WorldWideScience

Sample records for global phosphorus cycle

  1. Greening the global phosphorus cycle

    Withers, Paul J.A.; Elser, James J.; Hilton, Julian; Ohtake, Hisao; Schipper, Willem J.; Dijk, Van Kimo C.

    2015-01-01

    The sustainability of global phosphorus (P) use is emerging as a major societal goal to secure future food, energy, and water security for a growing population. Phosphate rock (PR) is a critical raw material whose inefficiency of use is leading to widespread eutrophication and uncertainties about

  2. Agricultural trade and the global phosphorus cycle

    Schipanski, M.; Bennett, E.; Riskin, S.; Porder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Trends of increasing agricultural trade, increased concentration of livestock production systems, and increased human consumption of livestock products influence the distribution of nutrients across the global landscape. Phosphorus (P) represents a unique management challenge as we are rapidly depleting mineable reserves of this essential and non-renewable resource. At the same time, its overuse can lead to pollution of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the relative contributions of food crop, feed crop, and livestock product trade to P flows through agricultural soils for twelve countries from 1961 to 2007. We then used case studies of P fertilizer use in the world's three major soybean export regions: Iowa (USA), Mato Grosso (Brazil), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) to examine the influence of historical P management and soil types on agriculture's environmental consequences. Due to the intensification of agricultural production, average soil surface P balances more than tripled from 6 to 21 kg P per ha between 1961 and 2007 for the twelve study countries. Consequently, countries that are primarily agricultural exporters carried increased risks for water pollution or, for Argentina, reduced soil fertility due to soil P mining to support exports. In 2007, nations imported food and feed from regions with higher apparent P fertilizer use efficiencies than if those crops were produced domestically. However, this was largely because imports were sourced from regions depleting soil P resources to support export crop production. In addition, the pattern of regional specialization and intensification of production systems also reduced the potential to recycle P resources, with greater implications for livestock production than crop production. In a globalizing world, it will be increasingly important to integrate biophysical constraints of our natural resources and environmental impacts of agricultural systems into trade policy and agreements and to develop mechanisms that

  3. The global marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation

    C. P. Slomp

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new mass balance model for the coupled marine cycles of phosphorus (P and carbon (C is used to examine the relationships between oceanic circulation, primary productivity, and sedimentary burial of reactive P and particulate organic C (POC, on geological time scales. The model explicitly represents the exchanges of water and particulate matter between the continental shelves and the open ocean, and it accounts for the redox-dependent burial of POC and the various forms of reactive P (iron(III-bound P, particulate organic P (POP, authigenic calcium phosphate, and fish debris. Steady state and transient simulations indicate that a slowing down of global ocean circulation decreases primary production in the open ocean, but increases that in the coastal ocean. The latter is due to increased transfer of soluble P from deep ocean water to the shelves, where it fuels primary production and causes increased reactive P burial. While authigenic calcium phosphate accounts for most reactive P burial ocean-wide, enhanced preservation of fish debris may become an important reactive P sink in deep-sea sediments during periods of ocean anoxia. Slower ocean circulation globally increases POC burial, because of enhanced POC preservation under anoxia in deep-sea depositional environments and higher primary productivity along the continental margins. In accordance with geological evidence, the model predicts increased accumulation of reactive P on the continental shelves during and following periods of ocean anoxia.

  4. A global model of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles for the terrestrial biosphere

    Y. P. Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon storage by many terrestrial ecosystems can be limited by nutrients, predominantly nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P, in addition to other environmental constraints, water, light and temperature. However the spatial distribution and the extent of both N and P limitation at the global scale have not been quantified. Here we have developed a global model of carbon (C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P cycles for the terrestrial biosphere. Model estimates of steady state C and N pool sizes and major fluxes between plant, litter and soil pools, under present climate conditions, agree well with various independent estimates. The total amount of C in the terrestrial biosphere is 2767 Gt C, and the C fractions in plant, litter and soil organic matter are 19%, 4% and 77%. The total amount of N is 135 Gt N, with about 94% stored in the soil, 5% in the plant live biomass, and 1% in litter. We found that the estimates of total soil P and its partitioning into different pools in soil are quite sensitive to biochemical P mineralization. The total amount of P (plant biomass, litter and soil excluding occluded P in soil is 17 Gt P in the terrestrial biosphere, 33% of which is stored in the soil organic matter if biochemical P mineralization is modelled, or 31 Gt P with 67% in soil organic matter otherwise.

    This model was used to derive the global distribution and uncertainty of N or P limitation on the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems at steady state under present conditions. Our model estimates that the net primary productivity of most tropical evergreen broadleaf forests and tropical savannahs is reduced by about 20% on average by P limitation, and most of the remaining biomes are N limited; N limitation is strongest in high latitude deciduous needle leaf forests, and reduces its net primary productivity by up to 40% under present conditions.

  5. On the linkages between the global carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus cycles

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Mackenzie, Fred; Bouchez, Julien; Knutti, Reto

    2013-04-01

    State-of-the-art earth system models used for long-term climate projections are becoming ever more complex in terms of not only spatial resolution but also the number of processes. Biogeochemical processes are beginning to be incorporated into these models. The motivation of this study is to quantify how climate projections are influenced by biogeochemical feedbacks. In the climate modeling community, it is virtually accepted that climate-Carbon (C) cycle feedbacks accelerate the future warming (Cox et al. 2000; Friedlingstein et al. 2006). It has been demonstrated that the Nitrogen (N) cycle suppresses climate-C cycle feedbacks (Thornton et al. 2009). On the contrary, biogeochemical studies show that the coupled C-N-Phosphorus (P) cycles are intimately interlinked via biosphere and the N-P cycles amplify C cycle feedbacks (Ver et al. 1999). The question as to whether the N-P cycles enhance or attenuate C cycle feedbacks is debated and has a significant implication for projections of future climate. We delve into this problem by using the Terrestrial-Ocean-aTmosphere Ecosystem Model 3 (TOTEM3), a globally-aggregated C-N-P cycle box model. TOTEM3 is a process-based model that describes the biogeochemical reactions and physical transports involving these elements in the four domains of the Earth system: land, atmosphere, coastal ocean, and open ocean. TOTEM3 is a successor of earlier TOTEM models (Ver et al. 1999; Mackenzie et al. 2011). In our presentation, we provide an overview of fundamental features and behaviors of TOTEM3 such as the mass balance at the steady state and the relaxation time scales to various types of perturbation. We also show preliminary results to investigate how the N-P cycles influence the behavior of the C cycle. References Cox PM, Betts RA, Jones CD, Spall SA, Totterdell IJ (2000) Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature, 408, 184-187. Friedlingstein P, Cox P, Betts R, Bopp L, von Bloh

  6. Seabird colonies as important global drivers in the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles.

    Otero, Xosé Luis; De La Peña-Lastra, Saul; Pérez-Alberti, Augusto; Ferreira, Tiago Osorio; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-23

    Seabirds drastically transform the environmental conditions of the sites where they establish their breeding colonies via soil, sediment, and water eutrophication (hereafter termed ornitheutrophication). Here, we report worldwide amounts of total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) excreted by seabirds using an inventory of global seabird populations applied to a bioenergetics model. We estimate these fluxes to be 591 Gg N y -1 and 99 Gg P y -1 , respectively, with the Antarctic and Southern coasts receiving the highest N and P inputs. We show that these inputs are of similar magnitude to others considered in global N and P cycles, with concentrations per unit of surface area in seabird colonies among the highest measured on the Earth's surface. Finally, an important fraction of the total excreted N (72.5 Gg y -1 ) and P (21.8 Gg y -1 ) can be readily solubilized, increasing their short-term bioavailability in continental and coastal waters located near the seabird colonies.

  7. The global marine phosphorus cycle: Response to climate change and feedbacks on ocean biogeochemistry. Geologica Ultraiectina (329)

    Tsandev, I.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the marine phosphorus (P) cycle and its response to changing environmental conditions, particularly those associated with glacial-interglacial cycles of the late Pleistocene and Ocean Anoxic Events in the Cretaceous. From a box model of the ocean phosphorus, organic carbon and

  8. Towards global phosphorus security: A systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options

    Cordell, D.; Rosemarin, A.; Schroder, J.J.; Smit, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Human intervention in the global phosphorus cycle has mobilised nearly half a billion tonnes of the element from phosphate rock into the hydrosphere over the past half century. The resultant water pollution concerns have been the main driver for sustainable phosphorus use (including phosphorus

  9. Atmospheric redistribution of reactive nitrogen and phosphorus by wildfires and implications for global carbon cycling

    Randerson, J. T.; Xu, L.; Wiggins, E. B.; Chen, Y.; Riley, W. J.; Mekonnen, Z. A.; Pellegrini, A.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fires are an important process regulating the redistribution of nutrients within terrestrial ecosystems. Frequently burning ecosystems such as savannas are a net source of N and P to the atmosphere each year, with atmospheric transport and dry and wet deposition increasing nutrient availability in downwind ecosystems and over the open ocean. Transport of N and P aerosols from savanna fires within the Hadley circulation contributes to nutrient deposition over tropical forests, yielding an important cross-biome nutrient transfer. Pyrodenitrification of reactive N increases with fire temperature and modified combustion efficiency, generating a global net biospheric loss of approximately 14 Tg N per year. Here we analyze atmospheric N and P redistribution using the Global Fire Emissions Database version 4s and the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy earth system model. We synthesize literature estimates of N and P concentrations in fire-emitted aerosols and ecosystem mass balance measurements to help constrain model estimates of these biosphere-atmosphere fluxes. In our analysis, we estimate the fraction of terrestrial net primary production (NPP) that is sustained by fire-emitted P and reactive N from upwind ecosystems. We then evaluate how recent global declines in burned area in savanna and grassland ecosystems may be changing nutrient availability in downwind ecosystems.

  10. Towards a closed phosphorus cycle

    Keyzer, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: This paper stresses the need to address upcoming scarcity of phosphorus, a mineral nutrient that is essential for all life on Earth. Agricultural crops obtain phosphorus from the pool in the soil that can be replenished by recycling of organic material, or by application of inorganic

  11. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  12. Biological phosphorus cycling in dryland regions

    Belnap, Jayne; Bunemann, Else; Oberson, Astrid; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    The relatively few studies done on phosphorus (P) cycling in arid and semiarid lands (drylands) show many factors that distinguish P cycling in drylands from that in more mesic regions. In drylands, most biologically relevant P inputs and losses are from the deposition and loss of dust. Horizontal and vertical redistribution of P is an important process. P is concentrated at the soil surface and thus vulnerable to loss via erosion. High pH and CaCO3 limit P bioavailability, and low rainfall limits microbe and plant ability to free abiotically bound P via exudates, thus making it available for uptake. Many invasive plants are able to access recalcitrant P more effectively than are native plants. As P availability depends on soil moisture and temperature, climate change is expected to have large impacts on P cycling

  13. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency

    Withers, P.J.A.; Dijk, van K.C.; Neset, T.S.S.; Nesme, Thomas; Oenema, Oene; Rubæk, G.H.; Schoumans, O.F.; Smit, Bert; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of

  14. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency

    Withers, Paul J. A.; Dijk, Kimo van; Neset, Tina-Simone

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R...

  15. Global water cycle

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  16. The global carbon cycle

    Maier-Reimer, E.

    1991-01-01

    Basic concepts of the global carbon cycle on earth are described; by careful analyses of isotopic ratios, emission history and oceanic ventilation rates are derived, which provide crucial tests for constraining and calibrating models. Effects of deforestation, fertilizing, fossil fuel burning, soil erosion, etc. are quantified and compared, and the oceanic carbon process is evaluated. Oceanic and terrestrial biosphere modifications are discussed and a carbon cycle model is proposed

  17. Isotopic techniques to study phosphorus cycling in soils

    Manjaiah, K.M.; Sreenivasa Chari, M.; Sachdev, P.; Sachdev, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A sound understanding of phosphorus cycling in soil system is essential in order to manage this system in a sustainable manner. Phosphorus transformations are characterized by physico-chemical (sorption-desorption) and biological processes . The transformation rates need to be taken into account while developing nutrient management strategies for economical and sustainable production. One of the important tools and the method gaining popularity for determining the gross transformation rates of nutrients in the soil is the isotopic dilution technique. The major processes in the soil-plant system which determine the distribution and bioavailability of phosphorus in various inorganic and organic soil components consist of: (1) the dissolution of soil mineral phosphates, (2) retention of phosphorus by inorganic soil constituents, (3) decomposition of organic phosphorus contained in plant, animal and microbial detritus and (4) Immobilization of phosphorus via the soil microbial biomass and plan uptake

  18. Weathering and the mobility of phosphorus in the catchments and forefields of the Rhône and Oberaar glaciers, central Switzerland: Implications for the global phosphorus cycle on glacial-interglacial timescales

    Föllmi, Karl B.; Hosein, Rachel; Arn, Kaspar; Steinmann, Philipp

    2009-04-01

    In this study we evaluate the dynamics of the biophile element phosphorus (P) in the catchment and proglacial areas of the Rhône and Oberaar glaciers (central Switzerland). We analysed erosion and dissolution rates of P-containing minerals in the subglacial environment by sampling water and suspended sediment in glacier outlets during three ablation and two accumulation seasons. We also quantified biogeochemical weathering rates of detrital P in proglacial sedimentary deposits using two chronosequences of samples of fresh, suspended, material obtained from the Oberaar and Rhône water outlets, Little-Ice-Age (LIA) moraines and Younger Dryas (YD) tills in each catchment. Subglacial P weathering is mainly a physical process and detrital P represents more than 99% of the precipitation-corrected total P denudation flux (234 and 540 kg km -2 yr -1 for the Rhône and Oberaar catchments, respectively). The calculated detrital P flux rates are three to almost five times higher than the world average flux. The precipitation-corrected soluble reactive P (SRP) flux corresponds to 1.88-1.99 kg km -2 yr -1 (Rhône) and 2.12-2.44 kg km -2 yr -1 (Oberaar), respectively. These fluxes are comparable to those of tropical rivers draining transport-limited, tectonically inactive weathering areas. In order to evaluate the efficiency of detrital P weathering in the Rhône and Oberaar proglacial areas, we systematically graded apatite grains extracted from the chronosequence in each catchment relative to weathering-induced changes in their surface morphologies (grades 1-4). Fresh apatite grains are heavily indented and dissolution rounded (grade 1). LIA grains from two 0-10 cm deep moraine samples show extensive dissolution etching, similar to surface grains from the YD profile (mean grades 2.7, 3.5 and 3.5, respectively). In these proglacial deposits, the weathering front deepens progressively as a function of time due to biocorrosion in the evolving acidic pedosphere , with mechanical

  19. A representation of the phosphorus cycle for ORCHIDEE (revision 4520)

    Goll, Daniel S.; Vuichard, Nicolas; Maignan, Fabienne; Jornet-Puig, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Violette, Aurelie; Peng, Shushi; Sun, Yan; Kvakic, Marko; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Guenet, Bertrand; Zaehle, Soenke; Penuelas, Josep; Janssens, Ivan; Ciais, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    Land surface models rarely incorporate the terrestrial phosphorus cycle and its interactions with the carbon cycle, despite the extensive scientific debate about the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus supply for future land carbon uptake. We describe a representation of the terrestrial phosphorus cycle for the ORCHIDEE land surface model, and evaluate it with data from nutrient manipulation experiments along a soil formation chronosequence in Hawaii. ORCHIDEE accounts for the influence of the nutritional state of vegetation on tissue nutrient concentrations, photosynthesis, plant growth, biomass allocation, biochemical (phosphatase-mediated) mineralization, and biological nitrogen fixation. Changes in the nutrient content (quality) of litter affect the carbon use efficiency of decomposition and in return the nutrient availability to vegetation. The model explicitly accounts for root zone depletion of phosphorus as a function of root phosphorus uptake and phosphorus transport from the soil to the root surface. The model captures the observed differences in the foliage stoichiometry of vegetation between an early (300-year) and a late (4.1 Myr) stage of soil development. The contrasting sensitivities of net primary productivity to the addition of either nitrogen, phosphorus, or both among sites are in general reproduced by the model. As observed, the model simulates a preferential stimulation of leaf level productivity when nitrogen stress is alleviated, while leaf level productivity and leaf area index are stimulated equally when phosphorus stress is alleviated. The nutrient use efficiencies in the model are lower than observed primarily due to biases in the nutrient content and turnover of woody biomass. We conclude that ORCHIDEE is able to reproduce the shift from nitrogen to phosphorus limited net primary productivity along the soil development chronosequence, as well as the contrasting responses of net primary productivity to nutrient addition.

  20. Changing global carbon cycle

    Canadell, Pep

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) is the single largest human perturbation on the earth's radiative balance contributing to climate change. Its rate of change reflects the balance between anthropogenic carbon emissions and the dynamics of a number of terrestrial and ocean processes that remove or emit C02. It is the long term evolution of this balance that will determine to large extent the speed and magnitude of the human induced climate change and the mitigation requirements to stabilise atmospheric C02 concentrations at any given level. In this talk, we show new trends in global carbon sources and sinks, with particularly focus on major shifts occurring since 2000 when the growth rate of atmospheric C02 has reached its highest level on record. The acceleration in the C02 growth results from the combination of several changes in properties of the carbon cycle, including: acceleration of anthropogenic carbon emissions; increased carbon intensity of the global economy, and decreased efficiency of natural carbon sinks. We discuss in more detail some of the possible causes of the reduced efficiency of natural carbon sinks on land and oceans, such as the decreased net sink in the Southern Ocean and on terrestrial mid-latitudes due to world-wide occurrence of drought. All these changes reported here characterise a carbon cycle that is generating stronger than expected climate forcing, and sooner than expected

  1. Microbially mediated transformations of phosphorus in the sea: new views of an old cycle.

    Karl, David M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a required element for life. Its various chemical forms are found throughout the lithosphere and hydrosphere, where they are acted on by numerous abiotic and biotic processes collectively referred to as the P cycle. In the sea, microorganisms are primarily responsible for P assimilation and remineralization, including recently discovered P reduction-oxidation bioenergetic processes that add new complexity to the marine microbial P cycle. Human-induced enhancement of the global P cycle via mining of phosphate-bearing rock will likely influence the pace of P-cycle dynamics, especially in coastal marine habitats. The inextricable link between the P cycle and cycles of other bioelements predicts future impacts on, for example, nitrogen fixation and carbon dioxide sequestration. Additional laboratory and field research is required to build a comprehensive understanding of the marine microbial P cycle.

  2. The Global Nitrogen Cycle

    Galloway, J. N.

    2003-12-01

    Once upon a time nitrogen did not exist. Today it does. In the intervening time the universe was formed, nitrogen was created, the Earth came into existence, and its atmosphere and oceans were formed! In this analysis of the Earth's nitrogen cycle, I start with an overview of these important events relative to nitrogen and then move on to the more traditional analysis of the nitrogen cycle itself and the role of humans in its alteration.The universe is ˜15 Gyr old. Even after its formation, there was still a period when nitrogen did not exist. It took ˜300 thousand years after the big bang for the Universe to cool enough to create atoms; hydrogen and helium formed first. Nitrogen was formed in the stars through the process of nucleosynthesis. When a star's helium mass becomes great enough to reach the necessary pressure and temperature, helium begins to fuse into still heavier elements, including nitrogen.Approximately 10 Gyr elapsed before Earth was formed (˜4.5 Ga (billion years ago)) by the accumulation of pre-assembled materials in a multistage process. Assuming that N2 was the predominate nitrogen species in these materials and given that the temperature of space is -270 °C, N2 was probably a solid when the Earth was formed since its boiling point (b.p.) and melting point (m.p.) are -196 °C and -210 °C, respectively. Towards the end of the accumulation period, temperatures were probably high enough for significant melting of some of the accumulated material. The volcanic gases emitted by the resulting volcanism strongly influenced the surface environment. Nitrogen was converted from a solid to a gas and emitted as N2. Carbon and sulfur were probably emitted as CO and H2S (Holland, 1984). N2 is still the most common nitrogen volcanic gas emitted today at a rate of ˜2 TgN yr-1 (Jaffee, 1992).Once emitted, the gases either remained in the atmosphere or were deposited to the Earth's surface, thus continuing the process of biogeochemical cycling. The rate of

  3. Advances in understanding phosphorus cycling in inland waters - Their significance for South African limnology

    Twinch, AJ

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available The definitions of the different phosphorus compound fractions present in inland waters are reviewed and the limitations of the definitions discussed. The development of models of phosphorus cycling is summarized. Attempts to establish...

  4. WHO WOULD EAT IN A WORLD WITHOUT PHOSPHORUS? A GLOBAL DYNAMIC MODEL

    Dumas, M.

    2009-12-01

    Phosphorus is an indispensable and non-substitutable resource, as agriculture is impossible if soils do not hold adequate amounts of this nutrient. Phosphorus is also considered to be a non-renewable and increasingly scarce resource, as phosphate rock reserves - as one measure of availability amongst others - are estimated to last for 50 to 100 years at current rates of consumption. How would food production decline in different parts of the world in the scenario of a sudden shortage in phosphorus? To answer this question and explore management scenarios, I present a probabilistic model of the structure and dynamics of the global P cycle in the world’s agro-ecosystems. The model proposes an original solution to the challenge of capturing the large-scale aggregate dynamics of multiple micro-scale soil cycling processes. Furthermore, it integrates the essential natural processes with a model of human-managed flows, thereby bringing together several decades of research and measurements from soil science, plant nutrition and long-term agricultural experiments from around the globe. In this paper, I present the model, the first simulation results and the implications for long-term sustainable management of phosphorus and soil fertility.

  5. Interactions of C, N, P and S biogeochemical cycles and global change

    Wollast, R.; Mackenzie, F.T.

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur are tied to each other through biological productivity and to problems of global environmental change. Both natural changes in the cycles of the elements and interference and distortion of these cycles by human activities (e.g. disturbancies by agricultural, industrial and urbanization activities) will have impacts on ecosystems and human society. (UT)

  6. Phosphorus cycles of forest and upland grassland ecosystems and some effects of land management practices.

    Harrison, A F

    The distribution of phosphorus capital and net annual transfers of phosphorus between the major components of two unfertilized phosphorus-deficient UK ecosystems, an oak--ash woodland in the Lake District and an Agrostis-Festuca grassland in Snowdonia (both on acid brown-earth soils), have been estimted in terms of kg P ha--1. In both ecosystems less than 3% of the phosphorus, totalling 1890 kg P ha--1 and 3040 kg P ha--1 for the woodland and grassland, respectively, is contained in the living biomass and half that is below ground level. Nearly all the phosphorus is in the soil matrix. Although the biomass phosphorus is mostly in the vegetation, the soil fauna and vegetation is slower (25%) than in the grassland vegetatation (208%). More than 85% of the net annual vegetation uptake of phosphorus from the soil is returned to the soil, mainly in organic debris, which in the grassland ecosystem is more than twice as rich in phosphorus (0.125% P) as in the woodland ecosystem (0.053% P). These concentrations are related to the rates of turnover (input/P content) of phosphorus in the litter layer on the soil surface; it is faster in the grassland (460%) than in the woodland (144%). In both cycles plant uptake of phosphorus largely depends on the release of phosphorus through decomposition of the organic matter returned to soil. In both the woodland and the grassland, the amount of cycling phosphorus is potentially reduced by its immobilization in tree and sheep production and in undecomposed organic matter accumulating in soil. It is assumed that the reductions are counterbalanced by the replenishment of cycling phosphorus by (i) some mineralization of organically bound phosphorus in the mineral soil, (ii) the income in rainfall and aerosols not being effectively lost in soil drainage waters and (iii) rock weathering. The effects of the growth of conifers and sheep grazing on the balance between decomposition and accumulation of organic matter returned to soil are

  7. Biochar as phosphorus transporter to support the closure of the phosphorus cycle

    Soja, Gerhard; Jagerhofer, Reinhard; Fristak, Vladimir; Pfeifer, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Waste materials rich in phosphorus could partly substitute rock phosphate-based mineral fertilizers. As rock phosphate is listed as critical raw material, measures for increasing the recovery rate of phosphorus and for closing the phosphorus cycle are required. However, direct use of the waste materials as fertilizers are frequently not possible because of legal constraints, adverse side effects because of co-occurring contaminants or hygienic concerns. So this study had the objective to test the appropriateness of carbonizing P-rich residues that can be used as secondary P resources for producing P fertilizers. The resulting biochar or hydrochar products should be tested for the bioavailability of P for plant uptake. Feedstock materials tested as secondary P resources were chicken manure, animal bone flour, sewage sludge, and digestates. These materials were either pyrolyzed at different temperatures, partly with different chemical modifications, or hydrothermally carbonized. The biochar and hydrochar products were analyzed for their total and available P concentrations, and the plant bioavailability was determined with a standardized plant growth test with rye (Neubauer-test). The results showed that biochar produced from a mixture of chicken manure and saw dust was equivalent to a standard phosphate fertilizer (superphosphate) with respect to P available for plant uptake. For most materials, a pyrolysis temperature of 400 °C was slightly more beneficial for P availability than 500 °C. Pyrolytic carbonization mostly was more supportive for plant growth than hydrothermal carbonization of the tested feedstocks. For some feedstocks the addition of sodium carbonate improved the P uptake of the plants without affecting the biomass production. The results show that P-rich waste materials used as secondary resources for carbonization can effectively contribute to increased P recovery, savings in the use of mineral phosphate fertilizers and reduced P loads to non

  8. Phosphorus cycling in Montreal's food and urban agriculture systems.

    Metson, Geneviève S; Bennett, Elena M

    2015-01-01

    Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities' P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste. Using existing data combined with surveys of local UA practitioners, we quantified the role of UA in the P cycle of Montreal, Canada to explore the potential for UA to recycle local P waste. We also used existing data to complete a substance flow analysis of P flows in the overall food system of Montreal. In 2012, Montreal imported 3.5 Gg of P in food, of which 2.63 Gg ultimately accumulated in landfills, 0.36 Gg were discharged to local waters, and only 0.09 Gg were recycled through composting. We found that UA is only a small sub-system in the overall P cycle of the city, contributing just 0.44% of the P consumed as food in the city. However, within the UA system, the rate of recycling is high: 73% of inputs applied to soil were from recycled sources. While a Quebec mandate to recycle 100% of all organic waste by 2020 might increase the role of UA in P recycling, the area of land in UA is too small to accommodate all P waste produced on the island. UA may, however, be a valuable pathway to improve urban P sustainability by acting as an activity that changes residents' relationship to, and understanding of, the food system and increases their acceptance of composting.

  9. Modeling Phosphorus Transport and Cycling in the Greater Everglades Ecosystem

    James, A. I.; Grace, K. A.; Jawitz, J. W.; Muller, S.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Flaig, E. G.

    2005-12-01

    A solute transport model was used to predict phosphorus mobility in the northern Everglades. Over the past several decades, agricultural drainage waters discharged into the northern Everglades, have been enriched in phosphorus (P) relative to the historic rainfall-driven inputs. While methods of reducing total P concentrations in the discharge water have been actively pursued through implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), a major parallel effort has focused on the construction of a network of constructed wetlands for P removal before these waters enter the Everglades. This study describes the development of a water quality model for P transport and cycling and its application to a large constructed wetland: Stormwater Treatment Area 1 West (STA 1W), located southeast of Lake Okeechobee on the eastern perimeter of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). In STA 1W agricultural nutrients such as phosphorus (P) are removed from EAA runoff before entering the adjacent Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) and the Everglades. STA 1W is divided by levees into 4 cells, which are flooded for most of the year; thus the dominant mechanism for flow and transport is overland flow. P is removed either through deposition into sediments or is taken up by plants; in either case the soils end up being significantly enriched in P. The model has been applied and calibrated to several years of water quality data from Cell 4 within STA 1W. Most existing P models have been applied to agricultural/upland systems, with only a few relevant to treatment wetlands such as STA 1W. To ensure sufficient flexibility in selecting appropriate system components and reactions, the model has been designed to incorporate a wide range of user-selectable mechanisms for P uptake and release parameters between soils and inflowing water. The model can track a large number of mobile and nonmobile components and utilizes a Godunov-style operator-splitting technique for the transported

  10. Global and regional phosphorus budgets in agricultural systems and their implications for phosphorus-use efficiency

    F. Lun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of phosphorus (P fertilizer to agricultural soils increased by 3.2 % annually from 2002 to 2010. We quantified in detail the P inputs and outputs of cropland and pasture and the P fluxes through human and livestock consumers of agricultural products on global, regional, and national scales from 2002 to 2010. Globally, half of the total P inputs into agricultural systems accumulated in agricultural soils during this period, with the rest lost to bodies of water through complex flows. Global P accumulation in agricultural soil increased from 2002 to 2010 despite decreases in 2008 and 2009, and the P accumulation occurred primarily in cropland. Despite the global increase in soil P, 32 % of the world's cropland and 43 % of the pasture had soil P deficits. Increasing soil P deficits were found for African cropland vs. increasing P accumulation in eastern Asia. European and North American pasture had a soil P deficit because the continuous removal of biomass P by grazing exceeded P inputs. International trade played a significant role in P redistribution among countries through the flows of P in fertilizer and food among countries. Based on country-scale budgets and trends we propose policy options to potentially mitigate regional P imbalances in agricultural soils, particularly by optimizing the use of phosphate fertilizer and the recycling of waste P. The trend of the increasing consumption of livestock products will require more P inputs to the agricultural system, implying a low P-use efficiency and aggravating P-stock scarcity in the future. The global and regional phosphorus budgets and their PUEs in agricultural systems are publicly available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.875296.

  11. Global and regional phosphorus budgets in agricultural systems and their implications for phosphorus-use efficiency

    Lun, Fei; Liu, Junguo; Ciais, Philippe; Nesme, Thomas; Chang, Jinfeng; Wang, Rong; Goll, Daniel; Sardans, Jordi; Peñuelas, Josep; Obersteiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The application of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to agricultural soils increased by 3.2 % annually from 2002 to 2010. We quantified in detail the P inputs and outputs of cropland and pasture and the P fluxes through human and livestock consumers of agricultural products on global, regional, and national scales from 2002 to 2010. Globally, half of the total P inputs into agricultural systems accumulated in agricultural soils during this period, with the rest lost to bodies of water through complex flows. Global P accumulation in agricultural soil increased from 2002 to 2010 despite decreases in 2008 and 2009, and the P accumulation occurred primarily in cropland. Despite the global increase in soil P, 32 % of the world's cropland and 43 % of the pasture had soil P deficits. Increasing soil P deficits were found for African cropland vs. increasing P accumulation in eastern Asia. European and North American pasture had a soil P deficit because the continuous removal of biomass P by grazing exceeded P inputs. International trade played a significant role in P redistribution among countries through the flows of P in fertilizer and food among countries. Based on country-scale budgets and trends we propose policy options to potentially mitigate regional P imbalances in agricultural soils, particularly by optimizing the use of phosphate fertilizer and the recycling of waste P. The trend of the increasing consumption of livestock products will require more P inputs to the agricultural system, implying a low P-use efficiency and aggravating P-stock scarcity in the future. The global and regional phosphorus budgets and their PUEs in agricultural systems are publicly available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.875296.

  12. Changes in phosphorus magnetic resonance spectra during the cell cycle of phosphorus limited phased culture of Candida utilis

    Dawson, P.S.S.; MacDonald, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Cell extracts, serially obtained from Candida utilis grown in continuous (synchrony) culture under phosphate limitation during an 8-h cycle and examined by NMR spectroscopy, revealed changes in polyphosphate content during the cycle period: other phosphorus containing components showed relatively little change. Initially zero, the polyphosphate content increased rapidly to a maximum after 30 min that coincided with exhaustion of phosphate from the culture, and then decreased slowly back to zero at the end of the cycle. The results suggest that polyphosphate, usually considered to function as a reserve material, actively participates during the cell cycle. 12 refs.; 1 figure; 1 table

  13. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency: The case of Europe.

    Withers, Paul J A; van Dijk, Kimo C; Neset, Tina-Simone S; Nesme, Thomas; Oenema, Oene; Rubæk, Gitte H; Schoumans, Oscar F; Smit, Bert; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R stewardship (Re-align P inputs, Reduce P losses, Recycle P in bioresources, Recover P in wastes, and Redefine P in food systems) to help identify and deliver a range of integrated, cost-effective, and feasible technological innovations to improve P use efficiency in society and reduce Europe's dependence on P imports. Their combined adoption facilitated by interactive policies, co-operation between upstream and downstream stakeholders (researchers, investors, producers, distributors, and consumers), and more harmonized approaches to P accounting would maximize the resource and environmental benefits and help deliver a more competitive, circular, and sustainable European economy. The case of Europe provides a blueprint for global P stewardship.

  14. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Market and National Policies: A Case Study Revisiting the 2008 Price Peak

    Nikolay Khabarov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The commodity market super-cycle and food price crisis have been associated with rampant food insecurity and the Arab spring. A multitude of factors were identified as culprits for excessive volatility on the commodity markets. However, as it regards fertilizers, a clear attribution of market drivers explaining the emergence of extreme price events is still missing. In this paper, we provide a quantitative assessment of the price spike of the global phosphorus fertilizer market in 2008 focusing on diammonium phosphate (DAP. We find that fertilizer market policies in India, the largest global importer of phosphorus fertilizers and phosphate rock, turned out to be a major contributor to the global price spike. India doubled its import of P-fertilizer in 2008 at a time when prices doubled. The analysis of a wide set of factors pertinent to the 2008 price spike in phosphorus fertilizer market leads us to the discovery of a price spike magnification and triggering mechanisms. We find that the price spike was magnified on the one hand by protective trade measures of fertilizer suppliers leading to a 19% drop in global phosphate fertilizer export. On the other hand, the Indian fertilizer subsidy scheme led to farmers not adjusting their demand for fertilizer. The triggering mechanism appeared to be the Indian production outage of P-fertilizer resulting in the additional import demand for DAP in size of about 20% of annual global supply. The main conclusion is that these three factors have jointly caused the spike, underscoring the need for ex ante improvements in fertilizer market regulation on both national and international levels.

  15. Inverse-model estimates of the ocean's coupled phosphorus, silicon, and iron cycles

    Pasquier, Benoît; Holzer, Mark

    2017-09-01

    The ocean's nutrient cycles are important for the carbon balance of the climate system and for shaping the ocean's distribution of dissolved elements. Dissolved iron (dFe) is a key limiting micronutrient, but iron scavenging is observationally poorly constrained, leading to large uncertainties in the external sources of iron and hence in the state of the marine iron cycle. Here we build a steady-state model of the ocean's coupled phosphorus, silicon, and iron cycles embedded in a data-assimilated steady-state global ocean circulation. The model includes the redissolution of scavenged iron, parameterization of subgrid topography, and small, large, and diatom phytoplankton functional classes. Phytoplankton concentrations are implicitly represented in the parameterization of biological nutrient utilization through an equilibrium logistic model. Our formulation thus has only three coupled nutrient tracers, the three-dimensional distributions of which are found using a Newton solver. The very efficient numerics allow us to use the model in inverse mode to objectively constrain many biogeochemical parameters by minimizing the mismatch between modeled and observed nutrient and phytoplankton concentrations. Iron source and sink parameters cannot jointly be optimized because of local compensation between regeneration, recycling, and scavenging. We therefore consider a family of possible state estimates corresponding to a wide range of external iron source strengths. All state estimates have a similar mismatch with the observed nutrient concentrations and very similar large-scale dFe distributions. However, the relative contributions of aeolian, sedimentary, and hydrothermal iron to the total dFe concentration differ widely depending on the sources. Both the magnitude and pattern of the phosphorus and opal exports are well constrained, with global values of 8. 1 ± 0. 3 Tmol P yr-1 (or, in carbon units, 10. 3 ± 0. 4 Pg C yr-1) and 171. ± 3. Tmol Si yr-1. We diagnose the

  16. Inverse-model estimates of the ocean's coupled phosphorus, silicon, and iron cycles

    B. Pasquier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ocean's nutrient cycles are important for the carbon balance of the climate system and for shaping the ocean's distribution of dissolved elements. Dissolved iron (dFe is a key limiting micronutrient, but iron scavenging is observationally poorly constrained, leading to large uncertainties in the external sources of iron and hence in the state of the marine iron cycle. Here we build a steady-state model of the ocean's coupled phosphorus, silicon, and iron cycles embedded in a data-assimilated steady-state global ocean circulation. The model includes the redissolution of scavenged iron, parameterization of subgrid topography, and small, large, and diatom phytoplankton functional classes. Phytoplankton concentrations are implicitly represented in the parameterization of biological nutrient utilization through an equilibrium logistic model. Our formulation thus has only three coupled nutrient tracers, the three-dimensional distributions of which are found using a Newton solver. The very efficient numerics allow us to use the model in inverse mode to objectively constrain many biogeochemical parameters by minimizing the mismatch between modeled and observed nutrient and phytoplankton concentrations. Iron source and sink parameters cannot jointly be optimized because of local compensation between regeneration, recycling, and scavenging. We therefore consider a family of possible state estimates corresponding to a wide range of external iron source strengths. All state estimates have a similar mismatch with the observed nutrient concentrations and very similar large-scale dFe distributions. However, the relative contributions of aeolian, sedimentary, and hydrothermal iron to the total dFe concentration differ widely depending on the sources. Both the magnitude and pattern of the phosphorus and opal exports are well constrained, with global values of 8. 1  ±  0. 3 Tmol P yr−1 (or, in carbon units, 10. 3  ±  0. 4

  17. Global biogeochemical cycle of vanadium.

    Schlesinger, William H; Klein, Emily M; Vengosh, Avner

    2017-12-26

    Synthesizing published data, we provide a quantitative summary of the global biogeochemical cycle of vanadium (V), including both human-derived and natural fluxes. Through mining of V ores (130 × 10 9 g V/y) and extraction and combustion of fossil fuels (600 × 10 9 g V/y), humans are the predominant force in the geochemical cycle of V at Earth's surface. Human emissions of V to the atmosphere are now likely to exceed background emissions by as much as a factor of 1.7, and, presumably, we have altered the deposition of V from the atmosphere by a similar amount. Excessive V in air and water has potential, but poorly documented, consequences for human health. Much of the atmospheric flux probably derives from emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, but the magnitude of this flux depends on the type of fuel, with relatively low emissions from coal and higher contributions from heavy crude oils, tar sands bitumen, and petroleum coke. Increasing interest in petroleum derived from unconventional deposits is likely to lead to greater emissions of V to the atmosphere in the near future. Our analysis further suggests that the flux of V in rivers has been incremented by about 15% from human activities. Overall, the budget of dissolved V in the oceans is remarkably well balanced-with about 40 × 10 9 g V/y to 50 × 10 9 g V/y inputs and outputs, and a mean residence time for dissolved V in seawater of about 130,000 y with respect to inputs from rivers.

  18. A representation of the phosphorus cycle for ORCHIDEE (revision 4520

    D. S. Goll

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land surface models rarely incorporate the terrestrial phosphorus cycle and its interactions with the carbon cycle, despite the extensive scientific debate about the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus supply for future land carbon uptake. We describe a representation of the terrestrial phosphorus cycle for the ORCHIDEE land surface model, and evaluate it with data from nutrient manipulation experiments along a soil formation chronosequence in Hawaii. ORCHIDEE accounts for the influence of the nutritional state of vegetation on tissue nutrient concentrations, photosynthesis, plant growth, biomass allocation, biochemical (phosphatase-mediated mineralization, and biological nitrogen fixation. Changes in the nutrient content (quality of litter affect the carbon use efficiency of decomposition and in return the nutrient availability to vegetation. The model explicitly accounts for root zone depletion of phosphorus as a function of root phosphorus uptake and phosphorus transport from the soil to the root surface. The model captures the observed differences in the foliage stoichiometry of vegetation between an early (300-year and a late (4.1 Myr stage of soil development. The contrasting sensitivities of net primary productivity to the addition of either nitrogen, phosphorus, or both among sites are in general reproduced by the model. As observed, the model simulates a preferential stimulation of leaf level productivity when nitrogen stress is alleviated, while leaf level productivity and leaf area index are stimulated equally when phosphorus stress is alleviated. The nutrient use efficiencies in the model are lower than observed primarily due to biases in the nutrient content and turnover of woody biomass. We conclude that ORCHIDEE is able to reproduce the shift from nitrogen to phosphorus limited net primary productivity along the soil development chronosequence, as well as the contrasting responses of net primary productivity to nutrient

  19. Simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) process.

    Wu, Di; Ekama, George A; Wang, Hai-Guang; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chui, Ho-Kwong; Liu, Wen-Tso; Brdjanovic, Damir; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2014-02-01

    Hong Kong has practiced seawater toilet flushing since 1958, saving 750,000 m(3) of freshwater every day. A high sulfate-to-COD ratio (>1.25 mg SO4(2-)/mg COD) in the saline sewage resulting from this practice has enabled us to develop the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated (SANI(®)) process with minimal sludge production and oxygen demand. Recently, the SANI(®) process has been expanded to include Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) in an alternating anaerobic/limited-oxygen (LOS-EBPR) aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR). This paper presents further development - an anaerobic/anoxic denitrifying sulfur cycle-associated EBPR, named as DS-EBPR, bioprocess in an alternating anaerobic/anoxic SBR for simultaneous removal of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus. The 211 day SBR operation confirmed the sulfur cycle-associated biological phosphorus uptake utilizing nitrate as electron acceptor. This new bioprocess cannot only reduce operation time but also enhance volumetric loading of SBR compared with the LOS-EBPR. The DS-EBPR process performed well at high temperatures of 30 °C and a high salinity of 20% seawater. A synergistic relationship may exist between sulfur cycle and biological phosphorus removal as the optimal ratio of P-release to SO4(2-)-reduction is close to 1.0 mg P/mg S. There were no conventional PAOs in the sludge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A study on the cycling of phosphorus in wheat (T. alstivum L.) by tracer technique

    Dwivedi, R.S.

    1974-01-01

    The cycling of phosphorus was studied in relation to its uptake, retention, release and mineralization during the growth period of wheat crop (S. 308) in pure stand (PS) and mixed stand (MS) by using carrier free 32 P. It was estimated that about 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha was added to the soil through litter by growing two such crops in a year. The mineralization of phosphorus from the litter was to be two times faster at 6 inches soil depth at semi-saturated soil moisture than surface litter. The dry matter production and re-absorption of litter phosphorus by maize plant growing at the bassal dose of decomposed litter were insignificantly different from those of fertilized soils. All the parameters of phosphorus cycling determined by both the techniques did not differ markedly. For mineralization and especially reabsorption studies, only the radiotracer technique appeared to be most sensitive, easy, reliable and quicker. (author)

  1. Nitrogen inputs accelerate phosphorus cycling rates across a wide variety of terrestrial ecosystems.

    Marklein, Alison R; Houlton, Benjamin Z

    2012-02-01

    • Biologically essential elements--especially nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)--constrain plant growth and microbial functioning; however, human activities are drastically altering the magnitude and pattern of such nutrient limitations on land. Here we examine interactions between N and P cycles of P mineralizing enzyme activities (phosphatase enzymes) across a wide variety of terrestrial biomes. • We synthesized results from 34 separate studies and used meta-analysis to evaluate phosphatase activity with N, P, or N×P fertilization. • Our results show that N fertilization enhances phosphatase activity, from the tropics to the extra-tropics, both on plant roots and in bulk soils. By contrast, P fertilization strongly suppresses rates of phosphatase activity. • These results imply that phosphatase enzymes are strongly responsive to changes in local nutrient cycle conditions. We also show that plant phosphatases respond more strongly to fertilization than soil phosphatases. The tight coupling between N and P provides a mechanism for recent observations of N and P co-limitation on land. Moreover, our results suggest that terrestrial plants and microbes can allocate excess N to phosphatase enzymes, thus delaying the onset of single P limitation to plant productivity as can occur via human modifications to the global N cycle. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Cycling in a global world : introduction

    Oldenziel, R.; Albert de la Bruhèze, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Affiliations GO Issue Journal Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Editorial  Editorial Gijs Mom, Georgine Clarsen and Cotten Seiler Article  Motorists, Non-drivers and Traffic Accidents between the Wars: a Provisional Survey Bill Luckin Special Section on Global CyclingCycling in a Global World: Introduction to

  3. Biogeochemical cycling of iron and phosphorus under low oxygen conditions

    Lomnitz, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Benthic release of the key nutrients iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) is enhanced from sediments that are impinged by oxygen-deficient bottom waters due to its diminished retention capacity for such redox sensitive elements. Suboxic to anoxic and sometimes even euxinic conditions are recently found in open ocean oxygen minimum zones (OMZs, e.g. Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems) and marginal seas (e.g. the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea). Recent studies showed that OMZs expanded in the last decade...

  4. Embodied phosphorus and the global connections of United States agriculture

    MacDonald, Graham K.; Bennett, Elena M.; Carpenter, Stephen R.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is intricately linked to food security and water quality. Globalization of agricultural systems and changing diets clearly alter these relationships, yet their specific influence on non-renewable P reserves is less certain. We assessed P fertilizer used for production of food crops, livestock and biofuels in the US agricultural system, explicitly comparing the domestic P use required for US food consumption to the P use embodied in the production of US food imports and exports. By far the largest demand for P fertilizer throughout the US agricultural system was for feed and livestock production (56% of total P fertilizer use, including that for traded commodities). As little as 8% of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P) was consumed in US diets in the same year, while larger fractions may have been retained in agricultural soils (28%), associated with different post-harvest losses (40%) or with biofuel refining (10%). One quarter of all P fertilizer used in the US was linked to export production, primarily crops, driving a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P). However, US meat consumption relied considerably on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports. Changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer required for US food consumption by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). US export-oriented agriculture, domestic post-harvest P losses and global demand for meat may ultimately have an important influence on the lifespan of US phosphate rock reserves.

  5. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    Williams, CA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one...

  6. Assessing the Role of Dissolved Organic Phosphate on Rates of Microbial Phosphorus Cycling

    Gonzalez, A. C.; Popendorf, K. J.; Duhamel, S.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an element crucial to life, and it is limiting in many parts of the ocean. In oligotrophic environments, the dissolved P pool is cycled rapidly through the activity of microbes, with turnover times of several hours or less. The overarching aim of this study was to assess the flux of P from picoplankton to the dissolved pool and the role this plays in fueling rapid P cycling. To determine if specific microbial groups are responsible for significant return of P to the dissolved pool during cell lifetime, we compared the rate of cellular P turnover (cell-Pτ, the rate of cellular P uptake divided by cellular P content) to the rate of cellular biomass turnover (cellτ). High rates of P return to the dissolved pool during cell lifetime (high cell-Pτ/cellτ) indicate significant P regeneration, fueling more rapid turnover of the dissolved P pool. We hypothesized that cell-Pτ/cellτ varies widely across picoplankton groups. One factor influencing this variation may be each microbial group's relative uptake of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) versus dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP). As extracellular hydrolysis is necessary for P incorporation from DOP, this process may return more P to the dissolved pool than DIP incorporation. This leads to the question: does a picoplankton's relative uptake of DOP (versus DIP) affect the rate at which it returns phosphorus to the dissolved pool? To address this question, we compared the rate of cellular P turnover based on uptake of DOP and uptake DIP using cultured representatives of three environmentally significant picoplankton groups: Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and heterotrophic bacteria. These different picoplankton groups are known to take up different ratios of DOP to DIP, and may in turn make significantly different contributions to the regeneration and cycling phosphorus. These findings have implications towards our understanding of the timeframes of biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the

  7. Process-based modelling of phosphorus transformations and retention in global rivers

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Mogollon, Jose; Beusen, Arthur; Bouwman, Lex

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) plays a major role in the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic systems. It typically acts as the limiting nutrient for primary productivity in freshwater bodies, and thus the increase in anthropogenic P loads during the XXth century has fuelled the eutrophication of these systems. Total P retention in global rivers has also escalated over this timeframe as demonstrated via a global model that implements the spiralling method at a spatial resolution of 0.5° (IMAGE-GNM, Beusen et al., 2015). Here, we refine this coupled hydrological - nutrient model by including mechanistic biogeochemical interactions that govern the P cycle. Special attention is paid to the representation of particle processes (i.e. particle loading, sedimentation and erosion), which play a major role in P transport and accumulation in aquatic systems. Our preliminary results are compared to measurements of suspended sediments, total P and orthophosphates in selected river basins. Initial model results show that P concentrations are particularly sensitive to particulate load distribution in the river network within a grid cell. This novel modelling approach will eventually allow a better assessment of the amounts of different forms of P (organic P, soluble reactive P, and particulate inorganic P), of P transformation rates and retention in inland waters. References Beusen, A.H.W., Van Beek, L.P.H., Bouwman, A.F., Mogollón, J.M., Middelburg, J.J. 2015. Coupling global models for hydrology and nutrient loading to simulate nitrogen and phosphorus retention in surface water - description of the IMAGE-GNM and analysis of performance. Geosci. Model Dev. 8, 4045-4067

  8. A model for microbial phosphorus cycling in bioturbated marine sediments

    Dale, Andrew W.; Boyle, R. A.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    A diagenetic model is used to simulate the diagenesis and burial of particulate organic carbon (Corg) and phosphorus (P) in marine sediments underlying anoxic versus oxic bottom waters. The latter are physically mixed by animals moving through the surface sediment (bioturbation) and ventilated...... P pump) allows preferential mineralization of the bulk Porg pool relative to Corg during both aerobic and anaerobic respiration and is consistent with the database. Results with this model show that P burial is strongly enhanced in sediments hosting fauna. Animals mix highly labile Porg away from....... The results also help to explain Corg:Porg ratios in the geological record and the persistence of Porg in ancient marine sediments. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd....

  9. Complementary Enzymes Activities in Organic Phosphorus Mineralization and Cycling by Phosphohydrolases in Soils

    Inorganic and organic phosphates react strongly with soil constituents, resulting in relatively low concentrations of soluble phosphates in the soil solution. Multiple competing reactions control the solution-phase concentration and the cycling of phosphorus-containing organic substrates and the re...

  10. Stabilization of the coupled oxygen and phosphorus cycles by the evolution of bioturbation

    Boyle, Richard; Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Dale, A. W.

    2014-01-01

    Animal burrowing and sediment-mixing (bioturbation) began during the run up to the Ediacaran/Cambrian boundary(1-3), initiating a transition(4,5) between the stratified Precambrian(6) and more well-mixed Phanerozoic(7) sedimentary records, against the backdrop of a variable(8,9) global oxygen...... reservoir probably smaller in size than present(10,11). Phosphorus is the long-term(12) limiting nutrient for oxygen production via burial of organic carbon(13), and its retention (relative to carbon) within organic matter in marine sediments is enhanced by bioturbation(14-18). Here we explore...... the biogeochemical implications of a bioturbation-induced organic phosphorus sink in a simple model. We show that increased bioturbation robustly triggers a net decrease in the size of the global oxygen reservoir-the magnitude of which is contingent upon the prescribed difference in carbon to phosphorus ratios...

  11. Observing the Global Water Cycle from Space

    Hildebrand, P. H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to measuring all major components of the water cycle from space. Key elements of the global water cycle are discussed in terms of the storage of water-in the ocean, air, cloud and precipitation, in soil, ground water, snow and ice, and in lakes and rivers, and in terms of the global fluxes of water between these reservoirs. Approaches to measuring or otherwise evaluating the global water cycle are presented, and the limitations on known accuracy for many components of the water cycle are discussed, as are the characteristic spatial and temporal scales of the different water cycle components. Using these observational requirements for a global water cycle observing system, an approach to measuring the global water cycle from space is developed. The capabilities of various active and passive microwave instruments are discussed, as is the potential of supporting measurements from other sources. Examples of space observational systems, including TRMM/GPM precipitation measurement, cloud radars, soil moisture, sea surface salinity, temperature and humidity profiling, other measurement approaches and assimilation of the microwave and other data into interpretative computer models are discussed to develop the observational possibilities. The selection of orbits is then addressed, for orbit selection and antenna size/beamwidth considerations determine the sampling characteristics for satellite measurement systems. These considerations dictate a particular set of measurement possibilities, which are then matched to the observational sampling requirements based on the science. The results define a network of satellite instrumentation systems, many in low Earth orbit, a few in geostationary orbit, and all tied together through a sampling network that feeds the observations into a data-assimilative computer model.

  12. Benthic phosphorus cycling in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    Lomnitz, Ulrike; Sommer, Stefan; Dale, Andrew W.; Löscher, Carolin R.; Noffke, Anna; Wallmann, Klaus; Hensen, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that impinge on continental margins favor the release of phosphorus (P) from the sediments to the water column, enhancing primary productivity and the maintenance or expansion of low-oxygen waters. A comprehensive field program in the Peruvian OMZ was undertaken to identify the sources of benthic P at six stations, including the analysis of particles from the water column, surface sediments, and pore fluids, as well as in situ benthic flux measurements. A major fraction of solid-phase P was bound as particulate inorganic P (PIP) both in the water column and in sediments. Sedimentary PIP increased with depth in the sediment at the expense of particulate organic P (POP). The ratio of particulate organic carbon (POC) to POP exceeded the Redfield ratio both in the water column (202 ± 29) and in surface sediments (303 ± 77). However, the POC to total particulate P (TPP = POP + PIP) ratio was close to Redfield in the water column (103 ± 9) and in sediment samples (102 ± 15). This suggests that the relative burial efficiencies of POC and TPP are similar under low-oxygen conditions and that the sediments underlying the anoxic waters on the Peru margin are not depleted in P compared to Redfield. Benthic fluxes of dissolved P were extremely high (up to 1.04 ± 0.31 mmol m-2 d-1), however, showing that a lack of oxygen promotes the intensified release of dissolved P from sediments, whilst preserving the POC / TPP burial ratio. Benthic dissolved P fluxes were always higher than the TPP rain rate to the seabed, which is proposed to be caused by transient P release by bacterial mats that had stored P during previous periods when bottom waters were less reducing. At one station located at the lower rim of the OMZ, dissolved P was taken up by the sediments, indicating ongoing phosphorite formation. This is further supported by decreasing porewater phosphate concentrations with sediment depth, whereas solid-phase P concentrations were comparatively

  13. Phosphorus in agricultural soils: drivers of its distribution at the global scale

    Ringeval, Bruno [ISPA, Villenave d' Ornon (France); Augusto, Laurent [ISPA, Villenave d' Ornon (France); Monod, Herve [Univ. Paris-Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas (France); van Apeldoorn, Dirk [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (The Netherlands); Bouwman, Lex [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (The Netherlands); Yang, Xiaojuan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Achat, David L. [ISPA, Villenave d' Ornon (France); Chini, Louise P. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Van Oost, Kristof [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Guenet, Bertrand [Univ. Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wang, Rong [Univ. Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Decharme, Bertrand [CNRS/Meteo-France, Toulouse (France); Nesme, Thomas [ISPA, Villenave d' Ornon (France); Pellerin, Sylvain [ISPA, Villenave d' Ornon (France)

    2017-01-09

    Phosphorus (P) availability in soils limits crop yields in many regions of the world, while excess of soil P triggers aquatic eutrophication in other regions. Numerous processes drive the global spatial distribution of P in agricultural soils, but their relative roles remain unclear. Here, we combined several global datasets describing these drivers with a soil P dynamics model to simulate the distribution of P in agricultural soils and to assess the contributions of the different drivers at the global scale. We analyzed both the labile inorganic P (PILAB), a proxy of the pool involved in plant nutrition and the total soil P (PTOT). We found that the soil biogeochemical background (BIOG) and farming practices (FARM) were the main drivers of the spatial variability in cropland soil P content but that their contribution varied between PTOT vs PILAB. Indeed, 97% of the PTOT spatial variability could be explained by BIOG, while BIOG and FARM explained 41% and 58% of PILAB spatial variability, respectively. Other drivers such as climate, soil erosion, atmospheric P deposition and soil buffering capacity made only very small contribution. Lastly, our study is a promising approach to investigate the potential effect of P as a limiting factor for agricultural ecosystems and for global food production. Additionally, we quantified the anthropogenic perturbation of P cycle and demonstrated how the different drivers are combined to explain the global distribution of agricultural soil P.

  14. Business Cycle Volatility and Globalization: A Survey

    Claudia M. Buch

    2002-01-01

    The globalization of capital and product markets has many implications for economic welfare. Countries can specialize in the production of goods for which they have comparative advantages, and capital is allocated more efficiently. However, one potentially adverse effect of globalization is the possibility that business cycle volatility might increase. Rapid and badly co-ordinated capital account liberalization has been blamed for enhancing the vulnerability of emerging markets to unstable in...

  15. A global analysis of fine root production as affected by soil nitrogen and phosphorus.

    Yuan, Z Y; Chen, Han Y H

    2012-09-22

    Fine root production is the largest component of belowground production and plays substantial roles in the biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. The increasing availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) due to human activities is expected to increase aboveground net primary production (ANNP), but the response of fine root production to N and P remains unclear. If roots respond to nutrients as ANNP, fine root production is anticipated to increase with increasing soil N and P. Here, by synthesizing data along the nutrient gradient from 410 natural habitats and from 469 N and/or P addition experiments, we showed that fine root production increased in terrestrial ecosystems with an average increase along the natural N gradient of up to 0.5 per cent with increasing soil N. Fine root production also increased with soil P in natural conditions, particularly at P production increased by a global average of 27, 21 and 40 per cent, respectively. However, its responses differed among ecosystems and soil types. The global average increases in fine root production are lower than those of ANNP, indicating that above- and belowground counterparts are coupled, but production allocation shifts more to aboveground with higher soil nutrients. Our results suggest that the increasing fertilizer use and combined N deposition at present and in the future will stimulate fine root production, together with ANPP, probably providing a significant influence on atmospheric CO(2) emissions.

  16. Global Changes of the Water Cycle Intensity

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Walker, Gregory K.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate numerical simulations of the twentieth century climate, focusing on the changes in the intensity of the global water cycle. A new diagnostic of atmospheric water vapor cycling rate is developed and employed, that relies on constituent tracers predicted at the model time step. This diagnostic is compared to a simplified traditional calculation of cycling rate, based on monthly averages of precipitation and total water content. The mean sensitivity of both diagnostics to variations in climate forcing is comparable. However, the new diagnostic produces systematically larger values and more variability than the traditional average approach. Climate simulations were performed using SSTs of the early (1902-1921) and late (1979- 1998) twentieth century along with the appropriate C02 forcing. In general, the increase of global precipitation with the increases in SST that occurred between the early and late twentieth century is small. However, an increase of atmospheric temperature leads to a systematic increase in total precipitable water. As a result, the residence time of water in the atmosphere increased, indicating a reduction of the global cycling rate. This result was explored further using a number of 50-year climate simulations from different models forced with observed SST. The anomalies and trends in the cycling rate and hydrologic variables of different GCMs are remarkably similar. The global annual anomalies of precipitation show a significant upward trend related to the upward trend of surface temperature, during the latter half of the twentieth century. While this implies an increase in the hydrologic cycle intensity, a concomitant increase of total precipitable water again leads to a decrease in the calculated global cycling rate. An analysis of the land/sea differences shows that the simulated precipitation over land has a decreasing trend while the oceanic precipitation has an upward trend consistent with previous studies and the

  17. Glacial-interglacial variability in ocean oxygen and phosphorus in a global biogeochemical model

    Palastanga, V.; Slomp, C.P.; Heinze, C.

    2013-01-01

    Increased transfer of particulate matter from continental shelves to the open ocean during glacials may have had a major impact on the biogeochemistry of the ocean. Here, we assess the response of the coupled oceanic cycles of oxygen, carbon, phosphorus, and iron to the input of particulate organic

  18. The Impact of First-Generation Biofuels on the Depletion of the Global Phosphorus Reserve

    Hein, L.G.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    The large majority of biofuels to date is “first-generation” biofuel made from agricultural commodities. All first-generation biofuel production systems require phosphorus (P) fertilization. P is an essential plant nutrient, yet global reserves are finite. We argue that committing scarce P to

  19. Bridging Gaps in the Agricultural Phosphorus Cycle from an Animal Husbandry Perspective—The Case of Pigs and Poultry

    Michael Oster

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Since phosphorus (P is an essential element for life, its usage and application across agricultural production systems requires great attention. Monogastric species such as pigs and poultry can significantly contribute to global food security but these animals remain highly dependent on the supply of mineral inorganic P in their feeds. Pig and poultry, which represent 70% of the global meat production, are also major P excretors and thus represent important sources of environmental P inputs. Balancing the P cycle within farming systems is crucial to achieve P sustainable and resilient livestock production. Therefore, the interconnection of animal feed, livestock farming, manure, and soil/aquatic ecosystems requires multidisciplinary approaches to improve P management. With regard to a sustainable agricultural P cycle, this study addresses aspects of feeding strategies and animal physiology (e.g., phase feeding, P conditioning, liquid feeding, phytase supplementation, genetics, soil agroecosystems (e.g., P cycling, P losses, P gains, reuse and recycling (e.g., manure, slaughter waste, measures of farmers’ economic performance (e.g., bio-economic models, and P governance/policy instruments (e.g., P quota, P tax. To reconcile the economic and ecological sustainability of animal husbandry, the strategic objective of future research will be to provide solutions for a sufficient supply of high-quality animal products from resource-efficient and economically competitive agro-systems which are valued by society and preserve soil and aquatic ecosystems.

  20. A model for global cycling of tritium

    Killough, G.G.; Kocher, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Dynamic compartment models are widely used to describe global cycling of radionuclides for purposes of dose estimation. In this paper the authors present a new global tritium model that reproduces environmental time-series data on concentrations in precipitation, ocean surface waters, and surface fresh waters in the northern hemisphere, concentrations of atmospheric tritium in the southern hemisphere, and the latitude dependence of tritium in both hemispheres. Names TRICYCLE (for TRItium CYCLE) the model is based on the global hydrologic cycle and includes hemispheric stratospheric compartments, disaggregation of the troposphere and ocean surface waters into eight latitude zones, consideration of the different concentrations of atmospheric tritium over land and over the ocean, and a diffusive model for transport in the ocean. TRICYCLE reproduces the environmental data if it is assumed that about 50% of the tritium from atmospheric weapons testing was injected directly into the northern stratosphere as HTO. The model's latitudinal disaggregation permits taking into account the distribution of population. For a uniformly distributed release of HTO into the worldwide troposphere, TRICYCLE predicts a collective dose commitment to the world population that exceeds the NCRP model's corresponding prediction by a factor of three

  1. A model for global cycling of tritium

    Killough, G.G.; Kocher, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Dynamic compartment models are widely used to describe global cycling of radionuclides for purposes of dose estimation. In this paper, we present a new global tritium model that reproduces environmental time-series data on concentrations in precipitation, ocean surface waters, and surface fresh waters in the northern hemisphere, concentrations of atmospheric tritium in the soutehrn hemisphere, and the latitude dependence of tritium in both hemispheres. Named TRICYCLE for Tritium CYCLE, the model is based on the global hydrologic cycle and includes hemisphereic stratospheric compartments, disaggregation of the troposphere and ocean surface waters into eight latitudezones, consideration of the different concentrations of atmospheric tritium over land and over the ocean, and a diffusive model for transport in the ocean. TRICYCLE reproduces the environmental data if we assume that about 50% of the tritium from atmospheric weapons testing was injected directly into the northern stratosphere as HTO. The models latitudinal disaggregation permits taking into account the distribution of population. For a unfiormaly distributed release of HTO into the worldwide troposphere, TRICYCLE predicts a collective dose commitment to the world population that exceeds the corresponding prediction by the NCRP model by about a factor of 3. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    Denning A Scott

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one of the weakest links in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, we combine data from regional and global inventories as well as forward and inverse model analyses to appraise what is known about Africa's continental-scale carbon dynamics. With low fossil emissions and productivity that largely compensates respiration, land conversion is Africa's primary net carbon release, much of it through burning of forests. Savanna fire emissions, though large, represent a short-term source that is offset by ensuing regrowth. While current data suggest a near zero decadal-scale carbon balance, interannual climate fluctuations (especially drought induce sizeable variability in net ecosystem productivity and savanna fire emissions such that Africa is a major source of interannual variability in global atmospheric CO2. Considering the continent's sizeable carbon stocks, their seemingly high vulnerability to anticipated climate and land use change, as well as growing populations and industrialization, Africa's carbon emissions and their interannual variability are likely to undergo substantial increases through the 21st century.

  3. Glacial-interglacial variability in ocean oxygen and phosphorus in a global biogeochemical model

    V Palastanga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased transfer of particulate matter from continental shelves to the open ocean during glacials may have had a major impact on the biogeochemistry of the ocean. Here, we assess the response of the coupled oceanic cycles of oxygen, carbon, phosphorus, and iron to the input of particulate organic carbon and reactive phosphorus from shelves. We use a biogeochemical ocean model and specifically focus on the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. When compared to an interglacial reference run, our glacial scenario with shelf input shows major increases in ocean productivity and phosphorus burial, while mean deep-water oxygen concentrations decline. There is a downward expansion of the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, while the extension of the OMZ in the Pacific is slightly reduced. Oxygen concentrations below 2000 m also decline but bottom waters do not become anoxic. The model simulations show when shelf input of particulate organic matter and particulate reactive P is considered, low oxygen areas in the glacial ocean expand, but concentrations are not low enough to generate wide scale changes in sediment biogeochemistry and sedimentary phosphorus recycling. Increased reactive phosphorus burial in the open ocean during the LGM in the model is related to dust input, notably over the southwest Atlantic and northwest Pacific, whereas input of material from shelves explains higher burial fluxes in continental slope and rise regions. Our model results are in qualitative agreement with available data and reproduce the strong spatial differences in the response of phosphorus burial to glacial-interglacial change. Our model results also highlight the need for additional sediment core records from all ocean basins to allow further insight into changes in phosphorus, carbon and oxygen dynamics in the ocean on glacial-interglacial timescales.

  4. Phosphorus Import Dependency and Recycling Potential in the Global Phosphorus Mosaic

    Powers, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Nations differ widely in terms of recent P consumption trends and fertilizer trade dependencies, reflecting dynamic and globally uneven P fertilizer production, consumption, export, and import. Recovered P from urban and agricultural wastes can provide renewable sources that supplant the need to import P fertilizer, but to date, research on P recycling potential has been highly spatially segregated. Understanding of the global distribution of P recycling potential and options, and how these intersect with P import dependencies, could be used to guide long-term, spatially-prioritized planning for P, food, and water security. We integrated recent data on national P fertilizer flows, subnational P use, and landscape features within a global grid to understand how these constraints on future options for P use are distributed worldwide. This analysis illustrates several regions where combinations of high population density, cropland extent, and manure P production provide islands of opportunity for P recycling in mixed crop-livestock and populous agricultural areas. At the same time, nations with lower import ratios (net P import:consumption) contained a disproportionately large share of manure-rich croplands and populous croplands. As a further demonstration of the kinds of integrated comparisons that are possible using global land use data sets in combination with P, worldwide similarities and distinctions for P emerged from a cluster analysis. These kinds of socioeconomic-geographic patterns may foretell distinct P futures as societies address spatially uneven options for P, food, and water security.

  5. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  6. Modern Estimates of Global Water Cycle Fluxes

    Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Olson, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the first phase of the NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. Here we describe results of the water cycle assessment, including mean annual and monthly fluxes over continents and ocean basins during the first decade of the millennium. To the extent possible, the water flux estimates are based on (1) satellite measurements and (2) data-integrating models. A careful accounting of uncertainty in each flux was applied within a routine that enforced multiple water and energy budget constraints simultaneously in a variational framework, in order to produce objectively-determined, optimized estimates. Simultaneous closure of the water and energy budgets caused the ocean evaporation and precipitation terms to increase by about 10% and 5% relative to the original estimates, mainly because the energy budget required turbulent heat fluxes to be substantially larger in order to balance net radiation. In the majority of cases, the observed annual, surface and atmospheric water budgets over the continents and oceans close with much less than 10% residual. Observed residuals and optimized uncertainty estimates are considerably larger for monthly surface and atmospheric water budget closure, often nearing or exceeding 20% in North America, Eurasia, Australia and neighboring islands, and the Arctic and South Atlantic Oceans. The residuals in South America and Africa tend to be smaller, possibly because cold land processes are a non-issue. Fluxes are poorly observed over the Arctic Ocean, certain seas, Antarctica, and the Australasian and Indonesian Islands, leading to reliance on atmospheric analysis estimates. Other details of the study and future directions will be discussed.

  7. Nutrient limitation reduces land carbon uptake in simulations with a model of combined carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling

    D. S. Goll

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial carbon (C cycle models applied for climate projections simulate a strong increase in net primary productivity (NPP due to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 21st century. These models usually neglect the limited availability of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P, nutrients that commonly limit plant growth and soil carbon turnover. To investigate how the projected C sequestration is altered when stoichiometric constraints on C cycling are considered, we incorporated a P cycle into the land surface model JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere–Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg, which already includes representations of coupled C and N cycles.

    The model reveals a distinct geographic pattern of P and N limitation. Under the SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B scenario, the accumulated land C uptake between 1860 and 2100 is 13% (particularly at high latitudes and 16% (particularly at low latitudes lower in simulations with N and P cycling, respectively, than in simulations without nutrient cycles. The combined effect of both nutrients reduces land C uptake by 25% compared to simulations without N or P cycling. Nutrient limitation in general may be biased by the model simplicity, but the ranking of limitations is robust against the parameterization and the inflexibility of stoichiometry. After 2100, increased temperature and high CO2 concentration cause a shift from N to P limitation at high latitudes, while nutrient limitation in the tropics declines. The increase in P limitation at high-latitudes is induced by a strong increase in NPP and the low P sorption capacity of soils, while a decline in tropical NPP due to high autotrophic respiration rates alleviates N and P limitations. The quantification of P limitation remains challenging. The poorly constrained processes of soil P sorption and biochemical mineralization are identified as the main uncertainties in the strength of P limitation

  8. Evolution of biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus during 45~50 Ma revealed by sequential extraction analysis of IODP Expedition 302 cores from the Arctic Ocean

    Hashimoto, S.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Takahashi, K.

    2012-12-01

    The modern Arctic Ocean plays crucial roles in controlling global climate system with the driving force of global thermohaline circulation through the formation of dense deep water and high albedo due to the presence of perennial sea-ice. However, the Arctic sea-ice has not always existed in the past. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302 Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) has clarified that global warming (water temperature: ca. 14~16○C) during 48~49 Ma Azolla Event induced the loss of sea-ice and desalination of surface ocean, and that sea-ice formed again some million years later (45 Ma). In the Arctic Ocean, warming and cooling events repeated over and over (e.g., Brinkhuis et al., 2006; Moran et al., 2006; März et al., 2010). Large variations in the extent of thermohaline circulation through time often caused stagnation of seawater and appearance of anaerobic environment where hydrogen sulfide was produced by bacterial sulfate reduction. Ogawa et al. (2009) confirmed occurrence of framboidal pyrite in the ACEX sediments, and suggested that the Arctic Ocean at the time was anoxic, analogous to the modern Black Sea, mainly based on sulfur isotope analysis. To further clarify the variations in the nutrient status of the Arctic Ocean, we focus on the geochemical cycle of phosphorus. We performed sequential extraction analysis of sedimentary phosphorus in the ACEX sediments, using the method that we improvped based on the original SEDEX method by Ruttenberg (1992) and Schenau et al. (2000). In our method, phosphorus fractions are divided into five forms; (1) absorbed P, (2) Feoxide-P, (4) carbonate fluorapatite (CFAP) + CaCO3-P + hydroxylapatite (HAP), (4) detrital P, and (5) organic P. Schenau et al. (2000) divided the (3) fraction into non-biological CFAP and biological HAP and CaCO3-P. When the Arctic Ocean was closed and in its warming period, the water mass was most likely stratified and an anaerobic condition would have prevailed where

  9. Global Carbon Cycle of the Precambrian Earth

    Wiewióra, Justyna

    The carbon isotopic composition of distinct Archaean geological records provides information about the global carbon cycle and emergence of life on early Earth. We utilized carbon isotopic records of Greenlandic carbonatites, diamonds, graphites, marbles, metacarbonates and ultramafic rocks...... in the surface environment and recycled back into the mantle In the third manuscript we investigate the carbon cycle components, which have maintained the carbon isotope composition of the mantle constant through time. Assuming constant organic ratio of the total carbon burial (f), we show that increased.......1‰) and metacarbonate ( -6.1 ± 0.1‰ to +1.5 ± 0.0‰) rocks from the ~3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt as resulting from the Rayleigh distillation process, which affected the ultramafic reservoir with initial δ13C between -2‰ and 0‰. Due to its high primary δ13C signature, carbon in the Isuan magnesite was most likely...

  10. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    2011-07-14

    ... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including Teleworkers Reporting to... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit...). Since eligible workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles...

  11. The role of microbial communities in phosphorus cycling during litter decomposition in a tropical forest

    Lloret Sevilla, E.; Brodie, E.; Bouskill, N.; Hao, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient with a reduced availability in tropical forests. In these ecosystems, P is recycled highly efficiently through resorption and mineralization and P immobilization in the microbial biomass prevents its loss through occlusion in the soil mineral fraction. To improve models of ecosystem response to global change, further studies of the above and belowground plant and microbial traits related to P availability and uptake, are required. In tropical forests, high temperature and rainfall lead to some of the highest rates of litter decomposition on earth. Litter decomposition is a complex process mediated by a range of trophic groups: meso and microfauna initiate litter turnover through litter fragmentation facilitating colonization by fungi, and bacteria mediate the mineralization of organic matter and release of nutrients. To determine the important functional traits of these players in the efficient cycling of P in soils with low P availability, we are performing a leaf litter decomposition experiment in a humid tropical forest in Puerto Rico. Nylon litterbags with three mesh sizes (2mm, 20 μm and 0.45 μm) containing litter with different chemistry (tabonuco and palm) will be deployed on soil surface and sampled 6 times throughout 12 months. The use of different mesh sizes will allow us to identify the leading roles in litter turnover by physical allowance and/or exclusion of the decomposers. The 2 mm bags allow meso and microfauna, roots, fungi and bacteria. 20 μm bags will exclude fauna and roots and 0.45 μm only allow some bacteria. We hypothesize that fungi will dominate over bacteria in earlier stages of the decomposition with a higher production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. On the other hand, bacterial biomass is expected to increase with time. Qualitative changes in both fungal and bacterial communities along the decomposition process are also expected leading to changes in enzyme activity. We also postulate an

  12. An updated view of global water cycling

    Houser, P. R.; Schlosser, A.; Lehr, J.

    2009-04-01

    Unprecedented new observation capacities combined with revolutions in modeling, we are poised to make huge advances in water cycle assessment, understanding, and prediction. To realize this goal, we must develop a discipline of prediction and verification through the integration of water and energy cycle observations and models, and to verify model predictions against observed phenomena to ensure that research delivers reliable improvements in prediction skill. Accomplishing these goals will require, in part, an accurate accounting of the key reservoirs and fluxes associated with the global water and energy cycle, including their spatial and temporal variability, through integration of all necessary observations and research tools. A brief history of the lineage of the conventional water balance and a summary accounting of all major parameters of the water balance using highly respected secondary sources will be presented. Principally, recently published peer reviewed papers reporting results of original work involving direct measurements and new data generated by high-tech devices (e.g. satellite / airborne instruments, supercomputers, geophysical tools) will be employed. This work lends credence to the conventional water balance ideas, but also reveals anachronistic scientific concepts/models, questionable underlying data, longstanding oversights and outright errors in the water balance.

  13. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Plant Uptake During Periods with no Photosynthesis Accounts for About Half of Global Annual Uptake

    Riley, W. J.; Zhu, Q.; Tang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Uncertainties in current Earth System Model (ESM) predictions of terrestrial carbon-climate feedbacks over the 21st century are as large as, or larger than, any other reported natural system uncertainties. Soil Organic Matter (SOM) decomposition and photosynthesis, the dominant fluxes in this regard, are tightly linked through nutrient availability, and the recent Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) used for climate change assessment had no credible representations of these constraints. In response, many ESM land models (ESMLMs) have developed dynamic and coupled soil and plant nutrient cycles. Here we quantify terrestrial carbon cycle impacts from well-known observed plant nutrient uptake mechanisms ignored in most current ESMLMs. In particular, we estimate the global role of plant root nutrient competition with microbes and abiotic process at night and during the non-growing season using the ACME land model (ALMv1-ECA-CNP) that explicitly represents these dynamics. We first demonstrate that short-term nutrient uptake dynamics and competition between plants and microbes are accurately predicted by the model compared to 15N and 33P isotopic tracer measurements from more than 20 sites. We then show that global nighttime and non-growing season nitrogen and phosphorus uptake accounts for 46 and 45%, respectively, of annual uptake, with large latitudinal variation. Model experiments show that ignoring these plant uptake periods leads to large positive biases in annual N leaching (globally 58%) and N2O emissions (globally 68%). Biases these large will affect modeled carbon cycle dynamics over time, and lead to predictions of ecosystems that have overly open nutrient cycles and therefore lower capacity to sequester carbon.

  14. Decoupling of microbial carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling in response to extreme temperature events

    Mooshammer, Maria; Hofhansl, Florian; Frank, Alexander H.; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hämmerle, Ieda; Leitner, Sonja; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Watzka, Margarete; Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Predicted changes in the intensity and frequency of climate extremes urge a better mechanistic understanding of the stress response of microbially mediated carbon (C) and nutrient cycling processes. We analyzed the resistance and resilience of microbial C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycling processes and microbial community composition in decomposing plant litter to transient, but severe, temperature disturbances, namely, freeze-thaw and heat. Disturbances led temporarily to a more rapid cycling of C and N but caused a down-regulation of P cycling. In contrast to the fast recovery of the initially stimulated C and N processes, we found a slow recovery of P mineralization rates, which was not accompanied by significant changes in community composition. The functional and structural responses to the two distinct temperature disturbances were markedly similar, suggesting that direct negative physical effects and costs associated with the stress response were comparable. Moreover, the stress response of extracellular enzyme activities, but not that of intracellular microbial processes (for example, respiration or N mineralization), was dependent on the nutrient content of the resource through its effect on microbial physiology and community composition. Our laboratory study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of microbial functional stress responses that can serve as a basis for field studies and, in particular, illustrates the need for a closer integration of microbial C-N-P interactions into climate extremes research. PMID:28508070

  15. Sedimentary phosphorus and iron cycling in and below the oxygen minimum zone of the northern Arabian Sea

    Kraal, P.; Slomp, C.P.; Reed, D.C.; Reichart, G.-J.; Poulton, S.W.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) cycling in sediments along a depth transect from within to well below the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the northern Arabian Sea (Murray Ridge). Pore-water and solid-phase analyses show that authigenic formation of calcium phosphate minerals

  16. Stoichiometric controls of nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in decomposing beech leaf litter.

    Mooshammer, Maria; Wanek, Wolfgang; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Leitner, Sonja; Hofhansl, Florian; Blöchl, Andreas; Hämmerle, Ieda; Frank, Alexander H; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Keiblinger, Katharina M; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Resource stoichiometry (C:N:P) is an important determinant of litter decomposition. However, the effect of elemental stoichiometry on the gross rates of microbial N and P cycling processes during litter decomposition is unknown. In a mesocosm experiment, beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) litter with natural differences in elemental stoichiometry (C:N:P) was incubated under constant environmental conditions. After three and six months, we measured various aspects of nitrogen and phosphorus cycling. We found that gross protein depolymerization, N mineralization (ammonification), and nitrification rates were negatively related to litter C:N. Rates of P mineralization were negatively correlated with litter C:P. The negative correlations with litter C:N were stronger for inorganic N cycling processes than for gross protein depolymerization, indicating that the effect of resource stoichiometry on intracellular processes was stronger than on processes catalyzed by extracellular enzymes. Consistent with this, extracellular protein depolymerization was mainly limited by substrate availability and less so by the amount of protease. Strong positive correlations between the interconnected N and P pools and the respective production and consumption processes pointed to feed-forward control of microbial litter N and P cycling. A negative relationship between litter C:N and phosphatase activity (and between litter C:P and protease activity) demonstrated that microbes tended to allocate carbon and nutrients in ample supply into the production of extracellular enzymes to mine for the nutrient that is more limiting. Overall, the study demonstrated a strong effect of litter stoichiometry (C:N:P) on gross processes of microbial N and P cycling in decomposing litter; mineralization of N and P were tightly coupled to assist in maintaining cellular homeostasis of litter microbial communities.

  17. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    Trabalka, J R [ed.

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  18. Global Anthropogenic Phosphorus Loads to Fresh Water, Grey Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels: A High-Resolution Global Study

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We estimated anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads to freshwater, globally at a spatial resolution level of 5 by 5 arc minute. The global anthropogenic P load to freshwater systems from both diffuse and point sources in the period 2002-2010 was 1.5 million tonnes per year. China contributed about 30% to this global anthropogenic P load. India was the second largest contributor (8%), followed by the USA (7%), Spain and Brazil each contributing 6% to the total. The domestic sector contributed the largest share (54%) to this total followed by agriculture (38%) and industry (8%). Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the P loads (32%), followed by fruits, vegetables, and oil crops, each contributing about 15% to the total. We also calculated the resultant grey water footprints, and relate the grey water footprints per river basin to runoff to calculate the P-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment.

  19. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    Peifang Wang; Lingxiao Ren; Chao Wang; Jin Qian; Jun Hou

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River). Va...

  20. Phosphorus Cycling in Montreal’s Food and Urban Agriculture Systems

    Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2015-01-01

    Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities’ P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste. Using existing data combined with surveys of local UA practitioners, we quantified the role of UA in the P cycle of Montreal, Canada to explore the potential for UA to recycle local P waste. We also used existing data to complete a substance flow analysis of P flows in the overall food system of Montreal. In 2012, Montreal imported 3.5 Gg of P in food, of which 2.63 Gg ultimately accumulated in landfills, 0.36 Gg were discharged to local waters, and only 0.09 Gg were recycled through composting. We found that UA is only a small sub-system in the overall P cycle of the city, contributing just 0.44% of the P consumed as food in the city. However, within the UA system, the rate of recycling is high: 73% of inputs applied to soil were from recycled sources. While a Quebec mandate to recycle 100% of all organic waste by 2020 might increase the role of UA in P recycling, the area of land in UA is too small to accommodate all P waste produced on the island. UA may, however, be a valuable pathway to improve urban P sustainability by acting as an activity that changes residents’ relationship to, and understanding of, the food system and increases their acceptance of composting. PMID:25826256

  1. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    C. Buendía

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  2. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    Buendía, Corina; Kleidon, Axel; Manzoni, Stefano; Reu, Björn; Porporato, Amilcare

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland) ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  3. Phosphorus cycling in forest ecosystems: insights from oxygen isotopes in phosphate

    Pistocchi, Chiara; Tamburini, Federica; Bünemann, Else; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The current view on the phosphorus (P) cycle in forest ecosystems relies mostly on measurements and correlations of pools, and to a lower extent on measurement of fluxes. We have no direct insight into the processes phosphate goes through at the ecosystem level, and into the relative importance of organic and mineral pools in sustaining P nutrition of trees. The analysis of oxygen isotopes associated to P (18Op) is expected to bring this type of information. The German Priority Program SPP 1685 aims to test the overall hypothesis that the P-depletion of soils drives forest ecosystems from P acquiring systems (efficient mobilization of P from the mineral phase) to P recycling systems (highly efficient cycling of P). Our contribution to this project will consist in studying the relative importance of biological and geochemical processes in controlling the P cycle in temperate beech forest ecosystems in Germany along a gradient of decreasing soil P availability. We will follow the fate of phosphate from litter fall to the uptake of P by plants via P release by decomposition of organic matter or after release from P-containing minerals, by using a multi-isotope approach (O in water and phosphate plus 33P). To address our research question we will rely on measurements in experimental forest sites and on laboratory incubations of the organic layer or the mineral soil. We present here the first results issued from the 2014 sampling on three study sites, where we characterized the P pools in surface soil horizons by a sequential extraction (modified after Tiessen and Moir, 2007) and we analysed the 18Op of the resin extractable- and microbial-P fractions. Contrary to what was previously found (e.g. Tamburini et al. 2012) the isotopic composition of these fractions in most of the samples does not reflect the equilibrium value (as the result of the dominance of the pyrophosphatase activity on the other enzymatic processes, Blake et al. 2005). Depending on the P availability

  4. Sustainable use of phosphorus: a finite resource.

    Scholz, Roland W; Ulrich, Andrea E; Eilittä, Marjatta; Roy, Amit

    2013-09-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element of life and of the modern agricultural system. Today, science, policy, agro-industry and other stakeholder groups are increasingly concerned about the sustainable use of this resource, given the dissipative nature of phosphorus and difficulties in assessing, evaluating, and coping with phosphorus pollution in aquatic and terrestrial systems. We argue that predictions about a forthcoming peak, followed by a quick reduction (i.e., physical phosphate rock scarcity) are unreasoned and stress that access to phosphorus (economic scarcity) is already, and may increasingly become critical, in particular for smallholders farmers in different parts of the world. The paper elaborates on the design, development, goals and cutting-edge contributions of a global transdisciplinary process (i.e. mutual learning between science and society including multiple stakeholders) on the understanding of potential contributions and risks related to the current mode of using phosphorus on multiple scales (Global TraPs). While taking a global and comprehensive view on the whole phosphorus-supply chain, Global TraPs organizes and integrates multiple transdisciplinary case studies to better answer questions which inform sustainable future phosphorus use. Its major goals are to contribute to four issues central to sustainable resource management: i) long-term management of biogeochemical cycles, in particular the challenge of closing the phosphorus cycle, ii) achieving food security, iii) avoiding environmental pollution and iv) sustainability learning on a global level by transdisciplinary processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  6. The impact of first-generation biofuels on the depletion of the global phosphorus reserve.

    Hein, Lars; Leemans, Rik

    2012-06-01

    The large majority of biofuels to date is "first-generation" biofuel made from agricultural commodities. All first-generation biofuel production systems require phosphorus (P) fertilization. P is an essential plant nutrient, yet global reserves are finite. We argue that committing scarce P to biofuel production involves a trade-off between climate change mitigation and future food production. We examine biofuel production from seven types of feedstock, and find that biofuels at present consume around 2% of the global inorganic P fertilizer production. For all examined biofuels, with the possible exception of sugarcane, the contribution to P depletion exceeds the contribution to mitigating climate change. The relative benefits of biofuels can be increased through enhanced recycling of P, but high increases in P efficiency are required to balance climate change mitigation and P depletion impacts. We conclude that, with the current production systems, the production of first-generation biofuels compromises food production in the future.

  7. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    2011-06-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,671] Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including Teleworkers Reporting to... Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston...

  8. Global water cycle: geochemistry and environment

    Berner, Elizabeth Kay; Berner, Robert A

    1987-01-01

    .... The book provides an integrated approach to global geochemistry and environmental problems and introduces the reader to some fundamental concepts of geology, oceanography, meteorology, environmental...

  9. Drivers of Tree Species Effects on Phosphorus and Cation Cycling in Plantations at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    Russell, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-growing trees in secondary forests and plantations in the humid tropics play an important role in the atmospheric CO2 balance owing to their high rates of carbon sequestration. Because plants require nutrients to sustain high CO2 uptake, differences among tree species in traits related to nutrient uptake, retention and recycling could influence ecosystem-scale carbon cycling. A better understanding of the relationships among plant traits, nutrient and carbon cycling will thus improve ecosystem- to global scale modeling of effects of vegetation change on carbon cycling. In an experimental setting in which state factors were similar among four species of tropical trees situated on an Oxisol in replicated, 25-yr-old, mono-dominant plantations, I evaluated various drivers of aboveground storage of phosphorus (P) and cations, measuring nutrient fluxes in litterfall and fine-root growth and storage in biomass and soil to 1-m depth. Because fine roots increase the capacity to scavenge nutrients already on exchange sites within the soil environment, I hypothesized that P and cation uptake would be correlated directly with fine-root growth. The four tree species in this experiment, Hieronyma alchorneoides, Pentaclethra macroloba, Virola koschnyi, and Vochysia guatemalensis differed significantly in net cation uptake over the first 25 years of growth (P = 0.013, Ca; P >0.0001, Mg, Mn, K, Al, Fe, and Sr). For all cations, aboveground tree biomass was highly correlated with fine-root ingrowth length, with P values >0.0001 for all cations except Ca (P = 0.013). In contrast for P, differences among species were only marginally significant (P = 0.062). Similarly, P in aboveground tree biomass was marginally correlated with fine-root ingrowth (P = 0.068). Neither cation nor P uptake was correlated with measures of available P and cations, organic or total P in surface soil. For P, the less significant correlation with fine-root growth suggests that some other mechanism, such

  10. Globalization of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Rougeau, J.P. [Cogema, Corporate Strategy and International Development, Velizy (France)

    1996-07-01

    The article deals with the increased scale and sophistication of the markets in the nuclear fuel cycle, with the increased vulnerability to outside pressures, and with changes in the decision process.

  11. Exploring Changes in Nitrogen and Phosphorus Retention in Global Rivers in the Twentieth Century

    Beusen, A.; Bouwman, L.; Van Beek, R.; Wisser, D.; Hartmann, J.

    2012-12-01

    Nutrients are transported from land to sea through the continuum formed by components of river basins (soils, groundwater, riparian zones, streams, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs). The hydrology, ecology and biogeochemical processing in each of these components are strongly coupled and result in retention of a significant fraction of the nutrients transported. For analyzing the impact of multiple changes and disturbances at the global scale, we use a distributed approach to describe the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport and retention in all the above river basin components. A hydrological model is used to describe the water flow through the respective compartments. We analyze the changes in retention during the past century (1900-2000), as this period encompasses dramatic increases in human population and economic human activities that have resulted in global changes, such as climate change, land use change, changes in the hydrology by dam construction, irrigation, and consumptive water use. In the period 1900-2000, the global soil N budget surplus (inputs minus withdrawal by plants) for agricultural and natural ecosystems increased from 118 to 202 Tg yr-1, and the global P budget increased from nutrient spiraling concept. We concentrate on the flows of total N and total P, because of the importance of the ratios between these two elements for biogeochemistry and the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Since the various processes in the different compartments in terms of delivery to surface water are poorly known, we present a sensitivity analysis of the modeled river export for a number of key variables.

  12. GEWEX: The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment

    Chahine, M.; Vane, D.

    1994-01-01

    GEWEX is one of the world's largest global change research programs. Its purpose is to observe and understand the hydrological cycle and energy fluxes in the atmosphere, at land surfaces and in the upper oceans.

  13. How Does Globalization Affect the Synchronization of Business Cycles?

    Ayhan Kose; Eswar S Prasad; Marco Terrones

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of rising trade and financial integration on international business cycle comovement among a large group of industrial and developing countries. The results provide at best limited support for the conventional wisdom that globalization has increased the degree of synchronization of business cycles. The evidence that trade and financial integration enhance global spillovers of macroeconomic fluctuations is mostly limited to industrial countries. One striking resu...

  14. Global relationships between phosphorus and chlorophyll-a in oxbow lakes

    Belcon, A. U.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Fritz, S. C.; Baker, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Traditional limnological studies have focused on extant, large and deep bodies of fresh water. For over 70 years a strong positive relationship between sestonic chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and total phosphorus (TP) has been established in temperate lakes with phosphorus generally viewed as the most limiting factor to productivity (Deevey 1940, Schindler 1977). Over the last few decades however, investigations have expanded to include the examination of shallow lakes, particularly in terms of water quality, nutrient content and regime shifts between stable alternate states. Most of these studies, however, have focused on northern, high latitude regions where the lakes are typically postglacial, isolated and fed by small streams. Relatively little work has been done on oxbow lakes which are floodplain lakes and are semi or permanently connected to the river. Oxbow lakes have been shown to serve several important ecologic and economic functions including nurseries for young fish, feeding grounds for top aquatic predators and increasing the biodiversity of the landscape particularly in tropical regions of the world where high precipitation and large rivers have produced thousands of oxbow lakes. In many developing countries oxbow lakes are an important source of revenue through fishing. This study examined the relationship between nutrients and productivity in oxbow lakes globally through a wide-spread literature synthesis. Four hundred and twenty nine oxbow lakes were represented by 205 data points while 285 data points represented 156 non-floodplain lakes. Despite differences in latitude, lake size and climate we find that oxbow lakes globally have a significantly less steep slope in their TP/Chl relationship than non-floodplain lakes do indicating that the same amount of sestonic phosphorus results in lower productivity. Oxbow lakes (TP/Chl): r = 0.7676, slope = 0.7257, Non-floodplain lakes (TP/Chl): r = 0.8096, slope = 1.1309. We theorize that their connection to the

  15. Quasi-dynamic Material Flow Analysis applied to the Austrian Phosphorus cycle

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Rechberger, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the key elements that sustain life on earth and that allow achieving the current high levels of food production worldwide. It is a non-renewable resource, without any existing substitute. Because of its current dissipative use by mankind and to its very slow geochemical cycle, this resource is rapidly depleting and it is strongly connected to the problem of ensuring food security. Moreover P is also associated to important environmental problems. Its extraction often generates hazardous wastes, while its accumulation in water bodies can lead to eutrophication, with consequent severe ecological damages. It is therefore necessary to analyze and understand in detail the system of P, in regard to its use and management, to identify the processes that should be targeted in order to reduce the overall consumption of this resource. This work aims at establishing a generic quasi-dynamic model, which describes the Austrian P-budget and which allows investigating the trends of P use in the past, but also selected future scenarios. Given the importance of P throughout the whole anthropogenic metabolism, the model is based on a comprehensive system that encompasses several economic sectors, from agriculture and animal husbandry to industry, consumption and waste and wastewater treatment. Furthermore it includes the hydrosphere, to assess the losses of P into water bodies, due to the importance of eutrophication problems. The methodology applied is Material Flow Analysis (MFA), which is a systemic approach to assess and balance the stocks and flows of a material within a system defined in space and time. Moreover the model is integrated in the software STAN, a freeware tailor-made for MFA. Particular attention is paid to the characteristics and the quality of the data, in order to include data uncertainty and error propagation in the dynamic balance.

  16. Watch: Current knowledge of the terrestrial Global Water Cycle"

    Harding, R.; Best, M.; Hagemann, S.; Kabat, P.; Tallaksen, L.M.; Warnaars, T.; Wiberg, D.; Weedon, G.P.; Lanen, van H.A.J.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.

    2011-01-01

    Water-related impacts are among the most important consequences of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Changes in the global water cycle will also impact the carbon and nutrient cycles and vegetation patterns. There is already some evidence of increasing severity of floods and droughts and

  17. Global life cycle releases of engineered nanomaterials

    Keller, Arturo A.; McFerran, Suzanne; Lazareva, Anastasiya; Suh, Sangwon

    2013-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are now becoming a significant fraction of the material flows in the global economy. We are already reaping the benefits of improved energy efficiency, material use reduction, and better performance in many existing and new applications that have been enabled by these technological advances. As ENMs pervade the global economy, however, it becomes important to understand their environmental implications. As a first step, we combined ENM market information and material flow modeling to produce the first global assessment of the likely ENM emissions to the environment and landfills. The top ten most produced ENMs by mass were analyzed in a dozen major applications. Emissions during the manufacturing, use, and disposal stages were estimated, including intermediate steps through wastewater treatment plants and waste incineration plants. In 2010, silica, titania, alumina, and iron and zinc oxides dominate the ENM market in terms of mass flow through the global economy, used mostly in coatings/paints/pigments, electronics and optics, cosmetics, energy and environmental applications, and as catalysts. We estimate that 63–91 % of over 260,000–309,000 metric tons of global ENM production in 2010 ended up in landfills, with the balance released into soils (8–28 %), water bodies (0.4–7 %), and atmosphere (0.1–1.5 %). While there are considerable uncertainties in the estimates, the framework for estimating emissions can be easily improved as better data become available. The material flow estimates can be used to quantify emissions at the local level, as inputs for fate and transport models to estimate concentrations in different environmental compartments.

  18. Phosphorus cycling and partitioning in an oligotrophic Everglades wetland ecosystem: A radioisotope tracing study

    Noe, G.B.; Scinto, L.J.; Taylor, J.; Childers, D.L.; Jones, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    1. Our goal was to quantify short-term phosphorus (P) partitioning and identify the ecosystem components important to P cycling in wetland ecosystems. To do this, we added P radiotracer to oligotrophic, P-limited Everglades marshes. 32PO4 was added to the water column in six 1-m2 enclosed mesocosms located in long-hydroperiod marshes of Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park. Ecosystem components were then repeatedly sampled over 18 days. 2. Water column particulates (>0.45 ??m) incorporated radiotracer within the first minute after dosing and stored 95-99% of total water column 32P activity throughout the study. Soluble (<0.45 ??m) 32P in the water column, in contrast, was always <5% of the 32P in surface water. Periphyton, both floating and attached to emergent macrophytes, had the highest specific activity of 32P (Bq g-131P) among the different ecosystem components. Fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates also had high affinity for P, whereas emergent macrophytes, soil and flocculent detrital organic matter (floc) had the lowest specific activities of radiotracer. 3. Within the calcareous, floating periphyton mats, 81% of the initial 32P uptake was associated with Ca, but most of this 32P entered and remained within the organic pool (Ca-associated = 14% of total) after 1 day. In the floc layer, 32P rapidly entered the microbial pool and the labile fraction was negligible for most of the study. 4. Budgeting of the radiotracer indicated that 32P moved from particulates in the water column to periphyton and floc and then to the floc and soil over the course of the 18 days incubations. Floc (35% of total) and soil (27%) dominated 32P storage after 18 days, with floating periphyton (12%) and surface water (10%) holding smaller proportions of total ecosystem 32P. 5. To summarise, oligotrophic Everglades marshes exhibited rapid uptake and retention of labile 32P. Components dominated by microbes appear to control short-term P cycling in this oligotrophic ecosystem.

  19. The carbon cycle and global warming

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Five land-use-based approaches can be used to slow the buildup of CO 2 in the atmosphere: slowing or stopping the loss of existing forests, thus preserving current carbon reservoirs; adding to the planet's vegetative cover through reforestation or other means, thus enlarging living terrestrial carbon reservoirs; increasing the carbon stored in nonliving carbon reservoirs such as agricultural soils; increasing the carbon stored in artificial reservoirs, including timber products; and substituting sustainable biomass energy sources for fossil fuel consumption, thus reducing energy-related carbon emissions. These approaches are all based on the same basic premise: adding to the planet's net carbon stores in vegetative cover or soil, or preventing any net loss, will help moderate global warming by keeping atmospheric CO 2 levels lower than they would otherwise be. Because biotic policy options appear capable of contributing significantly to the mitigation of global warming while also furthering many other public policy objectives, their role deserves careful consideration on a country-by-country basis

  20. GLOBALIZATION VERSUS SEGREGATION - BUSINESS CYCLES SYNCHRONIZATION IN EUROPE

    Sebastian Florian Enea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and business cycles are equally elusive economic phenomena; hence they represent a continuous research possibility and a source of possible inquiries due to their complex nature. The aim of the paper is to explain the synchronization of business cycles using the relationship between the growth rate of the GDP and FDI, considered as percentage of the GDP. The results show that there is no unique European business cycle, but two cores between which countries migrate and stress out the importance of the FDI channel in business cycle transmission. The future research directions will employ fuzzy cluster techniques, used on a larger sample.

  1. Phosphorus cycling in natural and low input soil/plant systems: the role of soil microorganisms

    Tamburini, F.; Bünemann, E. K.; Oberson, A.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2011-12-01

    Availability of phosphorus (as orthophosphate, Pi) limits biological production in many terrestrial ecosystems. During the first phase of soil development, weathering of minerals and leaching of Pi are the processes controlling Pi concentrations in the soil solution, while in mature soils, Pi is made available by desorption of mineral Pi and mineralization of organic compounds. In agricultural soils additional Pi is supplied by fertilization, either with mineral P and/or organic inputs (animal manure or plant residues). Soil microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) mediate several processes, which are central to the availability of Pi to plants. They play a role in the initial release of Pi from the mineral phase, and through extracellular phosphatase enzymes, they decompose and mineralize organic compounds, releasing Pi. On the other hand, microbial immobilization and internal turnover of Pi can decrease the soil available Pi pool, competing in this way with plants. Using radio- and stable isotopic approaches, we show evidence from different soil/plant systems which points to the central role of the microbial activity. In the presented case studies, P contained in the soil microbial biomass is a larger pool than available Pi. In a soil chronosequence after deglaciation, stable isotopes of oxygen associated to phosphate showed that even in the youngest soils microbial activity highly impacted the isotopic signature of available Pi. These results suggested that microorganisms were rapidly taking up and cycling Pi, using it to sustain their community. Microbial P turnover time was faster in the young (about 20 days) than in older soils (about 120 days), reflecting a different functioning of the microbial community. Microbial community crashes, caused by drying/rewetting and freezing/thawing cycles, were most likely responsible for microbial P release to the available P pool. In grassland fertilization experiments with mineral NK and NPK amendments, microbial P turnover

  2. Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in sequencing batch reactors: effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen concentration and influent particulate matter.

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Kayaalp, Ahmet S; Cheng, Ka Yu; Wylie, Jason; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2013-01-01

    Removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from municipal wastewaters is required to mitigate eutrophication of receiving water bodies. While most treatment plants achieve good N removal using influent carbon (C), the use of influent C to facilitate enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is poorly explored. A number of operational parameters can facilitate optimum use of influent C and this study investigated the effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during aerobic period and influent solids on biological P and N removal in sequencing batch reactors (SRBs) using municipal wastewaters. Increasing cycle length from 3 to 6 h increased P removal efficiency, which was attributed to larger portion of N being removed via nitrite pathway and more biodegradable organic C becoming available for EBPR. Further increasing cycle length from 6 to 8 h decreased P removal efficiencies as the demand for biodegradable organic C for denitrification increased as a result of complete nitrification. Decreasing DO concentration in the aerobic period from 2 to 0.8 mg L(-1) increased P removal efficiency but decreased nitrification rates possibly due to oxygen limitation. Further, sedimented wastewater was proved to be a better influent stream than non-sedimented wastewater possibility due to the detrimental effect of particulate matter on biological nutrient removal.

  3. Efficiency of SBR Process with a Six Sequence Aerobic-Anaerobic Cycle for Phosphorus and Organic Material Removal from Municipal Wastewater

    Nadiya Shahandeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various chemical, physical and biologic treatment methods are being used to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR is a modified activated sludge process that removes phosphorus and organic material from sanitary wastewater, biologically. Methods: This study was conducted in 2016.The performance of an aerobic-anaerobic SBR pilot device, located at Ahwaz West Wastewater Treatment Plant, Ahwaz, southern Iran in phosphorus and organic material removal was evaluated to determine the effect of the aerobic-anaerobic step time on the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal, the effect of changing the sequence of steps and the effect of time ratio on phosphorus removal efficiency. A reactor of 8 L was used. Influent contained 397 and 10.7 mg/l COD and phosphorus, respectively. The pilot plant started with a 24 h cycle including four cycles of 6 h, as follows: 1- Loading (15 min, 2-Anaerobic (2 h-Aerobic (2 h, 3- Settling (1 h, Idleness (30 min and 5- decant (15 min. Results: After reaching steady conditions (6 months, Removal percentages of phosphorus, BOD5, COD, and TSS in The SBR over a period of 6 months was 79%, 86%, 89% and 83%, respectively. Conclusion: Result of this study can be used for designing and optimum operation of sequencing batch reactors.

  4. Interactions between plants, litter and microbes in cycling of nitrogen and phosphorus in the arctic

    Jonasson, Sven Evert; Castro, Jorge; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    but increased phosphorus (P) mineralization, while litter addition decreased N and increased P mineralization but without any effect on plant and microbial N and P sequestration. Incubations of soils with plants increased N mobilization to the soil inorganic plus plant pools several-fold as compared to the net...

  5. Herbivory and the cycling of nitrogen and phosphorus in isolated California oak trees

    David Y. Hollinger

    1986-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus flow in litterfall and throughfall were studied in two California Quercus species (the evergreen Q.agrifolia and deciduous Q. lobata) before, during, and after an outbreak of the California oak moth, Phryganidia californica. All of the foliage of both oak species was...

  6. Phosphorus cycling and burial in sediments of a seasonally hypoxic marine basin

    Sulu-Gambari, F; Hagens, M.; Behrends, T; Seitaj, D.; Meysman, F.J.R.; Middelburg, J.; Slomp, C.P.

    2018-01-01

    Recycling of phosphorus (P) from sediments contributes to the development of bottom-water hypoxia in many coastal systems. Here, we present results of a year-long assessment of P dynamics in sediments of a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands) in 2012.

  7. Sedimentary iron–phosphorus cycling under contrasting redox conditions in a eutrophic estuary

    Kraal, Peter; Burton, Edward D.; Rose, Andrew L.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Lockhart, Robert S.; Grice, Kliti; Bush, Richard T.; Tan, Eileen; Webb, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting nutrient within freshwater and estuarine systems, thus excess inputs of P from anthropogenic activities (dominantly agriculture) can induce eutrophication in receiving water bodies. The sequestration of P within estuarine sediments is controlled by sorption and

  8. Has globalization increased the synchronicity of international business cycles?

    Berge, Travis

    2012-01-01

    The past 30 years have been witness to an inexorable change in the degree to which economies are connected internationally. At the same time, the 2007-2008 recession was the first ‘global recession’ in decades. This article explores how international trade and cross-border holdings financial assets impact the synchronization of business cycles internationally. The paper begins by producing chronologies of business cycle turning points for a group of 32 major economies covering 40 years of his...

  9. Climate Change and Expected Impacts on the Global Water Cycle

    Rind, David; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    How the elements of the global hydrologic cycle may respond to climate change is reviewed, first from a discussion of the physical sensitivity of these elements to changes in temperature, and then from a comparison of observations of hydrologic changes over the past 100 million years. Observations of current changes in the hydrologic cycle are then compared with projected future changes given the prospect of global warming. It is shown that some of the projections come close to matching the estimated hydrologic changes that occurred long ago when the earth was very warm.

  10. The role of urbanization in the global carbon cycle

    Galina eChurkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas account for more than 70% of CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. Urban expansion in tropics is responsible for 5% of the annual emissions from land use change. Here I show that the effect of urbanization on the global carbon cycle extends beyond these emissions. I quantify the contribution of urbanization to the major carbon fluxes and pools globally and identify gaps crucial for predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the future. Urban residents currently control ~22 (12-40 % of the land carbon uptake (112 PgC/yr and ~24 (15-39 % of the carbon emissions (117 PgC/yr from land globally. Urbanization resulted in the creation of new carbon pools on land such as buildings (~6.7 PgC and landfills (~30 PgC. Together these pools store 1.6 (±0.3 % of the total vegetation and soil carbon pools globally. The creation and maintenance of these new pools has been associated with high emissions of CO2, which are currently better understood than the processes associated with the dynamics of these pools and accompanying uptake of carbon. Predictions of the future trajectories of the global carbon cycle will require a much better understanding of how urban development affects the carbon cycle over the long term.

  11. A global analysis of soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems

    Xu, Xiaofeng [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbes play a pivotal role in regulating land-atmosphere interactions; the soil microbial biomass carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and C:N:P stoichiometry are important regulators for soil biogeochemical processes; however, the current knowledge on magnitude, stoichiometry, storage, and spatial distribution of global soil microbial biomass C, N, and P is limited. In this study, 3087 pairs of data points were retrieved from 281 published papers and further used to summarize the magnitudes and stoichiometries of C, N, and P in soils and soil microbial biomass at global- and biome-levels. Finally, global stock and spatial distribution of microbial biomass C and N in 0-30 cm and 0-100 cm soil profiles were estimated. The results show that C, N, and P in soils and soil microbial biomass vary substantially across biomes; the fractions of soil nutrient C, N, and P in soil microbial biomass are 1.6% in a 95% confidence interval of (1.5%-1.6%), 2.9% in a 95% confidence interval of (2.8%-3.0%), and 4.4% in a 95% confidence interval of (3.9%-5.0%), respectively. The best estimates of C:N:P stoichiometries for soil nutrients and soil microbial biomass are 153:11:1, and 47:6:1, respectively, at global scale, and they vary in a wide range among biomes. Vertical distribution of soil microbial biomass follows the distribution of roots up to 1 m depth. The global stock of soil microbial biomass C and N were estimated to be 15.2 Pg C and 2.3 Pg N in the 0-30 cm soil profiles, and 21.2 Pg C and 3.2 Pg N in the 0-100 cm soil profiles. We did not estimate P in soil microbial biomass due to data shortage and insignificant correlation with soil total P and climate variables. The spatial patterns of soil microbial biomass C and N were consistent with those of soil organic C and total N, i.e. high density in northern high latitude, and low density in low latitudes and southern hemisphere.

  12. Weak ionization of the global ionosphere in solar cycle 24

    Y. Q. Hao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following prolonged and extremely quiet solar activity from 2008 to 2009, the 24th solar cycle started slowly. It has been almost 5 years since then. The measurement of ionospheric critical frequency (foF2 shows the fact that solar activity has been significantly lower in the first half of cycle 24, compared to the average levels of cycles 19 to 23; the data of global average total electron content (TEC confirm that the global ionosphere around the cycle 24 peak is much more weakly ionized, in contrast to cycle 23. The weak ionization has been more notable since the year 2012, when both the ionosphere and solar activity were expected to be approaching their maximum level. The undersupply of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV irradiance somewhat continues after the 2008–2009 minimum, and is considered to be the main cause of the weak ionization. It further implies that the thermosphere and ionosphere in the first solar cycle of this millennium would probably differ from what we have learned from the previous cycles of the space age.

  13. Did large animals play an important role in global biogeochemical cycling in the past?

    Doughty, C.

    2014-12-01

    In the late Pleistocene (~50-10,000 years ago), ninety-seven genera of large animals (>44kg) (megafauna) went extinct, concentrated in the Americas and Australia. The loss of megafauna had major effects on ecosystem structure, seed dispersal and land surface albedo. However, the impact of this dramatic extinction on ecosystem nutrient biogeochemistry, through the lateral transport of dung and bodies, has never been explored. Here we explore these nutrient impacts using a novel mathematical framework that analyses this lateral transport as a diffusion-like process and demonstrates that large animals play a disproportionately large role in the horizontal transfer of nutrients across landscapes. For example, we estimate that the extinction of the Amazonian megafauna led to a >98% reduction in the lateral transfer flux of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P) with similar, though less extreme, decreases in all continents outside of Africa. This resulted in strong decreases in phosphorus availability in Eastern Amazonia away from fertile floodplains, a decline which may still be ongoing, and current P limitation in the Amazon basin may be partially a relic of an ecosystem without the functional connectedness it once had. More broadly, the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions resulted in major and ongoing disruptions to terrestrial biogeochemical cycling at continental scales and increased nutrient heterogeneity globally.

  14. Hydrologic connectivity to streams increases nitrogen and phosphorus inputs and cycling in soils of created and natural floodplain wetlands

    Wolf, Kristin L.; Noe, Gregory; Ahn, Changwoo

    2013-01-01

    Greater connectivity to stream surface water may result in greater inputs of allochthonous nutrients that could stimulate internal nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling in natural, restored, and created riparian wetlands. This study investigated the effects of hydrologic connectivity to stream water on soil nutrient fluxes in plots (n = 20) located among four created and two natural freshwater wetlands of varying hydrology in the Piedmont physiographic province of Virginia. Surface water was slightly deeper; hydrologic inputs of sediment, sediment-N, and ammonium were greater; and soil net ammonification, N mineralization, and N turnover were greater in plots with stream water classified as their primary water source compared with plots with precipitation or groundwater as their primary water source. Soil water-filled pore space, inputs of nitrate, and soil net nitrification, P mineralization, and denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) were similar among plots. Soil ammonification, N mineralization, and N turnover rates increased with the loading rate of ammonium to the soil surface. Phosphorus mineralization and ammonification also increased with sedimentation and sediment-N loading rate. Nitrification flux and DEA were positively associated in these wetlands. In conclusion, hydrologic connectivity to stream water increased allochthonous inputs that stimulated soil N and P cycling and that likely led to greater retention of sediment and nutrients in created and natural wetlands. Our findings suggest that wetland creation and restoration projects should be designed to allow connectivity with stream water if the goal is to optimize the function of water quality improvement in a watershed.

  15. Methods for global sensitivity analysis in life cycle assessment

    Groen, Evelyne A.; Bokkers, Eddy; Heijungs, Reinout; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Input parameters required to quantify environmental impact in life cycle assessment (LCA) can be uncertain due to e.g. temporal variability or unknowns about the true value of emission factors. Uncertainty of environmental impact can be analysed by means of a global sensitivity analysis to

  16. Modeling of the Global Water Cycle - Analytical Models

    Yongqiang Liu; Roni Avissar

    2005-01-01

    Both numerical and analytical models of coupled atmosphere and its underlying ground components (land, ocean, ice) are useful tools for modeling the global and regional water cycle. Unlike complex three-dimensional climate models, which need very large computing resources and involve a large number of complicated interactions often difficult to interpret, analytical...

  17. Advances in Global Water Cycle Science Made Possible by Global Precipitation Mission (GPM)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Within this decade the internationally sponsored Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams from very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and on to blends of the former datastreams with other less-high caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of NASA's role in global water cycle science and its own Global Water & Energy Cycle (GWEC) program, GPM is the centerpiece mission for improving our understanding of the global water cycle from a space-based measurement perspective. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in global temperature. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination, This paper presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Mission and how its datasets can be used in a set of quantitative tests within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine comprehensively whether substantive rate changes do accompany perturbations in global temperatures and how such rate changes manifest themselves in both water storage and water flux transport processes.

  18. Self-Standing Polypyrrole/Black Phosphorus Laminated Film: Promising Electrode for Flexible Supercapacitor with Enhanced Capacitance and Cycling Stability.

    Luo, Shaojuan; Zhao, Jinlai; Zou, Jifei; He, Zhiliang; Xu, Changwen; Liu, Fuwei; Huang, Yang; Dong, Lei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Han

    2018-01-31

    With the rapid development of portable electronics, solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) are considered as one of the promising energy devices in powering electronics because of their intrinsic advantages. Polypyrrole (PPy) is an ideal electrode material in constructing flexible SCs owing to its high electrochemical activity and inherent flexibility, although its relatively low capacitance and poor cycling stability are still worthy of improvement. Herein, through the innovative introduction of black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets, we developed a laminated PPy/BP self-standing film with enhanced capacitance and cycling stability via a facile one-step electrochemical deposition method. The film exhibits a high capacitance of 497.5 F g -1 (551.7 F cm -3 ) and outstanding cycling stability of 10 000 charging/discharging cycles, thanks to BP nanosheets inducing laminated assembly which hinder dense and disordered stacking of PPy during electrodeposition, consequently providing a precise pathway for ion diffusion and electron transport together with alleviation of the structural deterioration during charge/discharge. The flexible SC fabricated by laminated films delivers a high capacitance of 452.8 F g -1 (7.7 F cm -3 ) besides its remarkable mechanical flexibility and cycling stability. Our facile strategy paves the way to improve the electrochemical performance of PPy-based SC that could serve as promising flexible energy device for portable electronics.

  19. Satellite Global and Hemispheric Lower Tropospheric Temperature Annual Temperature Cycle

    Michael A. Brunke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of the Earth’s annual cycle and its trends have utilized surface temperature data sets. Here we introduce a new analysis of the global and hemispheric annual cycle using a satellite remote sensing derived data set during the period 1979–2009, as determined from the lower tropospheric (LT channel of the MSU satellite. While the surface annual cycle is tied directly to the heating and cooling of the land areas, the tropospheric annual cycle involves additionally the gain or loss of heat between the surface and atmosphere. The peak in the global tropospheric temperature in the 30 year period occurs on 10 July and the minimum on 9 February in response to the larger land mass in the Northern Hemisphere. The actual dates of the hemispheric maxima and minima are a complex function of many variables which can change from year to year thereby altering these dates.Here we examine the time of occurrence of the global and hemispheric maxima and minima lower tropospheric temperatures, the values of the annual maxima and minima, and the slopes and significance of the changes in these metrics.  The statistically significant trends are all relatively small. The values of the global annual maximum and minimum showed a small, but significant trend. Northern and Southern Hemisphere maxima and minima show a slight trend toward occurring later in the year. Most recent analyses of trends in the global annual cycle using observed surface data have indicated a trend toward earlier maxima and minima.

  20. Advances in Understanding Global Water Cycle with Advent of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Within this decade the internationally organized Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams beginning with very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and then on to blends of the former datastreams with additional lower-caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of the now emerging global water & energy cycle (GWEC) programs of a number of research agencies throughout the world, GPM serves as a centerpiece space mission for improving our understanding of the global water cycle from a global measurement perspective. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in climate, e.g., climate warming. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination. This paper presents an overview of the GPM Mission and how its observations can be used within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine whether a given perturbation in precipitation is indicative of an actual rate change in the global water cycle, consistent with required responses in water storage and/or water flux transport processes, or whether it is the natural variability of a fixed rate cycle.

  1. A Compilation of Global Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Data

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the concentrations of soil microbial biomass carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total...

  2. A Global Database of Soil Phosphorus Compiled from Studies Using Hedley Fractionation

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides concentrations of soil phosphorus (P) compiled from the peer-reviewed literature that cited the Hedley fractionation method (Hedley...

  3. A Global Database of Soil Phosphorus Compiled from Studies Using Hedley Fractionation

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides concentrations of soil phosphorus (P) compiled from the peer-reviewed literature that cited the Hedley fractionation method (Hedley and...

  4. INTRODUCTION: Anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle

    Allan, Richard P.; Liepert, Beate G.

    2010-06-01

    The atmospheric branch of the water cycle, although containing just a tiny fraction of the Earth's total water reserves, presents a crucial interface between the physical climate (such as large-scale rainfall patterns) and the ecosystems upon which human societies ultimately depend. Because of the central importance of water in the Earth system, the question of how the water cycle is changing, and how it may alter in future as a result of anthropogenic changes, present one of the greatest challenges of this century. The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Climate Change and Water (Bates et al 2008) highlighted the increasingly strong evidence of change in the global water cycle and associated environmental consequences. It is of critical importance to climate prediction and adaptation strategies that key processes in the atmospheric water cycle are precisely understood and determined, from evaporation at the surface of the ocean, transport by the atmosphere, condensation as cloud and eventual precipitation, and run-off through rivers following interaction with the land surface, sub-surface, ice, snow and vegetation. The purpose of this special focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle is to consolidate the recent substantial advances in understanding past, present and future changes in the global water cycle through evidence built upon theoretical understanding, backed up by observations and borne out by climate model simulations. Thermodynamic rises in water vapour provide a central constraint, as discussed in a guest editorial by Bengtsson (2010). Theoretical implications of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation are presented by O'Gorman and Muller (2010) and with reference to a simple model (Sherwood 2010) while observed humidity changes confirm these anticipated responses at the land and ocean surface (Willett et al 2008). Rises in low-level moisture are thought to fuel an

  5. Ecological Impact on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling of a Widespread Fast-growing Leguminous Tropical Forest Plantation Tree Species, Acacia mangium

    Shigehiro Ishizuka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the major pathways of N input to forest ecosystems, enriching N availability, particularly in lowland tropics. Recently there is growing concern regarding the wide areas of fast-growing leguminous plantations that could alter global N2O emissions. Here, we highlight substantially different N and phosphorus utilization and cycling at a plantation of Acacia mangium, which is N2-fixing and one of the major plantation species in tropical/subtropical Asia. The litterfall, fresh leaf quality and fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium were compared to those of non-N2-fixing Swietenia macrophylla and coniferous Araucaria cunninghamii in wet tropical climates in Borneo, Malaysia. The N and P concentrations of the A. mangium fresh leaves were higher than those of the other two species, whereas the P concentration in the leaf-litterfall of A. mangium was less than half that of the others; in contrast the N concentration was higher. The N:P ratio in the A. mangium leaf was markedly increased from fresh-leaf (29 to leaf-litterfall (81. Although the N flux in the total litterfall at the A. mangium plantation was large, the fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium significantly increased by applying both N and P. In conclusion, large quantities of N were accumulated and returned to the forest floor in A. mangium plantation, while its P resorption capacity was efficient. Such large N cycling and restricted P cycling in wide areas of monoculture A. mangium plantations may alter N and P cycling and their balance in the organic layer and soil on a stand level.

  6. Modeling of the global carbon cycle - isotopic data requirements

    Ciais, P.

    1994-01-01

    Isotopes are powerful tools to constrain carbon cycle models. For example, the combinations of the CO 2 and the 13 C budget allows to calculate the net-carbon fluxes between atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere. Observations of natural and bomb-produced radiocarbon allow to estimate gross carbon exchange fluxes between different reservoirs and to deduce time scales of carbon overturning in important reservoirs. 18 O in CO 2 is potentially a tool to make the deconvolution of C fluxes within the land biosphere (assimilation vs respirations). The scope of this article is to identify gaps in our present knowledge about isotopes in the light of their use as constraint for the global carbon cycle. In the following we will present a list of some future data requirements for carbon cycle models. (authors)

  7. Hydrologic connectivity to streams increases nitrogen and phosphorus inputs and cycling in soils of created and natural floodplain wetlands.

    Wolf, Kristin L; Noe, Gregory B; Ahn, Changwoo

    2013-07-01

    Greater connectivity to stream surface water may result in greater inputs of allochthonous nutrients that could stimulate internal nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling in natural, restored, and created riparian wetlands. This study investigated the effects of hydrologic connectivity to stream water on soil nutrient fluxes in plots ( = 20) located among four created and two natural freshwater wetlands of varying hydrology in the Piedmont physiographic province of Virginia. Surface water was slightly deeper; hydrologic inputs of sediment, sediment-N, and ammonium were greater; and soil net ammonification, N mineralization, and N turnover were greater in plots with stream water classified as their primary water source compared with plots with precipitation or groundwater as their primary water source. Soil water-filled pore space, inputs of nitrate, and soil net nitrification, P mineralization, and denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) were similar among plots. Soil ammonification, N mineralization, and N turnover rates increased with the loading rate of ammonium to the soil surface. Phosphorus mineralization and ammonification also increased with sedimentation and sediment-N loading rate. Nitrification flux and DEA were positively associated in these wetlands. In conclusion, hydrologic connectivity to stream water increased allochthonous inputs that stimulated soil N and P cycling and that likely led to greater retention of sediment and nutrients in created and natural wetlands. Our findings suggest that wetland creation and restoration projects should be designed to allow connectivity with stream water if the goal is to optimize the function of water quality improvement in a watershed. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Separating decadal global water cycle variability from sea level rise.

    Hamlington, B D; Reager, J T; Lo, M-H; Karnauskas, K B; Leben, R R

    2017-04-20

    Under a warming climate, amplification of the water cycle and changes in precipitation patterns over land are expected to occur, subsequently impacting the terrestrial water balance. On global scales, such changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) will be reflected in the water contained in the ocean and can manifest as global sea level variations. Naturally occurring climate-driven TWS variability can temporarily obscure the long-term trend in sea level rise, in addition to modulating the impacts of sea level rise through natural periodic undulation in regional and global sea level. The internal variability of the global water cycle, therefore, confounds both the detection and attribution of sea level rise. Here, we use a suite of observations to quantify and map the contribution of TWS variability to sea level variability on decadal timescales. In particular, we find that decadal sea level variability centered in the Pacific Ocean is closely tied to low frequency variability of TWS in key areas across the globe. The unambiguous identification and clean separation of this component of variability is the missing step in uncovering the anthropogenic trend in sea level and understanding the potential for low-frequency modulation of future TWS impacts including flooding and drought.

  9. Beyond the Fe-P-redox connection: preferential regeneration of phosphorus from organic matter as a key control on Baltic Sea nutrient cycles

    Jilbert, T.; Slomp, C.P.; Gustafsson, B.G.; Boer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of regeneration and burial of phosphorus (P) in the Baltic Sea are strongly dependent on redox conditions. Redox varies spatially along water depth gradients and temporally in response to the seasonal cycle and multidecadal hydrographic variability. Alongside the welldocumented link

  10. Beyond the Fe-P-redox connection: preferential regeneration of phosphorus from organic matter as a key control on Baltic Sea nutriënt cycles

    Jilbert, T.; Slomp, C.P.; Gustafsson, B.G.; Boer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of regeneration and burial of phosphorus (P) in the Baltic Sea are strongly dependent on redox conditions. Redox varies spatially along water depth gradients and temporally in response to the seasonal cycle and multidecadal hydrographic variability. Alongside the well-documented link

  11. Soil organic matter dynamics and the global carbon cycle

    Post, W.M.; Emanuel, W.R.; King, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    The large size and potentially long residence time of the soil organic matter pool make it an important component of the global carbon cycle. Net terrestrial primary production of about 60 Pg C·yr -1 is, over a several-year period of time, balanced by an equivalent flux of litter production and subsequent decomposition of detritus and soil organic matter. We will review many of the major factors that influence soil organic matter dynamics that need to be explicitly considered in development of global estimates of carbon turnover in the world's soils. We will also discuss current decomposition models that are general enough to be used to develop a representation of global soil organic matter dynamics

  12. Terrestrial nitrogen-carbon cycle interactions at the global scale.

    Zaehle, S

    2013-07-05

    Interactions between the terrestrial nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycles shape the response of ecosystems to global change. However, the global distribution of nitrogen availability and its importance in global biogeochemistry and biogeochemical interactions with the climate system remain uncertain. Based on projections of a terrestrial biosphere model scaling ecological understanding of nitrogen-carbon cycle interactions to global scales, anthropogenic nitrogen additions since 1860 are estimated to have enriched the terrestrial biosphere by 1.3 Pg N, supporting the sequestration of 11.2 Pg C. Over the same time period, CO2 fertilization has increased terrestrial carbon storage by 134.0 Pg C, increasing the terrestrial nitrogen stock by 1.2 Pg N. In 2001-2010, terrestrial ecosystems sequestered an estimated total of 27 Tg N yr(-1) (1.9 Pg C yr(-1)), of which 10 Tg N yr(-1) (0.2 Pg C yr(-1)) are due to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen availability already limits terrestrial carbon sequestration in the boreal and temperate zone, and will constrain future carbon sequestration in response to CO2 fertilization (regionally by up to 70% compared with an estimate without considering nitrogen-carbon interactions). This reduced terrestrial carbon uptake will probably dominate the role of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle in the climate system, as it accelerates the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. However, increases of N2O emissions owing to anthropogenic nitrogen and climate change (at a rate of approx. 0.5 Tg N yr(-1) per 1°C degree climate warming) will add an important long-term climate forcing.

  13. Biogenic sulfur compounds and the global sulfur cycle

    Aneja, V.P.; Aneja, A.P.; Adams, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Field measurements of biogenic sulfur compounds shows a great variation in concentrations and emission rates for H 2 S, DMS, CS 2 and COS. Measurements by the chamber method and estimates from micrometeorological sampling are employed to determine the earth-atmosphere flux of these gases. Much of the variation can be attributed to differences of climate and surface conditions, with marshes being a large source of biogenic sulfur (mean contribution 4 x 10 to the 6th ton/year maximum contribution 142 x 10 to the 6th ton/year). Considering that the estimated biogenic contribution needed to balance the global sulfur cycle ranges from 40- 230 x 10 to the 6th tons/year, the mean values are not sufficient to balance this cycle. Further experimental investigations are suggested in order to characterize the biogenic processes adequately

  14. East Asian Financial Cycles: Asian vs. Global Financial Crises

    Akira Kohsaka; Jun-ichi Shinkai

    2014-01-01

    We examine the role of financial shocks in business cycles in general and in financial crises in particular in East Asia (Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand) since the 1990s. Estimating a Financial Conditions Index, we found that financial shocks explain most of business downturns in all the economies in the Asian Financial Crisis (AFC) in 1997-98, but that the effects of financial shocks are diverse across economies in the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) in 2008-09. In the GFC, the financ...

  15. A Seamless Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction

    Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Fisher, C. K.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ('From Observations to Decisions') recognizes that 'water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity', and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the development of a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions

  16. GEWEX - The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment

    Chahine, Moustafa T.

    1992-01-01

    GEWEX, which is part of the World Climate Research Program, has as its goal an order-of-magnitude improvement in the ability to model global precipitation and evaporation and furnish an accurate assessment of the sensitivity of atmospheric radiation and clouds. Attention will also be given to the response of the hydrological cycle and water resources to climate change. GEWEX employs a single program to coordinate all aspects of climatology from model development to the deployment and operation of observational systems. GEWEX will operate over the next two decades.

  17. Closing the life cycle of phosphorus in an urban food system: the case Almere (NL)

    Dijk, van W.; Jansma, J.E.; Sukkel, W.; Reuler, van H.; Vermeulen, T.; Visser, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    In order to explore the possibilities of a local food system and its effects on the nutrient cycle, a desk study was executed for the urban region Almere, a Dutch city located in the Flevo Polder with about 200,000 inhabitants. This desk study takes this urban perspective as starting point in the

  18. Soil phosphorus cycling in tropical soils: An ultisol and oxisol perspective

    Reed, Sasha C.; Wood, Tana E

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is essential for life. It is the backbone of our DNA, provides energy for biological reactions, and is an integral component of cell membranes. As such, it is no surprise that P availability plays a strong role in regulating ecosystem structure and function (Wassen et al. 2005, Elser et al. 2007, Condit et al. 2013), and in determining our capacity to grow food for a burgeoning human population (Sharpley et al. 1997, Sims and Sharpley 2005, Lal 2009). Concerns that P supplies are insufficient to meet our species’ growing demands are on the rise (Richardson and Simpson 2011) and scientific and media outlets increasingly discuss P as an element worthy of our attention and concern (e.g., Cordell et al. 2009, Lougheed 2011, Edixhoven et al. 2013, Ulrich et al. 2013). Indeed, a number of groups are calling for the explicit stewardship of our planet’s P stocks (Schipper 2014, Withers et al. 2015). Yet a focus on P as a vital and limited resource is not new in the tropics, where an abundance of soils characterized by low P has resulted in a substantial, longstanding reliance on P inputs for tropical ecosystem function in both unmanaged and agriculture settings (Table 1, Figure 2; Sanchez 1976, Swap et al. 1992, Chadwick et al. 1999, Okin et al. 2004, Lal 2009). Indeed, there is a long history of cultivation in the tropics, where for thousands of years land management practices have included methods that effectively modify P availability for plant growth (e.g., Giardina et al. 2000, Lawrence and Schlesinger 2001, Vitousek et al. 2004, Lewis et al. 2015). Nevertheless, low soil fertility in tropical systems where fertilizer is scarce has enduringly been recognized as a major source of hunger and starvation (Sanchez and Buol 1975, Sanchez 2002, Sanchez and Swaminathan 2005).

  19. Diagnosing phosphorus limitations in natural terrestrial ecosystems in carbon cycle models

    Sun, Yan; Peng, Shushi; Goll, Daniel S.; Ciais, Philippe; Guenet, Bertrand; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Hinsinger, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A.; Peñuelas, Josep; Piao, Shilong; Poulter, Benjamin; Violette, Aurélie; Yang, Xiaojuan; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Most of the Earth System Models (ESMs) project increases in net primary productivity (NPP) and terrestrial carbon (C) storage during the 21st century. Despite empirical evidence that limited availability of phosphorus (P) may limit the response of NPP to increasing atmospheric CO2, none of the ESMs used in the previous Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment accounted for P limitation. We diagnosed from ESM simulations the amount of P need to support increases in carbon uptake by natural ecosystems using two approaches: the demand derived from (1) changes in C stocks and (2) changes in NPP. The C stock-based additional P demand was estimated to range between -31 and 193 Tg P and between -89 and 262 Tg P for Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and RCP8.5, respectively, with negative values indicating a P surplus. The NPP-based demand, which takes ecosystem P recycling into account, results in a significantly higher P demand of 648-1606 Tg P for RCP2.6 and 924-2110 Tg P for RCP8.5. We found that the P demand is sensitive to the turnover of P in decomposing plant material, explaining the large differences between the NPP-based demand and C stock-based demand. The discrepancy between diagnosed P demand and actual P availability (potential P deficit) depends mainly on the assumptions about availability of the different soil P forms. Overall, future P limitation strongly depends on both soil P availability and P recycling on ecosystem scale.

  20. The oceanic cycle and global atmospheric budget of carbonyl sulfide

    Weiss, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    A significant portion of stratospheric air chemistry is influenced by the existence of carbonyl sulfide (COS). This ubiquitous sulfur gas represents a major source of sulfur to the stratosphere where it is converted to sulfuric acid aerosol particles. Stratospheric aerosols are climatically important because they scatter incoming solar radiation back to space and are able to increase the catalytic destruction of ozone through gas phase reactions on particle surfaces. COS is primarily formed at the surface of the earth, in both marine and terrestrial environments, and is strongly linked to natural biological processes. However, many gaps in the understanding of the global COS cycle still exist, which has led to a global atmospheric budget that is out of balance by a factor of two or more, and a lack of understanding of how human activity has affected the cycling of this gas. The goal of this study was to focus on COS in the marine environment by investigating production/destruction mechanisms and recalculating the ocean-atmosphere flux.

  1. Closing the phosphorus cycle in a food system: insights from a modelling exercise.

    van Kernebeek, H R J; Oosting, S J; van Ittersum, M K; Ripoll-Bosch, R; de Boer, I J M

    2018-05-21

    Mineral phosphorus (P) used to fertilise crops is derived from phosphate rock, which is a finite resource. Preventing and recycling mineral P waste in the food system, therefore, are essential to sustain future food security and long-term availability of mineral P. The aim of our modelling exercise was to assess the potential of preventing and recycling P waste in a food system, in order to reduce the dependency on phosphate rock. To this end, we modelled a hypothetical food system designed to produce sufficient food for a fixed population with a minimum input requirement of mineral P. This model included representative crop and animal production systems, and was parameterised using data from the Netherlands. We assumed no import or export of feed and food. We furthermore assumed small P soil losses and no net P accumulation in soils, which is typical for northwest European conditions. We first assessed the minimum P requirement in a baseline situation, that is 42% of crop waste is recycled, and humans derived 60% of their dietary protein from animals (PA). Results showed that about 60% of the P waste in this food system resulted from wasting P in human excreta. We subsequently evaluated P input for alternative situations to assess the (combined) effect of: (1) preventing waste of crop and animal products, (2) fully recycling waste of crop products, (3) fully recycling waste of animal products and (4) fully recycling human excreta and industrial processing water. Recycling of human excreta showed most potential to reduce P waste from the food system, followed by prevention and finally recycling of agricultural waste. Fully recycling P could reduce mineral P input by 90%. Finally, for each situation, we studied the impact of consumption of PA in the human diet from 0% to 80%. The optimal amount of animal protein in the diet depended on whether P waste from animal products was prevented or fully recycled: if it was, then a small amount of animal protein in the human

  2. Individual and combined effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial phosphorus pools: A meta-analysis.

    Yue, Kai; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Tan, Bo; Xu, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Li; Ni, Xiangyin; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Fuzhong

    2018-07-15

    Human activity-induced global change drivers have dramatically changed terrestrial phosphorus (P) dynamics. However, our understanding of the interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial P pools remains elusive, limiting their incorporation into ecological and biogeochemical models. We conducted a meta-analysis using 1751 observations extracted from 283 published articles to evaluate the individual, combined, and interactive effects of elevated CO 2 , warming, N addition, P addition, increased rainfall, and drought on P pools of plant (at both single-plant and plant-community levels), soil and microbial biomass. Our results suggested that (1) terrestrial P pools showed the most sensitive responses to the individual effects of warming and P addition; (2) P pools were consistently stimulated by P addition alone or in combination with simultaneous N addition; (3) environmental and experimental setting factors such as ecosystem type, climate, and latitude could significantly influence both the individual and combined effects; and (4) the interactive effects of two-driver pairs across multiple global change drivers are more likely to be additive rather than synergistic or antagonistic. Our findings highlighting the importance of additive interactive effects among multiple global change drivers on terrestrial P pools would be useful for incorporating P as controls on ecological processes such as photosynthesis and plant growth into ecosystem models used to analyze effects of multiple drivers under future global change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Iron control on global productivity: an efficient inverse model of the ocean's coupled phosphate and iron cycles.

    Pasquier, B.; Holzer, M.; Frants, M.

    2016-02-01

    We construct a data-constrained mechanistic inverse model of the ocean's coupled phosphorus and iron cycles. The nutrient cycling is embedded in a data-assimilated steady global circulation. Biological nutrient uptake is parameterized in terms of nutrient, light, and temperature limitations on growth for two classes of phytoplankton that are not transported explicitly. A matrix formulation of the discretized nutrient tracer equations allows for efficient numerical solutions, which facilitates the objective optimization of the key biogeochemical parameters. The optimization minimizes the misfit between the modelled and observed nutrient fields of the current climate. We systematically assess the nonlinear response of the biological pump to changes in the aeolian iron supply for a variety of scenarios. Specifically, Green-function techniques are employed to quantify in detail the pathways and timescales with which those perturbations are propagated throughout the world oceans, determining the global teleconnections that mediate the response of the global ocean ecosystem. We confirm previous findings from idealized studies that increased iron fertilization decreases biological production in the subtropical gyres and we quantify the counterintuitive and asymmetric response of global productivity to increases and decreases in the aeolian iron supply.

  4. A global database of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion rates of aquatic animals

    Animals can be important in modulating ecosystem-level nutrient cycling, although their importance varies greatly among species and ecosystems. Nutrient cycling rates of individual animals represent valuable data for testing the predictions of important frameworks such as the Met...

  5. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Wang, S-Y Simon; Gillies, Robert R.; Kravitz, Ben; Hipps, Lawrence; Rasch, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the winter of 2013–2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse large-ensemble and multi-model simulations that project the future of water cycle extremes in California as well as to understand those associations that pertain to changing climate oscillations under global warming. Both intense drought and excessive flooding are projected to increase by at least 50% towards the end of the twenty-first century; this projected increase in water cycle extremes is associated with a strengthened relation to El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)—in particular, extreme El Niño and La Niña events that modulate California's climate not only through its warm and cold phases but also its precursor patterns. PMID:26487088

  6. Global Anthropogenic Phosphorus Loads to Freshwater and Associated Grey Water Footprints and Water Pollution Levels: A High-Resolution Global Study

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2018-01-01

    We estimate the global anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads to freshwater and the associated grey water footprints (GWFs) for the period 2002-2010, at a spatial resolution of 5 × 5 arc min, and compare the GWF per river basin to runoff to assess the P-related water pollution level (WPL). The global anthropogenic P load to freshwater systems from both diffuse and point sources is estimated at 1.5 Tg/yr. More than half of this total load was in Asia, followed by Europe (19%) and Latin America and the Caribbean (13%). The domestic sector contributed 54% to the total, agriculture 38%, and industry 8%. In agriculture, cereals production had the largest contribution to the P load (31%), followed by fruits, vegetables, and oil crops, each contributing 15%. The global total GWF related to anthropogenic P loads is estimated to be 147 × 1012 m3/yr, with China contributing 30%, India 8%, USA 7%, and Spain and Brazil 6% each. The basins with WPL > 1 (where GWF exceeds the basin's assimilation capacity) together cover about 38% of the global land area, 37% of the global river discharge, and provide residence to about 90% of the global population.

  7. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E 3 (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E 3 model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E 3 model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues

  8. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology and Safety Assessment Div.

    1997-09-24

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E{sup 3} (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E{sup 3} model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E{sup 3} model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues.

  9. Role of volcanic forcing on future global carbon cycle

    J. F. Tjiputra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a fully coupled global climate-carbon cycle model, we assess the potential role of volcanic eruptions on future projection of climate change and its associated carbon cycle feedback. The volcanic-like forcings are applied together with a business-as-usual IPCC-A2 carbon emissions scenario. We show that very large volcanic eruptions similar to Tambora lead to short-term substantial global cooling. However, over a long period, smaller eruptions similar to Pinatubo in amplitude, but set to occur frequently, would have a stronger impact on future climate change. In a scenario where the volcanic external forcings are prescribed with a five-year frequency, the induced cooling immediately lower the global temperature by more than one degree before it returns to the warming trend. Therefore, the climate change is approximately delayed by several decades, and by the end of the 21st century, the warming is still below two degrees when compared to the present day period. Our climate-carbon feedback analysis shows that future volcanic eruptions induce positive feedbacks (i.e., more carbon sink on both the terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle. The feedback signal on the ocean is consistently smaller than the terrestrial counterpart and the feedback strength is proportionally related to the frequency of the volcanic eruption events. The cooler climate reduces the terrestrial heterotrophic respiration in the northern high latitude and increases net primary production in the tropics, which contributes to more than 45 % increase in accumulated carbon uptake over land. The increased solubility of CO2 gas in seawater associated with cooler SST is offset by a reduced CO2 partial pressure gradient between the ocean and the atmosphere, which results in small changes in net ocean carbon uptake. Similarly, there is nearly no change in the seawater buffer capacity simulated between the different volcanic scenarios. Our study shows that even

  10. eWaterCycle: A global operational hydrological forecasting model

    van de Giesen, Nick; Bierkens, Marc; Donchyts, Gennadii; Drost, Niels; Hut, Rolf; Sutanudjaja, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    Development of an operational hyper-resolution hydrological global model is a central goal of the eWaterCycle project (www.ewatercycle.org). This operational model includes ensemble forecasts (14 days) to predict water related stress around the globe. Assimilation of near-real time satellite data is part of the intended product that will be launched at EGU 2015. The challenges come from several directions. First, there are challenges that are mainly computer science oriented but have direct practical hydrological implications. For example, we aim to make use as much as possible of existing standards and open-source software. For example, different parts of our system are coupled through the Basic Model Interface (BMI) developed in the framework of the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS). The PCR-GLOBWB model, built by Utrecht University, is the basic hydrological model that is the engine of the eWaterCycle project. Re-engineering of parts of the software was needed for it to run efficiently in a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment, and to be able to interface using BMI, and run on multiple compute nodes in parallel. The final aim is to have a spatial resolution of 1km x 1km, which is currently 10 x 10km. This high resolution is computationally not too demanding but very memory intensive. The memory bottleneck becomes especially apparent for data assimilation, for which we use OpenDA. OpenDa allows for different data assimilation techniques without the need to build these from scratch. We have developed a BMI adaptor for OpenDA, allowing OpenDA to use any BMI compatible model. To circumvent memory shortages which would result from standard applications of the Ensemble Kalman Filter, we have developed a variant that does not need to keep all ensemble members in working memory. At EGU, we will present this variant and how it fits well in HPC environments. An important step in the eWaterCycle project was the coupling between the hydrological and

  11. Influence of seasonal variation and anthropogenic activity on phosphorus cycling and retention in mangrove sediments: A case study in China

    Jiang, Shan; Lu, Haoliang; Liu, Jingchun; Lin, Yushan; Dai, Minyue; Yan, Chongling

    2018-03-01

    Mangroves are known for sequestering and storing large quantities of phosphorus (P) within their sediments. In the present study, the sediment P cycle (including phosphatase activity intensity, total sedimentary P, P fractions distinguished by a sequential extraction method, as well as diffusion-adsorption processes) in a mangrove swamp in a subtropical estuary in China was studied. In the spring, the acid phosphatase activity varied between 1.3 and 1.9 units in the four sites in the estuary. The activity of alkaline phosphatase varied from 0.8 to 1.4 units. The total sedimentary P ranged from 821 to 1689 mg kg-1 with a dominance of redox-sensitive (Fe/Al bound) P. In the autumn, activities of both phosphatases and the total sediment P amount increased, probably due to enhanced inputs of organic matter and Fe oxides. In addition to seasonal variation, P in the mangrove sediment was influenced by anthropogenic activities. In particular, redox-sensitive P decreased significantly while phosphatase activity increased in the site that was flushed with aquaculture pond effluents. In contrast, sediment P enrichment was observed in the site that received domestic sewage. Both sources of anthropogenic P increased the eutrophication risk of the mangrove sediment because of a decrease in the amount of P adsorption and an enhancement of P release via diffusion. Diesel contamination due to the presence of a dock depressed phosphatase activity in the surficial sediment. The overlap between seasonal rhythm and human influences may introduce significant variations in P cycling, which warrants further attention from coastal management.

  12. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    Peifang Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River. Variations in microbial biomass, dissolved P fractions (organic and inorganic, and alkaline phosphatase activity (bulk APA and specific APA were determined after incubation with and without the addition of P and nitrogen (N (4 total water treatments: +P, +N, +NP, and control. Experiments were conducted during two seasons (late spring and early fall to account for natural differences in nutrient levels that may occur in situ. Our results demonstrated that low levels of DRP may not necessarily indicate P limitation. Phytoplankton exhibited “serial N limitation with P stress” in May, such that chlorophyll a (Chl a increased significantly with N addition, while the limiting nutrient shifted to P in October and phytoplankton biomass increased with P addition. Phytoplankton contributed greatly to APA production and was significantly influenced by P bioavailability, yet high levels of bulk APA were also not necessarily indicative of P limitation. In contrast to phytoplankton, bacteria were less P stressed. As a consequence of enhanced utilization of dissolved reactive P (DRP and dissolved organic P (DOP, +N treatment elevated APA significantly. By contrast, APA could be repressed to low values and phytoplankton converted a large portion of DRP to DOP with P addition. But this was not consistent with bacteria APA (bact-APA in the absence or presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass. The correlation between bulk APA and DRP was good at separate sites and discrepant

  13. Phosphine and methylphosphine production by simulated lightning - s study for the volatile phosphorus cycle and cloud formation in the earth atmosphere

    Glindemann, D.; Edwards, M.; Schrems, Otto

    2004-01-01

    Phosphine (PH3), was recently found worldwide even in the remote atmosphere (Naturwissenschaften 83 (1996a,131, Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 2429). It is of interest to find natural mechanisms which could produce phosphine gas and drive a volatile link of the atmospheric phosphorus cycle and the formation of phosphoric acid as possible condensation nuclei for clouds.Here we report on simulated lightning exposing sodium phosphate in a reducing medium (methane model atmosphere or organic matter) f...

  14. Phosphorus burial and diagenesis in the central Bering Sea (Bowers Ridge, IODP Site U1341): Perspectives on the marine P cycle

    März, C; Poulton, SW; Wagner, T; Schnetger, B; Brumsack, H-J

    2014-01-01

    To reconstruct the cycling of reactive phosphorus (P) in the Bering Sea, a P speciation record covering the last ~4Ma was generated from sediments recovered during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323 at Site U1341 (Bowers Ridge). A chemical extraction procedure distinguishing between different operationally defined P fractions provides new insight into reactive P input, burial and diagenetic transformations. Reactive P mass accumulation rates (MARs) are ~20-110μmol/cm/ka, ...

  15. Temperature sensitivity differences with depth and season between carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling enzyme activities in an ombrotrophic peatland system

    Steinweg, J. M.; Kostka, J. E.; Hanson, P. J.; Schadt, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Northern peatlands have large amounts of soil organic matter due to reduced decomposition. Breakdown of organic matter is initially mediated by extracellular enzymes, the activity of which may be controlled by temperature, moisture, and substrate availability, all of which vary seasonally throughout the year and with depth. In typical soils the majority of the microbial biomass and decomposition occurs within the top 30cm due to reduced organic matter inputs in the subsurface however peatlands by their very nature contain large amounts of organic matter throughout their depth profile. We hypothesized that potential enzyme activity would be greatest at the surface of the peat due to a larger microbial biomass compared to 40cm and 175cm below the surface and that temperature sensitivity would be greatest at the surface during winter but lowest during the summer due to high temperatures and enzyme efficiency. Peat samples were collected in February, July, and August 2012 from the DOE Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change project at Marcell Experimental Forest S1 bog. We measured potential activity of hydrolytic enzymes involved in three different nutrient cycles: beta-glucosidase (carbon), leucine amino peptidase (nitrogen), and phosphatase (phosphorus) at 15 temperature points ranging from 3°C to 65°C. Enzyme activity decreased with depth as expected but there was no concurrent change in activation energy (Ea). The reduction in enzyme activity with depth indicates a smaller pool which coincided with a decreased microbial biomass. Differences in enzyme activity with depth also mirrored the changes in peat composition from the acrotelm to the catotelm. Season did play a role in temperature sensitivity with Ea of β-glucosidase and phosphatase being the lowest in August as expected but leucine amino peptidase (a nitrogen acquiring enzyme) Ea was not influenced by season. As temperatures rise, especially in winter months, enzymatic

  16. Andreae is New Editor of Global Biogeochemical Cycles

    Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2004-10-01

    As the incoming editor of Global Biogeochemical Cycles, I would like to introduce myself and my ideas for the journal to Eos readers and to current and potential GBC authors. I've had a somewhat ``roaming'' scientific evolution, coming from ``straight'' chemistry through hard-rock geochemistry to chemical oceanography, the field in which I did my Ph.D. I taught marine chemistry at Florida State University for a number of years, and developed an interest in ocean/atmosphere interactions and atmospheric chemistry. In 1987 I took on my present job at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, in Mainz, Germany, and, after leaving the seacoast, my interests shifted to interactions between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere, including the role of vegetation fires. My present focus is on the role of biogenic aerosols and biomass smoke in regulating cloud properties and influencing climate.

  17. Role of Mineral Deposits in Global Geochemical Cycles

    Kesler, S.; Wilkinson, B.

    2009-12-01

    Mineral deposits represent the most extreme degree of natural concentration for most elements and their formation and destruction are important parts of global geochemical cycles. Quantitative estimates of the role that mineral deposits play in these geochemical cycles has been limited, however, by the lack of information on actual amounts of elements that are concentrated in these deposits, and their rates of formation and destruction at geologic time scales. Recent use of a “tectonic diffusion” model for porphyry copper deposits, the most important source of world copper, in conjunction with estimates of their copper content (Kesler and Wilkinson, 2008), allows an assessment of the role of copper deposits in Earth’s global copper cycles. These results indicate that ~4.5*10^8 Gg of Cu have been concentrated in porphyry copper deposits through Phanerozoic time, that deposits containing ~2.8*10^8 Gg of Cu have been removed by uplift and erosion over the same time period, and that deposits containing ~1.7*10^8 Gg remain in Earth’s crust. If styles of formation and destruction of other copper-bearing mineral deposits are similar, then all crustal deposits contain ~3*10^8 Gg of copper. This constitutes about 0.03% of the copper that resides in crustal rocks and provides a first-ever estimate of the rate at which natural geochemical cycles produce the extreme concentrations that constitute mineral deposits. Another ~8*10^8 Gg of copper have been destroyed during the uplift and erosion of mineral deposits over Phanerozoic time, a flux amounting to an annual contribution of about 1.5 Gg of copper to the near-surface environment. This amount is similar in magnitude to copper released by volcanic outgassing, but only ~2.5% of the 56 Gg of copper estimated to be released annually by weathering of average crustal rocks (Rauch and Graedel, 2007). The amount of copper removed from mineral deposits by mining, 1.1*10^4 Gg/year, is much larger than any natural

  18. TRMM and Its Connection to the Global Water Cycle

    Kummerow, Christian; Hong, Ye

    1999-01-01

    The importance of quantitative knowledge of tropical rainfall, its associated latent heating and variability is summarized in the context of the global hydrologic cycle. Much of the tropics is covered by oceans. What land exists, is covered largely by rainforests that are only thinly populated. The only way to adequately measure the global tropical rainfall for climate and general circulation models is from space. The TRMM orbit is inclined 35' leading to good sampling in the tropics and a rapid precession to study the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The precipitation instrument complement consists of the first rain radar to be flown in space (PR), a multi-channel passive microwave sensor (TMI) and a five-channel VIS/IR (VIRS) sensor. The precipitation radar operates at a frequency of 13.6 GHz. The swath width is 220 km, with a horizontal resolution of 4 km and the vertical resolution of 250 in. The minimum detectable signal from the precipitation radar has been measured at 17 dBZ. The TMI instrument is designed similar to the SSM/I with two important changes. The 22.235 GHz water vapor absorption channel of the SSM/I was moved to 21.3 GHz in order to avoid saturation in the tropics and 10.7 GHz V&H polarized channels were added to expand the dynamic range of rainfall estimates. The resolution of the TMI varies from 4.6 km at 85 GHz to 36 km at 10.7 GHz. The visible and infrared sensor (VIRS) measures radiation at 0.63, 1.6, 3.75, 10.8 and 12.0 microns. The spatial resolution of all five VIRS channels is 2 km at nadir. In addition to the three primary rainfall instruments, TRMM will also carry a Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and a Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument.

  19. Phosphorus 32 cycling in the root-litter mat of Pernambuco atlantic coastal forest, Brazil

    Salcedo, I.H.; Sampaio, E.V.S.; Elliott, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    We propose a compartmental model to describe P cycling in the root-litter mat and surface mineral soil of an Atlantic coastal forest. Considerable amounts of P accumulate in this root-litter mat, relative to available P in the underlying mineral soil. We studied the mechanisms responsible for P retention five days after addition of sup(32)P on the surface of the 02 horizon. Total sup(31)P and sup(32)P were determined in leaves, humus, mineral soil and roots. In addition, we determined sup(31)P and sup(32)P in the solution and microbial biomass of the humus material. Fluxes of sup(31)P were obtained from published data and from experimental results of sup(32)P distribution among compartments. The main fluxes taking P out from the soils solution were uptake by the microbial biomass and sorption by the humus (12.9 e 5.2 mg P m sup(-2) week sup(-1), respectively), while the mean flux into the roots was 3.1 mg P m sup(-2) week sup(-1). The main compartment responsible for P accumulation was the humus+fragments, which had the highest P content (61% of total P in the forest floor) and the longest turnover time (15.5 months). (author)

  20. Impact of changes in river fluxes of silica on the global marine silicon cycle: a model comparison

    C. Y. Bernard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The availability of dissolved silica (Si in the ocean provides a major control on the growth of siliceous phytoplankton. Diatoms in particular account for a large proportion of oceanic primary production. The original source of the silica is rock weathering, followed by transport of dissolved and biogenic silica to the coastal zone. This model study aims at assessing the sensitivity of the global marine silicon cycle to variations in the river input of silica on timescales ranging from several centuries to millennia. We compare the performance of a box model for the marine silicon cycle to that of a global biogeochemical ocean general circulation model (HAMOCC2 and 5. Results indicate that the average global ocean response to changes in river input of silica is comparable in the models on time scales up to 150 kyrs. While the trends in export production and opal burial are the same, the box model shows a delayed response to the imposed perturbations compared to the general circulation model. Results of both models confirm the important role of the continental margins as a sink for silica at the global scale. Our work also demonstrates that the effects of changes in riverine dissolved silica on ocean biogeochemistry depend on the availability of the other nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and iron. The model results suggest that the effects of reduced silica inputs due to river damming are particularly pronounced in the Gulf of Bengal, Gulf of Mexico and the Amazon plume where they negatively affect opal production. While general circulation models are indispensable when assessing the spatial variation in opal export production and biogenic Si burial in the ocean, this study demonstrates that box models provide a good alternative when studying the average global ocean response to perturbations of the oceanic silica cycle (especially on longer time scales.

  1. Global operational hydrological forecasts through eWaterCycle

    van de Giesen, Nick; Bierkens, Marc; Donchyts, Gennadii; Drost, Niels; Hut, Rolf; Sutanudjaja, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    Central goal of the eWaterCycle project (www.ewatercycle.org) is the development of an operational hyper-resolution hydrological global model. This model is able to produce 14 day ensemble forecasts based on a hydrological model and operational weather data (presently NOAA's Global Ensemble Forecast System). Special attention is paid to prediction of situations in which water related issues are relevant, such as floods, droughts, navigation, hydropower generation, and irrigation stress. Near-real time satellite data will be assimilated in the hydrological simulations, which is a feature that will be presented for the first time at EGU 2015. First, we address challenges that are mainly computer science oriented but have direct practical hydrological implications. An important feature in this is the use of existing standards and open-source software to the maximum extent possible. For example, we use the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) approach to coupling models (Basic Model Interface (BMI)). The hydrological model underlying the project is PCR-GLOBWB, built by Utrecht University. This is the motor behind the predictions and state estimations. Parts of PCR-GLOBWB have been re-engineered to facilitate running it in a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment, run parallel on multiple nodes, as well as to use BMI. Hydrological models are not very CPU intensive compared to, say, atmospheric models. They are, however, memory hungry due to the localized processes and associated effective parameters. To accommodate this memory need, especially in an ensemble setting, a variation on the traditional Ensemble Kalman Filter was developed that needs much less on-chip memory. Due to the operational nature, the coupling of the hydrological model with hydraulic models is very important. The idea is not to run detailed hydraulic routing schemes over the complete globe but to have on-demand simulation prepared off-line with respect to topography and

  2. The observed sensitivity of the global hydrological cycle to changes in surface temperature

    Arkin, Phillip A; Janowiak, John; Smith, Thomas M; Sapiano, Mathew R P

    2010-01-01

    Climate models project large changes in global surface temperature in coming decades that are expected to be accompanied by significant changes in the global hydrological cycle. Validation of model simulations is essential to support their use in decision making, but observing the elements of the hydrological cycle is challenging, and model-independent global data sets exist only for precipitation. We compute the sensitivity of the global hydrological cycle to changes in surface temperature using available global precipitation data sets and compare the results against the sensitivities derived from model simulations of 20th century climate. The implications of the results for the global climate observing system are discussed.

  3. The Global Carbon Cycle: It's a Small World

    Ineson, Philip; Milcu, Alexander; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wildman, Dennis; Anderson, Robert; Manning, Peter; Heinemeyer, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Predicting future atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), together with the impacts of these changes on global climate, are some of the most urgent and important challenges facing mankind. Modelling is the only way in which such predictions can be made, leading to the current generation of increasingly complex computer simulations, with associated concerns about embedded assumptions and conflicting model outputs. Alongside analysis of past climates, the GCMs currently represent our only hope of establishing the importance of potential runaway positive feedbacks linking climate change and atmospheric greenhouse gases yet the incorporation of necessary biospheric responses into GCMs markedly increases the uncertainty of predictions. Analysis of the importance of the major components of the global carbon (C) cycle reveals that an understanding of the conditions under which the terrestrial biosphere could switch from an overall carbon (C) sink to a source is critical to our ability to make future climate predictions. Here we present an alternative approach to assessing the short term biotic (plant and soil) sensitivities to elevated temperature and atmospheric CO2 through the use of a purely physical analogue. Centred on the concept of materially-closed systems containing scaled-down ratios of the global C stocks for the atmosphere, vegetation and soil we show that, in these model systems, the terrestrial biosphere is able to buffer a rise of 3oC even when coupled to very strong CO2-temperature positive feedbacks. The system respiratory response appears to be extremely well linked to temperature and is critical in deciding atmospheric concentrations of CO2. Simulated anthropogenic emissions of CO2 into the model systems showed an initial corresponding increase in atmospheric CO2 but, somewhat surprisingly, CO2 concentrations levelled off at ca. 480 p.p.m.v., despite continuing additions of CO2. Experiments were performed in which reversion of atmospheric

  4. Phosphorus in Agriculture : 100 % Zero

    Schnug, Ewald; De Kok, Luit J.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is essential for all living organisms, reserves in geogenic deposits are finite, and phosphorus nutrient mining and oversupply are common phenomenons on agricultural soils. Only if the agricultural phosphorus cycle can be closed and the fertilized nutrient been utilized completely,

  5. Life-cycle phosphorus management of the crop production-consumption system in China, 1980-2012.

    Wu, Huijun; Yuan, Zengwei; Gao, Liangmin; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yongliang

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential resource for agriculture and also a pollutant capable of causing eutrophication. The possibility of a future P scarcity and the requirement to improve the environment quality necessitate P management to increase the efficiency of P use. This study applied a substance flow analysis (SFA) to implement a P management procedure in a crop production-consumption (PMCPC) system model. This model determined the life-cycle P use efficiency (PUE) of the crop production-consumption system in China during 1980-2012. The system includes six subsystems: fertilizer manufacturing, crop cultivation, crop processing, livestock breeding, rural consumption, and urban consumption. Based on this model, the P flows and PUEs of the subsystems were identified and quantified using data from official statistical databases, published literature, questionnaires, and interviews. The results showed that the total PUE of the crop production-consumption system in China was low, notably from 1980 to 2005, and increased from 7.23% in 1980 to 20.13% in 2012. Except for fertilizer manufacturing, the PUEs of the six subsystems were also low. The PUEs in the urban consumption subsystem and the crop cultivation subsystem were less than 40%. The PUEs of other subsystems, such as the rural consumption subsystem and the livestock breeding subsystem, were also low and even decreased during these years. Measures aimed to improve P management practices in China have been proposed such as balancing fertilization, disposing livestock excrement, adjusting livestock feed, changing the diet of residents, and raising the waste disposal level, etc. This study also discussed several limitations related with the model and data. Conducting additional related studies on other regions and combining the analysis of risks with opportunities may be necessary to develop effective management strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A brief history of phosphorus: from the philosopher's stone to nutrient recovery and reuse.

    Ashley, K; Cordell, D; Mavinic, D

    2011-08-01

    The element phosphorus has no substitute in sustaining all life and food production on our planet. Yet today's phosphorus use patterns have resulted in both a global environmental epidemic of eutrophication and led to a situation where the future availability of the world's main sources of phosphorus is uncertain. This paper examines the important history of human interference with the phosphorus cycle from initial discovery to present, highlighting key interrelated events and consequences of the Industrial Revolution, Sanitation Revolution and Green Revolution. Whilst these events led to profound advances in technology, public health and food production, they have fundamentally broken the global phosphorus cycle. It is clear a 'Fourth Revolution' is required to resolve this dilemma and ensure humanity can continue to feed itself into the future while protecting environmental and human health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The terrestrial carbon cycle on the regional and global scale : modeling, uncertainties and policy relevance

    Minnen, van J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Contains the chapters: The importance of three centuries of climate and land-use change for the global and regional terrestrial carbon cycle; and The terrestrial C cycle and its role in the climate change policy

  8. Sedimentary phosphorus and iron cycling in and below the oxygen minimum zone of the northern Arabian Sea

    P. Kraal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate phosphorus (P and iron (Fe cycling in sediments along a depth transect from within to well below the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ in the northern Arabian Sea (Murray Ridge. Pore-water and solid-phase analyses show that authigenic formation of calcium phosphate minerals (Ca-P is largely restricted to where the OMZ intersects the seafloor topography, likely due to higher depositional fluxes of reactive P. Nonetheless, increased ratios of organic carbon to organic P (Corg/Porg and to total reactive P (Corg/Preactive in surface sediments indicate that the overall burial efficiency of P relative to Corg decreases under the low bottom water oxygen concentrations (BWO in the OMZ. The relatively constant Fe/Al ratio in surface sediments along the depth transect suggest that corresponding changes in Fe burial are limited. Sedimentary pyrite contents are low throughout the ~25 cm sediment cores at most stations, as commonly observed in the Arabian Sea OMZ. However, pyrite is an important sink for reactive Fe at one station in the OMZ. A reactive transport model (RTM was applied to quantitatively investigate P and Fe diagenesis at an intermediate station at the lower boundary of the OMZ (bottom water O2: ~14 μmol L−1. The RTM results contrast with earlier findings in showing that Fe redox cycling can control authigenic apatite formation and P burial in Arabian Sea sediment. In addition, results suggest that a large fraction of the sedimentary Ca-P is not authigenic, but is instead deposited from the water column and buried. Dust is likely a major source of this Ca-P. Inclusion of the unreactive Ca-P pool in the Corg/P ratio leads to an overestimation of the burial efficiency of reactive P relative to Corg along the depth transect. Moreover, the unreactive Ca-P accounts for ~85% of total Ca-P burial. In general, our results reveal

  9. Global carbon cycle and possible disturbances due to man's interventions

    Pankrath, J

    1979-01-01

    Global atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration has increased since the beginning of reliable monitoring in 1958 at a mean rate of about 0.9 ppM CO/sub 2//y. Now, atmospheric, CO/sub 2/ concentration is at 330 ppM. From about 1860 up to 1974, man's intervention in the global carbon cycle caused a likely increase of 76.6 x 10/sup 15/ g C, corresponding to 36 ppM CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere, if a preindustrial content of 294 ppM CO/sub 2/ or 625.3 x 10/sup 15/ g C is adopted to be valid. A further rise of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ seems to be inevitable and probably will be responsible for a climatic warming in the next several decades; therefore, a global examination of carbon reservoirs and carbon fluxes has been undertaken to determine their storage capacity for excess carbon which originated mainly from burning of fossil fuels and from land clearing. During 1860 to 1974 about 136 x 10/sup 15/ g C have been emitted into the atmosphere by fossil fuel combustion and cement production. At present, the emission rate is about 5 x 10/sup 15/ g C/y. The worldwide examination of carbon release, primarily by deforestation and soil cultivation since 1860, is estimated to be about 120 x 10/sup 15/ g C. The net transfer of carbon to the atmosphere owing to man's interference with the biosphere is now believed to be about 2.4 x 10/sup 15/ g C/y. An oceanic uptake of rougly 179 x 10/sup 15/ g C since 1860 is open to discussion. According to the chemical buffering of sea surface water only about 35.5 x 10/sup 15/ g C could have been absorbed. It is argued, however, that oceanic circulations might have been more effective in removing atmospheric excess carbon of anthropogenic origin.

  10. Global carbon - nitrogen - phosphorus cycle interactions: A key to solving the atmospheric CO2 balance problem?

    Peterson, B. J.; Mellillo, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    If all biotic sinks of atmospheric CO2 reported were added a value of about 0.4 Gt C/yr would be found. For each category, a very high (non-conservative) estimate was used. This still does not provide a sufficient basis for achieving a balance between the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2. The bulk of the discrepancy lies in a combination of errors in the major terms, the greatest being in a combination of errors in the major terms, the greatest being in the net biotic release and ocean uptake segments, but smaller errors or biases may exist in calculations of the rate of atmospheric CO2 increase and total fossil fuel use as well. The reason why biotic sinks are not capable of balancing the CO2 increase via nutrient-matching in the short-term is apparent from a comparison of the stoichiometry of the sources and sinks. The burning of fossil fuels and forest biomass releases much more CO2-carbon than is sequestered as organic carbon.

  11. Finnish and Swedish business cycles in a global context

    Bergman, Ulf Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the decisions made by the Finnish government to join EMU and the Swedish government not to join EMU in the early 1990s. Focusing on the characteristics of business cycles during the postwar period, we find that output fluctuations in Sweden and Finland are correlated to two...... measures of the international business cycle, a European and a non-European cycle. The Finnish cycle has become more synchronized to the European cycle but less synchronized to the non-EU cycle after 1999. For Sweden we find the opposite result. The decision by the Finnish government to join EMU...

  12. eWaterCycle: A high resolution global hydrological model

    van de Giesen, Nick; Bierkens, Marc; Drost, Niels; Hut, Rolf; Sutanudjaja, Edwin

    2014-05-01

    In 2013, the eWaterCycle project was started, which has the ambitious goal to run a high resolution global hydrological model. Starting point was the PCR-GLOBWB built by Utrecht University. The software behind this model will partially be re-engineered in order to enable to run it in a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment. The aim is to have a spatial resolution of 1km x 1km. The idea is also to run the model in real-time and forecasting mode, using data assimilation. An on-demand hydraulic model will be available for detailed flow and flood forecasting in support of navigation and disaster management. The project faces a set of scientific challenges. First, to enable the model to run in a HPC environment, model runs were analyzed to examine on which parts of the program most CPU time was spent. These parts were re-coded in Open MPI to allow for parallel processing. Different parallelization strategies are thinkable. In our case, it was decided to use watershed logic as a first step to distribute the analysis. There is rather limited recent experience with HPC in hydrology and there is much to be learned and adjusted, both on the hydrological modeling side and the computer science side. For example, an interesting early observation was that hydrological models are, due to their localized parameterization, much more memory intensive than models of sister-disciplines such as meteorology and oceanography. Because it would be deadly to have to swap information between CPU and hard drive, memory management becomes crucial. A standard Ensemble Kalman Filter (enKF) would, for example, have excessive memory demands. To circumvent these problems, an alternative to the enKF was developed that produces equivalent results. This presentation shows the most recent results from the model, including a 5km x 5km simulation and a proof of concept for the new data assimilation approach. Finally, some early ideas about financial sustainability of an operational global

  13. Life-cycle phosphorus management of the crop production–consumption system in China, 1980–2012

    Wu, Huijun [School of Earth Environment, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Yuan, Zengwei, E-mail: yuanzw@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Gao, Liangmin [School of Earth Environment, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Zhang, Ling [College of Economics and Management, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Zhang, Yongliang [Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential resource for agriculture and also a pollutant capable of causing eutrophication. The possibility of a future P scarcity and the requirement to improve the environment quality necessitate P management to increase the efficiency of P use. This study applied a substance flow analysis (SFA) to implement a P management procedure in a crop production–consumption (PMCPC) system model. This model determined the life-cycle P use efficiency (PUE) of the crop production–consumption system in China during 1980–2012. The system includes six subsystems: fertilizer manufacturing, crop cultivation, crop processing, livestock breeding, rural consumption, and urban consumption. Based on this model, the P flows and PUEs of the subsystems were identified and quantified using data from official statistical databases, published literature, questionnaires, and interviews. The results showed that the total PUE of the crop production–consumption system in China was low, notably from 1980 to 2005, and increased from 7.23% in 1980 to 20.13% in 2012. Except for fertilizer manufacturing, the PUEs of the six subsystems were also low. The PUEs in the urban consumption subsystem and the crop cultivation subsystem were less than 40%. The PUEs of other subsystems, such as the rural consumption subsystem and the livestock breeding subsystem, were also low and even decreased during these years. Measures aimed to improve P management practices in China have been proposed such as balancing fertilization, disposing livestock excrement, adjusting livestock feed, changing the diet of residents, and raising the waste disposal level, etc. This study also discussed several limitations related with the model and data. Conducting additional related studies on other regions and combining the analysis of risks with opportunities may be necessary to develop effective management strategies. - Highlights: • A model of P management of the crop production–consumption system

  14. Life-cycle phosphorus management of the crop production–consumption system in China, 1980–2012

    Wu, Huijun; Yuan, Zengwei; Gao, Liangmin; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yongliang

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential resource for agriculture and also a pollutant capable of causing eutrophication. The possibility of a future P scarcity and the requirement to improve the environment quality necessitate P management to increase the efficiency of P use. This study applied a substance flow analysis (SFA) to implement a P management procedure in a crop production–consumption (PMCPC) system model. This model determined the life-cycle P use efficiency (PUE) of the crop production–consumption system in China during 1980–2012. The system includes six subsystems: fertilizer manufacturing, crop cultivation, crop processing, livestock breeding, rural consumption, and urban consumption. Based on this model, the P flows and PUEs of the subsystems were identified and quantified using data from official statistical databases, published literature, questionnaires, and interviews. The results showed that the total PUE of the crop production–consumption system in China was low, notably from 1980 to 2005, and increased from 7.23% in 1980 to 20.13% in 2012. Except for fertilizer manufacturing, the PUEs of the six subsystems were also low. The PUEs in the urban consumption subsystem and the crop cultivation subsystem were less than 40%. The PUEs of other subsystems, such as the rural consumption subsystem and the livestock breeding subsystem, were also low and even decreased during these years. Measures aimed to improve P management practices in China have been proposed such as balancing fertilization, disposing livestock excrement, adjusting livestock feed, changing the diet of residents, and raising the waste disposal level, etc. This study also discussed several limitations related with the model and data. Conducting additional related studies on other regions and combining the analysis of risks with opportunities may be necessary to develop effective management strategies. - Highlights: • A model of P management of the crop production–consumption system

  15. Assessing Students' Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Understanding of Global Carbon Cycling

    You, Hye Sun; Marshall, Jill A.; Delgado, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Global carbon cycling describes the movement of carbon through atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere; it lies at the heart of climate change and sustainability. To understand the global carbon cycle, students will require "interdisciplinary knowledge." While standards documents in science education have long promoted…

  16. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  17. Forms and subannual variability of nitrogen and phosphorus loading to global river networks over the 20th century

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Mogollón, José M.; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Bouwman, Alexander F.

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play a major role in the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic systems. N and P transfer to surface freshwaters has amplified during the 20th century, which has led to widespread eutrophication problems. The contribution of different sources, natural and anthropogenic, to total N and P loading to river networks has recently been estimated yearly using the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment - Global Nutrient Model (IMAGE-GNM). However, eutrophic events generally result from a combination of physicochemical conditions governed by hydrological dynamics and the availability of specific nutrient forms that vary at subyearly timescales. In the present study, we define for each simulated nutrient source: i) its speciation, and ii) its subannual temporal pattern. Thereby, we simulate the monthly loads of different N (ammonium, nitrate + nitrite, and organic N) and P forms (dissolved and particulate inorganic P, and organic P) to global river networks over the whole 20th century at a half-degree spatial resolution. Results indicate that, together with an increase in the delivery of all nutrient forms to global rivers, the proportion of inorganic forms in total N and P inputs has risen from 30 to 43% and from 56 to 65%, respectively. The high loads originating from fertilized agricultural lands and the increasing proportion of sewage inputs have led to a greater proportion of DIN forms (ammonium and nitrate), that are usually more bioavailable. Soil loss from agricultural lands, which delivers large amounts of particle-bound inorganic P to surface freshwaters, has become the dominant P source, which is likely to lead to an increased accumulation of legacy P in slow flowing areas (e.g., lakes and reservoirs). While the TN:TP ratio of the loads has remained quite stable, the DIN:DIP molar ratio, which is likely to affect algal development the most, has increased from 18 to 27 globally. Human activities have also affected the

  18. Soil solution phosphorus turnover: derivation, interpretation, and insights from a global compilation of isotope exchange kinetic studies

    Helfenstein, Julian; Jegminat, Jannes; McLaren, Timothy I.; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The exchange rate of inorganic phosphorus (P) between the soil solution and solid phase, also known as soil solution P turnover, is essential for describing the kinetics of bioavailable P. While soil solution P turnover (Km) can be determined by tracing radioisotopes in a soil-solution system, few studies have done so. We believe that this is due to a lack of understanding on how to derive Km from isotopic exchange kinetic (IEK) experiments, a common form of radioisotope dilution study. Here, we provide a derivation of calculating Km using parameters obtained from IEK experiments. We then calculated Km for 217 soils from published IEK experiments in terrestrial ecosystems, and also that of 18 long-term P fertilizer field experiments. Analysis of the global compilation data set revealed a negative relationship between concentrations of soil solution P and Km. Furthermore, Km buffered isotopically exchangeable P in soils with low concentrations of soil solution P. This finding was supported by an analysis of long-term P fertilizer field experiments, which revealed a negative relationship between Km and phosphate-buffering capacity. Our study highlights the importance of calculating Km for understanding the kinetics of P between the soil solid and solution phases where it is bioavailable. We argue that our derivation can also be used to calculate soil solution turnover of other environmentally relevant and strongly sorbing elements that can be traced with radioisotopes, such as zinc, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, and uranium.

  19. Soils and Global Change in the Carbon Cycle over Geological Time

    Retallack, G. J.

    2003-12-01

    Soils play an important role in the carbon cycle as the nutrition of photosynthesized biomass. Nitrogen fixed by microbes from air is a limiting nutrient for ecosystems within the first flush of ecological succession of new ground, and sulfur can limit some components of wetland ecosystems. But over the long term, the limiting soil nutrient is phosphorus extracted by weathering from minerals such as apatite (Vitousek et al., 1997a; Chadwick et al., 1999). Life has an especially voracious appetite for common alkali (Na+ and K+) and alkaline earth (Ca2+ and Mg2+) cations, supplied by hydrolytic weathering, which is in turn amplified by biological acidification (Schwartzmann and Volk, 1991; see Chapter 5.06). These mineral nutrients fuel photosynthetic fixation and chemical reduction of atmospheric CO2 into plants and plantlike microbes, which are at the base of the food chain. Plants and photosynthetic microbes are consumed and oxidized by animals, fungi, and other respiring microbes, which release CO2, methane, and water vapor to the air. These greenhouse gases absorb solar radiation more effectively than atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen, and are important regulators of planetary temperature and albedo (Kasting, 1992). Variations in solar insolation ( Kasting, 1992), mountainous topography ( Raymo and Ruddiman, 1992), and ocean currents ( Ramstein et al., 1997) also play a role in climate, but this review focuses on the carbon cycle. The carbon cycle is discussed in detail in Volume 8 of this Treatise.The greenhouse model for global paleoclimate has proven remarkably robust (Retallack, 2002), despite new challenges ( Veizer et al., 2000). The balance of producers and consumers is one of a number of controls on atmospheric greenhouse gas balance, because CO2 is added to the air from fumaroles, volcanic eruptions, and other forms of mantle degassing (Holland, 1984). Carbon dioxide is also consumed by burial as carbonate and organic matter within limestones and other

  20. Global change and biogeochemical cycles: The south Asia region

    Mitra, A.P.; DileepKumar, M.; Kumar, K.R.; Abrol, Y.P.; Kalra, N.; Velayutham, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    stream_size 33 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Global-Region_Linkage_Earth_Syst_2002_75.pdf.txt stream_source_info Global-Region_Linkage_Earth_Syst_2002_75.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  1. Removal Efficiency of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Heavy Metal by Intermittent Cycle Extended Aeration System from Municipal Wastewater (Yazd-ICEAS

    Seyed Vahid Ghelmani

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The high removal efficiency of BOD5, TKN, and NH4+ showed that this advanced SBR system had an appropriate efficiency for nitrification. Phosphorus removal (TP had a lower efficiency than those of NH4+ and TKN, but it was within the environmental standard limits. On the other hand, in the advanced SBR the removal efficiency of heavy metals for Cd was not within the standard limits.

  2. Dynamical analysis of the global business-cycle synchronization.

    Lopes, António M; Tenreiro Machado, J A; Huffstot, John S; Mata, Maria Eugénia

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the dynamical analysis of the business cycles of 12 (developed and developing) countries over the last 56 years by applying computational techniques used for tackling complex systems. They reveal long-term convergence and country-level interconnections because of close contagion effects caused by bilateral networking exposure. Interconnectivity determines the magnitude of cross-border impacts. Local features and shock propagation complexity also may be true engines for local configuration of cycles. The algorithmic modeling proves to represent a solid approach to study the complex dynamics involved in the world economies.

  3. Dynamical analysis of the global business-cycle synchronization

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the dynamical analysis of the business cycles of 12 (developed and developing) countries over the last 56 years by applying computational techniques used for tackling complex systems. They reveal long-term convergence and country-level interconnections because of close contagion effects caused by bilateral networking exposure. Interconnectivity determines the magnitude of cross-border impacts. Local features and shock propagation complexity also may be true engines for local configuration of cycles. The algorithmic modeling proves to represent a solid approach to study the complex dynamics involved in the world economies. PMID:29408909

  4. The links between global carbon, water and nutrient cycles in an urbanizing world — the case of coastal eutrophication

    Kroeze, C.; Hofstra, N.; Ivens, W.; Löhr, A.; Strokal, M.; Wijnen, van J.

    2013-01-01

    The natural cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and water have been disturbed substantially by human activities. Urbanizing coastal drainage basins and large river deltas are located at the interface of freshwater and coastal components of the larger earth system and the process of

  5. NEWS Climatology Project: The State of the Water Cycle at Continental to Global Scales

    Rodell, Matthew; LEcuyer, Tristan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Olson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project is to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project is a multiinstitutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe results of the first stage of the water budget analysis, whose goal was to characterize the current state of the water cycle on mean monthly, continental scales. We examine our success in closing the water budget within the expected uncertainty range and the effects of forcing budget closure as a method for refining individual flux estimates.

  6. The Global Enery and Water Cycle Experiment Science Strategy

    Chahine, M. T.

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of water in the atmosphere and at the surface of the Earth is the most influential factor regulating our environment, not only because water is essential for life but also because through phase transitions it is the main energy source that control clouds and radiation and drives the global circulation of the atmosphere.

  7. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) guidance flagship project of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative aims at providing global guidance and building scientific consensus on environmental LCIA in...

  8. Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors

    Atul Jain; Xiaojuan Yang; Haroon Kheshgi; A. David McGuire; Wilfred Post; David. Kicklighter

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of global terrestrial carbon sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen...

  9. The geological carbon cycle and the global warming / climate debate

    Frank, F.

    2013-01-01

    The extensively cited seasonal carbon cycle describes the size and the annual fluxes between the temporary reservoirs (ocean, atmosphere, biosphere and soils). Compared with these large annual fluxes (approx. 200 GtC/y) the human contribution seems to be of minor amount and is currently (2011) in the range of 4-5%. However, in the geological carbon cycle, which describes the nearly equal amounts of input (volcanoes etc.) and output (sediments) into and from the temporary reservoirs, the human contribution has now reached 30-50 times the average natural level (9.5 Gt C/y versus ca. 0.2-0.3Gt C/y). In the long-term range (1-10x106y), the variable, but much smaller net imbalance between these geological sources und sinks was responsible for the atmospheric CO2-level in the last 400 My (since then comparable temporary reservoirs exist) and influenced via the various feedbacks the climate on earth. In nearly 95% of this long time the climate system was in (nearly) equilibrium conditions and changes occurred extremely slow. Whenever a certain range of higher rate of change of these driving forces were reached, it had - together with other effects - severe influence on the evolution of life, causing 5 large and many minor 'geological accidents'. Based on isotope geochemistry and a fairly good time resolution by orbitally tuned cyclostratigraphy (astrochronology) in the sedimentary record, we are able to quantify these rates of change with reasonable errors. It turns out that the present rate of change - caused by the C-based fossil energy use - is one to two orders of magnitude more rapid than these severe events (impacts excluded) in the earth system. A vast amount of data is available from the ice age cycles. Climate geology (e.g. the group of M. Sarnthein) made considerable progress in understanding the related geological/oceanic processes and proposed a reasonably constrained mass balance of CO2 during the last cycle, which could help us to understand the future

  10. Species and biogeochemical cycles of organic phosphorus in sediments from a river with different aquatic plants located in Huaihe River Watershed, China.

    Yuan, He Zhong; Pan, Wei; Ren, Li Jun; Liu, Eeng Feng; Shen, Ji; Geng, Qi Fang; An, Shu Qing

    2015-01-01

    The results of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments from a contaminated river containing different aquatic plants, analyzed by solution 31P-NMR for Organic Phosphorus, showed that the concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus dominated in all species and Organic Phosphorus accounted for over 20% of Total Phosphorus. In general, orthophosphate was dominant in all the sampling sites. The proportion of Organic Phosphorus accounting for the Total Phosphorus in the sediments with different plant decreased in the following order: Paspalum distichum>Typha orientalis>Hydrilla verticillata. Phosphorus-accumulation ability of Paspalum distichum was obviously stronger than Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata. The Organic Phosphorus was in aquatic plants dominated by humic-associated P (Hu-P), which converted to Inorganic Ohosphorus more significantly in submerged plants than in emerged plants. The sediment dominated by Paspalum distichum abundantly accumulated Organic Phosphorus in the orthophosphate monoester fraction. The degradation and mineralization of orthophosphate monoester was the important source of high Inorganic Phosphorus concentration and net primary productivity in Suoxu River. The Organic Phosphorus derived from Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata was dramatically converted to Inorganic Phosphorus when the environmental factors varied.

  11. Tropical wetlands: A missing link in the global carbon cycle?

    Sjögersten, Sofie; Black, Colin R; Evers, Stephanie; Hoyos-Santillan, Jorge; Wright, Emma L; Turner, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Tropical wetlands are not included in Earth system models, despite being an important source of methane (CH4) and contributing a large fraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry in the tropics. This review identifies a remarkable lack of data on the carbon balance and gas fluxes from undisturbed tropical wetlands, which limits the ability of global change models to make accurate predictions about future climate. We show that the available data on in situ carbon gas fluxes in undisturbed forested tropical wetlands indicate marked spatial and temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions, with exceptionally large fluxes in Southeast Asia and the Neotropics. By upscaling short-term measurements, we calculate that approximately 90 ± 77 Tg CH4 year−1 and 4540 ± 1480 Tg CO2 year−1 are released from tropical wetlands globally. CH4 fluxes are greater from mineral than organic soils, whereas CO2 fluxes do not differ between soil types. The high CO2 and CH4 emissions are mirrored by high rates of net primary productivity and litter decay. Net ecosystem productivity was estimated to be greater in peat-forming wetlands than on mineral soils, but the available data are insufficient to construct reliable carbon balances or estimate gas fluxes at regional scales. We conclude that there is an urgent need for systematic data on carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands to provide a robust understanding of how they differ from well-studied northern wetlands and allow incorporation of tropical wetlands into global climate change models. PMID:26074666

  12. Life cycle inventory modeling of phosphorus substitution, losses and crop uptake after land application of organic waste products

    Ten Hoeve, Marieke; Bruun, Sander; Naroznova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    of this study was to develop a relatively easy to use life cycle inventory model, known as PLCI, that could be used to estimate these values. Methods: A life cycle inventory model for P was developed, which estimates the effect of an application of organic waste followed by ordinary fertilizer management...

  13. Uncoupling of silicon compared with carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and the role of the cell cycle in continuous cultures of Thalassiosira pseudonana (Bacillariophyceae) under light, nitrogen and phosphorus control

    Claquin, P.; Martin-Jézéquel, V.R.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Veldhuis, M.; Kraay, G.W.

    2002-01-01

    The elemental composition and the cell cycle stages of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana Hasle and Heimdal were studied in continuous cultures over a range of different light- (E), nitrogen- (N), and phosphorus- (P) limited growth rates. In all growth conditions investigated, the decrease

  14. Global hindcasts and future projections of coastal nitrogen and phosphorus loads due to shellfish and seaweed aquaculture

    Bouwman, A.F.; Pawlowski, M.; Liu, C.; Beusen, A.H.W.; Shumway, S.E.; Glibert, P.M.; Overbeek, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    A model was developed to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for aquaculture production of crustaceans, bivalves, gastropods, and seaweed, using country production data for the 1970–2006 period from the Food and Agriculture Organization and scenarios based on the Millenium Assessment for

  15. Forms and subannual variability of nitrogen and phosphorus loading to global river networks over the 20th century

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Mogollón, José M.; Beusen, Arthur H.W.; Bouwman, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play a major role in the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic systems. N and P transfer to surface freshwaters has amplified during the 20th century, which has led to widespread eutrophication problems. The contribution of different sources, natural and

  16. Global Hindcasts and Future Projections of Coastal Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loads Due to Shellfish and Seaweed Aquaculture

    Bouwman, A.F.; Pawlowski, M.; Liu, C.; Beusen, A.W.H.; Shumway, S.E.; Glibert, P.M.; Overbeek, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    A model was developed to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for aquaculture production of crustaceans, bivalves, gastropods, and seaweed, using country production data for the 1970–2006 period from the Food and Agriculture Organi- zation and scenarios based on the Millenium Assessment for

  17. Drought and Carbon Cycling of Grassland Ecosystems under Global Change: A Review

    Tianjie Lei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased intensity and duration of droughts have dramatically altered the structure and function of grassland ecosystems, which have been forced to adapt to this change in climate. Combinations of global change drivers such as elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, warming, nitrogen (N deposition, grazing, and land-use change have influenced the impact that droughts have on grassland C cycling. This influence, to some extent, can modify the relationship between droughts and grassland carbon (C cycling in the multi-factor world. Unfortunately, prior reviews have been primarily anecdotal from the 1930s to the 2010s. We investigated the current state of the study on the interactive impacts of multiple factors under drought scenarios in grassland C cycling and provided scientific advice for dealing with droughts and managing grassland C cycling in a multi-factor world. Currently, adequate information is not available on the interaction between droughts and global change drivers, which would advance our understanding of grassland C cycling responses. It was determined that future experiments and models should specifically test how droughts regulate grassland C cycling under global changes. Previous multi-factor experiments of current and future global change conditions have studied various drought scenarios poorly, including changes in precipitation frequency and amplitude, timing, and interactions with other global change drivers. Multi-factor experiments have contributed to quantifying these potential changes and have provided important information on how water affects ecosystem processes under global change. There is an urgent need to establish a systematic framework that can assess ecosystem dynamic responses to droughts under current and future global change and human activity, with a focus on the combined effects of droughts, global change drivers, and the corresponding hierarchical responses of an ecosystem.

  18. Bacteria in the greenhouse: Modeling the role of oceanic plankton in the global carbon cycle

    Ducklow, H.W.; Fasham, M.J.R.

    1992-01-01

    To plan effectively to deal with the greenhouse effect, a fundamental understanding is needed of the biogeochemical and physical machinery that cycles carbon in the global system; in addition, models are needed of the carbon cycle to project the effects of increasing carbon dioxide. In this chapter, a description is given of efforts to simulate the cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the upper ocean, concentrating on the model's treatment of marine phytoplankton, and what it reveals of their role in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon between the ocean and atmosphere. The focus is on the upper ocean because oceanic uptake appears to regulate the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

  19. Global Water Cycle Diagrams Minimize Human Influence and Over-represent Water Security

    Abbott, B. W.; Bishop, K.; Zarnetske, J. P.; Minaudo, C.; Chapin, F. S., III; Plont, S.; Marçais, J.; Ellison, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Kolbe, T.; Ursache, O.; Hampton, T. B.; GU, S.; Chapin, M.; Krause, S.; Henderson, K. D.; Hannah, D. M.; Pinay, G.

    2017-12-01

    The diagram of the global water cycle is the central icon of hydrology, and for many people, the point of entry to thinking about key scientific concepts such as conservation of mass, teleconnections, and human dependence on ecological systems. Because humans now dominate critical components of the hydrosphere, improving our understanding of the global water cycle has graduated from an academic exercise to an urgent priority. To assess how the water cycle is conceptualized by researchers and the general public, we analyzed 455 water cycle diagrams from textbooks, scientific articles, and online image searches performed in different languages. Only 15% of diagrams integrated human activity into the water cycle and 77% showed no sign of humans whatsoever, although representation of humans varied substantially by region (lowest in China, N. America, and Australia; highest in Western Europe). The abundance and accessibility of freshwater resources were overrepresented, with 98% of diagrams omitting water pollution and climate change, and over 90% of diagrams making no distinction for saline groundwater and lakes. Oceanic aspects of the water cycle (i.e. ocean size, circulation, and precipitation) and related teleconnections were nearly always underrepresented. These patterns held across disciplinary boundaries and through time. We explore the historical and contemporary reasons for some of these biases and present a revised version of the global water cycle based on research from natural and social sciences. We conclude that current depictions of the global water cycle convey a false sense of water security and that reintegrating humans into water cycle diagrams is an important first step towards understanding and sustaining the hydrosocial cycle.

  20. Impacts of continental arcs on global carbon cycling and climate

    Lee, C. T.; Jiang, H.; Carter, L.; Dasgupta, R.; Cao, W.; Lackey, J. S.; Lenardic, A.; Barnes, J.; McKenzie, R.

    2017-12-01

    On myr timescales, climatic variability is tied to variations in atmospheric CO2, which in turn is driven by geologic sources of CO2 and modulated by the efficiency of chemical weathering and carbonate precipitation (sinks). Long-term variability in CO2 has largely been attributed to changes in mid-ocean ridge inputs or the efficiency of global weathering. For example, the Cretaceous greenhouse is thought to be related to enhanced oceanic crust production, while the late Cenozoic icehouse is attributed to enhanced chemical weathering associated with the Himalayan orogeny. Here, we show that continental arcs may play a more important role in controlling climate, both in terms of sources and sinks. Continental arcs differ from island arcs and mid-ocean ridges in that the continental plate through which arc magmas pass may contain large amounts of sedimentary carbonate, accumulated over the history of the continent. Interaction of arc magmas with crustal carbonates via assimilation, reaction or heating can significantly add to the mantle-sourced CO2 flux. Detrital zircons and global mapping of basement rocks shows that the length of continental arcs in the Cretaceous was more than twice that in the mid-Cenozoic; maps also show many of these arcs intersected crustal carbonates. The increased length of continental arc magmatism coincided with increased oceanic spreading rates, placing convergent margins into compression, which favors continental arcs. Around 50 Ma, however, nearly all the continental arcs in Eurasia and North America terminated as India collided with Eurasia and the western Pacific rolled back, initiating the Marianas-Tonga-Kermadec intra-oceanic subduction complex and possibly leading to a decrease in global CO2 production. Meanwhile, extinct continental arcs continued to erode, resulting in regionally enhanced chemical weathering unsupported by magmatic fluxes of CO2. Continental arcs, during their magmatic lifetimes, are thus a source of CO2, driving

  1. The changing global carbon cycle: Linking plant-soil carbon dynamics to global consequences

    Chapin, F. S.; McFarland, J.; McGuire, David A.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Ruess, Roger W.; Kielland, K.

    2009-01-01

    Most current climate-carbon cycle models that include the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle are based on a model developed 40 years ago by Woodwell & Whittaker (1968) and omit advances in biogeochemical understanding since that time. Their model treats net C emissions from ecosystems as the balance between net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (HR, i.e. primarily decomposition).

  2. A simple global carbon and energy coupled cycle model for global warming simulation: sensitivity to the light saturation effect

    Ichii, Kazuhito; Murakami, Kazutaka; Mukai, Toshikazu; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Ogawa, Katsuro

    2003-01-01

    A simple Earth system model, the Four-Spheres Cycle of Energy and Mass (4-SCEM) model, has been developed to simulate global warming due to anthropogenic CO 2 emission. The model consists of the Atmosphere-Earth Heat Cycle (AEHC) model, the Four Spheres Carbon Cycle (4-SCC) model, and their feedback processes. The AEHC model is a one-dimensional radiative convective model, which includes the greenhouse effect of CO 2 and H 2 O, and one cloud layer. The 4-SCC model is a box-type carbon cycle model, which includes biospheric CO 2 fertilization, vegetation area variation, the vegetation light saturation effect and the HILDA oceanic carbon cycle model. The feedback processes between carbon cycle and climate considered in the model are temperature dependencies of water vapor content, soil decomposition and ocean surface chemistry. The future status of the global carbon cycle and climate was simulated up to the year 2100 based on the 'business as usual' (IS92a) emission scenario, followed by a linear decline in emissions to zero in the year 2200. The atmospheric CO 2 concentration reaches 645 ppmv in 2100 and a peak of 760 ppmv approximately in the year 2170, and becomes a steady state with 600 ppmv. The projected CO 2 concentration was lower than those of the past carbon cycle studies, because we included the light saturation effect of vegetation. The sensitivity analysis showed that uncertainties derived from the light saturation effect of vegetation and land use CO 2 emissions were the primary cause of uncertainties in projecting future CO 2 concentrations. The climate feedback effects showed rather small sensitivities compared with the impacts of those two effects. Satellite-based net primary production trends analyses can somewhat decrease the uncertainty in quantifying CO 2 emissions due to land use changes. On the other hand, as the estimated parameter in vegetation light saturation was poorly constrained, we have to quantify and constrain the effect more

  3. Integrating Natural Gas Hydrates in the Global Carbon Cycle

    David Archer; Bruce Buffett

    2011-12-31

    We produced a two-dimensional geological time- and basin-scale model of the sedimentary margin in passive and active settings, for the simulation of the deep sedimentary methane cycle including hydrate formation. Simulation of geochemical data required development of parameterizations for bubble transport in the sediment column, and for the impact of the heterogeneity in the sediment pore fluid flow field, which represent new directions in modeling methane hydrates. The model is somewhat less sensitive to changes in ocean temperature than our previous 1-D model, due to the different methane transport mechanisms in the two codes (pore fluid flow vs. bubble migration). The model is very sensitive to reasonable changes in organic carbon deposition through geologic time, and to details of how the bubbles migrate, in particular how efficiently they are trapped as they rise through undersaturated or oxidizing chemical conditions and the hydrate stability zone. The active margin configuration reproduces the elevated hydrate saturations observed in accretionary wedges such as the Cascadia Margin, but predicts a decrease in the methane inventory per meter of coastline relative to a comparable passive margin case, and a decrease in the hydrate inventory with an increase in the plate subduction rate.

  4. Advances In Understanding Global Water Cycle With Advent of GPM Mission

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    During the coming decade, the internationally organized Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space based on an international fleet of satellites operated as a constellation. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams beginning with very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and then on to blends of the former datastreams with additional lower-caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of the now emerging global water & energy cycle (GWEC) programs of a number of research agencies throughout the world, GPM serves as a centerpiece space mission for improving our understanding of the Earth's water cycle from a global measurement perspective and on down to regional scales and below. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in climate, e.g., climate warming. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination. This paper first presents an overview of the GPM Mission and how its overriding scientific objectives for climate, weather, and hydrology flow from the anticipated improvements that are being planned for the constellation-based measuring system. Next, the paper shows how the GPM observations can be used within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine whether a given perturbation in precipitation is indicative of an actual rate change in the water cycle, consistent with required responses in water storage and/or water flux transport processes, or whether it is simply part of the natural

  5. Global carbon monoxide cycle: Modeling and data analysis

    Arellano, Avelino F., Jr.

    The overarching goal of this dissertation is to develop robust, spatially and temporally resolved CO sources, using global chemical transport modeling, CO measurements from Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory (CMDL) and Measurement of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT), under the framework of Bayesian synthesis inversion. To rigorously quantify the CO sources, I conducted five sets of inverse analyses, with each set investigating specific methodological and scientific issues. The first two inverse analyses separately explored two different CO observations to estimate CO sources by region and sector. Under a range of scenarios relating to inverse methodology and data quality issues, top-down estimates using CMDL CO surface and MOPITT CO remote-sensed measurements show consistent results particularly on a significantly large fossil fuel/biofuel (FFBF) emission in East Asia than present bottom-up estimates. The robustness of this estimate is strongly supported by forward and inverse modeling studies in the region particularly from TRansport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) campaign. The use of high-resolution measurement for the first time in CO inversion also draws attention to a methodology issue that the range of estimates from the scenarios is larger than posterior uncertainties, suggesting that estimate uncertainties may be underestimated. My analyses highlight the utility of top-down approach to provide additional constraints on present global estimates by also pointing to other discrepancies including apparent underestimation of FFBF from Africa/Latin America and biomass burning (BIOM) sources in Africa, southeast Asia and north-Latin America, indicating inconsistencies on our current understanding of fuel use and land-use patterns in these regions. Inverse analysis using MOPITT is extended to determine the extent of MOPITT information and estimate monthly regional CO sources. A major finding, which is consistent with other

  6. Can we Observe and Assess Whether the Global Hydrological Cycle is "Intensifying"?

    Wood, E. F.; Sheffield, J.

    2012-12-01

    There is controversy over whether the hydrological cycle is "intensifying" (or "accelerating"), and if so how and where? Resolving this critical question is a central goal of both national (e.g. NASA's Energy and Water cycle Study: NEWS) and international (WCRP Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment: GEWEX) programs. Its resolution has significant implications for understanding changes in hydroclimatic states and variability, and in future water security at regional to global scales. Over the last decade a number of papers have addressed trends and change in specific water cycle variables with results that can best be described as inconclusive, regardless of the conclusions of specific papers. In this presentation a number of recent studies will be reviewed for their consistency in assessing whether collectively one can make conclusions regarding how the hydrologic cycle is changing. The presentation will also demonstrate a pathway for analyzing where to observe for the detection of change based on a NASA-supported, global, 1983-2009, terrestrial water cycle Earth System Data Record project being led by the author. Initial results will be presented and a discussion presented on the extent that the proposed strategy can be used to detect change in the terrestrial hydrological cycle.

  7. Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle

    Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1990-02-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.

  8. Development and testing of an in-stream phosphorus cycling model for the soil and water assessment tool.

    White, Michael J; Storm, Daniel E; Mittelstet, Aaron; Busteed, Philip R; Haggard, Brian E; Rossi, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool is widely used to predict the fate and transport of phosphorus (P) from the landscape through streams and rivers. The current in-stream P submodel may not be suitable for many stream systems, particularly those dominated by attached algae and those affected by point sources. In this research, we developed an alternative submodel based on the equilibrium P concentration concept coupled with a particulate scour and deposition model. This submodel was integrated with the SWAT model and applied to the Illinois River Watershed in Oklahoma, a basin influenced by waste water treatment plant discharges and extensive poultry litter application. The model was calibrated and validated using measured data. Highly variable in-stream P concentrations and equilibrium P concentration values were predicted spatially and temporally. The model also predicted the gradual storage of P in streambed sediments and the resuspension of this P during periodic high-flow flushing events. Waste water treatment plants were predicted to have a profound effect on P dynamics in the Illinois River due to their constant discharge even under base flow conditions. A better understanding of P dynamics in stream systems using the revised submodel may lead to the development of more effective mitigation strategies to control the impact of P from point and nonpoint sources. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Beyond the Fe-P-redox connection: preferential regeneration of phosphorus from organic matter as a key control on Baltic Sea nutrient cycles

    T. Jilbert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of regeneration and burial of phosphorus (P in the Baltic Sea are strongly dependent on redox conditions. Redox varies spatially along water depth gradients and temporally in response to the seasonal cycle and multidecadal hydrographic variability. Alongside the well-documented link between iron oxyhydroxide dissolution and release of P from Baltic Sea sediments, we show that preferential remineralization of P with respect to carbon (C and nitrogen (N during degradation of organic matter plays a key role in determining the surplus of bioavailable P in the water column. Preferential remineralization of P takes place both in the water column and upper sediments and its rate is shown to be redox-dependent, increasing as reducing conditions become more severe at greater water-depth in the deep basins. Existing Redfield-based biogeochemical models of the Baltic may therefore underestimate the imbalance between N and P availability for primary production, and hence the vulnerability of the Baltic to sustained eutrophication via the fixation of atmospheric N. However, burial of organic P is also shown to increase during multidecadal intervals of expanded hypoxia, due to higher net burial rates of organic matter around the margins of the deep basins. Such intervals may be characterized by basin-scale acceleration of all fluxes within the P cycle, including productivity, regeneration and burial, sustained by the relative accessibility of the water column P pool beneath a shallow halocline.

  10. The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century.

    Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A; Cape, J Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

    2013-07-05

    Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr(-1)) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3(-)) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr(-1) to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40-70 Tg N yr(-1) to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr(-1)) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 10(2)-10(3) years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced.

  11. World's first ejector cycle for mobile refrigerators to stop global warming

    Takeuchi, Hirotsugu [Denso Corporation, Kariya (Japan); Gyoeroeg, Tibor [DENSO AUTOMOTIVE Deutschland GmbH, Eching (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The development of energy-saving technologies is in great demand recently to stop global warming. We are committed to developing the Ejector Cycle as an energy-saving technology for refrigerators and air conditioners. The ejector, which is an energy-saving technological innovation, improves the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle by effectively using the expansion energy that is lost in the conventional vapor-compression cycle, and is applicable to almost all vapor-compression refrigerating air conditioners, thus improving the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. Concerning the application of the Ejector Cycle in truck-transport refrigerators, we released Ejector Cycle products for large and medium-size freezer trucks, which have been favorably accepted by customers in 2003. Simultaneously we also developed the domestic water supply system using heat pump with natural refrigerant (CO{sub 2}). We developed a new Ejector Cycle, completed in 2007 a cool box which uses the refrigeration cycle of the mobile air-conditioning system to cool drinks and the commercial compact refrigerator. In 2008 a domestic water supply heat pump system using a heat pump with the natural refrigerant CO{sub 2} and the next-generation Ejector Cycle II that substantially improves performance was brought to the market. A new generation of Ejector Cycle is under development which will significantly improve the efficiency of mobile air conditioning systems (orig.)

  12. Phosphorus Processing—Potentials for Higher Efficiency

    Ludwig Hermann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and the Paris Agreement (COP21 by virtually all United Nations, producing more with less is imperative. In this context, phosphorus processing, despite its high efficiency compared to other steps in the value chain, needs to be revisited by science and industry. During processing, phosphorus is lost to phosphogypsum, disposed of in stacks globally piling up to 3–4 billion tons and growing by about 200 million tons per year, or directly discharged to the sea. Eutrophication, acidification, and long-term pollution are the environmental impacts of both practices. Economic and regulatory framework conditions determine whether the industry continues wasting phosphorus, pursues efficiency improvements or stops operations altogether. While reviewing current industrial practice and potentials for increasing processing efficiency with lower impact, the article addresses potentially conflicting goals of low energy and material use as well as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA as a tool for evaluating the relative impacts of improvement strategies. Finally, options by which corporations could pro-actively and credibly demonstrate phosphorus stewardship as well as options by which policy makers could enforce improvement without impairing business locations are discussed.

  13. Feedback of global warming to soil carbon cycling in forest ecosystems

    Nakane, Kaneyuki

    1993-01-01

    Thus in this study the simulation of soil carbon cycling and dynamics of its storage in several types of mature forests developed from the cool-temperate to the tropics was carried out for quantitatively assessing carbon loss from the soil under several scenarios of global warming, based on the model of soil carbon cycling in forest ecosystems (Nakane et al. 1984, 1987 and Nakane 1992). (J.P.N.)

  14. Global cycle changes the rules for U.S. pulp and paper

    Peter J. Ince

    1999-01-01

    As in other industries, the fortunes of the U.S. pulp and paper industry are now closely tied to the global economy. The U.S. pulp and paper sector exhibits fairly steady production and growth trends, but its economic fortunes have become intertwined with the bglobal cyclec of supply and demand. Exposure to the global cycle has increased for the U.S. in recent decades...

  15. Should we expect financial globalization to have significant effects on business cycles?

    Iversen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Empirical research suggests that financial globalization has insignificant effects on business cycles. Based on standard theoretical models it might be conjectured that the effects should be significant. I show that this conjecture is wrong. Theoretical effects of financial globalization can be determined to any level of precision by expanding the underlying artificial samples. In contrast, in the data the effects are imprecisely estimated because of short samples. I show that if the conclusi...

  16. Phosphorus in agricultural soils:

    Ringeval, Bruno; Augusto, Laurent; Monod, Hervé; Apeldoorn, van D.F.; Bouwman, A.F.; Yang, X.; Achat, D.L.; Chini, L.P.; Oost, van K.; Guenet, Bertrand; Wang, R.; Decharme, B.; Nesme, T.; Pellerin, S.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability in soils limits crop yields in many regions of the World, while excess of soil P triggers aquatic eutrophication in other regions. Numerous processes drive the global spatial distribution of P in agricultural soils, but their relative roles remain unclear. Here, we

  17. The global warming potential of building materials : An application of life cycle analysis in Nepal

    Bhochhibhoya, Silu; Zanetti, Michela; Pierobon, Francesca; Gatto, Paola; Maskey, Ramesh Kumar; Cavalli, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the global-warming potential of materials used to construct the walls of 3 building types - traditional, semimodern, and modern - in Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone in Nepal, using the life-cycle assessment approach. Traditional buildings use local materials, mainly wood

  18. Role of zooplankton dynamics for Southern Ocean phytoplankton biomass and global biogeochemical cycles

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Moriarty, Róisín

    2016-01-01

    zooplankton community, despite iron limitation of phytoplankton community growth rates. This result has implications for the representation of global biogeochemical cycles in models as zooplankton faecal pellets sink rapidly and partly control the carbon export to the intermediate and deep ocean....

  19. Consequences of the cultivation of energy crops for the global nitrogen cycle

    Bouwman, A.F.; Grinsven, van J.J.M.; Eickhout, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we assess the global consequences of implementing first- and second-generation bioenergy in the coming five decades, focusing on the nitrogen cycle. We Use a climate mitigation scenario from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Environmental Outlook, in

  20. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget

    Cole, J.; Prairie, Y.T.; Caraco, N.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvil, L.; Striegl, R.G.; Duarte, C.M.; Kortelainen, P.; Downing, J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J.

    2007-01-01

    Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth’s surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking

  1. Solar cycle length hypothesis appears to support the IPCC on global warming

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse gases. The "solar hypothesis" claims that solar activity causes a significant component of the global mean temperature to vary in phase opposite to the filtered solar cycle lengths. In an earlier paper we have demonstrated that for data covering...... lengths with the "corrected" temperature anomalies is substantially better than with the historical anomalies. Therefore our findings support a total reversal of the common assumption that a verification of the solar hypothesis would challenge the IPCC assessment of man-made global warming.......Since the discovery of a striking correlation between 1-2-2-2-1 filtered solar cycle lengths and the 11-year running average of Northern Hemisphere land air temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global...

  2. Proceedings of GLOBAL 2007 conference on advanced nuclear fuel cycles and systems

    2007-01-01

    In keeping with the 12-year history of this conference, GLOBAL 2007 focuses on future nuclear energy systems and fuel cycles. With the increasing public acceptance and political endorsement of nuclear energy, it is a pivotal time for nuclear energy research. Significant advances have been made in development of advanced nuclear fuels and materials, reactor designs, partitioning, transmutation and reprocessing technologies, and waste management strategies. In concert with the technological advances, it is more important than ever to develop sensible nuclear proliferation policies, to promote sustainability, and to continue to increase international collaboration. To further these aims, GLOBAL 2007 highlights recent developments in the following areas: advanced integrated fuel cycle concepts, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, advanced reprocessing technology, advanced fuels and materials, advanced waste management technology, novel concepts for waste disposal and repository development, advanced reactors, partitioning and transmutation, developments in nuclear non-proliferation technology, policy, and implementation, sustainability and expanded global utilization of nuclear energy, and international collaboration on nuclear energy

  3. A Global Rapid Integrated Monitoring System for Water Cycle and Water Resource Assessment (Global-RIMS)

    Roads, John; Voeroesmarty, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The main focus of our work was to solidify underlying data sets, the data processing tools and the modeling environment needed to perform a series of long-term global and regional hydrological simulations leading eventually to routine hydrometeorological predictions. A water and energy budget synthesis was developed for the Mississippi River Basin (Roads et al. 2003), in order to understand better what kinds of errors exist in current hydrometeorological data sets. This study is now being extended globally with a larger number of observations and model based data sets under the new NASA NEWS program. A global comparison of a number of precipitation data sets was subsequently carried out (Fekete et al. 2004) in which it was further shown that reanalysis precipitation has substantial problems, which subsequently led us to the development of a precipitation assimilation effort (Nunes and Roads 2005). We believe that with current levels of model skill in predicting precipitation that precipitation assimilation is necessary to get the appropriate land surface forcing.

  4. Effects of phosphorus addition on nitrogen cycle and fluxes of N2O and CH4 in tropical tree plantation soils in Thailand

    Taiki Mori

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to test the effects of phosphorus (P addition on nitrous oxide (N2O emissions and methane (CH4 uptakes, using tropical tree plantation soils in Thailand. Soil samples were taken from five forest stands—Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Hopea odorata, and Xylia xylocarpa—and incubated at 80% water holding capacity. P addition stimulated N2O emissions only in Xylia xylocarpa soils. Since P addition tended to increase net ammonification rates in Xylia xylocarpa soils, the stimulated N2O emissions were suggested to be due to the stimulated nitrogen (N cycle by P addition and the higher N supply for nitrification and denitrification. In other soils, P addition had no effects on N2O emissions or soil N properties, except that P addition tended to increase the soil microbial biomass N in Acacia auriculiformis soils. No effects of P addition were observed on CH4 uptakes in any soil. It is suggested that P addition on N2O and CH4 fluxes at the study site were not significant, at least under laboratory conditions.

  5. NASA Contributions to Improve Understanding of Extreme Events in the Global Energy and Water Cycle

    Lapenta, William M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) has established the water cycle goals of the Nation's climate change program. Accomplishing these goals will require, in part, an accurate accounting of the key reservoirs and fluxes associated with the global water and energy cycle, including their spatial and temporal variability. through integration of all necessary observations and research tools, To this end, in conjunction with NASA's Earth science research strategy, the overarching long-term NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) grand challenge can he summarized as documenting and enabling improved, observationally based, predictions of water and energy cycle consequences of Earth system variability and change. This challenge requires documenting and predicting trends in the rate of the Earth's water and energy cycling that corresponds to climate change and changes in the frequency and intensity of naturally occurring related meteorological and hydrologic events, which may vary as climate may vary in the future. The cycling of water and energy has obvious and significant implications for the health and prosperity of our society. The importance of documenting and predicting water and energy cycle variations and extremes is necessary to accomplish this benefit to society.

  6. Global water cycle amplifying at less than the Clausius-Clapeyron rate

    Skliris, Nikolaos; Zika, Jan D.; Nurser, George; Josey, Simon A.; Marsh, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A change in the cycle of water from dry to wet regions of the globe would have far reaching impact on humanity. As air warms, its capacity to hold water increases at the Clausius-Clapeyron rate (CC, approximately 7%?°C?1). Surface ocean salinity observations have suggested the water cycle has amplified at close to CC following recent global warming, a result that was found to be at odds with state-of the art climate models. Here we employ a method based on water mass transformation theory for...

  7. Salinity Remote Sensing and the Study of the Global Water Cycle

    Lagerloef, G. S. E.; LeVine, David M.; Chao, Y.; Colomb, F. Raul; Font, J.

    2007-01-01

    The SMOS and AquariusISAC-D satellite missions will begin a new era to map the global sea surface salinity (SSS) field and its variability from space within the next twothree years. They will provide critical data needed to study the interactions between the ocean circulation, global water cycle and climate. Key scientific issues to address are (1) mapping large expanses of the ocean where conventional SSS data do not yet exist, (2) understanding the seasonal and interannual SSS variations and the link to precipitation, evaporation and sea-ice patterns, (3) links between SSS and variations in the oceanic overturning circulation, (4) air-sea coupling processes in the tropics that influence El Nino, and (4) closing the marine freshwater budget. There is a growing body of oceanographic evidence in the form of salinity trends that portend significant changes in the hydrologic cycle. Over the past several decades, highlatitude oceans have become fresher while the subtropical oceans have become saltier. This change is slowly spreading into the subsurface ocean layers and may be affecting the strength of the ocean's therrnohaline overturning circulation. Salinity is directly linked to the ocean dynamics through the density distribution, and provides an important signature of the global water cycle. The distribution and variation of oceanic salinity is therefore attracting increasing scientific attention due to the relationship to the global water cycle and its influence on circulation, mixing, and climate processes. The oceans dominate the water cycle by providing 86% of global surface evaporation (E) and receiving 78% of global precipitation (P). Regional differences in E-P, land runoff, and the melting or freezing of ice affect the salinity of surface water. Direct observations of E-P over the ocean have large uncertainty, with discrepancies between the various state-of-the-art precipitation analyses of a factor of two or more in many regions. Quantifying the climatic

  8. Sustainable Phosphorus Measures: Strategies and Technologies for Achieving Phosphorus Security

    Stuart White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus underpins the world’s food systems by ensuring soil fertility, maximising crop yields, supporting farmer livelihoods and ultimately food security. Yet increasing concerns around long-term availability and accessibility of the world’s main source of phosphorus—phosphate rock, means there is a need to investigate sustainable measures to buffer the world’s food systems against the long and short-term impacts of global phosphorus scarcity. While the timeline of phosphorus scarcity is contested, there is consensus that more efficient use and recycling of phosphorus is required. While the agricultural sector will be crucial in achieving this, sustainable phosphorus measures in sectors upstream and downstream of agriculture from mine to fork will also need to be addressed. This paper presents a comprehensive classification of all potential phosphorus supply- and demand-side measures to meet long-term phosphorus needs for food production. Examples range from increasing efficiency in the agricultural and mining sector, to technologies for recovering phosphorus from urine and food waste. Such measures are often undertaken in isolation from one another rather than linked in an integrated strategy. This integrated approach will enable scientists and policy-makers to take a systematic approach when identifying potential sustainable phosphorus measures. If a systematic approach is not taken, there is a risk of inappropriate investment in research and implementation of technologies and that will not ultimately ensure sufficient access to phosphorus to produce food in the future. The paper concludes by introducing a framework to assess and compare sustainable phosphorus measures and to determine the least cost options in a given context.

  9. Albedo enhancement of marine clouds to counteract global warming: impacts on the hydrological cycle

    Bala, G. [Indian Institute of Science, Divecha Center for Climate Change, Bangalore (India); Indian Institute of Science, Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India); Caldeira, Ken; Cao, Long; Ban-Weiss, George; Shin, Ho-Jeong [Carnegie Institution, Department of Global Ecology, Stanford, CA (United States); Nemani, Rama [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Recent studies have shown that changes in solar radiation affect the hydrological cycle more strongly than equivalent CO{sub 2} changes for the same change in global mean surface temperature. Thus, solar radiation management ''geoengineering'' proposals to completely offset global mean temperature increases by reducing the amount of absorbed sunlight might be expected to slow the global water cycle and reduce runoff over land. However, proposed countering of global warming by increasing the albedo of marine clouds would reduce surface solar radiation only over the oceans. Here, for an idealized scenario, we analyze the response of temperature and the hydrological cycle to increased reflection by clouds over the ocean using an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a mixed layer ocean model. When cloud droplets are reduced in size over all oceans uniformly to offset the temperature increase from a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, the global-mean precipitation and evaporation decreases by about 1.3% but runoff over land increases by 7.5% primarily due to increases over tropical land. In the model, more reflective marine clouds cool the atmospheric column over ocean. The result is a sinking motion over oceans and upward motion over land. We attribute the increased runoff over land to this increased upward motion over land when marine clouds are made more reflective. Our results suggest that, in contrast to other proposals to increase planetary albedo, offsetting mean global warming by reducing marine cloud droplet size does not necessarily lead to a drying, on average, of the continents. However, we note that the changes in precipitation, evaporation and P-E are dominated by small but significant areas, and given the highly idealized nature of this study, a more thorough and broader assessment would be required for proposals of altering marine cloud properties on a large scale. (orig.)

  10. Refined global methyl halide budgets with respect to rapeseed (Brassica napus) by life-cycle measurements

    Jiao, Y.; Acdan, J.; Xu, R.; Deventer, M. J.; Rhew, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    A precise quantification of global methyl halide budgets is needed to evaluate the ozone depletion potential of these compounds and to predict future changes of stratospheric ozone. However, the global budgets of methyl halides are not balanced between currently identified and quantified sources and sinks. Our study re-evaluated the methyl bromide budget from global cultivated rapeseed (Brassica napus) through life-cycle flux measurements both in the greenhouse and in the field, yielding a methyl bromide emission rate that scales globally to 1.0 - 1.2 Gg yr-1. While this indicates a globally significant source, it is much smaller than the previously widely cited value of 5 - 6 Gg yr-1(Mead et al., 2008), even taking into account the near tripling of annual global yield of rapeseed since the previous evaluation was conducted. Our study also evaluated the methyl chloride and methyl iodide emission levels from rapeseed, yielding emission rates that scale to 5.4 Gg yr-1 for methyl chloride and 1.8 Gg yr-1 of methyl iodide. The concentrations of the methyl donor SAM (S-adenosyl methionine) and the resultant product SAH (S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine) were also analyzed to explore their role in biogenic methyl halide formation. Halide gradient incubations showed that the magnitude of methyl halide emissions from rapeseed is highly correlated to soil halide levels, thus raising the concern that the heterogeneity of soil halide contents geographically should be considered when extrapolating to global budget.

  11. Global Water Cycle Agreement in the Climate Models Assessed in the IPCC AR4

    Waliser, D.; Seo, K. -W.; Schubert, S.; Njoku, E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the fidelity of the global water cycle in the climate model simulations assessed in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. The results demonstrate good model agreement in quantities that have had a robust global observational basis and that are physically unambiguous. The worst agreement occurs for quantities that have both poor observational constraints and whose model representations can be physically ambiguous. In addition, components involving water vapor (frozen water) typically exhibit the best (worst) agreement, and fluxes typically exhibit better agreement than reservoirs. These results are discussed in relation to the importance of obtaining accurate model representation of the water cycle and its role in climate change. Recommendations are also given for facilitating the needed model improvements.

  12. Earth Without Life: A Systems Model of a Global Abiotic Nitrogen Cycle.

    Laneuville, Matthieu; Kameya, Masafumi; Cleaves, H James

    2018-03-20

    Nitrogen is the major component of Earth's atmosphere and plays important roles in biochemistry. Biological systems have evolved a variety of mechanisms for fixing and recycling environmental nitrogen sources, which links them tightly with terrestrial nitrogen reservoirs. However, prior to the emergence of biology, all nitrogen cycling was abiological, and this cycling may have set the stage for the origin of life. It is of interest to understand how nitrogen cycling would proceed on terrestrial planets with comparable geodynamic activity to Earth, but on which life does not arise. We constructed a kinetic mass-flux model of nitrogen cycling in its various major chemical forms (e.g., N 2 , reduced (NH x ) and oxidized (NO x ) species) between major planetary reservoirs (the atmosphere, oceans, crust, and mantle) and included inputs from space. The total amount of nitrogen species that can be accommodated in each reservoir, and the ways in which fluxes and reservoir sizes may have changed over time in the absence of biology, are explored. Given a partition of volcanism between arc and hotspot types similar to the modern ones, our global nitrogen cycling model predicts a significant increase in oceanic nitrogen content over time, mostly as NH x , while atmospheric N 2 content could be lower than today. The transport timescales between reservoirs are fast compared to the evolution of the environment; thus atmospheric composition is tightly linked to surface and interior processes. Key Words: Nitrogen cycle-Abiotic-Planetology-Astrobiology. Astrobiology 18, xxx-xxx.

  13. Updates on Modeling the Water Cycle with the NASA Ames Mars Global Climate Model

    Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Montmessin, F.; Brecht, A. S.; Urata, R.; Klassen, D. R.; Wolff, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Global Circulation Models (GCMs) have made steady progress in simulating the current Mars water cycle. It is now widely recognized that clouds are a critical component that can significantly affect the nature of the simulated water cycle. Two processes in particular are key to implementing clouds in a GCM: the microphysical processes of formation and dissipation, and their radiative effects on heating/ cooling rates. Together, these processes alter the thermal structure, change the dynamics, and regulate inter-hemispheric transport. We have made considerable progress representing these processes in the NASA Ames GCM, particularly in the presence of radiatively active water ice clouds. We present the current state of our group's water cycle modeling efforts, show results from selected simulations, highlight some of the issues, and discuss avenues for further investigation.­

  14. The maximum reservoir capacity of soils for persistent organic pollutants: implications for global cycling

    Dalla Valle, M.; Jurado, E.; Dachs, J.; Sweetman, A.J.; Jones, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of maximum reservoir capacity (MRC), the ratio of the capacities of the surface soil and of the atmospheric mixed layer (AML) to hold chemical under equilibrium conditions, is applied to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface 'skin' (1 mm) of soils. MRC is calculated as a function of soil organic matter (SOM) content and temperature-dependent K OA and mapped globally for selected PCB congeners (PCB-28; -153; -180) and HCB, to identify regions with a higher tendency to retain POPs. It is shown to vary over many orders of magnitude, between compounds, locations and time (seasonally/diurnally). The MRC approach emphasises the very large capacity of soils as a storage compartment for POPs. The theoretical MRC concept is compared to reality and its implications for the global cycling of POPs are discussed. Sharp gradients in soil MRC can exist in mountainous areas and between the land and ocean. Exchanges between oceans and land masses via the atmosphere is likely to be an important driver to the global cycling of these compounds, and net ocean-land transfers could occur in some areas. - Major global terrestrial sinks/stores for POPs are identified and the significance of gradients between them discussed

  15. A Time Series Analysis of Global Soil Moisture Data Products for Water Cycle Studies

    Zhan, X.; Yin, J.; Liu, J.; Fang, L.; Hain, C.; Ferraro, R. R.; Weng, F.

    2017-12-01

    Water is essential for sustaining life on our planet Earth and water cycle is one of the most important processes of out weather and climate system. As one of the major components of the water cycle, soil moisture impacts significantly the other water cycle components (e.g. evapotranspiration, runoff, etc) and the carbon cycle (e.g. plant/crop photosynthesis and respiration). Understanding of soil moisture status and dynamics is crucial for monitoring and predicting the weather, climate, hydrology and ecological processes. Satellite remote sensing has been used for soil moisture observation since the launch of the Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite in 1978. Many satellite soil moisture data products have been made available to the science communities and general public. The soil moisture operational product system (SMOPS) of NOAA NESDIS has been operationally providing global soil moisture data products from each of the currently available microwave satellite sensors and their blends. This presentation will provide an update of SMOPS products. The time series of each of these soil moisture data products are analyzed against other data products, such as precipitation and evapotranspiration from other independent data sources such as the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). Temporal characteristics of these water cycle components are explored against some historical events, such as the 2010 Russian, 2010 China and 2012 United States droughts, 2015 South Carolina floods, etc. Finally whether a merged global soil moisture data product can be used as a climate data record is evaluated based on the above analyses.

  16. Environmental Phosphorus Recovery Based on Molecular Bioscavengers

    Gruber, Mathias Felix

    Phosphorus is a ubiquitous element of all known life and as such it is found throughout numerous key molecules related to various cellular functions. The supply of phosphorus is tightly linked to global food security, since phosphorus is used to produce agricultural fertilizers, without which...... it would not be possible to feed the world population. Sadly, the current supply of phosphorus is based on the gradual depletion of limited fossil reserves, and some estimates predict that within 15-25 years we will consume more phosphorus than we can produce. There is therefore a strong international...... pressure to develop sustainable phosphorus practices as well as new technologies for phosphorus recovery. Nature has spent billions of years refining proteins that interact with phosphates. This has inspired the present work where the overall ambitions are: to facilitate the development of a recovery...

  17. The Antarctic Centennial Oscillation: A Natural Paleoclimate Cycle in the Southern Hemisphere That Influences Global Temperature

    W. Jackson Davis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a previously-unexplored natural temperature cycle recorded in ice cores from Antarctica—the Antarctic Centennial Oscillation (ACO—that has oscillated for at least the last 226 millennia. Here we document the properties of the ACO and provide an initial assessment of its role in global climate. We analyzed open-source databases of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen as proxies for paleo-temperatures. We find that centennial-scale spectral peaks from temperature-proxy records at Vostok over the last 10,000 years occur at the same frequencies (±2.4% in three other paleoclimate records from drill sites distributed widely across the East Antarctic Plateau (EAP, and >98% of individual ACOs evaluated at Vostok match 1:1 with homologous cycles at the other three EAP drill sites and conversely. Identified ACOs summate with millennial periodicity to form the Antarctic Isotope Maxima (AIMs known to precede Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O oscillations recorded in Greenland ice cores. Homologous ACOs recorded at the four EAP drill sites during the last glacial maximum appeared first at lower elevations nearest the ocean and centuries later on the high EAP, with latencies that exceed dating uncertainty >30-fold. ACO homologs at different drill sites became synchronous, however, during the warmer Holocene. Comparative spectral analysis suggests that the millennial-scale AIM cycle declined in period from 1500 to 800 years over the last 70 millennia. Similarly, over the last 226 millennia ACO repetition period (mean 352 years declined by half while amplitude (mean 0.67 °C approximately doubled. The period and amplitude of ACOs oscillate in phase with glacial cycles and related surface insolation associated with planetary orbital forces. We conclude that the ACO: encompasses at least the EAP; is the proximate source of D-O oscillations in the Northern Hemisphere; therefore affects global temperature; propagates with increased velocity as temperature

  18. Transport of nutrients from land to sea: Global modeling approaches and uncertainty analyses

    Beusen, A.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents four examples of global models developed as part of the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE). They describe different components of global biogeochemical cycles of the nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and silicon (Si), with a focus on approaches to

  19. Effects of global change during the 21st century onthe nitrogen cycle

    Fowler, D.; Steadman, C. E.; Stevenson, D.; Coyle, M.; Rees, R. M.; Skiba, U. M.; Sutton, M. A.; Cape, J. N.; Dore, A. J.; Vieno, M.; Simpson, D.; Zaehle, S.; Stocker, B. D.; Rinaldi, M.; Facchini, M. C.; Flechard, C. R.; Nemitz, E.; Twigg, M.; Erisman, J. W.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Galloway, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    The global nitrogen (N) cycle at the beginning of the 21st century has been shown to be strongly influenced by the inputs of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from human activities, including combustion-related NOx, industrial and agricultural N fixation, estimated to be 220 Tg N yr-1 in 2010, which is approximately equal to the sum of biological N fixation in unmanaged terrestrial and marine ecosystems. According to current projections, changes in climate and land use during the 21st century will increase both biological and anthropogenic fixation, bringing the total to approximately 600 Tg N yr-1 by around 2100. The fraction contributed directly by human activities is unlikely to increase substantially if increases in nitrogen use efficiency in agriculture are achieved and control measures on combustion-related emissions implemented. Some N-cycling processes emerge as particularly sensitive to climate change. One of the largest responses to climate in the processing of Nr is the emission to the atmosphere of NH3, which is estimated to increase from 65 Tg N yr-1 in 2008 to 93 Tg N yr-1 in 2100 assuming a change in global surface temperature of 5 °C in the absence of increased anthropogenic activity. With changes in emissions in response to increased demand for animal products the combined effect would be to increase NH3 emissions to 135 Tg N yr-1. Another major change is the effect of climate changes on aerosol composition and specifically the increased sublimation of NH4NO3 close to the ground to form HNO3 and NH3 in a warmer climate, which deposit more rapidly to terrestrial surfaces than aerosols. Inorganic aerosols over the polluted regions especially in Europe and North America were dominated by (NH4)2SO4 in the 1970s to 1980s, and large reductions in emissions of SO2 have removed most of the SO42- from the atmosphere in these regions. Inorganic aerosols from anthropogenic emissions are now dominated by NH4NO3, a volatile aerosol which contributes substantially to PM10

  20. Exploring the impact of agriculture on nitrogen and phosphorus biogeochemistry in global rivers during the twentieth century (Invited)

    Bouwman, L.; Beusen, A.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrients are transported from land to sea through the continuum formed by soils, groundwater, riparian zones, floodplains, streams, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. The hydrology, ecology and biogeochemical processing in each of these components are strongly coupled and result in retention of a significant fraction of the nutrients transported. This paper analyzes the global changes in nutrient biogeochemical processes and retention in rivers during the past century (1900-2000); this period encompasses dramatic increases in human population and economic human activities including agriculture that have resulted in major changes in land use, nutrient use in agriculture, wastewater flows and human interventions in the hydrology (1). We use the hydrological PCR-GLOBWB model (2) for the period 1900-2000, including climate variability and the history of dam construction and land use conversion. Global agricultural and natural N and P soil budgets for the period 1900-2000 are the starting point to simulate nutrient flows from the soil via surface runoff and leaching through the groundwater system and riparian zones. In-stream processes are described with the nutrient spiraling concept. In the period 1900-2000, the global soil N budget surplus (inputs minus withdrawal in harvested crops) for agricultural and natural ecosystems increased from 118 to 202 Tg yr-1, and the global P budget increased from nutrient delivery to streams and river nutrient export has increased rapidly in the 20th century. Model results are sensitive to factors determining the N and P delivery, as well as in-stream processes. The most uncertain factors are N delivery to streams by groundwater (denitrification as a function of thickness and reactivity of aquifers), and in-stream N and P retention parameters (net uptake velocity, retention as function of concentration). References 1. Bouwman AF, Beusen AHW, Griffioen J, Van Groenigen JW, Hefting MM, Oenema O, et al. Global trends and uncertainties in

  1. Global nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use for agriculture production in the past half century: shifted hot spots and nutrient imbalance

    Lu, Chaoqun; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-03-01

    In addition to enhancing agricultural productivity, synthetic nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) fertilizer application in croplands dramatically alters global nutrient budget, water quality, greenhouse gas balance, and their feedback to the climate system. However, due to the lack of geospatial fertilizer input data, current Earth system and land surface modeling studies have to ignore or use oversimplified data (e.g., static, spatially uniform fertilizer use) to characterize agricultural N and P input over decadal or century-long periods. In this study, we therefore develop global time series gridded data of annual synthetic N and P fertilizer use rate in agricultural lands, matched with HYDE 3.2 historical land use maps, at a resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° latitude-longitude during 1961-2013. Our data indicate N and P fertilizer use rates on per unit cropland area increased by approximately 8 times and 3 times, respectively, since the year 1961 when IFA (International Fertilizer Industry Association) and FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) surveys of country-level fertilizer input became available. Considering cropland expansion, the increase in total fertilizer consumption is even larger. Hotspots of agricultural N fertilizer application shifted from the US and western Europe in the 1960s to eastern Asia in the early 21st century. P fertilizer input shows a similar pattern with an additional current hotspot in Brazil. We found a global increase in fertilizer N / P ratio by 0.8 g N g-1 P per decade (p human impacts on agroecosystem functions in the long run. Our data can serve as one of critical input drivers for regional and global models to assess the impacts of nutrient enrichment on climate system, water resources, food security, etc. Datasets available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.863323.

  2. Simulations of the global carbon cycle and anthropogenic CO{sub 2} transient. Annual report

    Sarmiento, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    This research focuses on improving the understanding of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide transient using observations and models of the past and present. In addition, an attempt is made to develop an ability to predict the future of the carbon cycle in response to continued anthropogenic perturbations and climate change. Three aspects of the anthropogenic carbon budget were investigated: (1) the globally integrated budget at the present time; (2) the time history of the carbon budget; and (3) the spatial distribution of carbon fluxes. One of the major activities of this study was the participation in the model comparison study of Enting, et al. [1994] carried out in preparation for the IPCC 1994 report.

  3. A Novel Organic Rankine Cycle System with Improved Thermal Stability and Low Global Warming Fluids

    Panesar Angad S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system for long haul truck application. Rather than typical tail pipe heat recovery configurations, the proposed setup exploits the gaseous streams that are already a load on the engine cooling module. The system uses dual loops connected only by the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR stream. A water blend study is conducted to identify suitable mixtures for the High Temperature (HT loop, while the Low Temperature (LT loop utilises a Low Global Warming (GWP Hydrofluoroether.

  4. Simulations of the global carbon cycle and anthropogenic CO2 transient

    Sarmiento, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    This research focuses on improving the understanding of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide transient using observations and models of the past and present. In addition, an attempt is made to develop an ability to predict the future of the carbon cycle in response to continued anthropogenic perturbations and climate change. Three aspects of the anthropogenic carbon budget were investigated: (1) the globally integrated budget at the present time; (2) the time history of the carbon budget; and (3) the spatial distribution of carbon fluxes. One of the major activities of this study was the participation in the model comparison study of Enting, et al. [1994] carried out in preparation for the IPCC 1994 report

  5. Carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: global carbon cycle impact from an improved plant nitrogen cycle in the Community Land Model.

    Shi, Mingjie; Fisher, Joshua B; Brzostek, Edward R; Phillips, Richard P

    2016-03-01

    Plants typically expend a significant portion of their available carbon (C) on nutrient acquisition - C that could otherwise support growth. However, given that most global terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) do not include the C cost of nutrient acquisition, these models fail to represent current and future constraints to the land C sink. Here, we integrated a plant productivity-optimized nutrient acquisition model - the Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen Model - into one of the most widely used TBMs, the Community Land Model. Global plant nitrogen (N) uptake is dynamically simulated in the coupled model based on the C costs of N acquisition from mycorrhizal roots, nonmycorrhizal roots, N-fixing microbes, and retranslocation (from senescing leaves). We find that at the global scale, plants spend 2.4 Pg C yr(-1) to acquire 1.0 Pg N yr(-1) , and that the C cost of N acquisition leads to a downregulation of global net primary production (NPP) by 13%. Mycorrhizal uptake represented the dominant pathway by which N is acquired, accounting for ~66% of the N uptake by plants. Notably, roots associating with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi - generally considered for their role in phosphorus (P) acquisition - are estimated to be the primary source of global plant N uptake owing to the dominance of AM-associated plants in mid- and low-latitude biomes. Overall, our coupled model improves the representations of NPP downregulation globally and generates spatially explicit patterns of belowground C allocation, soil N uptake, and N retranslocation at the global scale. Such model improvements are critical for predicting how plant responses to altered N availability (owing to N deposition, rising atmospheric CO2 , and warming temperatures) may impact the land C sink. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Lagged life cycle structures for food products: Their role in global marketing, their determinants and some problems in their estimation

    Baadsgaard, Allan; Gede, Mads Peter; Grunert, Klaus G.

    cycles for different product categories may be lagged (type II lag) because changes in economic and other factors will result in demands for different products. Identifying lagged life cycle structures major importance in global marketing of food products. The problems in arriving at such estimates...

  7. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle : Global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times

    Bloom, A Anthony; Exbrayat, Jean-François; van der Velde, Ivar R; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle

  8. Phosphorus availability and microbial respiration across biomes :  from plantation forest to tundra

    Esberg, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorus is the main limiting nutrient for plant growth in large areas of the world and the availability of phosphorus to plants and microbes can be strongly affected by soil properties. Even though the phosphorus cycle has been studied extensively, much remains unknown about the key processes governing phosphorus availability in different environments. In this thesis the complex dynamics of soil phosphorus and its availability were studied by relating various phosphorus fractions and soil ...

  9. Kajian Dampak Lingkungan Global dari Kegiatan Keramba Jaring Apung melalui Life Cycle Assessment (LCA

    Tri Heru Prihadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Perubahan iklim global yang berlangsung saat ini memberikan pengaruh pada berbagai bidang, termasuk perikanan yang menyebabkan terjadinya degradasi lingkungan perairan. Hal ini berdampak pada muncul dan menyebarnya berbagai penyakit ikan, menurunnya laju pertumbuhan organisme perairan, bahkan hingga menimbulkan kematian massal ikan. Namun hal ini belum sepenuhnya dapat diatasi oleh para ilmuwan tanah air, bahkan bisa dikatakan baru sebagian kecil saja. Penerapan Best Management Practice (BMP dengan aplikasi Life Cycle Assessment (LCA akan sangat berarti dalam upaya penerapan perikanan budidaya berkelanjutan, dengan model pengelolaan kuantitatif. Dalam hal ini metode LCA secara kuantitatif merupakan pertama kalinya dilakukan di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan mengevaluasi kuantitas dan kategori dampak lingkungan akibat kegiatan budidaya keramba jaring apung (KJA melalui LCA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kegiatan budidaya di KJA menimbulkan dampak yang signifikan terhadap lingkungan perairan. Dari berbagai faktor yang berperan dalam kegiatan budidaya KJA, pakan ikan merupakan faktor yang paling dominan dalam menghasilkan dampak lingkungan global (di atas 70%, berupa pemanasan global, penurunan jumlah sumberdaya abiotik, eutrofikasi, penipisan lapisan ozon, toksisitas pada manusia, dan penurunan jumlah keanekaragaman hayati. Dari faktor pakan tersebut, unsur yang paling berpengaruh dalam menghasilkan dampak lingkungan adalah soybean Brazil dan winter wheat, sehingga perlu dicari alternatif bahan untuk mensubstitusi kedua unsur tersebut. Demikian juga faktor-faktor lainnya (seperti: polystyrene foams, drum plastik, bambu, jaring, besi, skala budidaya, dan lain-lain mempunyai peranan terhadap dampak yang ditimbulkan terhadap lingkungan perairan. Global climate change has been affecting many sectors, including fisheries causing aquatic environment degradation such as fish disease outbreaks, decreasing growth rate of fish

  10. Development of a system emulating the global carbon cycle in Earth system models

    Tachiiri, K.; Hargreaves, J. C.; Annan, J. D.; Oka, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Kawamiya, M.

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the uncertainty in the global carbon cycle may have a significant impact on the climate. Since state of the art models are too computationally expensive for it to be possible to explore their parametric uncertainty in anything approaching a comprehensive fashion, we have developed a simplified system for investigating this problem. By combining the strong points of general circulation models (GCMs), which contain detailed and complex processes, and Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs), which are quick and capable of large ensembles, we have developed a loosely coupled model (LCM) which can represent the outputs of a GCM-based Earth system model, using much smaller computational resources. We address the problem of relatively poor representation of precipitation within our EMIC, which prevents us from directly coupling it to a vegetation model, by coupling it to a precomputed transient simulation using a full GCM. The LCM consists of three components: an EMIC (MIROC-lite) which consists of a 2-D energy balance atmosphere coupled to a low resolution 3-D GCM ocean (COCO) including an ocean carbon cycle (an NPZD-type marine ecosystem model); a state of the art vegetation model (Sim-CYCLE); and a database of daily temperature, precipitation, and other necessary climatic fields to drive Sim-CYCLE from a precomputed transient simulation from a state of the art AOGCM. The transient warming of the climate system is calculated from MIROC-lite, with the global temperature anomaly used to select the most appropriate annual climatic field from the pre-computed AOGCM simulation which, in this case, is a 1% pa increasing CO2 concentration scenario. By adjusting the effective climate sensitivity (equivalent to the equilibrium climate sensitivity for an energy balance model) of MIROC-lite, the transient warming of the LCM could be adjusted to closely follow the low sensitivity (with an equilibrium climate sensitivity of 4.0 K

  11. Development of a system emulating the global carbon cycle in Earth system models

    K. Tachiiri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that the uncertainty in the global carbon cycle may have a significant impact on the climate. Since state of the art models are too computationally expensive for it to be possible to explore their parametric uncertainty in anything approaching a comprehensive fashion, we have developed a simplified system for investigating this problem. By combining the strong points of general circulation models (GCMs, which contain detailed and complex processes, and Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs, which are quick and capable of large ensembles, we have developed a loosely coupled model (LCM which can represent the outputs of a GCM-based Earth system model, using much smaller computational resources. We address the problem of relatively poor representation of precipitation within our EMIC, which prevents us from directly coupling it to a vegetation model, by coupling it to a precomputed transient simulation using a full GCM. The LCM consists of three components: an EMIC (MIROC-lite which consists of a 2-D energy balance atmosphere coupled to a low resolution 3-D GCM ocean (COCO including an ocean carbon cycle (an NPZD-type marine ecosystem model; a state of the art vegetation model (Sim-CYCLE; and a database of daily temperature, precipitation, and other necessary climatic fields to drive Sim-CYCLE from a precomputed transient simulation from a state of the art AOGCM. The transient warming of the climate system is calculated from MIROC-lite, with the global temperature anomaly used to select the most appropriate annual climatic field from the pre-computed AOGCM simulation which, in this case, is a 1% pa increasing CO2 concentration scenario.

    By adjusting the effective climate sensitivity (equivalent to the equilibrium climate sensitivity for an energy balance model of MIROC-lite, the transient warming of the LCM could be adjusted to closely follow the low sensitivity (with an equilibrium

  12. Partitioning the effects of Global Warming on the Hydrological Cycle with Stable Isotopes in Water Vapor

    Dee, S. G.; Russell, J. M.; Nusbaumer, J. M.; Konecky, B. L.; Buenning, N. H.; Lee, J. E.; Noone, D.

    2016-12-01

    General circulation models (GCMs) suggest that much of the global hydrological cycle's response to anthropogenic warming will be caused by increased lower-tropospheric water vapor concentrations and associated feedbacks. However, fingerprinting changes in the global hydrological cycle due to anthropogenic warming remains challenging. Held and Soden (2006) predicted that as lower-tropospheric water vapor increases, atmospheric circulation will weaken as climate warms to maintain the surface energy budget. Unfortunately, the strength of this feedback and the fallout for other branches of the hydrological cycle is difficult to constrain in situ or with GCMs alone. We demonstrate the utility of stable hydrogen isotope ratios in atmospheric water vapor to quantitatively trace changes in atmospheric circulation and convective mass flux in a warming world. We compare water isotope-enabled GCM experiments for control (present-day) CO2 vs. high CO2(2x, 4x) atmospheres in two GCMs, IsoGSM and iCAM5. We evaluate changes in the distribution of water vapor, vertical velocity (omega), and the stream function between these experiments in order to identify spatial patterns of circulation change over the tropical Pacific (where vertical motion is strong) and map the δD of water vapor associated with atmospheric warming. We also probe the simulations to isolate isotopic signatures associated with water vapor residence time, precipitation efficiency, divergence, and cloud physics. We show that there are robust mechanisms that moisten the troposphere and weaken convective mass flux, and that these mechanisms can be tracked using the δD of water vapor. Further, we find that these responses are most pronounced in the upper troposphere. These findings provide a framework to develop new metrics for the detection of global warming impacts to the hydrological cycle. Further, currently available satellite missions measure δD in the atmospheric boundary layer, the free atmosphere, or the

  13. Glacial-interglacial water cycle, global monsoon and atmospheric methane changes

    Guo, Zhengtang; Wu, Haibin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Cenozoic Geology and Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Beijing (China); Zhou, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Cenozoic Geology and Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Beijing (China); University of Science and Technology of China, School of Earth and Space Sciences and Institute of Polar Environment, Hefei (China)

    2012-09-15

    The causes of atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}) changes are still a major contention, in particular with regards to the relative contributions of glacial-interglacial cycles, monsoons in both hemispheres and the late Holocene human intervention. Here, we explore the CH{sub 4} signals in the Antarctic EPICA Dome C and Vostok ice records using the methods of timeseries analyses and correlate them with insolation and geological records to address these issues. The results parse out three distinct groups of CH{sub 4} signals attributable to different drivers. The first group ({proportional_to}80% variance), well tracking the marine {delta}{sup 18}O record, is attributable to glacial-interglacial modulation on the global water cycle with the effects shared by wetlands at all latitudes, from monsoonal and non-monsoonal regions in both hemispheres. The second group ({proportional_to}15% variance), centered at the {proportional_to}10-kyr semi-precession frequency, is linkable with insolation-driven tropical monsoon changes in both hemispheres. The third group ({proportional_to}5% variance), marked by millennial frequencies, is seemingly related with the combined effect of ice-volume and bi-hemispheric insolation changes at the precession bands. These results indicate that bi-hemispheric monsoon changes have been a constant driver of atmospheric CH{sub 4}. This mechanism also partially explains the Holocene CH{sub 4} reversal since {proportional_to}5 kyr BP besides the human intervention. In the light of these results, we propose that global monsoon can be regarded as a system consisting of two main integrated components, one primarily driven by the oscillations of Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in response to the low-latitude summer insolation changes, anti-phase between the two hemispheres (i.e. the ITCZ monsoon component); and another modulated by the glacial-interglacial cycles, mostly synchronous at the global scale (i.e. the glacial-interglacial monsoon

  14. Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model

    Cox, P.M.; Betts, R.A.; Jones, C.D.; Spall, S.A.; Totterdell, I.J.

    2000-01-01

    The continued increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide due to anthropogenic emissions is predicted to lead to significant changes in climate. About half of the current emissions are being absorbed by the ocean and by land ecosystems, but this absorption is sensitive to climate as well as to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, creating a feedback loop. General circulation models have generally excluded the feedback between climate and the biosphere, using static vegetation distributions and CO 2 concentrations from simple carbon-cycle models that do not include climate change. Here we present results from a fully coupled, three-dimensional carbon-climate model, indicating that carbon-cycle feedbacks could significantly accelerate climate change over the twenty-first century. We find that under a 'business as usual' scenario, the terrestrial biosphere acts as an overall carbon sink until about 2050, but turns into a source thereafter. By 2100, the ocean uptake rate of 5 Gt C yr -1 is balanced by the terrestrial carbon source, and atmospheric CO 2 concentrations are 250 p.p.m.v. higher in our fully coupled simulation than in uncoupled carbon models, resulting in a global-mean warming of 5.5 K, as compared to 4 K without the carbon-cycle feedback. (author)

  15. N2O emissions from the global agricultural nitrogen cycle – current state and future scenarios

    H. Lotze-Campen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive nitrogen (Nr is not only an important nutrient for plant growth, thereby safeguarding human alimentation, but it also heavily disturbs natural systems. To mitigate air, land, aquatic, and atmospheric pollution caused by the excessive availability of Nr, it is crucial to understand the long-term development of the global agricultural Nr cycle. For our analysis, we combine a material flow model with a land-use optimization model. In a first step we estimate the state of the Nr cycle in 1995. In a second step we create four scenarios for the 21st century in line with the SRES storylines. Our results indicate that in 1995 only half of the Nr applied to croplands was incorporated into plant biomass. Moreover, less than 10 per cent of all Nr in cropland plant biomass and grazed pasture was consumed by humans. In our scenarios a strong surge of the Nr cycle occurs in the first half of the 21st century, even in the environmentally oriented scenarios. Nitrous oxide (N2O emissions rise from 3 Tg N2O-N in 1995 to 7–9 in 2045 and 5–12 Tg in 2095. Reinforced Nr pollution mitigation efforts are therefore required.

  16. The Circadian Clock Modulates Global Daily Cycles of mRNA Ribosome Loading[OPEN

    Missra, Anamika; Ernest, Ben; Jia, Qidong; Ke, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Circadian control of gene expression is well characterized at the transcriptional level, but little is known about diel or circadian control of translation. Genome-wide translation state profiling of mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in long day was performed to estimate ribosome loading per mRNA. The experiments revealed extensive translational regulation of key biological processes. Notably, translation of mRNAs for ribosomal proteins and mitochondrial respiration peaked at night. Central clock mRNAs are among those subject to fluctuations in ribosome loading. There was no consistent phase relationship between peak translation states and peak transcript levels. The overlay of distinct transcriptional and translational cycles can be expected to alter the waveform of the protein synthesis rate. Plants that constitutively overexpress the clock gene CCA1 showed phase shifts in peak translation, with a 6-h delay from midnight to dawn or from noon to evening being particularly common. Moreover, cycles of ribosome loading that were detected under continuous light in the wild type collapsed in the CCA1 overexpressor. Finally, at the transcript level, the CCA1-ox strain adopted a global pattern of transcript abundance that was broadly correlated with the light-dark environment. Altogether, these data demonstrate that gene-specific diel cycles of ribosome loading are controlled in part by the circadian clock. PMID:26392078

  17. Global warming potential of the sulfur-iodine process using life cycle assessment methodology

    Lattin, William C.; Utgikar, Vivek P.

    2009-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) of one proposed method of hydrogen production - thermochemical water-splitting using the sulfur-iodine cycle couple with a very high-temperature nuclear reactor - is presented in this paper. Thermochemical water-splitting theoretically offers a higher overall efficiency than high-temperature electrolysis of water because heat from the nuclear reactor is provided directly to the hydrogen generation process, instead of using the intermediate step of generating electricity. The primary heat source for the S-I cycle is an advanced nuclear reactor operating at temperatures corresponding to those required by the sulfur-iodine process. This LCA examines the environmental impact of the combined advanced nuclear and hydrogen generation plants and focuses on quantifying the emissions of carbon dioxide per kilogram of hydrogen produced. The results are presented in terms of global warming potential (GWP). The GWP of the system is 2500 g carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO 2 -eq) per kilogram of hydrogen produced. The GWP of this process is approximately one-sixth of that for hydrogen production by steam reforming of natural gas, and is comparable to producing hydrogen from wind- or hydro-electric conventional electrolysis. (author)

  18. A Review of the Stable Isotope Bio-geochemistry of the Global Silicon Cycle and Its Associated Trace Elements

    Jill N. Sutton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust and is an important nutrient in the ocean. The global Si cycle plays a critical role in regulating primary productivity and carbon cycling on the continents and in the oceans. Development of the analytical tools used to study the sources, sinks, and fluxes of the global Si cycle (e.g., elemental and stable isotope ratio data for Ge, Si, Zn, etc. have recently led to major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and processes that constrain the cycling of Si in the modern environment and in the past. Here, we provide background on the geochemical tools that are available for studying the Si cycle and highlight our current understanding of the marine, freshwater and terrestrial systems. We place emphasis on the geochemistry (e.g., Al/Si, Ge/Si, Zn/Si, δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, δ30Si of dissolved and biogenic Si, present case studies, such as the Silicic Acid Leakage Hypothesis, and discuss challenges associated with the development of these environmental proxies for the global Si cycle. We also discuss how each system within the global Si cycle might change over time (i.e., sources, sinks, and processes and the potential technical and conceptual limitations that need to be considered for future studies.

  19. A New Global LAI Product and Its Use for Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Estimation

    Chen, J. M.; Liu, R.; Ju, W.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    For improving the estimation of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle, a new time series of the leaf area index (LAI) is generated for the global land surface at 8 km resolution from 1981 to 2012 by combining AVHRR and MODIS satellite data. This product differs from existing LAI products in the following two aspects: (1) the non-random spatial distribution of leaves with the canopy is considered, and (2) the seasonal variation of the vegetation background is included. The non-randomness of the leaf spatial distribution in the canopy is considered using the second vegetation structural parameter named clumping index (CI), which quantifies the deviation of the leaf spatial distribution from the random case. Using the MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function product, a global map of CI is produced at 500 m resolution. In our LAI algorithm, CI is used to convert the effective LAI obtained from mono-angle remote sensing into the true LAI, otherwise LAI would be considerably underestimated. The vegetation background is soil in crop, grass and shrub but includes soil, grass, moss, and litter in forests. Through processing a large volume of MISR data from 2000 to 2010, monthly red and near-infrared reflectances of the vegetation background is mapped globally at 1 km resolution. This new LAI product has been validated extensively using ground-based LAI measurements distributed globally. In carbon cycle modeling, the use of CI in addition to LAI allows for accurate separation of sunlit and shaded leaves as an important step in terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration modeling. Carbon flux measurements over 100 sites over the globe are used to validate an ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). The validated model is run globally at 8 km resolution for the period from 1981 to 2012 using the LAI product and other spatial datasets. The modeled results suggest that changes in vegetation structure as quantified

  20. Tropical rainforests dominate multi-decadal variability of the global carbon cycle

    Zhang, X.; Wang, Y. P.; Peng, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Silver, J.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S.; Zhu, Z.; Lu, X.; Zheng, X.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies find that inter-annual variability of global atmosphere-to-land CO2 uptake (NBP) is dominated by semi-arid ecosystems. However, the NBP variations at decadal to multi-decadal timescales are still not known. By developing a basic theory for the role of net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) on NBP and applying it to 100-year simulations of terrestrial ecosystem models forced by observational climate, we find that tropical rainforests dominate the multi-decadal variability of global NBP (48%) rather than the semi-arid lands (35%). The NBP variation at inter-annual timescales is almost 90% contributed by NPP, but across longer timescales is progressively controlled by Rh that constitutes the response from the NPP-derived soil carbon input (40%) and the response of soil carbon turnover rates to climate variability (60%). The NBP variations of tropical rainforests is modulated by the ENSO and the PDO through their significant influences on temperature and precipitation at timescales of 2.5-7 and 25-50 years, respectively. This study highlights the importance of tropical rainforests on the multi-decadal variability of global carbon cycle, suggesting that we need to carefully differentiate the effect of NBP long-term fluctuations associated with ocean-related climate modes on the long-term trend in land sink.

  1. Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases

    Gillett, Nathan P; Matthews, H Damon

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse gases other than CO 2 make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO 2 emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO 2 following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by ∼ 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 x 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO 2 from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.

  2. Alternative "global warming" metrics in life cycle assessment: a case study with existing transportation data.

    Peters, Glen P; Aamaas, Borgar; T Lund, Marianne; Solli, Christian; Fuglestvedt, Jan S

    2011-10-15

    The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) impact category "global warming" compares emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) using Global Warming Potential (GWP) with a 100-year time-horizon as specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Two weaknesses of this approach are (1) the exclusion of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) and biophysical factors despite their established importance, and (2) the use of a particular emission metric (GWP) with a choice of specific time-horizons (20, 100, and 500 years). The GWP and the three time-horizons were based on an illustrative example with value judgments and vague interpretations. Here we illustrate, using LCA data of the transportation sector, the importance of SLCFs relative to LLGHGs, different emission metrics, and different treatments of time. We find that both the inclusion of SLCFs and the choice of emission metric can alter results and thereby change mitigation priorities. The explicit inclusion of time, both for emissions and impacts, can remove value-laden assumptions and provide additional information for impact assessments. We believe that our results show that a debate is needed in the LCA community on the impact category "global warming" covering which emissions to include, the emission metric(s) to use, and the treatment of time.

  3. Simulating the Current Water Cycle with the NASA Ames Mars Global Climate Model

    Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Brecht, A. S.; Urata, R. A.; Montmessin, F.

    2017-12-01

    The water cycle is a critical component of the current Mars climate system, and it is now widely recognized that water ice clouds significantly affect the nature of the simulated water cycle. Two processes are key to implementing clouds in a Mars global climate model (GCM): the microphysical processes of formation and dissipation, and their radiative effects on atmospheric heating/cooling rates. Together, these processes alter the thermal structure, change the atmospheric dynamics, and regulate inter-hemispheric transport. We have made considerable progress using the NASA Ames Mars GCM to simulate the current-day water cycle with radiatively active clouds. Cloud fields from our baseline simulation are in generally good agreement with observations. The predicted seasonal extent and peak IR optical depths are consistent MGS/TES observations. Additionally, the thermal response to the clouds in the aphelion cloud belt (ACB) is generally consistent with observations and other climate model predictions. Notably, there is a distinct gap in the predicted clouds over the North Residual Cap (NRC) during local summer, but the clouds reappear in this simulation over the NRC earlier than the observations indicate. Polar clouds are predicted near the seasonal CO2 ice caps, but the column thicknesses of these clouds are generally too thick compared to observations. Our baseline simulation is dry compared to MGS/TES-observed water vapor abundances, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. These areas of disagreement appear to be a consistent with other current water cycle GCMs. Future avenues of investigation will target improving our understanding of what controls the vertical extent of clouds and the apparent seasonal evolution of cloud particle sizes within the ACB.

  4. EDITORIAL: The Earth radiation balance as driver of the global hydrological cycle

    Wild, Martin; Liepert, Beate

    2010-06-01

    Variations in the intensity of the global hydrological cycle can have far-reaching effects on living conditions on our planet. While climate change discussions often revolve around possible consequences of future temperature changes, the adaptation to changes in the hydrological cycle may pose a bigger challenge to societies and ecosystems. Floods and droughts are already today amongst the most damaging natural hazards, with floods being globally the most significant disaster type in terms of loss of human life (Jonkman 2005). From an economic perspective, changes in the hydrological cycle can impose great pressures and damages on a variety of industrial sectors, such as water management, urban planning, agricultural production and tourism. Despite their obvious environmental and societal importance, our understanding of the causes and magnitude of the variations of the hydrological cycle is still unsatisfactory (e.g., Ramanathan et al 2001, Ohmura and Wild 2002, Allen and Ingram 2002, Allan 2007, Wild et al 2008, Liepert and Previdi 2009). The link between radiation balance and hydrological cycle Globally, precipitation can be approximated by surface evaporation, since the variability of the atmospheric moisture storage is negligible. This is the case because the fluxes are an order of magnitude larger than the atmospheric storage (423 x 1012 m3 year-1 versus 13 x 1012 m3 according to Baumgartner and Reichel (1975)), the latter being determined by temperature (Clausius-Clapeyron). Hence the residence time of evaporated water in the atmosphere is not more than a few days, before it condenses and falls back to Earth in the form of precipitation. Any change in the globally averaged surface evaporation therefore implies an equivalent change in precipitation, and thus in the intensity of the global hydrological cycle. The process of evaporation requires energy, which it obtains from the surface radiation balance (also known as surface net radiation), composed of the

  5. Exploring diurnal and seasonal characteristics of global carbon cycle with GISS Model E2 GCM

    Aleinov, I. D.; Kiang, N. Y.; Romanou, A.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to properly model surface carbon fluxes on the diurnal and seasonal time scale is a necessary requirement for understanding of the global carbon cycle. It is also one of the most challenging tasks faced by modern General Circulation Models (GCMs) due to complexity of the algorithms and variety of relevant spatial and temporal scales. The observational data, though abundant, is difficult to interpret at the global scale, because flux tower observations are very sparse for large impact areas (such as Amazon and African rainforest and most of Siberia) and satellite missions often struggle to produce sufficiently high confidence data over the land and may be missing CO2 amounts near the surface due to the nature of the method. In this work we use the GISS Model E2 GCM to perform a subset of experiments proposed by the Coupled Climate-Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP) and relate the results to available observations.The GISS Model E2 GCM is currently equipped with a complete global carbon cycle algorithm. Its surface carbon fluxes are computed by the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM) over the land with observed leaf area index of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and by the NASA Ocean Biogeochemistry Model (NOBM) over the ocean. The propagation of atmospheric CO2 is performed by a generic Model E2 tracer algorithm, which is based on a quadratic upstream method (Prather 1986). We perform a series spin-up experiments for preindustrial climate conditions and fixed preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentration. First, we perform separate spin-up simulations each for terrestrial and ocean carbon. We then combine the spun-up states and perform a coupled spin-up simulation until the model reaches a sufficient equilibrium. We then release restrictions on CO2 concentration and allow it evolve freely, driven only by simulated surface fluxes. We then study the results of the unforced run, comparing the amplitude and the phase

  6. The contribution of weathering of the main Alpine rivers on the global carbon cycle

    Donnini, Marco; Probst, Jean-Luc; Probst, Anne; Frondini, Francesco; Marchesini, Ivan; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    classification of Meybeck (1986, 1987). Then for each basin we computed Rsil weighted average considering the surface and the mean precipitation for the surface area of each lithology. Lastly, we estimated the (Ca+Mg) originating from carbonate weathering as the remaining cations after silicate correction. Depending on time-scales of the phenomena (shorter than about 1 million year i.e., correlated to the short term carbon cycle, or longer than about 1 million years i.e., correlated to the long-term carbon cycle), we considered different equations for the quantification of the atmospheric CO2 consumed by weathering (Huh, 2010). The results show the net predominance of carbonate weathering on fixing atmospheric CO2 and that, considering the long-term carbon cycle, the amount of atmospheric CO2 uptake by weathering is about one order of magnitude lower than considering the short-term carbon cycle. Moreover, considering the short-term carbon cycle, the mean CO2 consumed by Alpine basins is of the same order of magnitude of the mean CO2 consumed by weathering by the 60 largest rivers of the world estimated by Gaillardet et al. (1999). References Amiotte-Suchet, P. "Cycle Du Carbone, Érosion Chimique Des Continents Et Transfert Vers Les Océans." Sci. Géol. Mém. Strasbourg 97 (1995): 156. Amiotte-Suchet, P., and J.-L. Probst. "Origins of dissolved inorganic carbon in the Garonne river waters: seasonal and interannual variations." Sci. Géologiques Bull. Strasbourg 49, no. 1-4 (1996): 101-126. Berner, E.K., and R.A. Berner. The Global Water Cycle. Geochemistry and Environment. Prentice Halle. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ, 1987. Drever, J.L. The Geochemistry of Natural Waters. Prentice Hall, 1982. Gaillardet, J., B. Dupré, P. Louvat, and C.J. Allègre. "Global Silicate Weathering and CO2 Consumption Rates Deduced from the Chemistry of Large Rivers." Chemical Geology 159 (1999): 3-30. Garrels, R.M., and F.T. Mackenzie. Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks. New York: W.W. Nortonand, 1971. Huh, Y

  7. High resolution analysis of tropical forest fragmentation and its impact on the global carbon cycle

    Brinck, Katharina; Fischer, Rico; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Lehmann, Sebastian; Dantas de Paula, Mateus; Pütz, Sandro; Sexton, Joseph O.; Song, Danxia; Huth, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Deforestation in the tropics is not only responsible for direct carbon emissions but also extends the forest edge wherein trees suffer increased mortality. Here we combine high-resolution (30 m) satellite maps of forest cover with estimates of the edge effect and show that 19% of the remaining area of tropical forests lies within 100 m of a forest edge. The tropics house around 50 million forest fragments and the length of the world's tropical forest edges sums to nearly 50 million km. Edge effects in tropical forests have caused an additional 10.3 Gt (2.1-14.4 Gt) of carbon emissions, which translates into 0.34 Gt per year and represents 31% of the currently estimated annual carbon releases due to tropical deforestation. Fragmentation substantially augments carbon emissions from tropical forests and must be taken into account when analysing the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle.

  8. Proceedings of the GLOBAL 2009 congress - The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Sustainable Options and Industrial Perspectives

    2009-06-01

    GLOBAL 2009 is the ninth bi-annual scientific world meeting on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) that started in 1993 in Seattle. This meeting has established itself as a dedicated international forum for experts, to provide an overall review of the status and new trends of research applications and policies related to the fuel cycle. The international nuclear community is actively developing advanced processes and innovative technologies that enhance economic competitiveness of nuclear energy and ensure its sustainability, through optimized utilization of natural resources, minimization of nuclear wastes, resistance to proliferation and compliance with safety requirements. In this context, and under the profound evolutions concerning energy supply, GLOBAL 2009 is a great opportunity for sharing ideas and visions on the NFC. Special emphasis are placed on the results of the international studies for developing next generation systems. GLOBAL 2009 highlights the technical challenges and successes involved in closing the NFC and recycling long lived nuclear waste. It is also an excellent occasion to review and discuss social and regulatory aspects as well as national plans and international policies and decision affecting the future of nuclear energy. This meeting provides a forum for the exchange of the newest ideas and developments related to the initiatives at of establishing an acceptable, reliable and universal international non proliferation regime. The congress, organized by the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), under the aegis of the IAEA, NEA of the OECD and the UE Commission with the basic sponsorships of ANS, ENS and AESJ, combines plenary sessions, general panel sessions, parallel sessions and technical visits. The program has full length technical papers, which are peer reviewed and published in conference proceedings. A large industrial exhibition takes place to complement the congress. The GLOBAL 2009 congress is organized in coordination with the 2009

  9. Consistency of seven different GNSS global ionospheric mapping techniques during one solar cycle

    Roma-Dollase, David; Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; Krankowski, Andrzej; Kotulak, Kacper; Ghoddousi-Fard, Reza; Yuan, Yunbin; Li, Zishen; Zhang, Hongping; Shi, Chuang; Wang, Cheng; Feltens, Joachim; Vergados, Panagiotis; Komjathy, Attila; Schaer, Stefan; García-Rigo, Alberto; Gómez-Cama, José M.

    2018-06-01

    In the context of the International GNSS Service (IGS), several IGS Ionosphere Associated Analysis Centers have developed different techniques to provide global ionospheric maps (GIMs) of vertical total electron content (VTEC) since 1998. In this paper we present a comparison of the performances of all the GIMs created in the frame of IGS. Indeed we compare the classical ones (for the ionospheric analysis centers CODE, ESA/ESOC, JPL and UPC) with the new ones (NRCAN, CAS, WHU). To assess the quality of them in fair and completely independent ways, two assessment methods are used: a direct comparison to altimeter data (VTEC-altimeter) and to the difference of slant total electron content (STEC) observed in independent ground reference stations (dSTEC-GPS). The main conclusion of this study, performed during one solar cycle, is the consistency of the results between so many different GIM techniques and implementations.

  10. Proceedings of the GLOBAL 2009 congress - The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Sustainable Options and Industrial Perspectives

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    GLOBAL 2009 is the ninth bi-annual scientific world meeting on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) that started in 1993 in Seattle. This meeting has established itself as a dedicated international forum for experts, to provide an overall review of the status and new trends of research applications and policies related to the fuel cycle. The international nuclear community is actively developing advanced processes and innovative technologies that enhance economic competitiveness of nuclear energy and ensure its sustainability, through optimized utilization of natural resources, minimization of nuclear wastes, resistance to proliferation and compliance with safety requirements. In this context, and under the profound evolutions concerning energy supply, GLOBAL 2009 is a great opportunity for sharing ideas and visions on the NFC. Special emphasis are placed on the results of the international studies for developing next generation systems. GLOBAL 2009 highlights the technical challenges and successes involved in closing the NFC and recycling long lived nuclear waste. It is also an excellent occasion to review and discuss social and regulatory aspects as well as national plans and international policies and decision affecting the future of nuclear energy. This meeting provides a forum for the exchange of the newest ideas and developments related to the initiatives at of establishing an acceptable, reliable and universal international non proliferation regime. The congress, organized by the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), under the aegis of the IAEA, NEA of the OECD and the UE Commission with the basic sponsorships of ANS, ENS and AESJ, combines plenary sessions, general panel sessions, parallel sessions and technical visits. The program has full length technical papers, which are peer reviewed and published in conference proceedings. A large industrial exhibition takes place to complement the congress. The GLOBAL 2009 congress is organized in coordination with the 2009

  11. Human Impacts on the Hydrologic Cycle: Comparing Global Climate Change and Local Water Management

    Ferguson, I. M.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is significantly altering the hydrologic cycle at global and regional scales, with potentially devastating impacts on water resources. Recent studies demonstrate that hydrologic response to climate change will depend on local-scale feedbacks between groundwater, surface water, and land surface processes. These studies suggest that local water management practices that alter the quantity and distribution of water in the terrestrial system—e.g., groundwater pumping and irrigation—may also feed back across the hydrologic cycle, with impacts on land-atmosphere fluxes and thus weather and climate. Here we use an integrated hydrologic model to compare the impacts of large-scale climate change and local water management practices on water and energy budgets at local and watershed scales. We consider three climate scenarios (hot, hot+wet, and hot+dry) and three management scenarios (pumping only, irrigation only, and pumping+irrigation). Results demonstrate that impacts of local water management on basin-integrated groundwater storage, evapotranspiration, and stream discharge are comparable to those of changing climate conditions. However, impacts of climate change are shown to have a smaller magnitude and greater spatial extent, while impacts of pumping and irrigation are shown to have a greater magnitude but are local to areas where pumping and irrigation occur. These results have important implications regarding the scales of human impacts on both water resources and climate and the sustainability of water resources.

  12. The advanced fuel cycle facility (AFCF) role in the global nuclear energy partnership

    Griffith, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), launched in February, 2006, proposes to introduce used nuclear fuel recycling in the United States with improved proliferation-resistance and a more effective waste management approach. This program is evaluating ways to close the fuel cycle in a manner that builds on recent laboratory breakthroughs in U.S. national laboratories and draws on international and industry partnerships. Central to moving this advanced fuel recycling technology from the laboratory to commercial implementation is a flexible research, development and demonstration facility, called the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF was introduced as one of three projects under GNEP and will provide the U.S. with the capabilities to evaluate technologies that separate used fuel into reusable material and waste in a proliferation-resistant manner. The separations technology demonstration capability is coupled with a remote transmutation fuel fabrication demonstration capability in an integrated manner that demonstrates advanced safeguard technologies. This paper will discuss the key features of AFCF and its support of the GNEP objectives. (author)

  13. Analysis of the Global Warming Potential of Biogenic CO2 Emission in Life Cycle Assessments.

    Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhonghui; Xie, Xinfeng; Yu, Zhen; von Gadow, Klaus; Xu, Junming; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Yuchun

    2017-01-03

    Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO 2 (GWP bio ). In this study we calculated the GWP bio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies. GWP bio factors ranged from 0.13-0.32, indicating that biomass could be an attractive energy resource when compared with fossil fuels. As expected, short rotation and fast-growing biomass plantations produced low GWP bio . Long-lived wood products also allowed more regrowth of biomass to be accounted as absorption of the CO 2 emission from biomass combustion. The LCA case studies showed that the total life cycle GHG emissions were closely related to GWP bio and energy conversion efficiency. By considering the GWP bio factors and the forest carbon change, the production of ethanol and bio-power appeared to have higher GHG emissions than petroleum-derived diesel at the highest GWP bio .

  14. Analysis of the Global Warming Potential of Biogenic CO2 Emission in Life Cycle Assessments

    Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhonghui; Xie, Xinfeng; Yu, Zhen; von Gadow, Klaus; Xu, Junming; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Yuchun

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO2 (GWPbio). In this study we calculated the GWPbio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies. GWPbio factors ranged from 0.13–0.32, indicating that biomass could be an attractive energy resource when compared with fossil fuels. As expected, short rotation and fast-growing biomass plantations produced low GWPbio. Long-lived wood products also allowed more regrowth of biomass to be accounted as absorption of the CO2 emission from biomass combustion. The LCA case studies showed that the total life cycle GHG emissions were closely related to GWPbio and energy conversion efficiency. By considering the GWPbio factors and the forest carbon change, the production of ethanol and bio-power appeared to have higher GHG emissions than petroleum-derived diesel at the highest GWPbio. PMID:28045111

  15. Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming

    Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

    2011-01-02

    Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

  16. Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming

    Elliott, Scott; Maltrud, Mathew; Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George; Cameron-Smith, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH4 distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

  17. Chemistry of organic carbon in soil with relationship to the global carbon cycle

    Post, W.M. III.

    1988-01-01

    Various ecosystem disturbances alter the balances between production of organic matter and its decomposition and therefore change the amount of carbon in soil. The most severe perturbation is conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops. Conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops results in a lowered input of slowly decomposing material which causes a reduction in overall carbon levels. Disruption of soil matrix structure by cultivation leads to lowered physical protection of organic matter resulting in an increased net mineralization rate of soil carbon. Climate change is another perturbation that affects the amount and composition of plant production, litter inputs, and decomposition regimes but does not affect soil structure directly. Nevertheless, large changes in soil carbon storage are probable with anticipated CO 2 induced climate change, particularly in northern latitudes where anticipated climate change will be greatest (MacCracken and Luther 1985) and large amounts of soil organic matter are found. It is impossible, given the current state of knowledge of soil organic matter processes and transformations to develop detailed process models of soil carbon dynamics. Largely phenomenological models appear to be developing into predictive tools for understanding the role of soil organic matter in the global carbon cycle. In particular, these models will be useful in quantifying soil carbon changes due to human land-use and to anticipated global climate and vegetation changes. 47 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  18. A global coal production forecast with multi-Hubbert cycle analysis

    Patzek, Tadeusz W. [Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Croft, Gregory D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of California, Berkeley, Davis Hall, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Based on economic and policy considerations that appear to be unconstrained by geophysics, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) generated forty carbon production and emissions scenarios. In this paper, we develop a base-case scenario for global coal production based on the physical multi-cycle Hubbert analysis of historical production data. Areas with large resources but little production history, such as Alaska and the Russian Far East, are treated as sensitivities on top of this base-case, producing an additional 125 Gt of coal. The value of this approach is that it provides a reality check on the magnitude of carbon emissions in a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. The resulting base-case is significantly below 36 of the 40 carbon emission scenarios from the IPCC. The global peak of coal production from existing coalfields is predicted to occur close to the year 2011. The peak coal production rate is 160 EJ/y, and the peak carbon emissions from coal burning are 4.0 Gt C (15 Gt CO{sub 2}) per year. After 2011, the production rates of coal and CO{sub 2} decline, reaching 1990 levels by the year 2037, and reaching 50% of the peak value in the year 2047. It is unlikely that future mines will reverse the trend predicted in this BAU scenario. (author)

  19. Insights into the diurnal cycle of global Earth outgoing radiation using a numerical weather prediction model

    Gristey, Jake J.; Chiu, J. Christine; Gurney, Robert J.; Morcrette, Cyril J.; Hill, Peter G.; Russell, Jacqueline E.; Brindley, Helen E.

    2018-04-01

    A globally complete, high temporal resolution and multiple-variable approach is employed to analyse the diurnal cycle of Earth's outgoing energy flows. This is made possible via the use of Met Office model output for September 2010 that is assessed alongside regional satellite observations throughout. Principal component analysis applied to the long-wave component of modelled outgoing radiation reveals dominant diurnal patterns related to land surface heating and convective cloud development, respectively explaining 68.5 and 16.0 % of the variance at the global scale. The total variance explained by these first two patterns is markedly less than previous regional estimates from observations, and this analysis suggests that around half of the difference relates to the lack of global coverage in the observations. The first pattern is strongly and simultaneously coupled to the land surface temperature diurnal variations. The second pattern is strongly coupled to the cloud water content and height diurnal variations, but lags the cloud variations by several hours. We suggest that the mechanism controlling the delay is a moistening of the upper troposphere due to the evaporation of anvil cloud. The short-wave component of modelled outgoing radiation, analysed in terms of albedo, exhibits a very dominant pattern explaining 88.4 % of the variance that is related to the angle of incoming solar radiation, and a second pattern explaining 6.7 % of the variance that is related to compensating effects from convective cloud development and marine stratocumulus cloud dissipation. Similar patterns are found in regional satellite observations, but with slightly different timings due to known model biases. The first pattern is controlled by changes in surface and cloud albedo, and Rayleigh and aerosol scattering. The second pattern is strongly coupled to the diurnal variations in both cloud water content and height in convective regions but only cloud water content in marine

  20. Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases

    Gillett, Nathan P [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3V6 (Canada); Matthews, H Damon, E-mail: nathan.gillett@ec.gc.ca [Department of Geography, Planning and Environment, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve West, H 1255-26, Montreal, QC, H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    Greenhouse gases other than CO{sub 2} make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO{sub 2} emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO{sub 2} following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by {approx} 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 x 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO{sub 2} from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.

  1. Representing leaf and root physiological traits in CLM improves global carbon and nitrogen cycling predictions

    Ghimire, Bardan; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles D.; Mu, Mingquan; Randerson, James T.

    2016-06-01

    In many ecosystems, nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for plant growth and productivity. However, current Earth System Models (ESMs) do not mechanistically represent functional nitrogen allocation for photosynthesis or the linkage between nitrogen uptake and root traits. The current version of CLM (4.5) links nitrogen availability and plant productivity via (1) an instantaneous downregulation of potential photosynthesis rates based on soil mineral nitrogen availability, and (2) apportionment of soil nitrogen between plants and competing nitrogen consumers assumed to be proportional to their relative N demands. However, plants do not photosynthesize at potential rates and then downregulate; instead photosynthesis rates are governed by nitrogen that has been allocated to the physiological processes underpinning photosynthesis. Furthermore, the role of plant roots in nutrient acquisition has also been largely ignored in ESMs. We therefore present a new plant nitrogen model for CLM4.5 with (1) improved representations of linkages between leaf nitrogen and plant productivity based on observed relationships in a global plant trait database and (2) plant nitrogen uptake based on root-scale Michaelis-Menten uptake kinetics. Our model improvements led to a global bias reduction in GPP, LAI, and biomass of 70%, 11%, and 49%, respectively. Furthermore, water use efficiency predictions were improved conceptually, qualitatively, and in magnitude. The new model's GPP responses to nitrogen deposition, CO2 fertilization, and climate also differed from the baseline model. The mechanistic representation of leaf-level nitrogen allocation and a theoretically consistent treatment of competition with belowground consumers led to overall improvements in global carbon cycling predictions.

  2. Evaluation and intercomparison of three-dimensional global marine carbon cycle models

    Caldeira, K., LLNL

    1998-07-01

    -Reimer, 1990; Sarmiento et al., 1992, Najjar et al., 1992). These twin needs for the development of marine carbon cycle models are expressed in two of the main elements of JGOFS SMP: (1) extrapolation and prediction, and (2) global and regional balances of carbon and related biologically-active substances. We propose to address these program elements through a coordinated, multi-investigator project to evaluate and intercompare several 3-D global marine carbon cycle models.

  3. Metabolism of nonparticulate phosphorus in an acid bog lake

    Koenings, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In North Gate Lake, an acid bog lake located on the northern Michigan-Wisconsin border, U.S.A., the algal nutrient inorganic phosphate (FRP) is not detectable by chemical means. Organic phosphorus (FUP) represents 100% of the detectable filterable phosphorus. The availability and cycling of this organic fraction are of considerable interest in regard to the primary productivity of this system. To clarify these relationships, the cycling of nonparticulate forms of phosphorus found in the epilimnion of this lake was studied

  4. Metabolism of nonparticulate phosphorus in an acid bog lake

    Koenings, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In North Gate Lake, an acid bog lake located on the northern Michigan-Wisconsin border, U.S.A., the algal nutrient inorganic phosphate (FRP) is not detectable by chemical means. Organic phosphorus (FUP) represents 100% of the detectable filterable phosphorus. The availability and cycling of this organic fraction are of considerable interest in regard to the primary productivity of this system. To clarify these relationships, the cycling of nonparticulate forms of phosphorus found in the epilimnion of this lake was studied.

  5. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    Radhi, Hassan, E-mail: h_alradhi@yahoo.com [Global Engineering Bureau, P.O Box 33130, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain (Bahrain); Sharples, Stephen, E-mail: steve.sharples@liverpool.ac.uk [School of Architecture, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle

  6. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    Radhi, Hassan; Sharples, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO 2 emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO 2 emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO 2 emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco 2 ), embodied energy (Eco 2 ) and operational energy (OPco 2 ). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80–90%). However, embodied CO 2 emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70–90% of the total CO 2 emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco 2 emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO 2 emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO 2 emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO 2 emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO 2 emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: ► Life cycle carbon assessment of façade parameters. ► Greatest environmental impact occurs

  7. Insight into the Global Carbon Cycle from Assimilation of Satellite CO2 measurements

    Baker, D. F.

    2017-12-01

    A key goal of satellite CO2 measurements is to provide sufficient spatio-temporal coverage to constrain portions of the globe poorly observed by the in situ network, especially the tropical land regions. While systematic errors in both measurements and modeling remain a challenge, these satellite data are providing new insight into the functioning of the global carbon cycle, most notably across the recent 2015-16 En Niño. Here we interpret CO2 measurements from the GOSAT and OCO-2 satellites, as well as from the global in situ network (both surface sites and routine aircraft profiles), using a 4DVar-based global CO2 flux inversion across 2009-2017. The GOSAT data indicate that the tropical land regions are responsible for most of the observed global variability in CO2 across the last 8+ years. For the most recent couple of years where they overlap, the OCO-2 data give the same result, an +2 PgC/yr shift towards CO2 release in the ENSO warm phase, while disagreeing somewhat on the absolute value of the flux. The variability given by both these satellites disagrees with that given by an in situ-only inversion across the recent 2015-16 El Niño: the +2 PgC/yr shift from the satellites is double that given by the in situ data alone, suggesting that the more complete coverage is providing a more accurate view. For the current release of OCO-2 data (version 7), however, the flux results given by the OCO-2 land data (from both nadir- and glint-viewing modes) disagree significantly with those given by the ocean glint data; we examine the soon-to-be-released v8 data to assess whether these systematic retrieval errors have been reduced, and whether the corrected OCO-2 ocean data support the result from the land data. We discuss finer-scale features flux results given by the satellite data, and examine the importance of the flux prior, as well.

  8. Use of Phosphorus Isotopes for Improving Phosphorus Management in Agricultural Systems

    2016-10-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element in plant, human and animal nutrition. Soils with low levels of phosphorus are widespread in many regions of the world, and the deficiency limits plant growth and reduces crop production and food quality. This publication provides comprehensive and up to date information on several topics related to phosphorus in soil–plant systems, in agricultural systems and in the environment. It presents the theoretical background as well as practical information on how to use nuclear and radioisotope tracer techniques in both laboratory and greenhouse experiments to assess soil phosphorus forms and plant-available soil phosphorus pools, and to understand the cycling processes in soil–plant systems. The publication focuses on practical applications of radiotracer techniques and can serve as resource material for research projects on improving sustainable phosphorus management in agricultural systems and as practical guidance on the use of phosphate isotopes in soil–plant research

  9. Life-cycle global warming and non-renewable energy consumption impacts of ammonia fuel

    Are, Kristian Ray Angelo; Razon, Luis; Tan, Raymond Girard

    2015-01-01

    The use of ammonia (NH 3 ) as transportation fuel had been a recent topics of research interest. NH 3 has fuel properties that are better than those of other alternative fuels, such as it high energy density and simpler storage. However, it has a low flame speed and would require to be mixed with a secondary fuel forming a dual fuel system. Moreover, current industrial methods of NH 3 production are major global warming potential (GWP) and non-renewable energy consumption (NREC) impact contributors. This study assessed the life-cycle GWP and NREC of using different NH 3 -secondary fuel mixtures. Four fuel mixtures were considered, wherein NH 3 is mixed with gasoline, diesel, hydrogen or dimethyl ether (DME). Also, our processes of NH 3 production were considered: steam reforming (SR), partial oxidation (PO), which are industrial methods and two biomass-based (alternative) processes wherein cereal straw (Salix) and cyanobacteria (Anabaena ATCC 33047) are used feedstocks. Contribution, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses (via Monte Carlo simulation) were conducted for life-cycle interpretation. Dominance matrix tool was also employed to aid in drawing conclusions. The study concludes that the environmental impacts of NH 3 fuel are dependent on (i) NH 3 production methods and (ii) type of NH 3 fuel mixture. NH 3 -diesel fuel mixtures have lower GWP compared to pure diesel, while NH 3 -gasoline fuel mixture have higher GWP compared to pure gasoline. Because of large uncertainty of the NREC pure gasoline and pure diesel, no firm conclusion can be made about the NREC ammonia-diesel and ammonia-gasoline. If fuel mixture types are compared, NH 3 -H 2 mixtures have the lowest GWP and NREC among the four, though this would entail designing new engines. Over-all, it is shown that fuel systems involving biomass-based NH 3 have lower environmental impacts as compared to conventionally-produced NH 3 counterparts. (author)

  10. How does global biogeochemical cycle become complicated by terrestrial-aquatic interactions ?

    Nakayama, Tadanobu; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2015-04-01

    Inland water such as river and lake are now known to be important and active components of global carbon cycle though its contribution has remained uncertain due to data scarcity (Battin et al., 2009; Aufdenkampe et al., 2011). The author has developed process-based National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model (Nakayama, 2008a-b, 2010, 2011a-b, 2012a-c, 2013; Nakayama and Fujita, 2010; Nakayama and Hashimoto, 2011; Nakayama and Shankman, 2013a-b; Nakayama and Watanabe, 2004, 2006, 2008a-b; Nakayama et al., 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012), which incorporates surface-groundwater interactions, includes up- and down-scaling processes between local-global scales, and can simulate iteratively nonlinear feedback between hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological processes. In this study, NICE was coupled with various biogeochemical models to incorporate biogeochemical cycle including reaction between inorganic and organic carbons (DOC, POC, DIC, pCO2, etc.) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems including surface water and groundwater. The coupled model simulated CO2 evasion from inland water in global scale, was relatively in good agreement in that estimated by empirical regression model (Raymond et al., 2013). In particular, the simulated result implied importance of connectivity between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in addition to surface and groundwater, and hillslopes and stream channels, etc. The model further improved the accuracy of CH4 flux in wetland which is sensitive to fluctuations of shallow groundwater because the original NICE incorporates 3-D groundwater sub-model and simulates lateral subsurface flow more reasonably. This simulation system would play important role in integration of greenhouse gas budget of the biosphere, quantification of hot spots in boundless biogeochemical cycle, and bridging gap between top-down and bottom-up approaches (Cole et al., 2007; Frei et al., 2012; Kiel and Cardenas, 2014). References; Aufdenkampe, A.K., et al

  11. Global ice volume variations through the last glacial cycle simulated by a 3-D ice-dynamical model

    Bintanja, R.; Wal, R.S.W. van de; Oerlemans, J.

    2002-01-01

    A coupled ice sheet—ice shelf—bedrock model was run at 20km resolution to simulate the evolution of global ice cover during the last glacial cycle. The mass balance model uses monthly mean temperature and precipitation as input and incorporates the albedo—mass balance feedback. The model is forced

  12. Municipal solid waste conversion to transportation fuels: a life-cycle estimation of global warming potential and energy consumption

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Aziz, Tarek N.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper utilizes life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to evaluate the conversion of U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) to liquid transportation fuels via gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (FT). The model estimates the cumulative energy demand and global warming potential (GWP) associated...

  13. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global Warming and Eutrophication Potentials of Several Water and Waste Service Options

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG...

  14. The Policy Cycle and Vernacular Globalization: A Case Study of the Creation of Vietnam National University--Hochiminh City

    Minh Ngo, Thanh; Lingard, Bob; Mitchell, Jane

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the policy cycle and vernacular globalization in the context of higher education reform in Vietnam. Through an analysis of the development of the Vietnam National University--Hochiminh City as part of the post-1986 reconstruction of Vietnamese higher education, the article considers the complex interrelationship between…

  15. Inhibition of nitrogenase by oxygen in marine cyanobacteria controls the global nitrogen and oxygen cycles

    Berman-Frank, I.; Chen, Y.-B.; Gerchman, Y.; Dismukes, G. C.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2005-03-01

    Cyanobacterial N2-fixation supplies the vast majority of biologically accessible inorganic nitrogen to nutrient-poor aquatic ecosystems. The process, catalyzed by the heterodimeric protein complex, nitrogenase, is thought to predate that of oxygenic photosynthesis. Remarkably, while the enzyme plays such a critical role in Earth's biogeochemical cycles, the activity of nitrogenase in cyanobacteria is markedly inhibited in vivo at a post-translational level by the concentration of O2 in the contemporary atmosphere leading to metabolic and biogeochemical inefficiency in N2 fixation. We illustrate this crippling effect with data from Trichodesmium spp. an important contributor of "new nitrogen" to the world's subtropical and tropical oceans. The enzymatic inefficiency of nitrogenase imposes a major elemental taxation on diazotrophic cyanobacteria both in the costs of protein synthesis and for scarce trace elements, such as iron. This restriction has, in turn, led to a global limitation of fixed nitrogen in the contemporary oceans and provides a strong biological control on the upper bound of oxygen concentration in Earth's atmosphere.

  16. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Global Carbon Cycle: The Key Uncertainties

    Peng, T. H.; Post, W. M.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Dale, V. H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1987-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon between its sources and sinks determines the rate of increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The observed increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} content is less than the estimated release from fossil fuel consumption and deforestation. This discrepancy can be explained by interactions between the atmosphere and other global carbon reservoirs such as the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere including soils. Undoubtedly, the oceans have been the most important sinks for CO{sub 2} produced by man. But, the physical, chemical, and biological processes of oceans are complex and, therefore, credible estimates of CO{sub 2} uptake can probably only come from mathematical models. Unfortunately, one- and two-dimensional ocean models do not allow for enough CO{sub 2} uptake to accurately account for known releases. Thus, they produce higher concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} than was historically the case. More complex three-dimensional models, while currently being developed, may make better use of existing tracer data than do one- and two-dimensional models and will also incorporate climate feedback effects to provide a more realistic view of ocean dynamics and CO{sub 2} fluxes. The instability of current models to estimate accurately oceanic uptake of CO{sub 2} creates one of the key uncertainties in predictions of atmospheric CO{sub 2} increases and climate responses over the next 100 to 200 years.

  17. Derivation of a northern-hemispheric biomass map for use in global carbon cycle models

    Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian; Santoro, Maurizio; Carvalhais, Nuno; Wutzler, Thomas; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Kompter, Elisabeth; Levick, Shaun; Schmullius, Christiane

    2013-04-01

    Quantifying the state and the change of the World's forests is crucial because of their ecological, social and economic value. Concerning their ecological importance, forests provide important feedbacks on the global carbon, energy and water cycles. In addition to their influence on albedo and evapotranspiration, they have the potential to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide and thus to mitigate global warming. The current state and inter-annual variability of forest carbon stocks remain relatively unexplored, but remote sensing can serve to overcome this shortcoming. While for the tropics wall-to-wall estimates of above-ground biomass have been recently published, up to now there was a lack of similar products covering boreal and temperate forests. Recently, estimates of forest growing stock volume (GSV) were derived from ENVISAT ASAR C-band data for latitudes above 30° N. Utilizing a wood density and a biomass compartment database, a forest carbon density map covering North-America, Europe and Asia with 0.01° resolution could be derived out of this dataset. Allometric functions between stem, branches, root and foliage biomass were fitted and applied for different leaf types (broadleaf, needleleaf deciduous, needleleaf evergreen forest). Additionally, this method enabled uncertainty estimation of the resulting carbon density map. Intercomparisons with inventory-based biomass products in Russia, Europe and the USA proved the high accuracy of this approach at a regional scale (r2 = 0.70 - 0.90). Based on the final biomass map, the forest carbon stocks and densities (excluding understorey vegetation) for three biomes were estimated across three continents. While 40.7 ± 15.7 Gt of carbon were found to be stored in boreal forests, temperate broadleaf/mixed forests and temperate conifer forests contain 24.5 ± 9.4 Gt(C) and 14.5 ± 4.8 Gt(C), respectively. In terms of carbon density, most of the carbon per area is stored in temperate conifer (62.1 ± 20.7 Mg

  18. Peak Phosphorus: Clarifying the Key Issues of a Vigorous Debate about Long-Term Phosphorus Security

    Stuart White

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the latest information and perspectives on global phosphorus scarcity. Phosphorus is essential for food production and modern agriculture currently sources phosphorus fertilizers from finite phosphate rock. The 2008 food and phosphate fertilizer price spikes triggered increased concerns regarding the depletion timeline of phosphate rock reserves. While estimates range from 30 to 300 years and are shrouded by lack of publicly available data and substantial uncertainty, there is a general consensus that the quality and accessibility of remaining reserves are decreasing and costs will increase. This paper clarifies common sources of misunderstandings about phosphorus scarcity and identifies areas of consensus. It then asks, despite some persistent uncertainty, what would it take to achieve global phosphorus security? What would a ‘hard-landing’ response look like and how could preferred ‘soft-landing’ responses be achieved?

  19. Phosphorus and phytase levels for layer hens

    Juliana Cristina Ramos Rezende; Antonio Carlos de Laurentiz; Rosemeire da Silva Filardi; Vitor Barbosa Fascina; Daniella Aparecida Berto; Sérgio Turra Sobrane Filho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance and bone quality of laying hens after peak production fed diets containing phosphorus levels and phytase. An experiment was conducted with 384 Hy-line distributed in a completely randomized in a factorial 4 x 3 with 4 levels of available phosphorus and 3 levels of phytase. The experimental period was divided into four periods of 28 days, at the end of each cycle were determined experimental feed intake, egg production, egg weight,...

  20. Soil carbon model alternatives for ECHAM5/JSBACH climate model: Evaluation and impacts on global carbon cycle estimates

    Thum, T.; Raisanen, P.; Sevanto, S.

    2011-01-01

    The response of soil organic carbon to climate change might lead to significant feedbacks affecting global warming. This response can be studied by coupled climate-carbon cycle models but so far the description of soil organic carbon cycle in these models has been quite simple. In this work we used...... the coupled climate-carbon cycle model ECHAM5/JSBACH (European Center/Hamburg Model 5/Jena Scheme for Biosphere-Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg) with two different soil carbon modules, namely (1) the original soil carbon model of JSBACH called CBALANCE and (2) a new soil carbon model Yasso07, to study...... the interaction between climate variability and soil organic carbon. Equivalent ECHAM5/JSBACH simulations were conducted using both soil carbon models, with freely varying atmospheric CO2 for the last 30 years (1977-2006). In this study, anthropogenic CO2 emissions and ocean carbon cycle were excluded. The new...

  1. Visualizing alternative phosphorus scenarios for future food security

    Tina-Simone Neset

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialogue on the technical, behavioral and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real-time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialogue to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1 the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2 the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3 the potential of a decreased animal product consumption, and (4 the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency

  2. Visualizing Alternative Phosphorus Scenarios for Future Food Security.

    Neset, Tina-Simone; Cordell, Dana; Mohr, Steve; VanRiper, Froggi; White, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure, and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialog on the technical, behavioral, and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialog to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1) the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2) the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3) the potential of decreased animal product consumption, and (4) the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency and yield gains in

  3. A model of the solar cycle driven by the dynamo action of the global convection in the solar convection zone

    Yoshimura, H.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive numerical studies of the dynamo equations due to the global convection are presented to simulate the solar cycle and to open the way to study general stellar magnetic cycles. The dynamo equations which represent the longitudinally-averaged magnetohydrodynamical action (mean magnetohydrodynamics) of the global convection under the influence of the rotation in the solar convection zone are considered here as an initial boundary-value problem. The latitudinal and radial structure of the dynamo action consisting of a generation action due to the differential rotation and a regeneration action due to the global convection is parameterized in accordance with the structure of the rotation and of the global convection. This is done especially in such a way as to represent the presence of the two cells of the regeneration action in the radial direction in which the action has opposite signs, which is typical of the regeneration action of the global convection. The effects of the dynamics of the global convection (e.g., the effects of the stratification of the physical conditions in the solar convection zone) are presumed to be all included in those parameters used in the model and they are presumed not to alter the results drastically since these effects are only to change the structure of the regeneration action topologically. (Auth.)

  4. Initializing carbon cycle predictions from the Community Land Model by assimilating global biomass observations

    Fox, A. M.; Hoar, T. J.; Smith, W. K.; Moore, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The locations and longevity of terrestrial carbon sinks remain uncertain, however it is clear that in order to predict long-term climate changes the role of the biosphere in surface energy and carbon balance must be understood and incorporated into earth system models (ESMs). Aboveground biomass, the amount of carbon stored in vegetation, is a key component of the terrestrial carbon cycle, representing the balance of uptake through gross primary productivity (GPP), losses from respiration, senescence and mortality over hundreds of years. The best predictions of current and future land-atmosphere fluxes are likely from the integration of process-based knowledge contained in models and information from observations of changes in carbon stocks using data assimilation (DA). By exploiting long times series, it is possible to accurately detect variability and change in carbon cycle dynamics through monitoring ecosystem states, for example biomass derived from vegetation optical depth (VOD), and use this information to initialize models before making predictions. To make maximum use of information about the current state of global ecosystems when using models we have developed a system that combines the Community Land Model (CLM) with the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), a community tool for ensemble DA. This DA system is highly innovative in its complexity, completeness and capabilities. Here we described a series of activities, using both Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) and real observations, that have allowed us to quantify the potential impact of assimilating VOD data into CLM-DART on future land-atmosphere fluxes. VOD data are particularly suitable to use in this activity due to their long temporal coverage and appropriate scale when combined with CLM, but their absolute values rely on many assumptions. Therefore, we have had to assess the implications of the VOD retrieval algorithms, with an emphasis on detecting uncertainty due to

  5. Exploring global carbon turnover and radiocarbon cycling in terrestrial biosphere models

    Graven, H. D.; Warren, H.

    2017-12-01

    The uptake of carbon into terrestrial ecosystems through net primary productivity (NPP) and the turnover of that carbon through various pathways are the fundamental drivers of changing carbon stocks on land, in addition to human-induced and natural disturbances. Terrestrial biosphere models use different formulations for carbon uptake and release, resulting in a range of values in NPP of 40-70 PgC/yr and biomass turnover times of about 25-40 years for the preindustrial period in current-generation models from CMIP5. Biases in carbon uptake and turnover impact simulated carbon uptake and storage in the historical period and later in the century under changing climate and CO2 concentration, however evaluating global-scale NPP and carbon turnover is challenging. Scaling up of plot-scale measurements involves uncertainty due to the large heterogeneity across ecosystems and biomass types, some of which are not well-observed. We are developing the modelling of radiocarbon in terrestrial biosphere models, with a particular focus on decadal 14C dynamics after the nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s-60s, including the impact of carbon flux trends and variability on 14C cycling. We use an estimate of the total inventory of excess 14C in the biosphere constructed by Naegler and Levin (2009) using a 14C budget approach incorporating estimates of total 14C produced by the weapons tests and atmospheric and oceanic 14C observations. By simulating radiocarbon in simple biosphere box models using carbon fluxes from the CMIP5 models, we find that carbon turnover is too rapid in many of the simple models - the models appear to take up too much 14C and release it too quickly. Therefore many CMIP5 models may also simulate carbon turnover that is too rapid. A caveat is that the simple box models we use may not adequately represent carbon dynamics in the full-scale models. Explicit simulation of radiocarbon in terrestrial biosphere models would allow more robust evaluation of biosphere

  6. Regulation of phosphorus uptake and utilization: transitioning from current knowledge to practical strategies

    Hasan, Md. Mahmudul; Hasan, Md. Mainul; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Li, Xuexian

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is a poorly bioavailable macronutrient that is essential for crop growth and yield. Overuse of phosphorus fertilizers results in low phosphorus use efficiency (PUE), has serious environmental consequences and accelerates the depletion of phosphorus mineral reserves. It has become extremely challenging to improve PUE while preserving global food supplies and maintaining environmental sustainability. Molecular and genetic analyses have revealed the primary mechanisms of phosphorus up...

  7. Substoichiometric extraction of phosphorus

    Shigematsu, T.; Kudo, K.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the substoichiometric extraction of phosphorus is described. Phosphorus was extracted in the form of ternary compounds such as ammonium phosphomolybdate, 8-hydroxyquinolinium phosphomolybdate, tetraphenylarsonium phosphomolybdate and tri-n-octylamine phosphomolybdate. Consequently, phosphorus was extracted substoichiometrically by the addition of a substoichiometric amount of molybdenum for the four phosphomolybdate compounds. On the other hand, phosphorus could be separated substoichiometrically with a substoichiometric amount of tetraphenylarsonium chloride or tri-n-octylamine. Stoichiometric ratios of these ternary compounds obtained substoichiometrically were 1:12:3 for phosphorus, molybdenum and organic reagent. The applicability of these compounds to phosphorus determination is also discussed. (author)

  8. Plasma surrounding the global heliosphere at large distances controlled by the solar cycle

    Dialynas, Konstantinos; Krimigis, Stamatios; Mitchell, Donald; Decker, Robert; Roelof, Edmond

    2016-04-01

    The past decade can be characterized by a series of key, groundbreaking remote energetic neutral atom (ENA) images (INCA, IBEX) and in-situ ion (Voyager 1 & 2) observations concerning the characteristics and interactions of the heliosphere with the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM). Voyagers 1 and 2 (V1, V2) discovered the reservoir of ions and electrons that constitute the heliosheath (HS) after crossing the termination shock (TS) 35deg north and 32deg south of the ecliptic plane at 94 and 84 astronomical units (1 AU= 1.5 x108 km), respectively. The in situ measurements by each Voyager were placed in a global context by remote sensing images using ENA obtained with the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) onboard Cassini orbiting Saturn. The ENA images contain a 5.2-55 keV hydrogen (H) ENA region (Belt) that loops through the celestial sphere and contributes to balancing the pressure of the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). The success of any future mission with dedicated ENA detectors (e.g. the IMAP mission), highly depends on the antecedent understanding of the details of the plasma processes in the Heliosphere as revealed by remote sensing of the plasma environment characteristics. Therefore, we address here one of the remaining and most important questions: "Where do the 5-55 keV ENAs that INCA measures come from?". We analyzed INCA all-sky maps from 2003 to 2015 and compare the solar cycle (SC) variation of the ENAs in both the nose (upstream) and anti-nose (downstream) directions with the intensities of > 30 keV ions (source of ENA through charge exchange-CE with H) measured in-situ by V1 and V2, in overlapping energy bands ~30-55 keV. ENA intensities decrease during the declining phase of SC23 by ~x3 from 2003 to 2011 but recover through 2014 (SC24); similarly, V1 and V2 ion intensities also decrease and then recover through 2014. The similarity of time profiles of remotely sensed ENA and locally measured ions are consistent with (a) ENA originating in the HS

  9. Crust-mantle branch of the global carbon cycle and origin of deep-seated hydrocarbons

    Sorokhtin N. O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The processes of multi-stage and polycyclic transformation and transfer of carbon in the crust and mantle have been described. The sediments drawn in the plate underthrust zones break down, become transformed and altered by metamorphic events, and part of the newly formed carbon compounds is transferred by the mantle convective currents to rift zones of the mid-oceanic ridges and carried up to the surface as hydrocarbons of various composition and carbon dioxide. This material becomes re-deposited on the sea floor as sediments forming carbonaceous and carbon-bearing units. As a result of multi-stage mechanism of physical and chemical transformations in the crust-mantle areas of the Earth hydrocarbon compounds acquire features of abiogenic origin remaining, in fact, exogenic. The revealed crust-mantle carbon cycle represents part of a global process for the cyclic carbon transfer from the atmosphere to the mantle and back. The scale of its manifestation is likely not so wide, and numerous small (mm and portions of millimeters particles of exogenic substance and dispersed carbon drawn in the plate underthrust zones form a stable geochemical tail of the crustal direction in the mantle propagating in the plane of convective currents motion. The scale of this process may be indirectly suggested by the volumes of hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide de-gassing and hydrogen in the rift systems of the Earth crust. The amount of generated hydrocarbon gases with deep-seated origin cannot form large gas and oil-and-gas fields since their significant part is transferred to the atmosphere. Just some portion of compounds may be deposited in oceanic sediments and generate gas-hydrate pools.

  10. Phosphorus Processing—Potentials for Higher Efficiency

    Ludwig Hermann; Fabian Kraus; Ralf Hermann

    2018-01-01

    In the aftermath of the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement (COP21) by virtually all United Nations, producing more with less is imperative. In this context, phosphorus processing, despite its high efficiency compared to other steps in the value chain, needs to be revisited by science and industry. During processing, phosphorus is lost to phosphogypsum, disposed of in stacks globally piling up to 3–4 billion tons and growing by about 200 million ...

  11. Phosphorus blood test

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  12. Evaluating the Long-term Water Cycle Trends at a Global-scale using Satellite and Assimilation Datasets

    Kim, H.; Lakshmi, V.

    2017-12-01

    Global-scale soil moisture and rainfall products retrieved from remotely sensed and assimilation datasets provide an effective way to monitor near surface soil moisture content and precipitation with sub-daily temporal resolution. In the present study, we employed the concept of the stored precipitation fraction Fp(f) in order to examine the long-term water cycle trends at a global-scale. The analysis was done for Fp(f) trends with the various geophysical aspects such as climate zone, land use classifications, amount of vegetation, and soil properties. Furthermore, we compared a global-scale Fp(f) using different microwave-based satellite soil moisture datasets. The Fp(f) is calculated by utilized surface soil moisture dataset from Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, Advanced Scatterometer, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2, and precipitation information from Global Precipitation Measurement Mission and Global Land Data Assimilation System. Different results from microwave-based soil moisture dataset showed discordant results particularly over arid and highly vegetated regions. The results of this study provide us new insights of the long-term water cycle trends over different land surface areas. Thereby also highlighting the advantages of the recently available GPM and SMAP datasets for the uses in various hydrometeorological applications.

  13. The response of amino acid cycling to global change across multiple biomes: Feedbacks on soil nitrogen availability

    Brzostek, E. R.; Finzi, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    The cycling of organic nitrogen (N) in soil links soil organic matter decomposition to ecosystem productivity. Amino acids are a key pool of organic N in the soil, whose cycling is sensitive to alterations in microbial demand for carbon and N. Further, the amino acids released from the breakdown of protein by proteolytic enzymes are an important source of N that supports terrestrial productivity. The objective of this study was to measure changes in amino acid cycling in response to experimental alterations of precipitation and temperature in twelve global change experiments during the 2009 growing season. The study sites ranged from arctic tundra to xeric grasslands. The treatments experimentally increased temperature, increased or decreased precipitation, or some combination of both factors. The response of amino acid cycling to temperature and precipitation manipulations tended to be site specific, but the responses could be placed into a common framework. Changes in soil moisture drove a large response in amino acid cycling. Precipitation augmentation in xeric and mesic sites increased both amino acid pool sizes and production. However, treatments that decreased precipitation drove decreases in amino acid cycling in xeric sites, but led to increases in amino acid cycling in more mesic sites. Across sites, the response to soil warming was horizon specific. Amino acid cycling in organic rich horizons responded positively to warming, while negative responses were exhibited in lower mineral soil horizons. The variable response likely reflects a higher availability of protein substrate to sustain high rates of proteolytic enzyme activity in organic rich horizons. Overall, these results suggest that soil moisture and the availability of protein substrate may be important factors that mediate the response of amino acid cycling to predicted increases in soil temperatures.

  14. Top-down constraints on disturbance dynamics in the terrestrial carbon cycle: effects at global and regional scales

    Bloom, A. A.; Exbrayat, J. F.; van der Velde, I.; Peters, W.; Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    Large uncertainties preside over terrestrial carbon flux estimates on a global scale. In particular, the strongly coupled dynamics between net ecosystem productivity and disturbance C losses are poorly constrained. To gain an improved understanding of ecosystem C dynamics from regional to global scale, we apply a Markov Chain Monte Carlo based model-data-fusion approach into the CArbon DAta-MOdel fraMework (CARDAMOM). We assimilate MODIS LAI and burned area, plant-trait data, and use the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) and maps of above ground biomass as prior knowledge for initial conditions. We optimize model parameters based on (a) globally spanning observations and (b) ecological and dynamic constraints that force single parameter values and parameter inter-dependencies to be representative of real world processes. We determine the spatial and temporal dynamics of major terrestrial C fluxes and model parameter values on a global scale (GPP = 123 +/- 8 Pg C yr-1 & NEE = -1.8 +/- 2.7 Pg C yr-1). We further show that the incorporation of disturbance fluxes, and accounting for their instantaneous or delayed effect, is of critical importance in constraining global C cycle dynamics, particularly in the tropics. In a higher resolution case study centred on the Amazon Basin we show how fires not only trigger large instantaneous emissions of burned matter, but also how they are responsible for a sustained reduction of up to 50% in plant uptake following the depletion of biomass stocks. The combination of these two fire-induced effects leads to a 1 g C m-2 d-1reduction in the strength of the net terrestrial carbon sink. Through our simulations at regional and global scale, we advocate the need to assimilate disturbance metrics in global terrestrial carbon cycle models to bridge the gap between globally spanning terrestrial carbon cycle data and the full dynamics of the ecosystem C cycle. Disturbances are especially important because their quick occurrence may have

  15. Closing the Global Energy and Nutrient Cycles through Application of Biogas Residue to Agricultural Land – Potential Benefits and Drawback

    Veronica Arthurson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an optimal way to treat organic waste matter, resulting in biogas and residue. Utilization of the residue as a crop fertilizer should enhance crop yield and soil fertility, promoting closure of the global energy and nutrient cycles. Consequently, the requirement for production of inorganic fertilizers will decrease, in turn saving significant amounts of energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, and indirectly leading to global economic benefits. However, application of this residue to agricultural land requires careful monitoring to detect amendments in soil quality at the early stages.

  16. Globalization of the nuclear fuel cycle impact of developments on fuel management

    Van Den Durpel, L.; Bertel, E. [OCDE-NEA, Nuclear Development Div., 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear energy will have to cope more and more with a rapid changing environment due to economic competitive pressure and the de-regulatory progress. In current economic environment, utilities will have to focus strongly on the reduction of their total generation costs, covering the fuel cycle costs, which are only partly under their control. Developments in the fuel cycle will be in the short-term rather evolutionary addressing the current needs of utilities. However, within the context of sustainable development and more and more inclusion of externalities in energy generation costs, more performing developments in the fuel cycle could become important and feasible. A life-cycle design approach of the fuel cycle will be requested in order to cover all factors in order to decrease significantly the nuclear energy generation cost to compete with other alternative fuels in the long-term. This paper will report on some of the trends one could distinguish in the fuel cycle with emphasis on cost reduction. OECD/NEA is currently conducting a study on the fuel cycle aiming to assess current and future nuclear fuel cycles according the potential for further improvement of the full added-value chain of these cycles from a mainly technological and economical perspective including environmental and social considerations. (authors)

  17. Semantic Data Integration and Ontology Use within the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Global Water Cycle Data Integration System

    Pozzi, W.; Fekete, B.; Piasecki, M.; McGuinness, D.; Fox, P.; Lawford, R.; Vorosmarty, C.; Houser, P.; Imam, B.

    2008-12-01

    The inadequacies of water cycle observations for monitoring long-term changes in the global water system, as well as their feedback into the climate system, poses a major constraint on sustainable development of water resources and improvement of water management practices. Hence, The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has established Task WA-08-01, "Integration of in situ and satellite data for water cycle monitoring," an integrative initiative combining different types of satellite and in situ observations related to key variables of the water cycle with model outputs for improved accuracy and global coverage. This presentation proposes development of the Rapid, Integrated Monitoring System for the Water Cycle (Global-RIMS)--already employed by the GEO Global Terrestrial Network for Hydrology (GTN-H)--as either one of the main components or linked with the Asian system to constitute the modeling system of GEOSS for water cycle monitoring. We further propose expanded, augmented capability to run multiple grids to embrace some of the heterogeneous methods and formats of the Earth Science, Hydrology, and Hydraulic Engineering communities. Different methodologies are employed by the Earth Science (land surface modeling), the Hydrological (GIS), and the Hydraulic Engineering Communities; with each community employing models that require different input data. Data will be routed as input variables to the models through web services, allowing satellite and in situ data to be integrated together within the modeling framework. Semantic data integration will provide the automation to enable this system to operate in near-real-time. Multiple data collections for ground water, precipitation, soil moisture satellite data, such as SMAP, and lake data will require multiple low level ontologies, and an upper level ontology will permit user-friendly water management knowledge to be synthesized. These ontologies will have to have overlapping terms mapped and linked together. so

  18. Delayed recovery of non-marine tetrapods after the end-Permian mass extinction tracks global carbon cycle

    Irmis, Randall B.; Whiteside, Jessica H.

    2011-01-01

    During the end-Permian mass extinction, marine ecosystems suffered a major drop in diversity, which was maintained throughout the Early Triassic until delayed recovery during the Middle Triassic. This depressed diversity in the Early Triassic correlates with multiple major perturbations to the global carbon cycle, interpreted as either intrinsic ecosystem or external palaeoenvironmental effects. In contrast, the terrestrial record of extinction and recovery is less clear; the effects and magn...

  19. The impact of organochlorines cycling in the cryosphere on their global distribution and fate – 1. Sea ice

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Global fate and transport of γ-HCH and DDT was studied using a global multicompartment chemistry-transport model, MPI-MCTM, with and without a dynamic sea ice compartment. The MPI-MCTM is based on coupled ocean and atmosphere general circulation models. Sea ice hosts 7–9% of the burden of the surface ocean. Without cycling in sea ice the geographic distributions are shifted from land to sea. This shift of burdens exceeds the sea ice burden by a factor of ≈8 for γ-HCH and by a factor of ≈15 for DDT. As regional scale seasonal sea ice melting may double surface ocean contamination, a neglect of cycling in sea ice (in an otherwise unchanged model climate) would underestimate ocean exposure in high latitudes. Furthermore, it would lead to overestimates of the residence times in ocean by 40% and 33% and of the total environmental residence times, τ overall , of γ-HCH and DDT by 1.6% and 0.6%, respectively. - Highlights: ► Sea ice hosts 7–9% of the burden of γ-HCH and DDT in the surface ocean. ► Without cycling in sea ice the distributions are shifted from land to sea. ► A neglect of cycling in sea ice would underestimate ocean exposure in high latitudes. ► Persistence of γ-HCH and DDT expected enhanced in climate without sea ice. - The inclusion of cycling in sea ice is found relevant for POPs fate and transport modelling on the global scale.

  20. Development of new historical global Nitrogen fertilizer map and the evaluation of their impacts on terrestrial N cycling and the evaluation of their impacts on terrestrial N cycling

    Nishina, K.; Ito, A.; Hayashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    The use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer was rapidly growing up after the birth of Haber-Bosch process in the early 20th century. The recent N loading derived from these sources on terrestrial ecosystems was estimated 2 times higher than biogenic N fixation in terrestrial ecosystems (Gruber et al., 2009). However, there are still large uncertainties in cumulative N impacts on terrestrial impact at global scale. In this study, to assess historical N impacts at global scale, we made a new global N fertilizer input map, which was a spatial-temporal explicit map (during 1960-2010) and considered the fraction of NH4+ and NO3- in the N fertilizer inputs. With the developed N fertilizer map, we evaluated historical N20 cycling changes by land-use changes and N depositions in N cycling using ecosystem model 'VISIT'. Prior to the downscaling processes for global N fertilizer map, we applied the statistical data imputation to FAOSTAT data due to there existing many missing data especially in developing countries. For the data imputation, we used multiple data imputation method proposed by Honaker & King (2010). The statistics of various types of synthetic fertilizer consumption are available in FAOSTAT, which can be sorted by the content of NH4+ and NO3-, respectively. To downscaling the country by country N fertilizer consumptions data to the 0.5˚x 0.5˚ grid-based map, we used historical land-use map in Earthstat (Rumankutty et al., 1999). Before the assignment of N fertilizer in each grid, we weighted the double cropping regions to be more N fertilizer input on to these regions. Using M3-Crops Data (Monfreda et al., 2008), we picked up the dominant cropping species in each grid cell. After that, we used Crop Calendar in SAGE dataset (Sacks et al., 2010) and determined schedule of N fertilizer input in each grid cell using dominant crop calendar. Base fertilizer was set to be 7 days before transplanting and second fertilizer to be 30 days after base fertilizer application

  1. Global Transition Zone Anisotropy and Consequences for Mantle Flow and Earth's Deep Water Cycle

    Beghein, C.; Yuan, K.

    2011-12-01

    The transition zone has long been at the center of the debate between multi- and single-layered convection models that directly relate to heat transport and chemical mixing throughout the mantle. It has also been suggested that the transition zone is a reservoir that collects water transported by subduction of the lithosphere into the mantle. Since water lowers mantle minerals density and viscosity, thereby modifying their rheology and melting behavior, it likely affects global mantle dynamics and the history of plate tectonics. Constraining mantle flow is therefore important for our understanding of Earth's thermochemical evolution and deep water cycle. Because it can result from deformation by dislocation creep during convection, seismic anisotropy can help us model mantle flow. It is relatively well constrained in the uppermost mantle, but its presence in the transition zone is still debated. Its detection below 250 km depth has been challenging to date because of the poor vertical resolution of commonly used datasets. In this study, we used global Love wave overtone phase velocity maps, which are sensitive to structure down to much larger depths than fundamental modes alone, and have greater depth resolution than shear wave-splitting data. This enabled us to obtain a first 3-D model of azimuthal anisotropy for the upper 800km of the mantle. We inverted the 2Ψ terms of anisotropic phase velocity maps [Visser, et al., 2008] for the first five Love wave overtones between 35s and 174s period. The resulting model shows that the average anisotropy amplitude for vertically polarized shear waves displays two main stable peaks: one in the uppermost mantle and, most remarkably, one in the lower transition zone. F-tests showed that the presence of 2Ψ anisotropy in the transition zone is required to improve the third, fourth, and fifth overtones fit. Because of parameter trade-offs, however, we cannot exclude that the anisotropy is located in the upper transition zone as

  2. Implications of a More Comprehensive Nitrogen Cycle in a Global Biogeochemical Ocean Model

    Six, K. D.; Ilyina, T.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen plays a crucial role for nearly all living organisms in the Earth system. Changes in the marine nitrogen cycle not only alter the marine biota, but will also have an impact on the marine carbon cycle and, in turn, on climate due to the close coupling of the carbon-nitrogen cycle. The understanding of processes and controls of the marine nitrogen cycle is therefore a prerequisite to reduce uncertainties in the prediction of future climate. Nevertheless, most ocean biogeochemical components of modern Earth system models have a rather simplistic representation of marine N-cycle mainly focusing on nitrate. Here we present results of the HAMburg Ocean Carbon Cycle model (HAMOCC) as part of the MPI-ESM which was extended by a prognostic representation of ammonium and nitrite to resolve important processes of the marine N-cycle such as nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Additionally, we updated the production of nitrous oxide, an important greenhouse gas, allowing for two sources from oxidation of ammonium (nitrification) and from reduction of nitrite (nitrifier-denitrification) at low oxygen concentrations. Besides an extended model data comparison we discuss the following aspects of the N-cycle by model means: (1) contribution of anammox to the loss of fixed nitrogen, and (2) production and emission of marine nitrous oxide.

  3. Recent Trends of the Tropical Hydrological Cycle Inferred from Global Precipitation Climatology Project and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data

    Zhou, Y. P.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Sud, Y. C.; Betts, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    Scores of modeling studies have shown that increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere impact the global hydrologic cycle; however, disagreements on regional scales are large, and thus the simulated trends of such impacts, even for regions as large as the tropics, remain uncertain. The present investigation attempts to examine such trends in the observations using satellite data products comprising Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud and radiation. Specifically, evolving trends of the tropical hydrological cycle over the last 20-30 years were identified and analyzed. The results show (1) intensification of tropical precipitation in the rising regions of the Walker and Hadley circulations and weakening over the sinking regions of the associated overturning circulation; (2) poleward shift of the subtropical dry zones (up to 2deg/decade in June-July-August (JJA) in the Northern Hemisphere and 0.3-0.7deg/decade in June-July-August and September-October-November in the Southern Hemisphere) consistent with an overall broadening of the Hadley circulation; and (3) significant poleward migration (0.9-1.7deg/decade) of cloud boundaries of Hadley cell and plausible narrowing of the high cloudiness in the Intertropical Convergence Zone region in some seasons. These results support findings of some of the previous studies that showed strengthening of the tropical hydrological cycle and expansion of the Hadley cell that are potentially related to the recent global warming trends.

  4. JAEA key facilities for global advanced fuel cycle R and D

    Nomura, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Ryuichi [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Labos, JAEA, 4-33 Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Advanced fuel cycle will be realized with the mid and long term R and D during the long-term transition period from LWR cycle to advanced reactor fuel cycle. Most of JAEA facilities have been utilized to establish the current LWR and FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor) fuel cycle by implementing evolutionary R and D. An assessment of today's state experimental facilities concerning the following research issues: reprocessing, Mox fuel fabrication, irradiation and post-irradiation examination, waste management and nuclear data measurement, is made. The revolutionary R and D requests new issues to be studied: the TRU multi-recycling, minor actinide recycling, the assessment of proliferation resistance and the assessment of cost reduction. To implement the revolutionary R and D for advanced fuel cycle, however, these facilities should be refurbished to install new machines and process equipment to provide more flexible testing parameters.

  5. Climate-induced interannual variability of marine primary and export production in three global coupled climate carbon cycle models

    B. Schneider

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fully coupled climate carbon cycle models are sophisticated tools that are used to predict future climate change and its impact on the land and ocean carbon cycles. These models should be able to adequately represent natural variability, requiring model validation by observations. The present study focuses on the ocean carbon cycle component, in particular the spatial and temporal variability in net primary productivity (PP and export production (EP of particulate organic carbon (POC. Results from three coupled climate carbon cycle models (IPSL, MPIM, NCAR are compared with observation-based estimates derived from satellite measurements of ocean colour and results from inverse modelling (data assimilation. Satellite observations of ocean colour have shown that temporal variability of PP on the global scale is largely dominated by the permanently stratified, low-latitude ocean (Behrenfeld et al., 2006 with stronger stratification (higher sea surface temperature; SST being associated with negative PP anomalies. Results from all three coupled models confirm the role of the low-latitude, permanently stratified ocean for anomalies in globally integrated PP, but only one model (IPSL also reproduces the inverse relationship between stratification (SST and PP. An adequate representation of iron and macronutrient co-limitation of phytoplankton growth in the tropical ocean has shown to be the crucial mechanism determining the capability of the models to reproduce observed interactions between climate and PP.

  6. Commercial African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Recirculating Aquaculture Systems: Assessment of Element and Energy Pathways with Special Focus on the Phosphorus Cycle

    Sebastian Marcus Strauch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of effluent waters and sediments from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus recirculation aquaculture systems requires a deeper understanding of the nutrient and energy flows and material pathways. Three semi-commercial systems, differing in stocking density, were sampled for nutritive and pollutant elements of the input- (tap water, feed and output pathways (fillet, carcass, process water, sediments by ICP-OES/MS and calorimetry. Highly water-soluble elements, e.g., potassium, accumulated in the water, whereas iron, copper, chromium and uranium where found in the solids. Feed derived phosphorous was accounted for, 58.3–64.2% inside the fish, 9.7–19.3% in sediments, and small amounts 9.6–15.5% in the process waters. A total of 7.1–9.9% of the feed accumulated as dry matter in the sediments, comprising 5.5–8.7% total organic carbon and 3.7–5.2% nitrogen. A total of 44.5–47.1% of the feed energy was found in the fish and 5.7–7.7% in the sediments. For reuse of water and nutrients in hydroponics, the macro-nutrients potassium, nitrate, phosphorus and the micro-nutrient iron were deficient when compared with generalized recommendations for plant nutrition. Low energy contents and C/N-ratio restrict the solely use of African catfish solids for biogas production or vermiculture. Using the outputs both for biogas supplement and general fertilizer in aquaponics farming (s.l. (combined with additional nutrients appears possible.

  7. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  8. Enhancing atmospheric mercury research in China to improve the current understanding of the global mercury cycle: the need for urgent and closely coordinated efforts.

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei

    2012-06-05

    The current understanding of the global mercury (Hg) cycle remains uncertain because Hg behavior in the environment is very complicated. The special property of Hg causes the atmosphere to be the most important medium for worldwide dispersion and transformation. The source and fate of atmospheric Hg and its interaction with the surface environment are the essential topics in the global Hg cycle. Recent declining measurement trends of Hg in the atmosphere are in apparent conflict with the increasing trends in global anthropogenic Hg emissions. As the single largest country contributor of anthropogenic Hg emission, China's role in the global Hg cycle will become more and more important in the context of the decreasing man-made Hg emission from developed regions. However, much less Hg information in China is available. As a global pollutant which undergoes long-range transport and is persistence in the environment, increasing Hg knowledge in China could not only promote the Hg regulation in this country but also improve the understanding of the fundamental of the global Hg cycle and further push the abatement of this toxin on a global scale. Then the atmospheric Hg research in China may be a breakthrough for improving the current understanding of the global Hg cycle. However, due to the complex behavior of Hg in the atmosphere, a deeper understanding of the atmospheric Hg cycle in China needs greater cooperation across fields.

  9. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global Warming and Eutrophication Potentials of Several Water and Waste Service Options

    Xiaobo Xue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energy- and carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability and sensitivity were evaluated, the carbon intensity of the local electricity grid and the efficiency of electricity production by the co-digestion with the energy recovery process were the most important for determining the relative global warming potential results.

  10. Phosphorus recycling from an unexplored source by polyphosphate accumulating microalgae and cyanobacteria – a step to phosphorus security in agriculture

    Chandan eMukherjee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P, an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50-100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp. and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale.

  11. The global pyrogenic carbon cycle and its impact on the level of atmospheric CO2 over past and future centuries.

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Matthews, H Damon

    2017-08-01

    The incomplete combustion of vegetation and dead organic matter by landscape fires creates recalcitrant pyrogenic carbon (PyC), which could be consequential for the global carbon budget if changes in fire regime, climate, and atmospheric CO 2 were to substantially affect gains and losses of PyC on land and in oceans. Here, we included global PyC cycling in a coupled climate-carbon model to assess the role of PyC in historical and future simulations, accounting for uncertainties through five sets of parameter estimates. We obtained year-2000 global stocks of (Central estimate, likely uncertainty range in parentheses) 86 (11-154), 47 (2-64), and 1129 (90-5892) Pg C for terrestrial residual PyC (RPyC), marine dissolved PyC, and marine particulate PyC, respectively. PyC cycling decreased atmospheric CO 2 only slightly between 1751 and 2000 (by 0.8 Pg C for the Central estimate) as PyC-related fluxes changed little over the period. For 2000 to 2300, we combined Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 with stable or continuously increasing future fire frequencies. For the increasing future fire regime, the production of new RPyC generally outpaced the warming-induced accelerated loss of existing RPyC, so that PyC cycling decreased atmospheric CO 2 between 2000 and 2300 for most estimates (by 4-8 Pg C for Central). For the stable fire regime, however, PyC cycling usually increased atmospheric CO 2 (by 1-9 Pg C for Central), and only the most extreme choice of parameters maximizing PyC production and minimizing PyC decomposition led to atmospheric CO 2 decreases under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 (by 5-8 Pg C). Our results suggest that PyC cycling will likely reduce the future increase in atmospheric CO 2 if landscape fires become much more frequent; however, in the absence of a substantial increase in fire frequency, PyC cycling might contribute to, rather than mitigate, the future increase in atmospheric CO 2 . © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    1998-01-01

    The Institute for Global Change Research and Education (IGCRE) is a joint initiative of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) for coordinating and facilitating research and education relevant to global environmental change. Created in 1992 with primary support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), IGCRE fosters participation by university, private sector and government scientists who seek to develop long-term collaborative research in global change science, focusing on the role of water and energy in the Earth's atmosphere and physical climate system. IGCRE is also chartered to address educational needs of Earth system and global change science, including the preparation of future scientists and training of primary and secondary education teachers.

  13. Cycles of selected elements in the frame of Globalization and Global Change in the environment of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Heidak, Markus O.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Schöler, Heinfried; Trieloff, Mario; Kober, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    The Laurel Forest is an important and sensitive ecosystem with particular element cycling mechanisms. On Tenerife the distribution is straitened to some parts in the north, north-west and northeast. The NE trade wind ensures a permanently humid climate in the north. Major urban and industrial development is centred on Tenerife, and as a touristy hotspot the Island is exposed to heavy air traffic. Furthermore, the short distance to the African coastline and, therefore, to the Sahara, contribute a regular influence of African Dust emissions. In summary, Laurel Forest is exposed to different climatic conditions, variations in lithology and soils, and aerosols caused by local anthropogenic emissions, Saharan dust, and sea spray. The present study aims to understand geogenic and anthropogenic element transports of K, P, N, and organic components between soils and Laurel Forest. In addition, the element contribution from the aerosols such as the Sahara dust has to be quantified to understand the rock - soil - vegetation coupling system. The Sahara dust as one of the important aerosols has been studied by various researchers (Bustos et al., 1998; Rodrıguez, 1999; Torres et al., 2001; Viana et al., 2002). Viana et al.,(2002) quantified the impacts of African dust outbreaks for Tenerife and Gran Canaria, after the interpretation of the PM10 (thoracis particulate matter) from nineteen air quality monitoring stations. Three types of African dust contributions were identified and characterized (winter, summer and autumn-winter dust outbreaks). Collected samples with and without African dust influence proved that: (a) for the intensive winter African dust outbreaks (daily PM10 levels up to 191 mg/m3) at least 76% of the bulk PM10 levels may be attributable to dust load, whereas the anthropogenic input accounts for only 3-14% and (b) SiO2, Al2O3, Ca, K, Fe, Ti, V, Mn and Ba concentrations are excellent tracers of African origin (Viana et al., 2002).

  14. GLOBALIZATION OF ECONOMY AND GREATER CYCLES OF THE TOTAL REGIONAL PRODUCT, INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    V.A. Belkin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of synchronization of greater and small waves of real gross national product of the USA and a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area is shown on the materials of economic statistics. The conclusion about defining influence of dynamics of real gross national product of the USA on the basic macroeconomic parameters of the Chelyabinsk area owing to high dependence of its economy on export of metal products is done from here. It is evidently shown, that the modern world economic crisis quite keeps within the theory of greater cycles of an economic conjuncture of N.D. Kondratyev. To greater cycles of a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area there correspond return greater cycles of inflation and unemployment.

  15. A road map for the realization of global-scale thorium breeding fuel cycle by single molten-fluoride flow

    Furukawa, K.; Arakawa, K.; Erbay, L. B.

    2007-01-01

    For global survival in this century, we urgently need to launch a completely new global nuclear fission industry. To get worldwide public acceptance of nuclear energy, improvements are essential not only on safety, radio-waste management and economy but also especially nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards. However, such global fission industry cannot replace the present fossil fuel industry in the next 50 years, unless the doubling-time of nuclear energy is less than 10 years, preferably 5-7 years. Such a doubling-time cannot be established by any kind of classical 'Fission Breeding Power Station' concept. We need a symbiotic system which couples fission power reactors with a system which can convert fertile thorium to fissile U-233, such as a spallation or D/T fusion (if and when it becomes available). For such a purpose, THORIMS-NES [Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System] has been proposed, which is composed of simple thermal fission power stations (FUJI) and fissile producing Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder (AMSB). Its system functions are very ambitious, delicate and complex, but can be realized in the form of simple hardware applying the multifunctional 'single-phase molten-fluoride' circulation system. This system has no difficulties relating with 'radiation-damage', 'heat-removal' and 'chemical processing' owing to the simple 'idealistic ionic liquid' character. FUJI is size-flexible (economical even in smaller sizes), fuel self-sustaining without any continuous chemical processing and without core-graphite replacement, and AMSB is based on a single-fluid molten-salt target/blanket concept, which solves most engineering difficulties such as radiation-damage, heat-removal etc., except high-current proton accelerator development. Several AMSBs are accommodated in the regional centers (several ten sites in the world) with batch chemical processing plants including radio-waste management. The integrated thorium breeding fuel cycle is

  16. A model of the solar cycle driven by the dynamo action of the global convection in the solar convection zone

    Yoshimura, H.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamo equation which represents the longitudinally averaged magnetohydrodynamical action of the global convection influenced by the rotation in the solar convection zone is solved numerically to simulate the solar cycle as an initial boundary-value problem. The radial and latitudinal structure of the dynamo action is parametrized in accordance with the structure of the rotation, and of the global convection especially in such a way as to represent the presence of the two cells of the regeneration action in the radial direction in which the action has opposite signs, which is typical of the regeneration action of the global convection. A nonlinear process is included by assuming that part of the magnetic field energy is dissipated when the magnetic field strength exceeds some critical value; the formation of active regions and subsequent dissipations are thus simulated. By adjusting the parameters within a reasonable range, oscillatory solutions are obtained to simulate the solar cycle with the period of the right order of magnitude and with the patterns of evolution of the latitudinal distribution of the toroidal component of the magnetic field similar to the observed Butterfly Diagram of sunspots. The evolution of the latitudinal distribution of the radial component of the magnetic field shows patterns similar to the Butterfly Diagram, but having two branches of different polarity in each hemisphere. The development of the radial structure of the magnetic field associated with the solar cycle is presented. The importance of the poleward migrating branch of the Butterfly Diagram is emphasized in relation to the relative importance of the role of the latitudinal and radial shears of the differential rotation

  17. Hierarchical responses of plant–soil interactions to climate change: consequences for the global carbon cycle

    Bardgett, R.D.; Manning, P.; Morrien, E.; De Vries, F.T.

    2013-01-01

    1.Interactions between plant and soil communities play a major role in determining the impact of climate change on ecosystem functioning and the carbon cycle, and the mechanisms involved operate over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. 2.We present a framework for understanding the

  18. Sudomotor and vasomotor activity during the menstrual cycle with global heating.

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lee, Haneul; Khowailed, Iman Akef

    2017-07-01

    Many studies have reported that there are changes in sympathetic activity throughout the menstrual cycle as there are oestrogen receptor in the hypothalamus and all other parts of the sympathetic nervous system. The purpose of this study was to see whether there were variations in sympathetic activity, skin vasomotor and sweat gland sudomotor rhythms during the menstrual cycle. Eight young female subjects with a regular menstrual cycle participated in the study. Subjects were tested once during the follicular phase and once during the luteal phase. Skin blood flow and sweat rate were significantly higher in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase (p < .05), but the frequency and magnitude of sudomotor and vasomotor rhythms were significantly greater in the follicular phase (p < .05). In contrast, spectral data showed less sympathetic activity in the luteal phase. A significant finding here is that the sudomotor rhythm of sweat glands is altered by the menstrual cycle. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Is There Really a Global Business Cycle? : A Dynamic Factor Model with Stochastic Factor Selection

    T. Berger (Tino); L.C.G. Pozzi (Lorenzo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the presence of international business cycles in macroeconomic aggregates (output, consumption, investment) using a panel of 60 countries over the period 1961-2014. The paper presents a Bayesian stochastic factor selection approach for dynamic factor models with

  20. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  1. Diurnal Cycling Transcription Factors of Pineapple Revealed by Genome-Wide Annotation and Global Transcriptomic Analysis.

    Sharma, Anupma; Wai, Ching Man; Ming, Ray; Yu, Qingyi

    2017-09-01

    Circadian clock provides fitness advantage by coordinating internal metabolic and physiological processes to external cyclic environments. Core clock components exhibit daily rhythmic changes in gene expression, and the majority of them are transcription factors (TFs) and transcription coregulators (TCs). We annotated 1,398 TFs from 67 TF families and 80 TCs from 20 TC families in pineapple, and analyzed their tissue-specific and diurnal expression patterns. Approximately 42% of TFs and 45% of TCs displayed diel rhythmic expression, including 177 TF/TCs cycling only in the nonphotosynthetic leaf tissue, 247 cycling only in the photosynthetic leaf tissue, and 201 cycling in both. We identified 68 TF/TCs whose cycling expression was tightly coupled between the photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic leaf tissues. These TF/TCs likely coordinate key biological processes in pineapple as we demonstrated that this group is enriched in homologous genes that form the core circadian clock in Arabidopsis and includes a STOP1 homolog. Two lines of evidence support the important role of the STOP1 homolog in regulating CAM photosynthesis in pineapple. First, STOP1 responds to acidic pH and regulates a malate channel in multiple plant species. Second, the cycling expression pattern of the pineapple STOP1 and the diurnal pattern of malate accumulation in pineapple leaf are correlated. We further examined duplicate-gene retention and loss in major known circadian genes and refined their evolutionary relationships between pineapple and other plants. Significant variations in duplicate-gene retention and loss were observed for most clock genes in both monocots and dicots. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Implementation of methane cycling for deep time, global warming simulations with the DCESS Earth System Model (Version 1.2)

    Shaffer, Gary; Villanueva, Esteban Fernández; Rondanelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Geological records reveal a number of ancient, large and rapid negative excursions of carbon-13 isotope. Such excursions can only be explained by massive injections of depleted carbon to the Earth System over a short duration. These injections may have forced strong global warming events, sometimes....... With this improved DCESS model version and paleo-reconstructions, we are now better armed to gauge the amounts, types, time scales and locations of methane injections driving specific, observed deep time, global warming events......., or from warming-induced dissociation of methane hydrate, a solid compound of methane and water found in ocean sediments. As a consequence of the ubiquity and importance of methane in major Earth events, Earth System models should include a comprehensive treatment of methane cycling but such a treatment...

  3. Uncertainty propagation in life cycle assessment of biodiesel versus diesel: global warming and non-renewable energy.

    Hong, Jinglan

    2012-06-01

    Uncertainty information is essential for the proper use of life cycle assessment and environmental assessments in decision making. To investigate the uncertainties of biodiesel and determine the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel, an explicit analytical approach based on the Taylor series expansion for lognormal distribution was applied in the present study. A biodiesel case study demonstrates the probability that biodiesel has a lower global warming and non-renewable energy score than diesel, that is 92.3% and 93.1%, respectively. The results indicate the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel based on the global warming and non-renewable energy scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phosphorus Enrichment as a New Composition in the Solid Electrolyte Interphase of High-Voltage Cathodes and Its Effects on Battery Cycling

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Kuppan, Saravanan; Li, Qiuyan; Lv, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Chen, Guoying; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-11-10

    Immersion of a solid into liquid often leads to the modification of both the structure and chemistry of surface of the solid, which subsequently affects the chemical and physical properties of the system. For the case of the rechargeable lithium ion battery, such a surface modification is termed as solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer, which has been perceived to play critical role for the stable operation of the batteries. However, the structure and chemical composition of SEI layer and its spatial distribution and dependence on the battery operating condition remain unclear. By using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with ultra-high sensitive energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, we probed the structure and chemistry of SEI layer on several high voltage cathodes. We show that layer-structured cathodes, when cycled at a high cut off voltage, can form a P-rich SEI layer on their surface, which is a direct evidence of Li-salt (LiPF6) decomposition. Our systematical investigations indicate such cathode/Li-salt side reaction shows strong dependence on structure of the cathode materials, operating voltage and temperature, indicating the feasibility of SEI engineering. These findings provide us valuable insights into the complex interface between the high-voltage cathode and the electrolyte.

  5. Globally important nitrous oxide emissions from croplands induced by freeze-thaw cycles

    Wagner-Riddle, Claudia; Congreves, Katelyn A.; Abalos Rodriguez, Diego; Berg, Aaron A.; Brown, Shannon E.; Ambadan, Jaison Thomas; Gao, Xiaopeng; Tenuta, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal freezing induces large thaw emissions of nitrous oxide, a trace gas that contributes to stratospheric ozone destruction and atmospheric warming. Cropland soils are by far the largest anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide. However, the global contribution of seasonal freezing to nitrous

  6. Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change: implications for the global carbon cycle

    Edward A.G. Schuur; James Bockheim; Josep G. Canadell; Eugenie Euskirchen; Christopher B. Field; Sergey V. Goryachkin; Stefan Hagemann; Peter Kuhry; Peter M. Lafleur; Hanna Lee; Galina Mazhitova; Frederick E. Nelson; Annette Rinke; Vladimir E. Romanovsky; Nikolay Shiklomanov; Charles Tarnocai; Sergey Venevsky; Jason G. Vogel; Sergei A. Zimov

    2008-01-01

    Thawing permafrost and the resulting microbial decomposition of previously frozen organic carbon (C) is one of the most significant potential feedbacks from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere in a changing climate. In this article we present an overview of the global permafrost C pool and of the processes that might transfer this C into the atmosphere, as well as...

  7. The Martian hydrologic cycle - Effects of CO2 mass flux on global water distribution

    James, P. B.

    1985-01-01

    The Martian CO2 cycle, which includes the seasonal condensation and subsequent sublimation of up to 30 percent of the planet's atmosphere, produces meridional winds due to the consequent mass flux of CO2. These winds currently display strong seasonal and hemispheric asymmetries due to the large asymmetries in the distribution of insolation on Mars. It is proposed that asymmetric meridional advection of water vapor on the planet due to these CO2 condensation winds is capable of explaining the observed dessication of Mars' south polar region at the current time. A simple model for water vapor transport is used to verify this hypothesis and to speculate on the effects of changes in orbital parameters on the seasonal water cycle.

  8. Evolution of the global water cycle on Mars: The geological evidence

    Baker, V. R.; Gulick, V. C.

    1993-01-01

    The geological evidence for active water cycling early in the history of Mars (Noachian geological system or heavy bombardment) consists almost exclusively of fluvial valley networks in the heavily cratered uplands of the planet. It is commonly assumed that these landforms required explanation by atmospheric processes operating above the freezing point of water and at high pressure to allow rainfall and liquid surface runoff. However, it has also been documented that nearly all valley networks probably formed by subsurface outflow and sapping erosion involving groundwater outflow prior to surface-water flow. The prolonged ground-water flow also requires extensive water cycling to maintain hydraulic gradients, but is this done via rainfall recharge, as in terrestrial environments?

  9. Regional and global environmental behaviour of radionuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle

    1983-02-01

    The operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities entails the discharge of radioactive effluents to both the atmosphere and aquatic environment. These effluents may contain radionuclides which may be subject of concern for their long-range environmental consequences, in particular, in assessing the health detriment to populations in regions beyond the local environment. The present document reviews information on radionuclides, their environmental pathways and processes and related models and summarizes experiences and studies in this field

  10. Consistency of Estimated Global Water Cycle Variations Over the Satellite Era

    Robertson, F. R.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Reichle, R. H.; Adler, R.; Ricciardulli, L.; Berg, W.; Huffman, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the question of whether recent indications of decadal climate variability and a possible "climate shift" may have affected the global water balance, we examine evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) variability integrated over the global oceans and global land from three points of view-remotely sensed retrievals / objective analyses over the oceans, reanalysis vertically-integrated moisture convergence (MFC) over land, and land surface models forced with observations-based precipitation, radiation and near-surface meteorology. Because monthly variations in area-averaged atmospheric moisture storage are small and the global integral of moisture convergence must approach zero, area-integrated E-P over ocean should essentially equal precipitation minus evapotranspiration (P-ET) over land (after adjusting for ocean and land areas). Our analysis reveals considerable uncertainty in the decadal variations of ocean evaporation when integrated to global scales. This is due to differences among datasets in 10m wind speed and near-surface atmospheric specific humidity (2m qa) used in bulk aerodynamic retrievals. Precipitation variations, all relying substantially on passive microwave retrievals over ocean, still have uncertainties in decadal variability, but not to the degree present with ocean evaporation estimates. Reanalysis MFC and P-ET over land from several observationally forced diagnostic and land surface models agree best on interannual variations. However, upward MFC (i.e. P-ET) reanalysis trends are likely related in part to observing system changes affecting atmospheric assimilation models. While some evidence for a low-frequency E-P maximum near 2000 is found, consistent with a recent apparent pause in sea-surface temperature (SST) rise, uncertainties in the datasets used here remain significant. Prospects for further reducing uncertainties are discussed. The results are interpreted in the context of recent climate variability (Pacific Decadal

  11. Global patterns and substrate-based mechanisms of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle.

    Niu, Shuli; Classen, Aimée T; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Kardol, Paul; Liu, Lingli; Luo, Yiqi; Rustad, Lindsey; Sun, Jian; Tang, Jianwu; Templer, Pamela H; Thomas, R Quinn; Tian, Dashuan; Vicca, Sara; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xia, Jianyang; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition is impacting the services that ecosystems provide to humanity. However, the mechanisms determining impacts on the N cycle are not fully understood. To explore the mechanistic underpinnings of N impacts on N cycle processes, we reviewed and synthesised recent progress in ecosystem N research through empirical studies, conceptual analysis and model simulations. Experimental and observational studies have revealed that the stimulation of plant N uptake and soil retention generally diminishes as N loading increases, while dissolved and gaseous losses of N occur at low N availability but increase exponentially and become the dominant fate of N at high loading rates. The original N saturation hypothesis emphasises sequential N saturation from plant uptake to soil retention before N losses occur. However, biogeochemical models that simulate simultaneous competition for soil N substrates by multiple processes match the observed patterns of N losses better than models based on sequential competition. To enable better prediction of terrestrial N cycle responses to N loading, we recommend that future research identifies the response functions of different N processes to substrate availability using manipulative experiments, and incorporates the measured N saturation response functions into conceptual, theoretical and quantitative analyses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  12. The carbon cycle in a land surface model: modelling, validation and implementation at a global scale; Cycle du carbone dans un modele de surface continentale: modelisation, validation et mise en oeuvre a l'echelle globale

    Gibelin, A.L

    2007-05-15

    ISBA-A-gs is an option of the CNRM land surface model ISBA which allows for the simulation of carbon exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. The model was implemented for the first time at the global scale as a stand-alone model. Several global simulations were performed to assess the sensitivity of the turbulent fluxes and Leaf Area Index to a doubling of the CO{sub 2} atmospheric concentration, and to the climate change simulated by the end of the 21. century. In addition, a new option of ISBA, referred to as ISBA-CC, was developed in order to simulate a more detailed ecosystem respiration by separating the autotrophic respiration and the heterotrophic respiration. The vegetation dynamics and the carbon fluxes were validated at a global scale using satellite datasets, and at a local scale using data from 26 sites of the FLUXNET network. All these results show that the model is sufficiently realistic to be coupled with a general circulation model, in order to account for interactions between the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the carbon cycle. (author)

  13. The carbon cycle in a land surface model: modelling, validation and implementation at a global scale; Cycle du carbone dans un modele de surface continentale: modelisation, validation et mise en oeuvre a l'echelle globale

    Gibelin, A L

    2007-05-15

    ISBA-A-gs is an option of the CNRM land surface model ISBA which allows for the simulation of carbon exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. The model was implemented for the first time at the global scale as a stand-alone model. Several global simulations were performed to assess the sensitivity of the turbulent fluxes and Leaf Area Index to a doubling of the CO{sub 2} atmospheric concentration, and to the climate change simulated by the end of the 21. century. In addition, a new option of ISBA, referred to as ISBA-CC, was developed in order to simulate a more detailed ecosystem respiration by separating the autotrophic respiration and the heterotrophic respiration. The vegetation dynamics and the carbon fluxes were validated at a global scale using satellite datasets, and at a local scale using data from 26 sites of the FLUXNET network. All these results show that the model is sufficiently realistic to be coupled with a general circulation model, in order to account for interactions between the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the carbon cycle. (author)

  14. Sensible heat has significantly affected the global hydrological cycle over the historical period.

    Myhre, G; Samset, B H; Hodnebrog, Ø; Andrews, T; Boucher, O; Faluvegi, G; Fläschner, D; Forster, P M; Kasoar, M; Kharin, V; Kirkevåg, A; Lamarque, J-F; Olivié, D; Richardson, T B; Shawki, D; Shindell, D; Shine, K P; Stjern, C W; Takemura, T; Voulgarakis, A

    2018-05-15

    Globally, latent heating associated with a change in precipitation is balanced by changes to atmospheric radiative cooling and sensible heat fluxes. Both components can be altered by climate forcing mechanisms and through climate feedbacks, but the impacts of climate forcing and feedbacks on sensible heat fluxes have received much less attention. Here we show, using a range of climate modelling results, that changes in sensible heat are the dominant contributor to the present global-mean precipitation change since preindustrial time, because the radiative impact of forcings and feedbacks approximately compensate. The model results show a dissimilar influence on sensible heat and precipitation from various drivers of climate change. Due to its strong atmospheric absorption, black carbon is found to influence the sensible heat very differently compared to other aerosols and greenhouse gases. Our results indicate that this is likely caused by differences in the impact on the lower tropospheric stability.

  15. The global re-cycling of persistent organic pollutants is strongly retarded by soils

    Ockenden, W.A.; Breivik, Knut; Meijer, S.N.; Steinnes, Eiliv; Sweetman, A.J.; Jones, K.C

    2003-01-01

    C-rich soils of the northern hemisphere appear to be serving as sinks for POPs and preventing their transfer to the Arctic. - 'Persistent organic pollutants' (POPs) are semi-volatile, mobile in the environment and bioaccumulate. Their toxicity and propensity for long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) has led to international bans/restrictions on their use/release. LRAT of POPs may occur by a 'single hop' or repeated temperature-driven air-surface exchange. It has been hypothesised that this will result in global fractionation and distillation - with condensation and accumulation in polar regions. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)--industrial chemicals banned/restricted in the 1970s - provide a classic illustration of POP behaviour. A latitudinally-segmented global PCB inventory has been produced, which shows that {approx}86% of the 1.3x10{sup 6} tonnes produced was used in the temperate industrial zone of the northern hemisphere. A global survey of background surface soils gives evidence for 'fractionation' of PCBs. More significantly, however, very little of the total inventory has 'made the journey' via primary emission and/or air-surface exchange and LRAT out of the heavily populated source regions, in the 70 years since PCBs were first produced. Soils generally occlude PCBs, especially soils with dynamic turnover of C/bioturbation/burial mechanisms. This limits the fraction of PCBs available for repeated air-soil exchange. The forested soils of the northern hemisphere, and other C-rich soils, appear to be playing an important role in 'protecting' the Arctic from the advective supply of POPs. Whilst investigations on POPs in remote environments are important, it is imperative that researchers also seek to better understand their release from sources, persistence in source regions, and the significant loss mechanisms/global sinks of these compounds, if they wish to predict future trends.

  16. The global re-cycling of persistent organic pollutants is strongly retarded by soils

    Ockenden, W.A.; Breivik, Knut; Meijer, S.N.; Steinnes, Eiliv; Sweetman, A.J.; Jones, K.C.

    2003-01-01

    C-rich soils of the northern hemisphere appear to be serving as sinks for POPs and preventing their transfer to the Arctic. - 'Persistent organic pollutants' (POPs) are semi-volatile, mobile in the environment and bioaccumulate. Their toxicity and propensity for long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) has led to international bans/restrictions on their use/release. LRAT of POPs may occur by a 'single hop' or repeated temperature-driven air-surface exchange. It has been hypothesised that this will result in global fractionation and distillation - with condensation and accumulation in polar regions. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)--industrial chemicals banned/restricted in the 1970s - provide a classic illustration of POP behaviour. A latitudinally-segmented global PCB inventory has been produced, which shows that ∼86% of the 1.3x10 6 tonnes produced was used in the temperate industrial zone of the northern hemisphere. A global survey of background surface soils gives evidence for 'fractionation' of PCBs. More significantly, however, very little of the total inventory has 'made the journey' via primary emission and/or air-surface exchange and LRAT out of the heavily populated source regions, in the 70 years since PCBs were first produced. Soils generally occlude PCBs, especially soils with dynamic turnover of C/bioturbation/burial mechanisms. This limits the fraction of PCBs available for repeated air-soil exchange. The forested soils of the northern hemisphere, and other C-rich soils, appear to be playing an important role in 'protecting' the Arctic from the advective supply of POPs. Whilst investigations on POPs in remote environments are important, it is imperative that researchers also seek to better understand their release from sources, persistence in source regions, and the significant loss mechanisms/global sinks of these compounds, if they wish to predict future trends

  17. Global patterns and substrate-based mechanisms of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle

    Niu, Shuli; Classen, Aimee Taylor; Dukes, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    availability but increase exponentially and become the dominant fate of N at high loading rates. The original N saturation hypothesis emphasises sequential N saturation from plant uptake to soil retention before N losses occur. However, biogeochemical models that simulate simultaneous competition for soil N...... substrates by multiple processes match the observed patterns of N losses better than models based on sequential competition. To enable better prediction of terrestrial N cycle responses to N loading, we recommend that future research identifies the response functions of different N processes to substrate...

  18. Planetary Biology and Microbial Ecology: Molecular Ecology and the Global Nitrogen cycle

    Nealson, Molly Stone (Editor); Nealson, Kenneth H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Planetary Biology and Molecular Ecology's summer 1991 program, which was held at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. The purpose of the interdisciplinary PBME program is to integrate, via lectures and laboratory work, the contributions of university and NASA scientists and student interns. The goals of the 1991 program were to examine several aspects of the biogeochemistry of the nitrogen cycle and to teach the application of modern methods of molecular genetics to field studies of organisms. Descriptions of the laboratory projects and protocols and abstracts and references of the lectures are presented.

  19. The future of phosphorus in our hands

    Shepherd, J.G.; Kleemann, Rosanna; Bahri-Esfahani, Jaleh; Hudek, Lee; Suriyagoda, Lalith; Vandamme, Elke; Dijk, van K.C.

    2016-01-01

    We live in a global phosphorus (P) system paradox. P access is becoming increasingly limiting, leading to food insecurity but at the same time an over-application or abundance of P in many agricultural and urban settings is causing environmental degradation. This has been recognised in the

  20. Nuclear fuel cycle industry. A responsible approach supporting non proliferation efforts in global perspective

    Jorant, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the reasons why and the manner in which nuclear industry is a stakeholder in non proliferation efforts. It then presents some recent proposals on multinational approaches to the fuel cycle industry and offers some comments and an industry view on these issues. A parallel is established with fundamental concepts in the field of radiation protection. Our industry, involved in 'nuclear technology development' (activities) qualified of 'sensitive' from a non proliferation standpoint, has major interests at stake in the evolution of the international non proliferation regime and is genuinely committed to the spreading of a non proliferation culture. The international community and in particular the nuclear community have been recently reflecting on ways to strengthen the non-proliferation regime in reaction to new threats or the perception thereof. Multilateral approaches regarding the nuclear fuel cycle are being discussed or proposed in this regard. Our approach as an industrial may be illustrated using the three basic principles developed in the field of radiation protection, namely limitation, justification and optimization. a) an overall limitation of sensitive facilities worldwide may be judicious, b) however no prohibition should be imposed if justified needs can be demonstrated on objective criteria, c) optimized used for existing facilities should be promoted through strengthened guarantees of supply where it may be necessary. (author)

  1. Inter-model variability and biases of the global water cycle in CMIP3 coupled climate models

    Liepert, Beate G; Previdi, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Observed changes such as increasing global temperatures and the intensification of the global water cycle in the 20th century are robust results of coupled general circulation models (CGCMs). In spite of these successes, model-to-model variability and biases that are small in first order climate responses, however, have considerable implications for climate predictability especially when multi-model means are used. We show that most climate simulations of the 20th and 21st century A2 scenario performed with CMIP3 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 3) models have deficiencies in simulating the global atmospheric moisture balance. Large biases of only a few models (some biases reach the simulated global precipitation changes in the 20th and 21st centuries) affect the multi-model mean global moisture budget. An imbalanced flux of −0.14 Sv exists while the multi-model median imbalance is only −0.02 Sv. Moreover, for most models the detected imbalance changes over time. As a consequence, in 13 of the 18 CMIP3 models examined, global annual mean precipitation exceeds global evaporation, indicating that there should be a ‘leaking’ of moisture from the atmosphere whereas for the remaining five models a ‘flooding’ is implied. Nonetheless, in all models, the actual atmospheric moisture content and its variability correctly increases during the course of the 20th and 21st centuries. These discrepancies therefore imply an unphysical and hence ‘ghost’ sink/source of atmospheric moisture in the models whose atmospheres flood/leak. The ghost source/sink of moisture can also be regarded as atmospheric latent heating/cooling and hence as positive/negative perturbation of the atmospheric energy budget or non-radiative forcing in the range of −1 to +6 W m −2 (median +0.1 W m −2 ). The inter-model variability of the global atmospheric moisture transport from oceans to land areas, which impacts the terrestrial water cycle, is also quite high and ranges

  2. Albedo enhancement over land to counteract global warming: impacts on hydrological cycle

    Bala, Govindasamy; Nag, Bappaditya [Indian Institute of Science, Divecha Center for Climate Change and Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2012-09-15

    A recent modelling study has shown that precipitation and runoff over land would increase when the reflectivity of marine clouds is increased to counter global warming. This implies that large scale albedo enhancement over land could lead to a decrease in runoff over land. In this study, we perform simulations using NCAR CAM3.1 that have implications for Solar Radiation Management geoengineering schemes that increase the albedo over land. We find that an increase in reflectivity over land that mitigates the global mean warming from a doubling of CO{sub 2} leads to a large residual warming in the southern hemisphere and cooling in the northern hemisphere since most of the land is located in northern hemisphere. Precipitation and runoff over land decrease by 13.4 and 22.3%, respectively, because of a large residual sinking motion over land triggered by albedo enhancement over land. Soil water content also declines when albedo over land is enhanced. The simulated magnitude of hydrological changes over land are much larger when compared to changes over oceans in the recent marine cloud albedo enhancement study since the radiative forcing over land needed (-8.2 W m{sup -2}) to counter global mean radiative forcing from a doubling of CO{sub 2} (3.3 W m{sup -2}) is approximately twice the forcing needed over the oceans (-4.2 W m{sup -2}). Our results imply that albedo enhancement over oceans produce climates closer to the unperturbed climate state than do albedo changes on land when the consequences on land hydrology are considered. Our study also has important implications for any intentional or unintentional large scale changes in land surface albedo such as deforestation/afforestation/reforestation, air pollution, and desert and urban albedo modification. (orig.)

  3. Quantification of the "global" authigenic carbonate δ13C value and implications for carbon cycling

    Loyd, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Relationships among early Earth ocean chemistry, atmospheric chemistry and the evolution/radiation of life have been inferred from carbon isotope compositions (δ13C) of marine carbonates. Under steady-state conditions, the isotope compositions of marine carbonates reflect both the amount and δ13C of carbon entering and leaving the oceans. Recently the traditional "two-output" (marine carbonate and organic matter) mass-balance equation has been modified to include a third, authigenic carbonate output term. However, the formation mechanisms of authigenic carbonates remain poorly understood, particularly from a global prospective. The utility of the new mass-balance approach will be limited until authigenic carbonates are better characterized (e.g., through δ13C analyses). Authigenic carbonates form largely as a result of 1) the respiratory degradation of organic matter (e.g., sulfate reduction), 2) the oxidation of methane and 3) the production of methane. These major reaction pathways can produce authigenic carbonates with highly variable δ13C compositions (δ13Cac). Spatiotemporal variation in the extent and prevalence of different pathways therefore exert a first order control on "global" δ13Cac. Here, values are compiled from new and existing data sets and a modern, global δ13Cac is calculated. When calculated as an average of all data or an averaged mean of individual sites, this value is very similar to normal marine sedimentary organic matter. This finding suggests that marine sediments behave largely as closed systems in the context of organic matter degradation and carbonate authigenesis. In addition, the lack of significant difference between authigenic and organic δ13C implies that these two mass-balance output terms can be considered collectively in more recent time intervals. It may be appropriate to separate these two terms when characterizing more ancient settings when redox characteristics promoted more reducing organic matter degradation

  4. Transcriptional Orchestration of the Global Cellular Response of a Model Pennate Diatom to Diel Light Cycling under Iron Limitation.

    Sarah R Smith

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental fluctuations affect distribution, growth and abundance of diatoms in nature, with iron (Fe availability playing a central role. Studies on the response of diatoms to low Fe have either utilized continuous (24 hr illumination or sampled a single time of day, missing any temporal dynamics. We profiled the physiology, metabolite composition, and global transcripts of the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum during steady-state growth at low, intermediate, and high levels of dissolved Fe over light:dark cycles, to better understand fundamental aspects of genetic control of physiological acclimation to growth under Fe-limitation. We greatly expand the catalog of genes involved in the low Fe response, highlighting the importance of intracellular trafficking in Fe-limited diatoms. P. tricornutum exhibited transcriptomic hallmarks of slowed growth leading to prolonged periods of cell division/silica deposition, which could impact biogeochemical carbon sequestration in Fe-limited regions. Light harvesting and ribosome biogenesis transcripts were generally reduced under low Fe while transcript levels for genes putatively involved in the acquisition and recycling of Fe were increased. We also noted shifts in expression towards increased synthesis and catabolism of branched chain amino acids in P. tricornutum grown at low Fe whereas expression of genes involved in central core metabolism were relatively unaffected, indicating that essential cellular function is protected. Beyond the response of P. tricornutum to low Fe, we observed major coordinated shifts in transcript control of primary and intermediate metabolism over light:dark cycles which contribute to a new view of the significance of distinctive diatom pathways, such as mitochondrial glycolysis and the ornithine-urea cycle. This study provides new insight into transcriptional modulation of diatom physiology and metabolism across light:dark cycles in response to Fe availability

  5. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: impacts of climate change, fine particulate matter formation, water consumption and land use

    Jolliet, Olivier; Antón, Assumpció; Boulay, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    of water consumption on human health assesses the DALYs from malnutrition caused by lack of water for irrigated food production. Land use impacts: CFs representing global potential species loss from land use are proposed as interim recommendation suitable to assess biodiversity loss due to land use......Purpose: Guidance is needed on best-suited indicators to quantify and monitor the man-made impacts on human health, biodiversity and resources. Therefore, the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative initiated a global consensus process to agree on an updated overall life cycle impact assessment (LCIA...... are recommended: (a) The global warming potential 100 years (GWP 100) represents shorter term impacts associated with rate of change and adaptation capacity, and (b) the global temperature change potential 100 years (GTP 100) characterizes the century-scale long term impacts, both including climate-carbon cycle...

  6. Future mobility case studies. Life cycle assessments of BEVs and ICVs with a global perspective

    Ma, Hongrui; Riera-Palou, Xavier; Tait, Nigel [Shell Global Solutions (United Kingdom), Chester (United Kingdom). Shell Technology Center Thornton; Balthasar, Felix; Warnecke, Wolfgang [Shell Global Solutions (Deutschland) GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). PAE-Labor

    2012-11-01

    To highlight the potential risks associated with simplification, we present a relevant case study on electric vehicles, where the outcome of the analysis changes substantially with the methodological/system boundary choices made. Electric vehicles have increasingly gained worldwide interest as one of the most promising potential long-term solutions to sustainable personal mobility; in particular, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer zero tailpipe emissions enabling them not only to reduce transport GHG emissions but also to reduce other regulated emissions (e.g. smog). However, their true ability to contribute to GHG emissions reductions can only be properly assessed by comparing a full life cycle assessment of their GHG emissions with a similar assessment for conventional internal combustion vehicles (ICVs). In this study, we have carried out an analysis for vehicles typical of those expected to be introduced in 2012 in Western Europe, the U.S. and China, taking into account the impact of three important factors: (a) like-forlike vehicle comparison and effect of real-world driving conditions, (b) accounting for the GHG emissions associated with meeting the additional electricity demand for charging the batteries, and (c) the GHG emissions associated with the vehicle life cycle (e.g. manufacture and disposal, etc). We find that BEVs can deliver significant GHG savings compared to ICVs providing that the grid GHG intensity used to charge the batteries is sufficiently low. In particular, BEVs perform best relative to ICVs in terms of GHG emissions in low speed (e.g. urban) driving and when lightly loaded with weight and auxiliaries. However, vehicle life cycle emissions are higher for BEVs than ICVs due to the GHG emissions associated with battery manufacture. Furthermore, our analysis illustrates that it is inappropriate to draw general conclusions about the relative GHG performance of BEVs and ICVs without due reference to the context - such relative performance

  7. Characterization factors for global warming in life cycle assessment based on damages to humans and ecosystems.

    De Schryver, An M; Brakkee, Karin W; Goedkoop, Mark J; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2009-03-15

    Human and ecosystem health damage due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is generally poorly quantified in the life cycle assessment of products, preventing an integrated comparison of the importance of GHGs with other stressor types, such as ozone depletion and acidifying emissions. In this study, we derived new characterization factors for 63 GHGs that quantify the impact of an emission change on human and ecosystem health damage. For human health damage, the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) per unit emission related to malaria, diarrhea, malnutrition, drowning, and cardiovascular diseases were quantified. For ecosystem health damage, the Potentially Disappeared Fraction (PDF) over space and time of various species groups, including plants, butterflies, birds, and mammals, per unit emission was calculated. The influence of value choices in the modeling procedure was analyzed by defining three coherent scenarios, based on Cultural theory perspectives. It was found that the characterization factor for human health damage by carbon dioxide (CO2) ranges from 1.1 x 10(-2) to 1.8 x 10(+1) DALY per kton of emission, while the characterization factor for ecosystem damage by CO2 ranges from 5.4 x 10(-2) to 1.2 x 10(+1) disappeared fraction of species over space and time ((km2 x year)/kton), depending on the scenario chosen. The characterization factor of a GHG can change up to 4 orders of magnitude, depending on the scenario. The scenario-specific differences are mainly explained by the choice for a specific time horizon and stresses the importance of dealing with value choices in the life cycle impact assessment of GHG emissions.

  8. Sargasso Sea phosphorus biogeochemistry: an important role for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP

    M. W. Lomas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic phosphorus (SRP concentrations in the subtropical North Atlantic are some of the lowest in the global ocean and have been hypothesized to constrain primary production. Based upon data from several transect cruises in this region, it has been hypothesized that dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP supports a significant fraction of primary production in the subtropical North Atlantic. In this study, a time-series of phosphorus biogeochemistry is presented for the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site, including rates of phosphorus export. Most parameters have a seasonal pattern, although year-over-year variability in the seasonal pattern is substantial, likely due to differences in external forcing. Suspended particulate phosphorus exhibits a seasonal maximum during the spring bloom, despite the absence of a seasonal peak in SRP. However, DOP concentrations are at an annual maximum prior to the winter/spring bloom and decline over the course of the spring bloom while whole community alkaline phosphatase activities are highest. As a result of DOP bioavailability, the growth of particles during the spring bloom occurs in Redfield proportions, though particles exported from the euphotic zone show rapid and significant remineralization of phosphorus within the first 50 m below the euphotic zone. Based upon DOP data from transect cruises in this region, the southward cross gyral flux of DOP is estimated to support ~25% of annual primary production and ~100% of phosphorus export. These estimates are consistent with other research in the subtropical North Atlantic and reinforce the hypothesis that while the subtropics may be phosphorus stressed (a physiological response to low inorganic phosphorus, utilization of the DOP pool allows production and accumulation of microbial biomass at Redfield proportions.

  9. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  10. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  11. Sources and delivery of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to the coastal zone: An overview of global Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS) models and their application

    Seitzinger, S.P.; Harrison, J.A.; Dumont, E.L.; Beusen, A.H.W.; Bouwman, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the first spatially explicit, multielement (N, P, and C), multiform (dissolved inorganic: DIN, DIP; dissolved organic: DOC, DON, DOP; and particulate: POC, PN, PP) predictive model system of river nutrient export from watersheds (Global Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS)) is

  12. The global distribution of thermospheric odd nitrogen for solstice conditions during solar cycle minimum

    Gerard, J.-C.; Roble, R. G.; Rusch, D. W.; Stewart, A. I.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of odd nitrogen in the thermosphere and upper mesosphere is described. The global distributions of nitric oxide and atomic nitrogen are calculated for the solstice period for quiet and moderate magnetic activity during the solar minimum period. The effect of thermospheric transport by winds is investigated along with the importance of particle-induced ionization in the auroral zones. The results are compared with rocket and satellite measurements, and the sensitivity of the model to eddy diffusion and neutral winds is investigated. Downward fluxes of NO into the mesosphere are given, and their importance for stratospheric ozone is discussed. The results show that the summer-to-winter pole meridional circulation transports both NO and N(S-4) across the solar terminator into the polar night region where there is a downward vertical transport toward the mesosphere. The model shows that odd nitrogen densities at high winter latitudes are entirely controlled by particle precipitation and transport processes.

  13. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Spacecraft Lithium Ion Battery Micro-Cycling Investigation

    Dakermanji, George; Lee, Leonine; Spitzer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft was jointly developed by NASA and JAXA. It is a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft launched on February 27, 2014. The power system is a Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system designed to support 1950 watts orbit average power. The batteries use SONY 18650HC cells and consist of three 8s by 84p batteries operated in parallel as a single battery. During instrument integration with the spacecraft, large current transients were observed in the battery. Investigation into the matter traced the cause to the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) phased array radar which generates cyclical high rate current transients on the spacecraft power bus. The power system electronics interaction with these transients resulted in the current transients in the battery. An accelerated test program was developed to bound the effect, and to assess the impact to the mission.

  14. Trends of 13C/12C ratios in pinyon tree rings of the American Southwest and the global carbon cycle

    Leavitt, S.W.; Long, A.

    1986-01-01

    An accurate atmospheric 13 C/ 12 C chronology can provide important constraints to models of the global carbon cycle. Trees accumulate carbon from atmospheric CO 2 into growth rings and offer potential for 13 C/ 12 C reconstructions, but results have not been reproducible. This paper presents δ 13 C curves from 5 sites, representing 20 pinyon (Pinus edulis) trees, where cores of 4 trees from each site have been pooled into a composite sample. Isotopic analysis of cellulose in 5-yr ring groups produces curves with a general trend of decreasing δ 13 C after 1800, but with pronounced short-term fluctuations superimposed upon the trend. Evidence indicates the fluctuations are strongly related to moisture availability (drought). A mean curve of the 5 δ 13 C chronologies from which the fossil-fuel component is subtracted suggests a substantial biospheric CO 2 contribution to the atmosphere since 1800

  15. The Challenges of Developing a Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    Wood, Eric F.

    2014-05-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ("From Observations to Decisions") recognizes that "water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity", and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the developments at Princeton University towards a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict

  16. How do persistent organic pollutants be coupled with biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems under global climate change?

    Teng, Ying [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Lab. of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmetnal Futures Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences; Xu, Zhihong; Reverchon, Frederique [Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmetnal Futures Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences; Luo, Yongming [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Lab. of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation

    2012-03-15

    Global climate change (GCC), especially global warming, has affected the material cycling (e.g., carbon, nutrients, and organic chemicals) and the energy flows of terrestrial ecosystems. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were regarded as anthropogenic organic carbon (OC) source, and be coupled with the natural carbon (C) and nutrient biogeochemical cycling in ecosystems. The objective of this work was to review the current literature and explore potential coupling processes and mechanisms between POPs and biogeochemical cycles of C and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems induced by global warming. Global warming has caused many physical, chemical, and biological changes in terrestrial ecosystems. POPs environmental fate in these ecosystems is controlled mainly by temperature and biogeochemical processes. Global warming may accelerate the re-emissions and redistribution of POPs among environmental compartments via soil-air exchange. Soil-air exchange is a key process controlling the fate and transportation of POPs and terrestrial ecosystem C at regional and global scales. Soil respiration is one of the largest terrestrial C flux induced by microbe and plant metabolism, which can affect POPs biotransformation in terrestrial ecosystems. Carbon flow through food web structure also may have important consequences for the biomagnification of POPs in the ecosystems and further lead to biodiversity loss induced by climate change and POPs pollution stress. Moreover, the integrated techniques and biological adaptation strategy help to fully explore the coupling mechanisms, functioning and trends of POPs and C and nutrient biogeochemical cycling processes in terrestrial ecosystems. There is increasing evidence that the environmental fate of POPs has been linked with biogeochemical cycles of C and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems under GCC. However, the relationships between POPs and the biogeochemical cycles of C and nutrients are still not well understood. Further

  17. Phosphorus dendrimers for nanomedicine.

    Caminade, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-31

    From biomaterials to imaging, and from drug delivery to drugs by themselves, phosphorus-containing dendrimers offer a large palette of biological properties, depending essentially on their types of terminal functions. The most salient examples of phosphorus dendrimers used for the elaboration of bio-chips and of supports for cell cultures, for imaging biological events, and for carrying and delivering drugs or biomacromolecules are presented in this feature article. Several phosphorus dendrimers can be considered also as drugs per se (by themselves) in particular to fight against cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammation, both in vitro and in vivo. Toxicity assays are also reported.

  18. Life cycle analysis of distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power: economics, global warming potential and water

    Norwood, Zack; Kammen, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    We report on life cycle assessment (LCA) of the economics, global warming potential and water (both for desalination and water use in operation) for a distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power (DCS-CHP) system. Detailed simulation of system performance across 1020 sites in the US combined with a sensible cost allocation scheme informs this LCA. We forecast a levelized cost of 0.25 kWh-1 electricity and 0.03 kWh-1 thermal, for a system with a life cycle global warming potential of ˜80 gCO2eq kWh-1 of electricity and ˜10 gCO2eq kWh-1 thermal, sited in Oakland, California. On the basis of the economics shown for air cooling, and the fact that any combined heat and power system reduces the need for cooling while at the same time boosting the overall solar efficiency of the system, DCS-CHP compares favorably to other electric power generation systems in terms of minimization of water use in the maintenance and operation of the plant. The outlook for water desalination coupled with distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power is less favorable. At a projected cost of 1.40 m-3, water desalination with DCS-CHP would be economical and practical only in areas where water is very scarce or moderately expensive, primarily available through the informal sector, and where contaminated or salt water is easily available as feed-water. It is also interesting to note that 0.40-1.90 m-3 is the range of water prices in the developed world, so DCS-CHP desalination systems could also be an economical solution there under some conditions.

  19. Life cycle analysis of distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power: economics, global warming potential and water

    Norwood, Zack; Kammen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We report on life cycle assessment (LCA) of the economics, global warming potential and water (both for desalination and water use in operation) for a distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power (DCS-CHP) system. Detailed simulation of system performance across 1020 sites in the US combined with a sensible cost allocation scheme informs this LCA. We forecast a levelized cost of $0.25 kWh −1 electricity and $0.03 kWh −1 thermal, for a system with a life cycle global warming potential of ∼80 gCO 2 eq kWh −1 of electricity and ∼10 gCO 2 eq kWh −1 thermal, sited in Oakland, California. On the basis of the economics shown for air cooling, and the fact that any combined heat and power system reduces the need for cooling while at the same time boosting the overall solar efficiency of the system, DCS-CHP compares favorably to other electric power generation systems in terms of minimization of water use in the maintenance and operation of the plant. The outlook for water desalination coupled with distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power is less favorable. At a projected cost of $1.40 m −3 , water desalination with DCS-CHP would be economical and practical only in areas where water is very scarce or moderately expensive, primarily available through the informal sector, and where contaminated or salt water is easily available as feed-water. It is also interesting to note that $0.40–$1.90 m −3 is the range of water prices in the developed world, so DCS-CHP desalination systems could also be an economical solution there under some conditions. (letter)

  20. Global solar magetic field organization in the extended corona: influence on the solar wind speed and density over the cycle.

    Réville, V.; Velli, M.; Brun, S.

    2017-12-01

    The dynamics of the solar wind depends intrinsically on the structure of the global solar magnetic field, which undergoes fundamental changes over the 11yr solar cycle. For instance, the wind terminal velocity is thought to be anti-correlated with the expansion factor, a measure of how the magnetic field varies with height in the solar corona, usually computed at a fixed height (≈ 2.5 Rȯ, the source surface radius which approximates the distance at which all magnetic field lines become open). However, the magnetic field expansion affects the solar wind in a more detailed way, its influence on the solar wind properties remaining significant well beyond the source surface: we demonstrate this using 3D global MHD simulations of the solar corona, constrained by surface magnetograms over half a solar cycle (1989-2001). For models to comply with the constraints provided by observed characteristics of the solar wind, namely, that the radial magnetic field intensity becomes latitude independent at some distance from the Sun (Ulysses observations beyond 1 AU), and that the terminal wind speed is anti-correlated with the mass flux, they must accurately describe expansion beyond the solar wind critical point (even up to 10Rȯ and higher in our model). We also show that near activity minimum, expansion in the higher corona beyond 2.5 Rȯ is actually the dominant process affecting the wind speed. We discuss the consequences of this result on the necessary acceleration profile of the solar wind, the location of the sonic point and of the energy deposition by Alfvén waves.

  1. Global Warming, New Climate, New Atmospheric Circulation and New Water Cycle in North Africa

    Karrouk, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Global warming has now reached the energetic phase of H2O's return to the ground after the saturation of the atmosphere in evaporation since the 80s and 90s of the last century, which were characterized by severe droughts, mainly in Africa.This phase is the result of the accumulation of thermal energy exchanges in the Earth-Ocean-Atmosphere system that resulted in the thrust reversal of the energy balance toward the poles. This situation is characterized by a new thermal distribution: above the ocean, the situation is more in surplus compared to the mainland, or even opposite when the balance is negative on the land, and in the atmosphere, warm thermal advection easily reach the North Pole (planetary crests), as well as cold advection push deep into North Africa and the Gulf of Mexico (planetary valleys: Polar Vortex).This "New Ground Energy Balance" establishes a "New Meridian Atmospheric Circulation (MAC)" with an undulating character throughout the year, including the winter characterized by intense latitudinal very active energy exchanges between the surplus areas (tropical) and the deficit (polar) on the one hand, and the atmosphere, the ocean and the continent on the other.The excess radiation balance increases the potential evaporation of the atmosphere and provides a new geographical distribution of Moisture and Water worldwide: the excess water vapor is easily converted by cold advection (Polar Vortex) to heavy rains that cause floods or snow storms that paralyze the normal functioning of human activities, which creates many difficulties for users and leaves damage and casualties, but ensures water availability missing since a long time in many parts of the world, in Africa, Europe and America.The new thermal distribution reorganizes the geography of atmospheric pressure: the ocean energy concentration is transmitted directly to the atmosphere, and the excess torque is pushed northward. The Azores anticyclone is strengthened and is a global lock by the

  2. The role of industrial nitrogen in the global nitrogen biogeochemical cycle

    Gu, Baojing; Chang, Jie; Min, Yong; Ge, Ying; Zhu, Qiuan; Galloway, James N.; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Haber-Bosch nitrogen (N) has been increasingly used in industrial products, e.g., nylon, besides fertilizer. Massive numbers of species of industrial reactive N (Nr) have emerged and produced definite consequences but receive little notice. Based on a comprehensive inventory, we show that (1) the industrial N flux has increased globally from 2.5 to 25.4 Tg N yr−1 from 1960 through 2008, comparable to the NOx emissions from fossil fuel combustion; (2) more than 25% of industrial products (primarily structural forms, e.g., nylon) tend to accumulate in human settlements due to their long service lives; (3) emerging Nr species define new N-assimilation and decomposition pathways and change the way that Nr is released to the environment; and (4) the loss of these Nr species to the environment has significant negative human and ecosystem impacts. Incorporating industrial Nr into urban environmental and biogeochemical models could help to advance urban ecology and environmental sciences. PMID:23999540

  3. Ecosystem services and biogeochemical cycles on a global scale: valuation of water, carbon and nitrogen processes

    Watanabe, Marcos D.B.; Ortega, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are provided by healthy ecosystems and are fundamental to support human life. However, natural systems have been degraded all over the world and the process of degradation is partially attributed to the lack of knowledge regarding the economic benefits associated with ES, which usually are not captured in the market. To valuate ES without using conventional approaches, such as the human's willingness-to-pay for ecosystem goods and services, this paper uses a different method based on Energy Systems Theory to estimate prices for biogeochemical flows that affect ecosystem services by considering their emergy content converted to equivalent monetary terms. Ecosystem services related to water, carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical flows were assessed since they are connected to a range of final ecosystem services including climate regulation, hydrological regulation, food production, soil formation and others. Results in this paper indicate that aquifer recharge, groundwater flow, carbon dioxide sequestration, methane emission, biological nitrogen fixation, nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen leaching/runoff are the most critical biogeochemical flows in terrestrial systems. Moreover, monetary values related to biogeochemical flows on a global scale could provide important information for policymakers concerned with payment mechanisms for ecosystem services and costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. On the possible relations between solar activities and global seismicity in the solar cycle 20 to 23

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani, E-mail: dhani@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Research Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); Arif, Johan [Geology Research Division, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); Nurzaman, Muhamad Zamzam; Astuti, Isna Kusuma Dewi [Astronomy Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Solar activities consist of high energetic particle streams, electromagnetic radiation, magnetic and orbital gravitational forces. The well-know solar activity main indicator is the existence of sunspot which has mean variation in 11 years, named by solar cycle, allow for the above fluctuations. Solar activities are also related to the space weather affecting all planetary atmospheric variability, moreover to the Earth’s climate variability. Large extreme space and geophysical events (high magnitude earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions, magnetic storms, etc.) are hazards for humankind, infrastructure, economies, technology and the activities of civilization. With a growing world population, and with modern reliance on delicate technological systems, human society is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural hazardous events. The big question arises to the relation between solar forcing energy to the Earth’s global seismic activities. Estimates are needed for the long term occurrence-rate probabilities of these extreme natural hazardous events. We studied connectivity from yearly seismic activities that refer to and sunspot number within the solar cycle 20 to 23 of year 1960 to 2013 (53 years). We found clear evidences that in general high magnitude earthquake events and their depth were related to the low solar activity.

  5. On the possible relations between solar activities and global seismicity in the solar cycle 20 to 23

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Arif, Johan; Nurzaman, Muhamad Zamzam; Astuti, Isna Kusuma Dewi

    2015-09-01

    Solar activities consist of high energetic particle streams, electromagnetic radiation, magnetic and orbital gravitational forces. The well-know solar activity main indicator is the existence of sunspot which has mean variation in 11 years, named by solar cycle, allow for the above fluctuations. Solar activities are also related to the space weather affecting all planetary atmospheric variability, moreover to the Earth's climate variability. Large extreme space and geophysical events (high magnitude earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions, magnetic storms, etc.) are hazards for humankind, infrastructure, economies, technology and the activities of civilization. With a growing world population, and with modern reliance on delicate technological systems, human society is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural hazardous events. The big question arises to the relation between solar forcing energy to the Earth's global seismic activities. Estimates are needed for the long term occurrence-rate probabilities of these extreme natural hazardous events. We studied connectivity from yearly seismic activities that refer to and sunspot number within the solar cycle 20 to 23 of year 1960 to 2013 (53 years). We found clear evidences that in general high magnitude earthquake events and their depth were related to the low solar activity.

  6. Characterization of Anammox Hydrazine Dehydrogenase, a Key N2-producing Enzyme in the Global Nitrogen Cycle.

    Maalcke, Wouter J; Reimann, Joachim; de Vries, Simon; Butt, Julea N; Dietl, Andreas; Kip, Nardy; Mersdorf, Ulrike; Barends, Thomas R M; Jetten, Mike S M; Keltjens, Jan T; Kartal, Boran

    2016-08-12

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria derive their energy for growth from the oxidation of ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor. N2, the end product of this metabolism, is produced from the oxidation of the intermediate, hydrazine (N2H4). Previously, we identified N2-producing hydrazine dehydrogenase (KsHDH) from the anammox organism Kuenenia stuttgartiensis as the gene product of kustc0694 and determined some of its catalytic properties. In the genome of K. stuttgartiensis, kustc0694 is one of 10 paralogs related to octaheme hydroxylamine (NH2OH) oxidoreductase (HAO). Here, we characterized KsHDH as a covalently cross-linked homotrimeric octaheme protein as found for HAO and HAO-related hydroxylamine-oxidizing enzyme kustc1061 from K. stuttgartiensis Interestingly, the HDH trimers formed octamers in solution, each octamer harboring an amazing 192 c-type heme moieties. Whereas HAO and kustc1061 are capable of hydrazine oxidation as well, KsHDH was highly specific for this activity. To understand this specificity, we performed detailed amino acid sequence analyses and investigated the catalytic and spectroscopic (electronic absorbance, EPR) properties of KsHDH in comparison with the well defined HAO and kustc1061. We conclude that HDH specificity is most likely derived from structural changes around the catalytic heme 4 (P460) and of the electron-wiring circuit comprising seven His/His-ligated c-type hemes in each subunit. These nuances make HDH a globally prominent N2-producing enzyme, next to nitrous oxide (N2O) reductase from denitrifying microorganisms. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Isotopically exchangeable phosphorus

    Barbaro, N.O.

    1984-01-01

    A critique revision of isotope dilution is presented. The concepts and use of exchangeable phosphorus, the phosphate adsorption, the kinetics of isotopic exchange and the equilibrium time in soils are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  9. The evolution of the global selenium cycle: Secular trends in Se isotopes and abundances

    Stüeken, E. E.; Buick, R.; Bekker, A.; Catling, D.; Foriel, J.; Guy, B. M.; Kah, L. C.; Machel, H. G.; Montañez, I. P.; Poulton, S. W.

    2015-08-01

    The Earth's surface has undergone major transitions in its redox state over the past three billion years, which have affected the mobility and distribution of many elements. Here we use Se isotopic and abundance measurements of marine and non-marine mudrocks to reconstruct the evolution of the biogeochemical Se cycle from ∼3.2 Gyr onwards. The six stable isotopes of Se are predominantly fractionated during redox reactions under suboxic conditions, which makes Se a potentially valuable new tool for identifying intermediate stages from an anoxic to a fully oxygenated world. δ82/78Se shows small fractionations of mostly less than 2‰ throughout Earth's history and all are mass-dependent within error. In the Archean, especially after 2.7 Gyr, we find an isotopic enrichment in marine (+0.37 ± 0.27‰) relative to non-marine samples (-0.28 ± 0.67‰), paired with increasing Se abundances. Student t-tests show that these trends are statistically significant. Although we cannot completely rule out the possibility of volcanic Se addition, these trends may indicate the onset of oxidative weathering on land, followed by non-quantitative reduction of Se oxyanions during fluvial transport. The Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event (GOE) is not reflected in the marine δ82/78Se record. However, we find a major inflection in the secular δ82/78Se trend during the Neoproterozoic, from a Precambrian mean of +0.42 ± 0.45‰ to a Phanerozoic mean of -0.19 ± 0.59‰. This drop probably reflects the oxygenation of the deep ocean at this time, stabilizing Se oxyanions throughout the water column. Since then, reduction of Se oxyanions has likely been restricted to anoxic basins and diagenetic environments in sediments. In light of recent Cr isotope data, it is likely that oxidative weathering before the Neoproterozoic produced Se oxyanions in the intermediate redox state SeIV, whereas the fully oxidized species SeVI became more abundant after the Neoproterozoic rise of

  10. Socio-hydrological approach to the evaluation of global fertilizer substitution by sustainable struvite precipitants from wastewater

    Kok, Dirk-Jan; Pande, Saket; Renata Cordeiro Ortigara, Angela; Savenije, Hubert; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorus is an element necessary for the development of organic tissue as it forms a key, structural component of DNA and RNA. Currently, much of this unrenewable resource is being wasted to the ocean through the discharge of untreated or partially treated wastewater from urban areas and livestock industries. Analysing the potential phosphorus production of these two sectors in possibly meeting the partial demand of the agricultural sector, will be an important tool in tackling both phosphorus depletion from natural sources as well as phosphorus pollution of water sources . In this study, a global overview is provided where a selection of P-production nodes and P-consumption nodes have been determined using global spatial data. Distances, investment costs and associated carbon footprints are then considered in modelling a simple, alternative trade network of struvite precipitant, phosphorus flows. The network is then optimized to maximum trade flow after which an international, free-market P-commodity price is determined. Carrot-stick policy measures such as subsidies and carbon taxes are evaluated in their benefits to supporting sustainable phosphorus consumption over the non-sustainable counterpart. Preliminary results have revealed that there exists a total anthropogenic production potential of 3.3 MtP for 2005. Very crudely, but in accordance to results by Milhelcic et al. (2011) who reported 22%, approximately 20% of the reported global fertilizer consumption could then be satisfied by recovering urban phosphorus. Phosphorus recovery from wastewater for secondary utilization will prove an important step in creating sustainable communities through closed circle economic development. It is also a step towards prolonging our phosphate rock reserves, granting more time to revise our current phosphorus throughput cycle before the depletion of the remaining reserves.

  11. Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition in boreal forests has a minor impact on the global carbon cycle.

    Gundale, Michael J; From, Fredrik; Bach, Lisbet H; Nordin, Annika

    2014-01-01

    It is proposed that increases in anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (Nr ) deposition may cause temperate and boreal forests to sequester a globally significant quantity of carbon (C); however, long-term data from boreal forests describing how C sequestration responds to realistic levels of chronic Nr deposition are scarce. Using a long-term (14-year) stand-scale (0.1 ha) N addition experiment (three levels: 0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) in the boreal zone of northern Sweden, we evaluated how chronic N additions altered N uptake and biomass of understory communities, and whether changes in understory communities explained N uptake and C sequestration by trees. We hypothesized that understory communities (i.e. mosses and shrubs) serve as important sinks for low-level N additions, with the strength of these sinks weakening as chronic N addition rates increase, due to shifts in species composition. We further hypothesized that trees would exhibit nonlinear increases in N acquisition, and subsequent C sequestration as N addition rates increased, due to a weakening understory N sink. Our data showed that understory biomass was reduced by 50% in response to the high N addition treatment, mainly due to reduced moss biomass. A (15) N labeling experiment showed that feather mosses acquired the largest fraction of applied label, with this fraction decreasing as the chronic N addition level increased. Contrary to our hypothesis, the proportion of label taken up by trees was equal (ca. 8%) across all three N addition treatments. The relationship between N addition and C sequestration in all vegetation pools combined was linear, and had a slope of 16 kg C kg(-1)  N. While canopy retention of Nr deposition may cause C sequestration rates to be slightly different than this estimate, our data suggest that a minor quantity of annual anthropogenic CO2 emissions are sequestered into boreal forests as a result of Nr deposition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Recovery of phosphorus compounds from thermally-processed wastes

    Czechowska-Kosacka, A.; Pawłowski, L.; Niedbala, G.; Cel, W.

    2018-05-01

    Depletion of phosphorus deposits is one of the most serious global problems, which may soon lead to a crisis in food production. It is estimated that if the current living standard is maintained, the available reserves will be depleted in 130 years. Considering the principle of sustainable development, searching for alternative phosphorus sources is extremely important. The work presented the results of the research on the possibility of utilizing wastes as a source of phosphorus. The studies were conducted on poultry manure. The physicochemical properties of phosporus-rich wastes were determined as well. The fertilizing properties of ashes from poultry manure combustion – obtained from different systems, i.e. caged and barn production. The assimilability of phosphorus from the obtained ashes was determined. Potential applications of phosphorus-rich ashes were proposed as well.

  13. Anthropogenic phosphorus flow analysis of Hefei City, China.

    Li, Sisi; Yuan, Zengwei; Bi, Jun; Wu, Huijun

    2010-11-01

    The substance flow analysis (SFA) method was employed to examine phosphorus flow and its connection to water pollution in the city of Hefei, China, in 2008. As human activity is the driving force of phosphorus flux from the environment to the economy, the study provides a conceptual framework for analyzing an anthropogenic phosphorus cycle that includes four stages: extraction, fabrication and manufacturing, use, and waste management. Estimates of phosphorus flow were based on existing data as well as field research, expert advice, local accounting systems, and literature. The total phosphorus input into Hefei in 2008 reached 7810 tons, mainly as phosphate ore, chemical fertilizer, pesticides, crops and animal products. Approximately 33% of the total phosphorus input left the area, and nearly 20% of that amount was discharged as waste to surface water. Effluent containing excessive fertilizer from farming operations plays an important role in phosphorus overloads onto surface water; the other major emission source is sewage discharge. We also provide suggestions for reducing phosphorus emissions, for example reducing fertilizer use, recycling farming residues, and changing human consumption patterns. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anthropogenic phosphorus flow analysis of Hefei City, China

    Li Sisi; Yuan Zengwei; Bi Jun; Wu Huijun

    2010-01-01

    The substance flow analysis (SFA) method was employed to examine phosphorus flow and its connection to water pollution in the city of Hefei, China, in 2008. As human activity is the driving force of phosphorus flux from the environment to the economy, the study provides a conceptual framework for analyzing an anthropogenic phosphorus cycle that includes four stages: extraction, fabrication and manufacturing, use, and waste management. Estimates of phosphorus flow were based on existing data as well as field research, expert advice, local accounting systems, and literature. The total phosphorus input into Hefei in 2008 reached 7810 tons, mainly as phosphate ore, chemical fertilizer, pesticides, crops and animal products. Approximately 33% of the total phosphorus input left the area, and nearly 20% of that amount was discharged as waste to surface water. Effluent containing excessive fertilizer from farming operations plays an important role in phosphorus overloads onto surface water; the other major emission source is sewage discharge. We also provide suggestions for reducing phosphorus emissions, for example reducing fertilizer use, recycling farming residues, and changing human consumption patterns.

  15. The ocean quasi-homogeneous layer model and global cycle of carbon dioxide in system of atmosphere-ocean

    Glushkov, Alexander; Glushkov, Alexander; Loboda, Nataliya; Khokhlov, Valery; Serbov, Nikoly; Svinarenko, Andrey

    The purpose of this paper is carrying out the detailed model of the CO2 global turnover in system of "atmosphere-ocean" with using the ocean quasi-homogeneous layer model. Practically all carried out models are functioning in the average annual regime and accounting for the carbon distribution in bio-sphere in most general form (Glushkov et al, 2003). We construct a modified model for cycle of the carbon dioxide, which allows to reproduce a season dynamics of carbon turnover in ocean with account of zone ocean structure (up quasi-homogeneous layer, thermocline and deepest layer). It is taken into account dependence of the CO2 transfer through the bounder between atmosphere and ocean upon temperature of water and air, wind velocity, buffer mechanism of the CO2 dissolution. The same program is realized for atmosphere part of whole system. It is obtained a tempo-ral and space distribution for concentration of non-organic carbon in ocean, partial press of dissolute CO2 and value of exchange on the border between atmosphere and ocean. It is estimated a role of the wind intermixing of the up ocean layer. The increasing of this effect leads to increasing the plankton mass and further particles, which are transferred by wind, contribute to more quick immersion of microscopic shells and organic material. It is fulfilled investigation of sen-sibility of the master differential equations system solutions from the model parameters. The master differential equa-tions system, describing a dynamics of the CO2 cycle, is numerically integrated by the four order Runge-Cutt method under given initial values of valuables till output of solution on periodic regime. At first it is indicated on possible real-zation of the chaos scenario in system. On our data, the difference of the average annual values for the non-organic car-bon concentration in the up quasi-homogeneous layer between equator and extreme southern zone is 0.15 mol/m3, be-tween the equator and extreme northern zone is 0

  16. Development, Testing, and Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analyses of a Transport and Reaction Simulation Engine (TaRSE) for Spatially Distributed Modeling of Phosphorus in South Florida Peat Marsh Wetlands

    Jawitz, James W.; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Muller, Stuart; Grace, Kevin A.; James, Andrew I.

    2008-01-01

    in the phosphorus cycling mechanisms were simulated in these case studies using different combinations of phosphorus reaction equations. Changes in water column phosphorus concentrations observed under the controlled conditions of laboratory incubations, and mesocosm studies were reproduced with model simulations. Short-term phosphorus flux rates and changes in phosphorus storages were within the range of values reported in the literature, whereas unknown rate constants were used to calibrate the model output. In STA-1W Cell 4, the dominant mechanism for phosphorus flow and transport is overland flow. Over many life cycles of the biological components, however, soils accrue and become enriched in phosphorus. Inflow total phosphorus concentrations and flow rates for the period between 1995 and 2000 were used to simulate Cell 4 phosphorus removal, outflow concentrations, and soil phosphorus enrichment over time. This full-scale application of the model successfully incorporated parameter values derived from the literature and short-term experiments, and reproduced the observed long-term outflow phosphorus concentrations and increased soil phosphorus storage within the system. A global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the model was performed using modern techniques such as a qualitative screening tool (Morris method) and the quantitative, variance-based, Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) method. These techniques allowed an in-depth exploration of the effect of model complexity and flow velocity on model outputs. Three increasingly complex levels of possible application to southern Florida were studied corresponding to a simple soil pore-water and surface-water system (level 1), the addition of plankton (level 2), and of macrophytes (level 3). In the analysis for each complexity level, three surface-water velocities were considered that each correspond to residence times for the selected area (1-kilometer long) of 2, 10, and 20

  17. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  18. Organic chemistry of elemental phosphorus

    Milyukov, V A; Budnikova, Yulia H; Sinyashin, Oleg G

    2005-01-01

    The principal achievements and the modern trends in the development of the chemistry of elemental phosphorus are analysed, described systematically and generalised. The possibilities and advantages of the preparation of organophosphorus compounds directly from white phosphorus are demonstrated. Attention is focused on the activation and transformation of elemental phosphorus in the coordination sphere of transition metal complexes. The mechanisms of the reactions of white phosphorus with nucleophilic and electrophilic reagents are discussed. Electrochemical approaches to the synthesis of organic phosphorus derivatives based on white phosphorus are considered.

  19. New era of satellite chlorophyll fluorescence and soil moisture observations leads to advances in the predictive understanding of global terrestrial coupled carbon-water cycles

    Qiu, B.; Xue, Y.; Fisher, J.; Guo, W.

    2017-12-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle and water cycle are coupled through a multitude of connected processes among soil, roots, leaves, and the atmosphere. The strength and sensitivity of these couplings are not yet well known at the global scale, which contributes to uncertainty in predicting the terrestrial water and carbon budgets. For the first time, we now have synchronous, high fidelity, global-scale satellite observations of critical terrestrial carbon and water cycle components: sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) and soil moisture. We used these observations within the framework of a well-established global terrestrial biosphere model (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 2.0, SSiB2) to investigate carbon-water coupling processes. We updated SSiB2 to include a mechanistic representation of SIF and tested the sensitivity of model parameters to improve the simulation of both SIF and soil moisture with the ultimate objective of improving the first-order terrestrial carbon component, gross primary production (GPP). Although several vegetation parameters, such as leaf area index (LAI) and green leaf fraction, improved the simulated SIF, and several soil parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity, improved simulated soil moisture, their effects were mainly limited to their respective cycles. One parameter emerged as the key coupler between the carbon and water cycles: the wilting point. Updates to the wilting point significantly improved the simulations for both soil moisture and SIF, as well as GPP. This study demonstrates the value of synchronous global measurements of the terrestrial carbon and water cycles in improving the understanding of coupled carbon-water cycles.

  20. Regionalized life cycle impact assessment of air pollution on the global scale: Damage to human health and vegetation

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Preiss, Philipp; van Goethem, Thomas; Van Dingenen, Rita; Huijbregts, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We developed regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for human health damage from particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, and for damage to vegetation from ozone, at the global scale. These factors can be used in the impact assessment phase of an environmental life cycle assessment. CFs express the overall damage of a certain pollutant per unit of emission of a precursor, i.e. primary PM2.5, nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The global chemical transport model TM5 was used to calculate intake fractions of PM2.5 and ozone for 56 world regions covering the whole globe. Furthermore, region-specific effect and damage factors were derived, using mortality rates, background concentrations and years of life lost. The emission-weighted world average CF for primary PM2.5 emissions is 629 yr kton-1, varying up to 3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Larger CFs were obtained for emissions in central Asia and Europe, and smaller factors in Australia and South America. The world average CFs for PM2.5 from secondary aerosols, i.e. NOx, NH3, and SO2, is 67.2 to 183.4 yr kton-1. We found that the CFs for ozone human health damage are 2-4 orders of magnitude lower compared to the CFs for damage due to primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. Human health damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.7·10-2 yr capita-1 worldwide in year 2010, with primary PM2.5 emissions as the main contributor (62%). The emission-weighted world average CF for ecosystem damage due to ozone was 2.5 km2 yr kton-1 for NMVOCs and 8.7 m2 yr kg-1 for NOx emissions, varying 2-3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Ecosystem damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.6·10-4 km2 capita-1 worldwide in 2010, with NOx as the main contributor (72%). The spatial range in CFs stresses the importance of including spatial variation in life cycle impact assessment of

  1. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies.

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Gibon, Thomas; Bouman, Evert A; Arvesen, Anders; Suh, Sangwon; Heath, Garvin A; Bergesen, Joseph D; Ramirez, Andrea; Vega, Mabel I; Shi, Lei

    2015-05-19

    Decarbonization of electricity generation can support climate-change mitigation and presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel combustion. Generally, renewable technologies require higher initial investments in infrastructure than fossil-based power systems. To assess the tradeoffs of increased up-front emissions and reduced operational emissions, we present, to our knowledge, the first global, integrated life-cycle assessment (LCA) of long-term, wide-scale implementation of electricity generation from renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic and solar thermal, wind, and hydropower) and of carbon dioxide capture and storage for fossil power generation. We compare emissions causing particulate matter exposure, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and climate change for the climate-change-mitigation (BLUE Map) and business-as-usual (Baseline) scenarios of the International Energy Agency up to 2050. We use a vintage stock model to conduct an LCA of newly installed capacity year-by-year for each region, thus accounting for changes in the energy mix used to manufacture future power plants. Under the Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than double whereas the low-carbon technologies introduced in the BLUE Map scenario allow a doubling of electricity supply while stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit generation for low-carbon technologies can be higher than for conventional fossil generation: 11-40 times more copper for photovoltaic systems and 6-14 times more iron for wind power plants. However, only two years of current global copper and one year of iron production will suffice to build a low-carbon energy system capable of supplying the world's electricity needs in 2050.

  2. Can algal biotechnology bring effective solution for closing the phosphorus cycle? Use of algae for nutrient removal – review of past trends and future perspectives in the context of nutrient recovery

    Sukačová, Kateřina; Červený, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 63-72 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : wastewater treatment * algae * nutrients removal * phosphorus recovery Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  3. phosphorus sorption capacity as a guide for phosphorus availability

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    drained, light yellowish brown, loamy sand ... Dongola 2 Akked series: Deep, dark grayish brown, clay ... energy. Statistical analysis. Data collected were statistically analysed using ANOVA of MStatc ... phosphorus sorbed versus phosphorus.

  4. Does the correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures rule out any significant global warming from greenhouse gases?

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    Since the discovery of a striking correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse...... gases. The present analysis shows that a similar degree of correlation is obtained when testing the solar data against a couple of fictitious temperature series representing different global warming trends. Therefore, the correlation cannot be used to estimate the magnitude of a possible contribution...... to global warming from human activities, nor to rule out a sizable contribution from that source....

  5. Preparation of phosphorus targets using the compound phosphorus nitride

    Maier-Komor, P.

    1987-01-01

    Commercially available phosphorus nitride (P 3 N 5 ) shows a high oxygen content. Nevertheless, this material is attractive for use as phosphorus targets in experiments where red phosphorus would disappear due to its high vapor pressure and where a metal partner in the phosphide must be excluded due to its high atomic number. Methods are described to produce phosphorus nitride targets by vacuum evaporation condensation. (orig.)

  6. Simulation of global sulfate distribution and the influence of effective cloud drop radii with a coupled photochemistry-sulfur cycle model

    Roelofs, G.J.; Lelieveld, J.; Ganzeveld, L.N.

    1998-01-01

    A sulfur cycle model is coupled to a global chemistry-climate model. The simulated surface sulfate concentrations are generally within a factor of 2 of observed concentrations, and display a realistic seasonality for most background locations. However, the model tends to underestimate sulfate and

  7. Diazotroph-Bacterial Community Structure of Root Nodules Account for Two-Fold Differences in Plant Growth: Consequences for Global Biogeochemical Cycles

    Williams, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The bacterial communities that inhabit and function as mutualists in the nodules of soybean, a major worldwide crop, are a fundamental determinant of plant growth and global nitrogen and carbon cycles. Unfertilized soybean can derive up to 90% of its nitrogen through bacterial-driven diazotrophy. It was the goal of the research in this study to assess whether different bacterial taxa (e.g. Bradyrhizobia spp.) differ in their soybean growth supportive role, which could then feedback to alter global biogeochemical cycling. Using 16S rRNA and NifH genes, nodule bacterial communities were shown to vary across 9 different cultivars of soybean, and that the variation between cultivars were highly correlated to plant yield (97 to 188 bu/Ha) and nitrogen. The relative abundances of gene sequences associated with the closest taxonomic match (NCBI), indicated that several taxa were (r= 0.76) negatively (e.g. Bradyrhizobium sp Ec3.3) or (r= 0.84) positively (e.g. Bradyrhizobium elkanii WSM 2783) correlated with plant yield. Other non-Rhizobiaceae taxa, such as Rhodopseudomonas spp. were also prevalent and correlated with plant yield. Soybeans and other leguminous crops will become increasingly important part of world food production, soil fertility and global biogeochemical cycles with rising population and food demand. The study demonstrates the importance of plant-microbial feedbacks driving plant growth but also ramifications for global cycling of nitrogen and carbon.

  8. Modeling cumulative effects in life cycle assessment: the case of fertilizer in wheat production contributing to the global warming potential.

    Laratte, Bertrand; Guillaume, Bertrand; Kim, Junbeum; Birregah, Babiga

    2014-05-15

    This paper aims at presenting a dynamic indicator for life cycle assessment (LCA) measuring cumulative impacts over time of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fertilizers used for wheat cultivation and production. Our approach offers a dynamic indicator of global warming potential (GWP), one of the most used indicator of environmental impacts (e.g. in the Kyoto Protocol). For a case study, the wheat production in France was selected and considered by using data from official sources about fertilizer consumption and production of wheat. We propose to assess GWP environmental impact based on LCA method. The system boundary is limited to the fertilizer production for 1 ton of wheat produced (functional unit) from 1910 to 2010. As applied to wheat production in France, traditional LCA shows a maximum GWP impact of 500 kg CO2-eq for 1 ton of wheat production, whereas the GWP impact of wheat production over time with our approach to dynamic LCA and its cumulative effects increases to 18,000 kg CO2-eq for 1 ton of wheat production. In this paper, only one substance and one impact assessment indicator are presented. However, the methodology can be generalized and improved by using different substances and indicators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of the central Tibetan Plateau, China: Distribution, sources, transport and contribution in global cycling

    Yuan, Guo-Li; Wu, Li-Juan; Sun, Yong; Li, Jun; Li, Jing-Chao; Wang, Gen-Hou

    2015-01-01

    Forty-four soil samples were collected across the central Tibetan Plateau (CTP) at altitudes between 3711 m and 5352 m, and their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents were measured to be from 0.43 to 26.66 ng/g. The main sources of PAHs were identified for each of four sub-areas, and their concentrations in soils were determined to be mainly influenced by local sources. Along a 600 km sampling trajectory from Lhasa, which served as the biggest local source, the concentrations of PAHs decreased logarithmically with increasing distances from the source. Meanwhile, the fractional proportions of PAHs were observed to change logarithmically according to the transport distances. Conclusively, PAHs from local sources were transported within the CTP and dominated PAHs concentrations in the soils, but few of them were transported outside the CTP. In global cycling, the soils in the CTP mainly serve as background and a “sink” for PAHs. - Highlights: • Main sources of PAHs were identified for each of four sub-areas in CTP. • Local sources dominated PAHs in soils but rarely transported outside CTP. • The PAHs in soils changed logarithmically according to the distances from source. • It is first revealed how the local PAH sources influenced PAHs in the soils of CTP. - Local sources dominated PAHs concentrations in the soils of CTP but rarely transported outside, and PAHs in soils changed logarithmically according to the transported distances

  10. Normalisation in product life cycle assessment: an LCA of the global and European economic systems in the year 2000.

    Sleeswijk, Anneke Wegener; van Oers, Lauran F C M; Guinée, Jeroen B; Struijs, Jaap; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2008-02-01

    In the methodological context of the interpretation of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) results, a normalisation study was performed. 15 impact categories were accounted for, including climate change, acidification, eutrophication, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, depletion of fossil energy resources, and land use. The year 2000 was chosen as a reference year, and information was gathered on two spatial levels: the global and the European level. From the 860 environmental interventions collected, 48 interventions turned out to account for at least 75% of the impact scores of all impact categories. All non-toxicity related, emission dependent impacts are fully dominated by the bulk emissions of only 10 substances or substance groups: CO(2), CH(4), SO(2), NO(x), NH(3), PM(10), NMVOC, and (H)CFCs emissions to air and emissions of N- and P-compounds to fresh water. For the toxicity-related emissions (pesticides, organics, metal compounds and some specific inorganics), the availability of information was still very limited, leading to large uncertainty in the corresponding normalisation factors. Apart from their usefulness as a reference for LCA studies, the results of this study stress the importance of efficient measures to combat bulk emissions and to promote the registration of potentially toxic emissions on a more comprehensive scale.

  11. III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretionin ruminants

    Bravo , David; Sauvant , Daniel; Bogaert , Catherine; Meschy , François

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Ruminant phosphorus excretion and metabolism were studied through a database. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is the main pathway of phosphorus excretion and averages 0.85 of total faecal phosphorus. The remaining 0.15 is unabsorbed dietary phosphorus. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is mainly unabsorbed phosphorus, with saliva being the major source, and is correlated to factors influencing saliva secretion (DM intake, physical dietary characteristics and dietary phosphorus...

  12. Traps for phosphorus adsorption

    Montoya, Nawer D; Villegas, Wilson E; Rodriguez, Lino M; Taborda, Nelson; Montes de C, Consuelo

    2001-01-01

    Several AL 2 O 3 supported oxides such as: NiO, CuO, Co 2 O 3 BaO, CeO 2 and ZnO were investigated for phosphorus adsorption. Zno/y-Al 2 O 3 exhibited the highest phosphorus adsorption capacity. However, since it diminishes the activity of to the reaction mixture it should be located upstream of the NoX catalyst, i.e. 0,3% Pd-H-MOR, in order to protect it against p poisoning. The treatment procedure with citric acid was effective for the removal of more than 70% phosphorus from the adsorbent, ZnO/y-Al 2 O 3

  13. Dynamic model of the global iodine cycle for the estimation of dose to the world population from releases of iodine-129 to the environment

    Kocher, D.C.

    1979-11-01

    A dynamic linear compartment model of the global iodine cycle has been developed for the purpose of estimating long-term doses and dose commitments to the world population from releases of 129 I to the environment. The environmental compartments assumed in the model comprise the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and terrestrial biosphere. The global transport of iodine is described by means of time-invariant fractional transfer rates between the environmental compartments. The fractional transfer rates for 129 I are determined primarily from available data on compartment inventories and fluxes for naturally occurring stable iodine and from data on the global hydrologic cycle. The dose to the world population is estimated from the calculated compartment inventories of 129 I, the known compartment inventories of stable iodine, a pathway analysis of the intake of iodine by a reference individual, dose conversion factors for inhalation and ingestion, and an estimate of the world population. For an assumed constant population of 12.21 billion beyond the year 2075, the estimated population dose commitment is 2 x 10 5 man-rem/Ci. The sensitivity of the calculated doses to variations in some of the parameters in the model for the global iodine cycle is investigated. A computer code written to calculate global compartment inventories and dose rates and population doses is described and documented

  14. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  15. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  16. Chromatography of phosphorus oxoacids

    Ohashi, S.

    1975-01-01

    The present state of studies on the chromatographic separation of phosphorus oxoacids is surveyed. In this paper, chromatographic techniques are divided into four groups, i.e. paper and thin-layer chromatography, paper electrophoresis, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel chromatography. The separation mechanisms and characteristics for these chromatographic methods are discussed and some examples for the separation of phosphorus oxoacids are described. As examples of the application of ion-exchange and gel chromatography, studies on the hot atom chemistry of 32 P in solid inorganic phosphates and those on the substitution reactions between diphosphonate (diphosphite) and polyphosphates are reported. (author)

  17. Phosphorus and phytase levels for layer hens

    Juliana Cristina Ramos Rezende

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance and bone quality of laying hens after peak production fed diets containing phosphorus levels and phytase. An experiment was conducted with 384 Hy-line distributed in a completely randomized in a factorial 4 x 3 with 4 levels of available phosphorus and 3 levels of phytase. The experimental period was divided into four periods of 28 days, at the end of each cycle were determined experimental feed intake, egg production, egg weight, feed conversion, mortality, and average egg weight, shell thickness, Haugh units and specific gravity. At the end of the experimental period were determined amounts of calcium and phosphorus excreted by the method of total excreta collection and a fowl per experimental unit was sacrificed for collection of bones and evaluation of width, length and level of robustness from femur and tibia. There was interaction between phosphorus levels and phytase on feed intake, feed conversion and percentage of posture. For inclusion levels of phytase all egg quality variables showed no significant differences. The treatments did not affect bone characteristics of laying hens.

  18. Crystalline and Amorphous Phosphorus – Carbon Nanotube Composites as Promising Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Smajic, Jasmin

    2016-05-04

    Battery research has been going full steam and with that the search for alternative anodes. Among many proposed electrode materials, little attention has been given to phosphorus. Phosphorus boasts the third highest gravimetric charge capacity and the highest volumetric charge capacity of all elements. Because of that, it would be an attractive battery anode material were it not for its poor cyclability with significant capacity loss immediately after the first cycle. This is known to be the consequence of considerable volume changes of phosphorus during charge/discharge cycles. In this work, we propose circumventing this issue by mixing amorphous red phosphorus with carbon nanotubes. By employing a non-destructive sublimation-deposition method, we have synthesized composites where the synergetic effect between phosphorus and carbon nanotubes allow for an improvement in the electrochemical performance of battery anodes. In fact, it has been shown that carbon nanotubes can act as an effective buffer to phosphorus volumetric expansions and contractions during charging and discharging of the half-cells [1]. By modifying the synthesis parameters, we have also been able to change the degree of crystallinity of the phosphorus matrix in the composites. In fact, the less common phase of red phosphorus, named fibrous phosphorus, was obtained, and that explains some of the varying electrochemical performances observed in the composites. Overall, it is found that a higher surface area of amorphous phosphorus allows for a better anode material when using single-walled carbon nanotubes as fillers.

  19. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as stabilizing agents in red phosphorus Li-ion battery anodes

    Smajic, Jasmin

    2017-08-16

    Phosphorus boasts extremely high gravimetric and volumetric capacities but suffers from poor electrochemical stability with significant capacity loss immediately after the first cycle. We propose to circumvent this issue by mixing amorphous red phosphorus with single-walled carbon nanotubes. Employing a non-destructive sublimation–deposition method, we have synthesized composites where the synergetic effect between red phosphorus and single-walled carbon nanotubes allows for a considerable improvement in the electrochemical stability of battery anodes. In contrast to the average 40% loss of capacity after 50 cycles for other phosphorus–carbon composites in the literature, our material shows losses of just 22% under analogous cycling conditions.

  20. The Search for Eight Glacial Cycles of Deep-Water Temperatures and Global ice Volume From the Southern Hemisphere

    Ferretti, P.; Elderfield, H.; Greaves, M.; McCave, N.

    2007-12-01

    It has been recently suggested "a substantial portion of the marine 100-ky cycle that has been object of so much attention over the past quarter of a century is, in reality, a deep-water temperature signal and not an ice volume signal" (Shackleton, 2000). There are currently few records available of deep-water temperature variations during the Pleistocene and most of our understanding is inferred from the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of benthic foraminifera from deep-sea sediments. However, variations in benthic δ18O reflect some combination of local to regional changes in water mass properties (largely deep- water temperature) as well as global changes in seawater δ18O (δ18Osw) resulting from the growth and decay of continental ice. Recent studies suggest that benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca may be useful in reconstructing deep-water temperature changes, but the application of this method to benthic species has been hampered by a number of unresolved issues, such as uncertainties related to the calibration for benthic Mg at the coldest temperatures. Here we present deep-sea Mg/Ca and δ18O records for the past eight glacial cycles in benthic foraminiferal ( Uvigerina spp.) calcite from a marine sediment core recovered in the mid Southern latitudes. Ocean Drilling Program Site 1123 was retrieved from Chatham Rise, east of New Zealand in the Southwest Pacific Ocean (3290 m water depth). This site lies under the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) that flows into the Pacific Ocean, and is responsible for most of the deep water in that ocean; DWBC strength is directly related to processes occurring around Antarctica. Temperatures derived via pore fluid modeling of the last glacial maximum are available from Site 1123 and represent an important tool to constrain deep-water temperatures estimates using Mg/Ca. In selected time slices, we measured B/Ca ratios in Uvigerina in order to gain information on the deep-water carbonate saturation state and have data of Mg

  1. Species-rich grassland can persist under nitrogen-rich but phosphorus-limited conditions

    Dobben, van Han F.; Wamelink, Wieger; Slim, Pieter A.; Kamiński, Jan; Piórkowski, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Deposition of nitrogen is assumed to cause loss of botanical diversity, probably through increased production and exclusion of less competitive species. However, if production is (co-)limited by phosphorus, acceleration of the phosphorus cycle may be responsible for the diversity loss and,

  2. Characterization of waterborne nitrogen emissions for marine eutrophication modelling in life cycle impact assessment at the damage level and global scale

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    Current life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods lack a consistent and globally applicable characterization model relating nitrogen (N, as dissolved inorganic nitrogen, DIN) enrichment of coastal waters to the marine eutrophication impacts at the endpoint level. This paper introduces a method...... to calculate spatially explicit characterization factors (CFs) at endpoint and damage to ecosystems levels, for waterborne nitrogen emissions, reflecting their hypoxia-related marine eutrophication impacts, modelled for 5772 river basins of the world....

  3. Substoichiometric determination of phosphorus

    Shigematsu, T.; Kudo, K.

    1981-01-01

    Phosphorus in orchard leaves (NBS SRM-1571) and spinach (SRM-1570) was determined by various substoichiometric analytical methods such as the direct method, Gravshchenko's method and the method of carrier amount variation. All samples were labelled with 32 P radioisotope. The data obtained by the method of carrier amount variation were also treated by the method of least squares instead of De Voe's method. Phosphorus concentration in orchard leaves was 0.206+-0.011% by the direct method, 0.219+-0.011% by Gravshchenko's method, 0.211+-0.011% by the method of carrier amount variation and 0.207+-0.007% by the method of least squares, respectively. These values agree with the value reported by NBS (0.21+-0.01%). Furthermore, these concentrations obtained by various substoichiometric methods were compared with those by radioactivation reported in a previous paper. (author)

  4. Phosphorus Transport in Rivers.

    1978-11-01

    be attributed to excessive nutrient inputs to the lake. These nutrients sti- mulate the phytoplankton (algae) growth which yields excess growth. The...phosphorus in relation to the restoration of Lake Erie. The various computational techniques presented herein aid in the understanding of total...as caused by the absorption on clay materials and by assimilation by periphyton . Other investigators have found correlations between flow and other

  5. Simulation analysis of the possibility of introducing massive renewable energy and nuclear fuel cycle in the scenario to halve global CO2 emissions by the year 2050

    Hosoya, Yoshifumi; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2011-01-01

    There is growing attention to the regulation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to mitigate the global warming. Hence, the target of 50% reduction of global GHG emissions by the year 2050 has been investigated in this paper. The authors have been revising the regionally disaggregated world energy model which is formulated as a large scale linear optimization model from the aspect of nuclear and photovoltaic power generation technologies. This paper explains the structure of the revised world energy model considering the intermittent characteristics of photovoltaic power generation derived from the changes in weather conditions. And also this paper shows the simulation results to halve global CO 2 emissions by the year 2050 and evaluates the long-term technological options such as nuclear fuel cycle and renewable energies. Finally the authors discuss the future step for extensive revision of the energy model. (author)

  6. International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). 2011 Progress Report. Enhancing Global Nuclear Energy Sustainability

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    When INPRO was established in 2000, some key characteristics and main objectives for the project were determined and remain basically unchanged to this day: to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to satisfying energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner and to bring together technology holders, technology users and other stakeholders to consider jointly the national and international actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. I wish to use the occasion of this INPRO Progress Report to review some of the key highlights of the past year and share with you my views and vision of INPRO's future. The ''Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami'' and the resulting accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred on 11 March 2011. In response to this accident and at the request of its Member States, the IAEA drafted an Action Plan which defines a programme of work o strengthen the global nuclear safety framework. The activities proposed in the Action Plan are meant to be implemented in the near term, to assess the safety of operating nuclear power plants n the light of lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The assessment covers both technical elements, specifically the design of nuclear power plants with regard to site specific extreme natural hazards, and institutional elements, such as the effectiveness of regulatory bodies, operating organizations and the international legal framework in regard to the implementation of IAEA Safety tandards and Conventions. The lessons learned in the medium and long terms will also be reflected n a periodic update of the design requirements for nuclear power plants, international safety tandards, regulations issued by national supervisory authorities, operational procedures, emergency planning and safety assessment methodologies. INPRO has a long term perspective and provides an assessment of the whole nuclear system. Ensuring

  7. International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). 2011 Progress Report. Enhancing Global Nuclear Energy Sustainability

    2012-05-01

    When INPRO was established in 2000, some key characteristics and main objectives for the project were determined and remain basically unchanged to this day: to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to satisfying energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner and to bring together technology holders, technology users and other stakeholders to consider jointly the national and international actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. I wish to use the occasion of this INPRO Progress Report to review some of the key highlights of the past year and share with you my views and vision of INPRO's future. The ''Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami'' and the resulting accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred on 11 March 2011. In response to this accident and at the request of its Member States, the IAEA drafted an Action Plan which defines a programme of work o strengthen the global nuclear safety framework. The activities proposed in the Action Plan are meant to be implemented in the near term, to assess the safety of operating nuclear power plants n the light of lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The assessment covers both technical elements, specifically the design of nuclear power plants with regard to site specific extreme natural hazards, and institutional elements, such as the effectiveness of regulatory bodies, operating organizations and the international legal framework in regard to the implementation of IAEA Safety tandards and Conventions. The lessons learned in the medium and long terms will also be reflected n a periodic update of the design requirements for nuclear power plants, international safety tandards, regulations issued by national supervisory authorities, operational procedures, emergency planning and safety assessment methodologies. INPRO has a long term perspective and provides an assessment of the whole nuclear system. Ensuring

  8. Top-down constraints on disturbance dynamics in the terrestrial carbon cycle: effects at global and regional scales

    Bloom, A. A.; Exbrayat, J. F.; van der Velde, I.; Peters, W.; Williams, M.

    2014-01-01

    Large uncertainties preside over terrestrial carbon flux estimates on a global scale. In particular, the strongly coupled dynamics between net ecosystem productivity and disturbance C losses are poorly constrained. To gain an improved understanding of ecosystem C dynamics from regional to global

  9. Temporary Service? A Global Perspective on Domestic Work and the Life Cycle from Pre-Industrial Times to the Present

    Nederveen Meerkerk, van E.J.V.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, labor history has taken a “global turn”, increasingly focusing on labor relations in the non-Western world. This article aims to challenge existing perceptions of the history of domestic work in Europe from a global labor history perspective by comparing them with the histories of

  10. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Use Efficiencies in Dairy Production in China

    Bai, Z.H.; Ma, L.; Oenema, O.; Chen, Q.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Milk production has greatly increased in China recently, with significant impacts on the cycling of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). However, nutrient flows within the changing dairy production system are not well quantified. The aim of this study was to increase the quantitative understanding of N

  11. Phosphorus dynamics in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea

    Dijkstra, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372617034

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) in hypoxic and anoxic marine basins are still incompletely understood. This thesis focuses on the cycling of P in two of such basins: the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. Water column particulates and sediments from the deep basin of the Black Sea were

  12. Phosphorus containing sintered alloys (review)

    Muchnik, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus additives are considered for their effect on the properties of sintered alloys of different applications: structural, antifriction, friction, magnetic, hard, superhard, heavy etc. Data are presented on compositions and properties of phosphorus-containing materials produced by the powder metallurgy method. Phosphorus is shown to be an effective activator of sintering in some cases. When its concentration in the material is optimal it imparts the material such properties as strength, viscosity, hardness, wear resistance. Problems concerning powder metallurgy of amorphous phosphorus-containing alloys are reported

  13. Phosphorus and the dairy cow

    Ekelund, Adrienne

    2003-01-01

    The general aim of the present work was to investigate phosphorus balance in the dairy cow, with reference to the amount and source of phosphorus. Furthermore, biochemical bone markers were used to study the bone turnover during the lactation and dry period. Phosphorus is located in every cell of the body and has more known functions than any other mineral element in the animal body. Phosphorus is also an important constituent of milk, and is therefore required in large amounts in a high yiel...

  14. GEOTRACES – An international study of the global marine biogeochemical cycles of trace elements and their isotopes

    Henderson, G.M.; Anderson, R.F.; Adkins, J.; Andersson, P.; Boyle, E.A.; Cutter, Greg; Baar, H. de; Eisenhauer, Anton; Frank, Martin; Francois, R.; Orians, Kristin; Gamo, T.; German, C.; Jenkins, W.; Moffett, J.

    2007-01-01

    Trace elements serve important roles as regulators of ocean processes including marine ecosystem dynamics and carbon cycling. The role of iron, for instance, is well known as a limiting micronutrient in the surface ocean. Several other trace elements also play crucial roles in ecosystem function and their supply therefore controls the structure, and possibly the productivity, of marine ecosystems. Understanding the biogeochemical cycling of these micronutrients requires knowledge of their div...

  15. Regulation of phosphorus uptake and utilization: transitioning from current knowledge to practical strategies.

    Hasan, Md Mahmudul; Hasan, Md Mainul; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Li, Xuexian

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is a poorly bioavailable macronutrient that is essential for crop growth and yield. Overuse of phosphorus fertilizers results in low phosphorus use efficiency (PUE), has serious environmental consequences and accelerates the depletion of phosphorus mineral reserves. It has become extremely challenging to improve PUE while preserving global food supplies and maintaining environmental sustainability. Molecular and genetic analyses have revealed the primary mechanisms of phosphorus uptake and utilization and their relationships to phosphorus transporters, regulators, root architecture, metabolic adaptations, quantitative trait loci, hormonal signaling and microRNA. The ability to improve PUE requires a transition from this knowledge of molecular mechanisms and plant architecture to practical strategies. These could include: i) the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbioses for efficient phosphorus mining and uptake; ii) intercropping with suitable crop species to achieve phosphorus activation and mobilization in the soil; and iii) tissue-specific overexpression of homologous genes with advantageous agronomic properties for higher PUE along with breeding for phosphorus-efficient varieties and introgression of key quantitative trait loci. More effort is required to further dissect the mechanisms controlling phosphorus uptake and utilization within plants and provide new insight into the means to efficiently improve PUE.

  16. The impact of organochlorines cycling in the cryosphere on global distributions and fate – 2. Land ice and temporary snow cover

    Hofmann, Lorenz; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Global fate and transport of γ-HCH and DDT was studied using a global multicompartment chemistry-transport model, MPI-MCTM, with and without inclusion of land ice (in Antarctica and Greenland) or snow cover (dynamic). MPI-MCTM is based on coupled ocean and atmosphere general circulation models. After a decade of simulation 4.2% γ-HCH and 2.3% DDT are stored in land ice and snow. Neglection of land ice and snow in modelling would underestimate the total environmental residence time, τ ov , of γ-HCH and overestimate τ ov for DDT, both on the order of 1% and depending on actual compartmental distribution. Volatilisation of DDT from boreal, seasonally snow covered land is enhanced throughout the year, while volatilisation of γ-HCH is only enhanced during the snow-free season. Including land ice and snow cover in modelling matters in particular for the Arctic, where higher burdens are predicted to be stored. - Highlights: ► Land ice and snow hosts 2–4% of the global environmental burden of γ-HCH and DDT. ► Inclusion of land ice and snow cover matters for global environmental residence time. ► Including of land ice and snow cover matters in particular for the Arctic. - The inclusion of cycling in temporary snow cover and land ice in the model is found relevant for predicted POPs multicompartmental distribution and fate in the Arctic and on the global scale.

  17. Phosphorus, sulfur and pyridine

    Schönberger, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of distinct neutral or anionic P,S compounds in solution provides a great challenge for chemists. Due to the similarity in the energies of the P–P, P–S and S–S bonds nearly solely a mixture of compounds with different composition and charge is obtained. Our interest focuses on the system consisting of phosphorus, sulfur and pyridine, with the aim of a greater selectivity of P,S compounds in solution. The combination of these three components offers the opportunity...

  18. Regional distribution and losses of end-of-life steel throughout multiple product life cycles-Insights from the global multiregional MaTrace model.

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Kondo, Yasushi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakajima, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    Substantial amounts of post-consumer scrap are exported to other regions or lost during recovery and remelting, and both export and losses pose a constraint to desires for having regionally closed material cycles. To quantify the challenges and trade-offs associated with closed-loop metal recycling, we looked at the material cycles from the perspective of a single material unit and trace a unit of material through several product life cycles. Focusing on steel, we used current process parameters, loss rates, and trade patterns of the steel cycle to study how steel that was originally contained in high quality applications such as machinery or vehicles with stringent purity requirements gets subsequently distributed across different regions and product groups such as building and construction with less stringent purity requirements. We applied MaTrace Global, a supply-driven multiregional model of steel flows coupled to a dynamic stock model of steel use. We found that, depending on region and product group, up to 95% of the steel consumed today will leave the use phase of that region until 2100, and that up to 50% can get lost in obsolete stocks, landfills, or slag piles until 2100. The high losses resulting from business-as-usual scrap recovery and recycling can be reduced, both by diverting postconsumer scrap into long-lived applications such as buildings and by improving the recovery rates in the waste management and remelting industries. Because the lifetimes of high-quality (cold-rolled) steel applications are shorter and remelting occurs more often than for buildings and infrastructure, we found and quantified a tradeoff between low losses and high-quality applications in the steel cycle. Furthermore, we found that with current trade patterns, reduced overall losses will lead to higher fractions of secondary steel being exported to other regions. Current loss rates, product lifetimes, and trade patterns impede the closure of the steel cycle.

  19. Shaping Future Phosphorus Management Pathways by Understanding the Past and Present

    Sustainable phosphorus (P) management in agricultural and urban ecosystems is necessary to ensure global food security and healthy aquatic ecosystems. Researchers and decision-makers alike need to understand how social, economic, political, and biophysical factors interact to cre...

  20. Do earthworms affect phosphorus availability to grass? A pot experiment.

    Vos, M.J.; Ros, M.B.H.; Koopmans, G.F.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The largest part of phosphorus (P) in soil is bound by the soil solid phase; its release to the soil solution therefore often does not meet the demand of plants. Since global P fertilizer reserves are declining, it becomes increasingly important to better utilize soil P. We tested whether earthworm

  1. Phosphorus recycling and food security in the long run

    Weikard, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Food security for all is a global political goal and an outstanding moral concern. The common response to this concern is agricultural intensification, which includes among other things increasing inputs of fertilisers. The paper addresses the fact that phosphorus (P) is essential for

  2. Phosphorus Chemistry in the Atmosphere of Jupiter: A Reassessment

    Borunov, Sergei; Dorofeeva, Vera; Khodakovsky, Igor; Drossart, Pierre; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Encrenaz, Thérèse

    1995-02-01

    A new distribution of phosphorus compounds in the atmosphere of Jupiter is given, using revised values for the chemical constants. In contrast with previous works, it is shown that phosphine PH 3 remains the most abundant equilibrium gaseous compound even at the upper levels of Jupiter's troposphere. The observed PH 3 abundance is equal to the equilibrium value, at all temperatures above 535 K for solar P and O elemental abundances, and above 600 K for a reasonable range of P and O abundances. P 4O 6 does not take part in the phosphorus cycle on Jupiter.

  3. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  4. Development of TRU transmuters for optimization of the global fuel cycle. Final Report for the NERI Project

    Lee, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This final report summarizes the research activities during the entire performance period of the NERI grant, including the extra 9 months granted under a no-cost time extension. Building up on the 14 quarterly reports submitted through October 2008, we present here an overview of the research accomplishments under the five tasks originally proposed in July 2004, together with citations for publications resulting from the project. The AFCI-NERI project provided excellent support for two undergraduate and 10 graduates students at the University of Michigan during a period of three years and nine months. Significant developments were achieved in three areas: (1) Efficient deterministic fuel cycle optimization algorithms both for PWR and SFR configurations, (2) Efficient search algorithm for PWR equilibrium cycles, and (3) Simplified Excel-based script for dynamic fuel cycle analysis of diverse cycles. The project resulted in a total of 8 conference papers and three journal papers, including two that will be submitted shortly. Three pending publications are attached to the report

  5. Phosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyi

    Gerecht, Andrea C.; Šupraha, Luka; Langer, Gerald; Henderiks, Jorijntje

    2018-02-01

    Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores) sequester carbon in the form of organic and inorganic cellular components (coccoliths). We examined the effect of phosphorus (P) limitation and heat stress on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (calcite) production in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Both environmental stressors are related to rising CO2 levels and affect carbon production in marine microalgae, which in turn impacts biogeochemical cycling. Using semi-continuous cultures, we show that P limitation and heat stress decrease the calcification rate in E. huxleyi. However, using batch cultures, we show that different culturing approaches (batch versus semi-continuous) induce different physiologies. This affects the ratio of particulate inorganic (PIC) to organic carbon (POC) and complicates general predictions on the effect of P limitation on the PIC  /  POC ratio. We found heat stress to increase P requirements in E. huxleyi, possibly leading to lower standing stocks in a warmer ocean, especially if this is linked to lower nutrient input. In summary, the predicted rise in global temperature and resulting decrease in nutrient availability may decrease CO2 sequestration by E. huxleyi through lower overall carbon production. Additionally, the export of carbon may be diminished by a decrease in calcification and a weaker coccolith ballasting effect.

  6. Phosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyi

    A. C. Gerecht

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores sequester carbon in the form of organic and inorganic cellular components (coccoliths. We examined the effect of phosphorus (P limitation and heat stress on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (calcite production in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Both environmental stressors are related to rising CO2 levels and affect carbon production in marine microalgae, which in turn impacts biogeochemical cycling. Using semi-continuous cultures, we show that P limitation and heat stress decrease the calcification rate in E. huxleyi. However, using batch cultures, we show that different culturing approaches (batch versus semi-continuous induce different physiologies. This affects the ratio of particulate inorganic (PIC to organic carbon (POC and complicates general predictions on the effect of P limitation on the PIC  ∕  POC ratio. We found heat stress to increase P requirements in E. huxleyi, possibly leading to lower standing stocks in a warmer ocean, especially if this is linked to lower nutrient input. In summary, the predicted rise in global temperature and resulting decrease in nutrient availability may decrease CO2 sequestration by E. huxleyi through lower overall carbon production. Additionally, the export of carbon may be diminished by a decrease in calcification and a weaker coccolith ballasting effect.

  7. How important are intertidal ecosystems for global biogeochemical cycles? Molecular and isotopic evidence for major outwelling of photo-bleached dissolved organic matter from mangroves.

    Dittmar, T.; Cooper, W. T.; Koch, B. P.; Kattner, G.

    2006-05-01

    Organic matter, which is dissolved in low concentrations in the vast waters of the oceans, contains a total amount of carbon similar to atmospheric carbon dioxide. To understand global biogeochemical cycles it is crucial to quantify the sources of marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We investigated the impact of mangroves, the dominant intertidal vegetation of the tropics, on marine DOC inventories. Stable carbon- isotopes, ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (FTICRMS), lignin-derived phenols and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that mangroves are the main source of terrigenous DOC on the shelf off Northern Brazil. Sunlight efficiently destroyed aromatic molecules during transport offshore, removing about one third of mangrove-derived DOC. The remainder was refractory and may thus be distributed over the oceans. On a global scale, we estimate that mangroves account for more than 10 percent of the terrestrially- derived, refractory DOC transported to the ocean, while they cover less than 0.1 percent of the continents' surface.

  8. Combined oxygen- and carbon-isotope records through the Early Jurassic: multiple global events and two modes of carbon-cycle/temperature coupling

    Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Korte, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    , to the extent that meaningful comparisons between these events can begin to be made. Here we present new carbon and oxygen isotope data from mollusks (bivalves and belemnites) and brachiopods collected through the marine Early Jurassic succession of NE England, including the Sinemurian-Plienbachian boundary...... GSSP. All materials have been screened by chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy to check for diagenetic alteration. Analysis of carbon isotopes from marine calcite is supplemented by analysis of carbon-isotope values from fossil wood collected through the same section. It is demonstrated...... that both long-term and short-term carbon-isotope shifts from the UK Early Jurassic represent global changes in carbon cycle balances. The Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary event is an event of global significance and shows several similarities to the Toarcian OAE (relative sea-level change, carbon-isotope...

  9. Implementation of methane cycling for deep time, global warming simulations with the DCESS Earth System Model (Version 1.2)

    Shaffer, Gary; Villanueva, Esteban Fernández; Rondanelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Geological records reveal a number of ancient, large and rapid negative excursions of carbon-13 isotope. Such excursions can only be explained by massive injections of depleted carbon to the Earth System over a short duration. These injections may have forced strong global warming events, sometimes....... With this improved DCESS model version and paleo-reconstructions, we are now better armed to gauge the amounts, types, time scales and locations of methane injections driving specific, observed deep time, global warming events....

  10. Retrieval Assimilation and Modeling of Atmospheric Water Vapor from Ground- and Space-Based GPS Networks: Investigation of the Global and Regional Hydrological Cycles

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1999-01-01

    Uncertainty over the response of the atmospheric hydrological cycle (particularly the distribution of water vapor and cloudiness) to anthropogenic forcing is a primary source of doubt in current estimates of global climate sensitivity, which raises severe difficulties in evaluating its likely societal impact. Fortunately, a variety of advanced techniques and sensors are beginning to shed new light on the atmospheric hydrological cycle. One of the most promising makes use of the sensitivity of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to the thermodynamic state, and in particular the water vapor content, of the atmosphere through which the radio signals propagate. Our strategy to derive the maximum benefit for hydrological studies from the rapidly increasing GPS data stream will proceed in three stages: (1) systematically analyze and archive quality-controlled retrievals using state-of-the-art techniques; (2) employ both currently available and innovative assimilation procedures to incorporate these determinations into advanced regional and global atmospheric models and assess their effects; and (3) apply the results to investigate selected scientific issues of relevance to regional and global hydrological studies. An archive of GPS-based estimation of total zenith delay (TZD) data and water vapor where applicable has been established with expanded automated quality control. The accuracy of the GPS estimates is being monitored; the investigation of systematic errors is ongoing using comparisons with water vapor radiometers. Meteorological packages have been implemented. The accuracy and utilization of the TZD estimates has been improved by implementing a troposphere gradient model. GPS-based gradients have been validated as real atmospheric moisture gradients, establishing a link between the estimated gradients and the passage of weather fronts. We have developed a generalized ray tracing inversion scheme that can be used to analyze occultation data acquired from space

  11. Understanding the Global Water and Energy Cycle Through Assimilation of Precipitation-Related Observations: Lessons from TRMM and Prospects for GPM

    Hou, Arthur; Zhang, Sara; daSilva, Arlindo; Li, Frank; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the Earth's climate and how it responds to climate perturbations relies on what we know about how atmospheric moisture, clouds, latent heating, and the large-scale circulation vary with changing climatic conditions. The physical process that links these key climate elements is precipitation. Improving the fidelity of precipitation-related fields in global analyses is essential for gaining a better understanding of the global water and energy cycle. In recent years, research and operational use of precipitation observations derived from microwave sensors such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) have shown the tremendous potential of using these data to improve global modeling, data assimilation, and numerical weather prediction. We will give an overview of the benefits of assimilating TRMM and SSM/I rain rates and discuss developmental strategies for using space-based rainfall and rainfall-related observations to improve forecast models and climate datasets in preparation for the proposed multi-national Global Precipitation Mission (GPM).

  12. Regionalization of land use impact models for life cycle assessment: Recommendations for their use on the global scale and their applicability to Brazil

    Pavan, Ana Laura Raymundo, E-mail: laurarpavan@gmail.com [Center for Water Resource and Environmental Studies, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, São Carlos 13566-590, SP (Brazil); Ometto, Aldo Roberto [Center for Water Resource and Environmental Studies, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, São Carlos 13566-590, SP (Brazil); Department of Production Engineering, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, São Carlos 13566-590, SP (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the main technique for evaluate the environmental impacts of product life cycles. A major challenge in the field of LCA is spatial and temporal differentiation in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods, especially impacts resulting from land occupation and land transformation. Land use characterization modeling has advanced considerably over the last two decades and many approaches have recently included crucial aspects such as geographic differentiation. Nevertheless, characterization models have so far not been systematically reviewed and evaluated to determine their applicability to South America. Given that Brazil is the largest country in South America, this paper analyzes the main international characterization models currently available in the literature, with a view to recommending regionalized models applicable on a global scale for land use life cycle impact assessments, and discusses their feasibility for regionalized assessment in Brazil. The analytical methodology involves classification based on the following criteria: midpoint/endpoint approach, scope of application, area of data collection, biogeographical differentiation, definition of recovery time and reference situation; followed by an evaluation of thirteen scientific robustness and environmental relevance subcriteria. The results of the scope of application are distributed among 25% of the models developed for the European context, and 50% have a global scope. There is no consensus in the literature about the definition of parameters such biogeographical differentiation and reference situation, and our review indicates that 35% of the models use ecoregion division while 40% use the concept of potential natural vegetation. Four characterization models show high scores in terms of scientific robustness and environmental relevance. These models are recommended for application in land use life cycle impact assessments, and also to serve as references for the

  13. The impact of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event on the global sulfur cycle: Evidence from Seymour Island, Antarctica

    Witts, James D.; Newton, Robert J.; Mills, Benjamin J. W.; Wignall, Paul B.; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hall, Joanna L. O.; Francis, Jane E.; Alistair Crame, J.

    2018-06-01

    The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event 66 million years ago led to large changes to the global carbon cycle, primarily via a decrease in primary or export productivity of the oceans. However, the effects of this event and longer-term environmental changes during the Late Cretaceous on the global sulfur cycle are not well understood. We report new carbonate associated sulfate (CAS) sulfur isotope data derived from marine macrofossil shell material from a highly expanded high latitude Maastrichtian to Danian (69-65.5 Ma) succession located on Seymour Island, Antarctica. These data represent the highest resolution seawater sulfate record ever generated for this time interval, and are broadly in agreement with previous low-resolution estimates for the latest Cretaceous and Paleocene. A vigorous assessment of CAS preservation using sulfate oxygen, carbonate carbon and oxygen isotopes and trace element data, suggests factors affecting preservation of primary seawater CAS isotopes in ancient biogenic samples are complex, and not necessarily linked to the preservation of original carbonate mineralogy or chemistry. Primary data indicate a generally stable sulfur cycle in the early-mid Maastrichtian (69 Ma), with some fluctuations that could be related to increased pyrite burial during the 'mid-Maastrichtian Event'. This is followed by an enigmatic +4‰ increase in δ34SCAS during the late Maastrichtian (68-66 Ma), culminating in a peak in values in the immediate aftermath of the K-Pg extinction which may be related to temporary development of oceanic anoxia in the aftermath of the Chicxulub bolide impact. There is no evidence of the direct influence of Deccan volcanism on the seawater sulfate isotopic record during the late Maastrichtian, nor of a direct influence by the Chicxulub impact itself. During the early Paleocene (magnetochron C29R) a prominent negative excursion in seawater δ34S of 3-4‰ suggests that a global decline in organic carbon burial

  14. Global sensitivity analysis of computer-aided molecular design problem for the development of novel working fluids for power cycles

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    This study compares two methods for global sensitivity analysis as a new approach for the identification and ranking of target properties in molecular design problems: A modified Morris Screening technique and Monte Carlo based standard regression. The two methodologies are highlighted in a case ...

  15. Importance of food waste pre-treatment efficiency for global warming potential in life cycle assessment of anaerobic digestion systems

    Carlsson, My; Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    treatment of the refuse. The objective of this study was to investigate how FW pre-treatment efficiency impacts the environmental performance of waste management, with respect to global warming potential (GWP). The modeling tool EASETECH was used to perform consequential LCA focusing on the impact...

  16. Connection of stratospheric QBO with global atmospheric general circulation and tropical SST. Part I: methodology and composite life cycle

    Huang, Bohua; Kinter, James L. [George Mason University, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Earth Sciences, College of Science, Fairfax, VA (United States); Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Hu, Zeng-Zhen [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Climate Prediction Center (suite 605), NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Wu, Zhaohua [Florida State University, Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Science, and Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Kumar, Arun [Climate Prediction Center (suite 605), NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and its association with the interannual variability in the stratosphere and troposphere, as well as in tropical sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA), are examined in the context of a QBO life cycle. The analysis is based on the ERA40 and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, radiosonde observations at Singapore, and other observation-based datasets. Both reanalyses reproduce the QBO life cycle and its associated variability in the stratosphere reasonably well, except that some long-term changes are detected only in the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. In order to separate QBO from variability on other time scales and to eliminate the long-term changes, a scale separation technique [Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD)] is applied to the raw data. The QBO component of zonal wind anomalies at 30 hPa, extracted using the EEMD method, is defined as a QBO index. Using this index, the QBO life cycle composites of stratosphere and troposphere variables, as well as SSTA, are constructed and examined. The composite features in the stratosphere are generally consistent with previous investigations. The correlations between the QBO and tropical Pacific SSTA depend on the phase in a QBO life cycle. On average, cold (warm) SSTA peaks about half a year after the maximum westerlies (easterlies) at 30 hPa. The connection of the QBO with the troposphere seems to be associated with the differences of temperature anomalies between the stratosphere and troposphere. While the anomalies in the stratosphere propagate downward systematically, some anomalies in the troposphere develop and expand vertically. Therefore, it is possible that the temperature difference between the troposphere and stratosphere may alter the atmospheric stability and tropical deep convection, which modulates the Walker circulation and SSTA in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. (orig.)

  17. Connection of stratospheric QBO with global atmospheric general circulation and tropical SST. Part I: methodology and composite life cycle

    Huang, Bohua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kinter, James L.; Wu, Zhaohua; Kumar, Arun

    2012-01-01

    The stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and its association with the interannual variability in the stratosphere and troposphere, as well as in tropical sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA), are examined in the context of a QBO life cycle. The analysis is based on the ERA40 and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, radiosonde observations at Singapore, and other observation-based datasets. Both reanalyses reproduce the QBO life cycle and its associated variability in the stratosphere reasonably well, except that some long-term changes are detected only in the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. In order to separate QBO from variability on other time scales and to eliminate the long-term changes, a scale separation technique [Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD)] is applied to the raw data. The QBO component of zonal wind anomalies at 30 hPa, extracted using the EEMD method, is defined as a QBO index. Using this index, the QBO life cycle composites of stratosphere and troposphere variables, as well as SSTA, are constructed and examined. The composite features in the stratosphere are generally consistent with previous investigations. The correlations between the QBO and tropical Pacific SSTA depend on the phase in a QBO life cycle. On average, cold (warm) SSTA peaks about half a year after the maximum westerlies (easterlies) at 30 hPa. The connection of the QBO with the troposphere seems to be associated with the differences of temperature anomalies between the stratosphere and troposphere. While the anomalies in the stratosphere propagate downward systematically, some anomalies in the troposphere develop and expand vertically. Therefore, it is possible that the temperature difference between the troposphere and stratosphere may alter the atmospheric stability and tropical deep convection, which modulates the Walker circulation and SSTA in the equatorial Pacific Ocean.

  18. H2O and CO2 devolatilization in subduction zones: implications for the global water and carbon cycles (Invited)

    van Keken, P. E.; Hacker, B. R.; Syracuse, E. M.; Abers, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Subduction of sediments and altered oceanic crust functions as a major carbon sink. Upon subduction the carbon may be released by progressive metamorphic reactions, which can be strongly enhanced by free fluids. Quantification of the CO2 release from subducting slabs is important to determine the provenance of CO2 that is released by the volcanic arc and to constrain the flux of carbon to the deeper mantle. In recent work we used a global set of high resolution thermal models of subduction zones to predict the flux of H2O from the subducting slab (van Keken, Hacker, Syracuse, Abers, Subduction factory 4: Depth-dependent flux of H2O from subducting slabs worldwide, J. Geophys. Res., under review) which provides a new estimate of the dehydration efficiency of the global subducting system. It was found that mineralogically bound water can pass efficiently through old and fast subduction zones (such as in the western Pacific) but that warm subduction zones (such as Cascadia) see nearly complete dehydration of the subducting slab. The top of the slab is sufficiently hot in all subduction zones that the upper crust dehydrates significantly. The degree and depth of dehydration is highly diverse and strongly depends on (p,T) and bulk rock composition. On average about one third of subducted H2O reaches 240 km depth, carried principally and roughly equally in the gabbro and peridotite sections. The present-day global flux of H2O to the deep mantle translates to an addition of about one ocean mass over the age of the Earth. We extend the slab devolatilization work to carbon by providing an update to Gorman et al. (Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst, 2006), who quantified the effects of free fluids on CO2 release. The thermal conditions were based on three end-member subduction zones with linear interpolation to provide a global CO2 flux. We use the new high resolution and global set of models to provide higher resolution predictions for the provenance and pathways of CO2 release to

  19. Global Solar Magnetic Field Organization in the Outer Corona: Influence on the Solar Wind Speed and Mass Flux Over the Cycle

    Réville, Victor; Brun, Allan Sacha

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of the solar wind depends intrinsically on the structure of the global solar magnetic field, which undergoes fundamental changes over the 11-year solar cycle. For instance, the wind terminal velocity is thought to be anti-correlated with the expansion factor, a measure of how the magnetic field varies with height in the solar corona, usually computed at a fixed height (≈ 2.5 {R}⊙ , the source surface radius that approximates the distance at which all magnetic field lines become open). However, the magnetic field expansion affects the solar wind in a more detailed way, its influence on the solar wind properties remaining significant well beyond the source surface. We demonstrate this using 3D global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar corona, constrained by surface magnetograms over half a solar cycle (1989-2001). A self-consistent expansion beyond the solar wind critical point (even up to 10 {R}⊙ ) makes our model comply with observed characteristics of the solar wind, namely, that the radial magnetic field intensity becomes latitude independent at some distance from the Sun, and that the mass flux is mostly independent of the terminal wind speed. We also show that near activity minimum, the expansion in the higher corona has more influence on the wind speed than the expansion below 2.5 {R}⊙ .

  20. The aerial fertilization effect of CO sub 2 and its implications for global carbon cycling and maximum greenhouse warming

    Idso, S B [US Water Conservation Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ (USA)

    1991-07-01

    The author observes that the CO{sub 2} sequestering ability of the world's plant life should increase with the rising CO{sub 2} content of the atmosphere. The enhanced cyclic variation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the Northern Hemisphere is seen to be a result of the CO{sub 2} fertilization effect. Trees are responsible for about two-thirds of global photosynthesis. It is calculated that a 300 ppm increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} produces a 182 per cent increase in the mean productivity of the world's forests. Global warming yet to be faced will not be much more than that which has already occurred. The rising CO{sub 2} content of the atmosphere provides a strong impetus for forest expansion, and a solution to any problems its continued upward trend might produce by intensifying the major mechanisms for its removal. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States

    Dijk, Kimo C. van, E-mail: kimo.vandijk@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Lesschen, Jan Peter, E-mail: janpeter.lesschen@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Oenema, Oene, E-mail: oene.oenema@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    Global society faces serious “phosphorus challenges” given the scarcity, essentiality, unequal global distribution and, at the same time, regional excess of phosphorus (P). Phosphorus flow studies can be used to analyze these challenges, providing insight into how society (re)uses and loses phosphorus, identifying potential solutions. Phosphorus flows were analyzed in detail for EU-27 and its Member States. To quantify food system and non-food flows, country specific data and historical context were considered. The sectors covered were crop production (CP), animal production (AP), food processing (FP), non-food production (NF) and consumption (HC). The results show that the EU-27 imported 2392 Gg P in 2005, half of which accumulated in agricultural soils (924 Gg) and half was lost as waste (1217 Gg). Net accumulation was 4.9 kg P/ha/year ranging between + 23.2 (Belgium) and − 2.8 (Slovakia). From the system losses, 54% was lost from HC in diverse waste flows and 28% from FP, mainly through incinerated slaughter residues. The largest HC losses (655 Gg) were wastewater (55%), food waste (27%), and pet excreta (11%). Phosphorus recycling rates were 73% in AP, 29% in FP, 21% in HC and ~ 0% in NF. The phosphorus use efficiencies showed that, relative to sector input, about 70% was taken up by crops (CP), 24% was retained in animals (AP), 52% was contained in food products (FP), 76% was stored in non-food materials (NF), and 21% was recycled (HC). Although wide-ranging variation between countries, generally phosphorus use in EU-27 was characterized by relatively (1) large dependency on (primary) imports, (2) long-term accumulation in agricultural soils, especially in west European countries, (3) leaky losses throughout entire society, especially emissions to the environment and sequestered waste, (4) little recycling with the exception of manure, and (5) low use efficiencies, because of aforementioned issues, providing ample opportunities for improvement

  2. Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States

    Dijk, Kimo C. van; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Oenema, Oene

    2016-01-01

    Global society faces serious “phosphorus challenges” given the scarcity, essentiality, unequal global distribution and, at the same time, regional excess of phosphorus (P). Phosphorus flow studies can be used to analyze these challenges, providing insight into how society (re)uses and loses phosphorus, identifying potential solutions. Phosphorus flows were analyzed in detail for EU-27 and its Member States. To quantify food system and non-food flows, country specific data and historical context were considered. The sectors covered were crop production (CP), animal production (AP), food processing (FP), non-food production (NF) and consumption (HC). The results show that the EU-27 imported 2392 Gg P in 2005, half of which accumulated in agricultural soils (924 Gg) and half was lost as waste (1217 Gg). Net accumulation was 4.9 kg P/ha/year ranging between + 23.2 (Belgium) and − 2.8 (Slovakia). From the system losses, 54% was lost from HC in diverse waste flows and 28% from FP, mainly through incinerated slaughter residues. The largest HC losses (655 Gg) were wastewater (55%), food waste (27%), and pet excreta (11%). Phosphorus recycling rates were 73% in AP, 29% in FP, 21% in HC and ~ 0% in NF. The phosphorus use efficiencies showed that, relative to sector input, about 70% was taken up by crops (CP), 24% was retained in animals (AP), 52% was contained in food products (FP), 76% was stored in non-food materials (NF), and 21% was recycled (HC). Although wide-ranging variation between countries, generally phosphorus use in EU-27 was characterized by relatively (1) large dependency on (primary) imports, (2) long-term accumulation in agricultural soils, especially in west European countries, (3) leaky losses throughout entire society, especially emissions to the environment and sequestered waste, (4) little recycling with the exception of manure, and (5) low use efficiencies, because of aforementioned issues, providing ample opportunities for improvement

  3. The Modern Phosphorus Sustainability Movement: A Profiling Experiment

    Andrea E. Ulrich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the “peak phosphorus” concept emerged in 2007, concerns about the future availability of phosphate rock have funneled into a growing number of actions, often in the form of new and innovative platforms focusing on phosphorus sustainability. This trend seems to continue on different levels and in different formats, which makes the landscape of activities increasingly blurred and complex. This article considers the emerging phase of the modern phosphorus sustainability movement. It provides a first profiling overview of platforms working towards more sustainable production, consumption, and reuse of phosphorus (P within the frame of securing global food production and environmental quality. The aim is to gain a better understanding of the movement, pertinent literature, the problem sphere itself, and of forms of possible engagement. Major barriers and opportunities inherent in the various approaches are discussed. It is concluded that overarching coordination will be necessary to improve future planning and priority setting for sustainability strategies.

  4. Quantifying the Limitation to World Cereal Production Due To Soil Phosphorus Status

    Kvakić, Marko; Pellerin, Sylvain; Ciais, Philippe; Achat, David L.; Augusto, Laurent; Denoroy, Pascal; Gerber, James S.; Goll, Daniel; Mollier, Alain; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Wang, Xuhui; Ringeval, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant growth. Low P availability in soils is likely to limit crop yields in many parts of the world, but this effect has never been quantified at the global scale by process-based models. Here we attempt to estimate P limitation in three major cereals worldwide for the year 2000 by combining information on soil P distribution in croplands and a generic crop model, while accounting for the nature of soil-plant P transport. As a global average, the diffusion-limited soil P supply meets the crop's P demand corresponding to the climatic yield potential, due to the legacy soil P in highly fertilized areas. However, when focusing on the spatial distribution of P supply versus demand, we found strong limitation in regions like North and South America, Africa, and Eastern Europe. Averaged over grid cells where P supply is lower than demand, the global yield gap due to soil P is estimated at 22, 55, and 26% in winter wheat, maize, and rice. Assuming that a fraction (20%) of the annual P applied in fertilizers is directly available to the plant, the global P yield gap lowers by only 5-10%, underlying the importance of the existing soil P supply in sustaining crop yields. The study offers a base for exploring P limitation in crops worldwide but with certain limitations remaining. These could be better accounted for by describing the agricultural P cycle with a fully coupled and mechanistic soil-crop model.

  5. An initial study on modeling the global thermal and fast reactor fuel cycle mass flow using Vensim

    Brinton, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    This study concentrated on modeling the construction and decommissioning rates of five major facilities comprising the nuclear fuel cycle: (1) current LWRs with a 60-year service life, (2) new LWRs burning MOX fuel, (3) new LWRs to replace units in the current fleet, (4) new FRs to be added to the fleet, and (5) new spent fuel reprocessing facilities. This is a mass flow mode starting from uranium ore and following it to spent forms. The visual dynamic modeling program Vensim was used to create a system of equations and variables to track the mass flows from enrichment, fabrication, burn-up, and the back-end of the fuel cycle. The scenarios considered provide estimates of the uranium ore requirements, quantities of LLW and HLW production, and the number of reprocessing facilities necessary to reduce recently reported levels of spent fuel inventory. Preliminary results indicate that the entire national spent fuel inventory produced in the next 100 years can be reprocessed with a reprocessing plant built every 11 years (small capacity) or even as low as every 23 years (large capacity). (authors)

  6. Total Phosphorus in Surface Water

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess phosphorus in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALP is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources, including the...

  7. Phosphorus chemistry in everyday living

    Toy, Arthur D. F

    1976-01-01

    The author has drawn on his 35 years of experience as a research scientist in phosphorus chemistry to produce a book that is not only readable to the non-chemist but sophisticated enough to interest...

  8. Global and regional effects of land-use change on climate in 21. century simulations with interactive carbon cycle

    Boysen, L.R.; Brovkin, V.; Pongratz, J.; Gayler, V.; Arora, V.K.; Cadule, P.; Noblet-Ducoudre, N. de; Kato, E.

    2014-01-01

    Bio-geophysical (BGP) and biogeochemical (BGC) effects of land-use and land cover change (LULCC) are separated at the global and regional scales in new interactive CO 2 simulations for the 21. century. Results from four earth system models (ESMs) are analyzed for the future RCP8.5 scenario from simulations with and without land-use and land cover change (LULCC), contributing to the Land-Use and Climate, Identification of robust impacts (LUCID) project. Over the period 2006-2100, LULCC causes the atmospheric CO 2 concentration to increase by 12, 22, and 66 ppm in CanESM2, MIROC-ESM, and MPI-ESM-LR, respectively. Statistically significant changes in global near-surface temperature are found in three models with a BGC induced global mean annual warming between 0.07 and 0.23 K. BGP-induced responses are simulated by three models in areas of intense LULCC of varying sign and magnitude (between -0.47 and 0.10 K). Modifications of the land carbon pool by LULCC are disentangled in accordance with processes that can lead to increases and decreases in this carbon pool. Global land carbon losses due to LULCC are simulated by all models: 218, 57, 35 and 34 Gt C by MPI-ESM-LR, MIROC-ESM, IPSL-CM5A-LR and CanESM2, respectively. On the contrary, the CO 2 -fertilization effect caused by elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations due to LULCC leads to a land carbon gain of 39 Gt C in MPI-ESM-LR and is almost negligible in the other models. A substantial part of the spread in models' responses to LULCC is attributed to the differences in implementation of LULCC (e.g., whether pastures or crops are simulated explicitly) and the simulation of specific processes. Simple idealized experiments with clear protocols for implementing LULCC in ESMs are needed to increase the understanding of model responses and the statistical significance of results, especially when analyzing the regional-scale impacts of LULCC. (authors)

  9. Global and regional effects of land-use change on climate in 21st century simulations with interactive carbon cycle

    L. R. Boysen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogeophysical (BGP and biogeochemical (BGC effects of land-use and land cover change (LULCC are separated at the global and regional scales in new interactive CO2 simulations for the 21st century. Results from four earth system models (ESMs are analyzed for the future RCP8.5 scenario from simulations with and without land-use and land cover change (LULCC, contributing to the Land-Use and Climate, IDentification of robust impacts (LUCID project. Over the period 2006–2100, LULCC causes the atmospheric CO2 concentration to increase by 12, 22, and 66 ppm in CanESM2, MIROC-ESM, and MPI-ESM-LR, respectively. Statistically significant changes in global near-surface temperature are found in three models with a BGC-induced global mean annual warming between 0.07 and 0.23 K. BGP-induced responses are simulated by three models in areas of intense LULCC of varying sign and magnitude (between −0.47 and 0.10 K. Modifications of the land carbon pool by LULCC are disentangled in accordance with processes that can lead to increases and decreases in this carbon pool. Global land carbon losses due to LULCC are simulated by all models: 218, 57, 35 and 34 Gt C by MPI-ESM-LR, MIROC-ESM, IPSL-CM5A-LR and CanESM2, respectively. On the contrary, the CO2-fertilization effect caused by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to LULCC leads to a land carbon gain of 39 Gt C in MPI-ESM-LR and is almost negligible in the other models. A substantial part of the spread in models' responses to LULCC is attributed to the differences in implementation of LULCC (e.g., whether pastures or crops are simulated explicitly and the simulation of specific processes. Simple idealized experiments with clear protocols for implementing LULCC in ESMs are needed to increase the understanding of model responses and the statistical significance of results, especially when analyzing the regional-scale impacts of LULCC.

  10. Performance optimization of low-temperature power generation by supercritical ORCs (organic Rankine cycles) using low GWP (global warming potential) working fluids

    Le, Van Long; Feidt, Michel; Kheiri, Abdelhamid; Pelloux-Prayer, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the system efficiency optimization scenarios of basic and regenerative supercritical ORCs (organic Rankine cycles) using low-GWP (global warming potential) organic compounds as working fluid. A more common refrigerant, i.e. R134a, was also employed to make the comparison. A 150-°C, 5-bar-pressurized hot water is used to simulate the heat source medium. Power optimization was equally performed for the basic configuration of supercritical ORC. Thermodynamic performance comparison of supercritical ORCs using different working fluids was achieved by ranking method and exergy analysis method. The highest optimal efficiency of the system (η sys ) is always obtained with R152a in both basic (11.6%) and regenerative (13.1%) configurations. The highest value of optimum electrical power output (4.1 kW) is found with R1234ze. By using ranking method and considering low-GWP criterion, the best working fluids for system efficiency optimization of basic and regenerative cycles are R32 and R152a, respectively. The best working fluid for net electrical power optimization of basic cycle is R1234ze. Although CO 2 has many desirable environmental and safety properties (e.g. zero ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), ultra low-GWP, non toxicity, non flammability, etc.), the worst thermodynamic performance is always found with the cycle using this compound as working fluid. - Highlights: • Performance optimizations were carried out for the supercritical ORCs using low-GWP working fluids. • Heat regeneration was used to improve the system efficiency of the supercritical ORC. • Thermodynamic performances of supercritical ORCs at the optima were evaluated by ranking method and exergy analysis

  11. Coordination cycles

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2008), s. 308-327 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : global games * coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2008

  12. phosphorus retention data and metadata

    phosphorus retention in wetlands data and metadataThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Lane , C., and B. Autrey. Phosphorus retention of forested and emergent marsh depressional wetlands in differing land uses in Florida, USA. Wetlands Ecology and Management. Springer Science and Business Media B.V;Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V., GERMANY, 24(1): 45-60, (2016).

  13. AdS solutions in gauge supergravities and the global anomaly for the product of complex two-cycles

    Bytsenko, A.A. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 6001, Londrina-Parana (Brazil); Elizalde, E. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICE/CSIC) and Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Facultat de Ciencies, Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Cohomological methods are applied for the special set of solutions corresponding to rotating branes in arbitrary dimensions, AdS black holes (which can be embedded in ten or eleven dimensions), and gauge supergravities. A new class of solutions is proposed, the Hilbert modular varieties, which consist of the 2n-fold product of the two-spaces H{sup n} /{gamma} (where H{sup n} denotes the product of n upper half-planes, H {sup 2}, equipped with the co-compact action of {gamma} is contained in SL(2, R){sup n}) and (H {sup n}){sup *}/{gamma} (where (H {sup 2}){sup *}=H {sup 2}{gamma} and {gamma} is a congruence subgroup of SL(2, R) {sup n}). The cohomology groups of the Hilbert variety, which inherit a Hodge structure (in the sense of Deligne), are analyzed, as well as bifiltered sequences, weight and Hodge filtrations, and it is argued that the torsion part of the cuspidal cohomology is involved in the global anomaly condition. Indeed, in the presence of the cuspidal part, all cohomology classes can be mapped to the boundary of the space and the cuspidal contribution can be involved in the global anomaly condition. (orig.)

  14. The enigmatic SAR202 cluster up close: shedding light on a globally distributed dark ocean lineage involved in sulfur cycling.

    Mehrshad, Maliheh; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; López-García, Purificación; Ghai, Rohit

    2018-03-01

    The dark ocean microbiota represents the unknown majority in the global ocean waters. The SAR202 cluster belonging to the phylum Chloroflexi was the first microbial lineage discovered to specifically inhabit the aphotic realm, where they are abundant and globally distributed. The absence of SAR202 cultured representatives is a significant bottleneck towards understanding their metabolic capacities and role in the marine environment. In this work, we use a combination of metagenome-assembled genomes from deep-sea datasets and publicly available single-cell genomes to construct a genomic perspective of SAR202 phylogeny, metabolism and biogeography. Our results suggest that SAR202 cluster members are medium sized, free-living cells with a heterotrophic lifestyle, broadly divided into two distinct clades. We present the first evidence of vertical stratification of these microbes along the meso- and bathypelagic ocean layers. Remarkably, two distinct species of SAR202 cluster are highly abundant in nearly all deep bathypelagic metagenomic datasets available so far. SAR202 members metabolize multiple organosulfur compounds, many appear to be sulfite-oxidizers and are predicted to play a major role in sulfur turnover in the dark water column. This concomitantly suggests an unsuspected availability of these nutrient sources to allow for the high abundance of these microbes in the deep sea.

  15. Local systems, global impacts. Using life cycle assessment to analyse the potential and constraints of industrial symbioses

    Sokka, L.

    2011-08-15

    Human activities extract and displace different substances and materials from the earthAEs crust, thus causing various environmental problems, such as climate change, acidification and eutrophication. As problems have become more complicated, more holistic measures that consider the origins and sources of pollutants have been called for. Industrial ecology is a field of science that forms a comprehensive framework for studying the interactions between the modern technological society and the environment. Industrial ecology considers humans and their technologies to be part of the natural environment, not separate from it. Industrial operations form natural systems that must also function as such within the constraints set by the biosphere. Industrial symbiosis (IS) is a central concept of industrial ecology. Industrial symbiosis studies look at the physical flows of materials and energy in local industrial systems. In an ideal IS, waste material and energy are exchanged by the actors of the system, thereby reducing the consumption of virgin material and energy inputs and the generation of waste and emissions. Companies are seen as part of the chains of suppliers and consumers that resemble those of natural ecosystems. The aim of this study was to analyse the environmental performance of an industrial symbiosis based on pulp and paper production, taking into account life cycle impacts as well. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for quantitatively and systematically evaluating the environmental aspects of a product, technology or service throughout its whole life cycle. Moreover, the Natural Step Sustainability Principles formed a conceptual framework for assessing the environmental performance of the case study symbiosis (Paper 1). The environmental performance of the case study symbiosis was compared to four counterfactual reference scenarios in which the actors of the symbiosis operated on their own. The research methods used were process-based life cycle

  16. Hydrology and phosphorus transport simulation in a lowland polder by a coupled modeling system.

    Yan, Renhua; Huang, Jiacong; Li, Lingling; Gao, Junfeng

    2017-08-01

    Modeling the rain-runoff processes and phosphorus transport processes in lowland polders is critical in finding reasonable measures to alleviate the eutrophication problem of downstream rivers and lakes. This study develops a lowland Polder Hydrology and Phosphorus modeling System (PHPS) by coupling the WALRUS-paddy model and an improved phosphorus module of a Phosphorus Dynamic model for lowland Polder systems (PDP). It considers some important hydrological characteristics, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, groundwater-surface water feedback, human-controlled irrigation and discharge, and detailed physical and biochemical cycles of phosphorus in surface water. The application of the model in the Jianwei polder shows that the simulated phosphorus matches well with the measured values. The high precision of this model combined with its low input data requirement and efficient computation make it practical and easy to the water resources management of Chinese polders. Parameter sensitivity analysis demonstrates that K uptake , c Q2 , c W1 , and c Q1 exert a significant effect on the modeled results, whereas K resuspensionMax , K settling , and K mineralization have little effect on the modeled total phosphorus. Among the three types of uncertainties (i.e., parameter, initial condition, and forcing uncertainties), forcing uncertainty produces the strongest effect on the simulated phosphorus. Based on the analysis result of annual phosphorus balance when considering the high import from irrigation and fertilization, lowland polder is capable of retaining phosphorus and reducing phosphorus export to surrounding aquatic ecosystems because of their special hydrological regulation regime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Implementation of methane cycling for deep-time global warming simulations with the DCESS Earth system model (version 1.2)

    Shaffer, Gary; Fernández Villanueva, Esteban; Rondanelli, Roberto; Olaf Pepke Pedersen, Jens; Malskær Olsen, Steffen; Huber, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    Geological records reveal a number of ancient, large and rapid negative excursions of the carbon-13 isotope. Such excursions can only be explained by massive injections of depleted carbon to the Earth system over a short duration. These injections may have forced strong global warming events, sometimes accompanied by mass extinctions such as the Triassic-Jurassic and end-Permian extinctions 201 and 252 million years ago, respectively. In many cases, evidence points to methane as the dominant form of injected carbon, whether as thermogenic methane formed by magma intrusions through overlying carbon-rich sediment or from warming-induced dissociation of methane hydrate, a solid compound of methane and water found in ocean sediments. As a consequence of the ubiquity and importance of methane in major Earth events, Earth system models for addressing such events should include a comprehensive treatment of methane cycling but such a treatment has often been lacking. Here we implement methane cycling in the Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS) model, a simplified but well-tested Earth system model of intermediate complexity. We use a generic methane input function that allows variation in input type, size, timescale and ocean-atmosphere partition. To be able to treat such massive inputs more correctly, we extend the model to deal with ocean suboxic/anoxic conditions and with radiative forcing and methane lifetimes appropriate for high atmospheric methane concentrations. With this new model version, we carried out an extensive set of simulations for methane inputs of various sizes, timescales and ocean-atmosphere partitions to probe model behavior. We find that larger methane inputs over shorter timescales with more methane dissolving in the ocean lead to ever-increasing ocean anoxia with consequences for ocean life and global carbon cycling. Greater methane input directly to the atmosphere leads to more warming and, for example, greater carbon dioxide release

  18. Implementation of methane cycling for deep-time global warming simulations with the DCESS Earth system model (version 1.2

    G. Shaffer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Geological records reveal a number of ancient, large and rapid negative excursions of the carbon-13 isotope. Such excursions can only be explained by massive injections of depleted carbon to the Earth system over a short duration. These injections may have forced strong global warming events, sometimes accompanied by mass extinctions such as the Triassic-Jurassic and end-Permian extinctions 201 and 252 million years ago, respectively. In many cases, evidence points to methane as the dominant form of injected carbon, whether as thermogenic methane formed by magma intrusions through overlying carbon-rich sediment or from warming-induced dissociation of methane hydrate, a solid compound of methane and water found in ocean sediments. As a consequence of the ubiquity and importance of methane in major Earth events, Earth system models for addressing such events should include a comprehensive treatment of methane cycling but such a treatment has often been lacking. Here we implement methane cycling in the Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS model, a simplified but well-tested Earth system model of intermediate complexity. We use a generic methane input function that allows variation in input type, size, timescale and ocean–atmosphere partition. To be able to treat such massive inputs more correctly, we extend the model to deal with ocean suboxic/anoxic conditions and with radiative forcing and methane lifetimes appropriate for high atmospheric methane concentrations. With this new model version, we carried out an extensive set of simulations for methane inputs of various sizes, timescales and ocean–atmosphere partitions to probe model behavior. We find that larger methane inputs over shorter timescales with more methane dissolving in the ocean lead to ever-increasing ocean anoxia with consequences for ocean life and global carbon cycling. Greater methane input directly to the atmosphere leads to more warming and, for example

  19. Development of an advanced eco-hydrologic and biogeochemical coupling model aimed at clarifying the missing role of inland water in the global biogeochemical cycle

    Nakayama, Tadanobu

    2017-04-01

    Recent research showed that inland water including rivers, lakes, and groundwater may play some role in carbon cycling, although its contribution has remained uncertain due to limited amount of reliable data available. In this study, the author developed an advanced model coupling eco-hydrology and biogeochemical cycle (National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE)-BGC). This new model incorporates complex coupling of hydrologic-carbon cycle in terrestrial-aquatic linkages and interplay between inorganic and organic carbon during the whole process of carbon cycling. The model could simulate both horizontal transports (export from land to inland water 2.01 ± 1.98 Pg C/yr and transported to ocean 1.13 ± 0.50 Pg C/yr) and vertical fluxes (degassing 0.79 ± 0.38 Pg C/yr, and sediment storage 0.20 ± 0.09 Pg C/yr) in major rivers in good agreement with previous researches, which was an improved estimate of carbon flux from previous studies. The model results also showed global net land flux simulated by NICE-BGC (-1.05 ± 0.62 Pg C/yr) decreased carbon sink a little in comparison with revised Lund-Potsdam-Jena Wetland Hydrology and Methane (-1.79 ± 0.64 Pg C/yr) and previous materials (-2.8 to -1.4 Pg C/yr). This is attributable to CO2 evasion and lateral carbon transport explicitly included in the model, and the result suggests that most previous researches have generally overestimated the accumulation of terrestrial carbon and underestimated the potential for lateral transport. The results further implied difference between inverse techniques and budget estimates suggested can be explained to some extent by a net source from inland water. NICE-BGC would play an important role in reevaluation of greenhouse gas budget of the biosphere, quantification of hot spots, and bridging the gap between top-down and bottom-up approaches to global carbon budget.

  20. Assessment of Anthropogenic and Climatic Impacts on the Global Carbon Cycle Using a 3-D Model Constrained by Isotopic Carbon Measurements and Remote Sensing of Vegetation

    Keeling, Charles D.; Piper, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    Our original proposal called for improved modeling of the terrestrial biospheric carbon cycle, specifically using biome-specific process models to account for both the energy and water budgets of plant growth, to facilitate investigations into recent changes in global atmospheric CO2 abundance and regional distribution. The carbon fluxes predicted by these models were to be incorporated into a global model of CO2 transport to establish large-scale regional fluxes of CO2 to and from the terrestrial biosphere subject to constraints imposed by direct measurements of atmospheric CO2 and its 13C/12C isotopic ratio. Our work was coordinated with a NASA project (NASA NAGW-3151) at the University of Montana under the direction of Steven Running, and was partially funded by the Electric Power Research Institute. The primary objective of this project was to develop and test the Biome-BGC model, a global biological process model with a daily time step which simulates the water, energy and carbon budgets of plant growth. The primary product, the unique global gridded daily land temperature, and the precipitation data set which was used to drive the process model is described. The Biome-BGC model was tested by comparison with a simpler biological model driven by satellite-derived (NDVI) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and (PAR) Photosynthetically Active Radiation data and by comparison with atmospheric CO2 observations. The simple NDVI model is also described. To facilitate the comparison with atmospheric CO2 observations, a three-dimensional atmospheric transport model was used to produce predictions of atmospheric CO2 variations given CO2 fluxes owing to (NPP) Net Primary Productivity and heterotrophic respiration that were produced by the Biome-BGC model and by the NDVI model. The transport model that we used in this project, and errors associated with transport simulations, were characterized by a comparison of 12 transport models.

  1. Evolution of the Toarcian (Early Jurassic) carbon-cycle and global climatic controls on local sedimentary processes (Cardigan Bay Basin, UK)

    Xu, Weimu; Ruhl, Micha; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Leng, Melanie J.; Huggett, Jennifer M.; Minisini, Daniel; Ullmann, Clemens V.; Riding, James B.; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Storm, Marisa S.; Percival, Lawrence M. E.; Tosca, Nicholas J.; Idiz, Erdem F.; Tegelaar, Erik W.; Hesselbo, Stephen P.

    2018-02-01

    The late Early Jurassic Toarcian Stage represents the warmest interval of the Jurassic Period, with an abrupt rise in global temperatures of up to ∼7 °C in mid-latitudes at the onset of the early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE; ∼183 Ma). The T-OAE, which has been extensively studied in marine and continental successions from both hemispheres, was marked by the widespread expansion of anoxic and euxinic waters, geographically extensive deposition of organic-rich black shales, and climatic and environmental perturbations. Climatic and environmental processes following the T-OAE are, however, poorly known, largely due to a lack of study of stratigraphically well-constrained and complete sedimentary archives. Here, we present integrated geochemical and physical proxy data (high-resolution carbon-isotope data (δ13 C), bulk and molecular organic geochemistry, inorganic petrology, mineral characterisation, and major- and trace-element concentrations) from the biostratigraphically complete and expanded entire Toarcian succession in the Llanbedr (Mochras Farm) Borehole, Cardigan Bay Basin, Wales, UK. With these data, we (1) construct the first high-resolution biostratigraphically calibrated chemostratigraphic reference record for nearly the complete Toarcian Stage, (2) establish palaeoceanographic and depositional conditions in the Cardigan Bay Basin, (3) show that the T-OAE in the hemipelagic Cardigan Bay Basin was marked by the occurrence of gravity-flow deposits that were likely linked to globally enhanced sediment fluxes to continental margins and deeper marine (shelf) basins, and (4) explore how early Toarcian (tenuicostatum and serpentinum zones) siderite formation in the Cardigan Bay Basin may have been linked to low global oceanic sulphate concentrations and elevated supply of iron (Fe) from the hinterland, in response to climatically induced changes in hydrological cycling, global weathering rates and large-scale sulphide and evaporite deposition.

  2. Global Studies of the Sulfur Cycle Including the Influence of DMS and Fossil Fuel Sulfur on Climate and Climate Change

    Penner, Joyce E.

    1998-01-01

    The indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosols, wherein aerosol particles are thought to increase cloud droplet concentrations and cloud lifetime, is the most uncertain component of climate forcing over the past 100 years. Here, for the first time, we use a mechanistic treatment of droplet nucleation and a prognostic treatment of the number of cloud droplets to study the indirect aerosol effect from changes in carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols. Cloud droplet nucleation is parameterized as a function of total aerosol number concentration, updraft velocity and a shape parameter, which takes into account the mechanism, of sulfate aerosol formation, while cloud droplet number depends on the nucleation as well as on droplet sinks. Whereas previous treatments have predicted annual average indirect effects between -1 and -2 W/sq m, we obtain an indirect aerosol effect between -0.14 W/sq m and -0.42 W/sq m in the global mean.

  3. An assessment of NASA master directory/catalog interoperability for interdisciplinary study of the global water cycle

    Peuquet, Donna J.

    1991-01-01

    The most important issue facing science is understanding global change; the causes, the processes involved and their consequences. The key to success in this massive Earth science research effort will depend on efficient identification and access to the most data available across the atmospheric, oceanographic, and land sciences. Current mechanisms used by earth scientists for accessing these data fall far short of meeting this need. Scientists must as a result frequently rely on a priori knowledge and informal person to person networks to find relevant data. The Master Directory/Catalog Interoperability Program (MC/CI) undertaken by NASA is an important step in overcoming these problems. The stated goal of the MD project is to enable researchers to efficiently identify, locate, and obtain access to space and Earth science data.

  4. Spatial variation in sediment-water exchange of phosphorus in Florida Bay: AMP as a model organic compound.

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2010-10-15

    Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) has been recognized as dominant components in total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) pools in many coastal waters, and its exchange between sediment and water is an important process in biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) was employed as a model DOP compound to simulate phosphorus exchange across sediment-water interface in Florida Bay. The sorption data from 40 stations were fitted to a modified Freundlich equation and provided a detailed spatial distribution both of the sediment's zero equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC(0-T)) and of the distribution coefficient (K(d-T)) with respect to TDP. The K(d-T) was found to be a function of the index of phosphorus saturation (IPS), a molar ratio of the surface reactive phosphorus to the surface reactive iron oxide content in the sediment, across the entire bay. However, the EPC(0-T) was found to correlate to the contents of phosphorus in the eastern bay only. Sediment in the western bay might act as a source of the phosphorus in the exchange process due to their high EPC(0-T) and low K(d-T), whereas sediments in the eastern bay might act as a sink because of their low EPC(0-T) and high K(d-T). These results strongly support the hypothesis that both phosphorus and iron species in calcareous marine sediments play a critical role in governing the sediment-water exchange of both phosphate and DOP in the coastal and estuarine ecosystems.

  5. On the shape and properties of the global heliosphere over the Solar Cycle with Voyager/LECP ions and Cassini/INCA ENAs

    Dialynas, Konstantinos; Krimigis, Stamatios; Mitchell, Donald; Decker, Robert; Roelof, Edmond

    2017-04-01

    Voyager 1 (V1) and Voyager 2 (V2) have crossed the termination shock in 2004 (V1) and 2007(V2) and traversing the Heliosheath (HS) in the upstream (nose) hemisphere, while the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) on Cassini enables Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) images of the celestial sphere that place the local ion measurements by each Voyager in a global context. We present an analysis of 5.2-55 keV ENA global images of the HS and 28-53 keV in-situ ions over an 11-year period (2003-2014) that corresponds to the declining phase of solar cycle 23 (SC23) and onset of SC24. The measurements reveal a coherent decrease and recovery between ENA in the global heliosphere and in-situ ions at V1/V2 during this time period, in overlapping energy bands, establishing that the HS ions are the source of >28 keV ENA. The similarity in the overall appearance of the images throughout the INCA energy range (5.2-55 keV), reveals that the source of ENAs at 5.2 keV ENA and ion variations with the Solar Sunspot Numbers (SSN) and solar wind parameters indicates that the Heliosphere responds promptly, within 2-3 years, to outward propagating solar wind changes in both the nose and anti-nose (tail) directions following the Solar Cycle (SC) phases. A detailed latitudinal examination of the global ENA emissions, verifies that the peak intensities between the nose and anti-nose directions are nearly similar, the power law ENA spectral index (γ) is largely the same near the equator in both the nose and anti-nose directions and displays similar spatial dependence with latitude. The totality of the ENA and in situ ion observations, together with the V1 measurement of a 0.5 nT interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) and recent modeling, suggest a "bubble-shape" heliosphere, i.e with little substantial tail-like feature. These observations are essential in determining the context for the measurements anticipated by the forthcoming IMAP mission.

  6. EVOLUTION OF THE GLOBAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF THE SOLAR CORONA DURING THE MINIMUM BETWEEN SOLAR CYCLES 23 AND 24

    Nuevo, Federico A.; Vasquez, Alberto M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA) and FCEN (UBA), CC 67-Suc 28, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Huang Zhenguang; Frazin, Richard; Manchester, Ward B. IV; Jin Meng [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    The combination of differential emission measure tomography with extrapolation of the photospheric magnetic field allows determination of the electron density and electron temperature along individual magnetic field lines. This is especially useful in quiet-Sun (QS) plasmas where individual loops cannot otherwise be identified. In Paper I, this approach was applied to study QS plasmas during Carrington rotation (CR) 2077 at the minimum between solar cycles (SCs) 23 and 24. In that work, two types of QS coronal loops were identified: ''up'' loops in which the temperature increases with height, and ''down'' loops in which the temperature decreases with height. While the first ones were expected, the latter ones were a surprise and, furthermore, were found to be ubiquitous in the low-latitude corona. In the present work, we extend the analysis to 11 CRs around the last solar minimum. We found that the ''down'' population, always located at low latitudes, was maximum at the time when the sunspot number was minimum, and the number of down loops systematically increased during the declining phase of SC-23 and diminished during the rising phase of SC-24. ''Down'' loops are found to have systematically larger values of {beta} than do ''up'' loops. These discoveries are interpreted in terms of excitation of Alfven waves in the photosphere, and mode conversion and damping in the low corona.

  7. A global prospective of income distribution and its effect on life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management: a review.

    Yadav, Pooja; Samadder, S R

    2017-04-01

    This study reviewed the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition, the management practices, and the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) tool for MSW management (MSWM) options in the various income group countries. LCA studies require inventory data, which is difficult to procure for any country including higher income group countries, and this issue gets compounded in low-income and lower middle-income group countries, which limits the implementation of LCA. This paper compared the use of LCA for MSWM between high-income and low-income group countries and also highlights the gap in using LCA for MSWM. A very limited number of LCA studies on MSWM were found for low-income group countries in comparison to high-income group countries. The study also provided a critical discussion on the challenges in applications of LCA in MSWM for better solid waste management in low-income and lower middle-income group countries. The study will help in taking up LCA studies in low-income countries to improve the overall MSWM efficiency.

  8. EVOLUTION OF THE GLOBAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF THE SOLAR CORONA DURING THE MINIMUM BETWEEN SOLAR CYCLES 23 AND 24

    Nuevo, Federico A.; Vásquez, Alberto M.; Huang Zhenguang; Frazin, Richard; Manchester, Ward B. IV; Jin Meng

    2013-01-01

    The combination of differential emission measure tomography with extrapolation of the photospheric magnetic field allows determination of the electron density and electron temperature along individual magnetic field lines. This is especially useful in quiet-Sun (QS) plasmas where individual loops cannot otherwise be identified. In Paper I, this approach was applied to study QS plasmas during Carrington rotation (CR) 2077 at the minimum between solar cycles (SCs) 23 and 24. In that work, two types of QS coronal loops were identified: ''up'' loops in which the temperature increases with height, and ''down'' loops in which the temperature decreases with height. While the first ones were expected, the latter ones were a surprise and, furthermore, were found to be ubiquitous in the low-latitude corona. In the present work, we extend the analysis to 11 CRs around the last solar minimum. We found that the ''down'' population, always located at low latitudes, was maximum at the time when the sunspot number was minimum, and the number of down loops systematically increased during the declining phase of SC-23 and diminished during the rising phase of SC-24. ''Down'' loops are found to have systematically larger values of β than do ''up'' loops. These discoveries are interpreted in terms of excitation of Alfvén waves in the photosphere, and mode conversion and damping in the low corona

  9. The Role of External Inputs and Internal Cycling in Shaping the Global Ocean Cobalt Distribution: Insights From the First Cobalt Biogeochemical Model

    Tagliabue, Alessandro; Hawco, Nicholas J.; Bundy, Randelle M.; Landing, William M.; Milne, Angela; Morton, Peter L.; Saito, Mak A.

    2018-04-01

    Cobalt is an important micronutrient for ocean microbes as it is present in vitamin B12 and is a co-factor in various metalloenzymes that catalyze cellular processes. Moreover, when seawater availability of cobalt is compared to biological demands, cobalt emerges as being depleted in seawater, pointing to a potentially important limiting role. To properly account for the potential biological role for cobalt, there is therefore a need to understand the processes driving the biogeochemical cycling of cobalt and, in particular, the balance between external inputs and internal cycling. To do so, we developed the first cobalt model within a state-of-the-art three-dimensional global ocean biogeochemical model. Overall, our model does a good job in reproducing measurements with a correlation coefficient of >0.7 in the surface and >0.5 at depth. We find that continental margins are the dominant source of cobalt, with a crucial role played by supply under low bottom-water oxygen conditions. The basin-scale distribution of cobalt supplied from margins is facilitated by the activity of manganese-oxidizing bacteria being suppressed under low oxygen and low temperatures, which extends the residence time of cobalt. Overall, we find a residence time of 7 and 250 years in the upper 250 m and global ocean, respectively. Importantly, we find that the dominant internal resupply process switches from regeneration and recycling of particulate cobalt to dissolution of scavenged cobalt between the upper ocean and the ocean interior. Our model highlights key regions of the ocean where biological activity may be most sensitive to cobalt availability.

  10. [Effects of phosphorus sources on phosphorus fractions in rhizosphere soil of wild barley genotypes with high phosphorus utilization efficiency].

    Cai, Qiu-Yan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Li, Ting-Xuan; Chen, Guang-Deng

    2014-11-01

    High P-efficiency (IS-22-30, IS-22-25) and low P-efficiency (IS-07-07) wild barley cultivars were chosen to evaluate characteristics of phosphorus uptake and utilization, and properties of phosphorus fractions in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere in a pot experiment with 0 (CK) and 30 mg P · kg(-1) supplied as only Pi (KH2PO4), only Po (phytate) or Pi + Po (KH2PO4+ phytate). The results showed that dry matter and phosphorus accumulation of wild barley in the different treatments was ranked as Pi > Pi + Po > Po > CK. In addition, dry matter yield and phosphorus uptake of wild barley with high P-efficiency exhibited significantly greater than that with low P-efficiency. The concentration of soil available phosphorus was significantly different after application of different phosphorus sources, which was presented as Pi > Pi + Po > Po. The concentration of soil available phosphorus in high P-efficiency wild barley was significantly higher than that of low P-efficiency in the rhizosphere soil. There was a deficit in rhizosphere available phosphorus of high P-efficiency wild barley, especially in Pi and Pi+Po treatments. The inorganic phosphorus fractions increased with the increasing Pi treatment, and the concentrations of inorganic phosphorus fractions in soil were sorted as follows: Ca10-P > O-P > Fe-P > Al-P > Ca2-P > Ca8-P. The contents of Ca2-P and Ca8-P for high P-efficiency wild barley showed deficits in rhizosphere soil under each phosphorus source treatment. In addition, enrichment of Al-P and Fe-P was observed in Pi treatment in rhizosphere soil. The concentrations of organic phosphorus fractions in soil were sorted as follows: moderate labile organic phosphorus > moderate resistant, resistant organic phosphorus > labile organic phosphorus. The labile and moderate labile organic phosphorus enriched in rhizosphere soil and the greatest enrichment appeared in Pi treatment. Furthermore, the concentrations of moderate resistant organic phosphorus and resistant

  11. Investigation by phosphorus-32 isotope the capabilities of mushrooms to decompose insoluble phosphoric compounds

    Takhtobin, K.S.; Tashpulatov, D.T.; Shulman, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: One of global ecological problems of agriculture is the problem 'phosphatization' of soils. Only of 10% - 25% of phosphorus, introduced by the way fertilizers to acquire by plants, the other main part, as a result of chemical changes in soil, transforms in insoluble, hard-to-reach for plants forms. The study of possibility to extract the phosphorus from this insoluble forms is very important. Our investigations devoted to study of some strains of soil mushrooms which are capable to decompose insoluble phosphoric compounds, secreting an acids and enzymes. Soil mushrooms have symbiotic relationship with roots systems of plants and other microorganisms, they augment the contents of solvable phosphorus in soil, which is easy assimilate by plants. It increases efficiency of other kinds of fertilizers, keeping nitrogen, the potassium and as a whole leads to favourable, balanced composition of soil. In order to investigate quantitatively the capacity of different strains of soil mushrooms to canker insoluble forms of phosphorus we are introduce an isotope phosphorus-32 in such compound as Ca 3 (PO 4) 2. We are investigate by an isotope phosphorus-32 some characteristics of strains, in particular, the absorption capabilities of phosphorus-32 from Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 . It find out that the part of mushrooms absorbed phosphorus from Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , in particular, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium sp., Fusarium solani. (author)

  12. Dynamical Analysis of a Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Phytoplankton Model

    Yunli Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a nitrogen-phosphorus-phytoplankton model in a water ecosystem. The main aim of this research is to analyze the global system dynamics and to study the existence and stability of equilibria. It is shown that the phytoplankton-eradication equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if the input nitrogen concentration is less than a certain threshold. However, the coexistence equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable as long as it exists. The system is uniformly persistent within threshold values of certain key parameters. Finally, to verify the results, numerical simulations are provided.

  13. The Role of Heterotrophic Microbial Communities in Estuarine C Budgets and the Biogeochemical C Cycle with Implications for Global Warming: Research Opportunities and Challenges.

    Anderson, O Roger

    2016-05-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive and economically important marine ecosystems at the land-ocean interface and contribute significantly to exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. Estuarine microbial communities are major links in the biogeochemical C cycle and flow of C in food webs from primary producers to higher consumers. Considerable attention has been given to bacteria and autotrophic eukaryotes in estuarine ecosystems, but less research has been devoted to the role of heterotrophic eukaryotic microbes. Current research is reviewed here on the role of heterotrophic eukaryotic microbes in C biogeochemistry and ecology of estuaries, with particular attention to C budgets, trophodynamics, and the metabolic fate of C in microbial communities. Some attention is given to the importance of these processes in climate change and global warming, especially in relation to sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 , while also documenting the current paucity of research on the role of eukaryotic microbes that contribute to this larger question of C biogeochemistry and the environment. Some recommendations are made for future directions of research and opportunities of applying newer technologies and analytical approaches to a more refined analysis of the role of C in estuarine microbial community processes and the biogeochemical C cycle. © 2015 The Author Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  14. Terrestrial nitrogen cycling in Earth system models revisited

    Stocker, Benjamin D; Prentice, I. Colin; Cornell, Sarah; Davies-Barnard, T; Finzi, Adrien; Franklin, Oskar; Janssens, Ivan; Larmola, Tuula; Manzoni, Stefano; Näsholm, Torgny; Raven, John; Rebel, Karin; Reed, Sasha C.; Vicca, Sara; Wiltshire, Andy; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the degree to which nitrogen (N) availability limits land carbon (C) uptake under global environmental change represents an unresolved challenge. First-generation ‘C-only’vegetation models, lacking explicit representations of N cycling,projected a substantial and increasing land C sink under rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This prediction was questioned for not taking into account the potentially limiting effect of N availability, which is necessary for plant growth (Hungate et al.,2003). More recent global models include coupled C and N cycles in land ecosystems (C–N models) and are widely assumed to be more realistic. However, inclusion of more processes has not consistently improved their performance in capturing observed responses of the global C cycle (e.g. Wenzel et al., 2014). With the advent of a new generation of global models, including coupled C, N, and phosphorus (P) cycling, model complexity is sure to increase; but model reliability may not, unless greater attention is paid to the correspondence of model process representations ande mpirical evidence. It was in this context that the ‘Nitrogen Cycle Workshop’ at Dartington Hall, Devon, UK was held on 1–5 February 2016. Organized by I. Colin Prentice and Benjamin D. Stocker (Imperial College London, UK), the workshop was funded by the European Research Council,project ‘Earth system Model Bias Reduction and assessing Abrupt Climate change’ (EMBRACE). We gathered empirical ecologists and ecosystem modellers to identify key uncertainties in terrestrial C–N cycling, and to discuss processes that are missing or poorly represented in current models.

  15. The effects of land use on fluvial sediment chemistry for the conterminous U.S. - results from the first cycle of the NAWQA Program: trace and major elements, phosphorus, carbon, and sulfur.

    Horowitz, Arthur J; Stephens, Verlin C

    2008-08-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began the first cycle of its National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The Program encompassed 51 river basins that collectively accounted for more than 70% of the total water use (excluding power generation), and 50% of the drinking water supply in the U.S. The basins represented a variety of hydrologic settings, rock types (geology), land-use categories, and population densities. One aspect of the first cycle included bed sediment sampling; sites were chosen to represent baseline and important land-use categories (e.g., agriculture, urban) in each basin. In total, over 1200 bed sediment samples were collected. All samples were size-limited (or=95% of the concentrations present), rather than total-recoverable chemical data. Land-use percentages, upstream underlying geology, and population density were determined for each site and evaluated to asses their relative influence on sediment chemistry. Baseline concentrations for the entire U.S. also were generated from a subset of all the samples, and are based on material collected from low population (sediment chemistry. The only land-use category that appears to substantially affect sediment chemistry is percent urban, and this result is mirrored by population density; in fact, the latter appears more consistent than the former.

  16. Phosphorus oxide gate dielectric for black phosphorus field effect transistors

    Dickerson, W.; Tayari, V.; Fakih, I.; Korinek, A.; Caporali, M.; Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Peruzzini, M.; Heun, S.; Botton, G. A.; Szkopek, T.

    2018-04-01

    The environmental stability of the layered semiconductor black phosphorus (bP) remains a challenge. Passivation of the bP surface with phosphorus oxide, POx, grown by a reactive ion etch with oxygen plasma is known to improve photoluminescence efficiency of exfoliated bP flakes. We apply phosphorus oxide passivation in the fabrication of bP field effect transistors using a gate stack consisting of a POx layer grown by reactive ion etching followed by atomic layer deposition of Al2O3. We observe room temperature top-gate mobilities of 115 cm2 V-1 s-1 in ambient conditions, which we attribute to the low defect density of the bP/POx interface.

  17. Distribución de nitrógeno, fósforo y azufre en un cultivo de colza: efectos sobre el ciclado de nutrientes Distribution of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in oilseed rape: effects on nutrient cycling

    Gerardo Rubio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparado con otros cultivos, la colza tiene una alta demanda de azufre (S por lo que sería esperable que la inclusión de este cultivo en la rotación agrícola acelere el agotamiento de este nutriente en los suelos de las áreas cultivadas. En este trabajo, se comparan los patrones de partición de biomasa, S, nitrógeno (N y fósforo (P en plantas maduras de colza. La información a obtener es relevante desde el punto de vista del ciclado de nutrientes. Para ello se realizó un experimento de campo que se ajustó a un arreglo factorial con dos factores (N y S. En el momento de la cosecha, se midió la acumulación de biomasa, N, P y S en tres compartimientos: granos, rastrojo (resto de parte aérea y raíces. Aunque el rendimiento fue afectado levemente por la adición individual de N o S, la simultánea adición de ambos nutrientes provocó un incremento del 56%. El N y el P presentaron una distribución semejante entre los órganos de la planta estudiados, sin embargo, el S difirió marcadamente de ambos. Su partición al órgano que se exporta (granos fue de menor magnitud que la observada para N y P. En cambio, su partición al rastrojo en pie fue mayor. Esta car