial data should be applied with great caution. (paper)

  5. 3D physical modeling for patterning process development

    Sarma, Chandra; Abdo, Amr; Bailey, Todd; Conley, Will; Dunn, Derren; Marokkey, Sajan; Talbi, Mohamed

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we will demonstrate how a 3D physical patterning model can act as a forensic tool for OPC and ground-rule development. We discuss examples where the 2D modeling shows no issues in printing gate lines but 3D modeling shows severe resist loss in the middle. In absence of corrective measure, there is a high likelihood of line discontinuity post etch. Such early insight into process limitations of prospective ground rules can be invaluable for early technology development. We will also demonstrate how the root cause of broken poly-line after etch could be traced to resist necking in the region of STI step with the help of 3D models. We discuss different cases of metal and contact layouts where 3D modeling gives an early insight in to technology limitations. In addition such a 3D physical model could be used for early resist evaluation and selection for required ground-rule challenges, which can substantially reduce the cycle time for process development.

  6. Workshop on Processing Physic-Chemistry Advanced – WPPCA

    2016-01-01

    In the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the “2nd Workshop on Processing Physic-Chemistry advanced (WPPCA)”, that was held from, April 4-8, 2016, at the Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), Bucaramanga, Colombia. The proceedings consist of 17 contributions that were presented as plenary talks at the event. The abstracts of all participants contributions were published in the Abstract Book with ISSN 2500-8420. The scientific program of the 2nd WPPCA consisted of 12 Magisterial Conferences, 28 Poster Presentations and 2 Courses with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Spain, Unite States of America, Mexico and Chile. Moreover, the 2nd WPPCA allowed to establish a shared culture of the research and innovation that enriches the area of the processing physical-chemistry of the materials and the industrial applications. All papers in these Proceedings refer to one from the following topics: Semiconductors, Superconductivity, Nanostructure Materials and Modelling, Simulation and Diagnostics. The editor hopes that those interested in the area of the science of materials can to enjoy this reading, that reflects a wide variety of current issues. On behalf of the organizing committee of the 2nd WPPCA, we are extremely thankful to all authors for providing their valuable contributions for these Proceedings as well as the reviewers for their constructive recommendations and criticism aiding to improve the presented articles. Besides, especially we appreciate the great support provided by the Sponsors and Partners. (paper)

  7. Analysing the Outbound logistics process enhancements in Nokia-Siemens Networks Global Distribution Center

    Marjeta, Katri

    2011-01-01

    Marjeta, Katri. 2011. Analysing the outbound logistics process enhancements in Nokia-Siemens Networks Global Distribution Center. Master´s thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 57. Due to confidentiality issues, this work has been modified from its original form. The aim of this Master Thesis work is to describe and analyze the outbound logistics process enhancement projects executed in Nokia-Siemens Networks Global Distribution Center after the N...

  8. Caffeine promotes global spatial processing in habitual and non-habitual caffeine consumers

    Grace E. Giles; Caroline R. Mahoney; Tad T. Brunye; Holly A. Taylor; Robin B. Kanarek

    2013-01-01

    Information processing is generally biased toward global cues, often at the expense of local information. Equivocal extant data suggests that arousal states may accentuate either a local or global processing bias, at least partially dependent on the nature of the manipulation, task, and stimuli. To further differentiate the conditions responsible for such equivocal results we varied caffeine doses to alter physiological arousal states and measured their effect on tasks requiring the retrieval...

  9. Physics students' approaches to learning and cognitive processes in solving physics problems

    Bouchard, Josee

    This study examined traditional instruction and problem-based learning (PBL) approaches to teaching and the extent to which they foster the development of desirable cognitive processes, including metacognition, critical thinking, physical intuition, and problem solving among undergraduate physics students. The study also examined students' approaches to learning and their perceived role as physics students. The research took place in the context of advanced courses of electromagnetism at a Canadian research university. The cognitive science, expertise, physics and science education, instructional psychology, and discourse processes literature provided the framework and background to conceptualize and structure this study. A within-stage mixed-model design was used and a number of instruments, including a survey, observation grids, and problem sets were developed specifically for this study. A special one-week long problem-based learning (PBL) intervention was also designed. Interviews with the instructors participating in the study provided complementary data. Findings include evidence that students in general engage in metacognitive processes in the organization of their personal study time. However, this potential, including the development of other cognitive processes, might not be stimulated as much as it could in the traditional lecture instructional context. The PBL approach was deemed as more empowering for the students. An unexpected finding came from the realisation that a simple exposure to a structured exercise of problem-solving (pre-test) was sufficient to produce superior planning and solving strategies on a second exposure (post-test) even for the students who had not been exposed to any special treatment. Maturation was ruled out as a potential threat to the validity of this finding. Another promising finding appears to be that the problem-based learning (PBL) intervention tends to foster the development of cognitive competencies, particularly

  10. Dynamic global model of oxide Czochralski process with weighing control

    Mamedov, V. M.; Vasiliev, M. G.; Yuferev, V. S.

    2011-03-01

    A dynamic model of oxide Czochralski growth with weighing control has been developed for the first time. A time-dependent approach is used for the calculation of temperature fields in different parts of a crystallization set-up and convection patterns in a melt, while internal radiation in crystal is considered in a quasi-steady approximation. A special algorithm is developed for the calculation of displacement of a triple point and simulation of a crystal surface formation. To calculate variations in the heat generation, a model of weighing control with a commonly used PID regulator is applied. As an example, simulation of the growth process of gallium-gadolinium garnet (GGG) crystals starting from the stage of seeding is performed.

  11. Global land-atmosphere coupling associated with cold climate processes

    Dutra, Emanuel

    This dissertation constitutes an assessment of the role of cold processes, associated with snow cover, in controlling the land-atmosphere coupling. The work was based on model simulations, including offline simulations with the land surface model HTESSEL, and coupled atmosphere simulations with the EC-EARTH climate model. A revised snow scheme was developed and tested in HTESSEL and EC-EARTH. The snow scheme is currently operational at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts integrated forecast system, and in the default configuration of EC-EARTH. The improved representation of the snowpack dynamics in HTESSEL resulted in improvements in the near surface temperature simulations of EC-EARTH. The new snow scheme development was complemented with the option of multi-layer version that showed its potential in modeling thick snowpacks. A key process was the snow thermal insulation that led to significant improvements of the surface water and energy balance components. Similar findings were observed when coupling the snow scheme to lake ice, where lake ice duration was significantly improved. An assessment on the snow cover sensitivity to horizontal resolution, parameterizations and atmospheric forcing within HTESSEL highlighted the role of the atmospheric forcing accuracy and snowpack parameterizations in detriment of horizontal resolution over flat regions. A set of experiments with and without free snow evolution was carried out with EC-EARTH to assess the impact of the interannual variability of snow cover on near surface and soil temperatures. It was found that snow cover interannual variability explained up to 60% of the total interannual variability of near surface temperature over snow covered regions. Although these findings are model dependent, the results showed consistency with previously published work. Furthermore, the detailed validation of the snow dynamics simulations in HTESSEL and EC-EARTH guarantees consistency of the results.

  12. Attentional selection of relative SF mediates global versus local processing: evidence from EEG.

    Flevaris, Anastasia V; Bentin, Shlomo; Robertson, Lynn C

    2011-06-13

    Previous research on functional hemispheric differences in visual processing has associated global perception with low spatial frequency (LSF) processing biases of the right hemisphere (RH) and local perception with high spatial frequency (HSF) processing biases of the left hemisphere (LH). The Double Filtering by Frequency (DFF) theory expanded this hypothesis by proposing that visual attention selects and is directed to relatively LSFs by the RH and relatively HSFs by the LH, suggesting a direct causal relationship between SF selection and global versus local perception. We tested this idea in the current experiment by comparing activity in the EEG recorded at posterior right and posterior left hemisphere sites while participants' attention was directed to global or local levels of processing after selection of relatively LSFs versus HSFs in a previous stimulus. Hemispheric asymmetry in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) during preparation for global versus local processing was modulated by the selected SF. In contrast, preparatory activity associated with selection of SF was not modulated by the previously attended level (global/local). These results support the DFF theory that top-down attentional selection of SF mediates global and local processing.

  13. Global energetics and local physics as drivers of past, present and future monsoons

    Biasutti, Michela; Voigt, Aiko; Boos, William R.; Braconnot, Pascale; Hargreaves, Julia C.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Kang, Sarah M.; Mapes, Brian E.; Scheff, Jacob; Schumacher, Courtney; Sobel, Adam H.; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2018-06-01

    Global constraints on momentum and energy govern the variability of the rainfall belt in the intertropical convergence zone and the structure of the zonal mean tropical circulation. The continental-scale monsoon systems are also facets of a momentum- and energy-constrained global circulation, but their modern and palaeo variability deviates substantially from that of the intertropical convergence zone. The mechanisms underlying deviations from expectations based on the longitudinal mean budgets are neither fully understood nor simulated accurately. We argue that a framework grounded in global constraints on energy and momentum yet encompassing the complexities of monsoon dynamics is needed to identify the causes of the mismatch between theory, models and observations, and ultimately to improve regional climate projections. In a first step towards this goal, disparate regional processes must be distilled into gross measures of energy flow in and out of continents and between the surface and the tropopause, so that monsoon dynamics may be coherently diagnosed across modern and palaeo observations and across idealized and comprehensive simulations. Accounting for zonal asymmetries in the circulation, land/ocean differences in surface fluxes, and the character of convective systems, such a monsoon framework would integrate our understanding at all relevant scales: from the fine details of how moisture and energy are lifted in the updrafts of thunderclouds, up to the global circulations.

  14. CLARA: A Contemporary Approach to Physics Data Processing

    V Gyurjyan, D Abbott, J Carbonneau, G Gilfoyle, D Heddle, G Heyes, S Paul, C Timmer, D Weygand, E Wolin

    2011-12-01

    In traditional physics data processing (PDP) systems, data location is static and is accessed by analysis applications. In comparison, CLARA (CLAS12 Reconstruction and Analysis framework) is an environment where data processing algorithms filter continuously flowing data. In CLARA's domain of loosely coupled services, data is not stored, but rather flows from one service to another, mutating constantly along the way. Agents, performing event processing, can then subscribe to particular data/events at any stage of the data transformation, and make intricate decisions (e.g. particle ID) by correlating events from multiple, parallel data streams and/or services. This paper presents a PDP application development framework based on service oriented and event driven architectures. This system allows users to design (Java, C++, and Python languages are supported) and deploy data processing services, as well as dynamically compose PDP applications using available services. The PDP service bus provides a layer on top of a distributed pub-sub middleware implementation, which allows complex service composition and integration without writing code. Examples of service creation and deployment, along with the CLAS12 track reconstruction application design will be presented.

  15. Global Production Planning Process considering the Supply Risk of Overseas Manufacturing Sites

    Hosang Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although global manufacturers can produce most of their final products in local plants, they need to source components or parts from desirable overseas manufacturing partners at low cost in order to fulfill customer orders. In this global manufacturing environment, capacity information for planning is usually imprecise owing to the various risks of overseas plants (e.g., foreign governments’ policies and labor stability. It is therefore not easy for decision-makers to generate a global production plan showing the production amounts at local plants and overseas manufacturing facilities operated by manufacturing partners. In this paper, we present a new global production planning process considering the supply risk of overseas manufacturing sites. First, local experts estimate the supply capacity of an overseas plant using their judgment to determine when the risk could occur and how large the risk impact would be. Next, we run a global production planning model with the estimated supply capacities. The proposed process systematically adopts the qualitative judgments of local experts in the global production planning process and thus can provide companies with a realistic global production plan. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed process with a real world case.

  16. Stepping back to see the big picture: when obstacles elicit global processing

    Marguc, J.; Förster, J.; van Kleef, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Can obstacles prompt people to look at the "big picture" and open up their minds? Do the cognitive effects of obstacles extend beyond the tasks with which they interfere? These questions were addressed in 6 studies involving both physical and nonphysical obstacles and different measures of global

  17. Global Matrix 2.0 : Report Card Grades on the Physical Activity of Children and Youth Comparing 38 Countries

    Tremblay, Mark S; Barnes, Joel D; González, Silvia A; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Onywera, Vincent O; Reilly, John J; Tomkinson, Grant R; Takken, T

    2016-01-01

    The Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance organized the concurrent preparation of Report Cards on the physical activity of children and youth in 38 countries from 6 continents (representing 60% of the world's population). Nine common indicators were used (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport

  18. Parameter extraction using global particle swarm optimization approach and the influence of polymer processing temperature on the solar cell parameters

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A.; Dhar, A.

    2017-08-01

    The accurate estimation of the photovoltaic parameters is fundamental to gain an insight of the physical processes occurring inside a photovoltaic device and thereby to optimize its design, fabrication processes, and quality. A simulative approach of accurately determining the device parameters is crucial for cell array and module simulation when applied in practical on-field applications. In this work, we have developed a global particle swarm optimization (GPSO) approach to estimate the different solar cell parameters viz., ideality factor (η), short circuit current (Isc), open circuit voltage (Voc), shunt resistant (Rsh), and series resistance (Rs) with wide a search range of over ±100 % for each model parameter. After validating the accurateness and global search power of the proposed approach with synthetic and noisy data, we applied the technique to the extract the PV parameters of ZnO/PCDTBT based hybrid solar cells (HSCs) prepared under different annealing conditions. Further, we examine the variation of extracted model parameters to unveil the physical processes occurring when different annealing temperatures are employed during the device fabrication and establish the role of improved charge transport in polymer films from independent FET measurements. The evolution of surface morphology, optical absorption, and chemical compositional behaviour of PCDTBT co-polymer films as a function of processing temperature has also been captured in the study and correlated with the findings from the PV parameters extracted using GPSO approach.

  19. Environmental supportiveness for physical activity in English schoolchildren: a study using Global Positioning Systems

    Griffin Simon J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that the environment plays a role in influencing physical activity in children and adults. As children have less autonomy in their behavioural choices, neighbourhood environment supportiveness may be an important determinant of their ability to be active. Yet we know rather little about the types of environment that children use for bouts of physical activity. This study uses accelerometery and global positioning system technologies to identify the charactieristics of environments being used for bouts of continuous moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA in a sample of English schoolchildren. Methods The study used a convenience sample of 100 children from SPEEDY (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people, a cohort of 2064 9–10 year-olds from Norfolk, England, recruited in 2007. Children wore an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer and a Garmin Forerunner 205 GPS unit over four consecutive days. Accelerometery data points were matched to GPS locations and bouts (5 minutes or more of MVPA were identified. Bout locations were overlaid with a detailed landcover dataset developed in a GIS to identify the types of environment supporting MVPA. Findings are presented using descriptive statistics. Results Boys were also more active than girls, spending an average of 20 (SD 23 versus 11 (SD 15 minutes per day in MVPA bouts. Children who spent more time outside the home were more active (p = 0.002, especially girls and children living in rural locations (both p Conclusion The study has developed a new methodology for the identification of environments in which bouts of continuous physical activity are undertaken. The results highlight the importance of the provision of urban gardens and greenspaces, and the maintenance of safe street environments as places for children to be active.

  20. Global gas processing will strengthen to meet expanding markets

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.; Gist, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The worldwide LPG industry continues to expand faster than the petroleum industry -- 4%/year for LPG vs. 2%/year for petroleum in 1995 and less than 1%/year in the early 1990s. This rapid expansion of LPG markets is occurring in virtually every region of the world, including such developing countries as China. The Far East is the focus of much of the LPG industry's attention, but many opportunities exist in other regions such as the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. The investment climate is improving in all phases of downstream LPG marketing, including terminaling, storage, and wholesale and retail distribution. The world LPG supply/demand balance has been relatively tight since the Gulf War and should remain so. Base demand (the portion of demand that is not highly price-sensitive) is expanding more rapidly than supplies. As a result, the proportion of total LPG supplies available for price-sensitive petrochemical feedstock markets is declining, at least in the short term. The paper discusses importers, price patterns, world LPG demand, world LPG supply, US NGL supply, US gas processing, ethane and propane supply, butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline supply, and US NGL demand

  1. Dust: Small-scale processes with global consequences

    Okin, G.S.; Bullard, J.E.; Reynolds, R.L.; Ballantine, J.-A.C.; Schepanski, K.; Todd, M.C.; Belnap, J.; Baddock, M.C.; Gill, T.E.; Miller, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Desert dust, both modern and ancient, is a critical component of the Earth system. Atmospheric dust has important effects on climate by changing the atmospheric radiation budget, while deposited dust influences biogeochemical cycles in the oceans and on land. Dust deposited on snow and ice decreases its albedo, allowing more light to be trapped at the surface, thus increasing the rate of melt and influencing energy budgets and river discharge. In the human realm, dust contributes to the transport of allergens and pathogens and when inhaled can cause or aggravate respiratory diseases. Dust storms also represent a significant hazard to road and air travel. Because it affects so many Earth processes, dust is studied from a variety of perspectives and at multiple scales, with various disciplines examining emissions for different purposes using disparate strategies. Thus, the range of objectives in studying dust, as well as experimental approaches and results, has not yet been systematically integrated. Key research questions surrounding the production and sources of dust could benefit from improved collaboration among different research communities. These questions involve the origins of dust, factors that influence dust production and emission, and methods through which dust can be monitored. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  2. Dust emission: small-scale processes with global consequences

    Okin, Gregory S.; Bullard, Joanna E.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Ballantine, John-Andrew C.; Schepanski, Kerstin; Todd, Martin C.; Belnap, Jayne; Baddock, Matthew C.; Gill, Thomas E.; Miller, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Desert dust, both modern and ancient, is a critical component of the Earth system. Atmospheric dust has important effects on climate by changing the atmospheric radiation budget, while deposited dust influences biogeochemical cycles in the oceans and on land. Dust deposited on snow and ice decreases its albedo, allowing more light to be trapped at the surface, thus increasing the rate of melt and influencing energy budgets and river discharge. In the human realm, dust contributes to the transport of allergens and pathogens and when inhaled can cause or aggravate respiratory diseases. Dust storms also represent a significant hazard to road and air travel. Because it affects so many Earth processes, dust is studied from a variety of perspectives and at multiple scales, with various disciplines examining emissions for different purposes using disparate strategies. Thus, the range of objectives in studying dust, as well as experimental approaches and results, has not yet been systematically integrated. Key research questions surrounding the production and sources of dust could benefit from improved collaboration among different research communities. These questions involve the origins of dust, factors that influence dust production and emission, and methods through which dust can be monitored.

  3. Spiral Structure and Global Star Formation Processes in M 51

    Gruendl, Robert A.

    1994-12-01

    The nearby grand design spiral galaxy, M 51, is an obvious proving ground for studies of spiral structure and large scale star formation processes. New near--infrared observations of M 51 made with COB (Cryogenic Optical Bench) on the Kitt Peak 1.3m allow us to examine the stellar distribution and the young star formation regions as well as probe regions of high extinction such as dust lanes. We also present an analysis of the kinematics of the ionized gas observed with the Maryland--Caltech Imaging Fabry Perot. The color information we derive from the near--infrared bands provides a more accurate tracer of extinction than optical observations. We find that the dust extinction and CO emission in the arms are well correlated. Our kinematic data show unambiguously that these dense gas concentrations are associated with kinematic perturbations. In the inner disk, these perturbations are seen to be consistent with the streaming motions predicted by classical density wave theory. The dust lanes, and presumably the molecular arms, form a narrow ridge that matches these velocity perturbations wherever the viewing angle is appropriate. This interpretation requires that the corotation radius be inward of the outer tidal arms. The outer tidal arms however show streaming velocities of the sign that would be expected interior to the corotation point. This can be reconciled if the outer arms are part of a second spiral pattern, most likely due to the interaction with the companion NGC 5195. The near--infrared observations also show emission from the massive star forming regions. These observations are less affected by extinction than optical observations of H II regions and show clearly that the sites of massive star formation are correlated with but downstream from the concentrations of dense molecular material. This provides clear evidence that the ISM has been organized by the streaming motions which have in turn triggered massive star formation.

  4. Global Account of Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity Among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Narrative Review of the Literature.

    Adeniyi, Ade F; Anjana, Ranjit M; Weber, Mary B

    2016-01-01

    With diabetes rates escalating globally, there is the need for a better integration of all aspects of diabetes care for improved population outcomes. An understanding, not only of regional but global literature on physical activity barriers and its facilitators is important if healthcare providers and policy makers are to create programs tailored to their populations. Herein, we report the results of a narrative review of the global barriers and facilitators of physical activity for patients with diabetes mellitus. An in-depth literature search was conducted to identify English-language studies that examined physical activity barriers and associated facilitators among patients with diabetes mellitus. Major electronic literature databases that were searched included Google Scholar, PubMed, Hub-Med, and Highwire. Studies were available from Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and, predominantly North America. A total of 34 predominantly internal barriers emerged globally. The most commonly reported were time constrains, fear of provoking additional disorders, exercise venue and weather related barriers. Facilitators of physical activity were reported for most of the internal barriers (e.g. time constraints, lack of knowledge etc) while the external barriers (e.g. weather, environmental pollution etc) received only a minimal attention. Globally, patients with diabetes are confronted with an enormous number of physical activity barriers. Unlike the robust solutions proffered for the internal barriers, the literature is largely silent about solutions to the external barriers, which though fewer, may be highly influential. Additional data is needed to better understand physical activity behaviors in populations outside of North America.

  5. Soil Response to Global Change: Soil Process Domains and Pedogenic Thresholds (Invited)

    Chadwick, O.; Kramer, M. G.; Chorover, J.

    2013-12-01

    The capacity of soil to withstand perturbations, whether driven by climate, land use change, or spread of invasive species, depends on its chemical composition and physical state. The dynamic interplay between stable, well buffered soil process domains and thresholds in soil state and function is a strong determinant of soil response to forcing from global change. In terrestrial ecosystems, edaphic responses are often mediated by availability of water and its flux into and through soils. Water influences soil processes in several ways: it supports biological production, hence proton-donor, electron-donor and complexing-ligand production; it determines the advective removal of dissolution products, and it can promote anoxia that leads microorganisms to utilize alternative electron acceptors. As a consequence climate patterns strongly influence global distribution of soil, although within region variability is governed by other factors such as landscape age, parent material and human land use. By contrast, soil properties can vary greatly among climate regions, variation which is guided by the functioning of a suite of chemical processes that tend to maintain chemical status quo. This soil 'buffering' involves acid-base reactions as minerals weather and oxidation-reduction reactions that are driven by microbial respiration. At the planetary scale, soil pH provides a reasonable indicator of process domains and varies from about 3.5 to10, globally, although most soils lie between about 4.5 and 8.5. Those that are above 7.5 are strongly buffered by the carbonate system, those that are characterized by neutral pH (7.5-6) are buffered by release of non-hydrolyzing cations from primary minerals and colloid surfaces, and those that are buffered by hydrolytic aluminum on colloidal surfaces. Alkali and alkaline (with the exception of limestone parent material) soils are usually associated with arid and semiarid conditions, neutral pH soils with young soils in both dry and wet

  6. Global Matrix 2.0: Report Card Grades on the Physical Activity of Children and Youth Comparing 38 Countries

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Barnes, Joel; Gonzales, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance organized the concurrent preparation of Report Cards on the physical activity of children and youth in 38 countries from 6 continents (representing 60% of the world’s population). Nine common indicators were used (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport ...... reporting better infrastructure, suggests that autonomy to play, travel, or chore requirements and/or fewer attractive sedentary pursuits, rather than infrastructure and structured activities, may facilitate higher levels of physical activity....

  7. Global Matrix 2.0: Report Card Grades on the Physical Activity of Children and Youth Comparing 38 Countries

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Barnes, Joel; Gonzales, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance organized the concurrent preparation of Report Cards on the physical activity of children and youth in 38 countries from 6 continents (representing 60% of the world’s population). Nine common indicators were used (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport...... reporting better infrastructure, suggests that autonomy to play, travel, or chore requirements and/or fewer attractive sedentary pursuits, rather than infrastructure and structured activities, may facilitate higher levels of physical activity....

  8. Physical Processes Involved In Yellow Sea Solitary Waves

    Warn-Varnas, A.; Chin-Bing, S.; King, D.; Lamb, K.; Hawkins, J.; Teixeira, M.

    The study area is located south of the Shandong peninsula. In this area, soliton gener- ation and propagation studies are per formed with the Lamb(1994) model. The model is nonhydrostatic and is formulated in 2 1/2 dimensions for terrain following c oordi- nates. In the area, 20 to 30 m topographic variations over distances of 10 to 20 km are found to occur in the digit al atlas of Choi (1999). The area is shallow with maximum depths ranging from 40 m to 70 m. Along the southern boundary of the region the semi-diurnal tidal strength magnitude varies from .6 m/sec to 1.2 m/sec, Fang(1994). We show that, for sum mer conditions, the existing physical processes associated with the semi-diurnal tidal flow over the topographic variations , in the shelfbreak region, lead to the formation of internal bores in the model simulations. Through acting phys- ical proce sses, the internal bores propagate on and off the shelf. A disintegration process of internal bores into solitary waves occ urs through frequency and ampli- tude dispersion. SAR observations of the area show images containing six events con- sisting of internal bores and solitary waves that travel in a well-defined direction for two and a half days. The origin of the trains appeared to be at a point along a steep topo graphic drop. The SAR observations are used for guiding and tuning the model simulations, by comparing spectra of observed and modeled wavelengths. The tuned model yields wavelengths that are within a factor of 2 of the SAR data. The modeled amp litudes are within a factor of 2 of amplitudes obtained with a two-layer model and the SAR data The signature on the acoustical field of ongoing physical processes through the interaction of the resultant oceanic struct ure with the acoustical field is pursued. Internal bore and solitary wave structures interact with the acoustic field. A re distribution of acoustical energy to higher acoustical modes occurs at some fre- quencies. Mode decomposition of the

  9. Systems Factorial Technology provides new insights on global-local information processing in autism spectrum disorders.

    Johnson, Shannon A; Blaha, Leslie M; Houpt, Joseph W; Townsend, James T

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies of global-local processing in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have indicated mixed findings, with some evidence of a local processing bias, or preference for detail-level information, and other results suggesting typical global advantage, or preference for the whole or gestalt. Findings resulting from this paradigm have been used to argue for or against a detail focused processing bias in ASDs, and thus have important theoretical implications. We applied Systems Factorial Technology, and the associated Double Factorial Paradigm (both defined in the text), to examine information processing characteristics during a divided attention global-local task in high-functioning individuals with an ASD and typically developing controls. Group data revealed global advantage for both groups, contrary to some current theories of ASDs. Information processing models applied to each participant revealed that task performance, although showing no differences at the group level, was supported by different cognitive mechanisms in ASD participants compared to controls. All control participants demonstrated inhibitory parallel processing and the majority demonstrated a minimum-time stopping rule. In contrast, ASD participants showed exhaustive parallel processing with mild facilitatory interactions between global and local information. Thus our results indicate fundamental differences in the stopping rules and channel dependencies in individuals with an ASD.

  10. Effects of global and local contexts on chord processing: An ERP study.

    Zhang, Jingjing; Zhou, Xuefeng; Chang, Ruohan; Yang, Yufang

    2018-01-31

    In real life, the processing of an incoming event is continuously influenced by prior information at multiple timescales. The present study investigated how harmonic contexts at both local and global levels influence the processing of an incoming chord in an event-related potentials experiment. Chord sequences containing two phrases were presented to musically trained listeners, with the last critical chord either harmonically related or less related to its preceding context at local and/or global levels. ERPs data showed an ERAN-like effect for local context in early time window and a N5-like component for later interaction between the local context and global context. These results suggest that both the local and global contexts influence the processing of an incoming music event, and the local effect happens earlier than the global. Moreover, the interaction between the local context and global context in N5 may suggest that music syntactic integration at local level takes place prior to the integration at global level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Corrosion processes of physical vapor deposition-coated metallic implants.

    Antunes, Renato Altobelli; de Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Protecting metallic implants from the harsh environment of physiological fluids is essential to guaranteeing successful long-term use in a patient's body. Chemical degradation may lead to the failure of an implant device in two different ways. First, metal ions may cause inflammatory reactions in the tissues surrounding the implant and, in extreme cases, these reactions may inflict acute pain on the patient and lead to loosening of the device. Therefore, increasing wear strength is beneficial to the performance of the metallic implant. Second, localized corrosion processes contribute to the nucleation of fatigue cracks, and corrosion fatigue is the main reason for the mechanical failure of metallic implants. Common biomedical alloys such as stainless steel, cobalt-chrome alloys, and titanium alloys are prone to at least one of these problems. Vapor-deposited hard coatings act directly to improve corrosion, wear, and fatigue resistances of metallic materials. The effectiveness of the corrosion protection is strongly related to the structure of the physical vapor deposition layer. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the correlation between the structure of physical vapor deposition layers and the corrosion properties of metallic implants.

  12. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    Chubb, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

  13. A physical process of the radial acceleration of disc galaxies

    Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

    2018-03-01

    An impact model of gravity designed to emulate Newton's law of gravitation is applied to the radial acceleration of disc galaxies. Based on this model (Wilhelm et al. 2013), the rotation velocity curves can be understood without the need to postulate any dark matter contribution. The increased acceleration in the plane of the disc is a consequence of multiple interactions of gravitons (called `quadrupoles' in the original paper) and the subsequent propagation in this plane and not in three-dimensional space. The concept provides a physical process that relates the fit parameter of the acceleration scale defined by McGaugh et al. (2016) to the mean free path length of gravitons in the discs of galaxies. It may also explain the gravitational interaction at low acceleration levels in MOdification of the Newtonian Dynamics (MOND, Milgrom 1983, 1994, 2015, 2016). Three examples are discussed in some detail: the spiral galaxies NGC 7814, NGC 6503 and M 33.

  14. Kinetics of Thermally Activated Physical Processes in Disordered Media

    Bertrand Poumellec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a framework for modeling the writing and erasure of thermally-distributed activated processes that we can specifically apply to UV-induced refractive index change, particularly in fibers. From experimental measurements (isochrons and/or isotherms, this framework allows to find the distribution function of the activation energy by providing only a constant, which can be determined by a simple variable change when a few assumptions are fulfilled. From this modeling, it is possible to know the complete evolution in time of the system. It is also possible to determine the annealing conditions for extending a lifetime. This approach can also be used for other physical quantities, such as photodarkening, stress relaxation, and luminescence decay, provided that it can be described by a distribution function.

  15. Application of physical separation techniques in uranium resources processing

    Padmanabhan, N.P.H.; Sreenivas, T.

    2008-01-01

    The planned economic growth of our country and energy security considerations call for increasing the overall electricity generating capabilities with substantial increase in the zero-carbon and clean nuclear power component. Although India is endowed with vast resources of thorium, its utilization can commence only after the successful completion of the first two stages of nuclear power programme, which use natural uranium in the first stage and natural uranium plus plutonium in the second stage. For the successful operation of first stage, exploration and exploitation activities for uranium should be vigorously followed. This paper reviews the current status of physical beneficiation in processing of uranium ores and discusses its applicability to recover uranium from low grade and below-cut-off grade ores in Indian context. (author)

  16. Localization of Physical Activity in Primary School Children Using Accelerometry and Global Positioning System.

    Rahel Bürgi

    Full Text Available Ecological approaches have highlighted the importance of the built environment as a factor affecting physical activity. However, knowledge on children's activity patterns is still incomplete. Particularly, data on the spatial context of physical activity is limited, which limits the potential to design location-based interventions effectively. Using global positioning system (GPS and accelerometry, this study aimed to identify locations where children engage in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA.Participants included 119 children (11-14 years, 57% girls from public schools in Winterthur, Switzerland. During a regular school week between February and April 2013, children wore an accelerometer and GPS sensor for seven consecutive days. Time-matched accelerometer and GPS data was mapped with a geographic information system and each data point was assigned to one of seven defined activity settings. Both the absolute amount of MVPA and proportion of time in MVPA were calculated for every setting. Multilevel analyses accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data were conducted to investigate any gender differences.Children achieved most MVPA on streets (34.5% and on school grounds (33.4%. The proportion children spent in MVPA was highest in recreational facilities (19.4%, at other schools (19.2% and on streets (18.6%. Boys accumulated significantly more MVPA overall and on other school grounds (p < 0.05 and showed a significantly higher proportion of time in MVPA at own school and outside of Winterthur (p < 0.05.The results indicate the importance of streets and school grounds as activity-promoting environments. The high use of streets may be an indicator for active transportation, which appears to contribute to an active lifestyle in both genders. In contrast, the school setting is more likely to encourage physical activity in boys. Recreational facilities seem to be conducive for MVPA among both genders, although infrequently visited

  17. Localization of Physical Activity in Primary School Children Using Accelerometry and Global Positioning System.

    Bürgi, Rahel; Tomatis, Laura; Murer, Kurt; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    Ecological approaches have highlighted the importance of the built environment as a factor affecting physical activity. However, knowledge on children's activity patterns is still incomplete. Particularly, data on the spatial context of physical activity is limited, which limits the potential to design location-based interventions effectively. Using global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometry, this study aimed to identify locations where children engage in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Participants included 119 children (11-14 years, 57% girls) from public schools in Winterthur, Switzerland. During a regular school week between February and April 2013, children wore an accelerometer and GPS sensor for seven consecutive days. Time-matched accelerometer and GPS data was mapped with a geographic information system and each data point was assigned to one of seven defined activity settings. Both the absolute amount of MVPA and proportion of time in MVPA were calculated for every setting. Multilevel analyses accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data were conducted to investigate any gender differences. Children achieved most MVPA on streets (34.5%) and on school grounds (33.4%). The proportion children spent in MVPA was highest in recreational facilities (19.4%), at other schools (19.2%) and on streets (18.6%). Boys accumulated significantly more MVPA overall and on other school grounds (p activity-promoting environments. The high use of streets may be an indicator for active transportation, which appears to contribute to an active lifestyle in both genders. In contrast, the school setting is more likely to encourage physical activity in boys. Recreational facilities seem to be conducive for MVPA among both genders, although infrequently visited during the week of measurement.

  18. Transforming the Learning Environment of Undergraduate Physics Laboratories to Enhance Physics Inquiry Processes

    Gregory P. Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns persist regarding the lack of promotion of students’ scientific inquiry processes in undergraduate physics laboratories. The consensus in the literature is that, especially in the early years of undergraduate physics programs, students’ laboratory work is characterized by recipe type, step-by-step instructions for activities where the aim is often confirmation of an already well-established physics principle or concept. In response to evidence reflecting these concerns at their university, the authors successfully secured funding for this study. A mixed-method design was employed. In the 2011/2012 academic year baseline data were collected. A quantitative survey, the Undergraduate Physics Laboratory Learning Environment Scale (UPLLES was developed, validated, and used to explore students’ perceptions of their physics laboratory environments. Analysis of data from the UPLLES and from interviews confirmed the concerns evident in the literature and in a previous evaluation of laboratories undertaken in 2002. To address these concerns the activities that students were to perform in the laboratory section of the course/s were re/designed to engage students in more inquiry oriented thinking and activity. In Fall 2012, the newly developed laboratory activities and tutorials, were implemented for the first time in PHYS124; a first year course. These changes were accompanied by structured training of teaching assistants and changes to the structure of the evaluation of students’ laboratory performance. At the end of that term the UPLLES was administered (n = 266 and interviews with students conducted (n = 16 to explore their perceptions of their laboratory environments. Statistically significant differences (p<.001 between the students in the PHYS 124 classes of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 across all dimensions were found. Effect sizes of 0.82 to 1.3, between the views of students in the first semester physics classes of 2011/2012 and 2012

  19. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  20. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  1. Global Processing Speed as a Mediator of Developmental Changes in Children's Auditory Memory Span

    Ferguson, A.N.; Bowey, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the role of global processing speed in mediating age increases in auditory memory span in 5- to 13-year-olds. Children were tested on measures of memory span, processing speed, single-word speech rate, phonological sensitivity, and vocabulary. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which age-associated increases in…

  2. Rapid and coordinated processing of global motion images by local clusters of retinal ganglion cells.

    Matsumoto, Akihiro; Tachibana, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Even when the body is stationary, the whole retinal image is always in motion by fixational eye movements and saccades that move the eye between fixation points. Accumulating evidence indicates that the brain is equipped with specific mechanisms for compensating for the global motion induced by these eye movements. However, it is not yet fully understood how the retina processes global motion images during eye movements. Here we show that global motion images evoke novel coordinated firing in retinal ganglion cells (GCs). We simultaneously recorded the firing of GCs in the goldfish isolated retina using a multi-electrode array, and classified each GC based on the temporal profile of its receptive field (RF). A moving target that accompanied the global motion (simulating a saccade following a period of fixational eye movements) modulated the RF properties and evoked synchronized and correlated firing among local clusters of the specific GCs. Our findings provide a novel concept for retinal information processing during eye movements.

  3. Constructing Consistent Multiscale Scenarios by Transdisciplinary Processes: the Case of Mountain Regions Facing Global Change

    Fridolin Simon. Brand; Roman Seidl; Quang Bao. Le; Julia Maria. Brändle; Roland Werner. Scholz

    2013-01-01

    Alpine regions in Europe, in particular, face demanding local challenges, e.g., the decline in the agriculture and timber industries, and are also prone to global changes, such as in climate, with potentially severe impacts on tourism. We focus on the Visp region in the Upper Valais, Switzerland, and ask how the process of stakeholder involvement in research practice can contribute to a better understanding of the specific challenges and future development of mountainous regions under global ...

  4. Use of globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) to link herbarium specimen records to physical specimens.

    Nelson, Gil; Sweeney, Patrick; Gilbert, Edward

    2018-02-01

    With the advent of the U.S. National Science Foundation's Advancing Digitization of Biodiversity Collections program and related worldwide digitization initiatives, the rate of herbarium specimen digitization in the United States has expanded exponentially. As the number of electronic herbarium records proliferates, the importance of linking these records to the physical specimens they represent as well as to related records from other sources will intensify. Although a rich and diverse literature has developed over the past decade that addresses the use of specimen identifiers for facilitating linking across the internet, few implementable guidelines or recommended practices for herbaria have been advanced. Here we review this literature with the express purpose of distilling a specific set of recommendations especially tailored to herbarium specimen digitization, curation, and management. We argue that associating globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) with physical herbarium specimens and including these identifiers in all electronic records about those specimens is essential to effective digital data curation. We also address practical applications for ensuring these associations.

  5. Information processing speed as a mediator between psychosocial stress and global cognition in older adults.

    Foong, Hui F; Hamid, Tengku A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Haron, Sharifah A

    2018-01-01

    The link between psychosocial stress and cognitive function is complex, and previous studies have indicated that it may be mediated by processing speed. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine whether processing speed mediates the association between psychosocial stress and global cognition in older adults. Moreover, the moderating role of gender in this model is examined as well. The study included 2322 community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia who were randomly selected through a multistage proportional cluster random sampling technique. Global cognition construct was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment; psychosocial stress construct was measured by perceived stress, depression, loneliness, and neuroticism; and processing speed was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the mediation and moderation tests. Processing speed was found to partially mediate the relationship between psychosocial stress and global cognition (β in the direct model = -0.15, P cognition was found to be significant in men only, whereas the association between processing speed and global cognition was significant in men and women. Psychosocial stress may increase the likelihood that older adults will experience poor processing capacity, which could reduce their higher level cognition. Results indicate that there is a need to develop processing capacity intervention programmes for psychologically distressed older adults to prevent them from suffering cognitive decline. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  6. Towards an Understanding of Enabling Process Knowing in Global Software Development: A Case Study

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Shared understanding of Software Engineering (SE) processes, that we call process knowing, is required for effective communication and coordination and communication within a team in order to improve team performance. SE Process knowledge can include roles, responsibilities and flow of informatio...... challenges of lack of process knowing and how an organization can enable process knowing for achieving the desired results that also help in increasing social interactions and positive behavioral changes......Shared understanding of Software Engineering (SE) processes, that we call process knowing, is required for effective communication and coordination and communication within a team in order to improve team performance. SE Process knowledge can include roles, responsibilities and flow of information...... over a project lifecycle. Developing and sustaining process knowledge can be more challenging in Global Software Development (GSD). GSD distances can limit the ability of a team to develop a common understanding of processes. Anecdotes of the problems caused by lack of common understanding of processes...

  7. Modeling Global Ocean Biogeochemistry With Physical Data Assimilation: A Pragmatic Solution to the Equatorial Instability

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Stock, Charles A.; Yang, Xiaosong; Dunne, John P.; Rosati, Anthony; John, Jasmin; Zhang, Shaoqing

    2018-03-01

    Reliable estimates of historical and current biogeochemistry are essential for understanding past ecosystem variability and predicting future changes. Efforts to translate improved physical ocean state estimates into improved biogeochemical estimates, however, are hindered by high biogeochemical sensitivity to transient momentum imbalances that arise during physical data assimilation. Most notably, the breakdown of geostrophic constraints on data assimilation in equatorial regions can lead to spurious upwelling, resulting in excessive equatorial productivity and biogeochemical fluxes. This hampers efforts to understand and predict the biogeochemical consequences of El Niño and La Niña. We develop a strategy to robustly integrate an ocean biogeochemical model with an ensemble coupled-climate data assimilation system used for seasonal to decadal global climate prediction. Addressing spurious vertical velocities requires two steps. First, we find that tightening constraints on atmospheric data assimilation maintains a better equatorial wind stress and pressure gradient balance. This reduces spurious vertical velocities, but those remaining still produce substantial biogeochemical biases. The remainder is addressed by imposing stricter fidelity to model dynamics over data constraints near the equator. We determine an optimal choice of model-data weights that removed spurious biogeochemical signals while benefitting from off-equatorial constraints that still substantially improve equatorial physical ocean simulations. Compared to the unconstrained control run, the optimally constrained model reduces equatorial biogeochemical biases and markedly improves the equatorial subsurface nitrate concentrations and hypoxic area. The pragmatic approach described herein offers a means of advancing earth system prediction in parallel with continued data assimilation advances aimed at fully considering equatorial data constraints.

  8. Management of business process design in global implementation of enterprise resource planning systems

    Rahimi, Fatemeh

    on process standardization with corporate international management strategy and structural characteristics. Furthermore, business process design can be supported by establishing permanent central governance for BPM and horizontally integrating the BPM function with the IT function at the strategic......Investments in global enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are typically carried out as a part of the globalization process in multinational corporations (MNCs). Global ERP systems support integration and control in MNCs in an important way by establishing a common language across an MNC...... and findings from case studies in nine organizations, the study addresses the three prescriptive research questions through five descriptive studies. First, by deploying alternative theories, this study explores the strategic, institutional, organizational, and relational factors that influence business...

  9. Impairment in local and global processing and set-shifting in body dysmorphic disorder

    Kerwin, Lauren; Hovav, Sarit; Helleman, Gerhard; Feusner, Jamie D.

    2014-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by distressing and often debilitating preoccupations with misperceived defects in appearance. Research suggests that aberrant visual processing may contribute to these misperceptions. This study used two tasks to probe global and local visual processing as well as set shifting in individuals with BDD. Eighteen unmedicated individuals with BDD and 17 non-clinical controls completed two global-local tasks. The embedded figures task requires participants to determine which of three complex figures contained a simpler figure embedded within it. The Navon task utilizes incongruent stimuli comprised of a large letter (global level) made up of smaller letters (local level). The outcome measures were response time and accuracy rate. On the embedded figures task, BDD individuals were slower and less accurate than controls. On the Navon task, BDD individuals processed both global and local stimuli slower and less accurately than controls, and there was a further decrement in performance when shifting attention between the different levels of stimuli. Worse insight correlated with poorer performance on both tasks. Taken together, these results suggest abnormal global and local processing for non-appearance related stimuli among BDD individuals, in addition to evidence of poor set-shifting abilities. Moreover, these abnormalities appear to relate to the important clinical variable of poor insight. Further research is needed to explore these abnormalities and elucidate their possible role in the development and/or persistence of BDD symptoms. PMID:24972487

  10. A Multi-scale Modeling System with Unified Physics to Study Precipitation Processes

    Tao, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, exponentially increasing computer power has extended Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) integrations from hours to months, the number of computational grid points from less than a thousand to close to ten million. Three-dimensional models are now more prevalent. Much attention is devoted to precipitating cloud systems where the crucial 1-km scales are resolved in horizontal domains as large as 10,000 km in two-dimensions, and 1,000 x 1,000 km2 in three-dimensions. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that NWP and mesoscale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), and (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF). The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the results from using multi-scale modeling system to study the precipitation, processes and their sensitivity on model resolution and microphysics schemes will be presented. Also how to use of the multi-satellite simulator to improve precipitation processes will be discussed.

  11. Physical processes that control droplet transport in rock fracture systems

    Hay, Katrina Moran

    Aquifer recharge is generally driven by fluids that move from the Earths surface to groundwater through the unsaturated zone, also known as the vadose zone. When the vadose zone is fractured, fluids, which may include contaminants, can move through the fracture network as well as the porous matrix. Such a network of fractures can provide a more rapid path, thereby reducing contact time between the fluid and the matrix. Contact time allows for exchange of solutes between the fluid and the porous matrix, thus being able to quantify contact time is important. In addition, the behavior of fluids within a fracture network has been found to be very complex; large-scale models are yet not able to predict transport paths or flux rates. Because, small-scale flow phenomena can strongly influence the large-scale behavior of fluid movement through systems of fractures, it is important that small-scale dynamics be properly understood in order to improve our predictive capabilities in these complex systems. Relevant flow dynamics includes the impact of boundary conditions, fluid modes that evolve in time and space and transitions between modes. This thesis presents three investigations aimed at understanding the physical processes governing fluid movement in unsaturated fractures, with the ultimate goal of improving predictive relationships for fluid transport in rock fracture systems. These investigations include a theoretical analysis of the wetting of a rough surface, an experimental study of the dynamics of fluid droplets (or liquid bridges) moving in a single fracture and a theoretical analysis of the movement of a fluid droplet encountering a fracture intersection. Each investigation is motivated by environmental applications. Development of an analytical equation for the wetting of a rough surface is based on a balance between capillary forces and frictional resistive forces. The resulting equation predicts movement of the liquid invasion front driven solely by the

  12. Information Processing and Firm-Internal Environment Contingencies: Performance Impact on Global New Product Development

    Kleinschmidt, Elko; de Brentani, Ulrike; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    , functionally, geographically and culturally. To this end, an IT-communication strength is essential, one that is nested in an internal organizational environment that ensures its effective functioning. Using organizational information processing (OIP) theory as a framework, superior global NPD program......Innovation in its essence is an information processing activity. Thus, a major factor impacting the success of new product development (NPD) programs, especially those responding to global markets, is the firm's ability to access, share and apply NPD information, which is often widely dispersed...

  13. Circuit Mechanisms Governing Local vs. Global Motion Processing in Mouse Visual Cortex

    Rasmussen, Rune; Yonehara, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    components represented by component direction-selective (CDS) cells. However, how PDS and CDS cells develop their distinct response properties is still unresolved. The visual cortex of the mouse is an attractive model for experimentally solving this issue due to the large molecular and genetic toolbox...... literature on global motion processing based on works in primates and mice. Lastly, we propose what types of experiments could illuminate what circuit mechanisms are governing cortical global visual motion processing. We propose that PDS cells in mouse visual cortex appear as the perfect arena...

  14. Links between galaxy evolution, morphology and internal physical processes

    Kraljic, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims at making the link between galaxy evolution, morphology and internal physical processes, namely star formation as the outcome of the turbulent multiphase interstellar medium, using the cosmological zoom-in simulations, simulations of isolated and merging galaxies, and the analytic model of star formation. In Chapter 1, I explain the motivation for this thesis and briefly review the necessary background related to galaxy formation and modeling with the use of numerical simulations. I first explore the evolution of the morphology of Milky-Way-mass galaxies in a suite of zoom-in cosmological simulations through the analysis of bars. I analyze the evolution of the fraction of bars with redshift, its dependence on the stellar mass and accretion history of individual galaxies. I show in particular, that the fraction of bars declines with increasing redshift, in agreement with the observations. This work also shows that the obtained results suggest that the bar formation epoch corresponds to the transition between an early 'violent' phase of spiral galaxies formation at z > 1, during which they are often disturbed by major mergers or multiple minor mergers as well as violent disk instabilities, and a late 'secular' phase at z [fr

  15. On a Multiprocessor Computer Farm for Online Physics Data Processing

    Sinanis, N J

    1999-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the design-phase performance evaluation of a large multiprocessor (MP) computer farm intended for the on-line data processing of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. CMS is a high energy Physics experiment, planned to operate at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) during the year 2005. The CMS computer farm is consisting of 1,000 MP computer systems and a 1,000 X 1,000 communications switch. The followed approach to the farm performance evaluation is through simulation studies and evaluation of small prototype systems building blocks of the farm. For the purposes of the simulation studies, we have developed a discrete-event, event-driven simulator that is capable to describe the high-level architecture of the farm and give estimates of the farm's performance. The simulator is designed in a modular way to facilitate the development of various modules that model the behavior of the farm building blocks in the desired level of detail. With the aid of this simulator, we make a particular...

  16. Printed circuit board recycling: Physical processing and copper extraction by selective leaching.

    Silvas, Flávia P C; Correa, Mónica M Jiménez; Caldas, Marcos P K; de Moraes, Viviane T; Espinosa, Denise C R; Tenório, Jorge A S

    2015-12-01

    Global generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is about 40 million tons per year. Constant increase in WEEE generation added to international legislations has improved the development of processes for materials recovery and sustainability of electrical and electronic industry. This paper describes a new hydrometallurgical route (leaching process) to recycle printed circuit boards (PCBs) from printers to recover copper. Methodology included PCBs characterization and a combined route of physical and hydrometallurgical processing. Magnetic separation, acid digestion and chemical analysis by ICP-OES were performed. On leaching process were used two stages: the first one in a sulfuric media and the second in an oxidant media. The results showed that the PCBs composition was 74.6 wt.% of non-magnetic material and 25.4 wt.% of magnetic one. The metallic fraction corresponded to 44.0 wt.%, the polymeric to 28.5 wt.% and the ceramic to 27.5 wt.%. The main metal was copper and its initial content was 32.5 wt.%. On sulfuric leaching 90 wt.% of Al, 40 wt.% of Zn and 8.6 wt.% of Sn were extracted, whereas on oxidant leaching tests the extraction percentage of Cu was 100 wt.%, of Zn 60 wt.% and of Al 10 wt.%. At the end of the hydrometallurgical processing was obtained 100% of copper extraction and the recovery factor was 98.46%, which corresponds to a 32 kg of Cu in 100 kg of PCB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diet and physical activity in schools: perspectives from the implementation of the WHO global strategy on diet, physical activity and health.

    Candeias, Vanessa; Armstrong, Timothy P; Xuereb, Godfrey C

    2010-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes, are by far the leading cause of mortality in the world, representing 60% of all deaths. Unhealthy diets and physical inactivity are well-established risk factors for overweight and the major NCD. In response to the rapid global growth of the NCD burden, the 2008 Action Plan on Prevention and Control of NCD and the 2004 Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health (DPAS) have been developed and endorsed as key international policy instruments. As part of the work of the World Health Organization (WHO) to implement these resolutions, a framework describing the core elements for the development and implementation of a national school policy focused on diet and physical activity has been developed. This framework is included in the "DPAS implementation tool box", and it aims to guide policy-makers in the development and implementation of policies that promote healthy eating and physical activity in the school setting through changes in environment, behaviour and education. The article describes the key elements of the framework and details how this tool is integrated into other WHO activities to provide leadership, guidance, capacity building, evidence-based recommendations and advocacy for action to improve dietary practices and increase physical activity globally.

  18. Re-engineering of Products and Processes How to Achieve Global Success in the Changing Marketplace

    Rotini, Federico; Cascini, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    Whilst previous methods for business process re-engineering have focused on time and cost reduction policies to preserve competitive services and products, Re-engineering of Products and Processes: How to Achieve Global Success in the Changing Marketplace presents a new approach which aims to include aspects that impact the customer perceived value. This method supports business re-engineering initiatives by identifying process bottlenecks as well as new products and services available to overcome market competition. This original approach is described step-by-step, explaining the theory through examples of performable tasks and the selection of relevant tools according to the nature of the problem. Supported by illustrations, tables and diagrams, Re-engineering of Products and Processes: How to Achieve Global Success in the Changing Marketplace clearly explains a method which is then applied to several case studies across different industrial sectors. Re-engineering of Products and Processes: How to Achieve...

  19. Impaired global, and compensatory local, biological motion processing in people with high levels of autistic traits.

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Lu, Hongjing

    2013-01-01

    People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD.

  20. Impaired global, and compensatory local, biological motion processing in people with high levels of autistic traits

    Jeroen J A Van Boxtel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD.

  1. C-GLORSv5: an improved multipurpose global ocean eddy-permitting physical reanalysis

    Storto, Andrea; Masina, Simona

    2016-11-01

    Global ocean reanalyses combine in situ and satellite ocean observations with a general circulation ocean model to estimate the time-evolving state of the ocean, and they represent a valuable tool for a variety of applications, ranging from climate monitoring and process studies to downstream applications, initialization of long-range forecasts and regional studies. The purpose of this paper is to document the recent upgrade of C-GLORS (version 5), the latest ocean reanalysis produced at the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) that covers the meteorological satellite era (1980-present) and it is being updated in delayed time mode. The reanalysis is run at eddy-permitting resolution (1/4° horizontal resolution and 50 vertical levels) and consists of a three-dimensional variational data assimilation system, a surface nudging and a bias correction scheme. With respect to the previous version (v4), C-GLORSv5 contains a number of improvements. In particular, background- and observation-error covariances have been retuned, allowing a flow-dependent inflation in the globally averaged background-error variance. An additional constraint on the Arctic sea-ice thickness was introduced, leading to a realistic ice volume evolution. Finally, the bias correction scheme and the initialization strategy were retuned. Results document that the new reanalysis outperforms the previous version in many aspects, especially in representing the variability of global heat content and associated steric sea level in the last decade, the top 80 m ocean temperature biases and root mean square errors, and the Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation; slight worsening in the high-latitude salinity and deep ocean temperature emerge though, providing the motivation for further tuning of the reanalysis system. The dataset is available in NetCDF format at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.857995.

  2. Comparison of changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety following two different psychomotor therapy programs in nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients.

    Knapen, Jan; Van de Vliet, Peter; Van Coppenolle, Herman; David, Ans; Peuskens, Joseph; Pieters, Guido; Knapen, Koen

    2005-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety after participation in one of two 16-week psychomotor therapy programs for nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients. The second objective was to study the relationship between changes in these variables. One hundred and ninety-nine inpatients were randomly assigned to either a personalized psychomotor fitness program, consisting of aerobic exercise and weight training, or a general program of psychomotor therapy, consisting of different forms of physical exercises and relaxation training. Physical self-concept was evaluated using the Dutch version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile at baseline, after 8 weeks, and after completion of the 16-week interventions. At the same time points, additional variables of global self-esteem, depression and anxiety were assessed by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. After 16 weeks, both groups showed significant improvements in all outcome measures (p values ranged from 0.01 to self-esteem and decreased depression and anxiety levels (p self-esteem, depression and anxiety supports the potential role of the physical self-concept in the recovery process of depressed and anxious psychiatric inpatients. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Information technologies as an integral part of the process of physical education of student youth

    Igor Vypasniak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The process of modernizing the professional training of specialists in the sphere of physical culture and sports fits into the present general strategy of educational policy of Ukraine, the primary task of which is to achieve the modern quality of education, its conformity to current perspective needs of the individual, society and the state. Objectives of the Research: to analyze and systematize modern scientific and methodological knowledge and the results of practical experience of domestic and foreign researchers in the sphere of the use of information technologies in the practice of physical education of students; to develop informational and methodical multimedia system “Рerfectum Corpus”, as a means of raising the level of theoretical knowledge of students in the process of physical education. Research results. The functioning of the information environment of the higher educational establishment envisages the widest possible use of computer technology, multimedia technologies, local computer networks during the transfer of the student’s material, as well as in the system of monitoring the quality of the formed knowledge and during self-training with the help of the global Internet network. The strategy of integrating IT into the process of physical education, in our opinion, should be aimed at: the formation of values of a healthy lifestyle and creativity; the formation of value attitude of young people to their own health, the improvement of physical preparedness taking into account requirements of future professional activity; the formation of an active personal position in achieving harmonious development; the use of healthy technologies in the pedagogical process; the restructuring of leisure with the use of fitness and various types of recreational motor activity; supporting students’ interest in improving motor activity. Conclusions. The multimedia informational and methodical system “Perfectum Corpus” has

  4. The implications of megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation for changes in global physical activity.

    Pratt, Michael; Sarmiento, Olga L; Montes, Felipe; Ogilvie, David; Marcus, Bess H; Perez, Lilian G; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-07-21

    Physical inactivity accounts for more than 3 million deaths per year, most from non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We used reviews of physical activity interventions and a simulation model to examine how megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation directly and indirectly affect levels of physical activity across countries of low, middle, and high income. The model suggested that the direct and potentiating eff ects of information and communication technology, especially mobile phones, are nearly equal in magnitude to the mean eff ects of planned physical activity interventions. The greatest potential to increase population physical activity might thus be in creation of synergistic policies in sectors outside health including communication and transportation. However, there remains a glaring mismatch between where studies on physical activity interventions are undertaken and where the potential lies in low-income and middle-income countries for population-level effects that will truly affect global health.

  5. NASA/MSFC FY88 Global Scale Atmospheric Processes Research Program Review

    Wilson, Greg S. (Editor); Leslie, Fred W. (Editor); Arnold, J. E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Interest in environmental issues and the magnitude of the environmental changes continues. One way to gain more understanding of the atmosphere is to make measurements on a global scale from space. The Earth Observation System is a series of new sensors to measure globally atmospheric parameters. Analysis of satellite data by developing algorithms to interpret the radiance information improves the understanding and also defines requirements for these sensors. One measure of knowledge of the atmosphere lies in the ability to predict its behavior. Use of numerical and experimental models provides a better understanding of these processes. These efforts are described in the context of satellite data analysis and fundamental studies of atmospheric dynamics which examine selected processes important to the global circulation.

  6. Use of global positioning system for physical activity research in youth: ESPAÇOS Adolescentes, Brazil.

    Alberico, Claudia Oliveira; Schipperijn, Jasper; Reis, Rodrigo S

    2017-10-01

    The built environment is an important factor associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB) during adolescence. This study presents the methods for objective assessment of context-specific moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB, as well as describes results from the first project using such methodology in adolescents from a developing country. An initial sample of 381 adolescents was recruited from 32 census tracts in Curitiba, Brazil (2013); 80 had their homes geocoded and wore accelerometer and GPS devices for seven days. Four domains were defined as important contexts: home, school, transport and leisure. The majority of participants (n=80) were boys (46; 57.5%), with a normal BMI (52; 65.0%) and a mean age (SD) of 14.5 (5.5) years. Adolescents spent most of their time at home, engaging in SB. Overall, the largest proportion of MVPA was while in transport (17.1% of time spent in this context) and SB while in leisure (188.6min per day). Participants engaged in MVPA for a median of 28.7 (IQR 18.2-43.2) and 17.9 (IQR 9.2-32.1) minutes during week and weekend days, respectively. Participants spent most of their day in the leisure and home domains. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer data allowed objective identification of the amount of time spent in MVPA and SB in four different domains. Though the combination of objective measures is still an emerging methodology, this is a promising and feasible approach to understanding interactions between people and their environments in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alterations to global but not local motion processing in long-term ecstasy (MDMA) users.

    White, Claire; Brown, John; Edwards, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the main psychoactive ingredient in the illegal drug "ecstasy" (methylendioxymethamphetamine) causes reduced activity in the serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems in humans. On the basis of substantial serotonin input to the occipital lobe, recent research investigated visual processing in long-term users and found a larger magnitude of the tilt aftereffect, interpreted to reflect broadened orientation tuning bandwidths. Further research found higher orientation discrimination thresholds and reduced long-range interactions in the primary visual area of ecstasy users. The aim of the present research was to investigate whether serotonin-mediated V1 visual processing deficits in ecstasy users extend to motion processing mechanisms. Forty-five participants (21 controls, 24 drug users) completed two psychophysical studies: A direction discrimination study directly measured local motion processing in V1, while a motion coherence task tested global motion processing in area V5/MT. "Primary" ecstasy users (n = 18), those without substantial polydrug use, had significantly lower global motion thresholds than controls [p = 0.027, Cohen's d = 0.78 (large)], indicating increased sensitivity to global motion stimuli, but no difference in local motion processing (p = 0.365). These results extend on previous research investigating the long-term effects of illicit drugs on visual processing. Two possible explanations are explored: defuse attentional processes may be facilitating spatial pooling of motion signals in users. Alternatively, it may be that a GABA-mediated disruption to V5/MT processing is reducing spatial suppression and therefore improving global motion perception in ecstasy users.

  8. Effect of ozone gas processing on physical and chemical properties ...

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of ozone treatment on chemical and physical properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gluten, glutenin and gliadin. Methods: Wheat proteins isolated from wheat flour were treated with ozone gas. The physical and chemical properties of gluten proteins were investigated after treatment ...

  9. A New Physical Protection System Design and Evaluation Process

    Lim, Heoksoon; Kim, Myungsu; Bae, Yeongkyoung; Na, Janghwan [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) had established security-related department and has been strengthening security measures against possible sabotage. IAEA enforces the recommendations for the physical protection of NPPs in the INFCIRC/ 225/Rev.5 to the member states and U.S. NRC also enforces the similar requirements in 10 CFR 73.55. Thus, in order to let Korean NPPs meet the new requirements in INFCIRC/225/Rev.5 or U.S. NRC requirements, Korea nuclear licensee should develop or establish appropriate physical protection system (PPS) design methods for the physical protection of the operating NPPs and new NPPs. KHNP is doing the project of 'Development of APR1400 Physical Protection System Design (2012- 2015, KHNP/KAERI /KEPCO E-C)'. This paper describes overview of a physical protection system (PPS) design and evaluation for an advanced nuclear power plant. It found that a new physical protection system (PPS)design and evaluation. KHNP is doing the project of Physical Protection System design according to U.S. NRC requirements and IAEA requirements in INFCIRC /225 /Rev.5 and will complete by 7.31, 2015 for development of APR1400 Physical Protection System. After completing this project, the results of project are expected to apply new NPPs.

  10. Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…

  11. Physical processes and sedimentation on a broad, shallow bank

    Murray, S. P.; Hsu, S. A.; Roberts, H. H.; Owens, E. H.; Crout, R. L.

    1982-02-01

    An integrated study of the meteorology, physical oceanography, sedimentationand coastal morphology on the broad, shallow Miskito Bank off the eastern coast of Nicaragua has uncovered systematic interrelationships between driving forces. Bank geometry and sedimentologic environments on the Bank. Extremely high rainfall results from an interaction between meteorological processes over the Bank and topographic effects along the coast. Both acoustic and radio sounding of the lower atmosphere have documented the feedback between convective plumes, inversion layers and the incessant rainfall, which brings three times more freshwater and 15 times more sediment down to a unit length of coast than on the U.S. Atlantic shore. The resultant brackish, turbid coastal water moves as a highly organized band of water parallel to the coast. Seaward of this coastal boundary layer, offshore water from the Caribbean Current rides up on the Bank and provides an environment ideal for carbonate production. A zone of fine-grained terrigenous sediment underlying the coastal boundary current merges abruptly into a smooth carbonate plain covering most of the surface of the Bank. These central Bank carbonates are composed primarily of the disintegration products of prolific calcareous green algae. A trend of high relief, luxuriant coral reef growth is aligned along the steep dropoff at the Bank edge, a zone of observed upwelling of cooler and saltier basin water. A threefold southerly increase in wave energy at the shoreline due to the decreasing width of the shallow shelf results in wave-dominated coastal morphologies in the south compared to fluvial domination in the north and a systematic change from straight, linear bars and beaches in the north to rhythmic topography in the south.

  12. Assessment of global expected warming contribution to desertification process development in Kazakhstan

    Dolgih, S.A.; Eserkepova, I.B.; Shamen, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Assessment of moistening condition change in Kazakhstan and its role in processes of desertification at global expected climate warming are cited. Results of numerical experiments by models of common circulation of atmosphere have been used in capacity of potential regional climate change characteristics. (author)

  13. Navon's classical paradigm concerning local and global processing relates systematically to visual object classification performance.

    Gerlach, Christian; Poirel, Nicolas

    2018-01-10

    Forty years ago David Navon tried to tackle a central problem in psychology concerning the time course of perceptual processing: Do we first see the details (local level) followed by the overall outlay (global level) or is it rather the other way around? He did this by developing a now classical paradigm involving the presentation of compound stimuli; large letters composed of smaller letters. Despite the usefulness of this paradigm it remains uncertain whether effects found with compound stimuli relate directly to visual object recognition. It does so because compound stimuli are not actual objects but rather formations of elements and because the elements that form the global shape of compound stimuli are not features of the global shape but rather objects in their own right. To examine the relationship between performance on Navon's paradigm and visual object processing we derived two indexes from Navon's paradigm that reflect different aspects of the relationship between global and local processing. We find that individual differences on these indexes can explain a considerable amount of variance in two standard object classification paradigms; object decision and superordinate categorization, suggesting that Navon's paradigm does relate to visual object processing.

  14. The impact of recreational MDMA 'ecstasy' use on global form processing.

    White, Claire; Edwards, Mark; Brown, John; Bell, Jason

    2014-11-01

    The ability to integrate local orientation information into a global form percept was investigated in long-term ecstasy users. Evidence suggests that ecstasy disrupts the serotonin system, with the visual areas of the brain being particularly susceptible. Previous research has found altered orientation processing in the primary visual area (V1) of users, thought to be due to disrupted serotonin-mediated lateral inhibition. The current study aimed to investigate whether orientation deficits extend to higher visual areas involved in global form processing. Forty-five participants completed a psychophysical (Glass pattern) study allowing an investigation into the mechanisms underlying global form processing and sensitivity to changes in the offset of the stimuli (jitter). A subgroup of polydrug-ecstasy users (n=6) with high ecstasy use had significantly higher thresholds for the detection of Glass patterns than controls (n=21, p=0.039) after Bonferroni correction. There was also a significant interaction between jitter level and drug-group, with polydrug-ecstasy users showing reduced sensitivity to alterations in jitter level (p=0.003). These results extend previous research, suggesting disrupted global form processing and reduced sensitivity to orientation jitter with ecstasy use. Further research is needed to investigate this finding in a larger sample of heavy ecstasy users and to differentiate the effects of other drugs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Parallel processing and non-uniform grids in global air quality modeling

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Bochev, Mikhail A.

    2002-01-01

    A large-scale global air quality model, running efficiently on a single vector processor, is enhanced to make more realistic and more long-term simulations feasible. Two strategies are combined: non-uniform grids and parallel processing. The communication through the hierarchy of non-uniform grids

  16. Kenya public weather processed by the Global Yield Gap Atlas project

    Groot, de Hugo; Adimo, Ochieng; Claessens, Lieven; Wart, Van Justin; Bussel, van Lenny G.J.; Grassini, Patricio; Wolf, Joost; Guilpart, Nicolas; Boogaard, Hendrik; Oort, van Pepijn A.J.; Yang, Haishun S.; Ittersum, van Martin K.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2017-01-01

    The Global Yield Gap Atlas project (GYGA - http://yieldgap.org) has undertaken a yield gap assessment following the protocol recommended by van Ittersum et al. (2013). One part of the activities consists of collecting and processing weather data as an input for crop simulation models in sub-Saharan

  17. Navon's classical paradigm concerning local and global processing relates systematically to visual object classification performance

    Gerlach, Christian; Poirel, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Forty years ago David Navon tried to tackle a central problem in psychology concerning the time course of perceptual processing: Do we first see the details (local level) followed by the overall outlay (global level) or is it rather the other way around? He did this by developing a now classical ...

  18. Globalisation and the foreignisation of space: The seven processes driving the current global land grab.

    Zoomers, E.B.

    2010-01-01

    The current global land grab is causing radical changes in the use and ownership of land. The main process driving the land grab, or ‘foreignisation of space’, as highlighted in the media and the emerging literature is the production of food and biofuel for export in the aftermath of recent food

  19. Preparing for novel versus familiar events: shifts in global and local processing

    Förster, J.; Liberman, N.; Shapiro, O.

    2009-01-01

    Six experiments examined whether novelty versus familiarity influences global versus local processing styles. Novelty and familiarity were manipulated by either framing a task as new versus familiar or by asking participants to reflect upon novel versus familiar events prior to the task (i.e.,

  20. The Influence of Globalization, Integration and Regionalization Processes on the European States and Regions

    T V Bazarenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the impact of globalization, regionalization and integration in European countries and regions. It discusses the distinctive features and factors of influence of each of these processes on the European countries and sub national entities.

  1. Kenya public weather processed by the Global Yield Gap Atlas project (old version)

    Groot, de H.L.E.; Adimo, A.O.; Claessens, L.F.G.; Wart, van J.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Grassini, P.; Wolf, J.; Guilpart, Nicolas; Boogaard, H.L.; Oort, van P.A.J.; Yang, H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Cassman, K.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Yield Gap Atlas project (GYGA - http://yieldgap.org ) has undertaken a yield gap assessment following the protocol recommended by van Ittersum et. al. (van Ittersum et. al., 2013). One part of the activities consists of collecting and processing weather data as an input for crop

  2. Differences in the Processes of Solving Physics Problems between Good Physics Problem Solvers and Poor Physics Problem Solvers.

    Finegold, M.; Mass, R.

    1985-01-01

    Good problem solvers and poor problem solvers in advanced physics (N=8) were significantly different in their ability in translating, planning, and physical reasoning, as well as in problem solving time; no differences in reliance on algebraic solutions and checking problems were noted. Implications for physics teaching are discussed. (DH)

  3. Economic and physical determinants of the global distributions of crop pests and pathogens.

    Bebber, Daniel P; Holmes, Timothy; Smith, David; Gurr, Sarah J

    2014-05-01

    Crop pests and pathogens pose a significant and growing threat to food security, but their geographical distributions are poorly understood. We present a global analysis of pest and pathogen distributions, to determine the roles of socioeconomic and biophysical factors in determining pest diversity, controlling for variation in observational capacity among countries. Known distributions of 1901 pests and pathogens were obtained from CABI. Linear models were used to partition the variation in pest species per country amongst predictors. Reported pest numbers increased with per capita gross domestic product (GDP), research expenditure and research capacity, and the influence of economics was greater in micro-organisms than in arthropods. Total crop production and crop diversity were the strongest physical predictors of pest numbers per country, but trade and tourism were insignificant once other factors were controlled. Islands reported more pests than mainland countries, but no latitudinal gradient in species richness was evident. Country wealth is likely to be a strong indicator of observational capacity, not just trade flow, as has been interpreted in invasive species studies. If every country had US levels of per capita GDP, then 205 ± 9 additional pests per country would be reported, suggesting that enhanced investment in pest observations will reveal the hidden threat of crop pests and pathogens. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Environmental satisfaction and adaptability : the Physical Ambience Rose as a global comfort representation

    Demers, C.M.H.; Potvin, A.; Dubois, M.C. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). GRAP Groupe de recherche en ambiances physiques; Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). School of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a new graphical tool for architects. The Physical Ambience Rose (PAR) provides a record of the occupants' global environmental satisfaction and adaptability. A PAR representation takes into account all senses commonly at play in spatial perception, namely thermal, visual, acoustical and olfactory. Each of these 4 environmental stimuli can be qualified by the user to provide a representation of the perceived environmental satisfaction of a building. PAR can be generated for either individuals or groups of occupants and their interaction with the building. The satisfaction scale therefore varies from very pleasant, to neutral, and intolerable according to the level of quality, scale and duration of the thermal, luminous, visual and olfactory stimuli. The paper presents the methodology that led to the development of this representation tool. The tool was used in a post-occupancy evaluation of a bioclimatic administrative building in Montreal. The overall environmental conditions at the building were highly praised, ranging from neutral to very pleasant. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Handbook of natural language processing and machine translation DARPA global autonomous language exploitation

    Olive, Joseph P; McCary, John

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook, written by leading experts in the field, details the groundbreaking research conducted under the breakthrough GALE program - The Global Autonomous Language Exploitation within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), while placing it in the context of previous research in the fields of natural language and signal processing, artificial intelligence and machine translation. The most fundamental contrast between GALE and its predecessor programs was its holistic integration of previously separate or sequential processes. In earlier language research pro

  6. Research on Remote Sensing Image Template Processing Based on Global Subdivision Theory

    Xiong Delan; Du Genyuan

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the questions of vast data, complex operation, and time consuming processing for remote sensing image, subdivision template was proposed based on global subdivision theory, which can set up high level of abstraction and generalization for remote sensing image. The paper emphatically discussed the model and structure of subdivision template, and put forward some new ideas for remote sensing image template processing, key technology and quickly applied demonstration. The research has ...

  7. Global map of physical interactions among differentially expressed genes in multiple sclerosis relapses and remissions.

    Tuller, Tamir; Atar, Shimshi; Ruppin, Eytan; Gurevich, Michael; Achiron, Anat

    2011-09-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system autoimmune inflammatory T-cell-mediated disease with a relapsing-remitting course in the majority of patients. In this study, we performed a high-resolution systems biology analysis of gene expression and physical interactions in MS relapse and remission. To this end, we integrated 164 large-scale measurements of gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients in relapse or remission and healthy subjects, with large-scale information about the physical interactions between these genes obtained from public databases. These data were analyzed with a variety of computational methods. We find that there is a clear and significant global network-level signal that is related to the changes in gene expression of MS patients in comparison to healthy subjects. However, despite the clear differences in the clinical symptoms of MS patients in relapse versus remission, the network level signal is weaker when comparing patients in these two stages of the disease. This result suggests that most of the genes have relatively similar expression levels in the two stages of the disease. In accordance with previous studies, we found that the pathways related to regulation of cell death, chemotaxis and inflammatory response are differentially expressed in the disease in comparison to healthy subjects, while pathways related to cell adhesion, cell migration and cell-cell signaling are activated in relapse in comparison to remission. However, the current study includes a detailed report of the exact set of genes involved in these pathways and the interactions between them. For example, we found that the genes TP53 and IL1 are 'network-hub' that interacts with many of the differentially expressed genes in MS patients versus healthy subjects, and the epidermal growth factor receptor is a 'network-hub' in the case of MS patients with relapse versus remission. The statistical approaches employed in this study enabled us

  8. Caffeine promotes global spatial processing in habitual and non-habitual caffeine consumers

    Grace E. Giles

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Information processing is generally biased toward global cues, often at the expense of local information. Equivocal extant data suggests that arousal states may accentuate either a local or global processing bias, at least partially dependent on the nature of the manipulation, task and stimuli. To further differentiate the conditions responsible for such equivocal results we varied caffeine doses to alter physiological arousal states and measured their effect on tasks requiring the retrieval of local versus global spatial knowledge. In a double-blind, repeated-measures design, non-habitual (Exp. 1; N=36, M=42.5±29 mg/day caffeine and habitual (Exp. 2; N=34, M=579.5±311.5 mg/day caffeine caffeine consumers completed four test sessions corresponding to each of four caffeine doses (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg. During each test session, participants consumed a capsule containing one of the three doses of caffeine or placebo, waited sixty minutes, and then completed two spatial tasks, one involving memorizing maps and one spatial descriptions. A spatial statement verification task tested local versus global spatial knowledge by differentially probing memory for proximal versus distal landmark relationships. On the map learning task, results indicated that caffeine enhanced memory for distal (i.e. global compared to proximal (i.e. local comparisons at 100 (marginal, 200, and 400 mg caffeine in non-habitual consumers, and marginally beginning at 200 mg caffeine in habitual consumers. On the spatial descriptions task, caffeine enhanced memory for distal compared to proximal comparisons beginning at 100 mg in non-habitual but not habitual consumers. We thus provide evidence that caffeine-induced physiological arousal amplifies global spatial processing biases, and these effects are at least partially driven by habitual caffeine consumption.

  9. Reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from global dairy processing facilities

    Xu Tengfang, E-mail: ttxu@lbl.go [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Flapper, Joris [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen, IVEM, Nijenborgh 4, 9747, AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Global butter, concentrated milk, and milk powder products use approximately 15% of annual raw milk production. Similar to cheese and fluid milk, dairy processing of these products can be energy intensive. In this paper, we analyzed production and energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on butter, concentrated milk, milk and whey powder processing across various countries and plants. Magnitudes of national final and primary specific energy consumption (SEC) exhibited large variations across dairy products; in addition, the final SEC of individual plants and products exhibited significant variations within a country and between countries. Furthermore, we quantified national energy intensity indicators (EIIs) accounting for dairy product mixes and technological advancement. The significant variations of SEC and EII values indicate a high degree of likelihood that there is significant potential for energy savings in the global dairy processing industry. Based upon the study samples, we estimate potential energy savings for dairy processing industry in selected countries, and estimates annual reduction of 9-14 million metric-ton carbon-equivalent could be achieved if measures are implemented to lower SEC values by 50-80% in half of global dairy plants. The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry. - Research highlights: {yields} The specific energy consumption exhibited large variations across dairy products, plants, and countries. {yields} National energy intensity indicators also exhibited significant variations. {yields} There is a large global potential for energy savings and carbon reduction in dairy processing plants. {yields} The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry.

  10. Evaluation of physical facilities and processing operations of major ...

    ... of these abattoirs were evaluated based on their presence and functional status. ... of safe and wholesome meat and meat products for human consumption. Keywords: Abattoir, Butcher, Meat, Physical facilities, Public health, Standard ...

  11. The mediating effect of global self-worth on physical activity in African-American adolescent females.

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M

    2009-07-01

    Having an excess of body fat has been identified as a predictor for participatory frequency in physical activity, a behavior that influences the development and persistence of obesity. However, the psychological factors that contribute to this pathway have not been as easily identified. This is particularly significant for population subgroups that are not only uniquely impacted by obesity-related morbidities but who are underrepresented in research as well. This study sample consisted of African-American adolescent females (N = 310), from 14 to 18 years of age, who were recruited from the urban South. Data obtained from self-reported and demographic questionnaires, as well as from anthropometric measurements, were analyzed to explore the mediating effect of global self-worth between BMI and physical activity. Mediation analysis revealed that 2% of the influence that BMI exerts on how frequently African-American adolescent females engaged in physical activity can be attributed to global self-worth.

  12. Global vibrations in the wetwell condensation process caused by LOCA in BWR plants

    Bjoerndahl, O.; Andersson, Magnus

    1998-12-01

    During the last years a substantial part of third part review work related to dynamical loadings has been review of loading specifications dealing with vibrations in containment building related to so called LOCA-events in Swedish BWR plants. Compared to other loading categories characterised as global vibrations these secondary effects of LOCA-events are complex to analyse. One experience from the review work at SAQ up to now is that it is not fully clear what prediction methods and what model idealisations are the most adequate for structural integrity verification on mechanical systems as pressure vessels and piping under such loading conditions. At SAQ Teknik a project work has been carried out to investigate the general status of the methodology used today in Sweden and a work to in the long term develop simplified prediction models and methods for the loading categories condensation oscillations (CO) and chugging (CH). The work was initially concentrated on a study of the background of the methodology which was developed for these type of loading in American BWR-containments of the Mark-II design. The methodology was developed by General Electric, GE, in cooperation with the Mark-II plant owners. The methodology used in Sweden to predict vibrations in BWR containments of this design is with some minor modifications very close to technique developed by GE. The methodology developed by GE is the only accepted by USNRC for the Mark-II design and could be found as reference in Standard Review Plan 6.2.1.1.C, Rev 6 - August 1984. Based on identical physical assumptions about the dynamic behaviour of the building structure and the water in the suppression pool, mathematical models are derived in this report for predictions of secondary structure response spectra for loading conditions as global vibrations during CO and CH. Based on parameters identified by so called one pipe experiments responses my be predicted. By use of these derived mathematical models as a

  13. Reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from global dairy processing facilities

    Xu, Tengfang [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Flapper, Joris [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen, IVEM, Nijenborgh 4, 9747, AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Global butter, concentrated milk, and milk powder products use approximately 15% of annual raw milk production. Similar to cheese and fluid milk, dairy processing of these products can be energy intensive. In this paper, we analyzed production and energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on butter, concentrated milk, milk and whey powder processing across various countries and plants. Magnitudes of national final and primary specific energy consumption (SEC) exhibited large variations across dairy products; in addition, the final SEC of individual plants and products exhibited significant variations within a country and between countries. Furthermore, we quantified national energy intensity indicators (EIIs) accounting for dairy product mixes and technological advancement. The significant variations of SEC and EII values indicate a high degree of likelihood that there is significant potential for energy savings in the global dairy processing industry. Based upon the study samples, we estimate potential energy savings for dairy processing industry in selected countries, and estimates annual reduction of 9-14 million metric-ton carbon-equivalent could be achieved if measures are implemented to lower SEC values by 50-80% in half of global dairy plants. The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry. (author)

  14. Constructing Consistent Multiscale Scenarios by Transdisciplinary Processes: the Case of Mountain Regions Facing Global Change

    Fridolin Simon. Brand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpine regions in Europe, in particular, face demanding local challenges, e.g., the decline in the agriculture and timber industries, and are also prone to global changes, such as in climate, with potentially severe impacts on tourism. We focus on the Visp region in the Upper Valais, Switzerland, and ask how the process of stakeholder involvement in research practice can contribute to a better understanding of the specific challenges and future development of mountainous regions under global change. Based on a coupled human-environment system (HES perspective, we carried out a formative scenario analysis to develop a set of scenarios for the future directions of the Visp region. In addition, we linked these regional scenarios to context scenarios developed at the global and Swiss levels via an external consistency analysis. This method allows the coupling of both the scenario building process and the scenarios as such. We used a functional-dynamic approach to theory-practice cooperation, i.e., the involvement of key stakeholders from, for example, tourism, forestry, and administration, differed in type and intensity during the steps of the research process. In our study, we experienced strong problem awareness among the stakeholders concerning the impacts of global change and local challenges. The guiding research question was commonly defined and problem ownership was more or less balanced. We arrived at six multiscale scenarios that open up future trajectories for the Visp region, and present generic strategies to cope with global and local challenges. The results show that local identity, spatial planning, community budget, and demographic development are important steering elements in the region's future development. We suggest that method-guided transdisciplinary processes result in a richer picture and a more systemic understanding, which enable a discussion of critical and surprising issues.

  15. INSPIRE: Managing Metadata in a Global Digital Library for High-Energy Physics

    Martin Montull, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Four leading laboratories in the High-Energy Physics (HEP) field are collaborating to roll-out the next-generation scientific information portal: INSPIRE. The goal of this project is to replace the popular 40 year-old SPIRES database. INSPIRE already provides access to about 1 million records and includes services such as fulltext search, automatic keyword assignment, ingestion and automatic display of LaTeX, citation analysis, automatic author disambiguation, metadata harvesting, extraction of figures from fulltext and search in figure captions. In order to achieve high quality metadata both automatic processing and manual curation are needed. The different tools available in the system use modern web technologies to provide the curators of the maximum efficiency, while dealing with the MARC standard format. The project is under heavy development in order to provide new features including semantic analysis, crowdsourcing of metadata curation, user tagging, recommender systems, integration of OAIS standards a...

  16. Physical health of the student as the main value of pedagogical process

    Deminskaya L.A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The features of physical health of students are considered. Factors which influence on the physical health of children of school age are rotined. Methodical experience of teachers of physical education is presented. It is determined maintenance of concept «Physical health». The methods of estimation of the functional state of organism of schoolboys are selected. It is set that the axiological going near the health of students requires knowledge of methods of control after the functional state of organism and methods of development of physical health. It is marked that the modern teacher of physical education can not execute the educational, educate and health tasks of pedagogical process without knowledge of level of development of physical health and physical preparedness of students. It is marked that the modern teacher of physical education must know and able to estimate the indexes of physical health and physical preparedness of organism of children level.

  17. SU-F-P-09: A Global Medical Physics Collaboration for Implementation of Modern Radiotherapy in Botswana

    Makufa, R; Bvochora-Nsingo, M; Karumekayi, T; Schneider, RJ; Efstathiou, JA; Gierga, DP; Dryden-Peterson, S; Odom, A; Shulman, A; Pipman, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The global burden of cancer is considerable, particularly in low and middle-income countries. Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute have partnered with the oncology community and government of Botswana to form BOTSOGO (BOTSwana Oncology Global Outreach) to address the rising burden of cancer in Botswana. Currently, radiation therapy (RT) is only available at a single linear accelerator (LINAC) in Gaborone Private Hospital (GPH). BOTSOGO worked to limit the absence of RT during a LINAC upgrade and ensure a safe transition to modern radiotherapy techniques. Methods: The existing Elekta Precise LINAC was decommissioned in November 2015 and replaced with a new Elekta VERSA-HD with IMRT/VMAT/CBCT capability. Upgraded treatment planning and record-and-verify systems were also installed. Physicists from GPH and MGH collaborated during an intensive on-site visit in Botswana during the commissioning process. Measurements were performed using newly purchased Sun Nuclear equipment. Photon beams were matched with an existing model to minimize the time needed for beam modeling and machine down time. Additional remote peer review was also employed. Independent dosimetry was performed by irradiating OSLDs, which were subsequently analyzed at MGH. Results: Photon beam quality agreed with reference data within 0.2%. Electron beam data agreed with example clinical data within 3%. Absolute dose calibration was performed using both IAEA and AAPM protocols. Absolute dose measurements with OSLDs agreed within 5%. Quentry cloud-based software was installed to facilitate remote review of treatment plans. Patient treatments resumed in February 2016. The time without RT was reduced, therefore likely resulting in reduced patient morbidity/mortality. Conclusion: A global physics collaboration was utilized to commission a modern LINAC in a resource-constrained setting. This can be a useful model in other areas with limited resources. Further use of

  18. SU-F-P-09: A Global Medical Physics Collaboration for Implementation of Modern Radiotherapy in Botswana

    Makufa, R; Bvochora-Nsingo, M; Karumekayi, T [Gaborone Private Hospital, Gaborone (Botswana); Schneider, RJ [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Efstathiou, JA; Gierga, DP [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Dryden-Peterson, S [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Odom, A [Associates in Medical Physics, Louisville, KY (United States); Shulman, A [Hamad Medical Corporation, Shelbyville, TN (United States); Pipman, Y [Forest Hills, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The global burden of cancer is considerable, particularly in low and middle-income countries. Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute have partnered with the oncology community and government of Botswana to form BOTSOGO (BOTSwana Oncology Global Outreach) to address the rising burden of cancer in Botswana. Currently, radiation therapy (RT) is only available at a single linear accelerator (LINAC) in Gaborone Private Hospital (GPH). BOTSOGO worked to limit the absence of RT during a LINAC upgrade and ensure a safe transition to modern radiotherapy techniques. Methods: The existing Elekta Precise LINAC was decommissioned in November 2015 and replaced with a new Elekta VERSA-HD with IMRT/VMAT/CBCT capability. Upgraded treatment planning and record-and-verify systems were also installed. Physicists from GPH and MGH collaborated during an intensive on-site visit in Botswana during the commissioning process. Measurements were performed using newly purchased Sun Nuclear equipment. Photon beams were matched with an existing model to minimize the time needed for beam modeling and machine down time. Additional remote peer review was also employed. Independent dosimetry was performed by irradiating OSLDs, which were subsequently analyzed at MGH. Results: Photon beam quality agreed with reference data within 0.2%. Electron beam data agreed with example clinical data within 3%. Absolute dose calibration was performed using both IAEA and AAPM protocols. Absolute dose measurements with OSLDs agreed within 5%. Quentry cloud-based software was installed to facilitate remote review of treatment plans. Patient treatments resumed in February 2016. The time without RT was reduced, therefore likely resulting in reduced patient morbidity/mortality. Conclusion: A global physics collaboration was utilized to commission a modern LINAC in a resource-constrained setting. This can be a useful model in other areas with limited resources. Further use of

  19. Self-Orientation Modulates the Neural Correlates of Global and Local Processing.

    Liddell, Belinda J; Das, Pritha; Battaglini, Eva; Malhi, Gin S; Felmingham, Kim L; Whitford, Thomas J; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Differences in self-orientation (or "self-construal") may affect how the visual environment is attended, but the neural and cultural mechanisms that drive this remain unclear. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that people from Western backgrounds with predominant individualistic values are perceptually biased towards local-level information; whereas people from non-Western backgrounds that support collectivist values are preferentially focused on contextual and global-level information. In this study, we compared two groups differing in predominant individualistic (N = 15) vs collectivistic (N = 15) self-orientation. Participants completed a global/local perceptual conflict task whilst undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanning. When participants high in individualistic values attended to the global level (ignoring the local level), greater activity was observed in the frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular networks that underpin attentional control, compared to the match (congruent) baseline. Participants high in collectivistic values activated similar attentional control networks o only when directly compared with global processing. This suggests that global interference was stronger than local interference in the conflict task in the collectivistic group. Both groups showed increased activity in dorsolateral prefrontal regions involved in resolving perceptual conflict during heightened distractor interference. The findings suggest that self-orientation may play an important role in driving attention networks to facilitate interaction with the visual environment.

  20. Understanding system disturbance and ecosystem services in restored saltmarshes: Integrating physical and biogeochemical processes

    Spencer, K. L.; Harvey, G. L.

    2012-06-01

    Coastal saltmarsh ecosystems occupy only a small percentage of Earth's land surface, yet contribute a wide range of ecosystem services that have significant global economic and societal value. These environments currently face significant challenges associated with climate change, sea level rise, development and water quality deterioration and are consequently the focus of a range of management schemes. Increasingly, soft engineering techniques such as managed realignment (MR) are being employed to restore and recreate these environments, driven primarily by the need for habitat (re)creation and sustainable coastal flood defence. Such restoration schemes also have the potential to provide additional ecosystem services including climate regulation and waste processing. However, these sites have frequently been physically impacted by their previous land use and there is a lack of understanding of how this 'disturbance' impacts the delivery of ecosystem services or of the complex linkages between ecological, physical and biogeochemical processes in restored systems. Through the exploration of current data this paper determines that hydrological, geomorphological and hydrodynamic functioning of restored sites may be significantly impaired with respects to natural 'undisturbed' systems and that links between morphology, sediment structure, hydrology and solute transfer are poorly understood. This has consequences for the delivery of seeds, the provision of abiotic conditions suitable for plant growth, the development of microhabitats and the cycling of nutrients/contaminants and may impact the delivery of ecosystem services including biodiversity, climate regulation and waste processing. This calls for a change in our approach to research in these environments with a need for integrated, interdisciplinary studies over a range of spatial and temporal scales incorporating both intensive and extensive research design.

  1. Sci-Fri AM: Quality, Safety, and Professional Issues 07: Global Medical Physics Efforts: Closing the Gap

    Van Dyk, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There is an increasing awareness of the disparity in Medical Physics needs between high income countries (HICs) and low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). This is especially evident with the growing incidence of cancer in LMICs. Projections from the recent Lancet Oncology Commission on Expanding Global Access to Radiotherapy indicate that an additional 22,000 Medical Physicists will be required by 2035 to provide uniform access to radiation therapy globally. This paper addresses possibilities and challenges associated with closing the Medical Physics gap between HICs and LMICs. Methods: Medical Physics and Oncology related organizations involved in providing support to enhance cancer therapy in LMICs were reviewed, especially as related to education, training and human resource development. Results: More than 35 organizations involved in addressing the cancer crisis in LMICs were found. Of these, 16 involve Medical Physics activities, with 7 being specific Medical Physics-related organizations. Ten of the 16 are involved in some LMIC activities with 6 having a major emphasis on LMIC contexts. Conclusions: The development of Medical Physics human resource capacity is a major challenge for LMICs. Fifty-five countries have no radiation therapy capabilities and by implication no capacity to train Medical Physicists. Overt attention with structured and altruistic actions by HIC contexts will help make inroads into the LMIC needs. Clear options throughout career structures in support of global health considerations combined with strong partnerships between interested parties in HICs and LMICs will enhance the development of safe and resource-appropriate strategies for advancing Medical Physics capabilities.

  2. Sci-Fri AM: Quality, Safety, and Professional Issues 07: Global Medical Physics Efforts: Closing the Gap

    Van Dyk, Jacob [Western University (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: There is an increasing awareness of the disparity in Medical Physics needs between high income countries (HICs) and low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). This is especially evident with the growing incidence of cancer in LMICs. Projections from the recent Lancet Oncology Commission on Expanding Global Access to Radiotherapy indicate that an additional 22,000 Medical Physicists will be required by 2035 to provide uniform access to radiation therapy globally. This paper addresses possibilities and challenges associated with closing the Medical Physics gap between HICs and LMICs. Methods: Medical Physics and Oncology related organizations involved in providing support to enhance cancer therapy in LMICs were reviewed, especially as related to education, training and human resource development. Results: More than 35 organizations involved in addressing the cancer crisis in LMICs were found. Of these, 16 involve Medical Physics activities, with 7 being specific Medical Physics-related organizations. Ten of the 16 are involved in some LMIC activities with 6 having a major emphasis on LMIC contexts. Conclusions: The development of Medical Physics human resource capacity is a major challenge for LMICs. Fifty-five countries have no radiation therapy capabilities and by implication no capacity to train Medical Physicists. Overt attention with structured and altruistic actions by HIC contexts will help make inroads into the LMIC needs. Clear options throughout career structures in support of global health considerations combined with strong partnerships between interested parties in HICs and LMICs will enhance the development of safe and resource-appropriate strategies for advancing Medical Physics capabilities.

  3. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  4. Matérn-based nonstationary cross-covariance models for global processes

    Jun, Mikyoung

    2014-07-01

    Many spatial processes in environmental applications, such as climate variables and climate model errors on a global scale, exhibit complex nonstationary dependence structure, in not only their marginal covariance but also their cross-covariance. Flexible cross-covariance models for processes on a global scale are critical for an accurate description of each spatial process as well as the cross-dependences between them and also for improved predictions. We propose various ways to produce cross-covariance models, based on the Matérn covariance model class, that are suitable for describing prominent nonstationary characteristics of the global processes. In particular, we seek nonstationary versions of Matérn covariance models whose smoothness parameters vary over space, coupled with a differential operators approach for modeling large-scale nonstationarity. We compare their performance to the performance of some existing models in terms of the aic and spatial predictions in two applications: joint modeling of surface temperature and precipitation, and joint modeling of errors in climate model ensembles. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Local and global processing in block design tasks in children with dyslexia or nonverbal learning disability.

    Cardillo, Ramona; Mammarella, Irene C; Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2017-05-01

    Visuo-constructive and perceptual abilities have been poorly investigated in children with learning disabilities. The present study focused on local or global visuospatial processing in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) and dyslexia compared with typically-developing (TD) controls. Participants were presented with a modified block design task (BDT), in both a typical visuo-constructive version that involves reconstructing figures from blocks, and a perceptual version in which respondents must rapidly match unfragmented figures with a corresponding fragmented target figure. The figures used in the tasks were devised by manipulating two variables: the perceptual cohesiveness and the task uncertainty, stimulating global or local processes. Our results confirmed that children with NLD had more problems with the visuo-constructive version of the task, whereas those with dyslexia showed only a slight difficulty with the visuo-constructive version, but were in greater difficulty with the perceptual version, especially in terms of response times. These findings are interpreted in relation to the slower visual processing speed of children with dyslexia, and to the visuo-constructive problems and difficulty in using flexibly-experienced global vs local processes of children with NLD. The clinical and educational implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities in a globalized world: challenges and trends

    A. A. Paronikian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the challenges and trends in integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities in the world of globalization. Established that ethnic disintegration is inevitable consequence of ethnic integration, and its intensity depends on what method is carried Integration: voluntary or forced. What is important is the fact that in the era of globalization integration and disintegration processes of ethnic communities that are inherent in the very essence of ethnicity, greatly amplified. It was found that entering to the cultural field of ethnic communities of other ethnic entities, penalized sustainable ethnic balance, contributes to the phenomenon of «rejection of other» causes of ethnic conflict and the consequent threat of disintegration of ethnic communities. Disintegration often leads to weakening of the linkages and interactions between components of the integrated system in a multi-ethnic society. However, the author concludes that the process of disintegration cannot be regarded as unambiguously negative because, on the one hand, it contributes to the weakening and decline; and sometimes division of multi-ethnic countries, but on the other hand - it contributes to the birth of the new and revival of the old nation-states, which is particularly important in conditions of transformation of the global community towards the post-industrial and information epoch in the future. In general, the integration and disintegration change each other depending on global processes and their transformations. Therefore, in the era of globalization’s challenges it is important is the effective management of these processes to prevent adverse effects.

  7. Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system.

    Monteiro, C A; Moubarac, J-C; Cannon, G; Ng, S W; Popkin, B

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the global food system and the worldwide rapid increase of obesity and related diseases is not yet well understood. A reason is that the full impact of industrialized food processing on dietary patterns, including the environments of eating and drinking, remains overlooked and underestimated. Many forms of food processing are beneficial. But what is identified and defined here as ultra-processing, a type of process that has become increasingly dominant, at first in high-income countries, and now in middle-income countries, creates attractive, hyper-palatable, cheap, ready-to-consume food products that are characteristically energy-dense, fatty, sugary or salty and generally obesogenic. In this study, the scale of change in purchase and sales of ultra-processed products is examined and the context and implications are discussed. Data come from 79 high- and middle-income countries, with special attention to Canada and Brazil. Results show that ultra-processed products dominate the food supplies of high-income countries, and that their consumption is now rapidly increasing in middle-income countries. It is proposed here that the main driving force now shaping the global food system is transnational food manufacturing, retailing and fast food service corporations whose businesses are based on very profitable, heavily promoted ultra-processed products, many in snack form. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. ROLE OF MEGALOPOLISES IN SOCIO-PHILOSOPHICAL COMPREHENSION OF GLOBALIZATION PROCESS

    Nistarova Anna Aleksandrovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In her article the author tries to establish linkage between the events that took place at the turn of the 20th – 21st centuries and the aspiration of some countries for negating or limiting their jurisdiction with respect to international law due to the international bipolar system disintegration. It should be noted that the globalization, regionalization and glocalization processes are detected as new phenomenon that arouse as a result of international relations system evolution. The article reveals socio-philosophical content of globalization phenomenon in the nature of both spatial and civilization development of the modern world. The author highlights the necessity of theoretical basis generation so that to favour scientific discourse on the globalization issues in the light of new actors (megalopolises in the international relations system. Laying stress on the major cities as the international activity centers, the author emphasizes the requirement for comprehensive analysis of their involvement into the transformation processes. The intensification of local against global actors’ position is indicated by the author in the article. It points to the research of their social and political role as a new not yet generated investigation form within the bounds of philosophical science, and it favors preservation of peace integrity.

  9. ROLE OF MEGALOPOLISES IN SOCIO-PHILOSOPHICAL COMPREHENSION OF GLOBALIZATION PROCESS

    Анна Александровна Нистарова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In her article the author tries to establish linkage between the events that took place at the turn of the 20th – 21st centuries and the aspiration of some countries for negating or limiting their jurisdiction with respect to international law due to the international bipolar system disintegration. It should be noted that the globalization, regionalization and glocalization processes are detected as new phenomenon that arouse as a result of international relations system evolution. The article reveals socio-philosophical content of globalization phenomenon in the nature of both spatial and civilization development of the modern world. The author highlights the necessity of theoretical basis generation so that to favour scientific discourse on the globalization issues in the light of new actors (megalopolises in the international relations system. Laying stress on the major cities as the international activity centers, the author emphasizes the requirement for comprehensive analysis of their involvement into the transformation processes. The intensification of local against global actors’ position is indicated by the author in the article. It points to the research of their social and political role as a new not yet generated investigation form within the bounds of philosophical science, and it favors preservation of peace integrity.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-4

  10. Evaluating the Credibility of Transport Processes in Simulations of Ozone Recovery using the Global Modeling Initiative Three-dimensional Model

    Strahan, Susan E.; Douglass, Anne R.

    2004-01-01

    The Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) has integrated two 36-year simulations of an ozone recovery scenario with an offline chemistry and tra nsport model using two different meteorological inputs. Physically ba sed diagnostics, derived from satellite and aircraft data sets, are d escribed and then used to evaluate the realism of temperature and transport processes in the simulations. Processes evaluated include barri er formation in the subtropics and polar regions, and extratropical w ave-driven transport. Some diagnostics are especially relevant to sim ulation of lower stratospheric ozone, but most are applicable to any stratospheric simulation. The global temperature evaluation, which is relevant to gas phase chemical reactions, showed that both sets of me teorological fields have near climatological values at all latitudes and seasons at 30 hPa and below. Both simulations showed weakness in upper stratospheric wave driving. The simulation using input from a g eneral circulation model (GMI(GCM)) showed a very good residual circulation in the tropics and Northern Hemisphere. The simulation with inp ut from a data assimilation system (GMI(DAS)) performed better in the midlatitudes than it did at high latitudes. Neither simulation forms a realistic barrier at the vortex edge, leading to uncertainty in the fate of ozone-depleted vortex air. Overall, tracer transport in the offline GML(GCM) has greater fidelity throughout the stratosphere tha n it does in the GMI(DAS)

  11. Contributing to global computing platform: gliding, tunneling standard services and high energy physics application

    Lodygensky, O.

    2006-09-01

    Centralized computers have been replaced by 'client/server' distributed architectures which are in turn in competition with new distributed systems known as 'peer to peer'. These new technologies are widely spread, and trading, industry and the research world have understood the new goals involved and massively invest around these new technologies, named 'grid'. One of the fields is about calculating. This is the subject of the works presented here. At the Paris Orsay University, a synergy emerged between the Computing Science Laboratory (LRI) and the Linear Accelerator Laboratory (LAL) on grid infrastructure, opening new investigations fields for the first and new high computing perspective for the other. Works presented here are the results of this multi-discipline collaboration. They are based on XtremWeb, the LRI global computing platform. We first introduce a state of the art of the large scale distributed systems, its principles, its architecture based on services. We then introduce XtremWeb and detail modifications and improvements we had to specify and implement to achieve our goals. We present two different studies, first interconnecting grids in order to generalize resource sharing and secondly, be able to use legacy services on such platforms. We finally explain how a research community like the community of high energy cosmic radiation detection can gain access to these services and detail Monte Carlos and data analysis processes over the grids. (author)

  12. NASA/MSFC FY91 Global Scale Atmospheric Processes Research Program Review

    Leslie, Fred W. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The reports presented at the annual Marshall Research Review of Earth Science and Applications are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: understanding of atmospheric processes in a variety of spatial and temporal scales; measurements of geophysical parameters; measurements on a global scale from space; the Mission to Planet Earth Program (comprised of and Earth Observation System and the scientific strategy to analyze these data); and satellite data analysis and fundamental studies of atmospheric dynamics.

  13. Optimization Case Study: ISR Allocation in the Global Force Management Process

    2016-09-01

    assets available to meet the GCC requirements. The Joint Staff, in concert with USSTRATCOM, use many factors to prioritize allocation of assets to...include determining which GCC gets the assets and for how long. The decision influencers recommend a resource allocation solution based on experience...The allocation process illustrated in Figure 1 is the OV-1 diagram from the Joint Staff Global Force Management Enterprise Integration

  14. Global and Local Page Replacement Algorithms on Virtual Memory Systems for Image Processing

    WADA, Ben Tsutom

    1985-01-01

    Three virtual memory systems for image processing, different one another in frame allocation algorithms and page replacement algorithms, were examined experimentally upon their page-fault characteristics. The hypothesis, that global page replacement algorithms are susceptible to thrashing, held in the raster scan experiment, while it did not in another non raster-scan experiment. The results of the experiments may be useful also in making parallel image processors more efficient, while they a...

  15. Processes of social flourishing and their liminal collapse: elements to a genealogy of globalization.

    Szakolczai, Arpad

    2016-09-01

    This article aims at exploring a long-term historical perspective on which contemporary globalization can be more meaningfully situated. A central problem with established approaches to globalization is that they are even more presentist than the literature on modernization was. Presentism not only means the ignoring of history, but also the unreflective application to history of concepts taken from the study of the modern world. In contrast, it is argued that contemporary globalization is not a unique development, but rather is a concrete case of a historical type. Taking as its point of departure the spirit, rather than the word, of Max Weber, this article extends the scope of sociological investigation into archaeological evidence. Having a genealogical design and introducing the concept of 'liminality', the article approaches the modern process of globalization through reconstructing the internal dynamics of another type of historical change called 'social flourishing'. Taking up the Weberian approach continued by Eisenstadt in his writings on 'axial age', it moves away from situations of crisis as reference point, shifting attention to periods of revival by introducing the term 'epiphany'. Through the case of early Mesopotamia, it shows how social flourishing can be transmogrified into globalizing growth, gaining a new perspective concerning the kind of 'animating spirit' that might have driven the shift from Renaissance to Reformation, the rise of modern colonialism, or contemporary globalization. More generally, it will retrieve the long-term historical background of the axial age and demonstrate the usefulness and importance of archaeological evidence for sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  16. The global chemical systematics of arc front stratovolcanoes: Evaluating the role of crustal processes

    Turner, Stephen J.; Langmuir, Charles H.

    2015-07-01

    Petrogenetic models for convergent margins should be consistent with the global systematics of convergent margin volcanic compositions. A newly developed tool for compiling and screening data from the GEOROC database was used to generate a global dataset of whole rock chemical analyses from arc front stratovolcano samples. Data from 227 volcanoes within 31 volcanic arc segments were first averaged by volcano and then by arc to explore global systematics. Three different methods of data normalization produce consistent results that persist across a wide range of Mg# [Mg# =Mg / (Mg +Fe) ]. Remarkably coherent systematics are present among major and trace element concentrations and ratios, with the exception of three arcs influenced by mantle plumes and Peru/N. Chile, which is built on exceptionally thick crust. Chemical parameters also correlate with the thickness of the overlying arc crust. In addition to previously established correlations of Na6.0 with Ca6.0 and crustal thickness, correlations are observed among major elements, trace elements, and trace element ratios (e.g. La/Yb, Dy/Yb, Zr/Sm, Zr/Ti). Positive correlations include "fluid mobile," "high field strength," and "large ion lithophile" element groups, with concentrations that vary by a factor of five in all groups. Incompatible element enrichments also correlate well with crustal thickness, with the greatest enrichment found at arcs with the thickest crust. Intra-crustal processes, however, do not reproduce the global variations. High pressure fractionation produces intermediate magmas enriched in aluminum, but such magmas are rare. Furthermore, differences among magma compositions at various volcanic arcs persist from primitive to evolved compositions, which is inconsistent with the possibility that global variations are produced by crystal fractionation at any pressure. Linear relationships among elements appear to be consistent with mixing between depleted primary magma and an enriched contaminant

  17. The Process of Physics Teaching Assistants' Pedagogical Content Knowledge Development

    Seung, Eulsun

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the process of physics teaching assistants' (TAs) PCK development in the context of teaching a new undergraduate introductory physics course. "Matter and Interactions" (M&I) has recently adopted a new introductory physics course that focuses on the application of a small number of fundamental physical…

  18. Modeling Physical Processes at Galactic Scales and Above

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-12-16

    What should these lectures be? The subject is so broad that many books can be written about it. I decided to prepare these lectures as if I were teaching my own graduate student. Given my research interests, I selected what the student would need to know to be able to discuss science with me and to work on joint research projects. So, the story presented below is both personal and incomplete, but it does cover several subjects that are poorly represented in the existing textbooks (if at all). Some of topics I focus on below are closely connected, others are disjoint, some are just side detours on specific technical questions. There is an overlapping theme, however. Our goal is to follow the cosmic gas from large scales, low densities, (relatively) simple physics to progressively smaller scales, higher densities, closer relation to galaxies, and more complex and uncertain physics. We follow a "yellow brick road" from the gas well beyond any galaxy confines to the actual sites of star formation and stellar feedback. On the way we will stop at some places for a tour and run without looking back through some others. So, the road will be uneven. The organization of the material is as follows: physics of the intergalactic medium, from intergalactic medium to circumgalactic medium, interstellar medium: gas in galaxies, star formation, and stellar feedback.

  19. GLN standard as a facilitator of physical location identification within process of distribution

    Davor Dujak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distribution, from the business point of view, is a set of decisions and actions that will provide the right products at the right time and place, in line with customer expectations. It is a process that generates significant cost, but also effectively implemented, significantly affects the positive perception of the company. Institute of Logistics and Warehousing (IliM, based on the research results related to the optimization of the distribution network and consulting projects for companies, indicates the high importance of the correct description of the physical location within the supply chains in order to make transport processes more effective. Individual companies work on their own geocoding of warehouse locations and location of their business partners (suppliers, customers, but the lack of standardization in this area causes delays related to delivery problems with reaching the right destination. Furthermore, the cooperating companies do not have a precise indication of the operating conditions of each location, e.g. Time windows of the plant, logistic units accepted at parties, supported transport etc. Lack of this information generates additional costs associated with re-operation and the costs of lost benefits for the lack of goods on time. The solution to this problem seems to be a wide-scale implementation of GS1 standard which is the Global Location Number (GLN, that, thanks to a broad base of information will assist the distribution processes. Material and methods: The results of survey conducted among Polish companies in the second half of 2016 indicate an unsatisfactory degree of implementation of the transport processes, resulting from incorrect or inaccurate description of the location, and thus, a significant number of errors in deliveries. Accordingly, authors studied literature and examined case studies indicating the possibility of using GLN standard to identify the physical location and to show the

  20. Relations between perceptual and conceptual scope: how global versus local processing fits a focus on similarity versus dissimilarity

    Förster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Nine studies showed a bidirectional link (a) between a global processing style and generation of similarities and (b) between a local processing style and generation of dissimilarities. In Experiments 1-4, participants were primed with global versus local perception styles and then asked to work on

  1. Performance of Globally Linearized Controller and Two Region Fuzzy Logic Controller on a Nonlinear Process

    N. Jaya

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a design and implementation of a Conventional PI controller, single region fuzzy logic controller, two region fuzzy logic controller and Globally Linearized Controller (GLC for a two capacity interacting nonlinear process is carried out. The performance of this process using single region FLC, two region FLC and GLC are compared with the performance of conventional PI controller about an operating point of 50 %. It has been observed that GLC and two region FLC provides better performance. Further, this procedure is also validated by real time experimentation using dSPACE.

  2. Global regionalized seismicity in view of Non-Extensive Statistical Physics

    Chochlaki, Kalliopi; Vallianatos, Filippos; Michas, Georgios

    2018-03-01

    In the present work we study the distribution of Earth's shallow seismicity on different seismic zones, as occurred from 1981 to 2011 and extracted from the Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) catalog. Our analysis is based on the subdivision of the Earth's surface into seismic zones that are homogeneous with regards to seismic activity and orientation of the predominant stress field. For this, we use the Flinn-Engdahl regionalization (FE) (Flinn and Engdahl, 1965), which consists of fifty seismic zones as modified by Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007). The latter authors grouped the 50 FE zones into larger tectonically homogeneous ones, utilizing the cumulative moment tensor method, resulting into thirty-nine seismic zones. In each one of these seismic zones we study the distribution of seismicity in terms of the frequency-magnitude distribution and the inter-event time distribution between successive earthquakes, a task that is essential for hazard assessments and to better understand the global and regional geodynamics. In our analysis we use non-extensive statistical physics (NESP), which seems to be one of the most adequate and promising methodological tools for analyzing complex systems, such as the Earth's seismicity, introducing the q-exponential formulation as the expression of probability distribution function that maximizes the Sq entropy as defined by Tsallis, (1988). The qE parameter is significantly greater than one for all the seismic regions analyzed with value range from 1.294 to 1.504, indicating that magnitude correlations are particularly strong. Furthermore, the qT parameter shows some temporal correlations but variations with cut-off magnitude show greater temporal correlations when the smaller magnitude earthquakes are included. The qT for earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5 takes values from 1.043 to 1.353 and as we increase the cut-off magnitude to 5.5 and 6 the qT value ranges from 1.001 to 1.242 and from 1.001 to 1.181 respectively, presenting

  3. [Sex differences in relationship between creativity and hemispheric information processing in global and local levels].

    Razumnikova, O M; Vol'f, N V

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in creativity related global-local hemispheric selective processing were examined by hierarchical letter presenting in conditions of their perception and comparison. Fifty-six right-handed males and 68 females (aged 17-22 years) participated in the experiments. Originality-imagery was assessed by a computer-based Torrance 'Incomplete Figures' test software. Verbal creativity was valued by original sentence using of three nouns from remote semantic categories. The results show that irrespectively of the sex factor and the type of creative thinking, its originality is provided by high speed of right-hemispheric processes of information selection on the global level and delay in the interhemispheric communication. Relationships between originality of ideas and hemispheric attentional characteristics are presented mostly in men while verbal creative problem solving, and in women while figurative original thinking. Originality of verbal activity in men is more associated with success of selective processes in the left hemisphere, but in women--with selective functions of both hemispheres. Figurative thinking in men is less related to hemispheric characteristics of attention compared with women. Increase of figurative originality in women is accompanied acceleration of processes of selection of the information in the right hemisphere, and also higher efficiency of local attention as well as speeds ofglobal processing in the left hemisphere.

  4. Global self-esteem, goal achievement orientations, and self-determined behavioural regulations in a physical education setting.

    Hein, Vello; Hagger, Martin S

    2007-01-15

    We examined a theoretical model of global self-esteem that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. The model hypothesized that self-determined or autonomous motives would mediate the influence of achievement goal orientation on global self-esteem. The adapted version of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (Mullan et al., 1997), the Perception of Success Questionnaire (Roberts & Balague, 1991), and Rosenberg's (1965) self-esteem scales were administered to 634 high school students aged 11 - 15 years. A structural equation model supported the hypotheses and demonstrated that autonomous motives mediated the effect of goal orientations on global self-esteem. The results suggest that generalized motivational orientations influence self-esteem by affecting autonomous motivation and is consistent with theory that suggests that experiences relating to intrinsic motivation are the mechanism by which global motivational orientations are translated into adaptive outcomes like self-esteem. The findings suggest that physical activity interventions that target autonomous motives in physical activity contexts are likely to enhance young people's general self-esteem.

  5. Theoretical and methodological foundation of the process of students’ physical training of higher educational institutions

    Pilipej L. P.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the existent system of physical education is considered in the higher institutes of Ukraine. Information of unsatisfactory level of physical preparedness of university entrants and graduating students of higher institutes is resulted. The lacks of construction of process of physical education are shown on the basis of normatively-command approach. Absence of the programs, which take into account motivation and terms of activity of higher institutes, disparity the requirements of integration in the river-bed of the Bologna Process, is shown. The analysis of publications is resulted in accordance with the modern scientific paradigm of construction of the system of physical education of students on the basis of methodology of synergetics. Information of the questionnaire questioning is utillized in research. Cross-correlation connections are presented between elements of physical education systems, which influence on efficiency of process. The basic requirements of construction of process of physical education of students of institutes of higher are set.

  6. A Trusted Autonomic Architecture to Safeguard Cyber-Physical Control Leaf Nodes and Protect Process Integrity

    Chiluvuri, Nayana Teja

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems are networked through IT infrastructure and susceptible to malware. Threats targeting process control are much more safety-critical than traditional computing systems since they jeopardize the integrity of physical infrastructure. Existing defence mechanisms address security at the network nodes but do not protect the physical infrastructure if network integrity is compromised. An interface guardian architecture is implemented on cyber-physical control leaf nodes to mai...

  7. The US Food and Drug Administration's tentative approval process and the global fight against HIV.

    Chahal, Harinder Singh; Murray, Jeffrey S; Shimer, Martin; Capella, Peter; Presto, Ryan; Valdez, Mary Lou; Lurie, Peter G

    2017-12-01

    In 2004, the US government began to utilize the Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) tentative approval process (tFDA) as a basis to determine which HIV drugs are appropriate to be purchased and used in resource-constrained settings. This process permits products that are not approved for marketing in the US, including medicines with active patents or marketing restrictions in the US, to be purchased and distributed in resource-constrained settings. Although the tFDA was originally intended to support the United States' President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the USFDA list has become a cornerstone of international HIV programmes that support procurement of ARVs, such as the World Health Organization and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. Our objective in this article is to help the global HIV policy makers and implementers of HIV programmes better understand the benefits and limitations of the tFDA by providing an in-depth review of the relevant legal and regulatory processes. USFDA's dedicated tFDA process for ARVs used by the PEPFAR programme has a wide impact globally; however, the implementation and the regulatory processes governing the programme have not been thoroughly described in the medical literature. This paper seeks to help stakeholders better understand the legal and regulatory aspects associated with review of ARVs under the tFDA by describing the following: (1) the tFDA and its importance to global ARV procurement; (2) the regulatory pathways for applications under tFDA for the PEPFAR programme, including modifications to applications, review timelines and costs; (3) the role of US patents, US marketing exclusivity rights, and the Medicines Patents Pool in tFDA; and (4) an overview of how applications for PEPFAR programme are processed through the USFDA. We also provide a case study of a new ARV, tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF), not yet reviewed by USFDA for PEPFAR use. In this paper, we describe the

  8. Basic physics of the fission process. Chapter 2

    Michaudon, A.

    1981-01-01

    A general description of the fission process is given with special emphasis on those aspects which are necessary for the understanding of the measurements and calculations of neutron-induced fission cross-sections. Having considered the various phases of the process, some typical properties of the low-energy fission of actinide nuclei are presented and the more specific features of neutron induced fission are examined. (U.K.)

  9. On Process Modelling Using Physical Oriented And Phenomena Based Principles

    Mihai Culea

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a modelling framework based on phenomena description of the process. The approach is taken to easy understand and construct process model in heterogeneous possible distributed modelling and simulation environments. A simplified case study of a heat exchanger is considered and Modelica modelling language to check the proposed concept. The partial results are promising and the research effort will be extended in a computer aided modelling environment based on phenomena.

  10. Physical Model-Based Investigation of Reservoir Sedimentation Processes

    Cheng-Chia Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is a serious problem in the operations of reservoirs. In Taiwan, the situation became worse after the Chi-Chi Earthquake recorded on 21 September 1999. The sediment trap efficiency in several regional reservoirs has been sharply increased, adversely affecting the operations on water supplies. According to the field record, the average annual sediment deposition observed in several regional reservoirs in Taiwan has been increased. For instance, the typhoon event recorded in 2008 at the Wushe Reservoir, Taiwan, produced a 3 m sediment deposit upstream of the dam. The remaining storage capacity in the Wushe Reservoir was reduced to 35.9% or a volume of 53.79 million m3 for flood water detention in 2010. It is urgent that research should be conducted to understand the sediment movement in the Wushe Reservoir. In this study, a scale physical model was built to reproduce the flood flow through the reservoir, investigate the long-term depositional pattern, and evaluate sediment trap efficiency. This allows us to estimate the residual life of the reservoir by proposing a modification of Brune’s method. It can be presented to predict the lifespan of Taiwan reservoirs due to higher applicability in both the physical model and the observed data.

  11. Circuit Mechanisms Governing Local vs. Global Motion Processing in Mouse Visual Cortex

    Rune Rasmussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A withstanding question in neuroscience is how neural circuits encode representations and perceptions of the external world. A particularly well-defined visual computation is the representation of global object motion by pattern direction-selective (PDS cells from convergence of motion of local components represented by component direction-selective (CDS cells. However, how PDS and CDS cells develop their distinct response properties is still unresolved. The visual cortex of the mouse is an attractive model for experimentally solving this issue due to the large molecular and genetic toolbox available. Although mouse visual cortex lacks the highly ordered orientation columns of primates, it is organized in functional sub-networks and contains striate- and extrastriate areas like its primate counterparts. In this Perspective article, we provide an overview of the experimental and theoretical literature on global motion processing based on works in primates and mice. Lastly, we propose what types of experiments could illuminate what circuit mechanisms are governing cortical global visual motion processing. We propose that PDS cells in mouse visual cortex appear as the perfect arena for delineating and solving how individual sensory features extracted by neural circuits in peripheral brain areas are integrated to build our rich cohesive sensory experiences.

  12. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, physical activity and tobacco use in Argentine youth: Global School-Based Student Health Survey and Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 2007-2012.

    Ferrante, Daniel; Linetzky, Bruno; Ponce, Miguel; Goldberg, Lucila; Konfino, Jonathan; Laspiur, Sebastián

    2014-12-01

    In 2007 and 2012, the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) were implemented to estimate the prevalence of risk behaviors and protection factors among 13 to 15 year-old adolescents. To assess changes in dietary, body weight, tobacco and physical activity indicators in the past five years. Cross-sectional study. A randomized, two-stage sampling with 600 schools selected at a national level was used. Students from randomly selected courses were invited to answer a self-administered questionnaire (either the GSHS or the GYTS). In 2012, the GSHS was completed by 20 697 students from 544 schools, while the GYTS was completed by 2062 students from 73 schools. Between 2007 and 2012, overweight and obesity prevalence significantly increased (overweight: 24.5% in 2007, 28.6% in 2012; obesity 4.4% in 2007, 5.9% in 2012), while the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food remained high. A slight improvement was observed in the level of physical activity (12.7% in 2007, 16.7% in 2012), although it remains below what is recommended. The prevalence of tobacco use was reduced (24.5% in 2007, 19.6% in 2012), but access to tobacco products and exposure to secondhand smoke remains high in public places, including schools. The spread of the overweight and obesity epidemic calls for a need to consolidate actions tending towards a healthy diet and physical activity. Despite a decrease in the prevalence of tobacco use, it is necessary to continue strengthening tobacco control actions.

  13. Adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, and peer liking.

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-01-01

    A three-wave longitudinal study among ethnically diverse preadolescents (N = 597 at Time 1, ages 9-11) was conducted to examine adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, victimization, and peer liking indexed by peer acceptance and friendships. A series of nested structural equation models tested the hypothesized links among these peer-domain factors. It was hypothesized that (1) relational aggression trails both adaptive and maladaptive processes, linking to more peer victimization and more peer liking, whereas physical aggression is maladaptive, resulting in more peer victimization and less peer liking; (2) physical and relational victimization is maladaptive, relating to more aggression and less peer liking; (3) peer liking may be the social context that promotes relational aggression (not physical aggression), whereas peer liking may protect against peer victimization, regardless of its type; and (4) peer liking mediates the link between forms of aggression and forms of peer victimization. Results showed that higher levels of peer liking predicted relative increases in relational aggression (not physical aggression), which in turn led to more peer liking. On the other hand, more peer liking was predictive of relative decreases in relational aggression and relational victimization in transition to the next grade (i.e., fifth grade). In addition, relational victimization predicted relative increases in relational aggression and relative decreases in peer liking. Similarly, physical aggression was consistently and concurrently associated more physical victimization and was marginally predictive of relative increases in physical victimization in transition to the next grade. More peer liking predicted relative decreases in physical victimization, which resulted in lower levels of peer liking. The directionality and magnitude of these paths did not differ between boys and girls. © 2013 Wiley

  14. Social Movements Facing the Processes of Globalization: Beyond the Paradigms of Class and Identity

    Verónica Alfaro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on a particular expression of globalization and regionalization that entails social, political, cultural and economic dimensions: social movements. I argue that current social movements are not necessarily articulated only in terms of class struggle-as the major labor movements were for the last two centuries. Neither do they articulate their protests only in terms of identity and recognition-such as women's movements did in the 1960s. Social movements are now most commonly organized around a discourse that combines those two dimensions. Contemporary social movements are expanding from the structural economic and industrial system (and thus abandoning the form of traditional class struggles to cultural and identity grounds. New social movements are now seen more and more as symbolic challengers, because power-that affects everyday life and tries to manipulate and give social meaning to things-is being contested by individuals in both the public and private spheres. Thus movements have a more symbolic function: they are a new kind of media, fighting for symbolic and cultural stakes, and for a different meaning and orientation of social action. However, constructing a collective identity within a social movement is not definitive. A movement's identity is constructed on an everyday basis, and within the process of globalization, the contact and social interaction with others -with the other, which allows the definition of one's own identity-is not only possible but also necessary. This paper considers the Zapatista rebellion in Chiapas as an empirical approach to social movements expanding from regional, local mobilizations and discourse, to more global oriented contentious activities. I argue that the Zapatista movement's identity in 1994 was quite different from the one it has now: the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN, or Zapatista National Liberation Army discourse has been transformed, from having an ethnic

  15. Data taking and processing system for nuclear experimental physics study

    Nagashima, Y.; Kimura, H.; Katori, K.; Kuriyama, K.

    1979-01-01

    A multi input, multi mode, multi user data taking and processing system was developed. This system has following special features. 1) It is multi computer system which is constitute with two special processors and two mini computers. 2) The pseudo devices are introduced to make operating procedurs simply and easily. Especially, the selection or modification of 1 - 8 coincidence mode can be done very easily and quickly. 3) A 16 Kch spectrum storage has 8 partitions. Every partitions having floating size are handled automatically by the data taking software SHINE. 4) On line real time data processing can be done. Useing the FORTRAN language, user may prepare the processing software apart from the data taking software. Under the RSX-11D system software, this software runs concurrently with the data taking software by a multi programming mode. 5) The data communication between arbitraly external devices and this system can be done. With this communication procedures, not only the data transfer between computers, but also the control of the experimental devices are realized. Like the real time processing software, this software can be prepared by users and be ran concurrently with other softwares. 6) For data monitoring, two different graphic displays are used complementally. One is a refresh typed high speed display. The other is a storage typed large screen display. Raw datas are displayed on the former. Processed datas or multi parametric large volume datas are displayed on the later one. (author)

  16. Neutron fluctuations a treatise on the physics of branching processes

    Pazsit, Imre; Pzsit, Imre

    2007-01-01

    The transport of neutrons in a multiplying system is an area of branching processes with a clear formalism. This book presents an account of the mathematical tools used in describing branching processes, which are then used to derive a large number of properties of the neutron distribution in multiplying systems with or without an external source. In the second part of the book, the theory is applied to the description of the neutron fluctuations in nuclear reactor cores as well as in small samples of fissile material. The question of how to extract information about the system under study is discussed. In particular the measurement of the reactivity of subcritical cores, driven with various Poisson and non-Poisson (pulsed) sources, and the identification of fissile material samples, is illustrated. The book gives pragmatic information for those planning and executing and evaluating experiments on such systems. - Gives a complete treatise of the mathematics of branching particle processes, and in particular n...

  17. Relationships between global physical activity and bone mineral density in a group of male and female students.

    Pasqualini, Leonella; Leli, Christian; Ministrini, Stefano; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Zappavigna, Rosa M; Lombardini, Rita; Scarponi, Anna M; Mannarino, Elmo

    2017-03-01

    Peak of bone mass (PBM) is generally reached about the age of 18 both in boys and girls. Maximizing PBM during growth may contribute to fracture risk reduction in adulthood and in the elderly. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects on bone mineral density (BMD) of global physical activity (PA), carried out in the past 15 years, in a population of 70 healthy, young male and female subjects aged 22 to 25. BMD of the lumbar spine and total hip was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA); global PA, resulting from sports-related, occupational and commuting PA, was evaluated using validated questionnaires. Women spent more time than men both in sports-related, occupational and commuting PA in the age range between 10-15 years. In the female group global PA positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar spine (r=0.38; P=0.02) and the total hip (r=0.36; P=0.04) and BMD of the lumbar spine was independently predicted by global PA and Body Mass Index. Our retrospective cross-sectional study indicates that global PA, not only sports-related PA, performed during prepubertal age, is associated with a greater PBM in women.

  18. Energy use and implications for efficiency strategies in global fluid-milk processing industry

    Xu Tengfang; Flapper, Joris

    2009-01-01

    The fluid-milk processing industry around the world processes approximately 60% of total raw milk production to create diverse fresh fluid-milk products. This paper reviews energy usage in existing global fluid-milk markets to identify baseline information that allows comparisons of energy performance of individual plants and systems. In this paper, we analyzed energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on fluid-milk processing across a number of countries and regions. The study has found that the average final energy intensity of individual plants exhibited significant large variations, ranging from 0.2 to 12.6 MJ per kg fluid-milk product across various plants in different countries and regions. In addition, it is observed that while the majority of larger plants tended to exhibit higher energy efficiency, some exceptions existed for smaller plants with higher efficiency. These significant differences have indicated large potential energy-savings opportunities in the sector across many countries. Furthermore, this paper illustrates a positive correlation between implementing energy-monitoring programs and curbing the increasing trend in energy demand per equivalent fluid-milk product over time in the fluid-milk sector, and suggests that developing an energy-benchmarking framework, along with promulgating new policy options should be pursued for improving energy efficiency in global fluid-milk processing industry.

  19. Relation of the physical and hydrobiological processes of thermal pollution

    Szolnoky, Cs.

    1981-01-01

    The process of thermal pollution of the rivers is discussed from the point of the living-space of the waters. The effects of fresh water-cooled thermal power stations on components of the biosphere of the rivers are described following the cooling process step-by-step. The characteristics of the thermal pollution of the Danube and Tisza are discussed and the effect of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant on the Danube is estimated. The regulation of the thermal pollution in the form of limiting values is proposed. (R.J.)

  20. Physical processes for the onset of magnetospheric substorms

    Kan, J.R.; Akasofu, S-I.; Lee, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    There are at least three important advances in observational as well as theoretical understanding of substorm processes during the last several years; they are: (i) the 'V-shaped' potential structure for auroral acceleration, (ii) deflation as the cause of thinning of the distant plasma sheet, and (iii) interruption and subsequent diversion of the cross-tail current during the expansive phase of magnetospheric substorms. A possible chain of processes is suggested, including (i), (ii) and (iii) as vital parts, which leads to substorm onset. (Auth.)

  1. Relativity Based on Physical Processes Rather Than Space-Time

    Giese, Albrecht

    2013-09-01

    Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is at present dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentz-based interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism, based on the finiteness of the speed of light, and which provides the classical results for particle properties that are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

  2. Physical processes in azobenzene polymers on irradiation with polarized light

    Holme, N.C.R.; Nikolova, L.; Norris, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    Azobenzenes can serve as model compounds for the study of trans-cis isomerization in more complex molecules. We have performed time-resolved spectroscopy in solutions containing free azobenzene chromophores and diols with a view to obtaining the energy levels and lifetimes of the excited states....... A transition route based on experimental results for the theoretically calculated energy level scheme is proposed. Physical observations of surface relief in thin films of azobenzene polymers when irradiated with polarized light are reported. These include two beam polarization holographic observations...... and single beam transmission measurements through a mask, followed by atomic force microscope and profiler investigations. It is concluded that none of the prevalent theories can explain all the observed facts....

  3. Physical-chemical processes of astrophysical interest: nitrogen chemistry

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Hickson, Kevin; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Faure, Alexandre; Vuitton, Veronique; Bacmann, A.; Maret, Sebastien; Legal, Romane; Rist, Claire; Roncero, Octavio; Larregaray, Pascal; Hochlaf, Majdi; Senent, M. L.; Capron, Michael; Biennier, Ludovic; Carles, Sophie; Bourgalais, Jeremy; Le Picard, Sebastien; Cordier, Daniel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Trolez, Yann; Bertin, M.; Poderoso, H.A.M.; Michaut, X.; Jeseck, P.; Philippe, L.; Fillion, J.H.; Fayolle, E.C.; Linnartz, H.; Romanzin, C.; Oeberg, K.I.; Roueff, Evelyne; Pagani, Laurent; Padovani, Marco; Wakelam, Veronique; Honvault, Beatrice; Zvereva-Loete, Natalia; Ouk, Chanda-Malis; Scribano, Yohann; Hartmann, J.M.; Pineau des Forets, Guillaume; Hernandez, Mario; Lique, Francois; Kalugina, Yulia N.; Stoecklin, T.; Hochlaf, M.; Crespos, C.; Larregaray, P.; Martin-Gondre, L.; Petuya, R.; Quintas Sanchez, E.L.; Zanchet, Alexandre; Rodriguez-Lazcano, Yamilet; Mate, Belen

    2013-06-01

    This document contains the programme and abstracts of contributions to a workshop on nitrogen chemistry within an astrophysical perspective. These contributions have been presented in sessions: Introduction (opening lecture, experimental approaches to molecular astrophysics, theoretical approaches to astrophysics, observations in molecular astrophysics), Physical-chemical theory of the gas phase (time-dependent approach in elementary activity, statistic approach in elementary activity in the case of the N+H_2 reaction, potential energy surfaces for inelastic and reactive collisions, collision rate for N_2H"+, ortho/para selection rules in the chemistry of nitrogen hydrides, cyanides/iso-cyanides excitation in the ISM, CN excitation, radiative association with N_2H as new interstellar anion, ro-vibratory excitation of HCN) Laboratory astrophysics (measurement of reaction products in the CRESUSOL project, reactivity of the CN- anion, N_2 photo-desorption in ices, CRESU study of nitrogen chemistry, chemistry of nitrogen complex molecules), Observations and chemistry of astrophysical media (the problem of interstellar nitrogen fractioning, abundance of N_2 in proto-stellar cores, HNC in Titan atmosphere and nitrogen-related mechanisms in hot Jupiters, HCN and HNC in dark clouds or how theoretical modelling helps in interpreting observations, nitrogen chemistry in cold clouds, deuteration of nitrogen hydrides, nitrogen in interstellar ices, biochemical molecules on Titan, coupling between excitation and chemistry, radiative transfer of nitrogen hydrides, ortho/para chemistry of nitrogen hydrides), Physical-chemical theory of gas-grain interactions (nitrogen reactivity on surfaces, IR spectra of ices of NH_3 and NH_3/N_2 mixtures)

  4. Improved parameterization of managed grassland in a global process-based vegetation model using Bayesian statistics

    Rolinski, S.; Müller, C.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Bondeau, A.

    2010-12-01

    More than a quarter of the Earth’s land surface is covered by grassland, which is also the major part (~ 70 %) of the agricultural area. Most of this area is used for livestock production in different degrees of intensity. The dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL (Sitch et al., Global Change Biology, 2003; Bondeau et al., Global Change Biology, 2007) is one of few process-based model that simulates biomass production on managed grasslands at the global scale. The implementation of managed grasslands and its evaluation has received little attention so far, as reference data on grassland productivity are scarce and the definition of grassland extent and usage are highly uncertain. However, grassland productivity is related to large areas, and strongly influences global estimates of carbon and water budgets and should thus be improved. Plants are implemented in LPJmL in an aggregated form as plant functional types assuming that processes concerning carbon and water fluxes are quite similar between species of the same type. Therefore, the parameterization of a functional type is possible with parameters in a physiologically meaningful range of values. The actual choice of the parameter values from the possible and reasonable phase space should satisfy the condition of the best fit of model results and measured data. In order to improve the parameterization of managed grass we follow a combined procedure using model output and measured data of carbon and water fluxes. By comparing carbon and water fluxes simultaneously, we expect well-balanced refinements and avoid over-tuning of the model in only one direction. The comparison of annual biomass from grassland to data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) per country provide an overview about the order of magnitude and the identification of deviations. The comparison of daily net primary productivity, soil respiration and water fluxes at specific sites (FluxNet Data) provides

  5. Physical chemistry and process engineering of an emulsion - membrane bioreactor

    Schroe͏̈n, K.

    1995-01-01

    Fatty acids (and glycerol) are produced by hydrolysis of fats and oils in counter-current fat- splitting columns which operate at a temperature of 200-240 °C and a pressure of 50-60 bar. Undesired side-products are formed during the process. These have to be removed in order to obtain an

  6. The Physics of Weldpool Formation: Phase Transition Process In ...

    ... phase transition took place but did not significantly alter the microstructure of the weldment. This study also supports the claims made by different investigators about the different heat treatments given to metals to determine a particular hardenability level. This heat treatment process is an indicator of phase change.

  7. Physics

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  8. Ordeals of Physics Instruction in Nigerian Secondary Schools: Way Forward for the Attainment of Global Competitiveness

    Aderonmu, Temitope S. B.; Obafemi, Deborah T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Physics instruction in secondary schools is a fundamental panacea towards achieving scientific knowledgeable citizens which can propel a nation in the realization of a sustainable economic force. This paper therefore x-rayed ordeals of physics instruction in Nigerian secondary schools and the way forward for the attainment of global…

  9. Statistical Modelling of Global Tectonic Activity and some Physical Consequences of its Results

    Konstantin Statnikov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of global earthquake data bank for the last thirty years, a global tectonic activity indicator was proposed comprising a weekly globally averaged mean earthquake magnitude value. It was shown that 84% of indicator variability is a harmonic oscillation with a fundamental period of 37.2 years, twice the maximum period in the tidal oscillation spectrum (18.6 years. From this observation, a conclusion was drawn that parametric resonance (PR exists between global tectonic activity and low-frequency tides. The conclusion was also confirmed by the existence of the statistically significant PR response at the second lowest tidal frequency i.e. 182.6 days. It was shown that the global earthquake flow, with a determination factor 93%, is a sum of two Gaussian streams, nearly equally intense, with mean values of 23 and 83 events per week and standard deviations of 9 and 30 events per week, respectively. The Earth periphery to 'mean time interval between earthquakes' ratios in the first and the second flow modes described above match, by the order of magnitude, the sound velocity in the fluid (~1500 m/s and in elastic medium (5500 m/s.

  10. Simulating biological processes: stochastic physics from whole cells to colonies

    Earnest, Tyler M.; Cole, John A.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2018-05-01

    The last few decades have revealed the living cell to be a crowded spatially heterogeneous space teeming with biomolecules whose concentrations and activities are governed by intrinsically random forces. It is from this randomness, however, that a vast array of precisely timed and intricately coordinated biological functions emerge that give rise to the complex forms and behaviors we see in the biosphere around us. This seemingly paradoxical nature of life has drawn the interest of an increasing number of physicists, and recent years have seen stochastic modeling grow into a major subdiscipline within biological physics. Here we review some of the major advances that have shaped our understanding of stochasticity in biology. We begin with some historical context, outlining a string of important experimental results that motivated the development of stochastic modeling. We then embark upon a fairly rigorous treatment of the simulation methods that are currently available for the treatment of stochastic biological models, with an eye toward comparing and contrasting their realms of applicability, and the care that must be taken when parameterizing them. Following that, we describe how stochasticity impacts several key biological functions, including transcription, translation, ribosome biogenesis, chromosome replication, and metabolism, before considering how the functions may be coupled into a comprehensive model of a ‘minimal cell’. Finally, we close with our expectation for the future of the field, focusing on how mesoscopic stochastic methods may be augmented with atomic-scale molecular modeling approaches in order to understand life across a range of length and time scales.

  11. Physical processes in high field insulating liquid conduction

    Mazarakis, Michael; Kiefer, Mark; Leckbee, Joshua; Anderson, Delmar; Wilkins, Frank; Obregon, Robert

    2017-10-01

    In the power grid transmission where a large amount of energy is transmitted to long distances, High Voltage DC (HVDC) transmission of up to 1MV becomes more attractive since is more efficient than the counterpart AC. However, two of the most difficult problems to solve are the cable connections to the high voltage power sources and their insulation from the ground. The insulating systems are usually composed of transformer oil and solid insulators. The oil behavior under HVDC is similar to that of a weak electrolyte. Its behavior under HVDC is dominated more by conductivity than dielectric constant. Space charge effects in the oil bulk near high voltage electrodes and impeded plastic insulators affect the voltage oil hold-off. We have constructed an experimental facility where we study the oil and plastic insulator behavior in an actual HVDC System. Experimental results will be presented and compared with the present understanding of the physics governing the oil behavior under very high electrical stresses. Sandia National Laboratories managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. D.O.E., NNSA under contract DE-NA-0003525.

  12. Physics at a 100 TeV pp Collider: Standard Model Processes

    Mangano, M. L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zanderighi, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Aguilar Saavedra, J. A. [Univ. of Granada (Spain); Alekhin, S. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Inst. for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Badger, S. [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bauer, C. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Becher, T. [Univ. Bern (Switzerland); Bertone, V. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Bonvini, M. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Boselli, S. [Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Bothmann, E. [Gottingen Univ. (Germany); Boughezal, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cacciari, M. [Univ. Paris Diderot (France); Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France); Carloni Calame, C M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Caola, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Campbell, J. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Carrazza, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Chiesa, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Cieri, L. [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Cimaglia, F. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Febres Cordero, F. [Physikalisches Inst., Freiburg (Germany); Ferrarese, P. [Gottingen Univ. (Germany); D' Enterria, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Ferrera, G. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Garcia i Tormo, X. [Univ. Bern (Switzerland); Garzelli, M. V. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany); Germann, E. [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hirschi, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Han, T. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ita, H. [Physikalisches Inst., Freiburg (Germany); Jager, B. [Univ. of Tubingen (Germany); Kallweit, S. [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany); Karlberg, A. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Kuttimalai, S. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Krauss, F. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Larkoski, A. J. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lindert, J. [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Luisoni, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Maierhofer, P. [Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Mattelaer, O. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Martinez, H. [Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Moch, S. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany); Montagna, G. [Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Moretti, M. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Nason, P. [Univ. of Milano (Italy); Nicrosini, O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Oleari, C. [Univ. of Milano (Italy); Pagani, D. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); Papaefstathiou, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Petriello, F. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Piccinini, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Pierini, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Pierog, T. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Pozzorini, S. [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Re, E. [National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), Annecy-le-Vieux (France). Lab. of Annecy-le-Vieux for Theoretical Physics (LAPTh); Robens, T. [Technische Universitat Dresden (Germany); Rojo, J. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Ruiz, R. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Sakurai, K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Salam, G. P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Salfelder, L. [Univ. of Tubingen (Germany); Schonherr, M. [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy); Schulze, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Schumann, S. [Univ. Gottingen (Germany); Selvaggi, M. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); Shivaji, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Siodmok, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), Krakow (Poland); Skands, P. [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Torrielli, P. [Univ. of Torino (Italy); Tramontano, F. [Univ. of Napoli (Italy); Tsinikos, I. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); Tweedie, B. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Vicini, A. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Westhoff, S. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany); Zaro, M. [Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France); Zeppenfeld, D. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-06-22

    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  13. Harmonization of accounting in the process of globalization of economic activities

    Floarea Georgescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Once with the Romania adhering at the European Union the public accounting system was transformed and adapted according to the requirements imposed by the international public sector accounting standards (IPSAS.This fact had imposed the appearance of legislative norms and provisions adapted to the actual requirements, by taking into account the growing and complex level of economic activities where the irreversible process of globalization takes place. The changes due to the economic politics, especially the new configuration of the international economic relations, relations characterized by an intense and irreversible process of globalization, have conducted to the implementation of a unitary and uniform legislation, particularly for the member states of EU. The accounting reform has begun through the harmonization of legislation according to the requirements and provisions of International Accounting Standards and European Directives.  The ampleness and the rapid rhythm of informational society’s development have implicitly leaded to the development of accounting information’s importance and dimension. The decisive role of the accounting information had conducted to the accentuated growth of the interest, manifested at all informational society’s level, from the development of activities in financial and economical domain point of view. The accounting normalization process imposed the development of norms and provisions necessary to the drawing up of accounting documents, by defying methods and a specialized terminology, applied in the activity of entities and accounting specialists.

  14. LACAN Code for global simulation of SILVA laser isotope separation process

    Quaegebeur, J.P.; Goldstein, S.

    1991-01-01

    Functions used for the definition of a SILVA separator require quite a lot of dimensional and operating parameters. Sizing a laser isotope separation plant needs the determination of these parameters for optimization. In the LACAN simulation code, each elementary physical process is described by simplified models. An example is given for a uranium isotope separation plant whose separation power is optimized with 6 parameters [fr

  15. Physical education resources, class management, and student physical activity levels: a structure-process-outcome approach to evaluating physical education effectiveness.

    Bevans, Katherine B; Fitzpatrick, Leslie-Anne; Sanchez, Betty M; Riley, Anne W; Forrest, Christopher

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to empirically evaluate specific human, curricular, and material resources that maximize student opportunities for physical activity during physical education (PE) class time. A structure-process-outcome model was proposed to identify the resources that influence the frequency of PE and intensity of physical activity during PE. The proportion of class time devoted to management was evaluated as a potential mediator of the relations between resource availability and student activity levels. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected from interviews conducted with 46 physical educators and the systematic observation of 184 PE sessions in 34 schools. Regression analyses were conducted to test for the main effects of resource availability and the mediating role of class management. Students who attended schools with a low student-to-physical educator ratio had more PE time and engaged in higher levels of physical activity during class time. Access to adequate PE equipment and facilities was positively associated with student activity levels. The availability of a greater number of physical educators per student was found to impact student activity levels by reducing the amount of session time devoted to class management. The identification of structure and process predictors of student activity levels in PE will support the allocation of resources and encourage instructional practices that best support increased student activity levels in the most cost-effective way possible. Implications for PE policies and programs are discussed. © 2010, American School Health Association.

  16. Students' inclusion to the value of physical culture during the process of athletic training.

    Sychov S.O.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Means and methods of students' inclusion to the value of physical culture, during the process of athletic training on the classes of physical education are opened in this article. 52 students took part in research. It is developed the recommendation for the application of pedagogical conditions of use in the expressway strength and strength training, ability to determine dosing load for students with different level of physical background, methods of power properties development both for boys and for girls. It is shown that using of athletic training at the classes of physical education is contributing of students' inclusion to the value of physical culture.

  17. Globalization process and its impact on Kosovo’s tourism development

    MSc. Petrit Hasanaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike modernization, globalization is a process somewhat independent from the will of its adhering participants. This thesis represents Robertson sociologist giving a description based on which capital, ideas and cultural codes, with the help of new communication tools, expand worldwide. With rapid development of media and mass electronic communications is eliminated the importance of space and leads to shrinking (narrowing of time and space which is a serious threat to national cultural identities. Fukuyama in his apology of liberal democracy warns "final political neutralization of nationalism" in terms of overall centralization and linguistic unity of the world.

  18. Global change and modern coral reefs: New opportunities to understand shallow-water carbonate depositional processes

    Hallock, Pamela

    2005-04-01

    Human activities are impacting coral reefs physically, biologically, and chemically. Nutrification, sedimentation, chemical pollution, and overfishing are significant local threats that are occurring worldwide. Ozone depletion and global warming are triggering mass coral-bleaching events; corals under temperature stress lose the ability to synthesize protective sunscreens and become more sensitive to sunlight. Photo-oxidative stress also reduces fitness, rendering reef-building organisms more susceptible to emerging diseases. Increasing concentration of atmospheric CO 2 has already reduced CaCO 3 saturation in surface waters by more than 10%. Doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration over pre-industrial concentration in the 21st century may reduce carbonate production in tropical shallow marine environments by as much as 80%. As shallow-water reefs decline worldwide, opportunities abound for researchers to expand understanding of carbonate depositional systems. Coordinated studies of carbonate geochemistry with photozoan physiology and calcification, particularly in cool subtropical-transition zones between photozoan-reef and heterotrophic carbonate-ramp communities, will contribute to understanding of carbonate sedimentation under environmental change, both in the future and in the geologic record. Cyanobacteria are becoming increasingly prominent on declining reefs, as these microbes can tolerate strong solar radiation, higher temperatures, and abundant nutrients. The responses of reef-dwelling cyanobacteria to environmental parameters associated with global change are prime topics for further research, with both ecological and geological implications.

  19. Future gender relations in global restructuring processes case study evidence from knowledge-intensive, manufacturing and service occupations

    Linda Nierling

    2008-01-01

    Global restructuring processes have not only strong implications for European working and living realities, but also have specific outcomes with regard to gender relations. The following contribution analyses in which way global restructuring shapes current gender relations in order to identify important trends and developments for future gender (in)equalities at the workplace. On the basis of a large qualitative study on global restructuring and impacts on different occupational groups it ar...

  20. Evaluating Global Health Partnerships: A Case Study of a Gavi HPV Vaccine Application Process in Uganda

    Carol Kamya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Global health partnerships have grown rapidly in number and scope, yet there has been less emphasis on their evaluation. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, is one such public-private partnership; in Gavi-eligible countries partnerships are dynamic networks of immunization actors who work together to support all stages and aspects of Gavi support. This paper describes a conceptual framework – the partnership framework – and analytic approach for evaluating the perceptions of partnerships’ added value as well as the results from an application to one case in Uganda. Methods We used a mixed-methods case study design embedded in the Gavi Full Country Evaluations (FCE to test the partnership framework on Uganda’s human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine application partnership. Data from document review, interviews, and social network surveys enabled the testing of the relationships between partnership framework domains (context, structure, practices, performance, and outcomes. Topic guides were based on the framework domains and network surveys identified working together relationships, professional trust, and perceptions of the effectiveness, efficiency, and legitimacy of the partnership’s role in this process. Results Data from seven in-depth interviews, 11 network surveys and document review were analyzed according to the partnership framework, confirming relationships between the framework domains. Trust was an important contributor to the perceived effectiveness of the process. The network was structured around the EPI program, who was considered the leader of this process. While the structure and composition of the network was largely viewed as supporting an effective and legitimate process, the absence of the Ministry of Education (MoE may have had downstream consequences if this study’s results had not been shared with the Ministry of Health (MoH and acted upon. The partnership was not perceived to have increased the efficiency of

  1. Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering

  2. SU-F-E-14: Global Radiation Oncology Education and Training in Medical Physics Powered by Information and Communication Technologies

    Ngwa, W; Sajo, E; Ngoma, T; Dachi, J; Julius Mwaiselage, J; Kenton, O; Avery, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recent publications have highlighted the potential of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to catalyze collaborations in cancer care, research and education in global radiation oncology. This work reports on the use of ICTs for global Medical Physics education and training across three countries: USA, Tanzania and Kuwait Methods: An online education platform was established by Radiation Oncology Faculty from Harvard Medical School, and the University of Pennsylvania with integrated Medical Physics Course modules accessible to trainees in Tanzania via partnership with the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, and the Ocean Road Cancer Institute. The course modules incorporated lectures covering Radiation Therapy Physics with videos, discussion board, assessments and grade center. Faculty at Harvard Medical School and the University of Massachusetts Lowell also employed weekly Skype meetings to train/mentor three graduate students, living out-of-state and in Kuwait for up to 9 research credits per semester for over two semesters towards obtaining their graduate degrees Results: Students were able to successfully access the Medical Physics course modules and participate in learning activities, online discussion boards, and assessments. Other instructors could also access/co-teach the course modules from USA and Tanzania. Meanwhile all three graduate students with remote training via Skype and email made major progress in their graduate training with each one of them submitting their research results as abstracts to be presented at the 2016 AAPM conference. One student has also published her work already and all three are developing these abstracts for publication in peer-reviewed journals. Conclusion: Altogether, this work highlights concrete examples/model on how ICTs can be used for capacity building in Medical Physics across continents, for both education and research training needed for Masters/PhD degrees. The developed modules

  3. SU-F-E-14: Global Radiation Oncology Education and Training in Medical Physics Powered by Information and Communication Technologies

    Ngwa, W [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); University Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Sajo, E [University Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Ngoma, T [Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, TA (Tanzania, United Republic of); Dachi, J; Julius Mwaiselage, J [Ocean Road Cancer Institute, Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kenton, O [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Avery, S [University of Pennsylvania, Sicklerville, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Recent publications have highlighted the potential of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to catalyze collaborations in cancer care, research and education in global radiation oncology. This work reports on the use of ICTs for global Medical Physics education and training across three countries: USA, Tanzania and Kuwait Methods: An online education platform was established by Radiation Oncology Faculty from Harvard Medical School, and the University of Pennsylvania with integrated Medical Physics Course modules accessible to trainees in Tanzania via partnership with the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, and the Ocean Road Cancer Institute. The course modules incorporated lectures covering Radiation Therapy Physics with videos, discussion board, assessments and grade center. Faculty at Harvard Medical School and the University of Massachusetts Lowell also employed weekly Skype meetings to train/mentor three graduate students, living out-of-state and in Kuwait for up to 9 research credits per semester for over two semesters towards obtaining their graduate degrees Results: Students were able to successfully access the Medical Physics course modules and participate in learning activities, online discussion boards, and assessments. Other instructors could also access/co-teach the course modules from USA and Tanzania. Meanwhile all three graduate students with remote training via Skype and email made major progress in their graduate training with each one of them submitting their research results as abstracts to be presented at the 2016 AAPM conference. One student has also published her work already and all three are developing these abstracts for publication in peer-reviewed journals. Conclusion: Altogether, this work highlights concrete examples/model on how ICTs can be used for capacity building in Medical Physics across continents, for both education and research training needed for Masters/PhD degrees. The developed modules

  4. 77 FR 42003 - TA-W-81,263, Chartis Global Services, Inc., a Subsidiary of Chartis, Inc., Regional Processing...

    2012-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration TA-W-81,263, Chartis Global Services..., Houston, TX; TA-W-81,263A, Chartis Global Services, Inc., a Subsidiary of Chartis, Inc., Regional... is amending the certification (TA-W-81,263) to add ``Regional Processing Organization'' and to add...

  5. Interference effects in new physics processes at the LHC

    Fuchs, Elina

    2015-09-01

    Interference effects between nearly mass-degenerate particles are addressed in this thesis, comprising higher-order calculations, a modelindependent method to calculate interference terms efficiently and a phenomenological application to current Higgs searches at the LHC. Predictions of cross sections and decay widths can be severely affected by interference terms between quasi-degenerate states arising in models beyond the Standard Model. We formulate a generalisation of the narrow-width approximation (NWA) which allows for a consistent treatment of such effects by factorising the interference term into on-shell matrix elements of the production and decay parts, optionally further approximated as simple interference weight factors, incorporating oneloop and real corrections in a UV- and IR-finite way. We apply the generalised NWA to interfering MSSM Higgs bosons in the process χ 0 4 →χ 0 1 Φ→χ 0 1 τ + τ - , Φ=h, H and achieve an agreement of better than 1% with the unfactorised three-body decay of the neutralino χ 0 4 at NLO. Further, we derive the approximation of the full propagator matrix of the three neutral MSSM Higgs bosons in terms of Breit- Wigner propagators and on-shell wave-function normalisation factors Z. This is found to accurately reproduce the full mixing properties also in the case of complex MSSM parameters. Moreover, it enables the implementation of the total width at the highest available order. Using the Breit-Wigner and Z-factor formalism, we calculate CP-violating interference effects of the neutral MSSM Higgs bosons in the process b anti b→h 1,2,3 →τ +τ - , induced by the phase φ A t . We find a very significant, destructive interference between h 2 and h 3 , particularly for large μ. As a consequence, a considerable parameter region in the complex M mod+ h scenario, which would appear to be ruled out if this interference were neglected, actually escapes the current exclusion bounds from the LHC.

  6. The nuclear safeguards system and the process of global governance accountability

    Xavier, Roberto Salles

    2011-01-01

    Due to rising energy costs and climate concerns, nuclear energy is again being seriously considered as an energy source for several countries. Along with the resurgence of nuclear energy comes the concern of the world if these countries will develop their programs for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. If on one hand the growth potential of nuclear energy should not be stifled, on the other hand it is imperative that a climate of mutual trust is developed, respecting the right of each country to develop its nuclear program without taking a climate of mistrust to a possible 'intention' behind the pursuit of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate mechanisms of accountability of global governance are institutionalized at the institutional architecture of the international process of nuclear safeguards, more specifically to the nuclear fuel cycle, so that abuses of power in this sphere does not happen, both by countries that aspire to develop projects nuclear, and by the suppliers of technology. In this context, the case study of Brazil and Argentina gained importance, because these two countries have a single binational organization of nuclear safeguards in the world: Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC. In the theoretical question, the paper tries to understand what happens with the process of legitimacy and authority of the organizations of global governance by analyzing the degree of publicness and constrictiveness. This work intends to focus on the role of ABACC as an interstate institution of accountability, which has a key role to control the nation States of Brazil and Argentina regarding the appropriate use of nuclear material used in their programs, and analyze how this Agency behaves within of tension legitimacy-authority, taking into account existing studies on accountability in global governance. (author)

  7. The nuclear safeguards system and the process of global governance accountability

    Xavier, Roberto Salles, E-mail: xavier@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Planejamento e Avaliacao

    2011-07-01

    Due to rising energy costs and climate concerns, nuclear energy is again being seriously considered as an energy source for several countries. Along with the resurgence of nuclear energy comes the concern of the world if these countries will develop their programs for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. If on one hand the growth potential of nuclear energy should not be stifled, on the other hand it is imperative that a climate of mutual trust is developed, respecting the right of each country to develop its nuclear program without taking a climate of mistrust to a possible 'intention' behind the pursuit of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate mechanisms of accountability of global governance are institutionalized at the institutional architecture of the international process of nuclear safeguards, more specifically to the nuclear fuel cycle, so that abuses of power in this sphere does not happen, both by countries that aspire to develop projects nuclear, and by the suppliers of technology. In this context, the case study of Brazil and Argentina gained importance, because these two countries have a single binational organization of nuclear safeguards in the world: Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC. In the theoretical question, the paper tries to understand what happens with the process of legitimacy and authority of the organizations of global governance by analyzing the degree of publicness and constrictiveness. This work intends to focus on the role of ABACC as an interstate institution of accountability, which has a key role to control the nation States of Brazil and Argentina regarding the appropriate use of nuclear material used in their programs, and analyze how this Agency behaves within of tension legitimacy-authority, taking into account existing studies on accountability in global governance. (author)

  8. Seasonality of global and Arctic black carbon processes in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme models: Global and Arctic Black Carbon Processes

    Mahmood, Rashed [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria British Columbia Canada; Department of Meteorology, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad Pakistan; von Salzen, Knut [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria British Columbia Canada; Canadian Center for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment and Climate Change Canada, University of Victoria, Victoria British Columbia Canada; Flanner, Mark [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Michigan USA; Sand, Maria [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo, Oslo Norway; Langner, Joakim [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping Sweden; Wang, Hailong [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Huang, Lin [Climate Chemistry Measurements and Research, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto Ontario Canada

    2016-06-22

    This study quantifies black carbon (BC) processes in three global climate models and one chemistry transport model, with focus on the seasonality of BC transport, emissions, wet and dry deposition in the Arctic. In the models, transport of BC to the Arctic from lower latitudes is the major BC source for this region while Arctic emissions are very small. All models simulated a similar annual cycle of BC transport from lower latitudes to the Arctic, with maximum transport occurring in July. Substantial differences were found in simulated BC burdens and vertical distributions, with CanAM (NorESM) producing the strongest (weakest) seasonal cycle. CanAM also has the shortest annual mean residence time for BC in the Arctic followed by SMHI-MATCH, CESM and NorESM. The relative contribution of wet and dry deposition rates in removing BC varies seasonally and is one of the major factors causing seasonal variations in BC burdens in the Arctic. Overall, considerable differences in wet deposition efficiencies in the models exist and are a leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. Results from model sensitivity experiments indicate that scavenging of BC in convective clouds acts to substantially increase the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition in the Arctic, which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging. In contrast, the simulated seasonality of BC concentrations in the upper troposphere is only weakly influenced by wet deposition in stratiform (layer) clouds whereas lower tropospheric concentrations are highly sensitive.

  9. Systematic framework for carbon dioxide capture and utilization processes to reduce the global carbon dioxide emissions

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Gani, Rafiqul

    information-data on various carbon dioxide emission sources and available capture-utilization technologies; the model and solution libraries [2]; and the generic 3-stage approach for determining more sustainable solutions [3] through superstructure (processing networks) based optimization – adopted for global...... need to provide, amongst other options: useful data from in-house databases on carbon dioxide emission sources; mathematical models from a library of process-property models; numerical solvers from library of implemented solvers; and, work-flows and data-flows for different benefit scenarios...... to be investigated. It is useful to start by developing a prototype framework and then augmenting its application range by increasing the contents of its databases, libraries and work-flows and data-flows. The objective is to present such a prototype framework with its implemented database containing collected...

  10. The Effect of Improved Sub-Daily Earth Rotation Models on Global GPS Data Processing

    Yoon, S.; Choi, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the various International GNSS Service (IGS) products, strong periodic signals have been observed around the 14 day period. This signal is clearly visible in all IGS time-series such as those related to orbit ephemerides, Earth rotation parameters (ERP) and ground station coordinates. Recent studies show that errors in the sub-daily Earth rotation models are the main factors that induce such noise. Current IGS orbit processing standards adopted the IERS 2010 convention and its sub-daily Earth rotation model. Since the IERS convention had published, recent advances in the VLBI analysis have made contributions to update the sub-daily Earth rotation models. We have compared several proposed sub-daily Earth rotation models and show the effect of using those models on orbit ephemeris, Earth rotation parameters and ground station coordinates generated by the NGS global GPS data processing strategy.

  11. Levels-of-processing effects on recollection and familiarity during transient global amnesia and after recovery.

    Thoma, Patrizia; Schwarz, Michael; Daum, Irene

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pattern of recollection and familiarity deficits and the modulation of recognition memory performance by the depth of encoding (deep vs. shallow) in transient global amnesia (TGA). Ten patients with TGA and 11 control subjects were assessed during the acute stage and after recovery 7 to 19 days later. Both recollection and familiarity were impaired in the acute stage and showed significant, albeit not complete, recovery by the time of the postacute assessment. The patients did, however, show a significant levels-of-processing effect, which was significantly reduced in acute TGA, but not at follow-up. The significant levels-of-processing effect during acute TGA might be linked to recruitment of the prefrontal cortex. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Application of green IT for physics data processing at INCDTIM

    Farcas, Felix; Trusca, Radu; Albert, Stefan; Szabo, Izabella; Popeneciu, Gabriel

    2012-02-01

    Green IT is the next generation technology used in all datacenter around the world. Its benefit is of economic and financial interest. The new technologies are energy efficient, reduce cost and avoid potential disruptions to the existing infrastructure. The most important problem appears at the cooling systems which are the most important in the functionality of a datacenter. Green IT used in Grid Network will benefit the environment and is the next phase in computer infrastructure that will fundamentally change the way we think about and use computing power. At the National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies Cluj-Napoca (INCDTIM) we have implemented such kind of technology and its support helped us in processing multiple data in different domains, which brought INCDTIM on the major Grid domain with the RO-14-ITIM Grid site. In this paper we present benefits that the new technology brought us and the result obtained in the last year after the implementation of the new green technology.

  13. Integrable dissipative exclusion process: Correlation functions and physical properties

    Crampe, N.; Ragoucy, E.; Rittenberg, V.; Vanicat, M.

    2016-09-01

    We study a one-parameter generalization of the symmetric simple exclusion process on a one-dimensional lattice. In addition to the usual dynamics (where particles can hop with equal rates to the left or to the right with an exclusion constraint), annihilation and creation of pairs can occur. The system is driven out of equilibrium by two reservoirs at the boundaries. In this setting the model is still integrable: it is related to the open XXZ spin chain through a gauge transformation. This allows us to compute the full spectrum of the Markov matrix using Bethe equations. We also show that the stationary state can be expressed in a matrix product form permitting to compute the multipoints correlation functions as well as the mean value of the lattice and the creation-annihilation currents. Finally, the variance of the lattice current is computed for a finite-size system. In the thermodynamic limit, it matches the value obtained from the associated macroscopic fluctuation theory.

  14. Using Noble Gas Measurements to Derive Air-Sea Process Information and Predict Physical Gas Saturations

    Hamme, Roberta C.; Emerson, Steven R.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Long, Matthew C.; Yashayaev, Igor

    2017-10-01

    Dissolved gas distributions are important because they influence oceanic habitats and Earth's climate, yet competing controls by biology and physics make gas distributions challenging to predict. Bubble-mediated gas exchange, temperature change, and varying atmospheric pressure all push gases away from equilibrium. Here we use new noble gas measurements from the Labrador Sea to demonstrate a technique to quantify physical processes. Our analysis shows that water-mass formation can be represented by a quasi steady state in which bubble fluxes and cooling push gases away from equilibrium balanced by diffusive gas exchange forcing gases toward equilibrium. We quantify the rates of these physical processes from our measurements, allowing direct comparison to gas exchange parameterizations, and predict the physically driven saturation of other gases. This technique produces predictions that reasonably match N2/Ar observations and demonstrates that physical processes should force SF6 to be ˜6% more supersaturated than CFC-11 and CFC-12, impacting ventilation age calculations.

  15. A Model of the Creative Process Based on Quantum Physics and Vedic Science.

    Rose, Laura Hall

    1988-01-01

    Using tenets from Vedic science and quantum physics, this model of the creative process suggests that the unified field of creation is pure consciousness, and that the development of the creative process within individuals mirrors the creative process within the universe. Rational and supra-rational creative thinking techniques are also described.…

  16. Evaluation of factors controlling global secondary organic aerosol production from cloud processes

    C. He

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosols (SOA exert a significant influence on ambient air quality and regional climate. Recent field, laboratorial and modeling studies have confirmed that in-cloud processes contribute to a large fraction of SOA production with large space-time heterogeneity. This study evaluates the key factors that govern the production of cloud-process SOA (SOAcld on a global scale based on the GFDL coupled chemistry-climate model AM3 in which full cloud chemistry is employed. The association between SOAcld production rate and six factors (i.e., liquid water content (LWC, total carbon chemical loss rate (TCloss, temperature, VOC/NOx, OH, and O3 is examined. We find that LWC alone determines the spatial pattern of SOAcld production, particularly over the tropical, subtropical and temperate forest regions, and is strongly correlated with SOAcld production. TCloss ranks the second and mainly represents the seasonal variability of vegetation growth. Other individual factors are essentially uncorrelated spatiotemporally to SOAcld production. We find that the rate of SOAcld production is simultaneously determined by both LWC and TCloss, but responds linearly to LWC and nonlinearly (or concavely to TCloss. A parameterization based on LWC and TCloss can capture well the spatial and temporal variability of the process-based SOAcld formation (R2 = 0.5 and can be easily applied to global three dimensional models to represent the SOA production from cloud processes.

  17. Fast simulation of reconstructed phylogenies under global time-dependent birth-death processes.

    Höhna, Sebastian

    2013-06-01

    Diversification rates and patterns may be inferred from reconstructed phylogenies. Both the time-dependent and the diversity-dependent birth-death process can produce the same observed patterns of diversity over time. To develop and test new models describing the macro-evolutionary process of diversification, generic and fast algorithms to simulate under these models are necessary. Simulations are not only important for testing and developing models but play an influential role in the assessment of model fit. In the present article, I consider as the model a global time-dependent birth-death process where each species has the same rates but rates may vary over time. For this model, I derive the likelihood of the speciation times from a reconstructed phylogenetic tree and show that each speciation event is independent and identically distributed. This fact can be used to simulate efficiently reconstructed phylogenetic trees when conditioning on the number of species, the time of the process or both. I show the usability of the simulation by approximating the posterior predictive distribution of a birth-death process with decreasing diversification rates applied on a published bird phylogeny (family Cettiidae). The methods described in this manuscript are implemented in the R package TESS, available from the repository CRAN (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/TESS/). Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  18. CO2-ECBM related coupled physical and mechanical transport processes

    Gensterblum, Yves; Satorius, Michael; Busch, Andreas; Krooß, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    The interrelation of cleat transport processes and mechanical properties was investigated by permeability tests at different stress levels (60% to 130% of in-situ stress) with sorbing (CH4, CO2) and inert gases (N2, Ar, He) on a sub bituminous A coal from the Surat Basin, Queensland Australia. From the flow tests under controlled triaxial stress conditions the Klinkenberg-corrected "true" permeability coefficients and the Klinkenberg slip factors were derived. The "true"-, absolute or Klinkenberg corrected permeability shows a gas type dependence. Following the approach of Seidle et al. (1992) the cleat volume compressibility (cf) was calculated from observed changes in apparent permeability upon variation of external stress (at equal mean gas pressures). The observed effects also show a clear dependence on gas type. Due to pore or cleat compressibility the cleat aperture decreases with increasing effective stress. Vice versa we observe with increasing mean pressure at lower confining pressure an increase in permeability which we attribute to a cleat aperture widening. The cleat volume compressibility (cf) also shows a dependence on the mean pore pressure. Non-sorbing gases like helium and argon show higher apparent permeabilities than sorbing gases like methane. Permeability coefficients measured with successively increasing mean gas pressures were consistently lower than those determined at decreasing mean gas pressures. This permeability hysteresis is in accordance with results reported by Harpalani and McPherson (1985). The kinetics of matrix transport processes were studied by sorption tests on different particle sizes at various moisture contents and temperatures (cf. Busch et al., 2006). Methane uptake rates were determined from the pressure decline curves recorded for each particle-size fraction, and "diffusion coefficients" were calculated using several unipore and bidisperse diffusion models. While the CH4 sorption capacity of moisture-equilibrated coals

  19. Mathematical modeling of physical processes in inorganic chemistry

    Chiu, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    The first part deals with the rapid calculation of steady-state concentration profiles in contactors using the Purex Process. Most of the computer codes simulating the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel generate the steady-state properties by calculating the transient behavior of the contactors. In this study, the author simulates the steady-state concentration profiles directly without first generating the transient behavior. Two computer codes are developed, PUMA (Plutonium-Uranium-Matrix-Algorithm) and PUNE (Plutonium-Uranium-Non-Equilibrium). The first one simulates the steady-state concentration profiles under conditions of equilibrium mass transfer. The second one accounts for deviations from mass transfer equilibrium. The second part of this dissertation shows how to use the classical trajectory method to study the equilibrium and saddle-point geometries of MX n (n = 2-7) molecules. Two nuclear potential functions that have the property of invariance to the operations of the permutation group of nuclei in molecules of the general formula MX n are described. Such potential functions allow equivalent isomers to have equal energies so that various statistical mechanical properties can be simply determined. The first function contains two center interactions between pairs of peripheral atoms and its defined by V(r) = 1/2Σ α k triangle r αμ 2 + Σ α QR αβ -n (n = 1,2...). The second function contains two and three center interactions and is defined by V(Θ) = 1/2Σ α K triangle αμ 2 + 1/2Σ α Qr 0 2 (Θ αμβ - π) 2

  20. The Role of Global University Rankings in the Process of Increasing the Competitiveness of Russian Education in the Context of Globalization and the Export of Educational Technologies

    Avralev, Nikita; Efimova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Article is devoted to the new conditions for the development of society characterized by the reconstruction of the course of higher education by increasing the competitiveness of Russian universities in the world scientific and educational space and the global university rankings as indicators of the implementation of the integration process and…

  1. China's proposing behavior in Global Governance: the cases of the WTO Doha Round negotiation and G-20 process

    Hongsong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines China's proposals on the reform of global governance, and discusses the main features of China's proposing behavior in the cases of the WTO Doha Round negotiation and G-20 Process. The main findings are: (1 in the critical junctures of global governance reform, China engaged the reform of the global governance institutions proactively, and put forward a series of reform proposals; (2 in proposing behavior, China argued the global governance institutions should be properly adjusted without intention to change the basic principles, refrained from playing a leadership role while proposing jointly with other countries, and upheld the principled idea of pro-development.

  2. Explorations of the Viability of ARM and Xeon Phi for Physics Processing

    Abdurachmanov, David; Bendavid, Josh; Boccali, Tommaso; Cooperman, Gene; Dotti, Andrea; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Giacomini, Francesco; Jones, Christopher D.; Manzali, Matteo; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    We report on our investigations into the viability of the ARM processor and the Intel Xeon Phi co-processor for scientific computing. We describe our experience porting software to these processors and running benchmarks using real physics applications to explore the potential of these processors for production physics processing.

  3. Applications of the First Law to Ecological Systems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Thermodynamics.

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This report describes concepts presented in another module called "The First Law of…

  4. Physically based modelling and optimal operation for product drying during post-harvest processing.

    Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Lukasse, L.; Farkas, I.; Rendik, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The development of new procedures for crop production and post-harvest processing requires models. Models based on physical backgrounds are most useful for this purpose because of their extrapolation potential. An optimal procedure is developed for alfalfa drying using a physical model. The model

  5. Explorations of the viability of ARM and Xeon Phi for physics processing

    Abdurachmanov, David; Arya, Kapil; Cooperman, Gene; Bendavid, Josh; Boccali, Tommaso; Dotti, Andrea; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Jones, Christopher D; Muzaffar, Shahzad; Giacomini, Francesco; Manzali, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We report on our investigations into the viability of the ARM processor and the Intel Xeon Phi co-processor for scientific computing. We describe our experience porting software to these processors and running benchmarks using real physics applications to explore the potential of these processors for production physics processing.

  6. Gas/aerosol Partitioning Parameterisation For Global Modelling: A Physical Interpretation of The Relationship Between Activity Coefficients and Relative Humidity

    Metzger, S.; Dentener, F. J.; Lelieveld, J.; Pandis, S. N.

    A computationally efficient model (EQSAM) to calculate gas/aerosol partitioning ofsemi-volatile inorganic aerosol components has been developed for use in global- atmospheric chemistry and climate models; presented at the EGS 2001.We introduce and discuss here the physics behind the parameterisation, upon whichthe EQuilib- rium Simplified Aerosol Model EQSAM is based. The parameterisation,which ap- proximates the activity coefficient calculation sufficiently accurately forglobal mod- elling, is based on a method that directly relates aerosol activitycoefficients to the ambient relative humidity, assuming chemical equilibrium.It therefore provides an interesting alternative for the computationally expensiveiterative activity coefficient calculation methods presently used in thermodynamicgas/aerosol equilibrium mod- els (EQMs). The parameterisation can be used,however, also in dynamical models that calculate mass transfer between theliquid/solid aerosol phases and the gas/phase explicitly; dynamical models oftenincorporate an EQM to calculate the aerosol com- position. The gain of theparameterisation is that the entire system of the gas/aerosol equilibrium partitioningcan be solved non-iteratively, a substantial advantage in global modelling.Since we have already demonstrated at the EGS 2001 that EQSAM yields similarresults as current state-of-the-art equilibrium models, we focus here on a dis- cussionof our physical interpretation of the parameterisation; the identification of theparameters needed is crucial. Given the lag of reliable data, the best way tothor- oughly validate the parameterisation for global modelling applications is theimple- mentation in current state-of-the-art gas/aerosol partitioning routines, whichare embe- ded in e.g. a global atmospheric chemistry transport model, by comparingthe results of the parameterisation against the ones based on the widely used activitycoefficient calculation methods (i.e. Bromley, Kussik-Meissner or Pitzer). Then

  7. Studying the physical basis of global warming: thermal effects of the interaction between radiation and matter and greenhouse effect

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We present a teaching module dealing with the thermal effects of interaction between radiation and matter, the infrared emission of bodies and the greenhouse effect devoted to university level and teacher education. The module stresses the dependence of the optical properties of materials (transparency, absorptivity and emissivity) on radiation frequency, as a result of interaction between matter and radiation. Multiple experiences are suggested to favour a progressive construction of knowledge on the physical aspects necessary to understand the greenhouse effect and global warming. Some results obtained with university students are briefly reported.

  8. Studying the physical basis of global warming: thermal effects of the interaction between radiation and matter and greenhouse effect

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo [Department of Physics ' A Volta' , University of Pavia, Via A Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: ugo.besson@unipv.it, E-mail: anna.deambrosisvigna@unipv.it

    2010-03-15

    We present a teaching module dealing with the thermal effects of interaction between radiation and matter, the infrared emission of bodies and the greenhouse effect devoted to university level and teacher education. The module stresses the dependence of the optical properties of materials (transparency, absorptivity and emissivity) on radiation frequency, as a result of interaction between matter and radiation. Multiple experiences are suggested to favour a progressive construction of knowledge on the physical aspects necessary to understand the greenhouse effect and global warming. Some results obtained with university students are briefly reported.

  9. Physical analysis of the process of cavitation in xylem sap.

    Shen, Fanyi; Gao, Rongfu; Liu, Wenji; Zhang, Wenjie

    2002-06-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that cavitation in xylem is caused by air bubbles. We analyzed expansion of a preexistent bubble adhering to a crack in a conduit wall and a bubble formed by the passage of air through a pore of a pit membrane, a process known as air seeding. We consider that there are two equilibrium states for a very small air bubble in the xylem: one is temporarily stable with a bubble radius r1 at point s1 on the curve P(r) relating pressure within the bubble (P) with bubble radius (r); the other is unstable with a bubble radius r2 at point s2 on Pr (where r1 equilibrium state, the bubble collapse pressure (2sigma/r, where sigma is surface tension of water) is balanced by the pressure difference across its surface. In the case of a bubble from a crack in a conduit wall, which is initially at point s1, expansion will occur steadily as water potential decreases. The bubble will burst only if the xylem pressure drops below a threshold value. A formula giving the threshold pressure for bubble bursting is proposed. In the case of an air seed entering a xylem conduit through a pore in a pit membrane, its initial radius may be r2 (i.e., the radius of the pore by which the air seed entered the vessel) at point s2 on Pr. Because the bubble is in an unstable equilibrium when entering the conduit, it can either expand or contract to point s1. As water vaporizes into the air bubble at s2, P rises until it exceeds the gas pressure that keeps the bubble in equilibrium, at which point the bubble will burst and induce a cavitation event in accordance with the air-seeding hypothesis. However, other possible perturbations could make the air-seeded bubble contract to s1, in which case the bubble will burst at a threshold pressure proposed for a bubble expanding from a crack in a conduit wall. For this reason some cavitation events may take place at a xylem threshold pressure (Pl'*) other than that determined by the formula, Plp'* = -2sigma/rp, proposed by Sperry and

  10. Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in solving the most important issues of globalization process' Proceedings

    2015-01-01

    Present collection comprises of materials of Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in solving the most important issues of globalization process'. Present collection is intended for scientific and technical staff, postgraduates, and students of institutes of higher education.

  11. [Precautions of physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process of medical devices].

    Song, Jin-Zi; Wan, Min; Xu, Hui; Yao, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jin-Hong

    2009-09-01

    The major idea of this article is to discuss standardization and normalization for the product standard of medical devices. Analyze the problem related to the physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process and make corresponding suggestions.

  12. Global sensitivity analysis of Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer enhanced oil recovery processes

    Carrero, Enrique; Queipo, Nestor V.; Pintos, Salvador; Zerpa, Luis E. [Applied Computing Institute, Faculty of Engineering, University of Zulia, Zulia (Venezuela)

    2007-08-15

    After conventional waterflooding processes the residual oil in the reservoir remains as a discontinuous phase in the form of oil drops trapped by capillary forces and is likely to be around 70% of the original oil in place (OOIP). The EOR method so-called Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding has been proved to be effective in reducing the oil residual saturation in laboratory experiments and field projects through reduction of interfacial tension and mobility ratio between oil and water phases. A critical step for the optimal design and control of ASP recovery processes is to find the relative contributions of design variables such as, slug size and chemical concentrations, in the variability of given performance measures (e.g., net present value, cumulative oil recovery), considering a heterogeneous and multiphase petroleum reservoir (sensitivity analysis). Previously reported works using reservoir numerical simulation have been limited to local sensitivity analyses because a global sensitivity analysis may require hundreds or even thousands of computationally expensive evaluations (field scale numerical simulations). To overcome this issue, a surrogate-based approach is suggested. Surrogate-based analysis/optimization makes reference to the idea of constructing an alternative fast model (surrogate) from numerical simulation data and using it for analysis/optimization purposes. This paper presents an efficient global sensitivity approach based on Sobol's method and multiple surrogates (i.e., Polynomial Regression, Kriging, Radial Base Functions and a Weighed Adaptive Model), with the multiple surrogates used to address the uncertainty in the analysis derived from plausible alternative surrogate-modeling schemes. The proposed approach was evaluated in the context of the global sensitivity analysis of a field scale Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer flooding process. The design variables and the performance measure in the ASP process were selected as slug size

  13. Peculiarities of spreading separatist trends in the Modern World in the context of development of the global processes

    Bostan Sergii Ivanovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The international collaboration is entering the new era of globalization revealing not only the new ways of development and quantum growth for humanity but also new threats, problems and global conflicts. There is now doubt that humanity is facing new global range of problems, agenda of the 21st century and urgent issues of global organization of the world order and systems of global administration acceptable for all states. Preventing distribution of international confrontation between the major political players through advancement of separatist and terrorist trends must become the main priority for the international system of collective security, which should be changed according to the realities of the modern global processes.

  14. The global relationship between chromatin physical topology, fractal structure, and gene expression

    Almassalha, Luay M; Tiwari, A; Ruhoff, P T

    2017-01-01

    in an empty space, but in a highly complex, interrelated, and dense nanoenvironment that profoundly influences chemical interactions. We explored the relationship between the physical nanoenvironment of chromatin and gene transcription in vitro. We analytically show that changes in the fractal dimension, D...... show that the increased heterogeneity of physical structure of chromatin due to increase in fractal dimension correlates with increased heterogeneity of gene networks. These findings indicate that the higher order folding of chromatin topology may act as a molecular-pathway independent code regulating...

  15. Use of global positioning system for physical activity research in youth

    Alberico, Claudia Oliveira; Schipperijn, Jasper; Reis, Rodrigo S

    2017-01-01

    The built environment is an important factor associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior during adolescence. This study presents the methods for objective assessment of context-specific moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB), as well as describes...... as important contexts: home, school, transport and leisure. The majority of participants (n=80) were boys (46; 57.5%), with a normal BMI (52; 65.0%) and a mean age (SD) of 14.5 (5.5) years. Adolescents spent most of their time at home, engaging in sedentary behavior. Overall, the largest proportion of MVPA...

  16. Black rings and the physical process version of the first law of thermodynamics

    Rogatko, Marek

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of the physical process version of the first law of black ring thermodynamics in n-dimensional Einstein gravity with additional (p+1)-form field strength and dilaton fields. The first order variations of mass, angular momentum and local charge for black ring are derived. From them we prove the physical process version of the first law of thermodynamic for stationary black rings

  17. Physical Frailty Is Associated with Longitudinal Decline in Global Cognitive Function in Non-Demented Older Adults: A Prospective Study.

    Chen, S; Honda, T; Narazaki, K; Chen, T; Kishimoto, H; Haeuchi, Y; Kumagai, S

    2018-01-01

    To assess the relationship between physical frailty and subsequent decline in global cognitive function in the non-demented elderly. A prospective population-based study in a west Japanese suburban town, with two-year follow-up. Community-dwellers aged 65 and older without placement in long-term care, and not having a history of dementia, Parkinson's disease and depression at baseline, who participated in the cohort of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study and underwent follow-up assessments two years later (N = 1,045). Global cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Physical frailty was identified according to the following five components: weight loss, low grip strength, exhaustion, slow gait speed and low physical activities. Linear regression models were used to examine associations between baseline frailty status and the MoCA scores at follow-up. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of cognitive decline (defined as at least two points decrease of MoCA score) according to baseline frailty status. Seven hundred and eight non-demented older adults were included in the final analyses (mean age: 72.6 ± 5.5 years, male 40.3%); 5.8% were frail, and 40.8% were prefrail at baseline. One hundred and fifty nine (22.5%) participants experienced cognitive decline over two years. After adjustment for baseline MoCA scores and all confounders, being frail at baseline was significantly associated with a decline of 1.48 points (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.37 to -0.59) in MoCA scores, as compared with non-frailty. Frail persons were over two times more likely to experience cognitive decline (adjusted odds ratio 2.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 5.08), compared to non-frail persons. Physical frailty is associated with longitudinal decline in global cognitive function in the non-demented older adults over a period of two years. Physically frail older community-dwellers should be closely monitored for cognitive decline that can be

  18. THE INTEGRATION PROCESS MERCOSUR IN 2007 BY MODEL OF GLOBAL DIMENSION OF REGIONAL INTEGRATION

    André Bechlin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the advance of the regional integration process in the MERCOSUR (Southern Common Market, using a model developed for Professor Mario Ruiz Estrada, of the College of Economy and Administration of the University of Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, the GDRI (Global Dimension of Regional Integration Model and that as characteristic has differentiated the use of other variable for analysis, that not specifically of economic origin, derivatives of the evolution of the commerce processes. When inferring and comparing the external performance of the economies that compose the Mercosur, evaluating itself the impacts of the advance of the process of regional and commercial integration, are evidents the inequalities that exist in the block. However, a common evolution is observed, in the direction of intensification of the integration between the economies, mainly after the process of opening lived for the continent, beyond the advance of the integration in the context of the Mercosur, from the decade of 1990. The analyzed data show that, in the generality, these economies are if integrating to the world-wide market, and in parallel, accenting the integration degree enters the members of the block.

  19. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a global perspective

    Veer, van 't P.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    This Report has a number of inter-related general purposes. One is to explore the extent to which food, nutrition, physical activity, and body composition modify the risk of cancer, and to specify which factors are most important. To the extent that environmental factors such as food, nutrition, and

  20. Investigating physical properties of solid dosage forms during pharmaceutical processing : Process analytical applications of vibrational spectroscopy

    Römer, Meike

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve and continuously develop the quality of pharmaceutical products, the process analytical technology (PAT) framework has been adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration. One of the aims of PAT is to identify critical process parameters and their effect on the quality of the final product. Real time analysis of the process data enables better control of the processes to obtain a high quality product. The main purpose of this work was to monitor crucial pharmaceutical...

  1. Process-based modelling of phosphorus transformations and retention in global rivers

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Mogollon, Jose; Beusen, Arthur; Bouwman, Lex

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) plays a major role in the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic systems. It typically acts as the limiting nutrient for primary productivity in freshwater bodies, and thus the increase in anthropogenic P loads during the XXth century has fuelled the eutrophication of these systems. Total P retention in global rivers has also escalated over this timeframe as demonstrated via a global model that implements the spiralling method at a spatial resolution of 0.5° (IMAGE-GNM, Beusen et al., 2015). Here, we refine this coupled hydrological - nutrient model by including mechanistic biogeochemical interactions that govern the P cycle. Special attention is paid to the representation of particle processes (i.e. particle loading, sedimentation and erosion), which play a major role in P transport and accumulation in aquatic systems. Our preliminary results are compared to measurements of suspended sediments, total P and orthophosphates in selected river basins. Initial model results show that P concentrations are particularly sensitive to particulate load distribution in the river network within a grid cell. This novel modelling approach will eventually allow a better assessment of the amounts of different forms of P (organic P, soluble reactive P, and particulate inorganic P), of P transformation rates and retention in inland waters. References Beusen, A.H.W., Van Beek, L.P.H., Bouwman, A.F., Mogollón, J.M., Middelburg, J.J. 2015. Coupling global models for hydrology and nutrient loading to simulate nitrogen and phosphorus retention in surface water - description of the IMAGE-GNM and analysis of performance. Geosci. Model Dev. 8, 4045-4067

  2. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  3. Introduction of a pyramid guiding process for general musculoskeletal physical rehabilitation

    Stark Timothy W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Successful instruction of a complicated subject as Physical Rehabilitation demands organization. To understand principles and processes of such a field demands a hierarchy of steps to achieve the intended outcome. This paper is intended to be an introduction to a proposed pyramid scheme of general physical rehabilitation principles. The purpose of the pyramid scheme is to allow for a greater understanding for the student and patient. As the respected Food Guide Pyramid accomplishes, the student will further appreciate and apply supported physical rehabilitation principles and the patient will understand that there is a progressive method to their functional healing process.

  4. Signal processing approaches to secure physical layer communications in multi-antenna wireless systems

    Hong, Y-W Peter; Kuo, C-C Jay

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces various signal processing approaches to enhance physical layer secrecy in multi-antenna wireless systems. Wireless physical layer secrecy has attracted much attention in recent years due to the broadcast nature of the wireless medium and its inherent vulnerability to eavesdropping. While most articles on physical layer secrecy focus on the information-theoretic aspect, we focus specifically on the signal processing aspects, including beamforming and precoding techniques for data transmission and discriminatory training schemes for channel estimation. The discussions will c

  5. Analysis of changing bank services in globalization process of financial business

    A.Mumi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of economic development of every country is closely connected with the functioning of effective infrastructure of financial market, in the carter of which is a bank system. The success of market relations, the provision of intensive economic growth, the increasing country’s competitiveness at the world market and the growth of population well-being are determined by the fact of how much effectively banks are able to act at different segments of bank services. The innovations in the bank field are closely connected with the innovations in the global and world financial sector. The issues about the influence of globalization on bank activities, the development of market of bank services, empirical researches are of great interest nowadays. Special attention is paid to the Ukrainian market of bank services. The analysis of the current state of the bank sector of the Ukrainian economy gives an opportunity to disclose some problems in the bank sphere as: political and financial instability in the country, the low quality of bank assets, the decrease of liquidity of bank assets, the low credit to the bank system among population, unstable legal framework in the state, the high level of vulnerability of the bank system to the country’s currency policy conducted by NBU.

  6. The formation of transnational elite as a factor of modern globalization processes

    M. A. Artemenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the characteristics of the formation of transnational elite and its influence on contemporary political and economic processes in the world, the problems of existence and communication with the Ukrainian national elite. The emergence of transnational elites due to the logic of globalization –transformation of the world in a certain social integrity. In this context, there is a loss of current national elites completeness of legitimacy and the emergence of new transnational subject of history, extending its authority throughout the world space and creates a new format of authority. The author gives his own definition of this phenomenon and proposes to consider the transnational elite association as the most influential members of certain 3 classes. In this article are identified the determinants of the formation of a transnational elite, as well as the basic platforms of its interaction (World Economic Forum, the Bilderberg Group, the Asian forum, and so on. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of communication transnational elite with the Ukrainian national elite, which is directly linked to the future political development of Ukraine, forced to adapt to the challenges of globalization and seek answers to them. In this context, the author notes the importance of the Yalta European Strategy, which is a platform of convergence Ukrainian elite with the worldwide elite. In the article is also reviewed the program «promoting democracy» as an example of conscious realization different political and economic projects around the world by transnational elite.

  7. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  8. Physics for future Presidents - nuclear power, terrorism, global warming; La physique expliquee a notre futur president - Nucleaire, terrorisme, rechauffement climatique

    Muller, Richard A.

    2011-04-26

    This book explains the science behind the concerns that our nation faces in the immediate future. It outlines the tools of terrorists, the dangers of nuclear power, and the reality of global warming. As citizens who will elect future presidents of the most powerful and influential countries in the world, we need to know-truly understand if Iran's nascent nuclear capability is a genuine threat to the West, if biochemical weapons are likely to be developed by terrorists, if there are viable alternatives to fossil fuels that should be nurtured and supported by the government, if nuclear power should be encouraged, and if global warming is actually happening. This book is written in everyday, nontechnical language on the science behind the concerns that our nations faces in the immediate future. This book is translated from 'Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines', published by W. W. Norton and Company in August 2008. Contents: 1 - Terrorism: Nine-eleven, Terrorist nukes, The next terrorist attack, Biological terrorism; 2 - Energy: Key energy surprises, Solar Power, The end of oil; 3 - Nukes: Radioactivity and death, Radioactive decay, Nuclear weapons, Nuclear madness, Nuclear power, Nuclear waste, Controlled fusion; 4 - Space: Space and satellites, Gravity applications, Humans in space, Spying with invisible light; 5 - Global Warming: A brief history of climate, The greenhouse effect, A very likely cause, Evidence, Non-solutions, The fruit on the ground, New technologies

  9. Global quantitative indices reflecting provider process-of-care: data-base derivation.

    Moran, John L; Solomon, Patricia J

    2010-04-19

    Controversy has attended the relationship between risk-adjusted mortality and process-of-care. There would be advantage in the establishment, at the data-base level, of global quantitative indices subsuming the diversity of process-of-care. A retrospective, cohort study of patients identified in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, 1993-2003, at the level of geographic and ICU-level descriptors (n = 35), for both hospital survivors and non-survivors. Process-of-care indices were established by analysis of: (i) the smoothed time-hazard curve of individual patient discharge and determined by pharmaco-kinetic methods as area under the hazard-curve (AUC), reflecting the integrated experience of the discharge process, and time-to-peak-hazard (TMAX, in days), reflecting the time to maximum rate of hospital discharge; and (ii) individual patient ability to optimize output (as length-of-stay) for recorded data-base physiological inputs; estimated as a technical production-efficiency (TE, scaled [0,(maximum)1]), via the econometric technique of stochastic frontier analysis. For each descriptor, multivariate correlation-relationships between indices and summed mortality probability were determined. The data-set consisted of 223129 patients from 99 ICUs with mean (SD) age and APACHE III score of 59.2(18.9) years and 52.7(30.6) respectively; 41.7% were female and 45.7% were mechanically ventilated within the first 24 hours post-admission. For survivors, AUC was maximal in rural and for-profit ICUs, whereas TMAX (>or= 7.8 days) and TE (>or= 0.74) were maximal in tertiary-ICUs. For non-survivors, AUC was maximal in tertiary-ICUs, but TMAX (>or= 4.2 days) and TE (>or= 0.69) were maximal in for-profit ICUs. Across descriptors, significant differences in indices were demonstrated (analysis-of-variance, P variance, for survivors (0.89) and non-survivors (0.89), was maximized by combinations of indices demonstrating a low correlation with

  10. Global quantitative indices reflecting provider process-of-care: data-base derivation

    Solomon Patricia J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controversy has attended the relationship between risk-adjusted mortality and process-of-care. There would be advantage in the establishment, at the data-base level, of global quantitative indices subsuming the diversity of process-of-care. Methods A retrospective, cohort study of patients identified in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, 1993-2003, at the level of geographic and ICU-level descriptors (n = 35, for both hospital survivors and non-survivors. Process-of-care indices were established by analysis of: (i the smoothed time-hazard curve of individual patient discharge and determined by pharmaco-kinetic methods as area under the hazard-curve (AUC, reflecting the integrated experience of the discharge process, and time-to-peak-hazard (TMAX, in days, reflecting the time to maximum rate of hospital discharge; and (ii individual patient ability to optimize output (as length-of-stay for recorded data-base physiological inputs; estimated as a technical production-efficiency (TE, scaled [0,(maximum1], via the econometric technique of stochastic frontier analysis. For each descriptor, multivariate correlation-relationships between indices and summed mortality probability were determined. Results The data-set consisted of 223129 patients from 99 ICUs with mean (SD age and APACHE III score of 59.2(18.9 years and 52.7(30.6 respectively; 41.7% were female and 45.7% were mechanically ventilated within the first 24 hours post-admission. For survivors, AUC was maximal in rural and for-profit ICUs, whereas TMAX (≥ 7.8 days and TE (≥ 0.74 were maximal in tertiary-ICUs. For non-survivors, AUC was maximal in tertiary-ICUs, but TMAX (≥ 4.2 days and TE (≥ 0.69 were maximal in for-profit ICUs. Across descriptors, significant differences in indices were demonstrated (analysis-of-variance, P ≤ 0.0001. Total explained variance, for survivors (0.89 and non-survivors (0.89, was maximized by

  11. Effects of instant controlled pressure drop process on physical and sensory properties of puffed wheat snack.

    Yağcı, Sibel

    2017-04-01

    In this study, research on the development of a puffed wheat snack using the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) process was carried out. Snack products were produced by expanding moistened wheat under various DIC processing conditions in order to obtain adequate puffing, followed by drying in a hot air dryer. The effects of operational variables such as wheat initial moisture content (11-23% w/w, wet basis), processing pressure (3-5 × 10 2 kPa) and processing time (3-11 min) on the physical (density, color and textural characteristics) and sensory properties of the product were investigated. The physical properties of the wheat snack were most affected by changes in processing pressure, followed by processing time and wheat moisture content. Increasing processing pressure and time often improved expansion and textural properties but led to darkening of the raw wheat color. The most acceptable snack in terms of physical properties was obtained at the lowest wheat moisture content. Sensory analysis suggested that consumer acceptability was optimal for wheat snacks produced at higher processing pressure, medium processing time and lower moisture content. The most desirable conditions for puffed wheat snack production using the DIC process were determined as 11% (w/w) of wheat moisture content, 5 × 10 2 kPa of processing pressure and 7 min of processing time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Forecasting techno-social systems: how physics and computing help to fight off global pandemics

    Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    The crucial issue when planning for adequate public health interventions to mitigate the spread and impact of epidemics is risk evaluation and forecast. This amount to the anticipation of where, when and how strong the epidemic will strike. In the last decade advances in performance in computer technology, data acquisition, statistical physics and complex networks theory allow the generation of sophisticated simulations on supercomputer infrastructures to anticipate the spreading pattern of a pandemic. For the first time we are in the position of generating real time forecast of epidemic spreading. I will review the history of the current H1N1 pandemic, the major road-blocks the community has faced in its containment and mitigation and how physics and computing provide predictive tools that help us to battle epidemics.

  13. Physical sciences and engineering advances in life sciences and oncology a WTEC global assessment

    Fletcher, Daniel; Gerecht, Sharon; Levine, Ross; Mallick, Parag; McCarty, Owen; Munn, Lance; Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) by a panel of experts. It covers the status and trends of applying physical sciences and engineering principles to oncology research in leading laboratories and organizations in Europe and Asia. The book elaborates on the six topics identified by the panel that have the greatest potential to advance understanding and treatment of cancer, each covered by a chapter in the book. The study was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the NIH in the US under a cooperative agreement with the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC).

  14. Global seismic inversion as the next standard step in the processing sequence

    Maver, Kim G.; Hansen, Lars S.; Jepsen, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Klaus B.

    1998-12-31

    Seismic inversion of post stack seismic data has until recently been regarded as a reservoir oriented method since the standard inversion techniques rely on extensive well control and a detailed user derived input model. Most seismic inversion techniques further requires a stable wavelet. As a consequence seismic inversion is mainly utilised in mature areas focusing of specific zones only after the seismic data has been interpreted and is well understood. By using an advanced 3-D global technique, seismic inversion is presented as the next standard step in the processing sequence. The technique is robust towards noise within the seismic data, utilizes a time variant wavelet, and derives a low frequency model utilizing the stacking velocities and only limited well control. 4 figs.

  15. Born Again Globals and the reconfiguration of Resources in the Internationalization Process

    Servais, Per; Decker, Arnim

    perspective in depth in the context of international new ventures (INVs) and particularly toward their marketing activities, but even fewer studies has research the very same in ”born-again” globals firms (Bell et al. 2001). Internationalization is recognized as a valuable strategy for organizations’ growth......Internationalization has become an issue in most small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), and literature has emphasized the role of strategic choices focusing on several aspects, such as motivations, entry mode choices, internationalization process. Few studies have examined the social capital...... pathways taken by the family firm are identified eg. the level of commitment toward internationalization, the resources available, and the ability to commit and use those resources to develop the required capabilities. Furthermore, how the owner makes international decisions is explored and four...

  16. INSPIRE: Managing Metadata in a Global Digital Library for High-Energy Physics

    Martin Montull, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Four leading laboratories in the High-Energy Physics (HEP) field are collaborating to roll-out the next-generation scientific information portal: INSPIRE. The goal of this project is to replace the popular 40 year-old SPIRES database. INSPIRE already provides access to about 1 million records and includes services such as fulltext search, automatic keyword assignment, ingestion and automatic display of LaTeX, citation analysis, automatic author disambiguation, metadata harvesting, extraction ...

  17. Female disability disadvantage: a global perspective on sex differences in physical function and disability.

    Wheaton, Felicia V; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2016-07-01

    The objectives were to determine whether women always fare more poorly in terms of physical function and disability across countries that vary widely in terms of their level of development, epidemiologic context and level of gender equality. Sex differences in self-reported and objective measures of disability and physical function were compared among older adults aged 55-85 in the United States of America, Taiwan, Korea, Mexico, China, Indonesia and among the Tsimane of Bolivia using population-based studies collected between 2001 and 2011. Data were analysed using logistic and ordinary least-squares regression. Confidence intervals were examined to see whether the effect of being female differed significantly between countries. In all countries, women had consistently worse physical functioning (both self-reported and objectively measured). Women also tended to report more difficulty with activities of daily living (ADL), although differences were not always significant. In general, sex differences across measures were less pronounced in China. In Korea, women had significantly lower grip strength, but sex differences in ADL difficulty were non-significant or even reversed. Education and marital status helped explain sex differences. Overall, there was striking similarity in the magnitude and direction of sex differences across countries despite considerable differences in context, although modest variations in the effect of sex were observed.

  18. A multiplex PCR mini-barcode assay to identify processed shark products in the global trade.

    Diego Cardeñosa

    Full Text Available Protecting sharks from overexploitation has become global priority after widespread population declines have occurred. Tracking catches and trade on a species-specific basis has proven challenging, in part due to difficulties in identifying processed shark products such as fins, meat, and liver oil. This has hindered efforts to implement regulations aimed at promoting sustainable use of commercially important species and protection of imperiled species. Genetic approaches to identify shark products exist but are typically based on sequencing or amplifying large DNA regions and may fail to work on heavily processed products in which DNA is degraded. Here, we describe a novel multiplex PCR mini-barcode assay based on two short fragments of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene. This assay can identify to species all sharks currently listed on the Convention of International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES and most shark species present in the international trade. It achieves species diagnosis based on a single PCR and one to two downstream DNA sequencing reactions. The assay is capable of identifying highly processed shark products including fins, cooked shark fin soup, and skin-care products containing liver oil. This is a straightforward and reliable identification method for data collection and enforcement of regulations implemented for certain species at all governance levels.

  19. Experiences with a dialogue process between policy makers and global modellers

    Van Daalen, C.E.; Thissen, W.A.H.; Berk, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1997, a series of five workshops, henceforth called the Delft process, took place with the aim to explore and enhance use of the IMAGE 2 model to support international climate negotiations. The IMAGE 2 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system. The workshops facilitated a dialogue between policy makers and scientists involved in the development and applications of the IMAGE 2 model. In this way, policy makers would benefit from the policy makers on how to improve the policy relevance of the IMAGE 2 model. The evaluation at the end of the workshop series showed that participants have used information from the workshop at international negotiation conferences and in preparation of policy documents. The process shows that creating a forum for direct science-policy interactions can be very useful and productive, and has confirmed the importance of creating an open and constructive atmosphere between policy makers, and between policy makers and analysts, to enhance utilisation of scientific knowledge. The authors' analysis also suggests that many factors have to be 'in the right position at the right time and place' to achieve such a success, and that it is difficult to prevent the occurrence of biases in processes like this. 33 refs

  20. Aerosol activation and cloud processing in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    G. J. Roelofs

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A parameterization for cloud processing is presented that calculates activation of aerosol particles to cloud drops, cloud drop size, and pH-dependent aqueous phase sulfur chemistry. The parameterization is implemented in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The cloud processing parameterization uses updraft speed, temperature, and aerosol size and chemical parameters simulated by ECHAM5-HAM to estimate the maximum supersaturation at the cloud base, and subsequently the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC due to activation. In-cloud sulfate production occurs through oxidation of dissolved SO2 by ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The model simulates realistic distributions for annually averaged CDNC although it is underestimated especially in remote marine regions. On average, CDNC is dominated by cloud droplets growing on particles from the accumulation mode, with smaller contributions from the Aitken and coarse modes. The simulations indicate that in-cloud sulfate production is a potentially important source of accumulation mode sized cloud condensation nuclei, due to chemical growth of activated Aitken particles and to enhanced coalescence of processed particles. The strength of this source depends on the distribution of produced sulfate over the activated modes. This distribution is affected by uncertainties in many parameters that play a direct role in particle activation, such as the updraft velocity, the aerosol chemical composition and the organic solubility, and the simulated CDNC is found to be relatively sensitive to these uncertainties.

  1. Global warming potential of the sulfur-iodine process using life cycle assessment methodology

    Lattin, William C.; Utgikar, Vivek P.

    2009-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) of one proposed method of hydrogen production - thermochemical water-splitting using the sulfur-iodine cycle couple with a very high-temperature nuclear reactor - is presented in this paper. Thermochemical water-splitting theoretically offers a higher overall efficiency than high-temperature electrolysis of water because heat from the nuclear reactor is provided directly to the hydrogen generation process, instead of using the intermediate step of generating electricity. The primary heat source for the S-I cycle is an advanced nuclear reactor operating at temperatures corresponding to those required by the sulfur-iodine process. This LCA examines the environmental impact of the combined advanced nuclear and hydrogen generation plants and focuses on quantifying the emissions of carbon dioxide per kilogram of hydrogen produced. The results are presented in terms of global warming potential (GWP). The GWP of the system is 2500 g carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO 2 -eq) per kilogram of hydrogen produced. The GWP of this process is approximately one-sixth of that for hydrogen production by steam reforming of natural gas, and is comparable to producing hydrogen from wind- or hydro-electric conventional electrolysis. (author)

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging assessed inflammation in the wrist is associated with patient-reported physical impairment, global assessment of disease activity and pain in early rheumatoid arthritis

    Glinatsi, Daniel; Baker, Joshua F; Hetland, Merete L

    2017-01-01

    metacarpophalangeal joints in the analyses did not strengthen the associations between MRI pathology and PROs. CONCLUSIONS: MRI-assessed inflammation, but not damage, in early RA wrists is associated with patient-reported physical impairment, global assessment of disease activity and pain and influences the physical...

  3. FORMULATION OF MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM DESCRIBING PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES AT CONCRETE CORROSION

    Sergey V. Fedosov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relevance of new scientific research focused on modeling of physical and chemical processes occurring in the cement concrete at their exploitation. The basic types of concrete corrosion are described. The problem of mass transfer processes in a flat reinforced concrete wall at concrete corrosion of the first and the second types has been mathematically formulated.

  4. The Inclusion of Science Process Skills in Yemeni Secondary School Physics Textbooks

    Aziz, Majed S.; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare and contrast the science process skills (SPS) included in the 10th-12th grade physics textbooks content utilized in Yemeni schools. The study revealed weaknesses and strengths in the textbooks' content. For instance, a number of science process skills (SPS), such as measuring, predicting and hypothesizing, have…

  5. Overland erosion of uranium-mill-tailings impoundments: physical processes and computational methods

    Walters, M.H.

    1983-03-01

    The surface runoff and erosional processes of watersheds caused by rainfall-runoff are reviewed. Soil properties, topography, and rainstorm distribution are discussed with respect to their effects on soil erosion. The effects of climate and vegetation are briefly presented. Regression models and physical process simulation models are reviewed

  6. About forming of personality physical culture of students in the process of physical education (in aspect of presence of abilities

    S.I. Belykh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that practice of teaching of discipline «Physical education» does not provide forming of volume of abilities, sufficient for the origin of athletic activity. Prevail ability to pick up a place, sporting form, inventory depending on the type of physical exercises and ability on the observance of rules of the personal hygiene. In the questionnaire questioning 650 students (324 youths and 326 girls of the first and fourth courses took part. All of students visited employments on physical education at school and institute of higher. It is marked that the important task of amateurish athletic education is forming for the students of the personal experience of independent athletic, health and рекреационных employments. It is underlined that sense of amateurish athletic education of students consists in achievement by a man unity of mental and activity processes. Such processes are needed for an estimation and understanding of the state of the health, programming and residence of healthy way of life.

  7. Data Synthesis and Data Assimilation at Global Change Experiments and Fluxnet Toward Improving Land Process Models

    Luo, Yiqi [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Plant Biology

    2017-09-12

    The project was conducted during the period from 7/1/2012 to 6/30/2017 with three major tasks: (1) data synthesis and development of data assimilation (DA) techniques to constrain modeled ecosystem feedback to climate change; (2) applications of DA techniques to improve process models at different scales from ecosystem to regions and the globe; and 3) improvements of modeling soil carbon (C) dynamics by land surface models. During this period, we have synthesized published data from soil incubation experiments (e.g., Chen et al., 2016; Xu et al., 2016; Feng et al., 2016), global change experiments (e.g., Li et al., 2013; Shi et al., 2015, 2016; Liang et al., 2016) and fluxnet (e.g., Niu et al., 2012., Xia et al., 2015; Li et al., 2016). These data have been organized into multiple data products and have been used to identify general mechanisms and estimate parameters for model improvement. We used the data sets that we collected and the DA techniques to improve model performance of both ecosystem models and global land models. The objectives are: 1) to improve model simulations of litter and soil carbon storage (e.g., Schädel et al., 2013; Hararuk and Luo, 2014; Hararuk et al., 2014; Liang et al., 2015); 2) to explore the effects of CO2, warming and precipitation on ecosystem processes (e.g., van Groenigen et al., 2014; Shi et al., 2015, 2016; Feng et al., 2017); and 3) to estimate parameters variability in different ecosystems (e.g., Li et al., 2016). We developed a traceability framework, which was based on matrix approaches and decomposed the modeled steady-state terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage capacity into four can trace the difference in ecosystem carbon storage capacity among different biomes to four traceable components: net primary productivity (NPP), baseline C residence times, environmental scalars and climate forcing (Xia et al., 2013). With this framework, we can diagnose the differences in modeled carbon storage across ecosystems

  8. The application of the algorithm of the individualization of students’ physical education process

    L.N. Barybina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: theoretically and experimentally justify the use of the algorithm of physical education process individualization in universities taking into account the psychophysiological features of students. Material: the study involved 413 students. It was defined indicators of the level of physical fitness and functional status, psycho-physiological features. Results: it was worked out the algorithm of individualization of students’ physical education process. It was defined the structure of the complex preparedness and it was developed models of characteristics of students - representatives of different sports specializations. It was established that for the successful construction of the training process, it is necessary to combine the parameters of physical, functional training and physiological indicators into a single integral evaluation of the individual characteristics of students. It was shown that at the students of the experimental group was improved indicators of functional, psychophysiological capabilities and physical preparedness. Conclusions: the application of the algorithm of the individualization of process of physical education enhances the functionality of the students.

  9. Institutions and Cultural Diversity: Effects of Democratic and Propaganda Processes on Local Convergence and Global Diversity.

    Ulloa, Roberto; Kacperski, Celina; Sancho, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In a connected world where people influence each other, what can cause a globalized monoculture, and which measures help to preserve the coexistence of cultures? Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles. In the present paper, we investigate for the first time the impact that institutions have on cultural diversity. In our first three studies, we extend existing agent-based models and explore the effects of institutional influence and agent loyalty. We find that higher institutional influence increases cultural diversity, while individuals' loyalty to their institutions has a small, preserving effect. In three further studies, we test how bottom-up and top-down processes of institutional influence impact our model. We find that bottom-up democratic practices, such as referenda, tend to produce convergence towards homogeneity, while top-down information dissemination practices, such as propaganda, further increase diversity. In our last model--an integration of bottom-up and top-down processes into a feedback loop of information--we find that when democratic processes are rare, the effects of propaganda are amplified, i.e., more diversity emerges; however, when democratic processes are common, they are able to neutralize or reverse this propaganda effect. Importantly, our models allow for control over the full spectrum of diversity, so that a manipulation of our parameters can result in preferred levels of diversity, which will be useful for the study of other factors in the future. We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences.

  10. Alimentary habits, physical activity, and Framingham global risk score in metabolic syndrome.

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. A Globally Distributed System for Job, Data, and Information Handling for High Energy Physics

    Garzoglio, Gabriele [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2006-01-13

    The computing infrastructures of the modern high energy physics experiments need to address an unprecedented set of requirements. The collaborations consist of hundreds of members from dozens of institutions around the world and the computing power necessary to analyze the data produced surpasses already the capabilities of any single computing center. A software infrastructure capable of seamlessly integrating dozens of computing centers around the world, enabling computing for a large and dynamical group of users, is of fundamental importance for the production of scientific results. Such a computing infrastructure is called a computational grid. The SAM-Grid offers a solution to these problems for CDF and DZero, two of the largest high energy physics experiments in the world, running at Fermilab. The SAM-Grid integrates standard grid middleware, such as Condor-G and the Globus Toolkit, with software developed at Fermilab, organizing the system in three major components: data handling, job handling, and information management. This dissertation presents the challenges and the solutions provided in such a computing infrastructure.

  12. Alimentary Habits, Physical Activity, and Framingham Global Risk Score in Metabolic Syndrome

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo, E-mail: anamariafeoli@hotmail.com [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p < 0.001). We obtained a reduction for intermediate risk in 25.7% of subjects. After intervention, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) on cardiovascular age, this being more significant in groups DIP (5.2%) and DIPE (5.3%). Proposed interventions produced beneficial effects for reducing cardiovascular risk score. This study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Alimentary Habits, Physical Activity, and Framingham Global Risk Score in Metabolic Syndrome

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p < 0.001). We obtained a reduction for intermediate risk in 25.7% of subjects. After intervention, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) on cardiovascular age, this being more significant in groups DIP (5.2%) and DIPE (5.3%). Proposed interventions produced beneficial effects for reducing cardiovascular risk score. This study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases

  14. Functional Hemispheric Asymmetries of Global/Local Processing Mirrored by the Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential

    Martens, Ulla; Hubner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    While hemispheric differences in global/local processing have been reported by various studies, it is still under dispute at which processing stage they occur. Primarily, it was assumed that these asymmetries originate from an early perceptual stage. Instead, the content-level binding theory (Hubner & Volberg, 2005) suggests that the hemispheres…

  15. [Public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the health sector: global processes and national dynamics].

    Almeida, Celia

    2017-10-02

    This essay addresses several dimensions that promote and consolidate the growing participation by private stakeholders in the decision-making process in health, emphasizing international and domestic factors that have facilitated and sustained the persistence of the neoliberal political and ideological perspective over the course of nearly thirty years (since the 1990s). The article emphasizes the role of intergovernmental organizations in this process, highlighting public-private interactions at the global and domestic levels, with a specific focus on so-called public-private partnerships (PPPs). The working premise is that such linkages alter the power relations in policy formulation and implementation, with a predominance of private stakeholders. The article presents an overview of the development of PPPs in Europe, Latin America, and Brazil, identifying their specific origins and the simultaneity of triggering events. The text reiterates the importance of not overlooking the power of these actors in dislodging them from this political position, whether in multilateral organizations or national health systems. The aim is to emphasize the importance of more in-depth reflection on the subject, backing debates within the sector. This entire dynamic requires rethinking strategies of resistance to preserve the rights won through centuries of struggle.

  16. Process-Oriented Diagnostics of Tropical Cyclones in Global Climate Models

    Moon, Y.; Kim, D.; Camargo, S. J.; Wing, A. A.; Sobel, A. H.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Murakami, H.; Reed, K. A.; Vecchi, G. A.; Wehner, M. F.; Zarzycki, C. M.; Zhao, M.

    2017-12-01

    Simulating tropical cyclone (TC) activity with global climate models (GCMs) remains a challenging problem. While some GCMs are able to simulate TC activity that is in good agreement with the observations, many other models exhibit strong biases. Decreasing horizontal grid spacing of the GCM simulations tends to improve the characteristics of simulated TCs, but this enhancement alone does not necessarily lead to greater skill in simulating TC activity. This study uses process-based diagnostics to identify model characteristics that could explain why some GCM simulations are able to produce more realistic TC activity than others. The diagnostics examine how convection, moisture, clouds and related processes are coupled at individual grid points, which yields useful information into how convective parameterizations interact with resolved model dynamics. These diagnostics share similarities with those originally developed to examine the Madden-Julian Oscillations in climate models. This study will examine TCs in eight different GCM simulations performed at NOAA/GFDL, NCAR and NASA that have different horizontal resolutions and ocean coupling. Preliminary results suggest that stronger TCs are closely associated with greater rainfall - thus greater diabatic heating - in the inner-core regions of the storms, which is consistent with previous theoretical studies. Other storm characteristics that can be used to infer why GCM simulations with comparable horizontal grid spacings produce different TC activity will be examined.

  17. Proposals for the Negotiation Process on the United Nations Global Compact for Migration

    Victor Genina

    2017-09-01

    • builds a cooperation-oriented, peer-review mechanism to review migration policies.    The paper has been conceived as an input for those who will take part in the negotiation of the global compact for migration, as well as those who will closely follow those negotiations. Thus, the paper assumes a level of knowledge on how international migration has been addressed within the United Nations during the last several years and of the complexities of these negotiation processes. The author took part in different UN negotiation processes on international migration from 2004 to 2013. The paper is primarily based on this experience.[4] [1] G.A. Res. 71/1, ¶ 21 (Sept. 19, 2016. [2] G.A. Res. 68/4 (Oct. 3, 2013. [3] A mixed flow, according to UNHCR (n.d., is the migratory flow comprised by both asylum seekers and migrants: “Migrants and refugees increasingly make use of the same routes and means of transport to get to an overseas destination.” [4] During that period, the author was a staff member of the Mexican delegation to the United Nations, both in Geneva and New York.

  18. Geophysical constraints on geodynamic processes at convergent margins: A global perspective

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Shulgin, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    Convergent margins, being the boundaries between colliding lithospheric plates, form the most disastrous areas in the world due to intensive, strong seismicity and volcanism. We review global geophysical data in order to illustrate the effects of the plate tectonic processes at convergent margins on the crustal and upper mantle structure, seismicity, and geometry of subducting slab. We present global maps of free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, heat flow, seismicity, seismic Vs anomalies in the upper mantle, and plate convergence rate, as well as 20 profiles across different convergent margins. A global analysis of these data for three types of convergent margins, formed by ocean-ocean, ocean-continent, and continent-continent collisions, allows us to recognize the following patterns. (1) Plate convergence rate depends on the type of convergent margins and it is significantly larger when, at least, one of the plates is oceanic. However, the oldest oceanic plate in the Pacific ocean has the smallest convergence rate. (2) The presence of an oceanic plate is, in general, required for generation of high-magnitude (M N 8.0) earthquakes and for generating intermediate and deep seismicity along the convergent margins. When oceanic slabs subduct beneath a continent, a gap in the seismogenic zone exists at depths between ca. 250 km and 500 km. Given that the seismogenic zone terminates at ca. 200 km depth in case of continent-continent collision, we propose oceanic origin of subducting slabs beneath the Zagros, the Pamir, and the Vrancea zone. (3) Dip angle of the subducting slab in continent-ocean collision does not correlate neither with the age of subducting oceanic slab, nor with the convergence rate. For ocean-ocean subduction, clear trends are recognized: steeply dipping slabs are characteristic of young subducting plates and of oceanic plates with high convergence rate, with slab rotation towards a near-vertical dip angle at depths below ca. 500 km at very high

  19. Reliability and Validity of the Self- and Interviewer-Administered Versions of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ)

    Chu, Anne H. Y.; Ng, Sheryl H. X.; Koh, David; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was originally designed to be interviewer-administered by the World Health Organization in assessing physical activity. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychometric properties of a self-administered GPAQ with the original interviewer-administered approach. Additionally, this study explored whether using different accelerometry-based physical activity bout definitions might affect the questionnaire’s validity. Methods A total of 110 participants were recruited and randomly allocated to an interviewer- (n = 56) or a self-administered (n = 54) group for test-retest reliability, of which 108 participants who met the wear time criteria were included in the validity study. Reliability was assessed by administration of questionnaires twice with a one-week interval. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing against seven-day accelerometer measures. Two definitions for accelerometry-data scoring were employed: (1) total-min of activity, and (2) 10-min bout. Results Participants had similar baseline characteristics in both administration groups and no significant difference was found between the two formats in terms of validity (correlations between the GPAQ and accelerometer). For validity, the GPAQ demonstrated fair-to-moderate correlations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for self-administration (r s = 0.30) and interviewer-administration (r s = 0.46). Findings were similar when considering 10-min activity bouts in the accelerometer analysis for MVPA (r s = 0.29 vs. 0.42 for self vs. interviewer). Within each mode of administration, the strongest correlations were observed for vigorous-intensity activity. However, Bland-Altman plots illustrated bias toward overestimation for higher levels of MVPA, vigorous- and moderate-intensity activities, and underestimation for lower levels of these measures. Reliability for MVPA revealed moderate correlations (r s = 0.61 vs. 0.63 for self

  20. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  1. Overview of realized research on physical processing methods of primary and secondary materials

    Mockovèiaková Annamária

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes research activities of the physical mineral processing group at the Institute of Geotechnics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in last 5 years. The research programme of this group has been focused on the utilization of ferrofluids in mineral processing, especially in fine-grained materials separation. Other investigation works deal with the possibilities of Slovak brown coal preparation and metallurgical wastes processing as well as with the problems of domestic raw-materials treatment.

  2. Identifying students’ learning performance as a way to determine the admission process in physical education field

    Prihanto, J. B.; Kartiko, D. C.; Wijaya, A.

    2018-01-01

    The interest in the physical education field has been rising in the past ten years. It can be seen that registrants of the physical education program in several universities increase. This research is meant to analyze students’ admission process and its relation to their performance in the learning activities in the department of physical education at Universitas Negeri Surabaya. The design of this study was quantitative data analysis. The research was conducted by collecting students’ admission data and their transcripts. The result showed that the most influential factor of admission in physical education program was the student’ field of study in high school. In addition, their achievements in sports competitions and family welfare are not likely to be important factors. These results give a recommendation for the next admission process which related to the quality of graduates.

  3. Effects of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen Process on Global Black Carbon Distribution

    Qi, L.

    2016-12-01

    In mixed-phase clouds, the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process (ice crystals may grow while water drops evaporate, thereby releasing black carbon (BC) particles into the interstitial air) slows down wet scavenging of BC. Rimming (snowflakes fall and collect cloud water drops and the BC in them along their pathways), in contrast, results in more efficient wet scavenging. We systematically investigate the effects of WBF on BC scavenging efficiency, surface BCair, deposition flux, concentration in snow, and washout ratio using a global 3D chemical transport model. We differentiate riming- vs WBF-dominated in-cloud scavenging based on liquid water content and temperature. Specifically, we relate WBF to either temperature or ice mass fraction in mixed-phase clouds. We find that at Jungfraujoch, Switzerland and Abisko, Sweden, where WBF dominates, the discrepancies of simulated BC scavenging efficiency and washout ratio are significantly reduced (from a factor of 3 to 10% and from a factor of 4-5 to a factor of two). However, at Zeppelin, Norway, where riming dominates, simulation of BC scavenging efficiency, BCair, and washout ratio become worse (relative to observations) when WBF is included. There is thus an urgent need for extensive observations to distinguish and characterize riming- versus WBF-dominated aerosol scavenging in mixed-phase clouds and the associated BC scavenging efficiency. We find the reduction resulting from WBF to global BC scavenging efficiency varies substantially, from 8% in the tropics to 76% in the Arctic. The resulting annual mean BCair increases by up to 156% at high altitudes and at northern high latitudes. Overall, WBF halves the model-observation discrepancy (from -65% to -30%) of BCair across North America, Europe, China and the Arctic. Globally WBF increases BC burden from 0.22 to 0.29-0.35 mg m-2 yr-1, which partially explains the gap between observed and previous model simulated BC burdens over land (Bond et al., 2013). In

  4. Perceived neighborhood walkability and physical exercise: An examination of casual communication in a social process.

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Jo, Hyerim

    2018-05-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence for the environmental correlates of physical activity, social processes underlying this association are not entirely clear. This study positions communication characterized by weak ties as a social mechanism linking neighborhood walkability with physical exercise. Data from a survey of Chicago residents show that perceived neighborhood walkability is positively related to frequency of weak-tie communication. Frequency of weak-tie communication is related positively to perceived social cohesion and negatively to anonymity, both of which are significantly related to frequency of physical exercise in the neighborhood. Data also show a sequential indirect relationship involving perceived neighborhood walkability, weak-tie communication, anonymity, and physical exercise. Implications are discussed in terms of the role of communication in promoting locality-based physical exercise. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Attributional processes in the learned helplessness paradigm: behavioral effects of global attributions.

    Mikulincer, M

    1986-12-01

    Following the learned helplessness paradigm, I assessed in this study the effects of global and specific attributions for failure on the generalization of performance deficits in a dissimilar situation. Helplessness training consisted of experience with noncontingent failures on four cognitive discrimination problems attributed to either global or specific causes. Experiment 1 found that performance in a dissimilar situation was impaired following exposure to globally attributed failure. Experiment 2 examined the behavioral effects of the interaction between stable and global attributions of failure. Exposure to unsolvable problems resulted in reduced performance in a dissimilar situation only when failure was attributed to global and stable causes. Finally, Experiment 3 found that learned helplessness deficits were a product of the interaction of global and internal attribution. Performance deficits following unsolvable problems were recorded when failure was attributed to global and internal causes. Results were discussed in terms of the reformulated learned helplessness model.

  6. On the integration developmental characteristics as a form of international policy in the context of modern globalization processes

    Bostan Sergii Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Under globalization of the world community, there are new opportunities and potential threats to the current system of international relations, collective security and geopolitical development of different regions. Integration and regionalization, consolidation and separatism entered upon the agenda of the political present. The integration process becomes one of the variations of peaceful and mutually beneficial solution to the question of the globalization influence of uneven development of the world regions, the fight against global problems of humanity, discrimination and intolerance, spread the values of democracy, rights, freedom and equality.

  7. INSPIRE: Realizing the dream of a global digital library in High-Energy Physics

    Holtkamp, Annette; Simko, Tibor; Smith, Tim

    2010-01-01

    High-Energy Physics (HEP) has a long tradition in pioneering infrastructures for scholarly communication, and four leading laboratories are now rolling-out the next-generation digital library for the field: INSPIRE. This is an evolution of the extraordinarily successful, 40-years old SPIRES database. Based on the Invenio software, INSPIRE already provides seamless access to almost 1 million records, which will be expanded to cover multimedia, data, software, wikis. Services offered include citation analysis, fulltext search, extraction of figures from fulltext and search in figure captions, automatic keyword assignment, metadata harvesting, retrodigitization, ingestion and automatic display of LaTeX, and storage of supplementary materials like Mathematica notebooks. New services are in different phases of design or implementation, in strategic partnerships with all other information providers in the field and neighbouring disciplines, including automatic author disambiguation, user tagging, crowdsourcing of m...

  8. Physically-based global downscaling climate change projections for a full century

    Ghan, S J; Shippert, T

    2005-01-01

    A global atmosphere/land model with an embedded subgrid orography scheme is used to simulate the period 1977-2100 using ocean surface conditions and radiative constituent concentrations for a climate change scenario. Climate variables simulated for multiple elevation classes are mapping according to a high-resolution elevation dataset in ten regions with complex terrain. Analysis of changes in the simulated climate leads to the following conclusions. Changes in precipitation vary widely, with precipitation increasing more with increasing altitude in some region, decreasing more with altitude in others, and changing little in still others. In some regions the sign of the precipitation change depends on surface elevation. Changes in surface air temperature are rather uniform, with at most a two-fold difference between the largest and smallest changes within a region; in most cases the warming increases with altitude. Changes in snow water are highly dependent on altitude. Absolute changes usually increase with altitude, while relative changes decrease. In places where snow accumulates, an artificial upper bound on snow water limits the sensitivity of snow water to climate change considerably. The simulated impact of climate change on regional mean snow water varies widely, with little impact in regions in which the upper bound on snow water is the dominant snow water sink, moderate impact in regions with a mixture of seasonal and permanent snow, and profound impacts on regions with little permanent snow

  9. Evolution of the ageing process, quality of life and physical fitness in western countries

    Ruiz-Montero, Pedro Jesús; Chiva, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    It is predicted that life expectancy will raise sharply in future stages, especially in western countries. In fact, life expectancy of developed countries is currently over the age of 70. Aging implies a series of physical, psychological, cognitive and social changes that condition one's self-concept, creating adaptive strategies and the knowledge to maintain one's well-being in spite of the changes. Albeit aging is a natural and inevitable process, the benefits of physical fitnes...

  10. Generalized Bell states map physical systems’ quantum evolution into a grammar for quantum information processing

    Delgado, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    Quantum information processing should be generated through control of quantum evolution for physical systems being used as resources, such as superconducting circuits, spinspin couplings in ions and artificial anyons in electronic gases. They have a quantum dynamics which should be translated into more natural languages for quantum information processing. On this terrain, this language should let to establish manipulation operations on the associated quantum information states as classical information processing does. This work shows how a kind of processing operations can be settled and implemented for quantum states design and quantum processing for systems fulfilling a SU(2) reduction in their dynamics.

  11. IRSN global process for leading a comprehensive fire safety analysis for nuclear installations

    Ormieres, Yannick; Lacoue, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    A fire safety analysis (FSA) is requested to justify the adequacy of fire protection measures set by the operator. A recent document written by IRSN outlines a global process for such a comprehensive fire safety analysis. Thanks to the French nuclear fire safety regulation evolutions, from prescriptive requirements to objective requirements, the proposed fire safety justification process focuses on compliance with performance criteria for fire protection measures. These performance criteria are related to the vulnerability of targets to effects of fire, and not only based upon radiological consequences out side the installation caused by a fire. In his FSA, the operator has to define the safety functions that should continue to ensure its mission even in the case of fire in order to be in compliance with nuclear safety objectives. Then, in order to maintain these safety functions, the operator has to justify the adequacy of fire protection measures, defined according to defence in depth principles. To reach the objective, the analysis process is based on the identification of targets to be protected in order to maintain safety functions, taken into account facility characteristics. These targets include structures, systems, components and personal important to safety. Facility characteristics include, for all operating conditions, potential ignition sources and fire protections systems. One of the key points of the fire analysis is the assessment of possible fire scenarios in the facility. Given the large number of possible fire scenarios, it is then necessary to evaluate 'reference fires' which are the worst case scenarios of all possible fire scenarios and which are used by the operator for the design of fire protection measures. (authors)

  12. Executive functioning and local-global visual processing: candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder?

    Van Eylen, Lien; Boets, Bart; Cosemans, Nele; Peeters, Hilde; Steyaert, Jean; Wagemans, Johan; Noens, Ilse

    2017-03-01

    Heterogeneity within autism spectrum disorder (ASD) hampers insight in the etiology and stimulates the search for endophenotypes. Endophenotypes should meet several criteria, the most important being the association with ASD and the higher occurrence rate in unaffected ASD relatives than in the general population. We evaluated these criteria for executive functioning (EF) and local-global (L-G) visual processing. By administering an extensive cognitive battery which increases the validity of the measures, we examined which of the cognitive anomalies shown by ASD probands also occur in their unaffected relatives (n = 113) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n = 100). Microarrays were performed, so we could exclude relatives from probands with a de novo mutation in a known ASD susceptibility copy number variant, thus increasing the probability that genetic risk variants are shared by the ASD relatives. An overview of studies investigating EF and L-G processing in ASD relatives was also provided. For EF, ASD relatives - like ASD probands - showed impairments in response inhibition, cognitive flexibility and generativity (specifically, ideational fluency), and EF impairments in daily life. For L-G visual processing, the ASD relatives showed no anomalies on the tasks, but they reported more attention to detail in daily life. Group differences were similar for siblings and for parents of ASD probands, and yielded larger effect sizes in a multiplex subsample. The group effect sizes for the comparison between ASD probands and TD individuals were generally larger than those of the ASD relatives compared to TD individuals. Impaired cognitive flexibility, ideational fluency and response inhibition are strong candidate endophenotypes for ASD. They could help to delineate etiologically more homogeneous subgroups, which is clinically important to allow assigning ASD probands to different, more targeted, interventions. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent

  13. From elements to perception: local and global processing in visual neurons.

    Spillmann, L

    1999-01-01

    Gestalt psychologists in the early part of the century challenged psychophysical notions that perceptual phenomena can be understood from a punctate (atomistic) analysis of the elements present in the stimulus. Their ideas slowed later attempts to explain vision in terms of single-cell recordings from individual neurons. A rapprochement between Gestalt phenomenology and neurophysiology seemed unlikely when the first ECVP was held in Marburg, Germany, in 1978. Since that time, response properties of neurons have been discovered that invite an interpretation of visual phenomena (including illusions) in terms of neuronal processing by long-range interactions, as first proposed by Mach and Hering in the last century. This article traces a personal journey into the early days of neurophysiological vision research to illustrate the progress that has taken place from the first attempts to correlate single-cell responses with visual perceptions. Whereas initially the receptive-field properties of individual classes of cells--e.g., contrast, wavelength, orientation, motion, disparity, and spatial-frequency detectors--were used to account for relatively simple visual phenomena, nowadays complex perceptions are interpreted in terms of long-range interactions, involving many neurons. This change in paradigm from local to global processing was made possible by recent findings, in the cortex, on horizontal interactions and backward propagation (feedback loops) in addition to classical feedforward processing. These mechanisms are exemplified by studies of the tilt effect and tilt aftereffect, direction-specific motion adaptation, illusory contours, filling-in and fading, figure--ground segregation by orientation and motion contrast, and pop-out in dynamic visual-noise patterns. Major questions for future research and a discussion of their epistemological implications conclude the article.

  14. Global identification of new substrates for the yeast endoribonuclease, RNase mitochondrial RNA processing (MRP).

    Aulds, Jason; Wierzbicki, Sara; McNairn, Adrian; Schmitt, Mark E

    2012-10-26

    RNase mitochondrial RNA processing (MRP) is an essential, evolutionarily conserved endoribonuclease composed of 10 different protein subunits and a single RNA. RNase MRP has established roles in multiple pathways including ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle regulation, and mitochondrial DNA replication. Although each of these functions is important to cell growth, additional functions may exist given the essential nature of the complex. To identify novel RNase MRP substrates, we utilized RNA immunoprecipitation and microarray chip analysis to identify RNA that physically associates with RNase MRP. We identified several new potential substrates for RNase MRP including a cell cycle-regulated transcript, CTS1; the yeast homolog of the mammalian p27(Kip1), SIC1; and the U2 RNA component of the spliceosome. In addition, we found RNase MRP to be involved in the regulation of the Ty1 transposon RNA. These results reinforce and broaden the role of RNase MRP in cell cycle regulation and help to identify new roles of this endoribonuclease.

  15. Global Social Challenges: insights from the physical sciences and their relevance to the evolution of social science

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The complex challenges confronting humanity today point to the need for new thinking and new theory in the social sciences which overcomes the limitations of compartmentalized, sectoral concepts, strategies and policies and mechanistic approaches to living social systems. The World Academy of Art & Science is convening a consortium of leading institutions and thinkers from different sectors to contribute ideas for formulation of a cohesive framework capable of addressing global social challenges in their totality and complex interrelationships. The objective of my presentation will be to explore the potential for collaboration between the physical and social sciences to arrive at a more cohesive and effective framework by exploring a series of questions, including - - Is an integrated science of society possible that transcends disciplinary boundaries based on common underlying principles as we find in the natural sciences? - To what extent can principles of natural science serve as valid models and a...

  16. Evaluation of global continental hydrology as simulated by the Land-surface Processes and eXchanges Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    S. J. Murray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Global freshwater resources are sensitive to changes in climate, land cover and population density and distribution. The Land-surface Processes and eXchanges Dynamic Global Vegetation Model is a recent development of the Lund-Potsdam-Jena model with improved representation of fire-vegetation interactions. It allows simultaneous consideration of the effects of changes in climate, CO2 concentration, natural vegetation and fire regime shifts on the continental hydrological cycle. Here the model is assessed for its ability to simulate large-scale spatial and temporal runoff patterns, in order to test its suitability for modelling future global water resources. Comparisons are made against observations of streamflow and a composite dataset of modelled and observed runoff (1986–1995 and are also evaluated against soil moisture data and the Palmer Drought Severity Index. The model captures the main features of the geographical distribution of global runoff, but tends to overestimate runoff in much of the Northern Hemisphere (where this can be somewhat accounted for by freshwater consumption and the unrealistic accumulation of the simulated winter snowpack in permafrost regions and the southern tropics. Interannual variability is represented reasonably well at the large catchment scale, as are seasonal flow timings and monthly high and low flow events. Further improvements to the simulation of intra-annual runoff might be achieved via the addition of river flow routing. Overestimates of runoff in some basins could likely be corrected by the inclusion of transmission losses and direct-channel evaporation.

  17. Abrupt global events in the Earth's history: a physics perspective

    Ryskin, Gregory, E-mail: ryskin@northwestern.ed [Robert R McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The timeline of the Earth's history reveals quasi-periodicity of the geological record over the last 542 Myr, on timescales close, in the order of magnitude, to 1 Myr. What is the origin of this quasi-periodicity? What is the nature of the global events that define the boundaries of the geological time scale? I propose that a single mechanism is responsible for all three types of such events: mass extinctions, geomagnetic polarity reversals, and sea-level fluctuations. The mechanism is fast, and involves a significant energy release. The mechanism is unlikely to have astronomical causes, both because of the energies involved and because it acts quasi-periodically. It must then be sought within the Earth itself. And it must be capable of reversing the Earth's magnetic field. The last requirement makes it incompatible with the consensus model of the origin of the geomagnetic field-the hydromagnetic dynamo operating in the Earth's fluid core. In the second part of the paper, I show that a vast amount of seemingly unconnected geophysical and geological data can be understood in a unified way if the source of the Earth's main magnetic field is a {approx}200 km thick lithosphere, repeatedly magnetized as a result of methane-driven oceanic eruptions, which produce ocean flow capable of dynamo action. The eruptions are driven by the interplay of buoyancy forces and exsolution of dissolved gas, which accumulates in the oceanic water masses prone to stagnation and anoxia. Polarity reversals, mass extinctions and sequence boundaries are consequences of these eruptions. Unlike the consensus model of geomagnetism, this scenario is consistent with the paleomagnetic data showing that 'directional changes during a reversal can be astonishingly fast, possibly occurring as a nearly instantaneous jump from one inclined dipolar state to another in the opposite hemisphere'.

  18. Computer programs of information processing of nuclear physical methods as a demonstration material in studying nuclear physics and numerical methods

    Bateev, A. B.; Filippov, V. P.

    2017-01-01

    The principle possibility of using computer program Univem MS for Mössbauer spectra fitting as a demonstration material at studying such disciplines as atomic and nuclear physics and numerical methods by students is shown in the article. This program is associated with nuclear-physical parameters such as isomer (or chemical) shift of nuclear energy level, interaction of nuclear quadrupole moment with electric field and of magnetic moment with surrounded magnetic field. The basic processing algorithm in such programs is the Least Square Method. The deviation of values of experimental points on spectra from the value of theoretical dependence is defined on concrete examples. This value is characterized in numerical methods as mean square deviation. The shape of theoretical lines in the program is defined by Gaussian and Lorentzian distributions. The visualization of the studied material on atomic and nuclear physics can be improved by similar programs of the Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence Analyzer or X-ray diffraction analysis.

  19. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging of the physical processes in human glioblastoma.

    Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Emblem, Kyrre E; Andronesi, Ovidiu; Rosen, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    The most common malignant primary brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating disease with a grim prognosis. Patient survival is typically less than two years and fewer than 10% of patients survive more than five years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can have great utility in the diagnosis, grading, and management of patients with GBM as many of the physical manifestations of the pathologic processes in GBM can be visualized and quantified using MRI. Newer MRI techniques such as dynamic contrast enhanced and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI provide functional information about the tumor hemodynamic status. Diffusion MRI can shed light on tumor cellularity and the disruption of white matter tracts in the proximity of tumors. MR spectroscopy can be used to study new tumor tissue markers such as IDH mutations. MRI is helping to noninvasively explore the link between the molecular basis of gliomas and the imaging characteristics of their physical processes. We, here, review several approaches to MR-based imaging and discuss the potential for these techniques to quantify the physical processes in glioblastoma, including tumor cellularity and vascularity, metabolite expression, and patterns of tumor growth and recurrence. We conclude with challenges and opportunities for further research in applying physical principles to better understand the biologic process in this deadly disease. See all articles in this Cancer Research section, "Physics in Cancer Research." ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age.