WorldWideScience

Sample records for global pharmaceutical industry

  1. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition.

  2. Global gene mining and the pharmaceutical industry

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2005-01-01

    Worldwide efforts are ongoing in optimizing medical treatment by searching for the right medicine at the right dose for the individual. Metabolism is regulated by polymorphisms, which may be tested by relatively simple SNP analysis, however requiring DNA from the test individuals. Target genes for the efficiency of a given medicine or predisposition of a given disease are also subject to population studies, e.g., in Iceland, Estonia, Sweden, etc. For hypothesis testing and generation, several bio-banks with samples from patients and healthy persons within the pharmaceutical industry have been established during the past 10 years. Thus, more than 100,000 samples are stored in the freezers of either the pharmaceutical companies or their contractual partners at universities and test institutions. Ethical issues related to data protection of the individuals providing samples to bio-banks are several: nature and extent of information prior to consent, coverage of the consent given by the study person, labeling and storage of the sample and data (coded or anonymized). In general, genetic test data, once obtained, are permanent and cannot be changed. The test data may imply information that is not beneficial to the patient and his/her family (e.g., employment opportunities, insurance, etc.). Furthermore, there may be a long latency between the analysis of the genetic test and the clinical expression of the disease and wide differences in the disease patterns. Consequently, information about some genetic test data may stigmatize patients leading to poor quality of life. This has raised the issue of 'genetic exceptionalism' justifying specific regulation of use of genetic information. Discussions on how to handle sampling and data are ongoing within the industry and the regulatory sphere, the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) having issued a position paper, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) having a working

  3. Global gene mining and the pharmaceutical industry

    Knudsen, Lisbeth Ehlert

    2005-01-01

    for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) having issued a position paper, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) having a working group on this issue, and the European Society of Human Genetics preparing background paper on 'Polymorphic sequence variants in medicine: Technical...... may stigmatize patients leading to poor quality of life. This has raised the issue of 'genetic exceptionalism' justifying specific regulation of use of genetic information. Discussions on how to handle sampling and data are ongoing within the industry and the regulatory sphere, the European Agency......, social, legal and ethical issues. Pharmacogenetics as an example'. Within the European project Privacy in Research Ethics and Law (PRIVIREAL), recommendations for common European guidelines for membership in research ethical committees have been discussed, balancing the interests and assuring...

  4. Global health: the ethical responsibility of the pharmaceutical industry.

    Lassen, Lars Christian; Thomsen, Mads Krogsgaard

    2007-02-01

    Health as a global issue concerns all and clearly manifests global inequality. All stakeholders of the healthcare systems and disease treatment--including the pharmaceutical industry--have an ethical obligation to contribute to promoting global health. At Novo Nordisk we primarily focus on providing our contribution to global health through defeating diabetes. At the same time we stand by being a private company required to deliver a financial profit, which is why we must create positive results on the financial, the environmental and the social bottom lines. In this article we attempt to provide a brief overview of some of the initiatives that we think business companies can take--and therefore are also obliged to in promoting global health. Further, we have pointed out a number of dilemmas within research and development as well as business ethics that all companies face when they convert the ethical principles to daily practice globally.

  5. Strategic imperatives for globalization of industries in developing countries: an Indian pharmaceutical industry example.

    Srivastava, Rajesh; Chandra, Ashish; Kumar, Girish

    2004-01-01

    The annual global pharmaceutical sales have grown over 466 billion dollars, almost 50% of which comes from North America. Among developing countries, India, with 16% of the world population, accounts for only a small percentage of the global pharmaceutical industry. Until recently, India has had virtually no pharmaceutical industry worth the name producing drugs from basic raw materials and it used to rely mostly on the imports from countries like the USA and England for all its requirements of drugs. On the other hand, India has seen a plethora of multinational pharmaceutical companies come and do business in India. This paper develops a matrix which provides a broad guidance to the mid- to large-size Indian pharmaceutical domestic companies, which should embark on the path to global expansion to establish their might as well.

  6. Globalization of the pharmaceutical industry and the growing dependency of developing countries: the case of Turkey.

    Semin, Semih; Güldal, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, the effect of globalization on the pharmaceutical sector has resulted in a decrease in exportation and domestic production, accompanied by an increase in importation of pharmaceuticals and a rise in prices and expenditures. As an example of a developing country, Turkey has been facing the long-standing and increasing pressure of global regulations placed on its pharmaceutical sector. This has led to an increasing dependency on multinational companies and a gradual deterioration of an already weakened domestic pharmaceutical sector. This case study of Turkey offers points to consider in the world of increasing globalization, as it offers lessons on ways of examining the effects of globalization on the pharmaceutical industry of developing countries.

  7. Organizing Global IS Management to Meet Competitive Challenges: Experiences from the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Bettina Schwarzer

    1995-01-01

    Despite the widely acknowledged importance information technology plays in multinational corporations, many companies lack an understanding of when and how to (re)organize global IS management. The issues of timing and organization of global IS management, however, seem to be of utmost importance in a company’s attempt to implement a new, global business strategy. Based on three case studies from the pharmaceutical industry, this paper analyzes the sequence in which business strategy, organ...

  8. Pfizer and the Challenges of the Global Pharmaceutical Industry 2013 (B)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This is part of a case series. The case focuses on describing and analysing the environment, profitability and competitiveness of the global pharmaceutical industry, and to evaluate the current and future strategy of Pfizer. It features a large number of tables with quantitative data that help...... initiatives and responses to the market changes....

  9. Growth of the Asian health-care market: global implications for the pharmaceutical industry.

    Epstein, Richard J

    2007-10-01

    The global economy is being transformed by an explosion of information unleashed by the internet, the digital revolution, communications and increased international mobility. This transformation is manifesting in many ways, including rapid development of countries such as China, commoditization of public services, mobilization of workforces, shifting of market control from suppliers to consumers, interlinked rises in product demand and customer expectations, and problems regulating international business competition. As Asia is home to half of the world's population, and offers both a large relatively low-cost workforce in some countries and a potentially huge retail market, this region could be central to the future of the global economy. Like other industries, the pharmaceutical industry faces a new array of Asia-specific opportunities and challenges. Success in meeting these challenges will go to those pharmaceutical companies that best understand the unique strengths and constraints of Asia's diverse cultures, talents and markets.

  10. Pfizer and the Challenges of the Global Pharmaceutical Industry 2013 (A)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This is part of a case series. The case focuses on describing and analysing the environment, profitability and competitiveness of the global pharmaceutical industry, and to evaluate the current and future strategy of Pfizer. It features a large number of tables with quantitative data that help...... solving the case study. The case starts with a short description of recent important events that might mark a turning point for the whole industry. It then focuses on the overall market on drugs - structure, growth, blockbusters, and the influence of national health care systems. Furthermore, firms’ R...... a number of strategic manoeuvres of major players in the last years. At the end, the reader is referred back to the Pfizer situation and Pfizer’s recent strategic initiatives and responses to the market changes....

  11. Pfizer and the Challenges of the Global Pharmaceutical Industry 2013 (B)

    Kratochvil, Renate; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This is part of a case series. The overall case focuses on the overall pharmaceutical market, such as industry structure and trends, as well as the strategic position of innovative (R&D intensive) pharmaceutical companies. Case A starts with a description of Pfizer struggling to hold its position...... as an industry leader and questions whether this is indicative for the current developments of the entire industry, putting big pharmaceutical companies’ power and influence under pressure. Such trends are, for example, slower sales growth, expiring patents, increasing competition from generics, shorter product...... pharmaceutical companies’ (and in particular Pfizer's) strategic moves (such as mega M&As) to conquer recent trends. The reader is then referred back to Pfizer's situation, its recent strategic initiatives, and competitor’s behaviour. Both cases feature comprehensive information and a large number of tables...

  12. Pfizer and the Challenges of the Global Pharmaceutical Industry 2013 (A)

    Kratochvil, Renate; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2018-01-01

    This is part of a case series. The overall case focuses on the overall pharmaceutical market, such as industry structure and trends, as well as the strategic position of innovative (R&D intensive) pharmaceutical companies. Case A starts with a description of Pfizer struggling to hold its position...... as an industry leader and questions whether this is indicative for the current developments of the entire industry, putting big pharmaceutical companies’ power and influence under pressure. Such trends are, for example, slower sales growth, expiring patents, increasing competition from generics, shorter product...... pharmaceutical companies’ (and in particular Pfizer's) strategic moves (such as mega M&As) to conquer recent trends. The reader is then referred back to Pfizer's situation, its recent strategic initiatives, and competitor’s behaviour. Both cases feature comprehensive information and a large number of tables...

  13. New strategies for innovation in global health: a pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    Witty, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries play a large role in stalling economic and social development. Pharmaceutical companies are driving crucial research into new vaccines and medicines; however, although there is an imperative for industry to research new therapies for diseases of the poor, the financial returns are often seen as limited. This is beginning to change. The pharmaceutical industry and the public sector are thinking differently than before about how to improve access to medicines and advance research and development for neglected diseases. The public and private sectors must work together to develop a wide range of innovative tools, partnerships, and approaches.

  14. Doctors and pharmaceutical industry.

    Beran, Roy G

    2009-09-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is seen as seducing doctors by providing expensive gifts, subsidising travel and underwriting practice expenses in return for those doctors prescribing products that otherwise they would not use. This paints doctors in a very negative light; suggests doctors are available to the highest bidder; implies doctors do not adequately act as independent agents; and that doctors are driven more by self-interest than by patient needs. Similar practices, in other industries, are accepted as normal business behaviour but it is automatically assumed to be improper if the pharmaceutical industry supports doctors. Should the pharmaceutical industry withdraw educational grants then there would be: fewer scientific meetings; reduced attendance at conferences; limited post graduate education; and a depreciated level of maintenance of professional standards. To suggest that doctors prescribe inappropriately in return for largesse maligns their integrity but where there is no scientific reason to choose between different treatments then there can be little argument against selecting the product manufactured by a company that has invested in the doctor and the question arises as to whether this represents bad medicine? This paper will examine what constitutes non-professional conduct in response to inducements by the pharmaceutical industry. It will review: conflict of interest; relationships between doctors and pharma and the consequences for patients; and the need for critical appraisal before automatically decrying this relationship while accepting that there remain those who do not practice ethical medicine.

  15. Marketing orientation in pharmaceutical industry

    Prošić Danica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies are major stakeholders in the global health agenda Virtually all drugs used by patients in Europe reach markets through the promotion tactics of a small number of corporations with a tremendous impact on global health. The sector is both fast growing and highly profitable. Effective marketing strategies are a crucial ingredient in making sure pharmaceutical products and profits flow in a virtuous cycle. At first glance, the relationship between doctors and drug companies, as well as advertising practices for over-the-counter medication, appears tightly regulated. According to many consumer organizations, drug promotion in Europe today can be characterized as nice and friendly marketing. This refers to the creation of a false sense of trust that consumers associate with branded pharmaceutical products, as a result of pharmaceutical marketing efforts disguised as genuine corporate responsibility.

  16. Financial Times Global Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology Conference 2009.

    Scattereggia, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Financial Times Global Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology conference, held in London, included topics covering the current and future challenges confronting the pharma and biotech industry, and presented possible solutions to those challenges. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the industry challenges for big pharma companies, diversification as a solution to industry problems, overcoming challenges with collaborations and M&As, and the role of emerging markets in the pharma industry. Other subjects discussed included the expected impact of personalized medicine on the industry, the entry of big pharma into the generics market and the problems that are confronting the small pharma and biotech industry.

  17. Effective executive management in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Tran, Hoang; Kleiner, Brian H

    2005-01-01

    Along with the boom in information technology and vast development in genomic and proteomic discoveries, the pharmaceutical and biotech industries have been provided the means and tools to create a new page in medicinal history. They are now able to alter the classic ways to cure complex diseases thanks to the completion of the human genome project. To be able to compete in this industry, pharmaceutical management has to be effective not only internally but also externally in socially acceptable conduct. The first department that requires focus is marketing and sales. As the main driving force to increase revenues and profits, marketing and sales employees should be highly motivated by compensation. Also, customer relationships should be maintained for long-term gain. As important as marketing, research and development requires the financial support as well as the critical decision making to further expand the product pipeline. Similarly, finance and technologies should be adequately monitored and invested to provide support as well as prepare for future expansion. On top of that, manufacturing processes and operations are operated per quality systems and FDA guidelines to ensure high quality. Human Resources, on the other hand, should carry the managing and motivation from upper management through systematic recruitment, adequate training, and fair compensation. Moreover, effective management in a pharmaceutical would also require the social welfare and charity to help patients who cannot afford the treatment as well as improving the organization's image. Last but not least, the management should also prepare for the globalization of the industry. Inevitably, large pharmaceutical companies are merging with each other or acquiring smaller companies to enhance the competitive advantages as well as expand their product mix. For effectiveness in a pharmaceutical industry, management should focus more than just the daily routine tasks and short-term goals. Rather, they

  18. Quality Systems Implementation in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Nafiisah

    quality standards imposed on local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Keywords: Quality/ .... GMP is concerned with both production and quality control. It is aimed ... in the European pharmaceutical industry in designing their quality systems:.

  19. Global risk of pharmaceutical contamination from highly populated developing countries.

    Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Rashid, Naim; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Saif, Ameena; Ahmad, Nasir; Han, Jong-In

    2015-11-01

    Global pharmaceutical industry has relocated from the west to Asian countries to ensure competitive advantage. This industrial relocation has posed serious threats to the environment. The present study was carried out to assess the possible pharmaceutical contamination in the environment of emerging pharmaceutical manufacturing countries (Bangladesh, China, India and Pakistan). Although these countries have made tremendous progress in the pharmaceutical sector but most of their industrial units discharge wastewater into domestic sewage network without any treatment. The application of untreated wastewater (industrial and domestic) and biosolids (sewage sludge and manure) in agriculture causes the contamination of surface water, soil, groundwater, and the entire food web with pharmaceutical compounds (PCs), their metabolites and transformed products (TPs), and multidrug resistant microbes. This pharmaceutical contamination in Asian countries poses global risks via product export and international traveling. Several prospective research hypotheses including the development of new analytical methods to monitor these PCs/TPs and their metabolites, highly resistant microbial strains, and mixture toxicity as a consequence of pharmaceutical contamination in these emerging pharmaceutical exporters have also been proposed based on the available literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A vision of the pharmaceutical industry.

    Muñio, S

    1998-01-01

    As the financial resources available for looking after the health of an aging population are limited, generic drugs (drugs that are no longer covered by a patent and marketed at a lower price) have come to be used in western countries as a means for meeting growing demand while leaving resources in the health budget for new drugs. In Spain, a law on product patents was introduced in 1992, which is much later than in other countries, and created difficulties in the definition and procedure for gaining approval for generic drugs. Circular 3/97 from the Ministry of Health finally resolved these issues. In this circular, generic pharmaceutical products (GPPs) are clearly defined and identified with a positive commitment towards guaranteeing the ability to interchange original drugs for other cheaper generic products and towards clarifying the Spanish vade mecum. The position of the pharmaceutical industry on generic drugs varies widely and consequently, it is impossible to make a general statement on the view of the industry. However, the commitment of Novartis, given the issues described above and in line with the company's global strategy, is to offer innovation and services to society. This is perfectly compatible with offering health professionals both innovative drugs and generic drugs of a high quality at a lower price, given that registering genetics requires less investment in research and development. In any case, GPPs face an uncertain future in Spain and market forecasts also differ widely, ranging from 15 billion to 80 billion pesetas in the year 2000. It will be necessary to get doctors and pharmacists positively involved, to set up fast structural measures, and to avoid rejection by patients through successful information and marketing.

  1. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area. (paper)

  2. The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline of Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis

    Nishijima, Kazumi; Katsuya, Yoshio

    2002-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline was constructed by the Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis which was established in April 2001. The consortium is composed of 22 pharmaceutical companies affiliating with the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. The beamline is the first exclusive on that is owned by pharmaceutical enterprises at SPring-8. The specification and equipments of the Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline is almost same as that of RIKEN Structural Genomics Beamline I and II. (author)

  3. New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus

    Due to the limited time of the monopoly provided by patent protection that is used for recouping the R&D investment, pharmaceutical companies focus on keeping time-to-market for new products as short as possible. This process is however getting more uncertain, as the outcome of clinical trials...... is unknown and negotiations with authorities have become harder, making market introduction more difficult. This dissertation treats the new product introduction process in the pharmaceutical industry from an operations perspective. The overarching aim of this dissertation is to improve the planning...... uncertainty and several important industry characteristics. The model is used to gain several insights on the use of risk packaging and on keeping time-to-market short. As capacity in secondary pharmaceutical production is critical for product availability, a capacity planning model for a new drug delivery...

  4. Assessing the Factors Associated With Iran's Intra-Industry Trade in Pharmaceuticals.

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-03-30

    Pharmaceutical industry is a sensitive and profitable industry. If this industry wants to survive, it should be able to compete well in international markets. So, study of Iran's intra-industry trade (IIT) in pharmaceuticals is essential in order to identify competitiveness potential of country and boost export capability in the global arena. This study assessed the factors associated with Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals with the rest of the world during the 2001-2012 periods using seasonal time series data at the four-digit SITC level. The data was collected from Iran's pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Finally, we discussed a number of important policy recommendations to increase Iran's IIT in pharmaceuticals. The findings indicated that economies of scale, market structure and degree of economic development had a significantly positive impact on Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals and tariff trade barriers were negatively related to IIT. Product differentiation and technological advancement didn't have the expected signs. In addition, we found that Iran's IIT in pharmaceuticals have shown an increasing trend during the study period. Thus, the composition of Iran trade in pharmaceuticals has changed from inter-industry trade to intra-industry trade. In order to get more prepared for integration into the global economy, the development of Iran's IIT in pharmaceuticals should be given priority. Therefore, paying attention to IIT could have an important role in serving pharmaceutical companies in relation to pharmaceutical trade.

  5. Risk Management in the Pharmaceutical Industry in Slovenian Companies

    Bucalo Nina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most competitive businesses in the world. Supply chain in this industry has been directed towards the production of large batches to avoid lack of supplies, and the achievement of regulatory requirements, at the cost of high level of inventory, higher costs and inventory write-off due to expiration or other reasons. In recent years this industry is facing major changes and challenges such as intense globalization processes, increased competition and innovations in technologies, which has broadened and deepened risks in supply chain.

  6. Mergers and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Comanor, William S; Scherer, F M

    2013-01-01

    Conflicting trends confound the pharmaceutical industry. The productivity of pharmaceutical innovation has declined in recent years. At the same time, the cohort of large companies who are the leading engines of pharmaceutical R&D has become increasingly concentrated. The concurrent presence of these trends is not sufficient to determine causation. In response to lagging innovation prospects, some companies have sought refuge in mergers and acquisitions to disguise their dwindling prospects or gain R&D synergies. On the other hand, the increased concentration brought on by recent mergers may have contributed to the declining rate of innovation. In this paper, we consider the second of these causal relationships: the likely impact of the recent merger wave among the largest pharmaceutical companies on the rate of innovation. In other words, have recent mergers, which may have been taken in response to lagging innovation, represented a self-defeating strategy that only made industry outcomes worse? Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Financial risk of the biotech industry versus the pharmaceutical industry.

    Golec, Joseph; Vernon, John A

    2009-01-01

    The biotech industry now accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of total R&D spending on new medicines. However, compared with the pharmaceutical industry, the biotech industry is financially fragile. This article illustrates the financial fragility of the biotech and pharmaceutical industries in the US and the implications of this fragility for the effects that government regulation could have on biotech firms. Graphical analysis and statistical tests were used to show how the biotech industry differs from the pharmaceutical industry. The two industries' characteristics were measured and compared, along with various measures of firms' financial risk and sensitivity to government regulation. Data from firms' financial statements provided accounting-based measures and firms' stock returns applied to a multifactor asset pricing model provided financial market measures. The biotech industry was by far the most research-intensive industry in the US, averaging 38% R&D intensity (ratio of R&D spending to total firm assets) over the past 25 years, compared with an average of 25% for the pharmaceutical industry and 3% for all other industries. Biotech firms exhibited lower and more volatile profits and higher market-related and size-related risk, and they suffered more negative stock returns in response to threatened government price regulation. Biotech firms' financial risks increase their costs of capital and make them more sensitive to government regulations that affect their financial prospects. As biotech products grow to represent a larger share of new medicines, general stock market conditions and government regulations could have a greater impact on the level of innovation of new medicines.

  8. The development of Bio-pharmaceutical industry in China: problems and solutions.

    Yan, Gujun

    2014-07-01

    Known as the "sunrise industry" of the 21st century, bio-pharmaceutical industry has been a fast-growing global industry, and many countries have been developing this industry as the focus of their national economies. In China, there exists a huge market demand for the development of bio-pharmaceutical industry, but at the present stage the industry is faced with some problems, such as low level of R & D for innovative drugs, and inappropriate capital investment in the industrialization. In order to accelerate the development of China's bio-pharmaceutical industry, it is necessary to take strategic initiatives of improving the technology transfer system, developing the bio-pharmaceutical outsourcing, and building a diversified industrial financing system.

  9. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    M. Šabić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmented activated sludge with isolated mixed bacterial culture. The experiments were conducted in a batch reactor in submerged conditions, at initial concentration of organic matter in pharmaceutical wastewater, expressed as COD, 5.01 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of activated sludge, which ranged from 1.16 to 3.54 g dm–3. During the experiments, the COD, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and biomass were monitored. Microscopic analyses were performed to monitor the quality of activated sludge. Before starting with the bioremediation in the batch reactor, toxicity of the pharmaceutical wastewater was determined by toxicity test using bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The obtained results showed that the effective concentration of the pharmaceutical wastewater was EC50 = 17 % and toxicity impact index was TII50 = 5.9, meaning that the untreated pharmaceutical industrial effluent must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the pharmaceutical wastewater bioremediation process in the batch reactor are presented in Table 1. The ratio γXv ⁄ γX maintained high values throughout all experiments and ranged from 0.90 and 0.95, suggesting that the concentrations of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments. The important kinetic parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely μmax, Ks, Ki, Y and kd were calculated from batch experiments (Table 2. Figs. 1 and 2 show the experimental

  10. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    Heydorn, Kaj

    of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...... that the uncertainty of a particular result is independent of the method used for its estimation. Several examples of uncertainty budgets for critical parameters based on the bottom-up procedure will be discussed, and it will be shown how the top-down method is used as a means of verifying uncertainty budgets, based...

  11. Nonclinical statistics for pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a reference text for regulatory, industry and academic statisticians and also a handy manual for entry level Statisticians. Additionally it aims to stimulate academic interest in the field of Nonclinical Statistics and promote this as an important discipline in its own right. This text brings together for the first time in a single volume a comprehensive survey of methods important to the nonclinical science areas within the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Specifically the Discovery and Translational sciences, the Safety/Toxiology sciences, and the Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls sciences. Drug discovery and development is a long and costly process. Most decisions in the drug development process are made with incomplete information. The data is rife with uncertainties and hence risky by nature. This is therefore the purview of Statistics. As such, this book aims to introduce readers to important statistical thinking and its application in these nonclinical areas. The cha...

  12. Assessing the Factors Associated With Iran’s Intra-Industry Trade in Pharmaceuticals

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical industry is a sensitive and profitable industry. If this industry wants to survive, it should be able to compete well in international markets. So, study of Iran’s intra-industry trade (IIT) in pharmaceuticals is essential in order to identify competitiveness potential of country and boost export capability in the global arena. Methods: This study assessed the factors associated with Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals with the rest of the world during the 2001–2012 periods using seasonal time series data at the four-digit SITC level. The data was collected from Iran’s pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Finally, we discussed a number of important policy recommendations to increase Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals. Results: The findings indicated that economies of scale, market structure and degree of economic development had a significantly positive impact on Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals and tariff trade barriers were negatively related to IIT. Product differentiation and technological advancement didn’t have the expected signs. In addition, we found that Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals have shown an increasing trend during the study period. Thus, the composition of Iran trade in pharmaceuticals has changed from inter-industry trade to intra-industry trade. Conclusions: In order to get more prepared for integration into the global economy, the development of Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals should be given priority. Therefore, paying attention to IIT could have an important role in serving pharmaceutical companies in relation to pharmaceutical trade. PMID:26156931

  13. Evaluating the impact of Brexit on the pharmaceutical industry.

    Kazzazi, Fawz; Pollard, Cleo; Tern, Paul; Ayuso-Garcia, Alejandro; Gillespie, Jack; Thomsen, Inesa

    2017-01-01

    The UK Pharmaceutical Industry is arguably one of the most important industries to consider in the negotiations following the Brexit vote. Providing tens of thousands of jobs and billions in tax revenue and research investment, the importance of this industry cannot be understated. At stake is the global leadership in the sector, which produces some of the field's most influential basic science and translation work. However, interruptions and losses may occur at multiple levels, affecting patients, researchers, universities, companies and government. By understanding the current state of pharmaceutical sector, the potential effect of leaving the European Union (EU) on this successful industry can be better understood. This paper aims to address the priorities for negotiations by collating the analyses of professionals in the field, leading companies and non-EU member states. A government healthcare policy advisor and Chief Science Officer (CSO) for a major pharmaceutical firm were consulted to scope the paper. In these discussions, five key areas were identified: contribution, legislative processes, regulatory processes, research and outcomes, commercial risk. Multiple search engines were utilised for selecting relevant material, predominantly PubMed and Google Scholar. To supplement this information, Government documents were located using the "GOV.UK" publications tool, and interviews and commentaries were found through the Google News search function. With thorough investigation of the literature, we propose four foundations in the advancement of negotiations. These prioritise: negotiation of 'associated country' status, bilaterally favourable trade agreements, minimal interruption to regulatory bodies and special protection for the movement of workforce in the life sciences industry.

  14. A Study of Comparative Advantage and Intra-Industry Trade in the Pharmaceutical Industry of Iran.

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Rezapour, Aziz; Lotfi, Farhad; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Nabilo, Bahram; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Shahidisadeghi, Niusha; Karami, Atiyeh

    2015-04-23

    Drug costs in Iran accounts for about 30% of the total health care expenditure. Moreover, pharmaceutical business lies among the world's greatest businesses. The aim of this study was to analyze Iran's comparative advantage and intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals so that suitable policies can be developed and implemented in order to boost Iran's trade in this field. To identify Iran's comparative advantage in pharmaceuticals, trade specialization, export propensity, import penetration and Balassa and Vollrath indexes were calculated and the results were compared with other pharmaceutical exporting countries. The extent and growth of Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals were measured and evaluated using the Grubel-Lloyd and Menon-Dixon indexes. The required data was obtained from Iran's Customs Administration, Iran's pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. The results showed that among pharmaceutical exporting countries, Iran has a high level of comparative disadvantage in pharmaceutical products because it holds a small share in world's total pharmaceutical exports. Also, the low extent of bilateral intra-industry trade between Iran and its trading partners in pharmaceuticals shows the trading model of Iran's pharmaceutical industry is mostly inter-industry trade rather than intra-industry trade. In addition, the growth of Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals is due to its shares of imports from pharmaceutical exporting countries to Iran and exports from Iran to its neighboring countries. The results of the analysis can play a valuable role in helping pharmaceutical companies and policy makers to boost pharmaceutical trade.

  15. Global Market Entry Strategy and Point-A Perspective of Chinese Pharmaceutical Enterprise

    TonyZhang

    2003-01-01

    After joining WTO, China will not only open its door wider to foreign investment and operations in Chinese market, but also play an increasing role in global market. However, unlike many other Chinese industries that are already major suppliers or producers of consumer products at global market, majority of pharmaceutical enterprises in China remain domestic operations. Today there are still major obstacles for Chinese pharmaceutical enterprises to overcome in entering key markets such as US and Europe.

  16. A new e-beam application in the pharmaceutical industry

    Sadat, Theo; Malcolm, Fiona

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new electron beam application in the pharmaceutical industry: an in-line self-shielded atropic transfer system using electron beam for surface decontamination of products entering a pharmaceutical filling line. The unit was developed by Linac Technologies in response to the specifications of a multi-national pharmaceutical company, to solve the risk of microbial contamination entering a filling line housed inside an isolator. In order to fit the sterilization unit inside the pharmaceutical plant, a 'miniature' low-energy (200 keV) electron beam accelerator and e-beam tunnel were designed, all conforming to the pharmaceutical good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations. Process validation using biological indicators is described, with reference to the regulations governing the pharmaceutical industry. Other industrial applications of a small-sized self-shielded electron beam sterilization unit are mentioned

  17. Quality management benchmarking: FDA compliance in pharmaceutical industry.

    Jochem, Roland; Landgraf, Katja

    2010-01-01

    By analyzing and comparing industry and business best practice, processes can be optimized and become more successful mainly because efficiency and competitiveness increase. This paper aims to focus on some examples. Case studies are used to show knowledge exchange in the pharmaceutical industry. Best practice solutions were identified in two companies using a benchmarking method and five-stage model. Despite large administrations, there is much potential regarding business process organization. This project makes it possible for participants to fully understand their business processes. The benchmarking method gives an opportunity to critically analyze value chains (a string of companies or players working together to satisfy market demands for a special product). Knowledge exchange is interesting for companies that like to be global players. Benchmarking supports information exchange and improves competitive ability between different enterprises. Findings suggest that the five-stage model improves efficiency and effectiveness. Furthermore, the model increases the chances for reaching targets. The method gives security to partners that did not have benchmarking experience. The study identifies new quality management procedures. Process management and especially benchmarking is shown to support pharmaceutical industry improvements.

  18. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    M. Šabić; M. Vuković Domanovac; Z. Findrik Blažević; E. Meštrović

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmente...

  19. RFID in the pharmaceutical industry: addressing counterfeits with technology.

    Taylor, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in the pharmaceutical industry has grown in recent years. The technology has matured from its specialized tracking and retail uses to a systemic part of supply chain management in international pharmaceutical production and distribution. Counterfeit drugs, however, remain a significant challenge for governments, pharmaceutical companies, clinicians, and patients and the use of RFID to track these compounds represents an opportunity for development. This paper discusses the medical, technological, and economic factors that support widespread adoption of RFID technology in the pharmaceutical industry in an effort to prevent counterfeit medicines from harming patients and brand equity.

  20. Organic Colouring Agents in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Šuleková M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Food dyes are largely used in the process of manufacturing pharmaceutical products. The aim of such a procedure is not only to increase the attractiveness of products, but also to help patients distinguish between pharmaceuticals. Various dyes, especially organic colouring agents, may in some cases have a negative impact on the human body. They are incorporated into pharmaceutical products including tablets, hard gelatine capsules or soft gelatine capsules, lozenges, syrups, etc. This article provides an overview of the most widely used colouring agents in pharmaceuticals, their characteristics and the EU legislation which regulates their use.

  1. Healthcare systems, the State, and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry

    Ignacio José Godinho Delgado

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article discusses the relations between healthcare systems and the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on state support for pharmaceutical innovation. The study highlights the experiences of the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany, developed countries and paradigms of modern health systems (liberal, universal, and corporatist, in addition to Japan, a case of successful catching up. The study also emphasizes the experiences of China, India, and Brazil, large developing countries that have tried different catching up strategies, with diverse histories and profiles in their healthcare systems and pharmaceutical industries. Finally, with a focus on state forms of support for health research, the article addresses the mechanisms for linkage between health systems and the pharmaceutical industry, evaluating the possibilities of Brazil strengthening a virtuous interaction, favoring the expansion and consolidation of the Brazilian health system - universal but segmented ‒ and the affirmation of the innovative national pharmaceutical industry.

  2. The Influence of Emerging Markets on the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Tannoury, Maya; Attieh, Zouhair

    2017-01-01

    , and oncologic diseases has been observed in emerging markets, mimicking their Western counterparts. The incidence of diabetes and oncologic diseases is expected to grow by 20% or more by 2030. This shows that pharmaceutical industries will also be able to market their global products in these new countries. Conquering emerging markets can be challenging for industries. These challenges can be grouped into 3 categories: infrastructure development, cost-containment policies, and value-driven drug evaluation. Top strategies considered to overcome these challenges include adequate tailoring and a gain in market.

  3. ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES IN PHARMACEUTICAL PROMOTION GLOBALLY: TOWARDS INTERNATIONALLY DEVELOPING PRACTICALLY-ORIENTED GUIDELINES FOR PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES

    M. M. Bahlol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Pharmaceutical industry is transnational and globally important. Many pharmaceutical companies operate their business in multinational and international forms in different countries. Diverse researches from different countries indicated and confirmed marketing promotion importance in pharmaceutical field. Therefore, marketing promotion and its effects are a very important issue that should be globally investigated in real life and evidence context. We oriented our research according to these scientific and practical values.Methodology. We reviewed pharmaceutical marketing promotion researches from more than 25 different countries, e.g., USA, Canada, Italy, France, Russia, India, Egypt and Syria where we employed our knowledge of three widely spread languages, i.e., English, Russian and Arabic. Such language variation supports us with large and variable amount of scientific knowledge, deep understanding and ability of analysis. Some studies investigated average response to pharmaceutical marketing promotion and few studies took into consideration heterogeneity in their effects with respect to advertising medium or drug characteristics.Originality. We investigated empirical evidences of pharmaceutical marketing promotion that can be directed to either consumer or healthcare professionals.Findings. We extracted, gathered and associated information of pharmaceutical promotion globally which oriented us to several evidence and practical facts with regard to employing promotion tools in different definite situations pertinent to main directions; their welfare and health enhancing effects and adverse effects. Practical Implications- Consequently, we developed practically-oriented guidelines for companies concerning pharmaceutical promotion globally ate the end of this paper.

  4. Electrochemical treatment of pharmaceutical and industrial wastewater by anodic oxidation

    Menapace, H. M.; Fellerer, M.; Treschnitzer, M.

    2009-01-01

    In modern medicine pharmaceuticals play a decisive role: because of an increased life expectancy and intensive care medicine an increasing amount of pharmaceuticals is produced. thus these substances are consumed in a mass of tons per year in industrialized countries. Wastewater effluents from sewage treatment plants (STP) are important point sources for residues of pharmaceuticals and complexing agents in the aquatic environment. For this reason a research project, which started in December 2006, was established to eliminate pharmaceutical substances and complexing agents found in wastewater as micropollutants. (Author)

  5. Pharmaceutical portfolio management: global disease burden and corporate performance metrics.

    Daems, Rutger; Maes, Edith; Mehra, Maneesha; Carroll, Benjamin; Thomas, Adrian

    2014-09-01

    Biopharmaceutical companies face multiple external pressures. Shareholders demand a profitable company while governments, nongovernmental third parties, and the public at large expect a commitment to improving health in developed and, in particular, emerging economies. Current industry commercial models are inadequate for assessing opportunities in emerging economies where disease and market data are highly limited. The purpose of this article was to define a conceptual framework and build an analytic decision-making tool to assess and enhance a company's global portfolio while balancing its business needs with broader social expectations. Through a case-study methodology, we explore the relationship between business and social parameters associated with pharmaceutical innovation in three distinct disease areas. The global burden of disease-based theoretical framework using disability-adjusted life-years provides an overview of the burden associated with particular diseases. The social return on investment is expressed as disability-adjusted life-years averted as a result of the particular pharmaceutical innovation. Simultaneously, the business return on investment captures the research and development costs and projects revenues in terms of a profitability index. The proposed framework can assist companies as they strive to meet the medical needs of populations around the world for decades to come. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Scientific misconduct, the pharmaceutical industry, and the tragedy of institutions.

    Cohen-Kohler, Jillian Clare; Esmail, Laura C

    2007-09-01

    This paper examines how current legislative and regulatory models do not adequately govern the pharmaceutical industry towards ethical scientific conduct. In the context of a highly profit-driven industry, governments need to ensure ethical and legal standards are not only in place for companies but that they are enforceable. We demonstrate with examples from both industrialized and developing countries how without sufficient controls, there is a risk that corporate behaviour will transgress ethical boundaries. We submit that there is a critical need for urgent drug regulatory reform. There must be robust regulatory structures in place which enforce corporate governance mechanisms to ensure that pharmaceutical companies maintain ethical standards in drug research and development and the marketing of pharmaceuticals. What is also needed is for the pharmaceutical industry to adopt authentic "corporate social responsibility" policies as current policies and practices are insufficient.

  7. ETHICAL ASPECTS OF THE COOPERATION BETWEEN PHYSICIAN AND PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    Jože Drinovec

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is not possible to isolated ethical aspects and norms in the work of physician from the professional and scientific ones. The physician will not act contrary to ethical principles if he will work for the interests of the patient and in accordance with scientific knowledge.Present situation and possible solutions. Every physician, especially if working in university institution is co-operating with pharmaceutical industry, at least he is makes the prescriptions and chooses one drug of the possible ones. There are also other aspects of co-operation: clinical trials, writing expertise and lectures at scientific meetings, sponsored by pharmaceutical industry. There are guidelines and codex in Western countries for more than ten years, which regulate the relation between physician and pharmaceutical industry. The most important ones are those from World Health Organisation, European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries’ Associations’, and International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations’. Scientific independence of lecturers and writers is tried to be achieved by disclosure of relevant financial relation with pharmaceutical corporation in advance.Conclusions. Physician working with pharmaceutical industry has o follow the guidelines of international professional associations. He/she has to be independent relaying only upon scientific and professional principles seeing primary the benefit of the patient.

  8. A Study of Comparative Advantage and Intra-Industry Trade in the Pharmaceutical Industry of Iran

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Rezapour, Aziz; Lotfi, Farhad; Azar, Farbod Ebadifard; Nabilo, Bahram; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Hadian, Mohammad; Shahidisadeghi, Niusha; Karami, Atiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Drug costs in Iran accounts for about 30% of the total health care expenditure. Moreover, pharmaceutical business lies among the world’s greatest businesses. The aim of this study was to analyze Iran’s comparative advantage and intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals so that suitable policies can be developed and implemented in order to boost Iran’s trade in this field. Methods: To identify Iran’s comparative advantage in pharmaceuticals, trade specialization, export propensity, import penetration and Balassa and Vollrath indexes were calculated and the results were compared with other pharmaceutical exporting countries. The extent and growth of Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals were measured and evaluated using the Grubel-Lloyd and Menon-Dixon indexes. The required data was obtained from Iran’s Customs Administration, Iran’s pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Results: The results showed that among pharmaceutical exporting countries, Iran has a high level of comparative disadvantage in pharmaceutical products because it holds a small share in world’s total pharmaceutical exports. Also, the low extent of bilateral intra-industry trade between Iran and its trading partners in pharmaceuticals shows the trading model of Iran’s pharmaceutical industry is mostly inter-industry trade rather than intra-industry trade. In addition, the growth of Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals is due to its shares of imports from pharmaceutical exporting countries to Iran and exports from Iran to its neighboring countries. Conclusions: The results of the analysis can play a valuable role in helping pharmaceutical companies and policy makers to boost pharmaceutical trade. PMID:26153184

  9. Analysis of International Mergers and Acquisitions in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Božo Matić

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches which analyze mergers and acquisitions, but most of them do not focus on a certain industry, but their sample considers companies from different industries. This paper focuses on mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical industry. It is assumed that pharmaceutical companies with no experience in mergers and acquisitions achieve better results in relatively small and domestic mergers and acquisitions while pharmaceutical companies with greater experience in mergers and acquisitions are successful even in bigger and international mergers and acquisitions. Bigger mergers and acquisitions and international mergers and acquisitions are more risky for the companies so lack of experience in mergers and acquisitions additionally increases risks during the process of mergers and acquisitions. On average, such increase of the risk results in lower returns for stock owners of pharmaceutical companies.

  10. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY IN ROMANIA

    Georgiana Daniela Minculete Piko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the financial crisis, most industries witnessed an economic downturn also boosted by the austerity measures imposed by the state. The pharmaceutical sector is one of the few sectors that followed an upward trend. Although the economic and financial crisis has long taken hold of the entire world, the domino theory did not apply to this industry; instead, the “butterfly effect” became evident. The phrase refers to the fact that the wings of a butterfly create small changes that may finally alter the route of certain elements. In the pharmaceutical industry, minor changes in research and development finally led to spectacular innovations. At present, there are no such big investments in research and development in Romania as there are in Europe; yet, due to mergers and acquisitions between Romanian and foreign companies, the pharmaceutical sector in Romania significantly contributes to the creation of added value in terms of economic development. The added value of the pharmaceutical industry in our country has increased significantly in recent years. The purpose of this article is to highlight the financial and economic significance of the pharmaceutical industry in Romania. This industry is one with an average degree of concentration; thus, the average liquidity and solvency indicators in this sector were calculated with a view to emphasizing its financial independence. The findings of this research indicate a high level of financial independence in this industry, as pharmaceutical companies are able to meet payment deadlines. This study highlights the importance of such an industry in times of economic crisis, the financial stability of the pharmaceutical sector reinforcing the need for massive investment in research and development.

  11. Identifying and prioritizing industry-level competitiveness factors: evidence from pharmaceutical market.

    Shabaninejad, Hosein; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Rashidian, Arash; Baratimarnani, Ahmad; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2014-04-03

    Pharmaceutical industry is knowledge-intensive and highly globalized, in both developed and developing countries. On the other hand, if companies want to survive, they should be able to compete well in both domestic and international markets. The main purpose of this paper is therefore to develop and prioritize key factors affecting companies' competitiveness in pharmaceutical industry. Based on an extensive literature review, a valid and reliable questionnaire was designed, which was later filled up by participants from the industry. To prioritize the key factors, we used the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The results revealed that human capital and macro-level policies were two key factors placed at the highest rank in respect of their effects on the competitiveness considering the industry-level in pharmaceutical area. This study provides fundamental evidence for policymakers and managers in pharma context to enable them formulating better polices to be proactively competitive and responsive to the markets' needs.

  12. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  13. Update on the Pharmaceutical Industry | McDonald | Southern ...

    ... Times published a supplement on the pharmaceutical industry on 30 November 2003. This has been an extremely dynamic environment and one that will be affected by impending legislative change. The objective of the survey was to provide some insight into the current status of the industry – special attention was paid ...

  14. Update on the Pharmaceutical Industry | McDonald | Southern ...

    The Sunday Times Business Times published a supplement on the pharmaceutical industry on 30 November 2003. This has been an extremely dynamic environment and one that will be affected by impending legislative change. The objective of the survey was to provide some insight into the current status of the industry ...

  15. Uneasy subjects: medical students' conflicts over the pharmaceutical industry.

    Holloway, Kelly

    2014-08-01

    In this article I report on an investigation of the pharmaceutical industry's influence in medical education. Findings are based on fifty semi-structured interviews with medical students in the United States and Canada conducted between 2010 and 2013. Participant responses support the survey-based literature demonstrating that there is clear and pervasive influence of the pharmaceutical industry in medical education. They also challenge the theory that medical students feel entitled to industry gifts and uncritically accept industry presence. I investigate how medical students who are critical of the pharmaceutical industry negotiate its presence in the course of their medical education. Findings suggest that these participants do not simply absorb industry presence, but interpret it and respond in complex ways. Participants were uncomfortable with industry influence throughout their medical training and found multifaceted ways to resist. They struggled with power relations in medical training and the prevailing notion that industry presence is a normal part of medical education. I argue that this pervasive norm of industry presence is located in neoliberal structural transformations within and outside both education and medicine. The idea that industry presence is normal and inevitable represents a challenge for students who are critical of industry. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ASEAN GMP and pharmaceutical industries in Indonesia.

    Soesilo, S; Sitorus, U

    1995-01-01

    Indonesia was appointed by the ASEAN Technical Cooperation in Pharmaceutical as a focal point and to coordinate the development of practical guidelines for the implementation of GMP. The ASEAN GMP Guidelines were endorsed by the ASEAN Technical Cooperation in Pharmaceutical in 1988, which among others required separation of Beta-Lactam dedicated facilities and three degrees of cleanliness for production areas. As it was realised that drug manufacturers in developing countries need more detailed guidelines to be able to implement the GMP, an Operational Manual for GMP was also prepared for providing examples of SOPs lay-outs, documentation etc. It was agreed by the technical cooperation group to leave the implementation of GMP to each member country. However, the ASEAN Manual for Inspection of GMP was drafted and endorsed by the group and training of ASEAN Drug Inspectors was organized to support the implementation. The ASEAN GMP is being implemented in Indonesia through a five-year, stepwise implementation plan, starting in 1989.

  17. Global pharmaceutical regulation: the challenge of integration for developing states.

    Pezzola, Anthony; Sweet, Cassandra M

    2016-12-20

    This paper has set out to map the state of pharmaceutical regulation in the developing world through the construction of cross-national indices drawing from World Health Organization data. The last two decades have been characterized by deep changes for the pharmaceutical sector, including the complete transformation of intellectual property systems at the behest of the World Trade Organization and the consolidation of global active ingredient suppliers in China and India. Although the rules for ownership of medicine have been set and globally implemented, we know surprisingly little about how the standards for market entrance and regulation of pharmaceutical products have changed at the national level. How standardized are national pharmaceutical market systems? Do we find homogeneity or variation across the developing world? Are their patterns for understanding why some countries have moved closer to one global norm for pharmaceutical regulation and others have developed hybrid models for oversight of this sector? Access to medicine is a core tool in public health. This paper gauges the levels of standards in public and private generics markets for developing countries building on national-level pharmaceutical market surveys for 78 countries to offer three indicators of market oversight: State Regulatory Infrastructure, Monitoring the Private Market and Public Quality Control. Identifying the different variables that affect a state's institutional capacity and current standard level offers new insights to the state of pharmaceuticals in the developing world. It is notable that there are very few (none at the time of this paper) studies that map out the new global terrain for pharmaceutical regulation in the post-TRIPS context. This paper uses item response theory to develop original indicators of pharmaceutical regulation. We find remarkable resistance to the implementation of global pharmaceutical norms for quality standards in developing states and in

  18. Models for open innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Schuhmacher, Alexander; Germann, Paul-Georg; Trill, Henning; Gassmann, Oliver

    2013-12-01

    The nature of the pharmaceutical industry is such that the main driver for its growth is innovation. In view of the vast challenges that the industry has been facing for several years and, in particular, how to manage stagnating research and development (R&D) productivity, pharmaceutical companies have opened their R&D organizations to external innovation. Here, we identify and characterize four new types of open innovator, which we call 'knowledge creator', 'knowledge integrator', 'knowledge translator' and 'knowledge leverager', and which describe current open R&D models. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recent trends in laboratory automation in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Rutherford, M L; Stinger, T

    2001-05-01

    The impact of robotics and automation on the pharmaceutical industry over the last two decades has been significant. In the last ten years, the emphasis of laboratory automation has shifted from the support of manufactured products and quality control of laboratory applications, to research and development. This shift has been the direct result of an increased emphasis on the identification, development and eventual marketing of innovative new products. In this article, we will briefly identify and discuss some of the current trends in laboratory automation in the pharmaceutical industry as they apply to research and development, including screening, sample management, combinatorial chemistry, ADME/Tox and pharmacokinetics.

  20. The future of the pharmaceutical, biological and medical device industry

    Burgess LJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lesley J Burgess, Marli TerblancheTREAD Research/Cardiology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Hospital and University of Stellenbosch, Parow, South AfricaAbstract: Numerous factors contribute to the declining pharmaceutical industry on the one hand and the rapidly growing generic industry together with the growing importance of medical devices and biologicals on the other. It is clear that the pharmaceutical industry is going to undergo a change in the next decade in order to meet the current challenges facing it and ultimately sustain its profitability and growth. This paper aims to identify a number of fairly obvious trends that are likely to have a significant impact on the product development pipeline in the next decade. It is more than clear that the current production pipeline for pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device industries is no longer sustainable and that urgent interventions are required in order to maintain its current level of profitability.Keywords: pharmaceutical industry, personalized medicine, trends, generics, biotechnology

  1. [Chinese medicine industry 4.0:advancing digital pharmaceutical manufacture toward intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture].

    Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2016-01-01

    A perspective analysis on the technological innovation in pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine unveils a vision on "Future Factory" of Chinese medicine industry in mind. The strategy as well as the technical roadmap of "Chinese medicine industry 4.0" is proposed, with the projection of related core technology system. It is clarified that the technical development path of Chinese medicine industry from digital manufacture to intelligent manufacture. On the basis of precisely defining technical terms such as process control, on-line detection and process quality monitoring for Chinese medicine manufacture, the technical concepts and characteristics of intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture as well as digital pharmaceutical manufacture are elaborated. Promoting wide applications of digital manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine is strongly recommended. Through completely informationized manufacturing processes and multi-discipline cluster innovation, intelligent manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine should be developed, which would provide a new driving force for Chinese medicine industry in technology upgrade, product quality enhancement and efficiency improvement. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. APPROACHES TO IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY. GALENICAL PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTION

    Ershova Elena Vladimirovna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the issues associated with development of an integrated quality management system and its implementation into a galenical pharmaceutical company. Recently, the Russian pharmaceutical industry has been developing extensively: pharmaceutical clusters are being formed, new and innovative technologies are being developed. For the enterprises producing galenical pharmaceutical products, which feature low prices and a high level of competition, development and implementation of management systems is a way to prove their competitiveness. The purpose of this article is to review the architecture and the key elements of integrated management systems for pharmaceutical enterprises, develop an integrated management system in terms of the upcoming revision of ISO 9001:2015, as well as to describe the benefits of implementation of such systems. The presented approach is the result of an educational project implemented within the framework of the MBA programme in "Master of Business Administration (MBA" in the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Continuing Professional Education Pastukhov State Academy of Industrial Management.

  3. Radiation protection in the pharmaceutical-chemical industry

    Griesser, R.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of the use of ionizing radiation in research in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries will be discussed, the emphasis being placed on the handling of open radioactive materials in research laboratories. The compliance with official regulations and the preparation of company internal radiation protection regulations are described. 1 tab., 9 refs

  4. Qualitative Phenomenological Examination of IT Project Management in Pharmaceutical Industry

    Ly, Phil

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what caused IT projects to fail at a high rate in the pharmaceutical industry. IT projects failures delayed development of new drugs that can help save lives. It was imperative to evaluate what caused project failures because the collateral damage was delay in drug development. This qualitative…

  5. Pharmaceutical industry and trade liberalization using computable general equilibrium model.

    Barouni, M; Ghaderi, H; Banouei, Aa

    2012-01-01

    Computable general equilibrium models are known as a powerful instrument in economic analyses and widely have been used in order to evaluate trade liberalization effects. The purpose of this study was to provide the impacts of trade openness on pharmaceutical industry using CGE model. Using a computable general equilibrium model in this study, the effects of decrease in tariffs as a symbol of trade liberalization on key variables of Iranian pharmaceutical products were studied. Simulation was performed via two scenarios in this study. The first scenario was the effect of decrease in tariffs of pharmaceutical products as 10, 30, 50, and 100 on key drug variables, and the second was the effect of decrease in other sectors except pharmaceutical products on vital and economic variables of pharmaceutical products. The required data were obtained and the model parameters were calibrated according to the social accounting matrix of Iran in 2006. The results associated with simulation demonstrated that the first scenario has increased import, export, drug supply to markets and household consumption, while import, export, supply of product to market, and household consumption of pharmaceutical products would averagely decrease in the second scenario. Ultimately, society welfare would improve in all scenarios. We presents and synthesizes the CGE model which could be used to analyze trade liberalization policy issue in developing countries (like Iran), and thus provides information that policymakers can use to improve the pharmacy economics.

  6. The global fur industry

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2014-01-01

    with regards to the fur sector, and the price of fur is volatile in the short and long run. A new world trade pattern and international specialization have emerged in recent years. The comparative advantages of the fur sector change along the fur value chain, while China’s position on the global fur market has...... and international statistics about the fur sector. This article analyzes the production and international trade in fur based on information from official statistics, trade associations, companies, scientific papers and reports, interviews with experts, etc.. Markets and market conditions play a very important role...

  7. Quality in the pharmaceutical industry – A literature review

    Haleem, Reham M.; Salem, Maissa Y.; Fatahallah, Faten A.; Abdelfattah, Laila E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to:a.Highlight the most important guidelines and practices of quality in the pharmaceutical industry.b.Organize such guidelines and practices to create a guide to pave the way for other researchers who would like to dig deeper into these guidelines and practices. Design A review was conducted of 102 publications; 56 publications were concerned with the pharmaceutical quality directly while 46 publications were concerned with the general quality practices. The content of those sources was analyzed and the following themes were identified:a.Research theme 1: Guidelines of the pharmaceutical quality.b.Research theme 2: General practices recently applied in the pharmaceutical industry. Main outcome measures The following guidelines were identified and reviewed: WHO guidelines, FDA guidelines, EU guidelines and ICH guidelines in the research theme I. In research theme II; the following topics were identified and reviewed: quality risk management, quality by design, corrective actions and preventive actions, process capability analysis, Six Sigma, process analytical technology, lean manufacturing, total quality management, ISO series and HACCP. Results Upon reviewing the previously highlighted guidelines and the practices that are widely applied in the pharmaceutical industry, it was noticed that there is an abundant number of papers and articles that explain the general guidelines and practices but the literature lack those describing application; case studies of the pharmaceutical factories applying those guidelines and significance of those guidelines and practices. Conclusions It is recommended that the literature would invest more in the area of application and significance of guidelines and practices. New case studies should be done to prove the feasibility of such practices. PMID:26594110

  8. Quality in the pharmaceutical industry - A literature review.

    Haleem, Reham M; Salem, Maissa Y; Fatahallah, Faten A; Abdelfattah, Laila E

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to:a.Highlight the most important guidelines and practices of quality in the pharmaceutical industry.b.Organize such guidelines and practices to create a guide to pave the way for other researchers who would like to dig deeper into these guidelines and practices. A review was conducted of 102 publications; 56 publications were concerned with the pharmaceutical quality directly while 46 publications were concerned with the general quality practices. The content of those sources was analyzed and the following themes were identified:a.Research theme 1: Guidelines of the pharmaceutical quality.b.Research theme 2: General practices recently applied in the pharmaceutical industry. The following guidelines were identified and reviewed: WHO guidelines, FDA guidelines, EU guidelines and ICH guidelines in the research theme I. In research theme II; the following topics were identified and reviewed: quality risk management, quality by design, corrective actions and preventive actions, process capability analysis, Six Sigma, process analytical technology, lean manufacturing, total quality management, ISO series and HACCP. Upon reviewing the previously highlighted guidelines and the practices that are widely applied in the pharmaceutical industry, it was noticed that there is an abundant number of papers and articles that explain the general guidelines and practices but the literature lack those describing application; case studies of the pharmaceutical factories applying those guidelines and significance of those guidelines and practices. It is recommended that the literature would invest more in the area of application and significance of guidelines and practices. New case studies should be done to prove the feasibility of such practices.

  9. Total quality through computer integrated manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Ufret, C M

    1995-01-01

    The role of Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) in the pursue of total quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing is assessed. CIM key objectives, design criteria, and performance measurements, in addition to its scope and implementation in a hierarchical structure, are explored in detail. Key elements for the success of each phase in a CIM project and a brief status of current CIM implementations in the pharmaceutical industry are presented. The role of World Class Manufacturing performance standards and other key issues to achieve full CIM benefits are also addressed.

  10. [The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: the National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936)].

    Nozal, Raúl Rodríquez

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The 'Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas', in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the 'Organización Sindical' in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products -- which we will especially deal with in this work -- were managed by the 'Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos', which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. this created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the 'Unión Farmacéutica Nacional'.

  11. CURRENT TRENDS AND PROSPECTS OF THE RUSSIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY AND THE FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Z. A. Mamedyarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of this article is to study the current state of the pharmaceutical industry in Russia, to identify trends in Russian pharmaceutical market, and to provide preliminary analysis of the state support policy for pharmaceuticals in Russia, focusing on the federal target program "Pharma-2020".Methods: the study is based on a quantitative study of the characteristics and trends of the Russian pharmaceutical market. The emphasis was put on the period 2008–2017. The volume of the market, the structure of imports and exports are considered, and expenditures under the federal program "Pharma-2020" are studied. A qualitative comparative comparison with the tendencies of the global development of the industry is conducted and recommendations are made on further stimulating the growth of the pharma industry in Russia.Results: in the past 5 years, the pharmaceutical industry in Russia did receive special attention from the government, significant funds have been allocated for to support domestic producers, and import substitution policies have been launched. Financial results of the industry show slight improvement in a number of indicators: the market share of domestic medicines is growing, the generics production increased, production standards became tighter controlled. Nevertheless, Russia remains on the periphery of the world pharmaceutical science, import retains two thirds of the market share by value, while innovative novel drugs are now launched primarily by MNEs from the US and the EU.Conclusions and relevance: the challenges and development factors of Russia's pharmaceutical industry identified in this research require effective regulatory tools. First of all, it is necessary to reduce the gap between Russia and the developed countries in the R&D standards and their market implementation. Statistical data has showed the progress in the production of drugs from the VED list (Vital and Essential Drugs, but it is necessary to

  12. Pharmaceutical industry marketing: understanding its impact on women's health.

    Sufrin, Carolyn B; Ross, Joseph S

    2008-09-01

    The delivery of modern health care entails significant involvement from the pharmaceutical industry, including developing and manufacturing drugs. However, the industry also has tremendous influence on the practice of medicine through its considerable marketing efforts, both to patients through direct to consumer advertising, and to physicians through detailing, providing samples, continuing medical education, and other efforts. This article will review the role that pharmaceutical marketing plays in health care, and the substantial evidence surrounding its influence on patient and physician behaviors, with additional discussion of the medical device industry, all with particular attention to women's health. Understanding the effects of pharmaceutical marketing on women's health, through discussion of relevant examples-including oral contraceptive pills, drugs for premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Pap smear cytology techniques, and neonatal herpes prophylaxis-will help ensure that women receive unbiased, evidenced-based care. We will conclude with a discussion of guidelines that have been proposed by professional organizations, policy makers, and universities, to assist physicians in managing exposure to pharmaceutical marketing.

  13. LEAN AND SIX SIGMA CONCEPTS APPLICATION IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    Katarina Pavlović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available LEAN thinking and Six Sigma have been utilized by manufacturing industries to decrease cost and improve quality and productivity by reducing variation and production defects [1]. Because of the dramatic successes in manufacturing, there is rising interest among companies in the pharmaceutical industry, which chooses to implement LEAN in order to accomplish such goals as decreased wait time to release product to the market, reduce production waste, and improve communication with end users and raize quality level both in the production and in testing laboratories. In this article, basics of LEAN and Six Sigma are presented and suggestion was given for application of their concepts in pharmaceutical industry together with harmonization with legal regulation represented by requirements Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP, in order to work "smarter", more cost-effectively and avoid was ting time and other resources.

  14. LEAN AND SIX SIGMA CONCEPTS - APPLICATION IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    Katarina Pavlović

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available LEAN thinking and Six Sigma have been utilized by manufacturing industries to decrease cost and improve quality and productivity by reducing variation and production defects. Because of the dramatic successes in manufacturing, there is rising interest among companies in the pharmaceutical industry, which choose to implement LEAN in order to accomplish such goals as decreased wait time to release product to the market, reduce production waste, improve communication with end users and raise quality level both in the production and in testing laboratories. In this article, basics of LEAN and Six Sigma are presented and suggestion was given for application of their concepts in pharmaceutical industry together with harmonization with legal regulation represented by requirements Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP, in order to work "smarter", more cost- effectively and avoid wasting time and other resources.

  15. Phytoremediation of Industrial and Pharmaceutical Pollutants

    Swarna Shikha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollution in water bodies and soil is a major and ever-increasing environmental issue nowadays, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide appropriate solutions. The contamination of soil is a major concern for the environment and needs to be remediated. These pollutants include complex organic compounds, heavy metals released from industries and plants and natural products such as oils from accidental release. Further the nature of pollution will be governed by the source and type of the contaminant, and other inorganic compounds are released into the environment from a number of sources like mining, smelting, electroplating, and farming. Plants can clean up many types of contaminants like metals, pesticides, oils, and explosives. Phytoremediation is emerging as a bio-based and low-cost alternative in the cleanup of heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  16. Global Operations at Aalborg Industries

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    to successfully reconfigure its operations set-up to meet new contextual conditions. This case was prepared in 2009, through a number of interviews and managers from all business functions as well as top management. The authors do not intend to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a managerial......The aim of this case is to describe the development of Aalborg Industries into a global company. Aalborg Industries has been an example to many companies, as it has managed to maintain a leading market position in a highly competitive and increasingly globalized marked and has managed...

  17. A survey of the effects of brand value on customer satisfaction in pharmaceutical and biological industries

    Alipour, A.; Feizi, S.J.; Heidari, M.

    2016-01-01

    . The purpose of this study was to describe how companies in pharmaceutical and biological sectors can ensure their position in different markets by relying on sustainable, competitive advantages, resulting from the use of a well-defined marketing model with particular emphasis on brand improvement. As competition becomes more intense among companies and phenomena such as global marketing grow in importance, domestic industries in each country become obliged to improve their competitive advan...

  18. The Identification Of Realistic Export Opportunities For The South African Pharmaceutical Industry

    Wilma Viviers; Martie Lubbe; Ermie Steenkamp; Douglas Olivier

    2014-01-01

    South Africa needs to advance its industrialisation process and diversify its exports if it is to enhance its global competitiveness ranking and meaningfully tackle the double scourge of unemployment and poverty. The pharmaceutical industry makes a significant contribution to the countrys economy, and has a growing international footprint. However, export activity is largely centred on Southern and Eastern Africa, while markets in other parts of the world remain largely untapped. A lo...

  19. Proceed to the innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. The case of Spain

    Aída Salazar García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores sectors identified innovation in Spanish pharmaceutical companies. It also considers domestic firms and foreign subsidiaries in the country. The analysis covers the period 2009 to 2011 for a population N=200 affiliates at that time Farmaindustria and Plan Profarma. The work involved a search of useful information on the websites of pharmaceutical companies based in Spain statically describes the innovative profile of the Spanish pharmaceutical through descriptive statistical analysis. Thus a foundation for documenting the results in a database in order to get a picture with determination on the behavior of Spanish pharmaceutical sector and possible trends is created.The high content of literary contribution on the pharmaceutical sector is expressed in a globalized national and international level, rejecting data and information that could provide signals threat or opportunity regarding short period time, and which in turn are comparable to other years since the Spanish pharmaceutical industry is constituted by companies of foreign origin (50.5% and domestic capital (49.5%. Of the latter SMEs are the protagonists of small innovations established in Madrid and Barcelona mainly.

  20. [The attitude of physicians regarding the promotion strategies of the pharmaceutical industry].

    Castresana, Leonardo; Mejia, Raul; Aznar, Mireya

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies invest large sums of money promoting their products. They use a multifaceted approach to drug promotion, incorporating techniques such as hospital and office detailing by pharmaceutical representatives. Although these practices are commonly used, little has been published about the attitude of physicians concerning their interaction with the pharmaceutical industry. We performed a cross sectional anonymous survey to identify the extent of and attitudes towards the relationship between the physicians and the pharmaceutical industry and its representatives with its impact on the knowledge, attitude and behavior of the physicians. Internists, cardiologists and dermatologists who work in ambulatory settings from private and public hospitals in Buenos Aires city participated in this study, 44% were female, 35% residents, 65% staff physicians, averaging 41 years of age. Of these, 86% receive medical samples frecuently, 39% desk gifts, 19% invitations to congresses and 12% free lunches. Half of the doctors believe that receiving benefits from the pharmaceutical industry has an influence on medical prescription, but only 27% accept this as influential in their own prescriptions. Residents consider, more frequently than others, that these activities affect their decisions, (42% vs. 18% p = 0.007, global 30%). Most of the participants consider appropriate receiving these benefits, although 35% think that they affect the final price of medications. In conclusion, there is a high level of interaction between the pharmaceutical industry and our medical population. Although the latter recognize the influence of these interactions on prescriptions and the elevation of the cost of the final product, they find it appropriate to receive benefits.

  1. Pharmaceutical industry's corporate social responsibility towards HIV/AIDS.

    Khanna, Arun Kumar

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has a corporate social responsibility (CSR) towards HIV/AIDS. Measures taken to increase awareness of HIV/AIDS, availability and accessibility of potent and patient-friendly FDCs / Kits for adults and children will go a long way in increasing awareness and acceptance of this disease and its therapy. This will improve adherence, lower resistance and facilitate better disease management. This article discusses some of the CSR initiatives and their scope.

  2. Micro factors bringing the pharmaceutical industry to a seismic shaking a qualitative research.

    Dierks, Raphaela Marie Louisa; Bruyère, Olivier; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Due to changing macro and micro factors, expiring patents and falling net income, pharmaceutical companies need to rethink their vertical business model. The trend shows cross-sectorial partnerships and consolidation to remain and compete on the market. Areas covered: Quantitative research interviewing a target group of 25 key executives from small, mid and large global pharmaceutical companies rounded with qualitative literature research completing the analysis. Expert commentary: Uncertainty in the industry due to changing external factors i.e. pricing pressures, regulations or an economic slowdown, slowing down innovations and new drug outcomes. Pharmaceutical companies understand the existing hurdles, and are critically optimistic implementing new business models. Also, various stakeholders are included in the value chain due to their growing importance. During the next years, the industry will be restructured from volume towards value, and only pharmaceutical companies' clairaudient and reciprocate to the changes with an out-off the box thinking will be able to resist on the market. Small biotech companies should focus on research, and big pharmaceutical companies entering at development focusing on the process until the distribution. This execution business recommendation would enable the best know-how at the right point, mitigating the risk and enhancing the patient outcomes.

  3. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  4. Measuring the efficiency of large pharmaceutical companies: an industry analysis.

    Gascón, Fernando; Lozano, Jesús; Ponte, Borja; de la Fuente, David

    2017-06-01

    This paper evaluates the relative efficiency of a sample of 37 large pharmaceutical laboratories in the period 2008-2013 using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. We describe in detail the procedure followed to select and construct relevant inputs and outputs that characterize the production and innovation activity of these pharmaceutical firms. Models are estimated with financial information from Datastream, including R&D investment, and the number of new drugs authorized by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considering the time effect. The relative performances of these firms-taking into consideration the strategic importance of R&D-suggest that the pharmaceutical industry is a highly competitive sector given that there are many laboratories at the efficient frontier and many inefficient laboratories close to this border. Additionally, we use data from S&P Capital IQ to analyze 2071 financial transactions announced by our sample of laboratories as an alternative way to gain access to new drugs, and we link these transactions with R&D investment and DEA efficiency. We find that efficient laboratories make on average more financial transactions, and the relative size of each transaction is larger. However, pharmaceutical companies that simultaneously are more efficient and invest more internally in R&D announce smaller transactions relative to total assets.

  5. [AIDS and social justice: pharmaceutical industry and economics].

    López Guzmán, José

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a broad look at the complicated framework of relationships between the third world and pharmaceutical companies. In the first part of the work reference is made to the poverty of these countries, their lack of education in terms of health, the scarcity of basic hygiene, and their greatly limited access to medicines, especially those for treating AIDS. The article then proceeds to the issue of the pharmaceutical companies' degree of responsibility for the reduced availability of medicines in certain areas of the world. One of the factors that most limits access to medicines is their price, and many sectors of society propose taking action on the patents of drugs (rescinding or limiting them) in order to lower their price. However, the problem of patent exemption is more complicated than it seems at first glance, and comes with its own risks. If, for lack of funds or the uncertainty concerning a return on the capital invested, pharmaceutical companies discontinue research and development of new drugs, AIDS therapy would worsen. It is imperative and urgent to develop new drugs against the AIDS because of its resistance to the drugs currently available. The article concludes with the pharmaceutical industry's effort to look for possible forms of collaboration with developing countries.

  6. Homochiral drugs: a demanding tendency of the pharmaceutical industry.

    Núñez, María C; García-Rubiño, M Eugenia; Conejo-García, Ana; Cruz-López, Olga; Kimatrai, María; Gallo, Miguel A; Espinosa, Antonio; Campos, Joaquín M

    2009-01-01

    The issue of drug chirality is now a major theme in the design and development of new drugs, underpinned by a new understanding of the role of molecular recognition in many pharmacologically relevant events. In general, three methods are utilized for the production of a chiral drug: the chiral pool, separation of racemates, and asymmetric synthesis. Although the use of chiral drugs predates modern medicine, only since the 1980's has there been a significant increase in the development of chiral pharmaceutical drugs. An important commercial reason is that as patents on racemic drugs expire, pharmaceutical companies have the opportunity to extend patent coverage through development of the chiral switch enantiomers with desired bioactivity. Stimulated by the new policy statements issued by the regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry has systematically begun to develop chiral drugs in enantiometrically enriched pure forms. This new trend has caused a tremendous change in the industrial small- and large-scale production to enantiomerically pure drugs, leading to the revisiting and updating of old technologies, and to the development of new methodologies of their large-scale preparation (as the use of stereoselective syntheses and biocatalyzed reactions). The final decision whether a given chiral drug will be marketed in an enantiomerically pure form, or as a racemic mixture of both enantiomers, will be made weighing all the medical, financial and social proficiencies of one or other form. The kinetic, pharmacological and toxicological properties of individual enantiomers need to be characterized, independently of a final decision.

  7. The reality behind the pharmaceutical industry, postmodernity with no mercy

    Allan Rodríguez Artavia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The following article analyzes the current need in the light of the principles of the (post modernity about the pharmaceutical industry. For its formulation, we conducted a literature review in the databases of the VirtualHealth Library (BIREME, and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, where after applying predetermined inclusion criteria, it was possible to obtain a total of 23 items that served as the analysis base. Between the main results obtained in thirteen of the documents analyzed it criticizing the marketing process that has set as standard to follow in pharmaceutical production. In seven of the articles it is argued that by in pharmacological industry, there is limited access to medicines in countries or regions with less purchasing power, as there is reluctance to fund research related to diseases that are not profitable. It conclude that given currently own processes of neoliberal policies and capitalism that surround pharmaceutical production, lost focus on the health of the community, transforming such right in a process of marketing and commercialism.

  8. The Korean Pharmaceutical Industry and the Expansion of the General Pharmaceuticals Market in the 1950-1960s

    Kyu-Hwan SIHN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Liberation, the Korean economy was dependent on relief supplies and aid after the ruin of the colonial regime and war. The pharmaceutical business also searched for their share in the delivery of military supplies and the distribution of relief supplies. The supply-side pharmaceutical policy made the pharmaceutical market a wholesale business. The gravity of the situation led to an increased importation of medical supplies, and wholesalers took the lead in establishing the distribution structure, whereas consumers and pharmaceutical business were relatively intimidated. The aid provided by the International Cooperation Administration (ICA marked a turning point in the Korean pharmaceutical industry after the middle of the 1950s. ICA supplied raw materials and equipment funds, while the pharmaceutical business imported advanced technology and capital. The government invited the local production of medical substances, whereas pharmaceutical businesses replaced imported medical substances with locally produced antibiotics. After the 1960s, the production of antibiotics reached saturation. Pharmaceutical businesses needed new markets to break through the stalemate, so they turned their attention to vitamins and health tonics as general pharmaceuticals, as these were suitable for mass production and mass consumption. The modernized patent medicine market after the Opening of Korea was transformed into the contemporized general pharmaceuticals market equipped with the up-to-date facilities and technology in 1960s. Pharmaceutical businesses had to advertise these new products extensively and reform the distribution structure to achieve high profits. With the introduction of TV broadcasting, these businesses invested in TV advertising and generated sizable sales figures. They also established retail pharmacy and chain stores to reform the distribution structure. The end result was a dramatic expansion of the general pharmaceuticals market. The

  9. [The Korean Pharmaceutical Industry and the Expansion of the General Pharmaceuticals Market in the 1950-1960s].

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    After the Liberation, the Korean economy was dependent on relief supplies and aid after the ruin of the colonial regime and war. The pharmaceutical business also searched for their share in the delivery of military supplies and the distribution of relief supplies. The supply-side pharmaceutical policy made the pharmaceutical market a wholesale business. The gravity of the situation led to an increased importation of medical supplies, and wholesalers took the lead in establishing the distribution structure, whereas consumers and pharmaceutical business were relatively intimidated. The aid provided by the International Cooperation Administration (ICA) marked a turning point in the Korean pharmaceutical industry after the middle of the 1950s. ICA supplied raw materials and equipment funds, while the pharmaceutical business imported advanced technology and capital. The government invited the local production of medical substances, whereas pharmaceutical businesses replaced imported medical substances with locally produced antibiotics. After the 1960s, the production of antibiotics reached saturation. Pharmaceutical businesses needed new markets to break through the stalemate, so they turned their attention to vitamins and health tonics as general pharmaceuticals, as these were suitable for mass production and mass consumption. The modernized patent medicine market after the Opening of Korea was transformed into the contemporized general pharmaceuticals market equipped with the up-to-date facilities and technology in 1960s. Pharmaceutical businesses had to advertise these new products extensively and reform the distribution structure to achieve high profits. With the introduction of TV broadcasting, these businesses invested in TV advertising and generated sizable sales figures. They also established retail pharmacy and chain stores to reform the distribution structure. The end result was a dramatic expansion of the general pharmaceuticals market. The market for

  10. [The pharmaceutical industry in scandal: Mercury or Aesculapius?].

    Offerhaus, L

    2004-12-18

    During the last decade public sympathy for the pharmaceutical industry has gradually been eroded because of excessive protectionism and profit margins. Its reputation as a healthy, profitable and prosperous industry has recently been seriously damaged by several errors of judgement. Data from early trials proved to be less positive than expected. The responsible drug manufacturers decided to cover the results up. So far the pharmaceutical industry has managed to weather the criticism, but recently a multitude of damaging data was published by an unexpected outsider. Angell, a former editor in chief of one of the most respected, peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, the New England Journal of Medicine, decided to collect such data and to analyze them critically. She also used this analysis to draw up recommendations for improving of what she regarded as an unhealthy situation. The book gained bestseller status on the American market and received much praise from reviewers. Although quickly denounced by the industry as controversial and excessively negative, it contains a lot of data, opinions and conclusions that also apply directly to the European situation.

  11. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Viorel Pop

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the wor...

  12. Managing the pharmaceutical industry-health system interface.

    Zarowitz, B J; Muma, B; Coggan, P; Davis, G; Barkley, G L

    2001-12-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising, media, and Internet marketing to physicians and patients, as well as enticing marketing strategies, are used by the pharmaceutical industry to ensure market share growth of new drugs. Our health system adopted a strict vendor policy governing detailing and sampling activities of pharmaceutical representatives, but realized that further analysis of vendor influence in our system was needed. An assessment of tangible benefits, ethical concerns, and financial liabilities and gains was conducted to reassess the need for further vendor restriction. Based on our findings, several recommendations have been made. Medical practices and health systems are encouraged to establish and enforce explicit vendor policies, measure their effectiveness, partner proactively with representatives to deliver a drug-detailing message consistent with system initiatives, monitor and regulate continuing medical education funding, and implement strategies to ensure appropriate drug use.

  13. 78 FR 24754 - Guidance for Industry on Regulatory Classification of Pharmaceutical Co-Crystals; Availability

    2013-04-26

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Regulatory Classification of Pharmaceutical Co-Crystals; Availability AGENCY: Food... announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Regulatory Classification of Pharmaceutical... on the appropriate regulatory classification of pharmaceutical co-crystal solid-state forms. This...

  14. 76 FR 64945 - Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. and Cephalon, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent...

    2011-10-19

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 111 0166] Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. and Cephalon, Inc... Consent Orders (``Consent Agreement'') from Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (``Teva'') and Cephalon... Pharmaceutical, Inc. (``Par'') all of Teva's rights and assets relating to its generic transmucosal fentanyl...

  15. The Pharmaceutical Industry and the Canadian Government: Folie à Deux.

    Lexchin, Joel

    2017-08-01

    The interest of the pharmaceutical industry is in achieving a profit for its shareholders while the interest of the Canadian government should be in protecting public health. However, over the course of the past few decades the actions of the Canadian government have been tilted in favour of industry in two areas. The first is in the relationship between industry and Health Canada and is manifested in the regulation of clinical trials, the drug approval system, drug safety and promotion. The second is in economic policy as it applies to policies about patent protection, the price of medications and measures taken to incentivize research and development. The problems in the relationship are structural and will only be solved through systemic changes. Copyright © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.

  16. The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: The National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936

    Rodríguez Nozal, Raúl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas, in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the Organización Sindical in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products —which we will specially deal with in this work— were managed by the Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos, which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. This created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the Unión Farmacéutica Nacional.

    El asociacionismo farmacéutico industrial, al igual que ocurriera con otras actividades empresariales, experimentó un notable auge durante la Dictadura de Primo de Rivera y la II República. La Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas, desde Barcelona, representó a la industria química nacional hasta su asimilación definitiva por la Organización Sindical franquista, en 1939. Dentro de esta asociación, los asuntos relacionados con los productos farmacéuticos, a los que prestaremos especial atención en este trabajo, fueron gestionados por la Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico- Farmacéuticos, que defendió los intereses de los productores de medicamentos industriales ante las autoridades gubernamentales, utilizando para ello recursos y mecanismos también manejados por otros grupos empresariales de presión. La inclusión de la farmacia industrial

  17. [Innovation guidelines and strategies for pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine and their industrial translation].

    Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly analyzes the bottlenecks and major technical requirements for pharmaceutical industry of Chinese medicine, providing current status of pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine. The innovation directions and strategies of the pharmaceutical engineering for manufacturing Chinese medicine are proposed along with the framework of their core technology. As a consequence, the development of the third-generation pharmaceutical technology for Chinese medicine, featured as "precision, digital and intelligent", is recommended. The prospects of the pharmaceutical technology are also forecasted.

  18. Looking at CER from the pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    Dubois, Robert W

    2012-05-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is increasing as an element of health care reform in the United States. By comparing drugs against other drugs or other therapies instead of just to placebo, CER has the potential to improve decisions about the appropriate treatment for patients. But the growth of CER also brings an array of questions and decisions for purchasers and policy makers that will not be easy to answer and which require significant dialogue to fully understand and address. To describe some of the impact, both positive and negative, that comparative effectiveness research (CER) may have on the pharmaceutical industry. As CER data proliferate, questions are being raised about who can access the data, who can discuss it, and in what forums. Regulations place different communication restrictions on the pharmaceutical industry than on other health care stakeholders, which creates a potential inequality. Another CER consideration will be the tendency to apply average results to individuals, even if not every individual experiences the average result. Policy makers should implement CER findings carefully with a goal toward accommodating flexibility. A final impact to consider is whether greater expectations for CER will have a negative or positive effect on incentives for drug innovation. In some cases, CER may increase development costs or decrease market size. In other cases, better targeting of trial populations could result in lower development costs. The rising expectations and growth in CER raise questions about information access, communication restrictions, flexible implementation policies, and incentives for innovation. Members of the pharmaceutical industry should be cognizant of the questions and should be participating in dialogues now to pave the way for future solutions.

  19. Gamma radiodecontamination of natural products uses in Cuban pharmaceutical industry

    Rodriguez, M.; Lopez, M.; Guerra, M.; Lastra, H.; Prieto, E.; Padron, E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to carry out the gamma radiodecontamination of industrial productions from there medicinal plant species (C. officinalis, P. incarta and M. recuttia) and two pharmaceuticals forms (S. platensis and bee pollen tabs) which presented high levels of microbiological count. Adequate irradiation doses calculated for each product were used in decontamination. The results obtained showed the effectiveness of the process in the elimination of microbial contamination from theses natural products. No changes in nutritional constituents or physico-chemical properties were observed

  20. The emerging global energy industry

    Churchill, A. [Washington International Energy Group, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The global focus of the electric power industry was discussed. The shift from small regional monopolies to internationally competitive firms has been the driving force for change in industrial or market structures. The financial forces behind these changes were examined. The changes at the firm level and the implications of these changes for the North American market were explored. Changes in the North American market have influenced and are influenced by changes in international markets. The well established public and private monopolies in North America have been slow to welcome competition. However, with growing pressure from consumers, North America is becoming a major leader of global market trends. The following predictions regarding a deregulated electric power industry can be made with some confidence: (1) prices will fall, (2) customer choice will become a reality, (3) debt ridden public dinosaurs are not likely to survive, and (4) the same big firms in international markets will be the dominant players in the North American market. Canadian companies were warned that unless they can compete on equal terms with their American competitors, they may find themselves at a disadvantage in the new, competitive market.

  1. The emerging global energy industry

    Churchill, A [Washington International Energy Group, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The global focus of the electric power industry was discussed. The shift from small regional monopolies to internationally competitive firms has been the driving force for change in industrial or market structures. The financial forces behind these changes were examined. The changes at the firm level and the implications of these changes for the North American market were explored. Changes in the North American market have influenced and are influenced by changes in international markets. The well established public and private monopolies in North America have been slow to welcome competition. However, with growing pressure from consumers, North America is becoming a major leader of global market trends. The following predictions regarding a deregulated electric power industry can be made with some confidence: (1) prices will fall, (2) customer choice will become a reality, (3) debt ridden public dinosaurs are not likely to survive, and (4) the same big firms in international markets will be the dominant players in the North American market. Canadian companies were warned that unless they can compete on equal terms with their American competitors, they may find themselves at a disadvantage in the new, competitive market.

  2. Spin-off and Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Enzo Peruffo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Parent companies usually undertake corporate spin-offs to cope with higher competitive environments or when, in high technology industries, the differences between R&D investments and intangible assets are larger. Consistent with the recent “positive view”, spinoffs can be considered as a “proactive strategic choice” to foster innovation, develop new activities, being different from past strategic initiatives and, more generally, not being strictly connected to the corporate strategy of the firm. In order to investigate the relation between divestiture decisions and innovation, we conduct an explorative case study in the pharmaceutical industry to show how spin-offs can help firms to explore new opportunities for innovation, search for new funding and push to create the basis for future development.

  3. Non clinical research at CENTIS supporting biotechnological and pharmaceutical industry

    Hernandez Gonzalez, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Drugs production is a highly demanding industry because the rigor of legislations and guidelines. Standards are applied to manufacturing facilities and also to research and development stage. Our national biotechnological industry is developing and producing important medications for diseases like cancer, some of them in the national and international market. Isotopes Centre is an institution supporting such development by means of a work platform to carry out researches in the field of pharmacokinetic and biodistribution in experimental models. Accumulated experience allows us to contribute to research and development of different kind of molecules as pharmaceuticals, specially the biotechnological ones. We are evolving in direction to new technologies and methodologies more suitable to current standards. Radiolabeling is still a convenient choice considering present and new imaging technologies to investigate distribution and kinetic in living subjects. With the techniques we have and the ones to incorporate in a near future, new and more demanding investigations will be affordable. (author)

  4. Is Industry-University Interaction Promoting Innovation in the Brazilian Pharmaceutical Industry?

    Paranhos, Julia; Hasenclever, Lia

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses industry-university interaction and its characteristics in the Brazilian pharmaceutical system of innovation, taking account of the relevance of company strategies, the approach of the universities and the actions of government. By analysing primary and secondary data the authors show that, for as long as corporate investment…

  5. Determinants of Iran's BilateralIntra-industry Trade in Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Aghlmand, Siamak; Rahimi, Bahlol; Farrokh-Eslamlou, Hamidreza; Nabilou, Bahram; Yusefzadeh, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Among non-oil and in trade arena, drug has always been strategic importance and most government especially industrialized countries pay special attention to its production and trade issues. Thus, having a comprehensive view from economic perspective to this section is essential for suggesting intervention. This was a descriptive-analytical and panel study. In this study, gravity model is used to estimate Iran's bilateral intra-industry trade in pharmaceutical products in the 2001-2012 periods. To illustrate the extent of pharmaceutical's intra-industry trade between Iran and its major trading partners, the explanatory variables of market size, income, factor endowments, distance, cultural contributions, and similarities and also special trade arrangements have been applied. Analysis of factors affecting Iran's bilateral intra-industry trade in pharmaceutical industry showed that the average GDP and cultural similarities had a significant positive impact on Iran's bilateral IIT, while the difference in GDP has a negative and significant effect. Coefficients obtained for the geographical distance and the average ratio of total capital to the labor force is not consistent with theoretical expectations. Special trade arrangements did not have significant impact on the extent of bilateral intra-industry trade between Iran and its trading partners. The knowledge of the intra-industry trade between Iran and its trade partners make integration between the countries. Factors affecting this type of trade pattern underlie its development in trade relationship. Therefore, the findings of this study would be useful in helping to develop and implement policies for the expansion of the pharmaceutical trade.

  6. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-6 Pharmacia].

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 6 deals with products from A/S Pharmacia. A/S Pharmacia was established in Copenhagen in 1922 as a Danish limited company by the enterprising pharmacist Edward Jacobsen. Pharmacia was not Jacobsen's first pharmaceutical company as previously he had established a pharmaceutical agency already in 1913 which in 1919 was reorganized to a limited company by the name of A/S Edward Jacobsen. This agency was later extended to include a production of generics. Jacobsen remained the co-owner and manager of Pharmacia until 1934 where he resigned and established another company, A/S Ejco, for the manufacture of generics. It is worth mentioning that already in 1911 a Swedish pharmaceutical company was established named AB Pharmacia. Today we do not know whether Edward Jacobsen knew about this Swedish company. Later on in 1936 AB Pharmacia and A/S Pharmacia made a contract concerning mutual market sharing, and a research cooperation was brought about between the two companies which resulted in an increase of turnover for A/S Pharmacia. In 1955 the cooperation between the two companies was increased as the Swedish company joined as principal shareholder with the purpose of continuing and developing the Danish company as an independent pharmaceutical company with its own research and development as well as manufacture, control and marketing. Therefore Pharmacia in Denmark was able to establish a synthesis factory in Koge and move the domicile to new premises in Hillered. In 1993 Pharmacia was presented in a printed matter as "The largest Nordic pharmaceutical company" as a result of the merger between the Swedish Kabi Pharmacia, formerly established by a merger between Kabi Vitrum and AB Pharmacia, and the Italian Farmitalia Carlo Erba. Only two years later in 1995 Pharmacia merged with the American pharmaceutical company The

  7. [Research in the pharmaceutical industry cannot be objective].

    Becker-Brüser, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    In the face of tight public budgets more and more studies are being funded by the pharmaceutical industry. At the same time responsibility for conducting company-funded trials is increasingly being shifted to contract research organisations. Pharmaceutical manufacturers sponsor trials that primarily pursue company interests. The dominance of company-funded research does not only have a bearing on the choice of study priorities, though. Company sponsorship also has an influence on the results of trials. Company-funded trials are four times more likely to find evidence in favour of the trial drug than studies funded by other sponsors. There are several contributory factors, from study design (design bias) to data manipulation. And non-publication (publication bias) can distort knowledge. As a result, it is largely impossible to reliably assess the benefit and harm of medical drugs on the basis of published trials. This will have repercussions for the reliability of meta-analyses, guidelines and patient information leaflets. One consequence may be treatment errors.

  8. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field.

  9. How to revive breakthrough innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Munos, Bernard H; Chin, William W

    2011-06-29

    Over the past 20 years, pharmaceutical companies have implemented conservative management practices to improve the predictability of therapeutics discovery and success rates of drug candidates. This approach has often yielded compounds that are only marginally better than existing therapies, yet require larger, longer, and more complex trials. To fund them, companies have shifted resources away from drug discovery to late clinical development; this has hurt innovation and amplified the crisis brought by the expiration of patents on many best-selling drugs. Here, we argue that more breakthrough therapeutics will reach patients only if the industry ceases to pursue "safe" incremental innovation, re-engages in high-risk discovery research, and adopts collaborative innovation models that allow sharing of knowledge and costs among collaborators.

  10. Public Innovation Policy in the Pharmaceutical Industry: the Cases of the EU and USA

    Z. A. Mamedyarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main purpose of this article was to study the modern tools of the public innovation policy in the global pharmaceutical industry (US and EU cases, which is one of the most knowledge-intensive sectors of the global economy. During the study, it was necessary to achieve the following objectives: to identify main components of the innovation policy in the sector, to consider the role of intellectual property protection, measures of innovation support, regulatory control and other factors, and, also, to identify comparative characteristics of innovation processes within the US and the EU pharmaceutical sector. Methods: this article is based on a qualitative comparative study of the US and EU innovation policy in the pharmaceutical industry. Industryoriented innovation support measures (i.e. levels of private and public financing have been quantitatively analyzed, including the evaluation of the levels of R&D productivity; also, a comparative study of the pharma patent statistics in the leading countries have been performed. This article highlights the problems of intellectual property protection, which remains an important source of financial stability for major pharma companies being the basis for new innovation agenda. Low R&D productivity and high costs of new innovative drugs together emphasize the significance of the analysis of current innovation processes within the pharmaceutical industry, and could open the way for building more effective managerial and business processes. Results: the global pharmaceutical industry today is under thorough control of government regulators and civil society organizations seeking to improve mechanisms of the drugs distribution, in order to make drugs more accessible, safe and clean. This high regulation level impedes innovation within existing pharma business models, and leads to high costs of the newest drugs. The study revealed that successful pharmaceutical innovation today requires

  11. The epiphany of data warehousing technologies in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Barrett, J S; Koprowski, S P

    2002-03-01

    The highly competitive pharmaceutical industry has seen many external changes to its landscape as companies consume each other increasing their pipelines while removing redundant functions and processes. Internally, companies have sought to streamline the discovery and development phases in an attempt to improve candidate selection and reduce the time to regulatory filing. In conjunction with efforts to screen and develop more compounds faster and more efficiently, database management systems (DBMS) have been developed for numerous groups supporting various R&D efforts. An outgrowth of DBMS evolution has been the birth of data warehousing. Often confused with DBMS, data warehousing provides a conduit for data residing across platforms, networks, and in different data structures. Through the use of metadata, the warehouse establishes connectivity of varied data stores (operational detail data, ODD) and permits identification of data ownership, location and transaction history. This evolution has closely mirrored and in some ways been driven by the electronic submission (formerly CANDA). The integration of the electronic submissions and document management with R&D data warehousing initiatives should provide a platform by which companies can address compliance with 21 CFR Part 11. Now more than ever "corporate memory" is being extended to the data itself. The when, why and how of successes and failures are constantly being probed by R&D management teams. The volume of information being generated by today's pharmaceutical companies requires mining of historical data on a routine basis. Data warehousing represents a core technology to assist in this endeavor. New initiatives in this field address the necessity of data portals through which warehouse data can be web-enabled and exploited by diverse data customers both internal and external to the company. The epiphany of data warehousing technologies within the pharmaceutical industry has begun and promises to change

  12. Pharmaceutical product cross-contamination: industrial and clinical ...

    problems. Pharmaceutical product cross-contamination is a serious problem which has been detected as an obstacle ... In the pharmaceutical care of patients in developed countries, cross-contamination ..... neonatal intensive care units.

  13. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-7].

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    A/S GEA Farmaceutisk Fabrik was established as a family business in 1927 by the pharmacist Knud L. Gad Andresen who until then had been employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Gad Andresen wanted to run a company focusing on the development of generics, and he wanted this development to take place in a close cooperation with Danish physicians. This has indeed been achieved with success. In 1995 GEA was purchase'd by the American pharmaceutical company Bristol-Myers Squibb who in a press release characterized GEA as Denmark's second largest manufacturer of generics. Immediately after this takeover GEA's R&D department ceased the research in innovative products and from now on exclusively focused on the development of generics. Three years later GEA was sold to the German generic company Hexal who later on resold GEA to the Swiss generic company Sandoz. GEA changed ownership another couple of times until the last owner went bankrupt in 2011. GEA is yet again a model example of an early Danish pharmaceutical company which was established as an individual company, and which had a long commercial success with the production and marketing of generics. GEA's earliest products, the organotherapeutics, were not innovations. The innovative products were developed already in the 1890s in Denmark by Alfred Benzon, and later on copies followed a.o. from Medicinalco and from foreign companies before GEA marketed their generics. Therefore GEA had to promote their preparations as especially qualified medicinal products and to intimate that the products of the competitors were less "active'". At the end of the 1920s the Ministry of Health became aware of the fact that there might be health problems related to the none-existing control of both the or- ganotherapeutic preparations and actually also the other medicinal products of the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore the Ministry had requested the National Board of Health for a statement regarding this problem. The National Board

  14. Determinants of Iran’s Bilateral Intra-industry Trade in Pharmaceutical Industry

    Aghlmand, Siamak; Rahimi, Bahlol; Farrokh-Eslamlou, Hamidreza; Nabilou, Bahram; Yusefzadeh, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Among non-oil and in trade arena, drug has always been strategic importance and most government especially industrialized countries pay special attention to its production and trade issues. Thus, having a comprehensive view from economic perspective to this section is essential for suggesting intervention. This was a descriptive-analytical and panel study. In this study, gravity model is used to estimate Iran’s bilateral intra-industry trade in pharmaceutical products in the 2001-2012 periods. To illustrate the extent of pharmaceutical’s intra-industry trade between Iran and its major trading partners, the explanatory variables of market size, income, factor endowments, distance, cultural contributions, and similarities and also special trade arrangements have been applied. Analysis of factors affecting Iran’s bilateral intra-industry trade in pharmaceutical industry showed that the average GDP and cultural similarities had a significant positive impact on Iran’s bilateral IIT, while the difference in GDP has a negative and significant effect. Coefficients obtained for the geographical distance and the average ratio of total capital to the labor force is not consistent with theoretical expectations. Special trade arrangements did not have significant impact on the extent of bilateral intra-industry trade between Iran and its trading partners. The knowledge of the intra-industry trade between Iran and its trade partners make integration between the countries. Factors affecting this type of trade pattern underlie its development in trade relationship. Therefore, the findings of this study would be useful in helping to develop and implement policies for the expansion of the pharmaceutical trade. PMID:29881438

  15. Psychiatric Resident and Faculty Views on and Interactions with the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Misra, Sahana; Ganzini, Linda; Keepers, George

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sales visits, or detailing, by pharmaceutical industry representatives at academic institutions has been increasingly criticized. The authors surveyed psychiatric residents and faculty members on their views and interactions with representatives of the pharmaceutical industry. Methods: In 2007, a 46-item online survey measuring…

  16. Monopolistic structures and industrial analysis in Spain: the case of the pharmaceutical industry.

    Lobo, F

    1979-01-01

    This article seeks to illustrate the monopolistic structure of the Spanish pharmaceutical industry, focusing on its many dimensions. The basic conditions of technology and demand, product differentiation, effect of advertising, and barriers to entry are considered, as is financial and economic concentration. Although economic conditions are emphasized, the ways they affect public and private health, the quality of health services, and health education are also highlighted.

  17. Alkaloids in the pharmaceutical industry: Structure, isolation and application

    Nikolić Milan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century a new era began in medicine, pharmaceutics and chemistry that was strongly connected with alkaloids and alkaloid drugs. Even before that it was known that certain drugs administered in limited doses were medicines, and toxic if taken in larger doses (opium, coke leaves, belladonna roots, monkshood tubers crocus or hemlock seeds. However, the identification, isolation and structural characterization of the active ingredients of the alkaloid drugs was only possible in the mid 20th century by the use of modern extraction equipment and instrumental methods (NMR, X-ray diffraction and others.In spite of continuing use over a long time, there is still great interest in investigating new drugs, potential raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the more detailed investigation and definition of bio-active components and the indication of their activity range, and the partial synthesis of new alkaloid molecules based on natural alkaloids. The scope of these investigations, especially in the field of semi-synthesis is to make better use of the bio-active ingredients of alkaloid drugs, i.e. to improve the pharmacological effect (stronger and prolonged effect of the medicine, decreased toxicity and side effects, or to extend or change the applications. A combined classification of alkaloids was used, based on the chemical structure and origin, i.e. the source of their isolation to study alkaloid structure. For practical reasons, the following classification of alkaloids was used: ergot alkaloids, poppy alkaloids, tropanic alkaloids purine derivative alkaloids, carbon-cyclic alkaloids, and other alkaloids. The second part of this report presents a table of general procedures for alkaloid isolation from plant drugs (extraction by water non-miscible solvents, extraction by water-miscible solvents and extraction by diluted acid solutions. Also, methods for obtaining chelidonine and

  18. [Legislation on the pharmaceutical industry in Morocco during the French protectorate 1912 - 1956].

    Nhaili, Hicham; Taoufik, Jamal

    2015-06-01

    In Morocco, the pharmaceutical industry was born with the French protectorate. She knew a great evolution: from a limited production for local needs, it became an important activity, organized to export pharmaceutical patent medicines. This article revisits the birth and history of this industry during the protectorate. It refers to the situation at the time by listing some examples of active establishments and some specialities marketed. It also aims to increase knowledge about the industry and provides an overview of the situation of practitioners remembering the texts governing the profession. Based on the available literature, we examined and analyzed the arrangements related to the establishment, organization and evolution of the pharmaceutical industry.

  19. Traceability in the pharmaceutical industry: application to radiopharmaceutical production

    Zanette, Camila; Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B. de; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Katia S. de S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of tools to promote the traceability of the drugs in the pharmaceutical industry during all the production chain is a necessary requisite. The traceability system is applied to enable the identification of the origin, destination and exact location of the drug. Traceability optimizes the process chain, reduces errors, is a requirement for quality process, promotes safety for the user and assists in pharmacovigilance. The health regulatory agency in Brazil (ANVISA) will implement a tracking system for medicaments with RDC no. 59 of 2009, to control distribution since the producer until the patients in order to prevent the traffic and adulteration of drugs. Thus, this study discusses the importance and impact of the new traceability system proposed by ANVISA in the production and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals from the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN). The radiopharmaceuticals have a difference track when compared with another drug classes. In this context, this RDC would increase the price of the medicines by up to 10%, since it provides deployment of a single stamp supplied by the Mint. Considering that radiopharmaceuticals are not sold to the final consumer (patients), but only for accredited medical clinics and nuclear medicine physicians, and the transport of radiopharmaceuticals is performed by specialized companies licensed by CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission), the use of the stamp to ensure authenticity and prevent falsification should not be appropriated and represents and additional cost for the radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  20. Combined aerobic and physicochemical treatment of pharmaceutical industry sludge

    Asia, Q.I.; Ademoroti, A.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Composite samples of sludge obtained from a pharmaceutical factory were analysed for their pollution characteristics. The samples were then treated by integrated aerobic biological and physicochemical methods. The analysis revealed that the BOD and COD of the sludge liquor were high, as well as were the levels of solids concentration, nitrogen, phosphorus and bacterial count. These showed that sludge from this industry had a high pollution potential, and therefore needed treatment before disposal or reuse in other applications. Percentage solids reduction achieved were in the range of 26.1 to 29% of total soluble solids, 26.1 to 33% of suspended solids, and 43 to 52% of volatile solids, BOD and COD reductions were in the range of 96.1 to 98.2% and 96.8 to 98.4% respectively. Ammonia nitrogen reductions in this sludge were about 85.2 to 93.3%. Total nitrogen and phosphorus were also found to be appreciably reduced by the combined aerobic and physicochemical treatment methods. (author)

  1. Computational Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry: From Childhood to Adolescence.

    Hillisch, Alexander; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Wild, Hanno

    2015-12-01

    Computational chemistry within the pharmaceutical industry has grown into a field that proactively contributes to many aspects of drug design, including target selection and lead identification and optimization. While methodological advancements have been key to this development, organizational developments have been crucial to our success as well. In particular, the interaction between computational and medicinal chemistry and the integration of computational chemistry into the entire drug discovery process have been invaluable. Over the past ten years we have shaped and developed a highly efficient computational chemistry group for small-molecule drug discovery at Bayer HealthCare that has significantly impacted the clinical development pipeline. In this article we describe the setup and tasks of the computational group and discuss external collaborations. We explain what we have found to be the most valuable and productive methods and discuss future directions for computational chemistry method development. We share this information with the hope of igniting interesting discussions around this topic. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The use of atomic spectroscopy in the pharmaceutical industry for the determination of trace elements in pharmaceuticals.

    Lewen, Nancy

    2011-06-25

    The subject of the analysis of various elements, including metals and metalloids, in the pharmaceutical industry has seen increasing importance in the last 10-15 years, as modern analytical instrumentation has afforded analysts with the opportunity to provide element-specific, accurate and meaningful information related to pharmaceutical products. Armed with toxicological data, compendial and regulatory agencies have revisited traditional approaches to the testing of pharmaceuticals for metals and metalloids, and analysts have begun to employ the techniques of atomic spectroscopy, such as flame- and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS, Flame AA or FAA and GFAAS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), to meet their analytical needs. Newer techniques, such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation ICP-MS (LAICP-MS) are also beginning to see wider applications in the analysis of elements in the pharmaceutical industry.This article will provide a perspective regarding the various applications of atomic spectroscopy in the analysis of metals and metalloids in drug products, active pharmaceutical ingredients (API's), raw materials and intermediates. The application of atomic spectroscopy in the analysis of metals and metalloids in clinical samples, nutraceutical, metabolism and pharmacokinetic samples will not be addressed in this work. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk Communication and the Pharmaceutical Industry: what is the reality?

    Edwards, Brian; Chakraborty, Sweta

    2012-11-01

    used globally, we are not aware of any research into their effectiveness outside the ICH regions. What listed companies can communicate about benefits and risks is strongly influenced by the obligations of companies to the market and investors. There needs to be internal coordination for simultaneous release. Internal communications about significant issues should be restricted to those who know how to manage the risk of insider dealing from internal communications that may later be made public. Unfortunately, there is evidence that some companies do not have a cohesive strategy for communicating risk which should take into account all forms of promotional material and company-sponsored information sources on the Internet. A pharmaceutical company is not the only stakeholder responsible for communicating risks on their products. However, the relative roles and responsibilities of all relevant stakeholders are not defined and are often unclear. This means it is difficult to evaluate whether a company's actions might be duplicative or inefficient. We recommend that companies have a dedicated communications group whose role is to coordinate the company's communications strategy mapped to objectives that have been agreed with key stakeholders apart from just regulatory agencies. This same group can assess effectiveness of the communications, monitor audience reaction and adjust the communication strategy accordingly.

  4. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--8. Lundbeck].

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2016-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 8 deals with products from Lundbeck. Lundbeck which today is known as a considerable international pharmaceutical company could in 2015 celebrate its 100 years' jubilee. Among the early Danish medicinal companies H. Lundbeck & Co. is in many ways an exception as the company was not originally established as a pharmaceutical company. Not until several years after the foundation the company began to import foreign ready-made medicinal products and later-on to manufacture these medicinal products in own factory and even later to do research and development of own innovative products. When Lundbeck was established in 1915 several Danish medicinal companies, not only the well-known such as Alfred Benzon and Løvens kemiske Fabrik (LEO Pharma), but also Skelskør Frugtplantage, Ferrin and Ferraton, had emerged due to the respective enterprising pharmacy owners who had expanded their traditional pharmacy business and even with commercial success. Other medicinal companies, such as C.R. Evers & Co., Leerbeck & Holms kemiske Fabriker, Chr. F. Petri, Erslevs kemiske Laboratorium, Edward Jacobsen, Th. Fallesen-Schmidt, and yet other companies which were named after the founder had all been established by pharmacists with the primary intention to manufacture and sell medicinal products. Also for the limited companies Medicinalco, Ferrosan, Pharmacia, and GEA the primary task was to manufacture and sell medicinal products, and also in these companies pharmacists were involved in the foundation. Not until 1924, fully 9 years after the foundation, Lundbeck started to be interested in medicinal products and initiated import and sale of foreign medicinal products manufactured by a.o. German and French companies which had not established their own sales companies in Denmark. Almost all contemporary Danish manufacturers of

  5. Prospective of Transformation of Current Models of the Global Pharmaceutical Market

    Yuriy Solodkovskyy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article thoroughly analyzes the current state of the global pharmaceutical market, defines the key factors for its development and outlines the promising areas of transformation of existing business models of top companies. The forecasted data relating to the market development until 2015 have been investigated. The global, market, technological and organizational factors of transformation of modern model of the global pharmaceutical market have been identified.

  6. "But doctors do it...": nurses' views of gifts and information from the pharmaceutical industry.

    Jutel, Annemarie; Menkes, David B

    2009-06-01

    Most nurses, like their physician counterparts, lack education regarding pharmaceutical marketing strategies, and little is known of their beliefs and practices regarding this industry. Nurses are increasingly targeted by pharmaceutical companies as they become more involved in prescription and as policies restrict pharmaceutical companies' contact with physicians. To assess nurses' beliefs and reported practices concerning pharmaceutical marketing and sponsorship strategies. We conducted parallel Web- and paper-based surveys of a sample of senior registered nurses employed by government-funded health boards in 2 regions of New Zealand to explore their contact with the pharmaceutical industry as well as their beliefs and practices regarding information, gifts, and sponsorship provided by pharmaceutical companies. Returns were tested using Fisher's exact test to determine consistency in response between regions. Results for key outcome variables, including attitude toward the value of industry-derived information, were analyzed by region and in aggregate. Most nurses had contact with pharmaceutical sales representatives (69/106), accepted gifts from representatives (79/105), and believed information from the pharmaceutical industry probably improved their practice (71/106). Half believed that they would be able to detect misleading information if it were present, and 35% believed that accepting gifts and sponsorship was ethically acceptable. We found positive associations between the belief that information from the industry improved practice and reported acceptance of conference funding (OR 3.63; 95% CI 1.41 to 11.55), free food (OR 3.24; 95% CI 2.03 to 7.55), or gifts (OR 3.52; 95% CI 1.38 to 8.95). Nurses generally acknowledge the presence of pharmaceutical marketing in the hospital and the ethical challenges it presents; nonetheless, they also generally accept marketing gifts and may underestimate both the ethical challenges and their own susceptibility to

  7. INNOVATIVE AND INDUSTRIAL-PERFORMANCE IN PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT, A MANAGEMENT CONTROL PERSPECTIVE

    OMTA, SWF; BOUTER, LM; VANENGELEN, JML

    In this paper management control is related to innovative and industrial performance in 14 non-biotech pharmaceutical companies. The study consisted of questionnaires, sent to the heads of the different research departments of European research laboratories of leading pharmaceutical companies,

  8. The effects of advertising on sales in the pharmaceutical industry in ...

    Although advertising accounts for a major share of promotional expenditure of most companies in the pharmaceutical industry, most of them manifest considerable ignorance about how advertising works. This study aimed at determining the effect of advertising on the sales of pharmaceutical products bearing in mind the ...

  9. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    2012-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-1010] Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical... certain drug master files, namely, Type II active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) drug master files (DMFs...

  10. The Industry of Pharmaceuticals between Competitive Development and Welfare

    Gianfrate Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This paper would like to give a contribution to the discussion on which policies and rules should be adopted in order to relaunch the pharmaceutical sector in Italy. Due to its intrinsic features, social value and being one of the most regulated and strategic as based on innovation, this sector has higly specific economic and market peculiarities. Compatibility between the level of NHS expenditure for pharmaceutical provision, equity on medicines acces by the population without any kind of di...

  11. The emerging role of MD Pharmacology postgraduate in pharmaceutical industry

    Pratishtha Banga Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Patient-benefit is a shared goal of the pharmaceutical company and the treating doctor. At the same time, the pharmaceutical company- in order to recur its R and D costs has to balance patient centricity with making profits. Consequently, the commercial benefits from prescription of a product and education about optimal use of product both become the responsibilities of same organization. This often leads to allegations of bias by the regulators. We are in an era where regulatory bodies close...

  12. The impact of TRIPS on innovation and exports: a case study of the pharmaceutical industry in India.

    Malhotra, Prabodh

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there is a debate on what impact the implementation of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in India would have on its pharmaceutical industry and health care. The debate hinges primarily on two major questions. First, will the new patent regime provide an impetus for innovation in the pharmaceutical industry? Second, how far will India's pharmaceutical exports of copied versions of patented drugs to developing countries be restricted under the new regime? The first question seeks to find out if TRIPS will increase India's innovative capabilities to fill the current vacuum to develop drugs for tropical diseases. The large multinational companies (MNCs) that dominate the global pharmaceutical industry have no interest in commercial ventures that have little potential for great returns on investment. The second question attempts to find a solution to the lack of access to medicine in most developing countries. Indian manufacturers' supply of reverse-engineered drugs, which cost only a fraction of the prices charged by MNCs, may be coming to an end under the new regime. Against this backdrop, this article attempts to analyse the impact of strengthening intellectual property rights in India.

  13. Financial Aspects and the Future of the Pharmaceutical Industry in the United States of America

    Karamehic, Jasenko; Ridic, Ognjen; Ridic, Goran; Jukic, Tomislav; Coric, Jozo; Subasic, Djemo; Panjeta, Mirsad; Saban, Aida; Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The U.S. pharmaceutical industry is defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as “companies engaged in researching, developing, manufacturing and marketing of medicines and biological for human or veterinary use”. Besides its main role in improving human health, the US pharmaceutical industry represents one of the most critical, key decision makers’ lobbying prone and competitive sectors in the economy. The cost in the environment of very limited government price regulation remains one ...

  14. The case for entrepreneurship in R&D in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Douglas, Frank L; Narayanan, V K; Mitchell, Lesa; Litan, Robert E

    2010-09-01

    A lack of entrepreneurial behaviour has often been highlighted as a contributor to the decline in the research and development (R&D) productivity of the pharmaceutical industry. Here, we present an assessment of entrepreneurship in the industry, based on interviews with 26 former and current leaders of R&D departments at major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Factors are highlighted that could be important in promoting entrepreneurial behaviour, which might serve as a catalyst for revitalizing R&D productivity.

  15. New Product Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Evidence from a generic market.

    Yousefi, Nazila; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Yousefi, Mina

    2017-01-01

    In today's competitive world, there are several strategies to deal with the fast changing environment, among which New product development (NPD) is a common strategy. However, almost half of the resources that companies devote to NPD are spent on products that may fail. This issue is particularly highlighted in the pharmaceutical industry mainly because of a long development-time, low success rate, high capital requirement, and market uncertainty. This study identifies critical success factors of NPD based on the relevant literatures and expert opinions in Iranian pharmaceutical industry, then prioritizes them using the methodology of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) through analyzing 50 filled questionnaires structured based on the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) approach. Although the NPD success factors seem the same in both generic and bio-generic pharmaceutical industries, the underlying factors and related sub-factors show the different importance in these two industries. However, this study reveal that, the company capabilities is the most important factor affecting new product development success in both pharmaceutical generic and bio-generic industry. The results of this study contribute to create baseline information for pharmaceutical industry especially Iranian pharmaceutical companies to be more effective in budget allocation on improving NPD success factors so that they can boost the success rate of NPD more effectively.

  16. Long-Term Collaboration Network Based on ClinicalTrials.gov Database in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Heyoung Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing costs, risks, and productivity problems in the pharmaceutical industry are important recent issues in the biomedical field. Open innovation is proposed as a solution to these issues. However, little statistical analysis related to collaboration in the pharmaceutical industry has been conducted so far. Meanwhile, not many cases have analyzed the clinical trials database, even though it is the information source with the widest coverage for the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to test the clinical trials information as a probe for observing the status of the collaboration network and open innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. This study applied the social network analysis method to clinical trials data from 1980 to 2016 in ClinicalTrials.gov. Data were divided into four time periods—1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s—and the collaboration network was constructed for each time period. The characteristic of each network was investigated. The types of agencies participating in the clinical trials were classified as a university, national institute, company, or other, and the major players in the collaboration networks were identified. This study showed some phenomena related to the pharmaceutical industry that could provide clues to policymakers about open innovation. If follow-up studies were conducted, the utilization of the clinical trial database could be further expanded, which is expected to help open innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.

  17. Customer relationship management in the contract pharmaceutical industry: an exploratory study for measuring success.

    Kros, John F; Nadler, Scott; Molis, Justin

    2007-01-01

    Managing customer relationships is a very important issue in business-to-business markets. This research investigates the growing number of available resources defining Customer Relationship Management (CRM) efforts, and how they are being applied within the Contract Pharmaceutical Manufacturing industry. Exploratory study results using face-to-face and telephone questionnaires based on four criteria for rating a company's CRM efforts are presented. Data was collected from large Contract Pharmaceutical Manufacturing companies in the US market. The results and conclusions are discussed relating how the Contract Pharmaceutical Manufacturing industry is implementing CRM including some potential steps to take when considering a CRM initiative.

  18. Legal considerations for social media marketing by pharmaceutical industry.

    Yang, Y Tony; Chen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Social media marketing is the next frontier for direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceutical products, but represents an unchartered territory for regulatory action. With explosive growth in the use of social media, along with pharmaceutical companies' increasing adeptness at taking advantage of opportunities for social media marketing, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) faces an urgent need to develop its own capacities to monitor and engage with social media marketing. In response to potential FDA action, pharmaceutical companies' marketing, regulatory compliance and legal staffs must work closely to design initiatives that are sensitive to FDA concerns. This article will address the current status of FDA regulations on social media advertising, their historical origins, challenges to implementation, and their likely future direction.

  19. On the Globalization of the Film Industry

    Lorenzen, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents stylized facts about the economic organisation of the film industry, arguing that while we know a lot about production, specialization and internationalization, the complex processes of globalization are still under-researched. The paper concludes with a research agenda of how to address globalization.

  20. Internationalization and technological leapfrogging in the pharmaceutical industry

    Suma Athreye; Andrew Godley

    2009-01-01

    The pre-refereed author version of this article was published as a UNI-MERIT Working Paper under the title “Internationalising to create Firm Specific Advantages: Leapfrogging strategies of U.S. Pharmaceutical firms in the 1930s and 1940s & Indian Pharmaceutical firms in the 1990s and 2000s”. The paper can be downloaded from the UNU-MERIT website from the following link: http://arno.unimaas.nl/show.cgi?fid=12607. Internationalization is a useful strategy for gaining firm-specific technolog...

  1. An insight into the emerging role of regional medical advisor in the pharmaceutical industry

    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The position of regional medical advisor (RMA is relatively new in the pharmaceutical industry and its roles and responsibility are still evolving. The RMA is a field based position whose main mission is to foster collaborative relationships with the key opinion leaders (KOLs and to facilitate the exchange of unbiased scientific information between the medical community and the company. Field-based medical liaison teams are expanding world-wide as part of the pharmaceutical industry′s increased focus on global operations including emerging markets. Now, the position of the RMA has evolved into comprehensive, complex, highly interactive, targeted, highly strategic, innovative, and independent role since its inception by the Upjohn Company in 1967. The major objective of the RMA is to develop the professional relationships with the health-care community, particularly KOLs, through peer-to-peer contact. The RMA can facilitate investigator-initiated clinical research proposals from approval until completion, presentation, and publication. It is possible for a RMA to have valuable access to KOLs through his expertise in the clinical research. The RMA can assist in the development, review, and follow-up of the clinical studies initiated within the relevant therapeutic area at the regional/local level. The RMA can lead regional/local clinical projects to ensure that all clinical trials are conducted in compliance with the International Conference of Harmonisation Good Clinical Practice (ICH GCP guidelines.

  2. [The pharmaceutical industry and the sustainability of healthcare systems in developed countries and in Latin America].

    Iñesta, Antonio; Oteo, Luis Angel

    2011-06-01

    The global economic crisis and its impact on public finances in most developed countries are giving rise to cost-containment policies in healthcare systems. Prevailing legislation on medication requires the safety, quality, and efficacy of these products. A few countries include efficiency criteria, primarily for new medication that they wish to include in public financing. The appropriate use of generic and "biosimilar medication" is very important for maintaining the financial equilibrium of the Health Services. The problem in Latin America is that not all multisource products are bioequivalent and not all countries have the resources to conduct bioequivalence studies in vivo. The European Medicines Agency in 2005 adopted guidelines on "biosimilar medicines" and thirteen of them were subsequently approved for general release. Benchmarking of this model by other countries would be important. The influence of the pharmaceutical industry on political and administrative areas is enormous and control is necessary. The pharmaceutical companies claim that they act with corporate social responsibility, therefore, they must ensure this responsibility toward society.

  3. Discovery of innovative therapeutics: today's realities and tomorrow's vision. 1. Criticisms faced by the pharmaceutical industry.

    Abou-Gharbia, Magid; Childers, Wayne E

    2013-07-25

    The pharmaceutical industry is facing enormous challenges, including reduced efficiency, declining innovation, key patent expirations, fierce price competition from generics, high regulatory hurdles, and a tarnished image. There is a clear need for change in the paradigms designed to address these challenges. Pharma has responded by embarking on a range of initiatives. However, along the way the industry has accrued critics whose accusations have tainted its reputation. The first part of this two-part series will discuss the criticisms that have been leveled at the pharmaceutical industry and summarize the supporting data for and against these criticisms. The second installment will focus on the current challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry and Pharma's responses to address these challenges. It will describe the industry's changing perspective and new business models for coping with the recent loss of talent and declining clinical pipelines as well as present some examples of recent drug discovery successes.

  4. Development paths of China's agricultural Pharmaceutical industry under Eco-agriculture background.

    Li, Jinkai; Gong, Liutang; Ji, Xi; Zhang, Jin; Miao, Pei

    2014-07-01

    Using pesticides has double effects. On one hand, it contributes to pests control and regulates the growth of crops; On the other hand, it does harm to the environment. To develop ecological agriculture should not only emphasize the output level of agriculture to pursuit of economic efficiency, but also need to keep the ecological environment protected and focus on the social benefits during the development of the industry. As a large agricultural country in the world, China is vigorously promoting the development of ecological agriculture, which is bound to put forward to developing the pesticide industry and green ecological development requirements to promote the transformation and upgrading of agricultural pharmaceutical industry. This paper discusses the mechanism of pesticide pollution on the ecological environment and analyzes China's agricultural problems in the pharmaceutical industry. Then study on the development of Chinese green pesticides and try to find the proper paths of agricultural pharmaceutical to achieve industrial upgrading.

  5. Supply chain security orientation in the pharmaceutical industry ...

    Supply chain security orientation is an abstract phenomenon, which, up to now, has received little research attention. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore the supply chain security orientation of firms participating in the South African pharmaceutical supply chain with the aim of identifying specific risks and of ...

  6. The global alcohol industry: an overview.

    Jernigan, David H

    2009-02-01

    To describe the globalized sector of the alcoholic beverage industry, including its size, principal actors and activities. Market research firms and business journalism are the primary sources for information about the global alcohol industry, and are used to profile the size and membership of the three main industry sectors of beer, distilled spirits and wine. Branded alcoholic beverages are approximately 38% of recorded alcohol consumption world-wide. Producers of these beverages tend to be large multi-national corporations reliant on marketing for their survival. Marketing activities include traditional advertising as well as numerous other activities, such as new product development, product placement and the creation and promotion of social responsibility programs, messages and organizations. The global alcohol industry is highly concentrated and innovative. There is relatively little public health research evaluating the impact of its many marketing activities.

  7. Pharmaceuticals occurrence in a WWTP with significant industrial contribution and its input into the river system

    Collado, N.; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S.; Gros, M.; Rubirola, A.; Barceló, D.; Comas, J.; Rodriguez-Roda, I.; Buttiglieri, G.

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence and removal of 81 representative Pharmaceutical Active Compounds (PhACs) were assessed in a municipal WWTP located in a highly industrialized area, with partial water reuse after UV tertiary treatment and discharge to a Mediterranean river. Water monitoring was performed in an integrated way at different points in the WWTP and river along three seasons. Consistent differences between therapeutic classes were observed in terms of influent concentration, removal efficiencies and seasonal variation. Conventional (primary and secondary) treatment was unable to completely remove numerous compounds and UV-based tertiary treatment played a complementary role for some of them. Industrial activity influence was highlighted in terms of PhACs presence and seasonal distribution. Even if global WWTP effluent impact on the studied river appeared to be minor, PhACs resulted widespread pollutants in river waters. Contamination can be particularly critical in summer in water scarcity areas, when water flow decreases considerably. -- Highlights: • Seasonal variation revealed a higher spring-summer removal compared to winter time. • Biological process was unable to provide a complete removal for most compounds. • UV-based tertiary treatment did play a complementary removal role for specific PhACs. • Diffuse river contamination and local WWTP contribution to it were observed. • River attenuation capacity is an important factor for removing most of the compounds. -- PhACs integrated WWTP-river data evaluation of coupled biological process and UV tertiary treatment in a WWTP with significant industrial contribution and in the receiving river waters

  8. Understanding evolutionary processes in non-manufacturing industries: Empirical insights from the shakeout in pharmaceutical wholesaling

    Adam J. Fein

    1998-01-01

    Although the empirical pattern of industry shakeout has been documented for many manufacturing industries, we know little about the processes by which market structure evolves in non-manufacturing service industries. This paper establishes detailed empirical observations about the consolidation of a single non-manufacturing industry, the wholesale distribution of pharmaceuticals. These observations are used to explore differences between manufacturing and wholesaling in both the patterns and ...

  9. Evaluation of cleaner production audit in pharmaceutical production industry: case study of the pharmaceutical plant in Dalian, P. R. China

    Li, Zhi-dong [Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China); Dalian Cleaner Production Centre, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Dalian Municipal Design and Research Institute of Environmental Science, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Zhang, Shu-shen; Zhang, Yun [Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China); Zhang, Yong; Wei, Li [Dalian Cleaner Production Centre, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Dalian Municipal Design and Research Institute of Environmental Science, Dalian, Liaoning (China)

    2011-02-15

    The pharmaceutical industry in China makes an important contribution to the national economy. However, the associated pollution problems cause gradual deterioration of the environment and impact adversely on the local community. Cleaner production (CP) technology, an effective way to reduce waste emission and save resources, has been widely employed in the pharmaceutical industry in the developed countries. Such technologies have been applied in a number of factories in China, although there is no integrated assessment and implementation procedure for implementing CP technologies in pharmaceutical plants. To solve such problems, a series of CP options are proposed and assessed here. CP is a powerful tool for decreasing waste production, limiting environmental pollution and natural resource depletion. Moreover, the return on investment in CP is quick, so it would seem that CP activities should be very much in demand by enterprises. Reality is less optimistic: frequently only limited interest is expressed, even after an explanation; business people hesitate to become actively involved. The processes in the pharmaceutical production industry produce a vast amount of waste, including wastewater with high concentrations of organic substances (the principal component), solid waste, and organic off-gas. To solve such problems, a series of CP options are proposed and assessed in this study. Having consideration to environmental impacts and economic efficiency, four groups of medium/high cost CP options were screened in an integrated assessment. To verify the proposed options, a case study was conducted in Degussa Luyuan, Northeast China. The characteristics of resource consumption and waste emission during the production process were identified. The proposed options were evaluated according to different aspects. An integrated CP system based on the proposed options was designed and then implemented in the factory. In three years of practical use, the productivity and

  10. Application of ion chromatography in clinical studies and pharmaceutical industry.

    Michalski, Rajmund

    2014-01-01

    Ion chromatography is a well-established regulatory method for analyzing anions and cations in environmental, food and many other samples. It offers an enormous range of possibilities for selecting stationary and mobile phases. Additionally, it usually helps to solve various separation problems, particularly when it is combined with different detection techniques. Ion chromatography can also be used to determine many ions and substances in clinical and pharmaceutical samples. It provides: availability of high capacity stationary phases and sensitive detectors; simple sample preparation; avoidance of hazardous chemicals; decreased sample volumes; flexible reaction options on a changing sample matrix to be analyzed; or the option to operate a fully-automated system. This paper provides a short review of the ion chromatography applications for determining different inorganic and organic substances in clinical and pharmaceutical samples.

  11. Inherent Anticipation in the Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Industries.

    Goldman, Michael; Evans, Georgia; Zappia, Andrew

    2015-04-15

    Pharmaceutical and biotech research often involves discovering new properties of, or new methods to use, existing compositions. The doctrine of inherent anticipation, however, prevents the issuance and/or validity of a patent for discoveries deemed to have been implicitly disclosed in the prior art. This can be a barrier to patent rights in these technologies. Inherent anticipation therefore creates uncertainty for patent protection in the pharmaceutical and biotech sciences. Despite this uncertainty, Federal Circuit jurisprudence provides guidance on the boundaries of the inherent anticipation doctrine. In view of the case law, certain strategies may be employed to protect inventions that may potentially be viewed as inherent in the prior art. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. The Sources of Quality in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Enrique Yacuzzi; Fernando Martín; Gabriel Vignola; Verónica Mayochi; Dante Tollio

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of quality of a pharmaceutical product. After identifying eight quality dimensions, a framework of hypothetical sources that contribute the most to shape those dimensions is established. The framework, based on Garvin's pioneering work, is applied to case studies of laboratories operating in Argentina. Framework relevance is considered using correlation analysis. Laboratories are ranked through expert opinion by the quality of its products using the eight dimen...

  13. [Innovation in pharmaceutical and health biotechnology industries: challenges for a virtuous agenda].

    Vargas, Marco; Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira; Maldonado, José

    2012-12-01

    Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries comprise a major production subsystem of the health industrial complex in Brazil. It stands out for both its economic importance and its prominent role in developing new technologies in strategic areas. Strengthening the local production of generic drugs in the last decade has significantly increased the number of Brazilian companies in the local pharmaceutical market and has been an important turning point for this industry's growth. However, there remain major structural bottlenecks both in terms of production and continuous innovation. These bottlenecks reveal the high vulnerability of the Brazilian National Health System and point to the need of public policies that promote strengthening the production base and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry and that at the same time meet health-related social demands in health in Brazil.

  14. Applied statistics in the pharmaceutical industry with case studies using S-PLUS

    Krause, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to provide a general guide to statistical methods used in the pharmaceutical industry, and to illustrate how to use S-PLUS to implement these methods. Specifically, the goal is to: *Illustrate statistical applications in the pharmaceutical industry; *Illustrate how the statistical applications can be carried out using S-PLUS; *Illustrate why S-PLUS is a useful software package for carrying out these applications; *Discuss the results and implications of a particular application; The target audience for this book is very broad, including: *Graduate students in biostatistics; *Statisticians who are involved in the industry as research scientists, regulators, academics, and/or consultants who want to know more about how to use S-PLUS and learn about other sub-fields within the indsutry that they may not be familiar with; *Statisticians in other fields who want to know more about statistical applications in the pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Building legitimacy by criticising the pharmaceutical industry: a qualitative study among prescribers and local opinion leaders.

    Pittet, Anne-Laure; Saraga, Michael; Stiefel, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    The literature has described opinion leaders not only as marketing tools of the pharmaceutical industry, but also as educators promoting good clinical practice. This qualitative study addresses the distinction between the opinion-leader-as-marketing-tool and the opinion-leader-as-educator, as it is revealed in the discourses of physicians and experts, focusing on the prescription of antidepressants. We explore the relational dynamic between physicians, opinion leaders and the pharmaceutical industry in an area of French-speaking Switzerland. Qualitative content analysis of 24 semistructured interviews with physicians and local experts in psychopharmacology, complemented by direct observation of educational events led by the experts, which were all sponsored by various pharmaceutical companies. Both physicians and experts were critical of the pharmaceutical industry and its use of opinion leaders. Local experts, in contrast, were perceived by the physicians as critical of the industry and, therefore, as a legitimate source of information. Local experts did not consider themselves opinion leaders and argued that they remained intellectually independent from the industry. Field observations confirmed that local experts criticised the industry at continuing medical education events. Local experts were vocal critics of the industry, which nevertheless sponsor their continuing education. This critical attitude enhanced their credibility in the eyes of the prescribing physicians. We discuss how the experts, despite their critical attitude, might still be beneficial to the industry's interests.

  16. Towards the design of a zero effluent facility in the pharmaceutical industry

    Gouws, JF

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available . The pharmaceutical production industry has some unique characteristics that make it possible to reach the goal of zero effluent. In such industries wastewater is generally produced from washing out of mixing vessels. The wastewater thus contains valuable product...

  17. Understanding firm, physician and consumer choice behavior in the pharmaceutical industry

    Manchanda, P; Wittink, DR; Ching, A; Cleanthous, P; Ding, M; Dong, XJJ; Leeflang, PSH; Misra, S; Mizik, N; Narayanan, S; Steenburgh, T; Wieringa, JE; Wosinska, M; Xie, Y

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the pharmaceutical industry represents an exciting opportunity to carry out academic research. The nature of the industry allows researchers to answer new questions, develop new methodologies for answering these questions as well as to apply existing methodology to new data.

  18. Transformational and Transactional Leadership Impact on Organizational Performance in Pharmaceutical Industry in Yemen

    مراد محمد النشمي

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at revealing the impact on transformational and transactional leadership in organizational performance of Pharmaceutical Industry in Yemen. The researchers have used descriptive analytical methods to answer the study questions and test the hypotheses. Questionnaire has been used for collecting quantitative data from the study sample which is a number of 227 middle and executive management in pharmaceutical companies. The study findings show that there is significant effect of all the dimensions of transformational and transactional leadership on organizational performance. Based on the regression analysis applied in the study, results indicated that transformational leadership is of the highest influencing variables on organizational performance. The study concluded that pharmaceutical companies adoption of modern leadership styles leads to distinguished performance. Keywords: Transformational leadership, Transactional leadership, Organizational performance, Pharmaceutical Industry.

  19. Medications development for substance-use disorders: contextual influences (dis)incentivizing pharmaceutical-industry positioning.

    Janero, David R

    2014-11-01

    The significant contribution of substance-use disorders (SUDs) to the global-disease burden and associated unmet medical needs has not engendered a commensurate level of pharma-industry research and development (R&D) for novel SUD therapeutics invention. Analysis of contextual factors shaping this position suggests potential routes toward incentivizing R&D commitment for that purpose. This article considers multiple primary factors that have consorted to disincentivize pharma industry's operating in the SUD space: ill-understood pathology; variegated treatments and patient profiles; involved clinical trials; and - with particular reference to SUDs-negative cultural/business stigmas and shallow commercial precedent. Industry incentivization for SUD drug innovation requires progress on several fronts, including: translational experimental data and systems; personalized, holistic SUD treatment approaches; interactions among pharma, nonindustry constituencies, and the medical profession with vested interests in countering negative stereotypes and expanding SUD treatment options; and public-private alliances focused on improving SUD pharmacotherapy. Given the well-entrenched business stance whereby the prospect of future profits in major markets largely determines drug-company R&D investment trajectory, strategic initiatives offering substantial reductions in the risks and opportunity (i.e., time and money) costs associated with SUD drug discovery are likely to be the most potent drivers for encouraging mainstream industry positioning in this therapeutic area. Such initiatives could originate from front-loaded R&D operational and back-loaded patent, regulatory, marketing and health-care policy reforms. These may be too involved and protracted for the turbulent pharmaceutical industry to entertain amid its recent retrenchment from psychiatric/CNS diseases and intense pressures to increase productivity and shareholder value.

  20. Trends in the global aluminum fabrication industry

    Das, Subodh; Yin, Weimin

    2007-02-01

    The aluminum fabrication industry has become more vital to the global economy as international aluminum consumption has grown steadily in the past decades. Using innovation, value, and sustainability, the aluminum industry is strengthening its position not only in traditional packaging and construction applications but also in the automotive and aerospace markets to become more competitive and to face challenges from other industries and higher industrial standards. The aluminum fabrication industry has experienced a significant geographical shift caused by rapid growth in emerging markets in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Market growth and distribution will vary with different patterns of geography and social development; the aluminum industry must be part of the transformation and keep pace with market developments to benefit.

  1. Characteristics of physicians targeted by the pharmaceutical industry to participate in e-detailing.

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Khanfar, Nile M; Doucette, William R; Loudon, David

    2009-01-01

    Electronic detailing (e-detailing) has been introduced in the last few years by the pharmaceutical industry as a new communication channel through which to promote pharmaceutical products to physicians. E-detailing involves using digital technology, such as Internet, video conferencing, and interactive voice response, by which drug companies target their marketing efforts toward specific physicians with pinpoint accuracy. A mail survey of 671 Iowa physicians was used to gather information about the physician characteristics and practice setting characteristics of those who are usually targeted by pharmaceutical companies to participate in e-detailing. A model is developed and tested to explain firms' targeting strategy for targeting physicians for e-detailing.

  2. Measuring brand loyalty in the pharmaceutical industry of South Africa / Hilde du Plooy

    Du Plooy, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    Brands are recognised as one of the most valuable assets that a company can possess and therefore brands are key role-players in the business strategies of organisations. The rivalry amongst competitors in the pharmaceutical industry is fierce and companies should design their strategies in such a way in order to achieve competitive advantage. Brand loyalty is regarded as a powerful tool in the development of pharmaceutical brands. The main aim of this study was to measure b...

  3. Balancing health and industrial policy objectives in the pharmaceutical sector: lessons from Australia.

    Morgan, Steve; McMahon, Meghan; Greyson, Devon

    2008-08-01

    Policy-makers worldwide struggle to balance health with industrial policy objectives in the pharmaceutical sector. Tensions arise over pricing and reimbursement in particular. What health plans view as necessary to maintain equitable access to medicines, industry views as inimical to R&D and innovation. Australia has grappled with this issue for years, even incorporating the goal of "maintaining a responsible and viable medicines industry" into its National Medicines Policy. This case study was conducted via a narrative review that examined Australia's experiences balancing health and industrial policy objectives in the pharmaceutical sector. The review included electronic databases, grey literature and government publications for reports on relevant Australian policy published over the period 1985-2007. While pharmaceutical companies claim that Australia's pricing and reimbursement policies suppress drug prices and reduce profits, national policy audits indicate these claims are misguided. Australia appears to have secured relatively low prices for generics and "me-too drugs" while paying internationally competitive prices for "breakthrough" medicines. Simultaneously, Australia has focused efforts on local pharmaceutical investment through a variety of industry-targeted R&D incentive policies. Despite the fact that policy reviews suggest that Australia has achieved balance between health and industrial policy objectives, the country continues to face criticism from industry that its health goals harm innovation and R&D. Recent reforms raise the question whether Australia can sustain the apparent balance.

  4. Software for rapid prototyping in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

    Kappler, Michael A

    2008-05-01

    The automation of drug discovery methods continues to develop, especially techniques that process information, represent workflow and facilitate decision-making. The magnitude of data and the plethora of questions in pharmaceutical and biotechnology research give rise to the need for rapid prototyping software. This review describes the advantages and disadvantages of three solutions: Competitive Workflow, Taverna and Pipeline Pilot. Each of these systems processes large amounts of data, integrates diverse systems and assists novice programmers and human experts in critical decision-making steps.

  5. Medical students' exposure to and attitudes about the pharmaceutical industry: a systematic review.

    Kirsten E Austad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between health professionals and the pharmaceutical industry has become a source of controversy. Physicians' attitudes towards the industry can form early in their careers, but little is known about this key stage of development.We performed a systematic review reported according to PRISMA guidelines to determine the frequency and nature of medical students' exposure to the drug industry, as well as students' attitudes concerning pharmaceutical policy issues. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and ERIC from the earliest available dates through May 2010, as well as bibliographies of selected studies. We sought original studies that reported quantitative or qualitative data about medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical marketing, their attitudes about marketing practices, relationships with industry, and related pharmaceutical policy issues. Studies were separated, where possible, into those that addressed preclinical versus clinical training, and were quality rated using a standard methodology. Thirty-two studies met inclusion criteria. We found that 40%-100% of medical students reported interacting with the pharmaceutical industry. A substantial proportion of students (13%-69% were reported as believing that gifts from industry influence prescribing. Eight studies reported a correlation between frequency of contact and favorable attitudes toward industry interactions. Students were more approving of gifts to physicians or medical students than to government officials. Certain attitudes appeared to change during medical school, though a time trend was not performed; for example, clinical students (53%-71% were more likely than preclinical students (29%-62% to report that promotional information helps educate about new drugs.Undergraduate medical education provides substantial contact with pharmaceutical marketing, and the extent of such contact is associated with positive attitudes about marketing and skepticism

  6. Reconfiguring global pharmaceutical value networks through targeted technology interventions

    Harrington, Tomas Seosamh; Phillips, MA; Srai, Jagjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    Targeting a series of advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) ‘interventions’ provides the potential for significant step changes across the pharmaceutical value chain, from early stage ‘system discovery’ and clinical trials, through to novel service supply models. This research explores future value network configurations which, when aligned with disruptive shifts in technology (process and digital), may enable alternative routes to medicines production and the delivery of additional value t...

  7. Silo effect a prominence factor to decrease efficiency of pharmaceutical industry.

    Vatanpour, Hossein; Khorramnia, Atoosa; Forutan, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    To be sure, all the industries try to be involved in globalization with a constant trend to find out ways to increase productivity across different functions within an organization to maintain competitive advantage world. Pharmaceutical industries are not exceptional and further are based on fragmentation. So these kind of companies need to cope with several barriers such as silo mentality that may affect efficiency of their business activity. Due to eliminate a part of resources such as raw materials, new molecule developed, financial and human resources and so on, companies can gradually loss their competitive potentials in the market and increase their expenses. Furthermore, to avoid any business disturbances in financially connected companies due to silo effect, they should arrange their management to integrated organization form. Otherwise, actions taken by one business member of the chain can influence the profitability of all the other members in the chain. That is why recently supply chain has generated much interest in many business units. In this paper, it has been tried to investigate the different aspects of silo effect which can affect integrate supply chain. Finally, a fluent communication, high level of information exchange, fragmentation management, cross-functional control in a supply chain management format are needed to reduce or control silo effect within entire chain of the holding company by Supply chain management.

  8. The importance of social networks on the origins of argentinian pharmaceutical industry. The case of Catalans

    Campins, Mónica; Pfeiffer, Ana

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to give a broader interpretation of the development of science-based industries in latecomer countries like Argentina. The approach used in the research work is supported by contributions from Nuria Puig on the role of social networks in the pharmaceutical industry development in late industrializing countries and reinforces the idea of Franco Ramella about the importance of a strong use of network concept. Historical research shows that social networks of the Catalan commun...

  9. Industrial global brand leadership : a capabilities view

    Beverland, M.; Napoli, J.; Lindgreen, A.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the global branding programs of five New Zealand industrial firms and identify the salient components and capabilities underpinning these programs. The cases built their respective brand identities around adaptability to customer needs and the provision of a total solution. This identity

  10. Environmental management practices in the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries: implementation strategies and challenges.

    Massoud, May A; Makarem, N; Ramadan, W; Nakkash, R

    2015-03-01

    This research attempts to provide an understanding of the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries' environmental management strategies, priorities, and perceptions as well as drivers, barriers, and incentives regarding the implementation of the voluntary ISO 14001 Environmental Management System. Accordingly, a semistructured in-depth interview was conducted with the pharmaceutical industries. The findings revealed a significant lack of knowledge about the standard among the industries. The main perceived drivers for adopting the ISO 14001 are improving the companies' image and overcoming international trade. The main perceived barriers for acquiring the standard are the lack of government support and the fact that ISO 14001 is not being legally required or enforced by the government. Moreover, results revealed that adopting the ISO 14001 standard is not perceived as a priority for the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries. Although the cost of certification was not considered as a barrier for the implementation of ISO 14001, the majority of the pharmaceutical industries are neither interested nor willing to adopt the Standard if they are not exposed to any regulatory pressure or external demand. They are more concerned with quality and safety issues with the most adopted international standard among the industries being the ISO 9001 quality management system. This study highlights the aspect that financial barriers are not always the hurdles for implementing environmental management strategies in developing countries and underscores the need for regulatory frameworks and enforcement.

  11. The duty of the pharmacist and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Dwyer, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The common law duty of care, an essential element of the tort of negligence, focuses on conduct. Accordingly, any discussion of the existence, nature and content of the duty of care of a pharmaceutical manufacturer and of a pharmacist, requires analysis of their respective functions. Also relevant are the special nature and effects of drug products and their approval for and acceptance in, human therapy based upon a balancing of risks and benefits. Critical to a manufacturer's potential tortuous liability is the so-called 'learned intermediary, role of pharmacists, prescribers and other health professionals and whether they have current and accurate drug product information. Manufacturers are not necessarily the only source of drug information available to health professionals. These responsibilities serve patients who also need to be adequately informed so as to achieve optimal safety and efficacy when using prescribed medications.

  12. ASTM and ASME-BPE Standards--Complying with the Needs of the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Huitt, William M

    2011-01-01

    Designing and building a pharmaceutical facility requires the owner, engineer of record, and constructor to be knowledgeable with regard to the industry codes and standards that apply to this effort. Up until 1997 there were no industry standards directed at the needs and requirements of the pharmaceutical industry. Prior to that time it was a patchwork effort at resourcing and adopting nonpharmaceutical-related codes and standards and then modifying them in order to meet the more stringent requirements of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In 1997 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) published the first Bioprocessing Equipment (BPE) Standard. Through harmonization efforts this relatively new standard has brought together, scrutinized, and refined industry accepted methodologies together with FDA compliance requirements, and has established an American National Standard that provides a comprehensive set of standards that are integral to the pharmaceutical industry. This article describes various American National Standards, including those developed and published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and how they apply to the pharmaceutical industry. It goes on to discuss the harmonization effort that takes place between the various standards developers in an attempt to prevent conflicts and omissions between the many standards. Also included are examples of tables and figures taken from the ASME-BPE Standard. These examples provide the reader with insight to the relevant content of the ASME-BPE Standard. Designing and building a pharmaceutical facility requires the owner, engineer of record, and constructor to be knowledgeable with regard to the industry codes and standards that apply to this effort. Up until 1997 there were no industry standards directed at the needs and requirements of the pharmaceutical industry. Prior to that time it was a patchwork effort at resourcing and adopting nonpharmaceutical-related codes and

  13. THE EFFECT OF TRAINING IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF EMPLOYEE EFFICIENCY IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY AND AN APPLICATION

    Sinem AYDOĞDU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Businesses faces with important and rapid changes. This rapid change in the business environment forces the organizations to change their operations and structures. Adopting these changes fast and contionus renewal of both employees and organizations help organizations reach the set goals and survive in the competitive market. To be accomplished in competition, companies need well trained and well developed employees from front employees to the top level managers in the executive suite. Moreover, training process must gain continuity. Especially, in Pharmaceutical Industry, due to the fast and rapid changes and improvements concerning the regulations and procedures of Ministery of Health, guidelines such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practises, GLP (Good Laboratory Practises, GDP (Good Documentation Practises etc. employees who are working should be trained and updated about the current knowledge to increase the efficiency in the organization. Vice versa, organizations can not raise their competition power in order to exist and develop themselves. To sum up, globalization, fast changes in regulations and procedures and also technological shifts lead to changes even in organizations. In order to cope with these changes, companies need to train their employees. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of training on employee efficiency. Research is carried out with 74 employees from a pharmaceutical company in İstanbul, Turkey. The results of the study support the hypotheses. There’s a significant difference between white collar and blue collar employees on the idea of efficiency of training in the area of career development, area of productivity, professional growth and customer satisfaction.

  14. Competitive Intelligence in Malaysia Pharmaceutical Industry : Effectiveness of Implementation

    Ooi, Hooi Min

    2004-01-01

    Competitive Intelligence is increasingly being considered an important, if not mandatory, piece of every business’ overall strategy and functioning, including tactical and strategic planning. The level of Competitive Intelligence activities differ by industries, and at different stage of product life cycle. It is closely linked to Knowledge Management – another major field on the way company handling information. Competitive Intelligence has often been related to industrial espionage where so...

  15. Public funding and private investment for R&D: a survey in China's pharmaceutical industry.

    Qiu, Lan; Chen, Zi-Ya; Lu, Deng-Yu; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2014-06-13

    In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002-2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002-2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources.

  16. A lesson from Japan: research and development efficiency is a key element of pharmaceutical industry consolidation process.

    Shimura, Hirohisa; Masuda, Sachiko; Kimura, Hiromichi

    2014-02-01

    Scholarly attention to pharmaceutical companies' ability to sustain research and development (R&D) productivity has increased as they increasingly handle business challenges. Furthermore, the deterioration of R&D productivity has long been considered a major cause of mergers and acquisitions (M&As). This study attempts to investigate quantitatively the possible causes of the deterioration and the relationship between the deterioration and M&As by examining the Japanese pharmaceutical industry. Japan from 1980 to 1997 is an ideal case because of the availability of official data, but more importantly the significant changes in its business environment at the time. Using the Malmquist Index and data envelopment analysis, we measured the deterioration of R&D productivity from 1980 to 1997 based on a sample of 15 Japanese companies. Two lessons can be learned from Japan's case. First, to sustain R&D productivity over the long term, companies should use licensing activities and focus on the dominant therapeutic franchises. Second, if a company fails significantly to catch up with the benchmark, it is likely to pursue an M&A or seek an alternative way to improve R&D productivity. These findings appear similar to the current situation of the global pharmaceutical industry, although Japan pursued more licensing activities than M&A to improve R&D productivity.

  17. Ties that bind: multiple relationships between clinical researchers and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Henry, David; Doran, Evan; Kerridge, Ian; Hill, Suzanne; McNeill, Paul M; Day, Richard

    2005-11-28

    It is believed that pharmaceutical industry sponsorship of clinical research leads to the development of multiple ties between clinicians and the pharmaceutical industry. To quantify this relationship we conducted a survey of medical specialists listed in the Medical Directory of Australia in 2002 and 2003. A questionnaire was mailed that elicited information about all aspects of research relationships between clinicians and pharmaceutical companies. The odds of reporting multiple additional ties (financial and professional) with pharmaceutical companies by clinicians who had an active research relationship were compared with those who did not. All clinicians who returned a completed questionnaire about their research activities were included in the study. A questionnaire was mailed to 2120 medical specialists; 823 (39%) responded. Of these, 338 (41%) reported involvement in industry-sponsored research in the previous year. They were more likely than others to have been offered industry-sponsored items or activities valued at more than 500 AU dollars (>382 US dollars; odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-4.7) and support for attending international conferences (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 3.9-7.4). The strongest associations were seen for acting as a paid consultant to industry (OR, 9.0; 95% CI, 3.9-20.4) and for membership on advisory boards (OR, 6.9; 95% CI, 5.1-9.6). There was a strong relationship between research collaboration and accumulation of industry ties. For 1 additional tie the OR was 2.2 (95% CI, 1.2-3.8) and rose to 6.3 (95% CI, 3.5-11.1) with 3 ties and 41.8 (95% CI, 14.5-143.4) with 6 or more ties. Medical specialists who have research relationships with the pharmaceutical industry are much more likely to have multiple additional ties than those who do not have research relationships. Institutional review should discourage clinical researchers from developing multiple ties.

  18. Method æ, the agile software development method tailored for the pharmaceutical industry.

    Hajou, A.; Batenburg, R.S.; Jansen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Agile software development methods have a high adoption rate due to their proven business benefits. Its success has not yet been identified in the pharmaceutical industry, due to the industry’s incompatibility with generic agile methods. Comprehensive research has been done to engineer a tailored

  19. A Method to Identify Best Available Technologies (BAT) for Hydrogenation Reactors in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Le Doan, T.V.; Stavárek, Petr; de Bellefon, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2012), s. 77-82 ISSN 2062-249X Grant - others:IMPULSE(XE) FP6-NMP2-CT-2005-011816 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : hydrogenation * pharmaceuticals * methodology Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.091, year: 2012

  20. A survey of the effects of brand value on customer satisfaction in pharmaceutical and biological industries

    Alipour, A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available . The purpose of this study was to describe how companies in pharmaceutical and biological sectors can ensure their position in different markets by relying on sustainable, competitive advantages, resulting from the use of a well-defined marketing model with particular emphasis on brand improvement. As competition becomes more intense among companies and phenomena such as global marketing grow in importance, domestic industries in each country become obliged to improve their competitive advantages in order to survive from a marketing perspective. Customer satisfaction is among factors which could lead to the success and profitability of a company. The present research examined the relationship between brand value and customer behavioral intention. Accordingly, 80 questionnaires were distributed among customers, selected through random sampling in Tehran, Iran. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS. Based on descriptive statistics, two aspects of customer behavioral intention included “product introduction” and “repeat purchase”, while two aspects of brand equity were “brand awareness” and “product introduction”. The research findings showed that factors such as “brand awareness” and “brand loyalty” directly affect customer behavioral intention and satisfaction.

  1. Transformation in the pharmaceutical industry--a systematic review of the literature.

    Shafiei, Nader; Ford, James L; Morecroft, Charles W; Lisboa, Paulo J; Taylor, Mark J; Mouzughi, Yusra

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary development of pharmaceutical transformation was studied through systematic review of the literature. Fourteen triggers were identified that will affect the pharmaceutical business, regulatory science, and enabling technologies in future years. The relative importance ranking of the transformation triggers was computed based on their prevalence within the articles studied. The four main triggers with the strongest literature evidence were Fully Integrated Pharma Network, Personalized Medicine, Translational Research, and Pervasive Computing. The theoretical quality risks for each of the four main transformation triggers are examined, and the remaining ten triggers are described. The pharmaceutical industry is currently going through changes that affect the way it performs its research, manufacturing, and regulatory activities (this is termed pharmaceutical transformation). The impact of these changes on the approaches to quality risk management requires more understanding. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the academic, regulatory, and industry literature were used to identify 14 triggers that influence pharmaceutical transformation. The four main triggers, namely Fully Integrated Pharma Network, Personalized Medicine, Translational Research, and Pervasive Computing, were selected as the most important based on the strength of the evidence found during the literature review activity described in this paper. Theoretical quality risks for each of the four main transformation triggers are examined, and the remaining ten triggers are described.

  2. Manufacturing capability as a technological development indicator in the pharmaceutical industry

    John Jairo Gallo Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industrial has five subsectors: medicines, cosmetics, phytotherapeutics, cleaning products and medical devices. The medicine subsector consists of organisations producing, importing and selling these products. Most studies about this industry have been guided by economic interests without assessing technological aspects of production. This article was aimed at proposing a methodology for assessing and describing the medicine sector according to its technological development by using the manufacturing capability concept. The main information was taken from the Colombian Medicaments and Food Surveillance Institute’s (Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos - INVIMA databases related to pharmaceutical plant production in Bogotá, including material transformation facilities. This study led to three characteristics being identified for defining the pharmaceutical industry’s manufacturing capability: that related to the pharmacological group to which active pharmaceutical ingredients belong, that linked to specifications regarding medicines’ sterility and that related to the technology required for manufacturing each pharmaceutical product. An analysis of these features has thus been presented and some technologies have been identified which have not been transferred or assimilated by the organisations being studied. It was found that manufacturing capability should be considered as being an indicator of the degree of technological development in these subsectors in Colombia.

  3. How pharmaceutical industry employees manage competing commitments in the face of public criticism.

    Lipworth, Wendy; Montgomery, Kathleen; Little, Miles

    2013-10-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has been criticised for pervasive misconduct. These concerns have generally resulted in increasing regulation. While such regulation is no doubt necessary, it tends to assume that everyone working for pharmaceutical companies is equally motivated by commerce, without much understanding of the specific views and experiences of those who work in different parts of the industry. In order to gain a more nuanced picture of the work that goes on in the "medical affairs" departments of pharmaceutical companies, we conducted 15 semi-structured interviews with professionals working in medical departments of companies in Sydney, Australia. We show that this group of pharmaceutical professionals are committed to their responsibilities both to patients, research participants, and the public and to their companies. Despite the discrepancies between these commitments, our participants did not express much cognitive dissonance, and this appeared to stem from their use of two dialectically related strategies, one of which embraces commerce and the other of which resists the commercial imperative. We interpret these findings through the lens of institutional theory and consider their implications for pharmaceutical ethics and governance.

  4. Marketing and Globalization of the Brewing Industry

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    The globalization of the brewing industry after the turn of the century through a large wave of mergers and acquisitions has changed the structure of the world beer markets. The chapter tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012 and points to high transportation costs...... for beers and economies of scale at the firm level in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale at the firm level in marketing...... significant economies of scale benefits at the firm level to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....

  5. The World Health Organization and the Pharmaceutical Industry. Common areas of interest and differing views.

    Hardwicke, Caroline J

    2002-01-01

    No article published in the scientific press in the last 10 years reviews the various areas of interest common to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the pharmaceutical industry. Despite a vast amount of information in the public domain, the policies expound the views only of the bodies they represent rather than comparing differing views. An understanding of the factors which affect the interaction between these organisations as well as the organisational structures and the actual areas of intersecting interest, may help to find ways for the industry to assist the WHO in its endeavours in developing countries. Modern drug development is performed initially in and for western society, leaving the areas of infectious or tropical diseases with relatively less industry investment than cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Aspects of the development of an ethical drug, regardless of its therapeutic class (selection of drug name, intellectual property rights, drug safety, marketing and pricing, quality assurance and counterfeiting, generic use, emerging drug donations) are influenced to varying degrees by the triad of money, politics and medical need and the perspectives (each defensible) placed thereon by the WHO and industry. Instead of simply defending their positions combining the best of these strategies to optimise drug development for the needs of developing countries appears logical. Similarly, via its philanthropic initiatives, industry will have donated over $US1 billion in drug and research aid in the period 1995 to 2005. These charitable projects should yield useful information for planning and organising future aid efforts. Global warming, only recently given serious governmental consideration, is an area not yet addressed in drug development policy although along with geographical effects, it is likely to have an impact on the epidemiology of diseases e.g. malaria returning to the Mediterranean, worldwide. With changing disease patterns (and

  6. Business Ethics and CSR in Pharmaceutical Industry in the Czech Republic and Hungary?

    Markéta Lőrinczy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How do business ethics and CSR form part of pharmaceutical business in the Czech Republic and Hungary? The question was analyzed through empirical studies where surveys were the main tool. The research investigated business ethics, CSR, ethical code, ethical involvement of employees as factors that might be important to achieve ethical behaviour in the pharmaceutical industry. Results showed that, with 69.4% response rate, that Czech and Hungarian original companies are more towards ethical behaviour and the employees know more about the organization they work for. The data were compared with parametric statistical analysis based on Mann-Whitney U calculator.

  7. Pattern of Duplicate Presentations at National Hematology-Oncology Meetings: Influence of the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Ramchandren, Radhakrishnan; Schiffer, Charles A

    2016-03-01

    The major large US hematology-oncology meetings sponsored by the American Society of Hematology (ASH) and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) have specific guidelines in place discouraging submission of scientific information presented previously at other meetings. Nonetheless, duplicate submissions are frequent. The incidence and motivations for duplicate hematologic presentations and the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on this process have not been thoroughly analyzed. Therefore, were viewed four consecutive ASH and ASCO meetings to assess the frequency of duplicate abstract presentations. All abstracts presented at ASCO2010 in the area of malignant hematology were compared with abstracts from ASCO and ASH 2009 and ASH 2010, and funding sources were reviewed. More than half (54%) of all abstracts submitted to ASCO 2010 acknowledged pharmaceutical company support. Almost one third (31%) of ASCO 2010 abstracts were resubmitted in the 2-year time period, and it was notable that a high fraction (75%) of these duplicate abstracts had pharmaceutical industry sponsorship, compared with 42% of the abstracts that were submitted only once. Despite current guidelines prohibiting duplicate abstract presentation, a substantial proportion (31%) of abstracts at large international hematology-oncology meetings are duplicative, with potential negative consequences. In addition, a disproportionate percentage of the duplicate abstracts rely on pharmaceutical industry support (75%), suggesting that marketing strategies may be a motivation for some of these repetitive submissions.

  8. What residents don't know about physician-pharmaceutical industry interactions.

    Watkins, Raquel S; Kimberly, James

    2004-05-01

    Little is known about the knowledge and skills internal medicine residents need to interact appropriately with pharmaceutical industry representatives. The authors conducted a needs assessment of current knowledge and preferences for potential components of a new educational initiative among residents. In 2001, a two-page questionnaire using a five-point ordinal scale was mailed to all internal medicine residents and faculty at one institution. Analysis included use of Wilcoxon two-sample test. Response rates were 97% (85/88) for residents and 79% (86/109) for faculty. Residents and faculty's knowledge about formal position statements or literature on the impact of marketing strategies on prescribing patterns, drug marketing costs, or how pharmaceutical representatives are trained to interact with physicians was very limited. Most responders felt residents should learn to critically interpret promotional materials, recognize potential for conflict of interest, and consider how patients perceive the physician-pharmaceutical industry relationship. More faculty than residents valued including position statements (66% versus 39%, p marketing on prescribing patterns (70% versus 41%, p education. Only one-half or fewer favored small-group discussions, lecture series, critical-reading skills seminars, or panel discussions. Internal medicine residents and faculty reported low levels of knowledge about physician-pharmaceutical industry relationships. Some consensus about educational components existed, but optimal educational formats remain uncertain. A six-hour curriculum to address this complex, emotionally charged topic was developed, implemented, and evaluated.

  9. Medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical industry marketing: a survey at one U.S. medical school.

    Bellin, Melena; McCarthy, Susan; Drevlow, Laurel; Pierach, Claus

    2004-11-01

    While much is known about the interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and physicians, very little is known about pharmaceutical marketing directed toward medical students. This study sought to characterize the extent and forms of medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical industry marketing. In 2001-02, an anonymous, 17-item questionnaire was distributed to 165 preclinical and 116 clinical students at the University of Minnesota Medical School-Twin Cities. The main outcome measures were the number and forms of exposures to pharmaceutical industry marketing reported by medical students and whether students had discussed these exposures with teachers or advisors. Preclinical and clinical students were compared using chi(2) analysis (p marketing. Seventy-six (71.7%) clinical students compared to 38 (33.3%) preclinical students recalled over 20 exposures (p textbook (p marketing with an instructor or advisor; 59 (55.7%) clinical students as compared to 87 (80.6%) preclinical students recalled no such discussion (p marketing during their early years of training. Given existing evidence that such exposure influences physicians' practice and prescribing patterns, the authors propose that medical school curricula include formal instruction to prepare students to critically assess these contacts.

  10. Managing the interface with marketing to improve delivery of pharmacovigilance within the pharmaceutical industry.

    Edwards, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under pressure to improve the scientific quality of its decisions concerning the benefit and risks of its products while ensuring compliance with acceptable standards of marketing. All those in a pharmaceutical company who currently work within pharmacovigilance should be encouraged to lead from the front to examine ongoing marketing activities to see how they can be adapted more towards pharmacovigilance and risk management. The current irony is that the personnel who have the greatest influence on benefit-risk decisions of a product are not necessarily those who acknowledge that they are performing pharmacovigilance. Indeed, for all concerned, whether their orientation is scientific and commercial, effective communication with prescribers and consumers usually underpins product success. Also, a substantial 'marketing' budget is culturally acceptable for the pharmaceutical industry so it is logical to assume that resource for postmarketing activity is often made available. Given these realities, I suggest we should strive for an integrated marketing and risk-management plan based on the best available evidence and that being fully aware and in control of the safety issues for your products is the best way to commercialise them successfully. This approach can still be consistent with other corporate responsibilities such as trying to reduce the financial burden of product development. If this article stimulates further debate about how the pharmaceutical industry can more effectively organise resources and operations to support pharmacovigilance, risk management, and marketing, then it will have achieved its purpose.

  11. Global alcohol policy and the alcohol industry.

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The WHO is preparing its global strategy on alcohol, and, in so doing, has been asked to consult with the alcohol industry on ways it could contribute in reducing the harm done by alcohol. This review asks which is more effective in reducing harm: the regulatory approaches that the industry does not favour; or the educational approaches that it does favour. The current literature overwhelmingly finds that regulatory approaches (including those that manage the price, availability, and marketing of alcohol) reduce the risk of and the experience of alcohol-related harm, whereas educational approaches (including school-based education and public education campaigns) do not, with industry-funded education actually increasing the risk of harm. The alcohol industry should not be involved in making alcohol policy. Its involvement in implementing policy should be restricted to its role as a producer, distributor, and marketer of alcohol. In particular, the alcohol industry should not be involved in educational programmes, as such involvement could actually lead to an increase in harm.

  12. Why the MDGs need good governance in pharmaceutical systems to promote global health.

    Kohler, Jillian Clare; Mackey, Tim Ken; Ovtcharenko, Natalia

    2014-01-21

    Corruption in the health sector can hurt health outcomes. Improving good governance can in turn help prevent health-related corruption. We understand good governance as having the following characteristics: it is consensus-oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, equitable and inclusive, effective and efficient, follows the rule of law, is participatory and should in theory be less vulnerable to corruption. By focusing on the pharmaceutical system, we explore some of the key lessons learned from existing initiatives in good governance. As the development community begins to identify post-2015 Millennium Development Goals targets, it is essential to evaluate programs in good governance in order to build on these results and establish sustainable strategies. This discussion on the pharmaceutical system illuminates why. Considering pharmaceutical governance initiatives such as those launched by the World Bank, World Health Organization, and the Global Fund, we argue that country ownership of good governance initiatives is essential but also any initiative must include the participation of impartial stakeholders. Understanding the political context of any initiative is also vital so that potential obstacles are identified and the design of any initiative is flexible enough to make adjustments in programming as needed. Finally, the inherent challenge which all initiatives face is adequately measuring outcomes from any effort. However in fairness, determining the precise relationship between good governance and health outcomes is rarely straightforward. Challenges identified in pharmaceutical governance initiatives manifest in different forms depending on the nature and structure of the initiative, but their regular occurrence and impact on population-based health demonstrates growing importance of addressing pharmaceutical governance as a key component of the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals. Specifically, these challenges need to be acknowledged and

  13. Corporate social responsibility in global health: an exploratory study of multinational pharmaceutical firms.

    Droppert, Hayley; Bennett, Sara

    2015-04-09

    As pharmaceutical firms experience increasing civil society pressure to act responsibly in a changing globalized world, many are expanding and/or reforming their corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies. We sought to understand how multinational pharmaceutical companies currently engage in CSR activities in the developing world aimed at global health impact, their motivations for doing so and how their CSR strategies are evolving. We conducted a small-scale, exploratory study combining (i) an in-depth review of publicly available data on pharmaceutical firms' CSR with (ii) interviews of representatives from 6 firms, purposively selected, from the highest earning pharmaceutical firms worldwide. Corporate social responsibility differed for each firm particularly with respect to how CSR is defined, organizational structures for managing CSR, current CSR activities, and motivations for CSR. Across the firms studied, the common CSR activities were: differential pharmaceutical pricing, strengthening developing country drug distribution infrastructure, mHealth initiatives, and targeted research and development. Primary factors that motivated CSR engagement were: reputational benefits, recruitment and employee satisfaction, better rankings in sustainability indices, entrance into new markets, long-term economic returns, and improved population health. In terms of CSR strategy, firms were at different points on a spectrum ranging from philanthropic donations to integrated systemic shared value business models. CSR is of increasing importance for multinational pharmaceutical firms yet understanding of the array of CSR strategies employed and their effects is nascent. Our study points to the need to (i) develop clearer and more standardized definitions of CSR in global health (2) strengthen indices to track CSR strategies and their public health effects in developing countries and (iii) undertake more country level studies that investigate how CSR engages with

  14. High rate composting of herbal pharmaceutical industry solid waste.

    Ali, M; Duba, K S; Kalamdhad, A S; Bhatia, A; Khursheed, A; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, N

    2012-01-01

    High rate composting studies of hard to degrade herbal wastes were conducted in a 3.5 m(3) capacity rotary drum composter. Studies were spread out in four trials: In trial 1 and 2, one and two turns per day rotation was observed, respectively, by mixing of herbal industry waste with cattle (buffalo) manure at a ratio of 3:1 on wet weight basis. In trial 3 inocula was added in raw waste to enhance the degradation and in trial 4 composting of a mixture of vegetable market waste and herbal waste was conducted at one turn per day. Results demonstrated that the operation of the rotary drum at one turn a day (trial 1) could provide the most conducive composting conditions and co-composting (trial 4) gave better quality compost in terms of temperature, moisture, nitrogen, and Solvita maturity index. In addition a FT-IR study also revealed that trial 1 and trial 4 gave quality compost in terms of stability and maturity due to the presence of more intense peaks in the aromatic region and less intense peaks were found in the aliphatic region compared with trial 2 and trial 3.

  15. Global petrochemical industry experiencing cyclic downturn

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The current deterioration of the petrochemical industry-particularly in the U.S. and Western Europe-is a cause of great concern to operators and analysts alike. Although the rapidly developing Asian market will continue to be a major factor into the next century, the immediate global outlook is for a weak market. Chem Systems Inc., Tarrytown, N.Y., discussed these issues at its annual petrochemical conference, held Jan. 13-14 in Houston. One of the few optimistic predictions of the meetings gas that the harbingers of the next industry cycle already can be seen in the U.S. economic recovery, and slow-down in new project planning, and a reduction in fixed costs. The paper describes the US market; market structure; the trend toward capacity integration; product forecasts; factors affecting the prices of propylene, aromatics, and benzene; the Asian market (Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Asian countries); regional trade; and the European market

  16. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas.

  17. Polish physicians' cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry and its potential impact on public health.

    Marta Makowska

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe how Polish physicians cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry and show how this relationship may pose a threat to public health.It considers the results of an online survey of 379 physicians. The survey was hosted by surveymonkey.com with links from a Polish physicians' website (Medycyna Praktyczna between 29 October 2013 and 31 December 2013. The sample was purposive, respondents having to be physicians working in Poland.The majority of respondents (96.8% said that they had talked with pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs in their practice, with 85% saying that they had had regular contact with them. Despite the existing legal ban in Poland, 35% of respondents admitted that they had usually met with PSRs in their office during working hours. As many as 81.8% of surveyed doctors said that they had taken part in an educational meeting organized by the pharmaceutical industry at least once during the 12 months preceding the study. A majority of the respondents (72.3% said they trusted the information provided by PSRs. Over one third of respondents (36.4% claimed that Polish doctors accepted gifts of a type that they should not accept according to Polish law.The study showed that Polish physicians cooperate in different ways with pharmaceutical companies and have frequent contact with them. This can influence their knowledge and doctors whose knowledge of drugs is based mainly on information from pharmaceutical industry materials may prescribe medicines in a biased way, possibly exposing their patients to sub-optimal treatments and burdening both their patients and the state budget with unnecessary costs. Lack of trust in doctors and pharmaceutical companies have other implications too: there may be a decline of faith in the efficacy of therapy and patients may be encouraged to engage in self-diagnosis and self-treatment. For these reasons it is necessary to increase transparency and strengthen the ethical

  18. Polish physicians' cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry and its potential impact on public health.

    Makowska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to describe how Polish physicians cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry and show how this relationship may pose a threat to public health. It considers the results of an online survey of 379 physicians. The survey was hosted by surveymonkey.com with links from a Polish physicians' website (Medycyna Praktyczna) between 29 October 2013 and 31 December 2013. The sample was purposive, respondents having to be physicians working in Poland. The majority of respondents (96.8%) said that they had talked with pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) in their practice, with 85% saying that they had had regular contact with them. Despite the existing legal ban in Poland, 35% of respondents admitted that they had usually met with PSRs in their office during working hours. As many as 81.8% of surveyed doctors said that they had taken part in an educational meeting organized by the pharmaceutical industry at least once during the 12 months preceding the study. A majority of the respondents (72.3%) said they trusted the information provided by PSRs. Over one third of respondents (36.4%) claimed that Polish doctors accepted gifts of a type that they should not accept according to Polish law. The study showed that Polish physicians cooperate in different ways with pharmaceutical companies and have frequent contact with them. This can influence their knowledge and doctors whose knowledge of drugs is based mainly on information from pharmaceutical industry materials may prescribe medicines in a biased way, possibly exposing their patients to sub-optimal treatments and burdening both their patients and the state budget with unnecessary costs. Lack of trust in doctors and pharmaceutical companies have other implications too: there may be a decline of faith in the efficacy of therapy and patients may be encouraged to engage in self-diagnosis and self-treatment. For these reasons it is necessary to increase transparency and strengthen the ethical guidelines

  19. Polish physicians’ cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry and its potential impact on public health

    2017-01-01

    Objective This article aims to describe how Polish physicians cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry and show how this relationship may pose a threat to public health. Methods It considers the results of an online survey of 379 physicians. The survey was hosted by surveymonkey.com with links from a Polish physicians’ website (Medycyna Praktyczna) between 29 October 2013 and 31 December 2013. The sample was purposive, respondents having to be physicians working in Poland. Results The majority of respondents (96.8%) said that they had talked with pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) in their practice, with 85% saying that they had had regular contact with them. Despite the existing legal ban in Poland, 35% of respondents admitted that they had usually met with PSRs in their office during working hours. As many as 81.8% of surveyed doctors said that they had taken part in an educational meeting organized by the pharmaceutical industry at least once during the 12 months preceding the study. A majority of the respondents (72.3%) said they trusted the information provided by PSRs. Over one third of respondents (36.4%) claimed that Polish doctors accepted gifts of a type that they should not accept according to Polish law. Conclusions The study showed that Polish physicians cooperate in different ways with pharmaceutical companies and have frequent contact with them. This can influence their knowledge and doctors whose knowledge of drugs is based mainly on information from pharmaceutical industry materials may prescribe medicines in a biased way, possibly exposing their patients to sub-optimal treatments and burdening both their patients and the state budget with unnecessary costs. Lack of trust in doctors and pharmaceutical companies have other implications too: there may be a decline of faith in the efficacy of therapy and patients may be encouraged to engage in self-diagnosis and self-treatment. For these reasons it is necessary to increase transparency

  20. The future of risk communication and the role of the pharmaceutical industry.

    Chakraborty, Sweta; Bouder, Frederic

    2013-02-01

    Risk communication is an interactive two-way process that various stakeholders (e.g., patients, regulators, industry) utilize to address prescription drug safety. This paper will specifically examine the pharmaceutical industry's engagement with risk communication as a tool for information exchange with patients and other stakeholders about the associated risks related to its medicines. Risk communications are not solely meant to inform; and rather effective two-way risk communications have the potential to change behavioral outcomes for the purpose of individual and societal benefit. Despite this indispensable role of risk communication for the pharmaceutical industry, more research is needed for the appropriate development and dissemination of risk communications. A crucial missing component for the crafting of pharmaceutical risk communications is the understanding of risk perceptions from the patient/consumer's perspective. This is necessary to see where any divergences in views may lie between the industry and its final consumer, which is crucial in tailoring communications to target a specific erroneous belief or to address what might be deemed as a needed behavioral shift. It is also necessary to develop communications in consideration of the levels of public trust in the industry as well as other perceived actors in the healthcare system. Even the most meticulously crafted and tested risk communications will fail to fulfill their purpose if the role of trust is not taken into consideration. These considerations can lead to the establishment of a "social contract" that effectively addresses what is required from both parties for continued and mutually beneficial interactions. Conducting risk perception research, addressing the role of trust, establishing a social contract, and having a realistic outlook on the impact of risk communications are necessary considerations as pharmaceutical risk communication evolves for the future.

  1. Collaborating to Compete: A Search into Capabilities and Strategic Alliances in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Marisa Ohba

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Athough there is a profusion of studies related to strategic alliances and technological capacities which evaluate the issues individually, there is a scarcity of studies with empirical evidence relative to the implications of strategic alliances at the technological capacity configuration. Drawing on a scrutiny of specialised databases (Galé, Dialog, and Business & Industry covering the 1993-2003 period, this article examines the entry and exit composition of innovative capabilities of 25 pharmaceutical companies’ capabilities involved in such alliances. They are organised in three groups: (i large pharmaceutical companies (‘big-pharma’; (ii large bio-pharmaceutical companies (‘bio-pharma’; and (iii small and research-intensive companies. In terms of strategic alliance implications, a change was observed on the technological capacities’ configuration. The evidence suggests that the criteria for partner choice and technological capacity depend on the objectives and needs of each different group of company. Such type of evidence is important to provide researchers, corporate managers, and policy-makers with a concrete notion of the extent to which such division of innovative labour occurs and the actual changes going on the structure and organisation of innovative activities in the pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Comparative analysis of pharmaceuticals versus industrial chemicals acute aquatic toxicity classification according to the United Nations classification system for chemicals. Assessment of the (Q)SAR predictability of pharmaceuticals acute aquatic toxicity and their predominant acute toxic mode-of-action

    Sanderson, Hans; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    data. Pharmaceuticals were found to be more frequent than industrial chemicals in GHS category III. Acute toxicity was predictable (>92%) using a generic (Q)SAR ((Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship) suggesting a narcotic MOA. Analysis of model prediction error suggests that 68...... a comprehensive database based on OECD's standardized measured ecotoxicological data and to evaluate if there is generally cause of greater concern with regards to pharmaceutical aquatic toxicological profiles relative to industrial chemicals. Comparisons were based upon aquatic ecotoxicity classification under...... the United Nations Global Harmonized System for classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS). Moreover, we statistically explored whether the predominant mode-of-action (MOA) for pharmaceuticals is narcosis. We found 275 pharmaceuticals with 569 acute aquatic effect data; 23 pharmaceuticals had chronic...

  3. Global warming and the insurance industry

    Berz, G. A.

    1992-06-01

    In the last few decades, the international insurance industry has been confronted with a drastic increase in the scope and frequency of great natural disasters. The trend is primarily attributable to the continuing steady growth of the world population and the increasing concentration of people and economic values in urban areas. An additional factor is the global migration of populations and industries into areas like the coastal regions which are particularly exposed to natural hazards. The natural hazards themselves, on the other hand, have not yet shown any significant increase. In addition to the problems the insurance industry has with regard to pricing, capacity and loss reserves, the assessment of insured liabilities, preventive planning and the proper adjustment of catastrophe losses are gaining importance. The present problems will be dramatically aggravated if the greenhouse predictions come true. The increased intensity of all convective processes in the atmosphere will force up the frequency and severity of tropical cyclones, tornados, hailstorms, floods and storm surges in many parts of the world with serious consequences for all types of property insurance. Rates will have to be raised and in certain coastal areas insurance coverage will only be available after considerable restrictions have been imposed, e.g., significant deductibles and/or liability or loss limits. In areas of high insurance density the loss potential of individual catastrophes can reach a level where the national and international insurance industries run into serious capacity problems. Recent disasters showed the disproportionately high participation of reinsurers in extreme disaster losses and the need for more risk transparency if the insurance industry is to fulfill its obligations in an increasingly hostile environment.

  4. Aspects of Global Health Issues: Diseases, Natural Disasters, and Pharmaceutical Corporations and Medical Research.

    Brown, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Global health issues are concerns of all public health officials throughout the world. This entails reviewing aspects such as the impact of poverty and the lack of access to quality health care, ignored global killers such as Diseases (Infectious diseases-Malaria, HIV/AIDS), Natural Disasters (Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Floods, and Armed Conflict), Health in the Media, and the Involvement of Pharmaceutical Corporations and Medical Research. These issues are challenges to many needless deaths. Global initiatives are not advancing as they should, such as access to drugs and medications, which some are political.

  5. Health Advocacy Organizations and the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Analysis of Disclosure Practices

    Raveis, Victoria H.; Friedman, Anne; Rothman, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Health advocacy organizations (HAOs) are influential stakeholders in health policy. Although their advocacy tends to closely correspond with the pharmaceutical industry's marketing aims, the financial relationships between HAOs and the pharmaceutical industry have rarely been analyzed. We used Eli Lilly and Company's grant registry to examine its grant-giving policies. We also examined HAO Web sites to determine their grant-disclosure patterns. Only 25% of HAOs that received Lilly grants acknowledged Lilly's contributions on their Web sites, and only 10% acknowledged Lilly as a grant event sponsor. No HAO disclosed the exact amount of a Lilly grant. As highly trusted organizations, HAOs should disclose all corporate grants, including the purpose and the amount. Absent this disclosure, legislators, regulators, and the public cannot evaluate possible conflicts of interest or biases in HAO advocacy. PMID:21233424

  6. Preclinical QSP Modeling in the Pharmaceutical Industry: An IQ Consortium Survey Examining the Current Landscape

    Wu, Fan; Bansal, Loveleena; Bradshaw‐Pierce, Erica; Chan, Jason R.; Liederer, Bianca M.; Mettetal, Jerome T.; Schroeder, Patricia; Schuck, Edgar; Tsai, Alice; Xu, Christine; Chimalakonda, Anjaneya; Le, Kha; Penney, Mark; Topp, Brian; Yamada, Akihiro

    2018-01-01

    A cross‐industry survey was conducted to assess the landscape of preclinical quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) modeling within pharmaceutical companies. This article presents the survey results, which provide insights on the current state of preclinical QSP modeling in addition to future opportunities. Our results call attention to the need for an aligned definition and consistent terminology around QSP, yet highlight the broad applicability and benefits preclinical QSP modeling is currently delivering. PMID:29349875

  7. “Does Organizational Culture Influence the Ethical Behavior in the Pharmaceutical Industry?”

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed

    2012-01-01

    Study of ethical behavior among medical representatives in the profession is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of organizational culture on ethical behavior of medical representatives. Medical representatives working for both domestic and multinational companies constitutes the sample (n=300). Data is collected using a simple random and cluster sampling through a structured question...

  8. Assessment of Food Processing and Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastes as Potential Biosorbents: A Review

    El-Sayed, Hanan E. M.; El-Sayed, Mayyada M. H.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some ha...

  9. Utilization of Lavandula angustifolia Miller extracts as naturalrepellents, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries

    AYOE YUSUFOGLU

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils, absolutes and concretes were prepared from the flowers and leaves of the plant Lavandula angustifolia Miller cultivated in the Bosphorus region of Istanbul, Turkey. The difference in the chemical composition of the mentioned extracts was investigated and compared by using a combination of capillary GC-MS with the aim of offering them as repellent, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries. The IR-spectra, the yields and the physico-chemical data of the extracts were also analysed.

  10. Heterogeneous batch distillation processes for waste solvent recovery in pharmaceutical industry

    Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Gerbaud, Vincent; Arias-Barreto, Alien; Joulia, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    A summary about our experiences in the introduction of heterogeneous entrainers in azeotropic and extractive batch distillation is presented in this work. Essential advantages of the application of heterogeneous entrainers are showed by rigorous simulation and experimental verification in a bench batch distillation column for separating several azeotropic mixtures such as acetonitrile – water, n hexane – ethyl acetate and chloroform – methanol, commonly found in pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Expectations and satisfaction of academic investigators in nonclinical collaboration with the pharmaceutical industry.

    Amiri, Marjan; Michel, Martin C

    2015-06-01

    In light of a growing role of research collaborations between academia and the pharmaceutical industry, we have explored expectations and experience of academic investigators with preclinical collaborations. Researchers from Western Europe, North America, and Japan with preclinical publications in the obstructed airways or diabetes fields were invited to anonymously participate in a web-based survey. A total of 134 investigators (28 % of invitees) participated in the two sequentially performed surveys with similar responses in both therapeutic areas. A secondary but prespecified subgroup analysis was based on region of residence, gender, and career level of the investigator. Across all groups, responders considered freedom to publish, obtaining funding and obtaining compounds to be the most important objectives of nonclinical collaborations with the pharmaceutical industry, whereas cultivating professional relationships, getting external scientific input, direct relationship to disease treatment, and involvement with drug development were less important. Among eight attributes of the primary contact person in the company, trustworthiness ranked highest, followed by a collaborative spirit and transparent information sharing; supportiveness, scientific qualification, accessibility, and timeliness of responses ranked lower, and friendliness, lowest. Related to their most recent collaboration, investigators also expressed the highest level of satisfaction with the trustworthiness attribute. On the other hand, the process of reaching a contract was often considered too long and difficult, for which both university and company legal departments were reported as culprits. We conclude that academic researchers are generally satisfied with their preclinical collaboration with the pharmaceutical industry but look for improved contracting procedures.

  12. Pre-Clinical Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes Toward Pharmaceutical Industry Marketing.

    Fein, Eric H; Vermillion, Michelle L; Uijtdehaage, Sebastian H J

    2007-12-01

    Background - Recent studies have examined the exposures and attitudes of physicians and third- and fourth-year medical students toward pharmaceutical industry marketing, but fewer studies have addressed these topics among pre-clinical medical students. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess pre-clinical students' level of exposure to the pharmaceutical industry and their attitudes toward marketing. Method - First and second-year medical students at UCLA completed a 40-item survey based on previous studies. Results - Over three quarters of pre-clinical students (78.5% or 226 of 288) responded to the survey. Exposure to pharmaceutical industry marketing started very early in medical school. Most second-year students (77%) had received gifts including drug samples after three semesters. Most felt that this would not affect their future prescribing behavior. Conclusions - These findings and findings from related studies, coupled with the students' desire to learn more about the issue, suggest that an early educational intervention addressing this topic may be warranted in American medical schools.

  13. Clustering as a determinant of development the competitive pharmaceutical industry - example of Nutribiomed cluster

    Anna Skowrońska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuous improvement and follow the technology seems to be particularly important in terms of health. Given the epidemiological trends is necessary to develop advanced technologies in the medical and pharmaceutical industries. Only innovative solutions offer a chance for a battle with disease, for example, with tumors which are one of the leading causes of death in Europe. This approach perfectly illustrates the strategy known as open innovation, according to which companies should learn from external sources by combining complementary ideas for its ongoing operations. The pharmaceutical industry has a significant impact on the functioning of not only the economy, but it is also closely linked to the health sector, and thus affects the level and quality of life of societies. In this context it becomes particularly important to seek solutions that will ensure the free flow of knowledge and access to highly specialized techniques, which in turn have a positive impact on the health of citizens. Analysis of the functioning of the pharmaceutical clusters is based on case study cluster Nutribiomed. The results achieved in many areas of activity confirm the legitimate use of the structure of the group of highly specialized industry, which is the drug market and indicates a number of benefits associated with the operation as part of its structure.

  14. Structural-functional and parametric analysis of the social function of pharmaceutical industry

    N. O. Tkachenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy has always had a special (social value and was sensitive to the new social changes in the society and the state. These changes allow better understand the issues associated with increasing the efficiency of pharmaceutical care to the population. The aim of the work: identify, justify and to summarize the main elements of the social function of pharmacy, as a component of health care system, to further evaluate the properties of the pharmaceutical industry as a system. Materials and methods. To achieve this goal the principle of a systematic approach and the complex of research methods such as structural, functional and parametric analysis, logical knowledge and comparison, ad also generalization have been used. As materials of research, we used the results of fundamental and applied research of national and foreign experts on the issue. Results and discussion. The basic principles of the welfare state and pharmacy as socially oriented sectors of the economy have been determined. We have found that the pharmaceutical industry is an agent, which implements a number of elements of the social function, such as pharmaceutical assistance to the population, the production of social goods (drugs, medical products, medical cosmetics, etc., creating and providing of working places, paying taxes (replenishment of the state budget, the formation and development of human capital, research and innovation activities, charity and sponsorship, environmental protection. Ukraine formally acceded to United Nations document, «Agenda for the XXI Century». This agreement commits our government to implement development and implementation of sustainable development strategies. Its main components are the social responsibility, social integration, an efficient worker and effective owner. Social responsibility acts as a reverse reaction on realization of social policy through the main sectors of the economy. Conclusions. We have summarized the information and

  15. Individual capacity-building approaches in a global pharmaceutical systems strengthening program: a selected review.

    Konduri, Niranjan; Rauscher, Megan; Wang, Shiou-Chu Judy; Malpica-Llanos, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Medicines use related challenges such as inadequate adherence, high levels of antimicrobial resistance and preventable adverse drug reactions have underscored the need to incorporate pharmaceutical services to help achieve desired treatment outcomes, and protect patients from inappropriate use of medicines. This situation is further constrained by insufficient numbers of pharmaceutical personnel and inappropriate skill mix. Studies have addressed individual capacity building approaches of logistics, supply chain or disease specific interventions but few have documented those involving such pharmacy assistants/professionals, or health workers/professionals charged with improving access and provision of pharmaceutical services. We examined how different training modalities have been employed and adapted to meet country-specific context and needs by a global pharmaceutical systems strengthening program in collaboration with a country's Ministry of Health and local stakeholders. Structured, content analysis of training approaches from twelve selected countries and a survey among conveniently selected trainees in Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Case-based learning, practice and feedback, and repetitive interventions such as post-training action plan, supportive supervision and mentoring approaches are effective, evidence-based training techniques. In Ethiopia and Bangladesh, over 94% of respondents indicated that they have improved or developed skills or competencies as a result of the program's training activities. Supportive supervision structures and mentorship have been institutionalized with appropriate management structures. National authorities have been sensitized to secure funding from domestic resources or from the global fund grants for post-training follow-up initiatives. The Pharmaceutical Leadership Development Program is an effective, case-based training modality that motivates staff to develop quality-improvement interventions and solve specific challenges

  16. Comparative analysis of pharmaceuticals versus industrial chemicals acute aquatic toxicity classification according to the United Nations classification system for chemicals. Assessment of the (Q)SAR predictability of pharmaceuticals acute aquatic toxicity and their predominant acute toxic mode-of-action.

    Sanderson, Hans; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been reported to be ubiquitously present in surface waters prompting concerns of effects of these bioactive substances. Meanwhile, there is a general scarcity of publicly available ecotoxicological data concerning pharmaceuticals. The aim of this paper was to compile a comprehensive database based on OECD's standardized measured ecotoxicological data and to evaluate if there is generally cause of greater concern with regards to pharmaceutical aquatic toxicological profiles relative to industrial chemicals. Comparisons were based upon aquatic ecotoxicity classification under the United Nations Global Harmonized System for classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS). Moreover, we statistically explored whether the predominant mode-of-action (MOA) for pharmaceuticals is narcosis. We found 275 pharmaceuticals with 569 acute aquatic effect data; 23 pharmaceuticals had chronic data. Pharmaceuticals were found to be more frequent than industrial chemicals in GHS category III. Acute toxicity was predictable (>92%) using a generic (Q)SAR ((Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship) suggesting a narcotic MOA. Analysis of model prediction error suggests that 68% of the pharmaceuticals have a non-specific MOA. Additionally, the acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) for 70% of the analyzed pharmaceuticals was below 25 further suggesting a non-specific MOA. Sub-lethal receptor-mediated effects may however have a more specific MOA.

  17. Toward a treaty on safety and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals and medical devices: enhancing an endangered global public good

    Faunce Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract • Expert evaluations of the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical and medical devices, prior to marketing approval or reimbursement listing, collectively represent a globally important public good. The scientific processes involved play a major role in protecting the public from product risks such as unintended or adverse events, sub-standard production and unnecessary burdens on individual and governmental healthcare budgets. • Most States now have an increasing policy interest in this area, though institutional arrangements, particularly in the area of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical devices, are not uniformly advanced and are fragile in the face of opposing multinational industry pressure to recoup investment and maintain profit margins. • This paper examines the possibility, in this context, of States commencing negotiations toward bilateral trade agreement provisions, and ultimately perhaps a multilateral Treaty, on safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Such obligations may robustly facilitate a conceptually interlinked, but endangered, global public good, without compromising the capacity of intellectual property laws to facilitate local product innovations.

  18. A quality by design study applied to an industrial pharmaceutical fluid bed granulation.

    Lourenço, Vera; Lochmann, Dirk; Reich, Gabriele; Menezes, José C; Herdling, Thorsten; Schewitz, Jens

    2012-06-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is encouraged within Quality by Design (QbD) to apply science-based manufacturing principles to assure quality not only of new but also of existing processes. This paper presents how QbD principles can be applied to an existing industrial pharmaceutical fluid bed granulation (FBG) process. A three-step approach is presented as follows: (1) implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) monitoring tools at the industrial scale process, combined with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) of process and PAT data to increase the process knowledge; (2) execution of scaled-down designed experiments at a pilot scale, with adequate PAT monitoring tools, to investigate the process response to intended changes in Critical Process Parameters (CPPs); and finally (3) the definition of a process Design Space (DS) linking CPPs to Critical to Quality Attributes (CQAs), within which product quality is ensured by design, and after scale-up enabling its use at the industrial process scale. The proposed approach was developed for an existing industrial process. Through enhanced process knowledge established a significant reduction in product CQAs, variability already within quality specifications ranges was achieved by a better choice of CPPs values. The results of such step-wise development and implementation are described. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Macro-economic factors influencing the architectural business model shift in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Dierks, Raphaela Marie Louisa; Bruyère, Olivier; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Richy, Florent-Frederic

    2016-10-01

    Technological innovations, new regulations, increasing costs of drug productions and new demands are only few key drivers of a projected alternation in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this review is to understand the macro economic factors responsible for the business model revolution to possess a competitive advantage over market players. Areas covered: Existing literature on macro-economic factors changing the pharmaceutical landscape has been reviewed to present a clear image of the current market environment. Expert commentary: Literature shows that pharmaceutical companies are facing an architectural alteration, however the evidence on the rationale driving the transformation is outstanding. Merger & Acquisitions (M&A) deals and collaborations are headlining the papers. Q1 2016 did show a major slowdown in M&A deals by volume since 2013 (with deal cancellations of Pfizer and Allergan, or the downfall of Valeant), but pharmaceutical analysts remain confident that this shortfall was a consequence of the equity market volatility. It seems likely that the shift to an M&A model will become apparent during the remainder of 2016, with deal announcements of Abbott Laboratories, AbbVie and Sanofi worth USD 45billion showing the appetite of big pharma companies to shift from the fully vertical integrated business model to more horizontal business models.

  20. Creating knowledge structures in the pharmaceutical industry: the increasing significance of virtual organisation.

    Salazar, A; Howells, J

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the specific trend and challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry regarding the exploitation of Internet e-commerce technology and virtual organisation to develop and maintain competitive advantage. There are two important facets of the current trend. One is the rapid development of a complex network of alliances between the established pharmaceutical companies and the specialised biotechnology company start-ups. The other is the rapid growth of internet e-commerce companies dedicated to developing specialised technological platforms for acquiring and selling genetic and biochemical knowledge. The underlying challenge is how big pharmaceutical companies can emulate some of the innovation processes of smaller biotechnology company start-ups, and how they can appropriate and applied new technological knowledge on the development of new drugs. Pharmaceutical companies in order to retain competitive advantage need to continuously monitor all aspects of knowledge management with regard to the R&D and manufacturing process (as well as customer management and marketing). Technological change and organisational restructuring should be aimed at boosting the capacity of large firms to innovate rapidly.

  1. Pharmaceutical contamination in residential, industrial, and agricultural waste streams: risk to aqueous environments in Taiwan.

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2008-12-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the occurrence of antibiotics, hormones and other pharmaceuticals in water sites that have major potential for downstream environmental contamination. These include residential (hospitals, sewage treatment plants, and regional discharges), industrial (pharmaceutical production facilities), and agricultural (animal husbandries and aquacultures) waste streams. We assayed 23 Taiwanese water sites for 97 targeted compounds, of which a significant number were detected and quantified. The most frequently detected compounds were sulfamethoxazole, caffeine, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen, followed closely by cephalexin, ofloxacin, and diclofenac, which were detected in >91% of samples and found to have median (maximum) concentrations of 0.2 (5.8), 0.39 (24.0), 0.02 (100.4), 0.41 (14.5), 0.15 (31.4), 0.14 (13.6) and 0.083 (29.8) microg/L, respectively. Lincomycin and acetaminophen had high measured concentrations (>100 microg/L), and 35 other pharmaceuticals occurred at the microg/L level. These incidence and concentration results correlate well with published data for other worldwide locations, as well as with Taiwanese medication usage data, suggesting a human contamination source. Many pharmaceuticals also occurred at levels exceeding predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC), warranting further investigation of their occurrence and fate in receiving waters, as well as the overall risks they pose for local ecosystems and human residents. The information provided here will also be useful for development of strategies for regulation and remediation.

  2. Accounting- versus economic-based rates of return: implications for profitability measures in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Skrepnek, Grant H

    2004-01-01

    Accounting-based profits have indicated that pharmaceutical firms have achieved greater returns relative to other sectors. However, partially due to the theoretically inappropriate reporting of research and development (R&D) expenditures according to generally accepted accounting principles, evidence suggests that a substantial and upward bias is present in accounting-based rates of return for corporations with high levels of intangible assets. Given the intensity of R&D in pharmaceutical firms, accounting-based profit metrics in the drug sector may be affected to a greater extent than other industries. The aim of this work was to address measurement issues associated with corporate performance and factors that contribute to the bias within accounting-based rates of return. Seminal and broadly cited works on the subject of accounting- versus economic-based rates of return were reviewed from the economic and finance literature, with an emphasis placed on issues and scientific evidence directly related to the drug development process and pharmaceutical industry. With international convergence and harmonization of accounting standards being imminent, stricter adherence to theoretically sound economic principles is advocated, particularly those based on discounted cash-flow methods. Researchers, financial analysts, and policy makers must be cognizant of the biases and limitations present within numerous corporate performance measures. Furthermore, the development of more robust and valid economic models of the pharmaceutical industry is required to capture the unique dimensions of risk and return of the drug development process. Empiric work has illustrated that estimates of economic-based rates of return range from approximately 2 to approximately 11 percentage points below various accounting-based rates of return for drug companies. Because differences in the nature of risk and uncertainty borne by drug manufacturers versus other sectors make comparative assessments

  3. Financial aspects and the future of the pharmaceutical industry in the United States of america.

    Karamehic, Jasenko; Ridic, Ognjen; Ridic, Goran; Jukic, Tomislav; Coric, Jozo; Subasic, Djemo; Panjeta, Mirsad; Saban, Aida; Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Izet

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry is defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as "companies engaged in researching, developing, manufacturing and marketing of medicines and biological for human or veterinary use". Besides its main role in improving human health, the US pharmaceutical industry represents one of the most critical, key decision makers' lobbying prone and competitive sectors in the economy. The cost in the environment of very limited government price regulation remains one of the major problems fuelling aggregate health care cost inflation. Pharmaceuticals have created huge benefits for public health and economic productivity by the means of saving lives, increasing life expectancy, reducing illness related suffering, preventing surgeries and decreasing hospital stays. The goal of this review paper is to show the present conditions and future trends of the pharmaceutical industry in the U.S. THIS PAPER REPRESENTS A THOROUGH LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE MULTIFACETED SOURCES INCLUDING: studies, books, peer reviewed journals, U.S. government sources (i.e. U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, etc.). In the thirty years pharmaceutical companies have consistently developed and launched new medicines, bringing hope to sick or - at risk patients. They also usually provide above the average financial returns for its shareholders. U.S. pharmaceutical companies had as their goal to discover blockbuster drugs. Blockbuster drugs are generally defined as drugs that solve medical problems common to hundreds of millions of people and, at the same time generate large sales increases and profits for the pharmaceutical companies. The main approach of these companies includes huge investments in research and development (R&D), innovation, marketing and sales. The trend analysis shows that for the most part the era of blockbuster drugs is nearing an end. Numerous blockbuster drugs will be coming off patent in the next few years, opening the way to generics and

  4. Natural gas industry and global warming

    Staropoli, R.; Darras, M.

    1997-01-01

    Natural gas has a very good potential compared to other fossil fuels as regard to global warming because of its high content of hydrogen, and its versatility in uses. To take full advantage of this potential, further development of gas designed boilers and furnaces, gas catalytic combustion, fuel cells are needed, but progresses in the recent years have been very promising. The natural gas industry' environmental potential is discussed. Regarding methane emission, progresses have been done is Western Europe on the distribution network, and some improvement are underway. It is however important to rationalize the effort by acting on the most emitting subsystem: this can be achieved by cooperation along the whole gas chain. (R.P.)

  5. From maturity to value-added innovation: lessons from the pharmaceutical and agro-biotechnology industries.

    Mittra, James; Tait, Joyce; Wield, David

    2011-03-01

    The pharmaceutical and agro-biotechnology industries have been confronted by dwindling product pipelines and rapid developments in life sciences, thus demanding a strategic rethink of conventional research and development. Despite offering both industries a solution to the pipeline problem, the life sciences have also brought complex regulatory challenges for firms. In this paper, we comment on the response of these industries to the life science trajectory, in the context of maturing conventional small-molecule product pipelines and routes to market. The challenges of managing transition from maturity to new high-value-added innovation models are addressed. Furthermore, we argue that regulation plays a crucial role in shaping the innovation systems of both industries, and as such, we suggest potentially useful changes to the current regulatory system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of Nelumbo nucifera and Hydrilla verticillata in the treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent from 24 Parganas, West Bengal

    Shamba Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern day technologies employed in industrialization and unhygienic lifestyle of mankind has led to a severe environmental menace resulting in pollution of freshwater bodies. Pharmaceutical industry effluents cause eutrophication and provide adequate nutrients for growth of pathogenic bacteria. This study has been conducted with aquatic plants water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata with an novel aim to treat pharmaceutical industry effluents showing the outcome of the experiments carried out with the effluents collected from rural areas of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Determination of pH, solid suspend, BOD5, NH3-N, MPN and coliform test were used for this notioned purpose. Pharmaceutical waste effluent water treated with water lotus showed less pH, solid suspend, DO, BOD, NH3-N, MPN and coliform bacteria than hydrilla treatment when compared to the control. In conclusion, water lotus is found to be more efficient in treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent waste water than hydrilla.

  7. Implications of nuclear industry globalization for chinese nuclear industry: opportunities and challenges

    Guo Zhifeng; Ding Qihua; Wang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, globalization of the world nuclear industry has developed into a new phase. Chinese nuclear industry will be inevitably integrated into this trend. Globalization will bring both positive and adverse effects on Chinese nuclear industry. Facing the fierce competition, Chinese companies must rise to many challenges to enter the global nuclear market. And China need to make scientific decisions and take effective measures in various fields of nuclear industry to realized the goal of global development. (authors)

  8. Dynamic competition in pharmaceuticals. Patent expiry, generic penetration, and industry structure.

    Magazzini, Laura; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2004-06-01

    This paper investigates patterns of industrial dynamics and competition in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular reference to the consequences of patent expiry in different countries. We focus on the competition at the level of single chemical entities, distinguishing between original brands and generic products. Quarterly data, spanning from July 1987 to December 1998, on sales of pharmaceutical products in four countries (USA, UK, Germany, and France) constitute the basis of our analysis. All the products containing major molecules whose patent expiration date lies between 1986 and 1996 are included in our sample. We show how diffusion of generics is linked to the characteristics of the market and investigate how price dynamics of original products are affected by generic competition. Our empirical investigation shows that the dynamics of drug prices and the competition by generic drugs vary significantly across countries. This heterogeneity notwithstanding, a clear distinction seems to emerge. On the one hand, systems that rely on market-based competition in pharmaceuticals promote a clear distinction between firms that act as innovators and firms that act as imitators after patent expiry. Here, original products enjoy premium prices and exclusivity profits under patent protection, and face fierce price competition after patent expiry. On the other hand, in systems that rely on administered prices, penetration by generic drugs tends to be rather limited. Its descriptive and preliminary nature notwithstanding, our analysis seems to have relevant implications at different levels of generality, especially for Europe.

  9. "Does organizational culture influence the ethical behavior in the pharmaceutical industry?".

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed

    2011-12-01

    Study of ethical behavior among medical representatives in the profession is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of organizational culture on ethical behavior of medical representatives. Medical representatives working for both domestic and multinational companies constitutes the sample (n=300). Data is collected using a simple random and cluster sampling through a structured questionnaire. The research design is hypothesis testing. It is a cross-sectional and correlational study, conducted under non-contrived settings. Chi-square tests were shows that there is an association between the organizational culture and ethical behavior of medical representatives. In addition, the strength of the association is measured which report to Cramer's V of 63.1% and Phi Value of 2.749. Results indicate that multinational company medical reps are more ethical compared to domestic company medical representatives vast difference in both variance and in t test results. Through better organizational culture, pharmaceutical companies can create the most desirable behavior among their employees. Authors conclude that apart from organizational culture, the study of additional organizational, individual and external factors are imperative for better understanding of ethical behavior of medical representatives in the pharmaceutical industry in India.

  10. Determinants of FDI Localization in China: A County-Level Analysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Li, Su; Angelino, Antonio; Yin, Haitao; Spigarelli, Francesca

    2017-08-30

    Foreign direct investments (FDIs) have been widely recognized as a crucial feature of the Chinese industrial development process. Over the past decades, China has been attracting huge amounts of inward FDIs as a consequence of both spontaneous market dynamics and place-based preferential policies at the sub-national level. However, the Chinese market exhibits large dissimilarities in terms of FDI localization across territories that are worth investigating at a more disaggregated level. In this regards, our study explores the determinants of attraction of inward FDIs in China, at the county level. It focuses on the pharmaceutical industry and attempts to assess whether factors related to location advantages, agglomeration dynamics, information cost effects and environmental regulation costs affect foreign firms' localization choices as well as invested amounts in that location. By means of discrete choice models, our paper confirms the findings of the prevalent literature about the positive effects of location advantages on pharmaceutical FDI attraction. Different from our expectations, a higher proportion of foreign enterprises do not stimulate significant effects on FDI localization, while preferential policies and sectoral agglomeration are positively correlated with the localization of pharmaceutical foreign firms. Finally, our results suggest that investing firms tend to avoid areas with strict environment regulation.

  11. The teaching of drug development to medical students: collaboration between the pharmaceutical industry and medical school.

    Stanley, A G; Jackson, D; Barnett, D B

    2005-04-01

    Collaboration between the medical school at Leicester and a local pharmaceutical company, AstraZeneca, led to the design and implementation of an optional third year special science skills module teaching medical students about drug discovery and development. The module includes didactic teaching about the complexities of the drug discovery process leading to development of candidate drugs for clinical investigation as well as practical experience of the processes involved in drug evaluation preclinically and clinically. It highlights the major ethical and regulatory issues concerned with the production and testing of novel therapies in industry and the NHS. In addition it helps to reinforce other areas of the medical school curriculum, particularly the understanding of clinical study design and critical appraisal. The module is assessed on the basis of a written dissertation and the critical appraisal of a drug advertisement. This paper describes the objectives of the module and its content. In addition we outline the results of an initial student evaluation of the module and an assessment of its impact on student knowledge and the opinion of the pharmaceutical industry partner. This module has proven to be popular with medical students, who acquire a greater understanding of the work required for drug development and therefore reflect more favourably on the role of pharmaceutical companies in the UK.

  12. Microbial Tyrosinases: Promising Enzymes for Pharmaceutical, Food Bioprocessing, and Environmental Industry

    Kamal Uddin Zaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase is a natural enzyme and is often purified to only a low degree and it is involved in a variety of functions which mainly catalyse the o-hydroxylation of monophenols into their corresponding o-diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones using molecular oxygen, which then polymerizes to form brown or black pigments. The synthesis of o-diphenols is a potentially valuable catalytic ability and thus tyrosinase has attracted a lot of attention with respect to industrial applications. In environmental technology it is used for the detoxification of phenol-containing wastewaters and contaminated soils, as biosensors for phenol monitoring, and for the production of L-DOPA in pharmaceutical industries, and is also used in cosmetic and food industries as important catalytic enzyme. Melanin pigment synthesized by tyrosinase has found applications for protection against radiation cation exchangers, drug carriers, antioxidants, antiviral agents, or immunogen. The recombinant V. spinosum tryosinase protein can be used to produce tailor-made melanin and other polyphenolic materials using various phenols and catechols as starting materials. This review compiles the recent data on biochemical and molecular properties of microbial tyrosinases, underlining their importance in the industrial use of these enzymes. After that, their most promising applications in pharmaceutical, food processing, and environmental fields are presented.

  13. Statistical applications for chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) in the pharmaceutical industry

    Burdick, Richard K; Pfahler, Lori B; Quiroz, Jorge; Sidor, Leslie; Vukovinsky, Kimberly; Zhang, Lanju

    2017-01-01

    This book examines statistical techniques that are critically important to Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control (CMC) activities. Statistical methods are presented with a focus on applications unique to the CMC in the pharmaceutical industry. The target audience consists of statisticians and other scientists who are responsible for performing statistical analyses within a CMC environment. Basic statistical concepts are addressed in Chapter 2 followed by applications to specific topics related to development and manufacturing. The mathematical level assumes an elementary understanding of statistical methods. The ability to use Excel or statistical packages such as Minitab, JMP, SAS, or R will provide more value to the reader. The motivation for this book came from an American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) short course on statistical methods applied to CMC applications presented by four of the authors. One of the course participants asked us for a good reference book, and the only book recomm...

  14. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    Coughlan, Laura M; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present, and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i) the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalyzing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii) the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii) the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Negative environmental impacts of antibiotic-contaminated effluents from pharmaceutical industries.

    Bielen, Ana; Šimatović, Ana; Kosić-Vukšić, Josipa; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Babić, Sanja; Jurina, Tamara; González Plaza, Juan José; Milaković, Milena; Udiković-Kolić, Nikolina

    2017-12-01

    Effluents from pharmaceutical industries are recognized as significant contributors to aquatic pollution with antibiotics. Although such pollution has been mostly reported in Asia, knowledge on industrial discharges in other regions of the world, including Europe, and on the effects associated with such exposures is still limited. Thus, we performed chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological analyses of effluents from two Croatian pharmaceutical industries during four seasons. In treated effluents of the company synthesizing macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZI), the total concentration of AZI and two macrolide by-products from its synthesis was 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in winter and springtime (up to 10.5 mg/L) than during the other two seasons (up to 638 μg/L). Accordingly, the highest total concentrations (up to 30 μg/L) in the recipient river were measured in winter and spring. Effluents from second company formulating veterinary antibiotics contained fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, sulfonamides and tetracyclines ranging from low μg/L to approx. 200 μg/L. Low concentrations of these antibiotics, from below the limit of quantification to approx. few μg/L, have also been measured in the recipient stream. High frequency of culturable bacteria resistant to AZI (up to 83%) or sulfamethazine (up to 90%) and oxytetracycline (up to 50%) were also found in studied effluents. Finally, we demonstrated that toxicity to algae and water fleas often exceeded the permitted values. Most highly contaminated effluents induced multiple abnormalities in zebrafish embryos. In conclusion, using a wide array of analyses we have demonstrated that discharges from pharmaceutical industries can pose a significant ecological and public health concern due to their toxicity to aquatic organisms and risks for promoting development and spread of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries

    Laura M Coughlan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalysing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Pharmaceutical expenditure changes in Serbia and Greece during the global economic recession

    Mihajlo Jakovljevic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Clarity on health expenditures is essential for the timely identification of risks that jeopardize the democratic provision of health services and the credibility of health insurance systems. Furthermore, observing health outcomes with geographical scope is essential for making multilateral associations. This study aimed at conveying information on the variability of important economic parameters of the health sector of Serbia and Greece from 2007 to 2012, when the most serious financial crisis in the post-war economic history hit the global economy. Methods: Exchange rates, purchase-power-parities (PPP and price indices were used for the bilateral review of health and pharmaceutical expenditure dynamics during 2007-2012. Prescription and dispensing changes were also studied taking into account the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC structure of drugs consumed. Results: Greece was forced to cut down its total health care and pharmaceutical expenditure and mainly its out-of-pocket payments were more seriously affected by the recession. Surprisingly, emerging market of Serbia, although severely damaged by global recession, succeeded to maintain 19% growth of its per capita health expenditure and even 25% increase of its per capita spending on pharmaceuticals. Innovative pharmaceuticals showed an upward trend in both countries. Conclusions: These two countries might serve as an example of two distinct pathways of mature and emerging health care markets during financial constraints caused by global recession. Our findings show that producing disease-based feedback, in the long run, may empower the assessment of the return on investment on medical technology and healthcare systems’ cost-effectiveness.

  18. Attitudes and relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru.

    Aldo De Ferrari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The interaction between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry influences physicians' attitudes and prescribing behavior. Although largely studied in the US, this topic has not been well studied in resource-poor settings, where a close relationship between physicians and industry still exists. OBJECTIVE: To describe physician interactions with and attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study through an anonymous, self-filled questionnaire distributed among faculty and trainee physicians of five different clinical departments working in a Peruvian public general hospital. A transcultural validation of an existing Spanish questionnaire was performed. Exposure to marketing activities, motivations to contact pharmaceutical representatives and attitudes towards industry were studied. Collected data was analyzed by degree of training, clinical department, gender and teaching status. Attitudes were measured on a four-point LIKERT scale. RESULTS: 155 physicians completed the survey, of which 148 were included in the study sample. 94.5% of attending physicians reported ongoing encounters with pharmaceutical representatives. The most common industry-related activities were receiving medical samples (91.2%, promotional material (87.8% and attending meetings in restaurants (81.8%. Respondents considered medical samples and continuing medical education the most ethically acceptable benefits. We found significant differences between attendings and residents, and teaching and non-teaching attendings. An association between the amount of encounters with pharmaceutical representatives, and attitudes towards industry and acceptance of medical samples was found. CONCLUSIONS: A close physician-industry relationship exists in the population under study. The contact is established mainly through pharmaceutical representatives. Medical samples are the most received

  19. Widening the debate about conflict of interest: addressing relationships between journalists and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian; Sweet, Melissa; Jordens, Christopher; Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Forsyth, Rowena

    2012-08-01

    The phone-hacking scandal that led to the closure of the News of the World newspaper in Britain has prompted international debate about media practices and regulation. It is timely to broaden the discussion about journalistic ethics and conduct to include consideration of the impact of media practices upon the population's health. Many commercial organisations cultivate relationships with journalists and news organisations with the aim of influencing the content of health-related news and information communicated through the media. Given the significant influence of the media on the health of individuals and populations, we should be alert to the potential impact of industry-journalist relationships on health care, health policy and public health. The approach taken by the medical profession to its interactions with the pharmaceutical industry provides a useful model for management of industry influence.

  20. The role of the pharmaceutical animal health industry in post-marketing surveillance of resistance.

    Lens, S

    1993-06-01

    The pharmaceutical animal health industry must be committed to the total life cycle of products, i.e. during both the pre- and post-marketing period. Support of antibacterial agents during the postmarketing period is not restricted to maintaining a well-established distribution and promotion system. Care has to be taken continuously to maintain and/or improve the quality, safety (for user, target animal and environment) and clinical efficacy. The pharmaceutical industry contributes to this by: 1. Introducing antibacterials in different animal species for the most effective disease condition only and by ensuring the veterinary profession is informed about relevant findings on: a. the mechanism of action; b. pharmacodynamic properties; c. pharmacokinetic properties (plasma, target tissue); d. clinical efficacy data and in vitro sensitivity data; e. valid species-specific MIC breakpoints; f. precise dose and treatment regime. 2. Updating on a regular basis on: a. new findings on the mechanism of action (in vitro and in vivo); b. the optimal use program in the light of changes in animal husbandry, farm management and epidemiology on national and international level; c. adjustment of species-specific MIC breakpoints when necessary. 3. Providing continuous information in collaboration with animal health laboratories about: a. clinical field surveillance for efficacy (national, international); b. in vitro sensitivity/resistance surveillance (national, international); c. use of in vitro data to support prediction of in vivo efficacy. Surveillance of resistance, in vitro, is therefore part of a package of information needed on a routine basis by the pharmaceutical industry to allow the best possible use of antibacterials and to minimize induction of resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Factors associated with the burnout syndrome among professionals in pharmaceutical manufacturing industry and marketing 1234

    Jovanović Vesna R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain authors describe some professions in the healthcare industry as the more susceptible ones to developing a burnout syndrome, while others suggest psychosocial aspects of the workplace as the primary cause in its creation, but not the aspects of the job itself. The main objective of the research was to investigate which specific factors were associated with the burnout syndrome among professionals working in pharmaceutical manufacturing industry and marketing. The study was conducted in June of 2016 as a cross-sectional study and it included 75 university educated professionals from the area of pharmaceutical industry and marketing employed in several local as well as internationally renowned pharmaceutical companies located in Belgrade. The participants were surveyed anonymously. The instruments used in the study were: a general socio-demographic questionnaire, an assertiveness self-evaluation questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. An analysis of the responses in the burnout syndrome self-evaluation questionnaires showed that the highest level of burnout was expressed through reduced personal accomplishment (53%. The average assertiveness scores were the lowest in the individuals who demonstrated the highest level of emotional exhaustion (p=0.003, depersonalization (p=0.004, and the highest inefficiency on professional accomplishment scale (p=0.001. A statistically significant difference was observed in frequency and extent of emotional exhaustion with respect to respondents' gender (x2=10.779; p<0.05, as well as the line of business (x2=6.493; p<0.05. Levels of depersonalization are influenced by: line of work (x2=5.393; p<0.05, age (p=0.004, total years of service (p=0.009 and years of service in the profession (p=0.006. A sense of reduced personal accomplishment is influenced by a respondents' profession (x2=10.922; p<0.05 and line of business (x2=7.283; p<0.05. The results obtained in this study might help in identifying

  2. Elimination of micropollutants and hazardous substances at the source in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

    Blöcher, C

    2007-01-01

    Industrial wastewater, especially from chemical and pharmaceutical production, often contains substances that need to be eliminated before being discharged into a biological treatment plant and following water bodies. This can be done within the production itself, in selected waste water streams or in a central treatment plant. Each of these approaches has certain advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, a variety of wastewater treatment processes exist that can be applied at each stage, making it a challenging task to choose the best one in economic and ecological terms. In this work a general approach for that and examples from practice are discussed.

  3. Globalization, crises and industrial policy; Globalizacion, crisis y politica industrial

    Vives, X.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we review the fundamentals of industrial policy and its implementation in the European context. We also analyze the relationship between industrial policy and competition policy. (Author) 6 refs.

  4. Open Data for Research and Strategic Monitoring in the Pharmaceutical and Biotech Industry

    Baldissera Giovani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Open data is considered the new oil. As oil can be used to produce fertilisers, pesticides, lubricants, plastics and many other derivatives, so data is considered the commodity to use and re-use to create value. The number of initiatives supporting free access to data has increased in the last years and open data is becoming the norm in the public sector; the approach empowers stakeholders and nurtures the economy. Even if at early stage, private companies also are adapting to the open data market. A survey was conducted to which thirteen companies of different size (from micro enterprises to world-leading pharmas in the pharmaceutical and biotech sector and representing four business models archetypes of companies exploiting open data (aggregators, developers, enrichers and enablers participated. The information collected provides a snapshot of the use of open data by the pharmaceutical and biotech industry in 2015–2016. The companies interviewed use open data to complement proprietary data for research purposes, to implement licensing-in/licensing-out strategies, to map partnerships and connections among players or to identify key expertise and hire staff. Pharmaceutical and biotech companies have made of the protection of knowledge a dogma at the foundation of their business models, but using and contributing to the open data movement may change their approach to intellectual property and innovation.

  5. American Academy of Neurology policy on pharmaceutical and device industry support.

    Hutchins, J C; Rydell, C M; Griggs, R C; Sagsveen, M; Bernat, J L

    2012-03-06

    To examine the American Academy of Neurology (AAN)'s prevention and limitation of conflicts of interest (COI) related to relationships with pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers and other medically related commercial product and service companies (industry). We reviewed the AAN's polices governing its interactions with industry, mechanisms for enforcement, and the recent findings of the board-appointed COI task force, in the context of the 2009 David Rothman and colleagues' article in JAMA, the Council of Medical Specialty Societies (CMSS) Code for Interactions with Companies (Code), efforts of the American Medical Association in this area, and increased public and Congressional scrutiny of physician/physician organizations' relationships with industry. The AAN's Policy on Conflicts of Interest provides 4 mechanisms for addressing COI: avoidance, separation, disclosure, and regulation. The AAN's Principles Governing Academy Relationships with External Sources of Support, including recent amendments proposed by the COI task force, regulate industry interaction with AAN programming, products, and leadership. With the Policy, Principles, and other methods of COI prevention, the AAN meets or exceeds all recommendations of the CMSS Code. With its adherence to the Principles since 2004, the AAN has been a leader among professional medical associations in appropriately managing COI related to interactions with industry. Recent amendments to the Principles maintain the AAN's position as a leader in a time of increased public scrutiny of physicians' and professional medical associations' relationships with industry. The AAN is responsive to the recommendations of the COI task force, and has adopted the CMSS Code.

  6. New applications to computerized tomography: analysis of solid dosage forms produced by pharmaceutical industry

    Oliveira Junior, Jose Martins de; Martins, Antonio Cesar Germano

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, computerized tomography (CT) has been used as a new probe to study solid dosage forms (tablets) produced by pharmaceutical industry. This new approach to study tablet and powder, or granulation, properties used in pharmaceutical industry is very suitable. First because CT can generate information that traditional technologies used in this kind of analysis can not, such as, density distribution of internal structures and tablet dimensions, pore size distribution, particle shape information, and also investigation of official and unofficial (counterfeit) copies of solid dosage forms. Second because CT is a nondestructive technique, allowing the use of tablets or granules in others analysis. In this work we discus how CT can be used to acquire and reconstruct internal microstructure of tablets and granules. CT is a technique that is based on attenuation of X-rays passing through matter. Attenuation depends on the density and atomic number of the material that is scanned. In this work, a micro-CT X-ray scanner (manufactured by the group of Applied Nuclear Physics at University of Sorocaba) was used to obtain three-dimensional images of the tablets and granules for nondestructive analysis. These images showed a non uniform density distribution of material inside some tablets, the morphology of some granules analyzed, the integrity of the liquid-filled soft-gelatin capsule and so on. It could also be observed that the distribution of different constituents presents an osmotic controlled-release dosage form. The present work shows that it is possible to use X-ray microtomography to obtain useful qualitative and quantitative information on the structure of pharmaceutical dosage forms. (author)

  7. The Rhetorical Helix of the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries: Strategies of Transformation through Definition, Description and Ingratiation

    Gretton, Linda Burak

    2009-01-01

    The current pharmaceutical industry, whose origins date from the early 20th century, and the biotechnology industry, which emerged in the 1980s both have foundations built on the modern scientific method and share a mission to develop new drugs for humans and animals. At the same time, they are also made distinct by size (small biotechs versus…

  8. Investigating the turnover of middle and senior managers in the pharmaceutical industry in South Africa

    Abofele Khoele

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Today, knowledge is a commodity and thus skilled knowledge workers, particularly in management positions, are vital for organisations’ success; their increased turnover has an adverse effect on productivity and profitability. High staff turnover is a cause for alarm, not only because of the costs associated with recruitment, selection and training, but also due to the increasing scarcity of experienced talent. Research purpose: This research investigates the reasons for the turnover of middle and senior managers in the pharmaceutical industry in South Africa in order to identify the possible reasons and formulate solutions to address the issue. Motivation for the study: In South Africa, employment, retention and turnover occur against the backdrop of a history of discrimination and inequality and attempts by government and organisations at redress. The significance of this background cannot be underestimated. Research approach, design and method: This study was qualitative and inductive to allow dominant themes to emerge from the raw data. Data was collected through in-depth, semi-structured one-on-one interviews as well as a review of company turnover reports and employment equity reports. Main findings: The study found that in the sampled organisations, employee turnover averaged almost 22% per annum between 2007 and 2010. Reasons for the turnover include a range of industry, company and personal factors. Practical/managerial implications: The overall turnover rate remains high, particularly amongst black knowledge workers, the attraction, recruitment and retention of whom is as important for addressing historical inequities in the local industry as it is for ensuring the diversity that companies need to reach a bigger market and gain a competitive edge. Further, as government is a significant purchaser of pharmaceutical goods and services, companies must ensure that the required Black Economic Empowerment (BEE rating level is

  9. Solar photo-degradation of a pharmaceutical wastewater effluent in a semi-industrial autonomous plant.

    Expósito, Antonio J; Durán, Antonio; Monteagudo, José M; Acevedo, Alba

    2016-05-01

    An industrial wastewater effluent coming from a pharmaceutical laboratory has been treated in a semi-industrial autonomous solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) plant. A photo-Fenton process assisted with ferrioxalate has been used. Up to 79% of TOC can be removed in 2 h depending on initial conditions when treating an aqueous effluent containing up to 400 ppm of initial organic carbon concentration (TOC). An initial ratio of Fe(II)/TOC higher than 0.5 guarantees a high removal. It can be seen that most of TOC removal occurs early in the first hour of reaction. After this time, mineralization was very slow, although H2O2 was still present in solution. Indeed it decomposed to form oxygen in inefficient reactions. It is clear that remaining TOC was mainly due to the presence of acetates which are difficult to degrade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global perspectives on ensuring the safety of pharmaceutical products in the distribution process
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    Jeong, Sohyun; Ji, Eunhee

    2018-01-01

    The distribution of counterfeit or falsified drugs is increasing worldwide. This can contribute to the high burden of disease and cost to society and is of global concern with the worldwide circulation of pharmaceuticals. The preparation and implementation of good distribution practice should be one of the most important aspects of ensuring safe drug circulation and administration. This research aimed to compare and analyze good distribution practice guidelines from advanced countries and international organizations, and to evaluate the status of the current good distribution practice guidelines in the world. Advanced pharmaceutical countries and international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, European Union, Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation Scheme, United States of America, Canada, and Australia, which have stable good distribution practice guidelines and public confidence, were included in the analysis. The World Health Organization and European Union guidelines are models for standardized good distribution practice for nations worldwide. The United States of America has a combination of four different series of distribution practices which have a unique structure and detailed content compared to those of other countries. The Canadian guidelines focus on temperature control during storage and transportation. The Australian guidelines apply to both classes of medicinal products and medical devices and need separate standardization. Transparent information about the Internet chain, international cooperation regarding counterfeiting, a high-standard qualification of sellers and customers, and technology to track and trace the whole life cycle of drugs should be the main focus of future good distribution practice guidelines worldwide.
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  11. Late Globalization and Evolution and Metamorphoses of Industries

    Boujarzadeh, Behnam; Turcan, Romeo V.; Dholakia, Nikhilesh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore the effect of late globalization on evolution of industries. Specifically we investigate the impact of late globalization on the evolution and metamorphoses of Danish Textile and Fashion Industry (DTFI). Using historical data, we survey the development of DTFI between 1945...

  12. Recent Regulatory Trends in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and their Impact on the Industry.

    Tabersky, Daniel; Woelfle, Michael; Ruess, Juan-Antonio; Brem, Simon; Brombacher, Stephan

    2018-03-30

    The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most regulated industries in Switzerland. Though the concept of good manufacturing practises (GMP) was implemented for chemical production in the early 1990s, the rules and regulations for our industry are in constant evolution. In this article we will highlight the impact of these changes to the industry using three recent guideline up-dates as examples: the implementation of ICH Q3D 'Guideline for elemental impurities', the EU-GMP Guideline Part III Chapter 'Guideline on setting health based exposure limits for use in risk identification in the manufacture of different medicinal products in shared facilities' from 01. June 2015, and the new guidelines to data integrity such as 'PIC/S 041-1 Good Practices for Data Management and Integrity in regulated GMP/GDP environments'. These examples show how scientific approaches help to modernize the control strategies for our products and increase product quality for a better patient safety. The requirements of data integrity regulations are also of interest to industries and universities not working under GxP requirements as they also support the business to improve data quality (traceability) for patent applications, and reduce risk of data falsification.

  13. The exploitation of "sicko-chatting" by the pharmaceutical industry : a strategy for the normalization of drug use

    Niquette , Manon

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The Exploitation of 'sicko-chatting' by the Pharmaceutical industry: a strategy for the Normalization of drug use Pharmaceutical drugs are consumer goods. As such, they inscribe the transition from normality to pathology within the ambit of health marketing (Duclos, 2008, p. 109). It is now widely acknowledged that this pathology is not just a mere quantitative modification of the normal state, but that it also implies the patient's qualitative assessment of his or her...

  14. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries in response to the global financial crisis.

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Leopold, Christine; de Joncheere, Kees

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze which pharmaceutical policies European countries applied during the global financial crisis. We undertook a survey with officials from public authorities for pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement of 33 European countries represented in the PPRI (Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information) network based on a questionnaire. The survey was launched in September 2010 and repeated in February 2011 to obtain updated information. During the survey period from January 2010 to February 2011, 89 measures were identified in 23 of the 33 countries surveyed which were implemented to contain public medicines expenditure. Price reductions, changes in the co-payments, in the VAT rates on medicines and in the distribution margins were among the most common measures. More than a dozen countries reported measures under discussion or planned, for the remaining year 2011 and beyond. The largest number of measures were implemented in Iceland, the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), Greece, Spain and Portugal, which were hit by the crisis at different times. Cost-containment has been an issue for high-income countries in Europe - no matter if hit by the crisis or not. In recent months, changes in pharmaceutical policies were reported from 23 European countries. Measures which can be implemented rather swiftly (e.g. price cuts, changes in co-payments and VAT rates on medicines) were among the most frequent measures. While the "crisis countries" (e.g. Baltic states, Greece, Spain) reacted with a bundle of measures, reforms in other countries (e.g. Poland, Germany) were not directly linked to the crisis, but also aimed at containing public spending. Since further reforms are under way, we recommend that the monitoring exercise is continued.

  15. Globalization of the natural gas industry

    Deyirmendjan, J.

    1997-01-01

    After presenting a panorama of the international gas industry, a description of changes affecting the world gas industry, and an analysis of how environment-related demands give gas an opportunity to become the leading source of energy in the 21. century, Mr Jacques Deyirmendjan, Senior Executive-Vice-President of Gaz de France, tells his interviewer how French industry and national companies are designing their strategies to respond effectively to these changes

  16. Global Wood Pellet Industry and Trade Study 2017

    Thrän, D.; Peetz, D.; Schaubach, K.; Mai-Moulin, T.; Junginger, H.M.; Lamers, P.; Visser, L.

    2017-01-01

    The report Global Wood Pellet Industry Market published in 2011 has always been the most downloaded document of IEA Bioenergy Task 40. We have decided to update the report and bring new insights on market trends and trade of the global wood pellets. The global wood pellet market has increased

  17. The impact of globalization on the industrial growth of developing ...

    This paper is an attempt to investigate the impact of globalization on the industrial growth of developing economies with special reference to Nigeria. Globalization has facilitated the increased flow of ideas; people, goods and services across national frontiers. Some developing countries as a result of globalization have ...

  18. Windows of opportunities and technological innovation in the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry.

    Tigre, Paulo Bastos; Nascimento, Caio Victor Machado França do; Costa, Laís Silveira

    2016-11-03

    The Brazilian pharmaceutical industry is heavily dependent on external sources of inputs, capital, and technology. However, the emergence of technological opportunities and the development of biotechnology and the decline of the patent boom and resulting advances by generic drugs have opened windows of opportunities for the local industry. The article examines the Brazilian industry's innovative behavior vis-à-vis these opportunities, showing that although the industry as a whole invests little in innovation, a few large Brazilian companies have expanded their market share and stepped up their investments in research and development, supported by public policies for innovation. Resumo: A indústria farmacêutica brasileira caracteriza-se pela grande dependência de fontes externas de insumos, capital e tecnologia. O surgimento de oportunidades tecnológicas, associadas ao desenvolvimento da biotecnologia e ao fim do boom das patentes com o consequente avanço dos medicamentos genéricos, entretanto, vem abrindo janelas de oportunidades para a indústria local. Este artigo examina o comportamento inovador da indústria brasileira à luz dessas oportunidades, revelando que, embora o conjunto da indústria mantenha baixos níveis de investimentos em inovação, um pequeno grupo de grandes empresas nacionais vem ampliando sua participação no mercado e intensificando seus investimentos em pesquisa e desenvolvimento, apoiados por políticas públicas de inovação.

  19. Membrane-Based Technologies in the Pharmaceutical Industry and Continuous Production of Polymer-Coated Crystals/Particles.

    Chen, Dengyue; Sirkar, Kamalesh K; Jin, Chi; Singh, Dhananjay; Pfeffer, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Membrane technologies are of increasing importance in a variety of separation and purification applications involving liquid phases and gaseous mixtures. Although the most widely used applications at this time are in water treatment including desalination, there are many applications in chemical, food, healthcare, paper and petrochemical industries. This brief review is concerned with existing and emerging applications of various membrane technologies in the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industry. The goal of this review article is to identify important membrane processes and techniques which are being used or proposed to be used in the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical operations. How novel membrane processes can be useful for delivery of crystalline/particulate drugs is also of interest. Membrane separation technologies are extensively used in downstream processes for bio-pharmaceutical separation and purification operations via microfiltration, ultrafiltration and diafiltration. Also the new technique of membrane chromatography allows efficient purification of monoclonal antibodies. Membrane filtration techniques of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration are being combined with bioreactors and advanced oxidation processes to treat wastewaters from pharmaceutical plants. Nanofiltration with organic solvent-stable membranes can implement solvent exchange and catalyst recovery during organic solvent-based drug synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds/intermediates. Membranes in the form of hollow fibers can be conveniently used to implement crystallization of pharmaceutical compounds. The novel crystallization methods of solid hollow fiber cooling crystallizer (SHFCC) and porous hollow fiber anti-solvent crystallization (PHFAC) are being developed to provide efficient methods for continuous production of polymer-coated drug crystals in the area of drug delivery. This brief review provides a general introduction to various applications of membrane technologies in

  20. Pharmaceutical digital marketing and governance: illicit actors and challenges to global patient safety and public health

    2013-01-01

    Background Digital forms of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical marketing (eDTCA) have globalized in an era of free and open information exchange. Yet, the unregulated expansion of eDTCA has resulted in unaddressed global public health threats. Specifically, illicit online pharmacies are engaged in the sale of purportedly safe, legitimate product that may in fact be counterfeit or substandard. These cybercriminal actors exploit available eDTCA mediums over the Internet to market their suspect products globally. Despite these risks, a detailed assessment of the public health, patient safety, and cybersecurity threats and governance mechanisms to address them has not been conducted. Discussion Illicit online pharmacies represent a significant global public health and patient safety risk. Existing governance mechanisms are insufficient and include lack of adequate adoption in national regulation, ineffective voluntary governance mechanisms, and uneven global law enforcement efforts that have allowed proliferation of these cybercriminals on the web. In order to effectively address this multistakeholder threat, inclusive global governance strategies that engage the information technology, law enforcement and public health sectors should be established. Summary Effective global “eHealth Governance” focused on cybercrime is needed in order to effectively combat illicit online pharmacies. This includes building upon existing Internet governance structures and coordinating partnership between the UN Office of Drugs and Crime that leads the global fight against transnational organized crime and the Internet Governance Forum that is shaping the future of Internet governance. Through a UNODC-IGF governance mechanism, investigation, detection and coordination of activities against illicit online pharmacies and their misuse of eDTCA can commence. PMID:24131576

  1. Pharmaceutical digital marketing and governance: illicit actors and challenges to global patient safety and public health.

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-10-16

    Digital forms of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical marketing (eDTCA) have globalized in an era of free and open information exchange. Yet, the unregulated expansion of eDTCA has resulted in unaddressed global public health threats. Specifically, illicit online pharmacies are engaged in the sale of purportedly safe, legitimate product that may in fact be counterfeit or substandard. These cybercriminal actors exploit available eDTCA mediums over the Internet to market their suspect products globally. Despite these risks, a detailed assessment of the public health, patient safety, and cybersecurity threats and governance mechanisms to address them has not been conducted. Illicit online pharmacies represent a significant global public health and patient safety risk. Existing governance mechanisms are insufficient and include lack of adequate adoption in national regulation, ineffective voluntary governance mechanisms, and uneven global law enforcement efforts that have allowed proliferation of these cybercriminals on the web. In order to effectively address this multistakeholder threat, inclusive global governance strategies that engage the information technology, law enforcement and public health sectors should be established. Effective global "eHealth Governance" focused on cybercrime is needed in order to effectively combat illicit online pharmacies. This includes building upon existing Internet governance structures and coordinating partnership between the UN Office of Drugs and Crime that leads the global fight against transnational organized crime and the Internet Governance Forum that is shaping the future of Internet governance. Through a UNODC-IGF governance mechanism, investigation, detection and coordination of activities against illicit online pharmacies and their misuse of eDTCA can commence.

  2. Globalisation of tobacco industry influence and new global responses

    Yach, D.; Bettcher, D.

    2000-01-01

    The globalisation of tobacco marketing, trade, research, and industry influence represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Drawing upon tobacco industry strategy documents prepared over several decades, this paper will demonstrate how the tobacco industry operates as a global force, regarding the world as its operating market by planning, developing, and marketing its products on a global scale. The industry has used a wide range of methods to buy influence and power, and penetrate markets across the world. It has an annual turnover of almost US$400 billion. In contrast, until recently tobacco control lacked global leadership and strategic direction and had been severely underfunded. As part of moving towards a more sustainable form of globalisation, a global enabling environment linked to local actions should focus on the following strategies: global information management; development of nationally and locally grounded action; global regulation, legal instruments, and foreign policy; and establishment of strong partnerships with purpose. As the vector of the tobacco epidemic, the tobacco industry's actions fall far outside of the boundaries of global corporate responsibility. Therefore, global and local actions should not provide the tobacco industry with the two things that it needs to ensure its long term profitability: respectability and predictability.


Keywords: globalisation of tobacco marketing PMID:10841858

  3. REASONS FOR JAPAN AND SOUTH KOREA AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY GLOBAL SUCESS

    Marek Rutka

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the story of both Japan and South Korean automotive industry development. Author points out the political, social and economical success factors of this branch in the global market. He also mentions major industry barriers which influen-tial the development of the automotive industry in both countries. Finally he presents the probable development perspectives for both Japan and South Korea automotive industry.

  4. REASONS FOR JAPAN AND SOUTH KOREA AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY GLOBAL SUCESS

    Marek Rutka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the story of both Japan and South Korean automotive industry development. Author points out the political, social and economical success factors of this branch in the global market. He also mentions major industry barriers which influen-tial the development of the automotive industry in both countries. Finally he presents the probable development perspectives for both Japan and South Korea automotive industry.

  5. Drug-disease modeling in the pharmaceutical industry - where mechanistic systems pharmacology and statistical pharmacometrics meet.

    Helmlinger, Gabriel; Al-Huniti, Nidal; Aksenov, Sergey; Peskov, Kirill; Hallow, Karen M; Chu, Lulu; Boulton, David; Eriksson, Ulf; Hamrén, Bengt; Lambert, Craig; Masson, Eric; Tomkinson, Helen; Stanski, Donald

    2017-11-15

    Modeling & simulation (M&S) methodologies are established quantitative tools, which have proven to be useful in supporting the research, development (R&D), regulatory approval, and marketing of novel therapeutics. Applications of M&S help design efficient studies and interpret their results in context of all available data and knowledge to enable effective decision-making during the R&D process. In this mini-review, we focus on two sets of modeling approaches: population-based models, which are well-established within the pharmaceutical industry today, and fall under the discipline of clinical pharmacometrics (PMX); and systems dynamics models, which encompass a range of models of (patho-)physiology amenable to pharmacological intervention, of signaling pathways in biology, and of substance distribution in the body (today known as physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models) - which today may be collectively referred to as quantitative systems pharmacology models (QSP). We next describe the convergence - or rather selected integration - of PMX and QSP approaches into 'middle-out' drug-disease models, which retain selected mechanistic aspects, while remaining parsimonious, fit-for-purpose, and able to address variability and the testing of covariates. We further propose development opportunities for drug-disease systems models, to increase their utility and applicability throughout the preclinical and clinical spectrum of pharmaceutical R&D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of the pharmaceutical industry in meeting the public health threat of antibacterial resistance.

    Bergström, Richard

    2011-04-01

    The established market model for pharmaceutical products, as for most other products, is heavily dependent on sales volumes. Thus, it is a primary interest of the producer to sell large quantities. This may be questionable for medicinal products and probably most questionable for antibacterial remedies. For these products, treatment indications are very complex and encompass both potential patient benefits, possible adverse effects in the actual patient and, which is unique for this therapeutic class, consideration about what effects the drug use will have on the future therapeutic value of the drug. This is because bacteria are sure to develop resistance. The European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) agrees with the general description of the antibacterial resistance problem and wants to participate in measures to counteract antibacterial resistance. Stakeholders should forge an alliance that will address the need for and prudent use of new antibiotics. A variety of incentives probably have to be applied, but having all in common that the financial return has to be separated from the use of the product. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Chemometrics-based process analytical technology (PAT) tools: applications and adaptation in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries.

    Challa, Shruthi; Potumarthi, Ravichandra

    2013-01-01

    Process analytical technology (PAT) is used to monitor and control critical process parameters in raw materials and in-process products to maintain the critical quality attributes and build quality into the product. Process analytical technology can be successfully implemented in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries not only to impart quality into the products but also to prevent out-of-specifications and improve the productivity. PAT implementation eliminates the drawbacks of traditional methods which involves excessive sampling and facilitates rapid testing through direct sampling without any destruction of sample. However, to successfully adapt PAT tools into pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical environment, thorough understanding of the process is needed along with mathematical and statistical tools to analyze large multidimensional spectral data generated by PAT tools. Chemometrics is a chemical discipline which incorporates both statistical and mathematical methods to obtain and analyze relevant information from PAT spectral tools. Applications of commonly used PAT tools in combination with appropriate chemometric method along with their advantages and working principle are discussed. Finally, systematic application of PAT tools in biopharmaceutical environment to control critical process parameters for achieving product quality is diagrammatically represented.

  8. Patent cliff and strategic switch: exploring strategic design possibilities in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Song, Chie Hoon; Han, Jeung-Whan

    2016-01-01

    Extending the period of the market exclusivity and responding properly to the recent agglomeration of patent expiries are pivotal to the success of pharmaceutical companies. Declining R&D productivity, rising costs of commercialization, near-term patent expirations for many top-selling drugs are forcing companies to adopt new systems to introduce innovative products to market and to focus on strategies that increase the returns from the existing product portfolio. This systematic review explores various strategic and tactical management approaches by synthesizing the relevant literature and practical examples on patent expiration strategies. It further discusses how the mix of competition policies and strategic instruments can be used to maintain declining revenue streams from the blockbuster business model of the pharmaceutical industry. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the research on various strategies, offers both theoretical and practical guidelines for strategy transformation that companies can use to prolong the market exclusivity, and identifies knowledge gaps that needed to be addressed in order to improve efficiency in policy design.

  9. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy. - Highlights: ► The global industrial sector and its industries are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. ► Global industrial sector efficiencies are evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. ► Exergy analysis shows global industrial energy to be less efficient than does energy analysis. ► A misleadingly low margin for efficiency improvement is indicated by energy analysis. ► A significant and rational margin for efficiency improvement exists from an exergy perspective

  10. The return of the pharmaceutical industry to the market of contraception.

    Johansson, E D

    2000-01-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s, the litigious climate in the US had a catastrophic effect on sales of many major contraceptives. Although oral contraceptives escaped controversy, the intrauterine device (IUD) and Norplant(R) were two targets of damaging litigation. The IUD was withdrawn from the market in 1985. Since 1994 when the attacks began against Norplant, its US sales have dramatically declined, even though no fault has been found in the method or its development. In general, pharmaceutical companies were extremely hesitant to develop new contraceptives during this period. The bleak outlook, however, began to shift in the late 1990s, as fertility rates began to decrease worldwide and contraceptive users increased. By 2025, 2500 million women will comprise the customer base for contraception. Global pharmaceutical companies are now participating in expanding markets overseas and have launched and continue to develop a range of new long-term reversible, and highly effective, contraceptive products outside the traditional oral contraceptive field. Two new contraceptives on the way to the US market are: Mirena, a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system manufactured by Schering-Leiras; and Implanon, a single implant system manufactured by Organon of the Netherlands. Other birth control methods soon to be launched include: emergency contraceptives, the contraceptive patch, monthly contraceptive injections, mifepristone for medical abortion, and modified oral contraceptives.

  11. The devil is in the details: the pharmaceutical industry's use of gifts to physicians as marketing strategy.

    McFadden, David W; Calvario, Elizabeth; Graves, Cynthia

    2007-06-01

    Marketing costs exceed 30% of revenues for the pharmaceutical industry, with over 90% of the effort aimed at physicians. Although there are currently unprecedented numbers of regulatory activities focusing on relationships between the pharmaceutical industry and the medical profession, such legislation is often unrecognized or flouted. The potential influence, although minimized by both parties, must not be ignored. Physicians and drug companies will need to re-evaluate their responsibilities to their patients and their shareholders, and both groups should assume proactive and guidance roles in the transformation.

  12. The global biopharma industry and the rise of Indian drug multinationals: implications for Australian generics policy.

    Löfgren, Hans

    2007-06-01

    This article provides a synopsis of the new dynamics of the global biopharma industry. The emergence of global generics companies with capabilities approximating those of 'big pharma' has accelerated the blurring of boundaries between the innovator and generics sectors. Biotechnology-based products form a large and growing segment of prescription drug markets and regulatory pathways for biogenerics are imminent. Indian biopharma multinationals with large-scale efficient manufacturing plants and growing R&D capabilities are now major suppliers of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) and generic drugs across both developed and developing countries. In response to generic competition, innovator companies employ a range of life cycle management techniques, including the launch of 'authorised generics'. The generics segment in Australia will see high growth rates in coming years but the prospect for local manufacturing is bleak. The availability of cheap generics in international markets has put pressure on Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) pricing arrangements, and a new policy direction was announced in November 2006. Lower generics prices will have a negative impact on some incumbent suppliers but industrial renewal policies for the medicines industry in Australia are better focused on higher value R&D activities and niche manufacturing of sophisticated products.

  13. Software testing and global industry future paradigms

    Casey, Valentine; Richardson, Ita

    2009-01-01

    Today software development has truly become a globally sourced commodity. This trend has been facilitated by the availability of highly skilled software professionals in low cost locations in Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Far East. Organisations

  14. Globalization and the Hotel Industry in Slovakia

    ALENA DUBCOVÁ; JOZEF PETRIKOVIE; LUCIA ŠOLCOVÁ

    2013-01-01

    The development of tourism in the world and thus in Slovakia is influenced by globalization, which is one of the landmarks of the 21st century. Globalization starts when the internationalization of economic life develops in t he space across the planet. Closely related to internationalization, it enforces the strict territ orial framework that later grew into a wider world of space. The development of globali...

  15. [Incentives and disincentives for research and development of new drugs by the pharmaceutical industry].

    Curcio, Pasqualina Curcio

    2008-10-01

    The authors present a model with factors that influence research and development decisions by the pharmaceutical industry: risk of disease transmission and possibility of control; case-fatality and the presence of cure or treatments; income; number of persons who demand the medicine; and opportunity costs for the company. Companies tend to invest in markets with inelastic demand (highly contagious diseases with no possibility of controlling transmission and/or very lethal diseases without treatment) and/or where there is a large population or high per capita income. Companies tend not to invest in markets where marginal costs exceed marginal income, particularly when costs increase permanently as a consequence of rising opportunity costs generated by foregoing profit in other markets. In such cases, policies to subsidize R&D are not effective, and policies must be orientated towards strengthening basic and applied research by public institutions.

  16. Biocatalysts for the pharmaceutical industry created by structure-guided directed evolution of stereoselective enzymes.

    Li, Guangyue; Wang, Jian-Bo; Reetz, Manfred T

    2018-04-01

    Enzymes have been used for a long time as catalysts in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral intermediates needed in the production of therapeutic drugs. However, this alternative to man-made catalysts has suffered traditionally from distinct limitations, namely the often observed wrong or insufficient enantio- and/or regioselectivity, low activity, narrow substrate range, and insufficient thermostability. With the advent of directed evolution, these problems can be generally solved. The challenge is to develop and apply the most efficient mutagenesis methods which lead to highest-quality mutant libraries requiring minimal screening. Structure-guided saturation mutagenesis and its iterative form have emerged as the method of choice for evolving stereo- and regioselective mutant enzymes needed in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral intermediates. The number of (industrial) applications in the preparation of chiral pharmaceuticals is rapidly increasing. This review features and analyzes typical case studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of the Lean Methodology in a company from the pharmaceutical and food industry

    Juliana Keiko Sagawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of Lean Manufacturing is the reduction of waste and consequently the improvement of manufacturing efficiency and quality. This paper presents a case study in a company from the pharmaceutical, health and food industry. The value stream was mapped, aiming to identify waste and the possible ways of reducing it, according to the lean principles. Among the proposed solutions is the implementation of Kanban cards and the implementation of a panel for stock control and production leveling (heijunka. A 70% reduction of the total lead time was estimated as a potential result (from 71 to 19 days. The proposed improvements sought to provide a balance given the trade-off between more flexible production with smaller batches, and the lower total set up time of larger batches.

  18. Supply Network Planning for New Product Market Entry in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2011-01-01

    uncertainty and the risk of a forced label change and includes solution robustness. While considering limited shelf life of the drug, the supply of packaging material and outsourcing, the objective of our model is to reduce supply chain cost including lost peak sales from delayed market entry....... planning before and during the market entry of the drug after the drug has been approved. Production of the active pharmaceutical ingredient [API] is characterized by long change-over times due to cleaning requirements. Production planning is long term, multiple batches of each drug are produced...... industry, reimbursement negotiations have to be carried out before a drug can be marketed. These negotiations both necessitate time phasing market entries and introduce a series of uncertainties e.g. varying allowed price and awarded subsidy. Also if the label is not approved for marketing, all packaged...

  19. Best practices for veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology, with emphasis on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

    Tomlinson, Lindsay; Boone, Laura I; Ramaiah, Lila; Penraat, Kelley A; von Beust, Barbara R; Ameri, Mehrdad; Poitout-Belissent, Florence M; Weingand, Kurt; Workman, Heather C; Aulbach, Adam D; Meyer, Dennis J; Brown, Diane E; MacNeill, Amy L; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Bounous, Denise I

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this paper by the Regulatory Affairs Committee (RAC) of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) is to review the current regulatory guidances (eg, guidelines) and published recommendations for best practices in veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, and to utilize the combined experience of ASVCP RAC to provide updated recommendations. Discussion points include (1) instrumentation, validation, and sample collection, (2) routine laboratory variables, (3) cytologic laboratory variables, (4) data interpretation and reporting (including peer review, reference intervals and statistics), and (5) roles and responsibilities of clinical pathologists and laboratory personnel. Revision and improvement of current practices should be in alignment with evolving regulatory guidance documents, new technology, and expanding understanding and utility of clinical pathology. These recommendations provide a contemporary guide for the refinement of veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology best practices. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. Food and pharmaceuticals. Lessons learned from global contaminations with melamine/cyanuric acid and diethylene glycol.

    Brown, C A; Brown, S A

    2010-01-01

    Recently, contamination of pharmaceuticals with diethylene glycol (DEG) and food with melamine and cyanuric acid has demonstrated the impact of globalization on drug and food safety. By examining the details of these outbreaks, some important lessons can be learned. Toxicoses from contaminated food and drugs are often identified only when large numbers of people or animals are affected and numerous deaths result. Populations most at risk are those repeatedly exposed to a single product. Toxicoses may be complex, involving synergism among relatively nontoxic co-contaminants. Although some contamination may occur inadvertently, practices of deliberate contamination of food and drug ingredients may be widespread but escape detection in poorly regulated markets. If this deliberate contamination is motivated by personal financial gain, it is likely to recur and be concealed. The contaminated raw material produced in a poorly regulated market may cross national boundaries and be used in manufacturing processes for numerous products, sometimes in more well-regulated markets. Once in the production chain, contaminated raw materials may be widely disseminated. It is not clear that regulatory organizations have the capacity to identify significant contaminations despite their best efforts. The veterinary and medical communities, in cooperation with regulatory agencies, should develop cooperative programs designed to detect and limit these global outbreaks. Although addressing regional or national outbreaks remains an important role for regulatory agencies, the veterinary and medical communities must develop proactive global approaches to this global problem.

  1. Pharmaceutical industry's barriers and preferences to conduct clinical drug trials in Finland: a qualitative study.

    Keinonen, Tuija; Keränen, Tapani; Klaukka, Timo; Saano, Veijo; Ylitalo, Pauli; Enlund, Hannes

    2003-09-01

    The objectives of our study were to explore the barriers, preferences and attitudes of the pharmaceutical industry towards conducting clinical trials in Finland. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 representatives of the pharmaceutical industry with different amounts of experience of clinical trials. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed qualitatively. Overall, the respondents had a positive attitude towards conducting clinical trials in Finland. The major barriers seemed to occur at the beginning of the trial and mostly consisted of bureaucratic obstacles. The informants hoped for a more positive attitude of the public sector, more flexibility in hospitals and professionalism in practical implementation, e.g. having special research centres or site management services. The most dismotivating factors were the high costs and the constraints imposed by bureaucracy. The variety in practices of local ethics committees was considered problematic, and the need for common standard operating procedures was pointed out. The smallest barriers were encountered in subject recruitment by the investigators and their clinical work, documentation, investigational product logistics and communication with the regulatory authorities. The quality, know-how and reliability of the study personnel, the tightening of time lines in general, an investigator register/pool and collaboration with media in disseminating information about clinical trials to the general public were reported as the most appealing factors. Training in GCP, mainly incorporated in the medical education programme, and a certificate or equivalent were generally considered necessary, though a voluntary system was preferred. The barriers and preferences pointed out suggest various improvements and ways to produce high-quality, GCP-compliant clinical drug research and to ensure the availability of sufficient conditions to carry out clinical trials also in the future.

  2. Contact between doctors and the pharmaceutical industry, their perceptions, and the effects on prescribing habits.

    Klaus Lieb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prescribing behaviour of doctors is influenced by the pharmaceutical industry. This study investigated the extent to which contacts with pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSR and the perception of these contacts influence prescribing habits. METHOD: An online questionnaire regarding contact with PSRs and perceptions of this contact was sent to 1,388 doctors, 11.5% (n = 160 of whom completed the survey. Individual prescribing data over a year (number of prescriptions, expenditure, and daily doses for all on-patent branded, off-patent branded, and generic drugs were obtained from the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians. RESULTS: 84% of the doctors saw PSR at least once a week, and 14% daily. 69% accepted drug samples, 39% accepted stationery and 37% took part in sponsored continuing medical education (CME frequently. 5 physicians (3% accepted no benefits at all. 43% of doctors believed that they received adequate and accurate information from PSRs frequently or always and 42% believed that their prescribing habits were influenced by PSR visits occasionally or frequently. Practices that saw PSRs frequently had significantly higher total prescriptions and total daily doses (but not expenditure than practices that were less frequently visited. Doctors who believed that they received accurate information from PSRs showed higher expenditures on off-patent branded drugs (thus available as generics and a lower proportion of generics. The eschewal of sponsored CME was associated with a lower proportion of on patent-branded drug prescriptions, lower expenditure on off-patent branded drug prescriptions and a higher proportion of generics. Acceptance of office stationery was associated with higher daily doses. CONCLUSIONS: Avoidance of industry-sponsored CME is associated with more rational prescribing habits. Furthermore, gift acceptance and the belief that one is receiving adequate information from a PSR are

  3. Public funding and private investment for R&D: a survey in China’s pharmaceutical industry

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. Methods The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002–2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002–2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. Results The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Conclusions Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources. PMID:24925505

  4. Pharmaceutical industry gifts to physicians: patient beliefs and trust in physicians and the health care system.

    Grande, David; Shea, Judy A; Armstrong, Katrina

    2012-03-01

    Pharmaceutical industry gifts to physicians are common and influence physician behavior. Little is known about patient beliefs about the prevalence of these gifts and how these beliefs may influence trust in physicians and the health care system. To measure patient perceptions about the prevalence of industry gifts and their relationship to trust in doctors and the health care system. Cross sectional random digit dial telephone survey. African-American and White adults in 40 large metropolitan areas. Respondents' beliefs about whether their physician and physicians in general receive industry gifts, physician trust, and health care system distrust. Overall, 55% of respondents believe their physician receives gifts, and 34% believe almost all doctors receive gifts. Respondents of higher socioeconomic status (income, education) and younger age were more likely to believe their physician receives gifts. In multivariate analyses, those that believe their personal physician receives gifts were more likely to report low physician trust (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.56-3.30) and high health care system distrust (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.49-2.77). Similarly, those that believe almost all doctors accept gifts were more likely to report low physician trust (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.25-2.29) and high health care system distrust (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.82-3.62). Patients perceive physician-industry gift relationships as common. Patients that believe gift relationships exist report lower levels of physician trust and higher rates of health care system distrust. Greater efforts to limit industry-physician gifts could have positive effects beyond reducing influences on physician behavior.

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  6. Globalization and the Hotel Industry in Slovakia

    ALENA DUBCOVÁ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism in the world and thus in Slovakia is influenced by globalization, which is one of the landmarks of the 21st century. Globalization starts when the internationalization of economic life develops in t he space across the planet. Closely related to internationalization, it enforces the strict territ orial framework that later grew into a wider world of space. The development of globalization processe s stimulated by the scientific-technical revolution, the growing efforts to promote free trad e through out the world, a principal change in many countries, which are accompanied by expansion o f free business, capital,investment, the impressive development of telecommunications and tr ansport networks, the option on fast- traveling to long distances, watching foreign televi sion programs, understanding and using of foreign experience and practices contributed to the convergence of the world not only economically but also in other spheres.

  7. Adjusting to Chinese Ascendancy in the Global Clothing Industry ...

    Adjusting to Chinese Ascendancy in the Global Clothing Industry (Africa South of Sahara) ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development. ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive ...

  8. Impact of the Internet on Globalization : Industrial Internet

    Jukics, Márk

    2016-01-01

    The thesis consists of two main parts. The first part is the theoretical framework, the second part is about assisting in a project of Centria University of Applied Sciences. The theoretical part of the thesis expounds the evolution and the benefits of the industrial internet. It explains the roots of globalization, internet, and industries. Lean manufacturing and management is also involved in the theory, as this way of management is successfully spreading by the help of globalization. I...

  9. Globalization, industrialization, and labor markets in Vietnam

    Nørlund, Irene; Tran, *Angie Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    exports in 2013. Evidence shows that the ‘high road’ to industrialization model – with domestic linkages and skills upgrading – does not accompany growth in exports, as low-skilled assembly, mostly young female workers join the labor force with non-liveable wages and substandard working conditions...

  10. Global industry with regional significance. Social perspectives

    2005-05-01

    As the world's third largest exporter of oil, Norway is an energy superpower in an international context. 2004 was a record-breaking year on the Norwegian Shelf. Never before did production reach such heights. The oil and gas industry is Norway's largest and most important industry. It is responsible for one-third of the State's revenues, and nearly half of Norway's total export revenues. The report provides an overview of the Norwegian Shelf today, and facts about Norway concerning the economy and standard of living. The industry's role in regional business development is also analysed, as well as expertise and technological development. Aspects on the environment and co-existence at sea are reviewed, with information on emissions to air and discharges to sea. Environmental considerations and technological challenges are briefly reported. The petroleum industry has set the standard within Health, Safety and the Environment (HSE). The work has been based on close cooperation between the authorities and the operating companies, their organizations and the employee organizations on the Shelf. Details on these activities are reported. Finally, responsibility for the community and issues concerning corporate social responsibility are mentioned (ml)

  11. Misleading advertising for antidepressants in Sweden: a failure of pharmaceutical industry self-regulation.

    Anna V Zetterqvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The alleged efficacy of pharmaceutical industry self-regulation has been used to repudiate increased government oversight over promotional activity. European politicians and industry have cited Sweden as an excellent example of self-regulation based on an ethical code. This paper considers antidepressant advertising in Sweden to uncover the strengths and weaknesses of self-regulation. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed all antidepressant advertisements in the Swedish Medical Journal, 1994-2003. The regulation of these advertisements was analyzed using case reports from self-regulatory bodies. The authors independently reviewed this material to investigate: (1 extent of violative advertising; (2 pattern of code breaches; (3 rate at which the system reacted to violative advertising; (4 prevalence of and oversight over claims regarding antidepressant efficacy and disease causality, and (5 costs for manufactures associated with violative advertising. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Self-regulatory bodies identified numerous code breaches. Nonetheless, they failed to protect doctors from unreliable information on antidepressants, since as many as 247 of 722 (34% advertisements breached the industry code. Self-regulatory bodies repeatedly failed to challenge inflated claims of antidepressant efficacy, lending evidence of lax oversight. On average, 15 weeks elapsed between printing and censure of a wrongful claim, and in 25% of cases 47 weeks or more elapsed. Industry paid roughly €108000 in fines for violative advertising, adding an estimated additional average cost of 11% to each purchased violative advertisement, or amounting to as little as 0.009% of total antidepressant sales of around €1.2 billion. CONCLUSIONS: Lax oversight, combined with lags in the system and low fines for violations, may explain the Swedish system's failure to pressure companies into providing reliable antidepressants information. If these shortcomings prove to be consistent across

  12. Misleading advertising for antidepressants in Sweden: a failure of pharmaceutical industry self-regulation.

    Zetterqvist, Anna V; Mulinari, Shai

    2013-01-01

    The alleged efficacy of pharmaceutical industry self-regulation has been used to repudiate increased government oversight over promotional activity. European politicians and industry have cited Sweden as an excellent example of self-regulation based on an ethical code. This paper considers antidepressant advertising in Sweden to uncover the strengths and weaknesses of self-regulation. We analyzed all antidepressant advertisements in the Swedish Medical Journal, 1994-2003. The regulation of these advertisements was analyzed using case reports from self-regulatory bodies. The authors independently reviewed this material to investigate: (1) extent of violative advertising; (2) pattern of code breaches; (3) rate at which the system reacted to violative advertising; (4) prevalence of and oversight over claims regarding antidepressant efficacy and disease causality, and (5) costs for manufactures associated with violative advertising. Self-regulatory bodies identified numerous code breaches. Nonetheless, they failed to protect doctors from unreliable information on antidepressants, since as many as 247 of 722 (34%) advertisements breached the industry code. Self-regulatory bodies repeatedly failed to challenge inflated claims of antidepressant efficacy, lending evidence of lax oversight. On average, 15 weeks elapsed between printing and censure of a wrongful claim, and in 25% of cases 47 weeks or more elapsed. Industry paid roughly €108000 in fines for violative advertising, adding an estimated additional average cost of 11% to each purchased violative advertisement, or amounting to as little as 0.009% of total antidepressant sales of around €1.2 billion. Lax oversight, combined with lags in the system and low fines for violations, may explain the Swedish system's failure to pressure companies into providing reliable antidepressants information. If these shortcomings prove to be consistent across self-regulatory settings, and if appropriate measures are not taken to

  13. Misleading Advertising for Antidepressants in Sweden: A Failure of Pharmaceutical Industry Self-Regulation

    Zetterqvist, Anna V.; Mulinari, Shai

    2013-01-01

    Background The alleged efficacy of pharmaceutical industry self-regulation has been used to repudiate increased government oversight over promotional activity. European politicians and industry have cited Sweden as an excellent example of self-regulation based on an ethical code. This paper considers antidepressant advertising in Sweden to uncover the strengths and weaknesses of self-regulation. Methodology We analyzed all antidepressant advertisements in the Swedish Medical Journal, 1994–2003. The regulation of these advertisements was analyzed using case reports from self-regulatory bodies. The authors independently reviewed this material to investigate: (1) extent of violative advertising; (2) pattern of code breaches; (3) rate at which the system reacted to violative advertising; (4) prevalence of and oversight over claims regarding antidepressant efficacy and disease causality, and (5) costs for manufactures associated with violative advertising. Principal Findings Self-regulatory bodies identified numerous code breaches. Nonetheless, they failed to protect doctors from unreliable information on antidepressants, since as many as 247 of 722 (34%) advertisements breached the industry code. Self-regulatory bodies repeatedly failed to challenge inflated claims of antidepressant efficacy, lending evidence of lax oversight. On average, 15 weeks elapsed between printing and censure of a wrongful claim, and in 25% of cases 47 weeks or more elapsed. Industry paid roughly €108000 in fines for violative advertising, adding an estimated additional average cost of 11% to each purchased violative advertisement, or amounting to as little as 0.009% of total antidepressant sales of around €1.2 billion. Conclusions Lax oversight, combined with lags in the system and low fines for violations, may explain the Swedish system’s failure to pressure companies into providing reliable antidepressants information. If these shortcomings prove to be consistent across self

  14. Civic Engagement as Risk Management and Public Relations: What the Pharmaceutical Industry Can Teach Us about Service-Learning

    Scott, J. Blake

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry's corporate responsibility reports illustrate how the liberal rhetoric of civic engagement can be reappropriated to serve the market-driven aims of risk management and public relations. Tracing the ideologic linkage of corporate responsibility and service-learning versions of civic engagement, and contextualizing…

  15. Respecting the right to access to medicines: Implications of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights for the pharmaceutical industry.

    Moon, Suerie

    2013-06-14

    What are the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies with regard to access to medicines? The state-based international human rights framework has long struggled with the issue of the human rights obligations of non-state actors, a question sharpened by economic globalization and the concomitant growing power of private for-profit actors ("business"). In 2011, after a six-year development process, the UN Human Rights Council unanimously endorsed the Guiding Principles advanced by the UN Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, John Ruggie. The Ruggie Principles sought to clarify and differentiate the responsibilities of states and non-state actors-in this case, "business" -with respect to human rights. The framework centered on "three core principles: the state duty to protect against human rights abuses by third parties, including business; the corporate responsibility to respect human rights; and the need for more effective access to remedies." The "Protect, Respect, and Remedy" Framework emerged from a review of many industrial sectors operating from local to global scales, in many regions of the world, and involving multiple stakeholder consultations. However, their implications for the pharmaceutical industry regarding access to medicines remain unclear. This article analyzes the 2008 Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines advanced by then-UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health, Paul Hunt, in light of the Ruggie Principles. It concludes that some guidelines relate directly to the industry's responsibility to respect the right to access to medicines, and form a normative baseline to which firms should be held accountable. It also finds that responsibility for other guidelines may better be ascribed to states than to private actors, based on conceptual and practical considerations. While not discouraging the pharmaceutical industry from making additional

  16. Assessment of global industrial-age anthropogenic arsenic contamination.

    Han, Fengxiang X; Su, Yi; Monts, David L; Plodinec, M John; Banin, Amos; Triplett, Glover E

    2003-09-01

    Arsenic, a carcinogenic trace element, threatens not only the health of millions of humans and other living organisms, but also global sustainability. We present here, for the first time, the global industrial-age cumulative anthropogenic arsenic production and its potential accumulation and risks in the environment. In 2000, the world cumulative industrial-age anthropogenic arsenic production was 4.53 million tonnes. The world-wide coal and petroleum industries accounted for 46% of global annual gross arsenic production, and their overall contribution to industrial-age gross arsenic production was 27% in 2000. Global industrial-age anthropogenic As sources (as As cumulative production) follow the order: As mining production>As generated from coal>As generated from petroleum. The potential industrial-age anthropogenic arsenic input in world arable surface in 2000 was 2.18 mg arsenic kg(-1), which is 1.2 times that in the lithosphere. The development of substitute materials for arsenic applications in the agricultural and forestry industries and controls of arsenic emissions from the coal industry may be possible strategies to significantly decrease arsenic pollution sources and dissipation rates into the environment.

  17. New product testing and the utilization of user expertise: Evidence from the Pharmaceutical industry

    Smed, Marie; Salomo, Søren; Schultz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    A significant and often neglected obstacle in new product development is the testing and approval process in the late stages of development. The testing process has primarily been observed as an in-house decision process, however, in many industries products undergo extensive testing before marke....... Further, with a dispersed user network a positive effect is observed on the mean to communicate directly as issues occur. The effect of virtual communication is therefore stronger than traditional face-to-face interaction patterns.......A significant and often neglected obstacle in new product development is the testing and approval process in the late stages of development. The testing process has primarily been observed as an in-house decision process, however, in many industries products undergo extensive testing before market...... the knowledge generated and shared by medical sites and Pharmaceutical producers in late stage product development. The results show, that information regarding usage patterns and product related services are more difficult to transfer between user and developer, than issues directly related to the product...

  18. Calibration and qualification of equipment in the pharmaceutical industry: emphasis on radiopharmaceuticals production

    Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Silva, Katia S. da S.; Zanette, Camila; Araujo, Elaine B. de; Mengatti, Jair

    2011-01-01

    The calibration and qualification of equipment are listed items in RDC number 17 of 2010 which refers about the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) of medicaments and RDC number 63 of 2009 which refers about GMP of Radiopharmaceuticals. Both are essential requirements since they are involved in process control to attend the regulatory criteria and are a key part of the validation process. The aim of this work is presenting the importance of calibration and qualification, and the routine use of equipment and facilities in industrial scale production of radiopharmaceuticals in the IPEN/CNEN. The radiopharmacy of IPEN is a pharmaceutical industry that produces radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy. It was the pioneer institute in production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil. Currently, 38 products are distributed to the nuclear medicine centers, including primary radioisotopes, labeled molecules and lyophilized reagents for labeling with technetium-99m. To fulfill the GMP requirements for quality assurance of products, several factors must be considered including infrastructure, equipment and raw materials beyond, obviously, the whole production process should be controlled until the release of the final product. Therefore, the calibration and verification of equipment, instruments and other appliances used in the production and quality control should be performed. A program of calibration, qualification and requalification of equipment used in production and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals is necessary for the validation of production processes and analytical methods, and should be established for quality assurance of produced radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  19. Calibration and qualification of equipment in the pharmaceutical industry: emphasis on radiopharmaceuticals production

    Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Silva, Katia S. da S.; Zanette, Camila; Araujo, Elaine B. de; Mengatti, Jair [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The calibration and qualification of equipment are listed items in RDC number 17 of 2010 which refers about the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) of medicaments and RDC number 63 of 2009 which refers about GMP of Radiopharmaceuticals. Both are essential requirements since they are involved in process control to attend the regulatory criteria and are a key part of the validation process. The aim of this work is presenting the importance of calibration and qualification, and the routine use of equipment and facilities in industrial scale production of radiopharmaceuticals in the IPEN/CNEN. The radiopharmacy of IPEN is a pharmaceutical industry that produces radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy. It was the pioneer institute in production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil. Currently, 38 products are distributed to the nuclear medicine centers, including primary radioisotopes, labeled molecules and lyophilized reagents for labeling with technetium-99m. To fulfill the GMP requirements for quality assurance of products, several factors must be considered including infrastructure, equipment and raw materials beyond, obviously, the whole production process should be controlled until the release of the final product. Therefore, the calibration and verification of equipment, instruments and other appliances used in the production and quality control should be performed. A program of calibration, qualification and requalification of equipment used in production and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals is necessary for the validation of production processes and analytical methods, and should be established for quality assurance of produced radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  20. Present Global Situation of Amino Acids in Industry.

    Tonouchi, Naoto; Ito, Hisao

    At present, amino acids are widely produced and utilized industrially. Initially, monosodium glutamate (MSG) was produced by extraction from a gluten hydrolysate. The amino acid industry started using the residual of the lysate. The discovery of the functions of amino acids has led to the expansion of their field of use. In addition to seasoning and other food use, amino acids are used in many fields such as animal nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. On the other hand, the invention of the glutamate fermentation process, followed by the development of fermentation methods for many other amino acids, is no less important. The supply of these amino acids at a low price is very essential for their industrial use. Most amino acids are now produced by fermentation. The consumption of many amino acids such as MSG or feed-use amino acids is still rapidly increasing.

  1. Value Frameworks in Oncology: Comparative Analysis and Implications to the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Slomiany, Mark; Madhavan, Priya; Kuehn, Michael; Richardson, Sasha

    2017-07-01

    As the cost of oncology care continues to rise, composite value models that variably capture the diverse concerns of patients, physicians, payers, policymakers, and the pharmaceutical industry have begun to take shape. To review the capabilities and limitations of 5 of the most notable value frameworks in oncology that have emerged in recent years and to compare their relative value and application among the intended stakeholders. We compared the methodology of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Value Framework (version 2.0), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Evidence Blocks, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center DrugAbacus, the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review Value Assessment Framework, and the European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale, using a side-by-side comparative approach in terms of the input, scoring methodology, and output of each framework. In addition, we gleaned stakeholder insights about these frameworks and their potential real-world applications through dialogues with physicians and payers, as well as through secondary research and an aggregate analysis of previously published survey results. The analysis identified several framework-specific themes in their respective focus on clinical trial elements, breadth of evidence, evidence weighting, scoring methodology, and value to stakeholders. Our dialogues with physicians and our aggregate analysis of previous surveys revealed a varying level of awareness of, and use of, each of the value frameworks in clinical practice. For example, although the ASCO Value Framework appears nascent in clinical practice, physicians believe that the frameworks will be more useful in practice in the future as they become more established and as their outputs are more widely accepted. Along with patients and payers, who bear the burden of treatment costs, physicians and policymakers have waded into the discussion of defining value in oncology care, as well

  2. Presentation of a Novel Model for Evaluation of Commercialization of Research and Development: Case Study of the Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Industry.

    Emami, Hassan; Radfar, Reza

    2017-01-01

    The current situation in Iran suggests an appropriate basis for developing biotechnology industries, because the patents for the majority of hi-tech medicines registered in developed countries are ending. Biosimilar and technology-oriented companies which do not have patents will have the opportunity to enter the biosimilar market and move toward innovative initiatives. The present research proposed a model by which one can evaluate commercialization of achievements obtained from research with a focus on the pharmaceutical biotechnology industry. This is a descriptive-analytic study where mixed methodology is followed by a heuristic approach. The statistical population was pharmaceutical biotechnology experts at universities and research centers in Iran. Structural equations were employed in this research. The results indicate that there are three effective layers within commercialization in the proposed model. These are a general layer (factors associated with management, human capital, legal infrastructure, communication infrastructure, a technical and executive infrastructures, and financial factors), industrial layer (internal industrial factors and pharmaceutical industry factors), and a third layer that included national and international aspects. These layers comprise 6 domains, 21 indices, 41 dimensions, and 126 components. Compilation of these layers (general layer, industrial layer, and national and international aspects) can serve commercialization of research and development as an effective evaluation package.

  3. Global Commodity Chains in Crisis : The Garment Industry in Malaysia

    Vicki Crinis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the garment industry in Malaysia from the 1970s to the present. It looks at the strategies employed by manufacturers to cope with both the end of the Multi-fibre Arrangement (MFA) and the effects of the global economic crisis on the industry in Malaysia. The garment industry in Malaysia is situated on the periphery and is almost totally reliant on contracts from the United States (US) and Europe for its survival. Since the global economic recession, contraction in the cons...

  4. Proposed changes to the reimbursement of pharmaceuticals and medical devices in Poland and their impact on market access and the pharmaceutical industry

    Badora, Karolina; Caban, Aleksandra; Rémuzat, Cécile; Dussart, Claude; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Poland, two proposed amendments to the reimbursement act are currently in preparation; these are likely to substantially change the pricing and reimbursement landscape for both drugs and medical devices. Proposed changes include: alignment of medical device reimbursement with that of pharmaceuticals; relaxing the strict reimbursement criteria for ultra-orphan drugs; establishment of an additional funding category for vaccines; introduction of compassionate use, and a simplified reimbursement pathway for well-established off-label indications; appreciation of manufacturers’ innovation and research and development efforts by creating a dedicated innovation budget; introduction of a mechanism preventing excessive parallel import; prolonged duration of reimbursement decisions and reimbursement lists; and increased flexibility in defining drug programmes. Both amendments are still at a draft stage and many aspects of the new regulations remain unclear. Nonetheless, the overall direction of some of the changes is already evident and warrants discussion due to their high expected impact on pharmaceutical and device manufacturers. Here we evaluate the main changes proposed to the reimbursement of drugs, vaccines, and medical devices, and examine the impact they are likely to have on market access and pharmaceutical industry in Poland. PMID:29081924

  5. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector.

    Rosen, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Creative Industries: Development Processes Under Contemporary Conditions of Globalization

    Valerija Kontrimienė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the processes of developing creative industries under conditions of a growth in the worldwide economy and globalization, discloses the role of the sector of creative industries and shows its place in the system of the modern global economy. The paper presents a comparative analysis of theories and theoretical approaches intended for the sector of creative industries and its development as well as defines regularities and specificities characteristic of the development of creative industries. Particular attention is shifted on the growth and development of creative industries considering the current challenges of globalization and on the most important specificities of the developing sector in the context of the challenges of economic globalization. The paper examines the trends reflecting the place of the sector of creative industries in the economy of the modern world, including the tendencies indicating changes in the export of the products created in this sector. The article considers the issues of developing creative industries and reveals priorities of future research.

  7. Determining supply chain management trends in the pharmaceutical industry / Mokgokong ElizabethTsoku

    Tsoku, Mokgokong Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    For quality service, business management is continually evolving. This also applies to pharmaceutical business management from manufacturing to distribution and retail pharmacies. The main problem being faced is to work on the demand and supply challenges that are being faced by the pharmaceutical businesses and to build and optimize supply chain management in pharmaceutical business in South Africa. The main objective of this study sets to evaluate whether supply chain tren...

  8. Animals on drugs: understanding the role of pharmaceutical companies in the animal-industrial complex.

    Twine, Richard

    2013-12-01

    In this paper I revisit previous critiques that I have made of much, though by no means all, bioethical discourse. These pertain to faithfulness to dualistic ontology, a taken-for-granted normative anthropocentrism, and the exclusion of a consideration of how political economy shapes the conditions for bioethical discourse (Twine Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8(3):285-295, 2005; International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food 16(3):1-18, 2007, 2010). Part of my argument around bioethical dualist ontology is to critique the assumption of a division between the "medical" (human) and "agricultural" (nonhuman) and to show various ways in which they are interrelated. I deepen this analysis with a focus on transnational pharmaceutical companies, with specific attention to their role in enhancing agricultural production through animal drug administration. I employ the topical case of antibiotics in order to speak to current debates in not only the interdisciplinary field of bioethics but also that of animal studies. More generally, the animal-industrial complex (Twine Journal for Critical Animal Studies 10(1):12-39, 2012) is underlined as a highly relevant bioethical object that deserves more conceptual and empirical attention.

  9. Assessment of Food Processing and Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastes as Potential Biosorbents: A Review

    El-Sayed, Hanan E. M.; El-Sayed, Mayyada M. H.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some hazardous contaminants. Sources and applications of these biosorbents are presented, while factors affecting biosorption are discussed. Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanisms of biosorption are also reviewed. In spite of the wide spread application of these biosorbents in the treatment of heavy metals and dyes, more research is required on other classes of pollutants. In addition, further work should be dedicated to studying scaling up of the process and its economic feasibility. More attention should also be given to enhancing mechanical strength, stability, life time, and reproducibility of the biosorbent. Environmental concerns regarding disposal of consumed biosorbents should be addressed by offering feasible biosorbent regeneration or pollutant immobilization options. PMID:25110656

  10. Impact of Corporate Governance on Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry in South Korea.

    Lee, Munjae

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the corporate governance of pharmaceutical companies on research and development (R&D) investment. The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012. Financial statements and comments in general, and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association. Sample firms were those that belong to the medical substance and drug manufacturing industries. Ultimately, 786 firm-year data of 81 firms were included in the sample (unbalanced panel data). The shareholding ratio of major shareholders and foreigners turned out to have a statistically significant influence on R&D investment (p ratio of institutional investors and the ratio of outside directors. The higher the shareholding ratio of the major shareholders, the greater the R&D investment. There will be a need to establish (or switch to) a holding company structure. Holding companies can directly manage R&D in fields with high initial risks, and they can diversify these risks. The larger the number of foreign investors, the greater the R&D investment, indicating that foreigners directly or indirectly impose pressure on a manager to make R&D investments that bring long-term benefits.

  11. Assessment of food processing and pharmaceutical industrial wastes as potential biosorbents: a review.

    El-Sayed, Hanan E M; El-Sayed, Mayyada M H

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some hazardous contaminants. Sources and applications of these biosorbents are presented, while factors affecting biosorption are discussed. Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanisms of biosorption are also reviewed. In spite of the wide spread application of these biosorbents in the treatment of heavy metals and dyes, more research is required on other classes of pollutants. In addition, further work should be dedicated to studying scaling up of the process and its economic feasibility. More attention should also be given to enhancing mechanical strength, stability, life time, and reproducibility of the biosorbent. Environmental concerns regarding disposal of consumed biosorbents should be addressed by offering feasible biosorbent regeneration or pollutant immobilization options.

  12. Multiplicity: discussion points from the Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry multiplicity expert group.

    Phillips, Alan; Fletcher, Chrissie; Atkinson, Gary; Channon, Eddie; Douiri, Abdel; Jaki, Thomas; Maca, Jeff; Morgan, David; Roger, James Henry; Terrill, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Committee of Health and Medicinal Products issued a concept paper on the need to review the points to consider document on multiplicity issues in clinical trials. In preparation for the release of the updated guidance document, Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry held a one-day expert group meeting in January 2013. Topics debated included multiplicity and the drug development process, the usefulness and limitations of newly developed strategies to deal with multiplicity, multiplicity issues arising from interim decisions and multiregional development, and the need for simultaneous confidence intervals (CIs) corresponding to multiple test procedures. A clear message from the meeting was that multiplicity adjustments need to be considered when the intention is to make a formal statement about efficacy or safety based on hypothesis tests. Statisticians have a key role when designing studies to assess what adjustment really means in the context of the research being conducted. More thought during the planning phase needs to be given to multiplicity adjustments for secondary endpoints given these are increasing in importance in differentiating products in the market place. No consensus was reached on the role of simultaneous CIs in the context of superiority trials. It was argued that unadjusted intervals should be employed as the primary purpose of the intervals is estimation, while the purpose of hypothesis testing is to formally establish an effect. The opposing view was that CIs should correspond to the test decision whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Secondary patents in the pharmaceutical industry: missing the wood for the trees?

    Kiran, Saritha; Kulkarni, Mohan

    2018-03-01

    The critics of the Innovator pharmaceutical industry allege that secondary patents are trivial modifications over the primary patent, which extend its term and delay the entry of the generics in the market place. The protagonists regard secondary patents a result of continuous research and development (R&D), which help them introduce and protect new, differentiated products. Areas covered: The areas covered are Product life cycle management (PLCM), Drug approval process, Orange book (OB) listed patents, US patent data. Expert opinion: Our analysis of the patents and products of four innovators viz., AstraZeneca, Takeda, Eisai and Wyeth in the field of proton pump inhibitors (PPI's) and Merck and Pfizer in the field of Statins shows that secondary patents help innovators sustain competition against other innovators in the specific product segment. The number of secondary patents listed in OB per NCE depends on the innovators interest in exploiting the NCE, the success of R & D effort and product lifecycle management strategy in the wake of market competition. Market entry decisions of innovators are strategic rather than a mere fallout of the secondary patents granted. Entry of another innovator is more unpredictable and hurts the first entrant more vis a vis the entry of generics who can enter the market when the patents protecting a product are no more enforceable, and hence more predictable. Generic entry in the field of PPI's shows that the term of the primary patent is not extended by the secondary patents.

  14. Could the Pharmaceutical Industry Benefit from Full-Scale Adoption of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology with New Regulations?

    Coustasse, Alberto; Kimble, Craig A; Stanton, Robert B; Naylor, Mariah

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare regulators are directing attention to the pharmaceutical supply chain with the passage of the Drug Quality and Security Act (DQSA) and the Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA). Adoption of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has the ability to improve compliance, reduce costs, and improve safety in the supply chain but its implementation has been limited; primarily because of hardware and tag costs. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the benefits to the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare system of the adoption of RFID technology as a result of newly implemented supply chain regulations. The methodology was a review following the steps of a systematic review with a total of 96 sources used. With the DSCSA, pharmaceutical companies must track and trace prescription drugs across the supply chain, and RFID can resolve many track-and-trace issues with manufacturer control of data. The practical implication of this study is that pharmaceutical companies must continue to have the potential to increase revenues, decrease associated costs, and increase compliance with new FDA regulations with RFID. Still, challenges related to regulatory statute wording, implementation of two-dimensional barcode technology, and the variety of interfaces within the pharmaceutical supply chain have delayed adoption and its full implementation.

  15. Impact analysis of the implemented quality management system on business performances in pharmaceutical-chemical industry in Serbia

    Marinković Valentina D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available International quality management standard (QMS ISO 9001 became widely accepted as a framework for product and/or services quality improvement. There are recent research conducted in order to define relationships and effects between the applied QMS and financial and/or non-financial business parameters. The effects of the applied pharmaceutical quality system (PQS on the business performances in Serbian pharmaceutical-chemical industry are analyzed in this paper using multivariate linear regression analysis. The empirical data were collected using a survey that was performed among experts from Serbian pharmaceutical-chemical industrial sector during 2010. An extensive questionnaire was used in the survey, grouping the questions in eight groups: Implementation of pharmaceutical quality system (AQ, Quality/strategy planning (QP, Human resource management (HR, Supply management (SM, Customer focus (CF, Process management (PM, Continuous improvement (CI, and Business results (BR. The primary goal of the research was to analyze the effects of the elements of first seven groups (AQ, QP, HR, SM, CF, PM, and CI that present various aspects of the implementation of PQS, on the elements of business results (BR. Based on empirical data, regression relations were formed to present the effects of all considered elements of PQS implementation on the business performance parameters (BR. The positive effects of PQS implementation on the business performances such as the assessment of performance indicators, continual products and/or services quality improvement, and efficient problem solving, are confirmed in the presented research for the Serbian pharmaceutical-chemical industrial sector. The results of the presented research will create a room for the improvement of the existing models in application, and for attracting interested parties that aim to commence this business standardization process. Hence, implementation of PQS is not only the regulatory

  16. The globalization of the arms industry: The next proliferation challenge

    Bitzinger, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The globalization of the arms industry entails a significant shift away from traditional, single-country patterns of weapons production toward internationalization of the development, production, and marketing of arms. While wholly indigenous armaments production may be on the decline, multinational arms production - through collaboration on individual weapon systems and increasingly via interfirm linkages across the international arms industry - appears actually to be expanding. In several instances, in fact, multinational armaments production is increasingly supplementing or even supplanting indigenous or autonomous weapons production or arms imports. The emergence of an increasingly transnational defense technology and industrial base is fundamentally affecting the shape and content of much of the global arms trade. This changing defense market, in turn, will have a profound impact on a number of national security issues concerning the Western industrialized nations. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Achieving Carbon Neutrality in the Global Aluminum Industry

    Das, Subodh

    2012-02-01

    In the 21st century, sustainability is widely regarded as the new corporate culture, and leading manufacturing companies (Toyota, GE, and Alcoa) and service companies (Google and Federal Express) are striving towards carbon neutrality. The current carbon footprint of the global aluminum industry is estimated at 500 million metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), representing about 1.7% of global emissions from all sources. For the global aluminum industry, carbon neutrality is defined as a state where the total "in-use" CO2eq saved from all products in current use, including incremental process efficiency improvements, recycling, and urban mining activities, equals the CO2eq expended to produce the global output of aluminum. This paper outlines an integrated and quantifiable plan for achieving "carbon neutrality" in the global aluminum industry by advocating five actionable steps: (1) increase use of "green" electrical energy grid by 8%, (2) reduce process energy needs by 16%, (3) deploy 35% of products in "in-use" energy saving applications, (4) divert 6.1 million metric tonnes/year from landfills, and (5) mine 4.5 million metric tonnes/year from aluminum-rich "urban mines." Since it takes 20 times more energy to make aluminum from bauxite ore than to recycle it from scrap, the global aluminum industry could set a reasonable, self-imposed energy/carbon neutrality goal to incrementally increase the supply of recycled aluminum by at least 1.05 metric tonnes for every tonne of incremental production via primary aluminum smelter capacity. Furthermore, the aluminum industry can and should take a global leadership position by actively developing internationally accepted and approved carbon footprint credit protocols.

  18. Globalization of the automobile industry: traditional locations under pressure?

    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  19. Canada's nuclear industry - a leader in the global market

    Saint-Pierre, G.

    1994-01-01

    The successes of the Canadian nuclear industry at home and abroad are recounted and extolled in this address. It is argued that the industry must become more global in order to compete more effectively in the export market. This means not only setting up operating bases (rather than mere marketing offices) abroad, but also employing nationals of prospective overseas purchasing countries in the headquarters of Canadian companies. Partnership with one or more Asian country may be the key to success

  20. GLOBAL CRISIS’ IMPACT UPON THE EMPLOYED NUMBER IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    MARIAN ZAHARIA; ANIELA BALACESCU; RODICA MANUELA GOGONEA

    2014-01-01

    TThe globalization, complex interconnection process of the economies of states, is a reality of the XXI century. However, at the end of the first decade of this century, besides the positive effects of this process, due to the economic interconnections created, it has favored also a rapid propagation of a negative economic phenomenon: the global economic crisis. Its impact significantly influenced the hospitality industry, important component of modern economies. This paper examines over a pe...

  1. Tobacco industry globalization and global health governance: towards an interdisciplinary research agenda

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Shifting patterns of tobacco production and consumption, and the resultant disease burden worldwide since the late twentieth century, prompted efforts to strengthen global health governance through adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. While the treaty is rightfully considered an important achievement, to address a neglected public health issue through collective action, evidence suggests that tobacco industry globalization continues apace. In this article, we provide a systematic review of the public health literature and reveal definitional and measurement imprecision, ahistorical timeframes, transnational tobacco companies and the state as the primary units and levels of analysis, and a strong emphasis on agency as opposed to structural power. Drawing on the study of globalization in international political economy and business studies, we identify opportunities to expand analysis along each of these dimensions. We conclude that this expanded and interdisciplinary research agenda provides the potential for fuller understanding of the dual and dynamic relationship between the tobacco industry and globalization. Deeper analysis of how the industry has adapted to globalization over time, as well as how the industry has influenced the nature and trajectory of globalization, is essential for building effective global governance responses. This article is published as part of a thematic collection dedicated to global governance. PMID:28458910

  2. Tobacco industry globalization and global health governance: towards an interdisciplinary research agenda.

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Shifting patterns of tobacco production and consumption, and the resultant disease burden worldwide since the late twentieth century, prompted efforts to strengthen global health governance through adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. While the treaty is rightfully considered an important achievement, to address a neglected public health issue through collective action, evidence suggests that tobacco industry globalization continues apace. In this article, we provide a systematic review of the public health literature and reveal definitional and measurement imprecision, ahistorical timeframes, transnational tobacco companies and the state as the primary units and levels of analysis, and a strong emphasis on agency as opposed to structural power. Drawing on the study of globalization in international political economy and business studies, we identify opportunities to expand analysis along each of these dimensions. We conclude that this expanded and interdisciplinary research agenda provides the potential for fuller understanding of the dual and dynamic relationship between the tobacco industry and globalization. Deeper analysis of how the industry has adapted to globalization over time, as well as how the industry has influenced the nature and trajectory of globalization, is essential for building effective global governance responses. This article is published as part of a thematic collection dedicated to global governance.

  3. How can a policy foster local pharmaceutical production and still protect public health? Lessons from the health-industry complex in Brazil.

    da Fonseca, Elize Massard

    2018-04-01

    The global health community is increasingly advocating for the local production of pharmaceuticals in developing countries as a way to promote technology transfer, capacity building and improve access to medicines. However, efforts to advance drug manufacturing in these countries revive an old dilemma of fostering technological development versus granting access to social services, such as healthcare. This paper explores the case of Brazil, a country that has developed large-scale health-inspired industrial policies, but is, yet, little understood. Brazil's experience suggests that progressive healthcare bureaucrats can create innovative practices for technology and knowledge transfers. It also demonstrates that highly competitive pharmaceutical firms can collaborate with each other, if a government provides them the right incentives. Reforming regulatory policies is crucial for guaranteeing high-quality products in developing countries, but governments must play a crucial role in supporting local firms to adapt to these regulations. These findings send a strong message to global health policymakers and practitioners on the conditions to create a suitable environment for local production of medical products.

  4. Management of effluents and waste from pharmaceutical industry in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Eleonora Deschamps

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the management of solid waste and wastewater is a major concern for humanity. In the last decade, traces of pharmaceuticals have been reported in the water cycle and have raised concerns among regulators, water suppliers and the public regarding the potential risks to human health. This study evaluated solid waste management in the state of Minas Gerais and concluded that the main fate of hazardous waste has been incineration, while the non-hazardous waste has been recycled or sent to landfills. However, complaints to the Environmental Agency - FEAM have indicated that a significant number of companies just send their hazardous wastes to landfills or even to garbage dumps, thus highlighting the urgent need for adequate waste management in Minas Gerais. Most of the pharmaceutical companies in Minas Gerais use conventional wastewater treatment. Mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-MS showed that the treatment routes adopted by the two 2 selected pharmaceutical industries were not effective enough since residues and degradation products of antibiotics were detected. The physicochemical analysis of the effluents showed variability in their characteristics, which may influence their treatability. The degradation assay with Fenton's reagent stood out as a promising route in achieving a higher removal capacity compared to the conventional treatment. This study contributes to enhancing our knowledge of the management of wastewater as well as of solid waste from the pharmaceutical industry in Minas Gerais and points out the need for further research.Atualmente, a gestão de resíduos sólidos e águas residuais é uma grande preocupação para a humanidade. Na ultima década, a detecção de traços de medicamentos no ciclo da água tem sido reportada e tem gerado preocupação entre os agentes reguladores, fornecedores de água e público devido os riscos potenciais para a saúde humana. As empresas farmacêuticas, em Minas Gerais

  5. An Estimation of the Potential Utilization in Iranian Pharmaceutical Industry Involved in the Stock Exchange, 2008-2012

    Annabi, Majid; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Mohammadi, Timor; Marashi Shoshtari, Seyed Nasrolah; Abedin Dorkoosh, Farid; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Heydari, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the potential of production and the capacity used in the pharmaceutical industry. Capacity use is the actual production rate to the potential output, which reflects the gap between actual production and production capacity. Through econometric methods, translog cost function in the short run along with functions of share cost of production factors is estimated through seemingly unrelated repeated regression (SURE) as a multivariate regression analysis provided by zeller. During the study the capacity used is decreasing. The capacity used, which calculated by weighted average, also decreased and the amount during the study period is much less than the simple average of the industry. Average capacity utilization in the industry over five years of study is equal to 57% while the average capacity used calculated by the weighted of industry average is 37%. To enhance the economic potential requires a proper use of resources, creation of favorable economic structure and productivity of the industry. Due to the large amount of unused capacity in the pharmaceutical industry there is no need to invest anymore unless in new grounds and it is obvious that more investment will change using capacity. PMID:29552074

  6. The development of a self-sufficient pharmaceutical industry in autarchic Spain: between need, utopia and fracoist propaganda

    Raúl Rodríguez Nozal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of the Spanish pharmaceutical industry is conditioned by its ascription to a Mediterranean model, with small economic impact and a high presence of artisan and professional elements. The industry of organic and fermentative raw materials did not appear until the Franco dictatorship. During the autarchy period, an interest to stimulate the sector seems to have arose: first, by continuing the long going investment on industries of natural products to obtain medical active principles, hence preventing their import; secondly, aimed at long term, by establishing an integral organic chemistry industry to obtain drugs from coal; and finally, by promoting the development of an industry of penicillin synthesis. However, there were a number of elements that hindered the development of the chemical-pharmaceutical industry, including the inherent limitations of the autarchic policies, the excessive number of laboratories and commercialized products, the poor capitalization and lack of research programs of these companies and the insufficient technical and scientific abilities required for these activities.

  7. An Estimation of the Potential Utilization in Iranian Pharmaceutical Industry Involved in the Stock Exchange, 2008-2012.

    Annabi, Majid; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Mohammadi, Timor; Marashi Shoshtari, Seyed Nasrolah; Abedin Dorkoosh, Farid; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Heydari, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the potential of production and the capacity used in the pharmaceutical industry. Capacity use is the actual production rate to the potential output, which reflects the gap between actual production and production capacity . Through econometric methods, translog cost function in the short run along with functions of share cost of production factors is estimated through seemingly unrelated repeated regression (SURE) as a multivariate regression analysis provided by zeller. During the study the capacity used is decreasing. The capacity used, which calculated by weighted average, also decreased and the amount during the study period is much less than the simple average of the industry. Average capacity utilization in the industry over five years of study is equal to 57% while the average capacity used calculated by the weighted of industry average is 37%. To enhance the economic potential requires a proper use of resources, creation of favorable economic structure and productivity of the industry. Due to the large amount of unused capacity in the pharmaceutical industry there is no need to invest anymore unless in new grounds and it is obvious that more investment will change using capacity.

  8. Perception and application of the concept “quality by design” (QbD) by the pharmaceutical industry in Portugal

    Garcia, Ana Cristina; Fernandes, Paula O.; Santos, Andreia

    2014-01-01

    The Quality by Design (QbD) paradigm states that in order to ensure predefined product quality, improve manufacturing quality performance, and serve customers’ needs one must fully understand the processes behind it. With the purpose of assessing the perception of the pharmaceutical industry in Portugal about the usefulness of a strategy for development, production optimization and control/quality management according to the QbD concept and its level of implementation, we conducted a survey a...

  9. Publication Trend of Clinical Trials with Negative Results Funded by Pharmaceutical Industries for the 2007-2012 Period

    Evert A. Jiménez-Cotes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the results of clinical trials financed by the pharmaceutical industries during the period 2007-2012 in a general medical journal. Materials and methods: We performed an observational cross sectional study where originals clinical trials financed by the pharmaceutical industry published between 2007 and 2012 in the journal The New England Journal of Medicine (http://www.nejm.org were reviewed. Trend Chi2 test was used to evaluate the results of studies over the years. A database was created with different variables, identifying the number of publications and the period of greater publishing negatives studies, as well as the medical specialty and pharmaceutical industry funding. Results: 321 clinical trials were analyzed. The Odds Ratio was calculated for each year evaluated, finding a Chi2 of linear trend in negatives studies of 2.91 with value p 0.08 and positive studies of 1.16 with value p 0.28. It was found that in the period 2007-2009 123 studies were published, 40 % of which presented negative results; unlike the 2010-2012 period in which 198 clinical trials where published, 142 of them, showed positive results, OR 1.68, 95 % CI (1.02-2.78 value p 0.03. The highest figures of negative results were published in 2007: 44.7 %. Conclusions: A progressive decrease in the number of publications with annual general negative results has been observed. A statistically significant difference in the publication of negative studies per year was not found between the periods 2007-2012. The medical specialty that showed the largest number of total and negative publications in both periods was cardiology. The pharmaceutical industry that sponsored most total clinical trials with negative results in both periods did so through Merck, Glaxo SmithKline, and Sanofi-Aventis. 50% of neurology publications showed negative results.

  10. What do pharmaceutical industry professionals in Europe believe about involving patients and the public in research and development of medicines? A qualitative interview study.

    Parsons, Suzanne; Starling, Bella; Mullan-Jensen, Christine; Tham, Su-Gwan; Warner, Kay; Wever, Kim

    2016-01-07

    To explore European-based pharmaceutical industry professionals' beliefs about patient and public involvement (PPI) in medicines research and development (R&D). Pharmaceutical companies in the UK, Poland and Spain. 21 pharmaceutical industry professionals, four based in the UK, five with pan-European roles, four based in Spain and eight based in Poland. Qualitative interview study (telephone and face-to-face, semistructured interviews). All interviews were audio taped, translated (where appropriate) and transcribed for analysis using the Framework approach. 21 pharmaceutical industry professionals participated. Key themes were: beliefs about (1) whether patients and the public should be involved in medicines R&D; (2) the barriers and facilitators to PPI in medicines R&D and (3) how the current relationships between the pharmaceutical industry, patient organisations and patients influence PPI in medicines R&D. Although interviewees appeared positive about PPI, many were uncertain about when, how and which patients to involve. Patients and the public's lack of knowledge and interest in medicines R&D, and the pharmaceutical industry's lack of knowledge, interest and receptivity to PPI were believed to be key challenges to increasing PPI. Interviewees also believed that relationships between the pharmaceutical industry, patient organisations, patients and the public needed to change to facilitate PPI in medicines R&D. Existing pharmaceutical industry codes of practice and negative media reporting of the pharmaceutical industry were also seen as negative influences on these relationships. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Outlook: directed development: catalysing a global biotech industry.

    Sun, Anthony; Perkins, Tom

    2005-09-01

    Governments are increasingly relying on directed development tools or proactive public-policy approaches to stimulate scientific and economic development for their biotechnology industries. This article will discuss the four main tools of directed development in biotechnology and the lessons learned from current global efforts utilizing these tools.

  12. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  13. The dynamics of the global competitiveness of Chinese industries

    Zhang, J.; Ebbers, H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a two-dimensional multi-variable approach, this article investigates the competitiveness and dynamics of Chinese industries from the perspective of the international marketplace. The study reveals the step-by-step transformation of the degree of global competitiveness across 97 Chinese

  14. Pengaruh Pengendalian Intern Terhadap Efektivitas Target Produksi PT. Lucas Djaja Pharmaceutical Industry Bandung Jawa Barat

    Bulan Tati Fitria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The achievement of operational targets is expected by each organization / company. Due to the achievement of the target, it can be judged that the performance of the company very well. Therefore, if it is not achieved it is necessary to study the factors that influence it. For then do repairs on these factors. In the achievement of the target company, it takes a process associated with the target to be achieved. In order to achieve maximum results and effective it is necessary to an adequate internal control structure, which aims to regulate the operational steps the company to run an organized and effective.The study was conducted at PT. Lucas Djaja Pharmaceutical Industry, located in Bandung, is to know how the implementation of internal controls and how they affect the effectiveness of the production targets, in particular the production of injection of 1 (one milliliter. This research used descriptive analysis with research techniques such as interviews, observations, questionnaires and literature study. Based on the results of this study concluded that the implementation of internal control at PT. Lucas Djaja is sufficient, this can be seen from the data obtained from the questionnaire filled out by the respondents, which is related to the control environment, risk assessment, information and communication, control activities, and monitoring. Meanwhile that of the effectiveness of the production target is still this can be seen from the data obtained from the questionnaire filled out by the respondents, ranging from productivity, quality, efficiency, flexibility, excellence, development, and satisfaction. And the obtained results of the research stating that the internal control effect on effectiveness production targets with determination coefficient of 56.01% and the remaining 43.99% influenced by other factors.

  15. Industry and development: Global report 1991/92

    1991-01-01

    In the 1980s, but increasingly so within the past two years, opinion has swung decisively in favour of an open, market-oriented economy, for the greater part privately owned and managed, as a way of achieving sustained industrial growth. It is with this knowledge that the Global Report focuses once again on providing detailed, concrete and up-to-date information on the global prospects for industrial growth. This year, special attention is devoted to the issues of efficiency in the use of energy and to the new financial instruments available for manufacturing industries in the global financial markets. An overview of industrial energy consumption and efficiency in the manufacturing sector is presented. Industry is the most important end-user sector in total final energy consumption in most countries. Given the dominant share of manufacturing energy consumption, it is not difficult to see the enormous potential for energy savings through improved energy efficiency in the manufacturing sector, and the substantial economic and environmental benefits to be derived therefrom in both developing and developed countries. The widespread decoupling of output and energy in OECD countries in the past two decades has already been noted, while the opposite phenomenon of energy consumption increasing in step with output has been observed in developing countries during the same period. Conservation and improvements in energy efficiency are therefore of crucial importance in developing countries. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Differential Globalization of Industry- and Non-Industry-Sponsored Clinical Trials.

    Atal, Ignacio; Trinquart, Ludovic; Porcher, Raphaël; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the international landscape of clinical trials may inform global health research governance, but no large-scale data are available. Industry or non-industry sponsorship may have a major influence in this mapping. We aimed to map the global landscape of industry- and non-industry-sponsored clinical trials and its evolution over time. We analyzed clinical trials initiated between 2006 and 2013 and registered in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We mapped single-country and international trials by World Bank's income groups and by sponsorship (industry- vs. non- industry), including its evolution over time from 2006 to 2012. We identified clusters of countries that collaborated significantly more than expected in industry- and non-industry-sponsored international trials. 119,679 clinical trials conducted in 177 countries were analysed. The median number of trials per million inhabitants in high-income countries was 100 times that in low-income countries (116.0 vs. 1.1). Industry sponsors were involved in three times more trials per million inhabitants than non-industry sponsors in high-income countries (75.0 vs. 24.5) and in ten times fewer trials in low- income countries (0.08 vs. 1.08). Among industry- and non-industry-sponsored trials, 30.3% and 3.2% were international, respectively. In the industry-sponsored network of collaboration, Eastern European and South American countries collaborated more than expected; in the non-industry-sponsored network, collaboration among Scandinavian countries was overrepresented. Industry-sponsored international trials became more inter-continental with time between 2006 and 2012 (from 54.8% to 67.3%) as compared with non-industry-sponsored trials (from 42.4% to 37.2%). Based on trials registered in the WHO ICTRP we documented a substantial gap between the globalization of industry- and non-industry-sponsored clinical research. Only 3% of academic trials but 30% of industry trials are

  17. Novel marine actinobacteria from emerald Andaman & Nicobar Islands: a prospective source for industrial and pharmaceutical byproducts.

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Rajan, Lawrance Anbu; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2013-06-22

    Andaman and Nicobar Islands situated in the eastern part of Bay of Bengal are one of the distinguished biodiversity hotspot. Even though number of studies carried out on the marine flora and fauna, the studies on actinobacteria from Andaman and Nicobar Islands are meager. The aim of the present study was to screen the actinobacteria for their characterization and identify the potential sources for industrial and pharmaceutical byproducts. A total of 26 actinobacterial strains were isolated from the marine sediments collected from various sites of Port Blair Bay where no collection has been characterized previously. Isolates were categorized under the genera: Saccharopolyspora, Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Streptoverticillium, Microtetraspora, Actinopolyspora, Actinokineospora and Dactylosporangium. Majority of the isolates were found to produce industrially important enzymes such as amylase, protease, gelatinase, lipase, DNase, cellulase, urease and phosphatase, and also exhibited substantial antibacterial activity against human pathogens. 77% of isolates exhibited significant hemolytic activity. Among 26 isolates, three strains (NIOT-VKKMA02, NIOT-VKKMA22 and NIOT-VKKMA26) were found to generate appreciable extent of surfactant, amylase, cellulase and protease enzyme. NIOT-VKKMA02 produced surfactant using kerosene as carbon source and emulsified upto E(24)-63.6%. Moreover, NIOT-VKKMA02, NIOT-VKKMA22 and NIOT-VKKMA26 synthesized 13.27 U/ml, 9.85 U/ml and 8.03 U/ml amylase; 7.75 U/ml, 5.01 U/ml and 2.08 U/ml of cellulase and 11.34 U/ml, 6.89 U/ml and 3.51 U/ml of protease enzyme, respectively. High diversity of marine actinobacteria was isolated and characterized in this work including undescribed species and species not previously reported from emerald Andaman and Nicobar Islands, including Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces venezuelae and Saccharopolyspora salina. The enhanced salt, pH and temperature tolerance of the actinobacterial isolates along with their

  18. The Direct and Indirect Impact of Pharmaceutical Industry in Economic Expansion and Job Creation: Evidence from Bootstrapping and Normal Theory Methods

    Rizwan Raheem Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research article is to examine the role of Pakistan’s pharmaceutical industry in job creation opportunities, with the sacred intention to eradicate poverty, and expansion in economic activities. This research is quantitative in nature, and the data is directly gathered through closed-ended questionnaires from 300 respondents. Besides predictors’, four mediating variables have also been taken into consideration that contribute indirectly in job creation opportunities. Bootstrapping and Normal theory methods have been employed in order to examine the impact of predictors’ and mediating variables. The result of this research confirmed that pharmaceutical industry plays a vital role in job creation in Pakistan. It is further concluded that the pharmaceutical industry has a direct and significant impact in job creation by providing indigenous and direct job opportunities in sales, marketing, and other supporting departments for both skilled and unskilled workers. Pharmaceutical industry also provides indirect job opportunities through other industries, which are very much linked with this industry, such as: pharmaceutical distributors, dealers, retailers, wholesalers, hotel industry, and event management industry. It is also determined that pharmaceutical industry is acting like knowledge and skills imparting institutions. Therefore, skilled-based training and organizational learning are major mediating variables that transform unskilled people into human assets, which further trigger the future job prospects. Since pharmaceutical industry is one of the biggest industries in Pakistan, providing plenteous opportunities of new jobs with consistent growth. Thus, mediating variables such as motivation and interpersonal influence also preceded an active role in new job creation

  19. Late Globalization and Evolution, Episodes and Epochs of Industries

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Boujarzadeh, Behnam; Dholakia, Nikhilesh

    While the empirical focus of this paper is the Danish Textile and Fashion Industry (DTFI) – specifically the episodes and epochs in the emergence and evolution of DTFI, in essence the micro and macro time-slices – the theoretical intent is wider. We aim to explore the conceptual terrain of what we...... for further exploration of the late globalization phenomenon. To get to the empirical case study, we follow a macro-conceptual to a micro-empirical path. We discuss the multidisciplinary and multifaceted field of late globalization and employing the historic-analytic approach to study DTFI we draw out very...... specific, empirically derived, conceptual themes about the patterns of global interactions that characterized the evolutionary trajectory of DTFI. We return to a final macro-conceptual section on late globalization where the particular DTFI case study advances the knowledge register only slightly; and we...

  20. R&D INTENSITY AND IPO UNDERPRICING: CASE STUDY ON PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOTECH INDUSTRIES IN THE US

    Tommy C. Efrata

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric information between the issuer to potential investors believed by some academics in finance as one of the main causes of the phenomenon of underpricing at the time of the initial public offering (IPO. On science and technology-based company main problem lies in how to conduct assessments on the future value of a product that is still in the development stage. The issue became more prominent on pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology, due to the characteristics of this industry is the high expense, complex process, and the lengthy process of research and development (R & D of a product. This study describes the characteristics above is associated with the phenomenon of underpricing when companies conduct IPO. The samples are 82 pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology conduct IPO in the United States stock market in 1998-2005. The results of this study revealed a negative correlation between the intensity of R & D and IPO underpricing phenomenon in this industry. These studies have identified R & D as the main source of information asymmetry that led to the phenomenon of underpricing for pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology.

  1. Basic pharmaceutical technology

    Angelovska, Bistra; Drakalska, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The lecture deals with basics of pharmaceutical technology as applied discipline of pharmaceutical science, whose main subject of study is formulation and manufacture of drugs. In a broad sense, pharmaceutical technology is science of formulation, preparation, stabilization and determination of the quality of medicines prepared in the pharmacy or in pharmaceutical industry

  2. Integrating developing country manufacturing industries into global supply chain

    Fasika Bete Georgise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to globalization of manufacturing activities, the arena of competition and competitiveness advantage is moving from firms towards supply chains and networks. With the recent advancement of information and communication technologies this participation are becoming as common business practice in developed countries firms. Companies were more integrated into the world market for the global nature of the sourcing, manufacturing and distribution. These changes create both challenges and opportunities for the manufacturing industries in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to examine the level of inter-organizational and intra-organizational supply chain integration practices in developing country, Ethiopia.Design/methodology/approach: An industrial questionnaires survey was used to collect the current practices of the manufacturing industries in Ethiopia as an example of the developing countries. Descriptive statistics is primarily used for the analysis.Findings: Results show a low level of supply chain relationship both in intra and inter organizational supply chain integration level among members. Accordingly, such issues require much attention to facilitate a greater integration within the supply chains in the Ethiopian manufacturing industries.Research limitations/implications: The paper focuses on examining the practices of Ethiopian manufacturing industries empirical data. The interpretation of results should be taken with prudence.Originality/Value: The manufacturing industry in developing countries (MIDC has been a part of the global supply chains for long time as a supplier of raw material and manufacturer of primary products. Currently, the MIDC is trying to access the different markets segment of the world even with new products starting from their local market to the complex and dynamic international market. Nevertheless, their supply chains are inefficient and hence, their competitiveness level far from the

  3. Identify: Improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    Lazarus, M.; Hill, D.; Cornland, D.W.; Heaps, C.; Hippel, D. von; Williams, R.

    1997-07-01

    The use of energy in the industrial sectors of nations with both industrialized and developing economies will continue to be, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The patterns of industrial-sector energy use--energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels-have shifted both within the between countries in recent decades. Projections of future energy use and carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions suggest continued shifts in these patterns, as industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, while industrial output in the developing world continues to expand. This expansion of industrial-sector activity and CO{sub 2} emissions in developing countries presents both a challenge and an opportunity. To seize this opportunity and contribute to international efforts to mitigate global climate change, the United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) recently initiated a two-phase effort to help improve the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals, refining, paper and pulp, and cement) in developing countries. As part of the Phase I, the authors reviewed industrial sector scenarios and to initiated development of a software-based toolkit for identifying and assessing GHG mitigating technologies. This toolkit, called IDENTIFY, is comprised of a technology inventory and a companion economic analysis tool. In addition, UNIDO commissioned institutions in India, South Africa, and Argentina to review energy use patterns and savings opportunities in selected industries across nine developing countries, and contribute to the development of the IDENTIFY toolkit. UNIDO is now preparing to launch Phase 2, which will focus on full development and dissemination of the IDENTIFY toolkit through seminars and case studies around the world. This paper describes Phase 1 of the UNIDO project.

  4. Identify: Improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    Lazarus, M.; Hill, D.; Cornland, D.W.; Heaps, C.; Hippel, D. von; Williams, R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of energy in the industrial sectors of nations with both industrialized and developing economies will continue to be, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The patterns of industrial-sector energy use--energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels-have shifted both within the between countries in recent decades. Projections of future energy use and carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions suggest continued shifts in these patterns, as industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, while industrial output in the developing world continues to expand. This expansion of industrial-sector activity and CO 2 emissions in developing countries presents both a challenge and an opportunity. To seize this opportunity and contribute to international efforts to mitigate global climate change, the United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) recently initiated a two-phase effort to help improve the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals, refining, paper and pulp, and cement) in developing countries. As part of the Phase I, the authors reviewed industrial sector scenarios and to initiated development of a software-based toolkit for identifying and assessing GHG mitigating technologies. This toolkit, called IDENTIFY, is comprised of a technology inventory and a companion economic analysis tool. In addition, UNIDO commissioned institutions in India, South Africa, and Argentina to review energy use patterns and savings opportunities in selected industries across nine developing countries, and contribute to the development of the IDENTIFY toolkit. UNIDO is now preparing to launch Phase 2, which will focus on full development and dissemination of the IDENTIFY toolkit through seminars and case studies around the world. This paper describes Phase 1 of the UNIDO project

  5. The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: the pharmaceutical industry's principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy.

    Arnold, Denis G; Oakley, James L

    2013-06-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry lobbies European regulators to permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the European Union, we found that five leading companies violated industry-developed and -promulgated standards for ethical advertising in the United States. Utilizing multiple data sources and methods, we demonstrate a consistent failure by companies that market erectile dysfunction drugs to comply with the industry's guiding principles for ethical DTCA over a four-year period despite pledges of compliance by company leaders. Noncompliance resulted in children being exposed to sexually themed promotional messages more than 100 billion times. We argue that the guidelines are a coordinated effort by the industry to prevent unwanted federal regulation, and we introduce the concept of a blocking strategy to explain company behavior and to advance theoretical understanding of firms' public affairs strategies. We recommend policy responses to prevent deceptive practices, protect children from adult content, and promote genuine health care education.

  6. Validated electrochemical and chromatographic quantifications of some antibiotic residues in pharmaceutical industrial waste water.

    Ibrahim, Heba K; Abdel-Moety, Mona M; Abdel-Gawad, Sherif A; Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Kawy, Mohamed Abdel

    2017-03-01

    Realistic implementation of ion selective electrodes (ISEs) into environmental monitoring programs has always been a challenging task. This could be largely attributed to difficulties in validation of ISE assay results. In this study, the electrochemical response of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMX), ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPLX), trimethoprim (TMP), and norfloxacin (NFLX) was studied by the fabrication of sensitive membrane electrodes belonging to two types of ISEs, which are polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrodes and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Linear response for the membrane electrodes was in the concentration range of 10 -5 -10 -2  mol/L. For the PVC membrane electrodes, Nernstian slopes of 55.1, 56.5, 56.5, and 54.0 mV/decade were achieved over a pH 4-8 for AMX, CPLX, and NFLX, respectively, and pH 3-6 for TMP. On the other hand, for GC electrodes, Nernstian slopes of 59.1, 58.2, 57.0, and 58.2 mV/decade were achieved over pH 4-8 for AMX, CPLX, and NFLX, respectively, and pH 3-6 for TMP. In addition to assay validation to international industry standards, the fabricated electrodes were also cross-validated relative to conventional separation techniques; high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry. The HPLC assay was applied in concentration range of 0.5-10.0 μg/mL, for all target analytes. The TLC-densitometry was adopted over a concentration range of 0.3-1.0 μg/band, for AMX, and 0.1-0.9 μg/band, for CPLX, NFLX, and TMP. The proposed techniques were successfully applied for quantification of the selected drugs either in pure form or waste water samples obtained from pharmaceutical plants. The actual waste water samples were subjected to solid phase extraction (SPE) for pretreatment prior to the application of chromatographic techniques (HPLC and TLC-densitometry). On the other hand, the fabricated electrodes were successfully applied for quantification of the antibiotic residues in actual

  7. Credence goods and market power: an econometric study on the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry

    Eduardo P. S. Fiuza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the market failures pointed out by the economic literature and following the international empirical evidence, and based on original micro data of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry in the late 1990s, this article attempts to relate empirically drug prices in Brazil to some explaining variables. We find that, similarly to previous U.S. estimations, leading branded drugs accommodated share growth of the followers, turning towards a more inelastic market segment and raising their prices. On followers, in turn, a fall of the concentration index in a market had ambiguous effects: if due to reduced leader power, followers raised their relative prices; if due to a tougher competition within the fringe, their relative prices tended to go down.No presente artigo procuramos, tendo em mente as imperfeições de mercado apontadas pela literatura e pela experiência internacional, e com base em dados originais da indústria farmacêutica, relacionar empiricamente o preço de medicamentos no Brasil com algumas variáveis explicativas. Encontramos que, consoante com estimações anteriores da experiência norte-americana, os medicamentos líderes no Brasil, antes da lei que instituiu o medicamento genérico, acomodavam o avanço de produtos similares (do mesmo princípio ativo, porém sem o teste de bioequivalência e se recolhiam a segmentos inelásticos do mercado, elevando seus preços. Os similares, ao contrário, ao perderem mercado, reduziam seus preços em relação ao líder, de modo que uma redução no índice de concentração do mercado total de um princípio ativo tem efeitos ambíguos sobre seus preços, dependendo se a causa é uma queda da participação do líder ou um rearranjo dentre os seguidores.

  8. Industrial Upgrading in Global Production Networks: The Case of the Chinese Automotive Industry

    Yansheng LI; Xin Xin KONG; Miao ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the development of China’s automotive industry. The evidence shows that integration in global production networks has stimulated upgrading of technological capabilities among automotive firms. However, the competitiveness and intra-industry analyses show mixed results. Although intraindustry trade in automotive products has improved since 2000, the trade competitiveness of completely built up vehicles has largely remained in low value added activities. Nevertheless, firm...

  9. Energy Transition for Industry: India and the Global Context

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication further develops the analysis presented in the India chapter of Energy Technology Perspectives 2010 and provides insights on the implications of achieving deep energy and CO2 emission cuts in the industrial sector both for India and globally. It investigates the least-cost combination of options that can significantly reduce energy and CO2 emissions in India's industrial sector, while enabling the Indian economy to continue to grow and alleviate energy poverty. For India to play its part in helping to realise deep cuts in global CO2 emissions by the middle of the 21st century, it will need to achieve rapid economic development over the next 40 years with only a very small increase in emissions. Currently there is no precedent for such a low-CO2 development path. The challenge for India will be to achieve strong economic growth while improving energy security, but without locking in high emissions.

  10. China’s impact on the global wind power industry

    Lema, Rasmus; Berger, Axel; Schmitz, Hubert

    China’s economic rise has transformed the global economy in a number of manufacturing industries. This paper investigates whether China’s transformative influence extends to the new green economy. Drawing on the debate about how China is driving major economic changes in the world – the ‘Asian...... firms. While the combined impact of Chinese market and production power is already visible, other influences are beginning to be felt – arising from China’s coordination, innovation and financing power....

  11. China’s Impact on the Global Wind Power Industry

    Lema, Rasmus; Berger, Axel; Schmitz, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    China’s economic rise has transformed the global economy in a number of manufacturing industries. This paper investigates whether China’s transformative influence extends to the new green economy. Drawing on the debate about how China is driving major economic changes in the world – the “Asian....... While the combined impact of Chinese market and production power is already visible, other influences are beginning to be felt – arising from China’s coordination, innovation and financing power....

  12. Direct-to-consumer communication on prescription only medicines via the internet in the Netherlands, a pilot study. Opinion of the pharmaceutical industry, patient associations and support groups.

    Fabius, A Mariette; Cheung, Ka-Chun; Rijcken, Cristianne J F; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Talsma, Herre

    2004-06-01

    Investigation of the current application of direct-to-consumer (DTC) communication on prescription only medicines via the Intemet in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were sent by e-mail to 43 Dutch innovative pharmaceutical industries and 130 Patient Association and Support Groups (PASGs). In this pilot study, the response of the pharmaceutical industry was rather low but the impression is that they were willing to invest in DTC communication. The majority of the websites of PASGs did not link to websites of pharmaceutical companies. The PASGs had no opinion whether patients can make a good distinction between DTC advertising and information on websites of the pharmaceutical industry nor about the quality. PASGs did not think unambiguously about the impact on the patient-doctor relationship. The impact of DTC communication on prescription only medicines via the internet is not yet clear in the Netherlands.

  13. The global energy industry: is competition among suppliers ensured?

    Regibeau, P.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, many factors have affected the effective degree of competition in coal, electricity, gas and oil. This paper concentrates on the effects of globalization, regulatory reform, privatization and inter-fuel mergers. While demand side globalization has led to increased competition, greater supply side globalization might lead to more collusive behaviour in sectors such as coal and electricity. Regulatory reform has helped foster competition in the US gas market and in several electricity markets. Still, regulators have imposed insufficient vertical separation and the regulation of international electricity transmission remains problematic. Privatization is very useful in enforcing initial changes in industry structure. Inter-fuel mergers might entail efficiency gains but they also raise significant issues for competition policy authorities. (orig.)

  14. Braving a faceless new world? Conceptualizing trust in the pharmaceutical industry and its products

    Brown, P.; Calnan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products are commonly relied upon by professionals, and correspondingly patients, within a wide range of healthcare contexts. This dependence, combined with the inherent risk and uncertainty surrounding both medical practice and the drugs it harnesses, points towards the importance of

  15. 76 FR 75551 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Regulatory Classification of Pharmaceutical Co-Crystals; Availability

    2011-12-02

    ... of Pharmaceutical Co-Crystals.'' This draft guidance provides applicants of new drug applications (NDAs) and abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) with the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's (CDER's) current thinking on the appropriate classification of co-crystal solid-state forms. This draft...

  16. Transparency in the pharmaceutical industry - A cost accounting approach to the prices of drugs

    Broekhof, Martijn

    2002-01-01

    The WTO TRIPS agreement grants pharmaceutical companies patent rights on new innovative drugs. Patents give these companies the opportunity to charge higher prices for their drugs in order to recover their R&D expenses. For developing countries this is one of the reasons why people in developing

  17. Health technology assessment of medicines in Greece: pharmaceutical industry executives' views.

    Armataki, Eleni; Karampli, Eleftheria; Kyriopoulos, John; Pavi, Elpida

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate originator pharmaceutical companies' practices in relation to health technology assessment (HTA) and the views and perceptions of their executives on the importance of HTA in pricing and reimbursement of medicines in Greece. A qualitative study was performed, using individual semi-structured interviews based on an interview schedule with open-ended questions. The target population was market access departments' executives of originator pharmaceutical companies. Our target sample consisted of sixteen executives, of whom ten agreed to participate. Saturation point was reached after eight interviews. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis. Participants considered HTA as a very important complementary tool for decision making in health policy, particularly in the field of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. They believed that, in Greece, HTA could be institutionalized for the reimbursement mechanism of medicines under certain conditions relating to current health policy-making attitudes and conditions pertaining in the country. They considered that there are many constraints which must be overcome as well as opportunities to be exploited. Decisions in pharmaceutical policy should be scientifically substantiated and HTA should be institutionalized primarily for reimbursement decisions. Development of guidelines for conducting pharmaco-economic evaluation, change in health policy goals, recording of cost and epidemiological data, and broader participation of all stakeholders in HTA decision-making processes are suggested as prerequisites for a successful implementation of HTA in Greece.

  18. The impact of global warming on the automotive industry

    Hannappel, Ralf

    2017-08-01

    One cause of global warming of the earth's atmosphere is the emission of human made gases (methane, CO2, nitrous oxygen, etc.) into the environment. Of the total global CO2 emissions the transportation sector contributes to about 14%. In order to control the emissions of the automotive sector, in all major countries (USA, Europe, China, Japan) of the world, tough emissions targets were being set to reduce the vehicle traffic's contribution of CO2. These are derived from the global climate conference' target to limit the maximum temperature increase of the earth of 2 degrees Celsius until 2100. In order to achieve these stringent targets the automotive industry will face a major change in its drivetrain. It will move from combustion to electrical engines. The technical realization of these engines will most likely be battery and fuel cell driven propulsion systems. In order to achieve that transition a major effort is required in 4 industrial areas, i.e. growing electrical charging infrastructure, lowering battery cost, increasing the battery-electric vehicle ranges and developing new environmental friendly hydrogen production methods.

  19. The simple economics of risk-sharing agreements between the NHS and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2011-04-01

    The introduction of new (and expensive) pharmaceutical products is one of the major challenges for health systems. The search for new institutional arrangements is natural. The use of the so-called risk-sharing agreements is one example. Recent discussions have somewhat neglected the economic fundamentals underlying risk-sharing agreements. We argue here that risk-sharing agreements, although attractive due to the principle of paying by results, also entail risks. Too many patients may be put under treatment. Prices are likely to be adjusted upward, in anticipation of future risk-sharing agreements between the pharmaceutical company and the third-party payer. An available instrument is a verification cost per patient treated, which allows obtaining the first-best allocation of patients to the new treatment, under the agreement. Overall, the welfare effects of risk-sharing agreements are ambiguous, and caution is urged regarding their use. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. AN OVERVIEW OF PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESS VALIDATION AND PROCESS CONTROL VARIABLES OF TABLETS MANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN INDUSTRY

    Mahesh B. Wazade*, Sheelpriya R. Walde and Abhay M. Ittadwar

    2012-01-01

    Validation is an integral part of quality assurance; the product quality is derived from careful attention to a number of factors including selection of quality parts and materials, adequate product and manufacturing process design, control of the process variables, in-process and end-product testing. Recently validation has become one of the pharmaceutical industry’s most recognized and discussed subjects. It is a critical success factor in product approval and ongoing commercialization, fac...

  1. Managing Risk to the Patient: Recoding Quality Risk Management for the Pharmaceutical and Biopharmaceutical Industries

    Waldron, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the application of quality risk management (QRM) in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies and its effectiveness at managing risk to the patient. The objective of the research described in this thesis was to characterize a maturity state of QRM implementation in which the patient is adequately protected from the risks associated with medicinal products of inadequate quality. The research was conducted over three phases: first, to determine whether patients are bet...

  2. The impact of human capital outsourcing on human capital management practices in Karachi pharmaceutical industry

    Rana, Tariq Mehmood; Syed, Qamar Ali Zaidi; Muhmmad, Sajid; Herani, Gobind M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research is to examine relationship between Human Capital Management (HRM) and Human Resource (HR) Outsourcing in the Pharmaceutical sector. The specific objective is to find out that how important is HRM for an Organization to perform its operations more efficiently, and at what level Human Resource Outsourcing is affecting it. Literature review: Literature review shows that HR outsourcing has positive impact on HRM for an Organization to perform its operations more ...

  3. The Determinants of Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Focus on Financial Structures

    Lee, Munjae; Choi, Mankyu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study analyzes the influence of the financial structure of pharmaceutical companies on R&D investment to create a next-generation profit source or develop relatively cost-effective drugs to maximize enterprise value. Methods The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012. Financial statements and comments in general and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association (KLCA), and data related to stock price is extracted from ...

  4. The Effect of Transformational Leadership Behavior on Organizational Culture: An Application in Pharmaceutical Industry

    Sinem Aydogdu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, conducted on 96 employees from production sector in a pharmaceutical company, the effect of transformational leadership behavior on organizational culture is investigated to determine statistically significant relations. The results of the study support the hypotheses. Transformational leadership behavior has a positive and significant correlation between the components of organizational culture such as long / short term orientation, masculinity / feminity, power distance, individualism / collectivisim and uncertainity avoidance.

  5. Patent cliff and strategic switch: exploring strategic design possibilities in the pharmaceutical industry

    Song, Chie Hoon; Han, Jeung-Whan

    2016-01-01

    Extending the period of the market exclusivity and responding properly to the recent agglomeration of patent expiries are pivotal to the success of pharmaceutical companies. Declining R&D productivity, rising costs of commercialization, near-term patent expirations for many top-selling drugs are forcing companies to adopt new systems to introduce innovative products to market and to focus on strategies that increase the returns from the existing product portfolio. This systematic review explo...

  6. Globalisation and Its Impact on Competitiveness: the Case of the British and German Pharmaceutical Industry

    Christel Lane; Jocelyn Probert

    2003-01-01

    This paper assesses the degree of financial and economic globalisation of British and German pharmaceutical companies during 1990 and 2001 and explores the changing balance between globalisation and national embeddedness. It tries to explain both the much lower degree of globalisation of German as compared to British companies in 1990, as well as their catching up at the beginning of the 21st century. The paper suggests that the lesser degree of globalisation of German firms during most of th...

  7. Occurrence of antibiotics in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater, wastewater treatment plant and sea waters in Tunisia.

    Tahrani, Leyla; Van Loco, Joris; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Reyns, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly used group of pharmaceuticals in human medicine. They can therefore reach surface and groundwater bodies through different routes, such as wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface runoff, or infiltration of water used for agricultural purposes. It is well known that antibiotics pose a significant risk to environmental and human health, even at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of aminoglycosides and phenicol antibiotics in municipal wastewaters, sea water and pharmaceutical effluents in Tunisia. All analysed water samples contained detectable levels of aminoglycoside and phenicol antibiotics. The highest concentrations in wastewater influents were observed for neomycin and kanamycin B (16.4 ng mL(-1) and 7.5 ng mL(-1), respectively). Chloramphenicol was found in wastewater influents up to 3 ng mL(-1). It was observed that the waste water treatment plants were not efficient in completely removing these antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were found in sea water samples near aquaculture sites at levels up to, respectively, 15.6 ng mL(-1) and 18.4 ng mL(-1). Also aminoglycoside antibiotics were found near aquaculture sites with the highest concentration of 3.4 ng mL(-1) for streptomycin. In pharmaceutical effluents, only gentamycin was found at concentrations up to 19 ng mL(-1) over a sampling period of four months.

  8. Visualizing Consolidation in the Global Seed Industry: 1996–2008

    Philip H. Howard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The commercial seed industry has undergone tremendous consolidation in the last 40 years as transnational corporations entered this agricultural sector, and acquired or merged with competing firms. This trend is associated with impacts that constrain the opportunities for renewable agriculture, such as reductions in seed lines and a declining prevalence of seed saving. To better characterize the current structure of the industry, ownership changes from 1996 to 2008 are represented visually with information graphics. Since the commercialization of transgenic crops in the mid-1990s, the sale of seeds has become dominated globally by Monsanto, DuPont and Syngenta. In addition, the largest firms are increasingly networked through agreements to cross-license transgenic seed traits.

  9. African women, industrialization and another development. A global perspective.

    Steady, F C

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the women of Africa have been differentially integrated into the world economic system, serving primarily as a labor reserve and a mainstay for the subsistence and reproductive sectors. If and when necessary, female proletarianization can come into effect. African women, by virtue of their strategic role in traditional food systems, have acquired certain skills compatible with labor intensive food processing industries. Consequently, in some countries they have been involved in the handling, processing, and packing of food. In many 3rd world nations regulations protecting minimum wage levels do not exist and collective bargaining activities are not strongly in force. Economic hardship and the desperate need to survive can lead some groups to accept even lower wages. Consequently, although the employment of women at lower wages violates the principle of equal pay for equal work, agroindustries with monopolies can deliberately and with impunity hire women at lower wages than men. In general, when women are hired in industries the nature of their employment is precarious, frequently being of a casual and seasonal nature and in greatest demand during peak periods. In an effort to understand the implications of industrialization for African women a global perspective is necessary, for at present the incorporation of the African women in direct industrialization is minimal. Racism has played an important role in the exploitation of the African continent, and no serious study of class and gender inequality in Africa can overlook that important fact. Numerous studies have shown how industry perpetuates the sexual division of labor. Even in the industrialized nations, women often have held the least paid and most precarious jobs in industry. Women's vulnerability is further worsened by several factors, the most obvious being their reproductive capabilities. In addition to being more vulnerable to industrial hazards, their employment can be truncated by

  10. The deadly business of an unregulated global stem cell industry.

    Lysaght, Tamra; Lipworth, Wendy; Hendl, Tereza; Kerridge, Ian; Lee, Tsung-Ling; Munsie, Megan; Waldby, Catherine; Stewart, Cameron

    2017-11-01

    In 2016, the Office of the State Coroner of New South Wales released its report into the death of an Australian woman, Sheila Drysdale, who had died from complications of an autologous stem cell procedure at a Sydney clinic. In this report, we argue that Mrs Drysdale's death was avoidable, and it was the result of a pernicious global problem of an industry exploiting regulatory systems to sell unproven and unjustified interventions with stem cells. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution

    Kartono R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM regulation in order to achieve “Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik” (CPOB of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

  12. Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik) Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution

    Kartono, R.; Basuki, Y. T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM) regulation in order to achieve "Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik" (CPOB) of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI) as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV) disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

  13. Global Sectoral Industry Approaches to Climate Change. The Way Forward

    Stigson, B.; Egenhofer, C.; Fujiwara, N.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of some industrial sectors is so highly concentrated that just a handful of companies are responsible for producing a significant share of that sector's total greenhouse gases emissions worldwide. These sectors are thus a 'natural' focus of policy-makers concerned with climate change and have attracted keen interest from the EU. So-called 'sectoral approaches' are seen as having the potential to broaden the range of contributions by all parties, including emerging economies, to greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and to help moderate competitiveness concerns in trade-exposed industries. In particular, such approaches may help to quantify emissions on a sector-by-sector basis, building confidence that policies and measures can be put in place to reduce emissions. They can also help identify national or global commitments through the aggregation of sectoral data. While sectoral approaches allow policy-makers to concentrate on those individual sectors that contribute significantly to global emissions, they also pose a number of challenges. This CEPS Task Force Report identifies the principal issues associated with sectoral approaches - their rationale and the associated political dynamics - and gives an overview of existing approaches, the formulation of preconditions that would allow sectoral approaches to be implemented and an analysis of the potential interaction of sectoral approaches with existing climate change policies. The concluding chapter sketches a possible way forward

  14. Continuing medical education and pharmaceutical industry involvement: An evaluation of policies adopted by Canadian professional medical associations.

    Shnier, Adrienne; Lexchin, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Professional medical associations (PMAs) play a crucial role in providing accredited continuing medical education (CME) to physicians. Funding from the pharmaceutical industry may lead to biases in CME. This study examines publicly available policies on CME, adopted by Canadian PMAs as of December 2015. Policies were evaluated using an original scoring tool comprising 21 items, two questions about PMAs' general and CME funding from industry, and three enforcement measures. We assessed 236 policies adopted by Canadian PMAs (range, 0 to 32). Medical associations received summative scores that ranged from 0% to 49.2% of the total possible points (maximum score = 63). Twenty-seven associations received an overall score of 0%. The highest mean scores were achieved in the areas of industry involvement in planning CME activities (mean: 1.1/3), presence of a review process for topics of CME activities (mean: 1.1/3), content review for balanced information (mean: 1.1/3), and responsibility of distribution of funds (mean: 1.0/3). The lowest mean scores were achieved in the areas of awards (mean: 0.0/3), industry personnel, representatives, and employees (mean: 0.1/3), distribution of industry-funded educational materials at CME activities (mean: 0.1/3), and distinction between marketing and educational materials (mean: 0.1/3). These results suggest that Canadian PMAs' publicly available policies on industry involvement in CME are generally weak or non-existent; therefore, the accredited CME that is provided to Canadian physicians may be viewed as open to bias. We encourage all Canadian medical associations to strengthen their policies to avoid the potential for industry influence in CME.

  15. The Determinants of Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Focus on Financial Structures

    Lee, Munjae; Choi, Mankyu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study analyzes the influence of the financial structure of pharmaceutical companies on R&D investment to create a next-generation profit source or develop relatively cost-effective drugs to maximize enterprise value. Methods The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012. Financial statements and comments in general and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association (KLCA), and data related to stock price is extracted from KISVALUE-Ⅲ of NICE Information Service Co., Ltd. Stata 12.0 was used as the statistical package for panel analysis. Results The current ratio had a positive influence on R&D investment, the debt ratio had a negative influence on R&D investment, and return on investment and net sales growth rate did not have a significant influence on R&D investment. Conclusion It was found in this study that the higher liquidity ratio, the greater the R&D investment. The stability of pharmaceutical companies has a negative influence on R&D investment. This finding is consistent with the prediction that if a company faces a financial risk, it will be passive in R&D investment due to its financial difficulties. PMID:26730355

  16. Acquiring Pharmaceutical Industry Assets in the UK: 1 + 1 = 1?

    Kanavos, Panos; Angelis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    The recent AstraZeneca takeover bid from Pfizer puts pharmaceutical R&D once again on the public agenda. Three pertinent questions are (a) what can be expected from this acquisition, (b) what are the implications for the UK economy and science base, and (c) whether such a deal should go ahead. Although the key driver behind this acquisition would be an improvement in company performance and shareholder value, past evidence suggests that mergers and acquisitions (M&A) of large pharmaceutical companies imply a neutral net effect on productivity, if not a decline, with employment decreasing and R&D spend following a similar trend. Similarities between the two companies include dropping sales; however, relative to its size, AstraZeneca has a more promising R&D pipeline, especially in therapeutic areas where Pfizer's strength is currently limited (e.g. oncology). Ensuring a portfolio diversification would make Pfizer's takeover proposal a knight's one, but history points towards a knave-like behavior.

  17. The Determinants of Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Focus on Financial Structures.

    Lee, Munjae; Choi, Mankyu

    2015-10-01

    This study analyzes the influence of the financial structure of pharmaceutical companies on R&D investment to create a next-generation profit source or develop relatively cost-effective drugs to maximize enterprise value. The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012. Financial statements and comments in general and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association (KLCA), and data related to stock price is extracted from KISVALUE-Ⅲ of NICE Information Service Co., Ltd. Stata 12.0 was used as the statistical package for panel analysis. The current ratio had a positive influence on R&D investment, the debt ratio had a negative influence on R&D investment, and return on investment and net sales growth rate did not have a significant influence on R&D investment. It was found in this study that the higher liquidity ratio, the greater the R&D investment. The stability of pharmaceutical companies has a negative influence on R&D investment. This finding is consistent with the prediction that if a company faces a financial risk, it will be passive in R&D investment due to its financial difficulties.

  18. Global process industry initiatives to reduce major accident hazards

    Pitblado, Robin [DNV Energy Houston, TX (United States). SHE Risk Management; Pontes, Jose [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Americas Region; Oliveira, Luiz [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Since 2000, disasters at Texas City, Toulouse, Antwerp, Buncefield, P-36 and several near total loss events offshore in Norway have highlighted that major accident process safety is still a serious issue. Hopes that Process Safety Management or Safety Case regulations would solve these issues have not proven true. The Baker Panel recommended to BP several actions mainly around leadership, incentives, metrics, safety culture and more effective implementation of PSM systems. In Europe, an approach built around mechanical integrity and safety barriers, especially relating to technical safety systems, is being widely adopted. DNV has carried out a global survey of process industry initiatives, by interview and by literature review, for both upstream and downstream activities, to identify what the industry itself is planning to implement to enhance process safety in the next 5 - 10 years. This shows that an approach combining Baker Panel and EU barrier approaches and some nuclear industry real-time risk management approaches might be the best means to achieve a factor of 3-4 improvement in process safety. (author)

  19. Importance of marketing management in the world pfarmaceutical industry

    Dragan Kesič; Andrej Bertoncelj

    2008-01-01

    The world pharmaceutical industry has changed tremendously in the last decade. Globalization processes reinforce a consolidation of the world pharmaceutical industry. Mergers and acquisitions prevail more and more as a strategic orientation of numerous world pharmaceutical companies. In our research we found out that marketing management has been playing an increasingly important or even a crucial role in day-today activities and strategic business operations of the world pharmaceutical compa...

  20. Non-Conventional Applications of Computerized Tomography: Analysis of Solid Dosage Forms Produced by Pharmaceutical Industry

    Martins de Oliveira, Jose Jr.; Germano Martins, Antonio Cesar

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object measuring the transmitted radiation at different directions. In this work, we describe a non-conventional application of computerized tomography: visualization and improvements in the understanding of some internal structural features of solid dosage forms. A micro-CT X-ray scanner, with a minimum resolution of 30 μm was used to characterize some pharmaceutical tablets, granules, controlled-release osmotic tablet and liquid-filled soft-gelatin capsules. The analysis presented in this work are essentially qualitative, but quantitative parameters, such as porosity, density distribution, tablets dimensions, etc. could also be obtained using the related CT techniques.

  1. Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitors from Marine Resources: Prospects in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Isuru Wijesekara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension or high blood pressure is one of the major independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1; ACE plays an important physiological role in regulation of blood pressure by converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Therefore, the inhibition of ACE activity is a major target in the prevention of hypertension. Recently, the search for natural ACE inhibitors as alternatives to synthetic drugs is of great interest to prevent several side effects and a number of novel compounds such as bioactive peptides, chitooligosaccharide derivatives (COS and phlorotannins have been derived from marine organisms as potential ACE inhibitors. These inhibitory derivatives can be developed as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals with potential to prevent hypertension. Hence, the aim of this review is to discuss the marine-derived ACE inhibitors and their future prospects as novel therapeutic drug candidates for treat hypertension.

  2. Efficiency and Ranking of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry: Does Type of Ownership Matter?

    Varun MAHAJAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures the technical efficiency, super-efficiency, slacks, and input/output targets for large Indian pharmaceutical firms according to ownership by applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach. The paper uses raw material, salaries & wages, advertisement & marketing and capital usage cost as input variables and net sales revenue as output variable. The super-efficiency model is applied to rank firms on the basis of efficiency scores. The paper finds that mean overall technical efficiency scores of Private Indian and Private Foreign are higher than Group-owned firms, suggesting that type of ownership affects the performance of a given firm. Further, foreign firms were found to have minimum slacks in inputs, evidently owing to their superior technology, better engineering skills and managerial practices. The study suggests that the inputs, such as, advertisement & marketing expenditure, and also the usage of labour and capital are required to be utilized far more productively in order to improve efficiency.

  3. Failure of Cleaning Verification in Pharmaceutical Industry Due to Uncleanliness of Stainless Steel Surface.

    Haidar Ahmad, Imad A; Blasko, Andrei

    2017-08-11

    The aim of this work is to identify the parameters that affect the recovery of pharmaceutical residues from the surface of stainless steel coupons. A series of factors were assessed, including drug product spike levels, spiking procedure, drug-excipient ratios, analyst-to-analyst variability, intraday variability, and cleaning procedure of the coupons. The lack of a well-defined procedure that consistently cleaned the coupon surface was identified as the major contributor to low and variable recoveries. Assessment of cleaning the surface of the coupons with clean-in-place solutions (CIP) gave high recovery (>90%) and reproducible results (Srel≤4%) regardless of the conditions that were assessed previously. The approach was successfully applied for cleaning verification of small molecules (MW <1,000 Da) as well as large biomolecules (MW up to 50,000 Da).

  4. Industry's View on Using Quality Control, Biorelevant, and Clinically Relevant Dissolution Tests for Pharmaceutical Development, Registration, and Commercialization.

    Grady, Haiyan; Elder, David; Webster, Gregory K; Mao, Yun; Lin, Yiqing; Flanagan, Talia; Mann, James; Blanchard, Andy; Cohen, Michael J; Lin, Judy; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Hermans, Andre; Abend, Andreas; Zhang, Limin; Curran, David

    2018-01-01

    This article intends to summarize the current views of the IQ Consortium Dissolution Working Group, which comprises various industry companies, on the roles of dissolution testing throughout pharmaceutical product development, registration, commercialization, and beyond. Over the past 3 decades, dissolution testing has evolved from a routine and straightforward test as a component of end-product release into a comprehensive set of tools that the developer can deploy at various stages of the product life cycle. The definitions of commonly used dissolution approaches, how they relate to one another and how they may be applied in modern drug development, and life cycle management is described in this article. Specifically, this article discusses the purpose, advantages, and limitations of quality control, biorelevant, and clinically relevant dissolution methods. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Globalization of Innovation in the Danish Food Industry

    Haakonsson, Stine Jessen

    2012-01-01

    The internationalization of innovation in the food industry is becoming increasingly oriented towards emerging markets. Innovative lead firms express a need for ‘tapping into knowledge’ by collaborating with research facilities, customers and suppliers in these new locations. European firms...... experience a push towards market expansion and knowledge generation directed at emerging markets. This results in new network constructs: global innovation networks. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it identifies and outlines the determining factors behind the internationalization of innovation due...... to the need to access new markets and knowledge. This unfolds through strategies of exploitation and exploration. Second, it investigates the extent to which these strategies connect to position in the value chain and factors in the host economy. In this, the potential impact at the receiving end...

  6. Transnationalism and the Decentralization of the Global Film Industry

    Jordi Codó Martínez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other aspects of society (politics, economics, the film industry appears to be undergoing a process of decentralization (still in its infancy by which Asia is, if not overtaking, at least matching its level of influence with that of European and American powers. Much of the impetus shifting this balance corresponds to China. The spectacular growth of China‟s domestic market is concentrating a substantial part of the global film business within this Asian giant, resulting in the still sector leader, the United States, conditioning its production in order to maximize profits in that territory. Resolute internationalization policies are also helping Chinese companies gain a foothold in Western countries conditioning film content there, although paradoxically their audiences remain unwilling to consume cinema that is culturally foreign. This essay will attempt to explain how all this has occurred.

  7. Environmental sustainability of the solar photo-Fenton process for wastewater treatment and pharmaceuticals mineralization at semi-industrial scale.

    Foteinis, Spyros; Monteagudo, Jose Maria; Durán, Antonio; Chatzisymeon, Efthalia

    2018-01-15

    The environmental sustainability of a semi-industrial solar photo-Fenton reactor, treating real effluents emanating from a pharmaceutical laboratory, is assessed herein. The life cycle assessment/analysis (LCA) methodology was employed and real life cycle inventory (LCI) data was collected from a ferrioxalate-assisted homogeneous solar photo-Fenton wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), at Ciudad Real, Spain. Electricity was provided by photovoltaic (PV) panels in tandem with a battery bank, making the plant autonomous from the local grid. The effective treatment of 1m 3 of secondary-treated pharmaceutical wastewater, containing antipyrine, was used as a functional unit. The main environmental hotspot was identified to be the chemical reagents used to enhance treatment efficiency, mainly hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and to a smaller degree oxalic acid. On the other hand, land use, PV panels, battery units, compound parabolic collectors (CPC), tanks, pipes and pumps, as materials, had a low contribution, ranging from as little as 0.06% up to about 2% on the total CO 2eq emissions. Overall, the solar photo-Fenton process was found to be a sustainable technology for treating wastewater containing micropollutants at semi-industrial level, since the total environmental footprint was found to be 2.71kgCO 2 m -3 or 272mPtm -3 , using IPCC 2013 and ReCiPe impact assessment methods, respectively. A sensitivity analysis revealed that if the excess of solar power is fed back into the grid then the total environmental footprint is reduced. Depending on the amount of solar power fed back into the grid the process could have a near zero total environmental footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Financial Policies of Turkish Industrial Companies during the Global Crisis

    Cenk Gokce Adas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Latest global financial crisis that shrank the credit market affected the companies’ financial policies since the credit contraction led the firms to rely more on their own resources rather than external financing. The expectation during such crises is more equity issues along with less borrowing. In economic literature there are some evidence supporting this fact for developed countries. As an emerging country Turkey’s case is different than that of advanced countries. The era commenced with Lehman turmoil by passed Turkish economy in the first years due to the solid, strong and healthy banking sector due to the measurements taken after 2001 banking crisis of Turkey. Therefore, international lenders did not hesitate directing their funds to Turkish banks. As a result, Turkish companies did not suffer in financing their investments through bank loans. Moreover, the growth policy of Turkey based on current account deficit supported Turkish economy and in turn the firms due to the abundance of liquidity after the peak of the crisis. In this work we examined 164 industrial firms that are traded on Borsa Istanbul to see if there happened to be a shift in their financing preferences during the recent global crisis. We found that the importance of borrowing had not decreased and that contradicts the expectations. As of equity issues, before and after 2009 no radical change has been observed. In 2009 where the crisis hit worst Turkish economy leading a 4.7% GDP decrease, the equity issues were doubled.

  9. Fighting windmills? EU industrial interest and global climate negotiations

    Steiner Brand, U.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    2003-01-01

    Why has the EU been so eager to continue the climate negotiations? Can it be solely attributed to the EU feeling morally obliged to be the main initiator of continued progress on the climate change negotiations, or can industrial interests in the EU, at least partly, explain the behaviour of the EU? We suggest that the EU has a rational economic interest in forcing the technological development of renewable energy sources to get a fast-mover advantage, which will only pay if a sufficient number of countries implement sufficiently stringent GHG reductions. The Kyoto Protocol, which imposes binding reductions on 38 OECD countries, implies that, as a first-mover, the EU will be to sell the necessary new renewable technologies, most prominently wind mills, to other countries, when they ratify and implement the Kyoto target levels. In the latest EU proposal made in Johannesburg, the EU pushed for setting a target of 15% of all energy to come from sources such as windmills, solar panels and waves by 2015. Such a target would further the EU's interests globally, and could explain, in economic terms, why the EU eagerly promotes GHG trade at a global level whereas the US has left the Kyoto agreement to save the import costs of buying the EU's renewable systems. (au)

  10. Possibility of the microbiological decontamination by irradiation of talc for pharmaceutical and industrial use

    Espinosa, R.; Varela, A.

    1988-01-01

    The sterilization of talc is a demand of the national industry and health system. The results of a feasibility study on the radiosterilization of talc for industrial use and the manufacture of tablets using the Producto 1 facility are reviewed. It was found that a minimum dose of 25 kGy allows elimination of all microorganisms present. This assertion was proved through application of microbiological control according to the current Cuba standards. Physiochemical analysis of the irradiated talc demonstrated that the treatment did not cause detrimental changes of the product

  11. Implementing US-style anti-fraud laws in the Australian pharmaceutical and health care industries.

    Faunce, Thomas A; Urbas, Gregor; Skillen, Lesley

    2011-05-02

    This article critically analyses the prospects for introducing United States anti-fraud (or anti-false claims) laws in the Australian health care setting. Australian governments spend billions of dollars each year on medicines and health care. A recent report estimates that the money lost to corporate fraud in Australia is growing at an annual rate of 7%, but that only a third of the losses are currently being detected. In the US, qui tam provisions - the component of anti-fraud or anti-false claims laws involving payments to whistleblowers - have been particularly successful in providing critical evidence allowing public prosecutors to recover damages for fraud and false claims made by corporations in relation to federal and state health care programs. The US continues to strengthen such anti-fraud measures and to successfully apply them to a widening range of areas involving large public investment. Australia still suffers from the absence of any comprehensive scheme that not only allows treble damages recovery for fraud on the public purse, but crucially supports such actions by providing financial encouragement for whistleblowing corporate insiders to expose evidence of fraud. Potential areas of application could include direct and indirect government expenditure on health care service provision, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, defence, carbon emissions compensation and tobacco-related illness. The creation in Australia of an equivalent to US anti-false claims legislation should be a policy priority, particularly in a period of financial stringency.

  12. Innovation in the pharmaceutical industry: New estimates of R&D costs.

    DiMasi, Joseph A; Grabowski, Henry G; Hansen, Ronald W

    2016-05-01

    The research and development costs of 106 randomly selected new drugs were obtained from a survey of 10 pharmaceutical firms. These data were used to estimate the average pre-tax cost of new drug and biologics development. The costs of compounds abandoned during testing were linked to the costs of compounds that obtained marketing approval. The estimated average out-of-pocket cost per approved new compound is $1395 million (2013 dollars). Capitalizing out-of-pocket costs to the point of marketing approval at a real discount rate of 10.5% yields a total pre-approval cost estimate of $2558 million (2013 dollars). When compared to the results of the previous study in this series, total capitalized costs were shown to have increased at an annual rate of 8.5% above general price inflation. Adding an estimate of post-approval R&D costs increases the cost estimate to $2870 million (2013 dollars). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electronic Noses and Tongues: Applications for the Food and Pharmaceutical Industries

    Sharon Dea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The electronic nose (e-nose is designed to crudely mimic the mammalian nose in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern recognition is used to determine that one sample is similar or different from another based on headspace volatiles. There are different types of e-nose sensors including organic polymers, metal oxides, quartz crystal microbalance and even gas-chromatography (GC or combined with mass spectroscopy (MS can be used in a non-selective manner using chemical mass or patterns from a short GC column as an e-nose or “Z” nose. The electronic tongue reacts similarly to non-volatile compounds in a liquid. This review will concentrate on applications of e-nose and e-tongue technology for edible products and pharmaceutical uses.

  14. The Importance of Management Control in Monitoring the Pharmaceutical Industry Performance for Competitive Advantage

    Florinel Marian SGARDEA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Management control and thus managerial accounting will adapt to the requirements of market economy in terms of knowledge. Another thought other action. The sustainability of a business depends on how we use resources but also can correct measurement of performance of a project or activity. The distinction between ‘traditional’ and ‘innovative’ management accounting practices can be illustrated by reference to cost control techniques. Traditionally, management accountants’ principal technique was variance analysis, which is a systematic approach to the comparison of the actual (real costs and budgeted costs of the raw materials and labor used during a production period. In this paper we wanted to show that the new management control procedures are part of knowledge management. Today is important for pharmaceutical companies to produce new products of advanced research results. This means that, for large companies, research expenditure budget is generous. More projects need to be monitored, evaluated and presented to the Board of Directors. What indicators will be kept for financial analysis? How prospective financial situation will look in five years? What will be the level of risk accepted by investors?

  15. Chemical and Microbial Dynamics during Composting of Herbal Pharmaceutical Industrial Waste

    Farhan Zameer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed to analyze the dynamics of chemical, biochemical and microbial parameters during composting of herbal pharmaceutical waste. All the parameters were analyzed at three different intervals of composting (1st, 15th and 60th days. Temperature of the compost pile was initially high (46.2 °C and on 60th day it dropped to 33.3 °C. The pH of the sample was initially acidic (2.39 and with the progress of decomposition gradually changed to neutrality (7.55. Electrical conductivity (EC value was high (3.8 mS during last day of composting compared to other stages. The activity of degradative enzymes namely amylase, invertase and urease were initially high (4.1, 4.79 mg of glucose/g/h and 0.19 mg of ammonia/g/h respectively while it decreased with composting. The beneficial microbial load was initially low and very high at the last stages of decomposition. The bioassay studies using compost extracts revealed that the 60th day old sample was not phytotoxic in nature.

  16. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries.

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main measures adopted by the European Union countries, especially in countries where governments are the largest third-party payers. To complement a literature review on the topic, data was gathered from national reviews of health systems and direct inquiries to several government bodies. Almost all countries regulate prices of pharmaceutical products. Popular policy measures include international referencing to set prices (using as benchmark countries that have set lower prices), internal reference pricing systems to promote price competition in domestic markets, and positive lists for reimbursement to promote consumption of generics (including in some cases substitution by pharmacists of drugs prescribed by physicians). Despite the wide range of policy measures, it is not possible to identify a "silver bullet" to control pharmaceutical expenditures. We also identified two main policy challenges: policy coordination among countries within the European Union to maintain incentives for R&D at the global level, and the development of new relationships with the pharmaceutical industry; namely, the so-called risk-sharing agreements between the pharmaceutical industry and governments/regulators (or large third-party payers).

  17. Gateway to the Future. Skill Standards for the Bioscience Industry for Technical Workers in Pharmaceutical Companies, Biotechnology Companies, and Clinical Laboratories.

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Bioscience Industry Skills Standards Project (BISSP) is developing national, voluntary skill standards for technical jobs in biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and clinical laboratories in hospitals, universities, government, and independent settings. Research with employees and educators has pinpointed three issues underscoring the…

  18. MANAGING INDUSTRIAL PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT - A COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL AND INNOVATIVE EFFECTIVENESS IN EUROPEAN AND ANGLO-AMERICAN COMPANIES

    OMTA, SWF; BOUTER, LM; VANENGELEN, JML

    1994-01-01

    Drug regulation and pricing have put strong pressure on the cost-benefit ratio of the innovative pharmaceutical industry. Therefore a study has been conducted in fourteen large and medium sized companies to determine some important organisational and managerial factors influencing success in

  19. The FDA guidance for industry on PROs: the point of view of a pharmaceutical company.

    Arpinelli, Fabio; Bamfi, Francesco

    2006-10-31

    The importance of the patients point of view on their health status is widely recognised. Patient-reported outcomes is a broad term encompassing a large variety of different health data reported by patients, as symptoms, functional status, Quality of Life and Health-Related Quality of Life. Measurements of Health-Related Quality of Life have been developed during many years of researches, and a lot of validated questionnaires exist. However, few attempts have been made to standardise the evaluation of instruments characteristics, no recommendations are made about interpretation on Health-Related Quality of Life results, especially regarding the clinical significance of a change leading a therapeutic approach. Moreover, the true value of Health-Related Quality of Life evaluations in clinical trials has not yet been completely defined. An important step towards a more structured and frequent use of Patient-Reported Outcomes in drug development is represented by the FDA Guidance, issued on February 2006. In our paper we aim to report some considerations on this Guidance. Our comments focus especially on the characteristics of instruments to use, the Minimal Important Difference, and the methods to calculate it. Furthermore, we present the advantages and opportunities of using the Patient-Reported Outcomes in drug development, as seen by a pharmaceutical company. The Patient-Reported Outcomes can provide additional data to make a drug more competitive than others of the same pharmacological class, and a well demonstrated positive impact on the patient' health status and daily life might allow a higher price and/or the inclusion in a reimbursement list. Applying extensively the FDA Guidance in the next trials could lead to a wider culture of subjective measurement, and to a greater consideration for the patient's opinions on his/her care. Moreover, prescribing doctors and payers could benefit from subjective information to better define the value of drugs.

  20. Vermicomposting of herbal pharmaceutical industry waste: earthworm growth, plant-available nutrient and microbial quality of end materials.

    Singh, Deepika; Suthar, Surindra

    2012-05-01

    Efforts were made to decompose herbal pharmaceutical industrial waste (HPIW) spiked with cow dung (CD) using Eisenia fetida. A total of five vermibeds: T(1) - HPIW (0%+CD 100%, control), T(2) - HPIW (25%), T(3) - HPIW (50%), T(4) - HPIW (75%) and T(5) - HPIW (100%) were used for vermicomposting. The changes in biology and chemistry of vermibeds were measured after ten days interval. E. fetida showed high growth and cocoon production rate in all vermibeds. The vermicomposted material contained great population of fungi 6.0-40.6 (CFU × 10(5)g(-1)), bacteria 220-1276.0 (CFU × 10(8)g(-1)) and actinomycetes 410.0-2962.0 (CFU × 10(5)g(-1)) than initial material. Vermicomposted material was rich in plant-available forms of nutrients (N-NO(3)(-),PO(4)(3-),available K and SO(4)(-2)). Results suggested that noxious industrial waste can be converted into valuable product for sustainable soil fertility programme. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The corporate social responsibility of the pharmaceutical industry: idealism without illusion and realism without resignation.

    Leisinger, Klaus M

    2005-10-01

    In recent years society has come to expect more from the "socially-responsible" company and the global HIV/AIDS pandemic in particular has resulted in some critics saying that the "Big Pharma" companies have not been living up to their social responsibilities. Corporate social responsibility can be understood as the socio-economic product of the organizational division of labor in complex modern society. Global poverty and poor health conditions are in the main the responsibilities of the world's national governments and international governmental organizations, which possess society's mandate and appropriate organizational capabilities. Private enterprises have neither the societal mandate nor the organizational capabilities to feed the poor or provide health care to the sick in their home countries or in the developing world. Nevertheless, private enterprises do have responsibilities to society that can be categorized as what they must do, what they ought do, and what they can do.

  2. PDA survey of quality risk management practices in the pharmaceutical, devices, & biotechnology industries.

    Ahmed, Ruhi; Baseman, Harold; Ferreira, Jorge; Genova, Thomas; Harclerode, William; Hartman, Jeffery; Kim, Samuel; Londeree, Nanette; Long, Michael; Miele, William; Ramjit, Timothy; Raschiatore, Marlene; Tomonto, Charles

    2008-01-01

    In July 2006 the Parenteral Drug Association's Risk Management Task Force for Aseptic Processes, conducted an electronic survey of PDA members to determine current industry practices regarding implementation of Quality Risk Management in their organizations. This electronic survey was open and publicly available via the PDA website and targeted professionals in our industry who are involved in initiating, implementing, or reviewing risk management programs or decisions in their organizations. One hundred twenty-nine members participated and their demographics are presented in the sidebar "Correspondents Profile". Among the major findings are: *The "Aseptic Processing/Filling" operation is the functional area identified as having the greatest need for risk assessment and quality risk management. *The most widely used methodology in industry to identify risk is Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). This tool was most widely applied in assessing change control and for adverse event, complaint, or failure investigations. *Despite the fact that personnel training was identified as the strategy most used for controlling/minimizing risk, the largest contributors to sterility failure in operations are still "Personnel". *Most companies still rely on "Manufacturing Controls" to mitigate risk and deemed the utilization of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) least important in this aspect. *A majority of correspondents verified that they did not periodically assess their risk management programs. *A majority of the correspondents desired to see case studies or examples of risk analysis implementation (as applicable to aseptic processing) in future PDA technical reports on risk management.

  3. Globalization, Competitiveness, International Trade, Industrial Policy and Employement

    Joaquín Novella

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness is presented as a variable key in the present context of a worldwide economy and extends its influence over the international trade tendencies, industrial policies and employment.The variations which trade relations at international level have undergone throughout the second half of the twentieth century have been accompanied by successive theoretical contributions, which have evolved from the traditional theories of the nineteenth century concerning comparative advantages and which introduce more complex factors.The product cycle model expounded by Vernon offers an explanation for the continual flow of sectors at international level as well as the characteristics of the most adequate industrial policy and the commercial patterns of each State revealing the importance of technology, human capital and international marketing as key factors for international competitiveness.This article explains the appearance of news procedures of international competitiveness based on product diferentiation, quality and brand image which, nowadays, coexist with traditional models such as costs and prices reductions.At every stage of a country’s development, a sectorial production structure together with some specific demand characteristics, salary and productivity levels correspond to it. All these latter aspects are interelated and should be analysed all together. With globalization, the speed with which a product passes from one phase to another has accelerated as well as the time it travels from the central countries to those intermediate ones and from there successively to those in the South, in such a way that these sectorialswings in international trade should be considered as a normal effect of it. Competition via salary reductions and social security benefits is not the only nor the most recommendable solution given that, in the long term, it affects the quality of production and social stability degrading as it does the standard of

  4. Globalization and the Military Industrial Base: Where Should U.S. Policy Go?

    Sundell, Dennis R

    2007-01-01

    .... military industrial base. While the prospects of globalization have provided the defense industrial base with rewards including reduced costs as a result of competition and greater access to foreign technologies it has also created some threats...

  5. Challenges in Building a Global Supply Chain in the Apparel Industry

    Vidyaranya B. Gargeya

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The last decade of the twentieth century has been characterized with the growth of global supply chains in a wide variety of industries. Global supply chain management in the apparel industry presents a wide variety of challenges. This paper presents a framework elaborating the challenges associated with communication, cultural relationships, technology, production processes, supplier arrangements, and transportation infrastructure in building a global supply chain in the apparel industry catering primarily to the U.S. market. The paper, in the concluding section, makes a few suggestions for future research in global supply chain management in the apparel industry.

  6. THE GENERIC DRUGS LAUNCH AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES OF THE BRAZILIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    FELIPE DAVID COHEN

    2004-01-01

    O propósito deste estudo é analisar o advento dos genéricos e verificar seu impacto nas estratégias competitivas implementadas por empresas da indústria farmacêutica brasileira. Este trabalho adota como base o estudo de Michael Porter sobre tipologias, identificando as estratégias relevantes e os grupamentos existentes nesse segmento industrial, buscando também relacionar o posicionamento estratégico assumido pelos laboratórios ao desempenho observado. O método ...

  7. Does growing up with a physician influence the ethics of medical students' relationships with the pharmaceutical industry? The cases of the US and Poland.

    Makowska, Marta

    2017-08-10

    Medical schools have a major impact on future doctors' ethics and their attitudes towards cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry. From childhood, medical students who are related to a physician are exposed to the characteristics of a medical career and learn its professional ethics not only in school but also in the family setting. The present paper sought to answer the research question: 'How does growing up with a physician influence medical students' perceptions of conflicts of interest in their relationships with industry?' An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 451 medical students from four Philadelphia medical schools and 554 medical students from Warsaw Medical University during 2013. Medical schools in these two cities were chosen because they are both university cities with similar population sizes. Students who had and who did not have a family member working as a physician were compared using chi-square analysis. Data were analysed for each country separately. For both the US and Poland, there were statistically significant differences (p < .05) between medical students with a physician as a family member and other students with respect to views regarding relationship with the pharmaceutical industry. In both groups, this difference occurred for three important dimensions: students' relationship with the pharmaceutical industry; students' views on physicians' rights to cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry; trust in the pharmaceutical industry. In the US, students related to a doctor were characterized by more restrictive opinions on all three dimensions than other students (e.g., 27.8% of the former students vs. 31.4% of the latter students thought doctors had unrestricted rights to cooperate with the industry). However, the contrary was observed in Poland: students with a physician in the family had less strict views than their colleagues (e.g., 56.8% of the former vs. 39.7% of the latter thought that doctors should have unrestricted

  8. Plant seeds as sources of potential industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and pest control agents.

    Powell, Richard G

    2009-03-27

    Investigations of natural products isolated from seeds have resulted in a remarkable variety of compounds having unusual structures. Seeds of many plant species contain uncommon fatty acids and lipids, some of which have found uses in the cosmetic industry or as renewable (non-petroleum based) industrial raw materials. In addition to proteins and energy storage substances such as carbohydrates and lipids, seeds generally contain, or have the ability to produce, protective compounds that are active as plant growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides, and repellents of herbivores; seeds occasionally contain compounds that are toxic to most other organisms. These compounds may also be present in other plant parts, but often are found at higher concentrations in seeds. Other compounds of interest have been associated with plant-endophyte interactions that are of mutual benefit to both organisms. Tests of seed extracts for cytotoxic and antitumor activity, toxicity to insects, and relationships to several animal disease syndromes have been revealing. Examples of compounds isolated from plant seeds that have served as lead compounds for additional research, or that continue to be of interest to researchers in multiple areas, are reviewed.

  9. Health technology assessment and comparative effectiveness research: a pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    Hao, Yanni; Thomas, Adrian

    2013-08-01

    We briefly review the characteristics of several established health technology assessment (HTA) programs in industrialized societies including Germany, the UK and France. Special attention is paid on two issues: the position of HTA in coverage decision making and the role of economic assessment in evaluation processes. Although law makers in the USA have barred the use of NICE's cost/quality-adjusted life year or similar health economics approaches by public payers for coverage decision making, there are suggestions of prioritizing relative efficacy evaluation over economic assessment under a comparative effectiveness research (CER) framework to inform payment rates of public payers (an approach similar to German and French HTA processes). However, such an approach is unlikely to prove viable. It should also be noted that, if cost considerations are made explicit in US CER policy decisions, CER may become an unsustainable approach undermined by a conflicting emphasis on both cost containment and a demand for costly comparative evidence. On the other hand, properly designed CER initiatives can serve as a facilitator of more efficient research activities and drug development models. With these points in mind, the likely pathway of US CER is explored and the plausible impact on industry innovation is discussed.

  10. Implementation of a protein profiling platform developed as an academic-pharmaceutical industry collaborative effort.

    Végvári, Akos; Magnusson, Mattias; Wallman, Lars; Ekström, Simon; Bolmsjö, Gunnar; Nilsson, Johan; Miliotis, Tasso; Ostling, Jörgen; Kjellström, Sven; Ottervald, Jan; Franzén, Bo; Hultberg, Hans; Marko-Varga, György; Laurell, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    As much attention has devoted to the proteome research during the last few years, biomarker discovery has become an increasingly hot area, potentially enabling the development of new assays for diagnosis and prognosis of severe diseases. This is the field of research interest where efforts originating from both academic and industrial groups should jointly work on solutions. In this paper, we would like to demonstrate the fruitful combination of both research domains where the scientific crossroads sprout fresh ideas from the basic research domain and how these are refined and tethered to industrial standards. We will present an approach that is based on novel microfluidic devices, utilizing their benefits in processing small-volume samples. Our biomarker discovery strategy, built around this platform, involves optimized samples processing (based on SPE and sample enrichment) and fast MALDI-MS readout. The identification of novel biomarkers at low-abundance level has been achieved by the utilization of a miniaturized sample handling platform, which offers clean-up and enrichment of proteins in one step. Complete automation has been realized in the form of a unique robotic instrumentation that is able to extract and transfer 96 samples onto standard MALDI target plates with high throughput. The developed platform was operated with a 60 sample turnaround per hour allowing sensitivities in femtomol regions of medium- and low-abundant target proteins from clinical studies on samples of multiple sclerosis and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Several proteins have been identified as new biomarkers from cerebrospinal fluid and esophagus epithelial cells.

  11. Pharmaceutical strategy and innovation: an academics perspective.

    Baxendale, Ian R; Hayward, John J; Ley, Steven V; Tranmer, Geoffrey K

    2007-06-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under increasing pressure on many fronts, from investors requiring larger returns to consumer groups and health authorities demanding cheaper and safer drugs. It is also feeling additional pressure from the infringement upon its profit margins by generic drug producers. Many companies are aggressively pursuing outsourcing contracts in an attempt to counter many of the financial pressures and streamline their operations. At the same time, the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry at its science base is being questioned in terms of the number of products and the timeframes required for each company to deliver them to market. This has generated uncertainties regarding the current corporate strategies that have been adopted and the levels of innovation being demonstrated. In this essay we discuss these topics in the context of the global pharmaceutical market, investigating the basis for many of these issues and highlighting the hurdles the industry needs to overcome, especially as they relate to the chemical sciences.

  12. Interactions between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry generally and sales representatives specifically and their association with physicians' attitudes and prescribing habits: a systematic review.

    Fickweiler, Freek; Fickweiler, Ward; Urbach, Ewout

    2017-09-27

    The objective of this review is to explore interactions between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry including sales representatives and their impact on physicians' attitude and prescribing habits. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Google scholar electronic databases were searched from 1992 to August 2016 using free-text words and medical subject headings relevant to the topic. Studies included cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, randomised trials and survey designs. Studies with narrative reviews, case reports, opinion polls and letters to the editor were excluded from data synthesis. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. Data on study design, study year, country, participant characteristics, setting and number of participants were collected. Pharmaceutical industry and pharmaceutical sales representative (PSR) interactions influence physicians' attitudes and their prescribing behaviour and increase the number of formulary addition requests for the company's drug. Physician-pharmaceutical industry and its sales representative's interactions and acceptance of gifts from the company's PSRs have been found to affect physicians' prescribing behaviour and are likely to contribute to irrational prescribing of the company's drug. Therefore, intervention in the form of policy implementation and education about the implications of these interactions is needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Pharmaceutical Cocrystals

    Korotkova, Elena I.; Kratochvíl, B.

    2014-01-01

    Cocrystals are very interesting and useful product. In this paper the main information about cocrystals is presented. It is shown that cocrystals are solid substances, which consist of few components mixed together. There are a lot of ways of cocrystals production and application. It is shown that cocrystals can be applied in medicine and pharmaceutical industry for improving different properties such as dissolution rate, melting point, solubility, chemical stability etc. Another way of cocry...

  14. Building a world class, globally competitive pharmaceutical business out of South Africa

    Nicolaou, Stavros

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available -bed dried products (2A) & oven dried products (2B) End state solid packing for domestic market Eye drops, lyophilized vials, ampoules and vials for domestic and export markets Warehousing for domestic and export markets Warehousing... view of Aspen’s Global Manufacturing Base in Port Elizabeth Sterile Lyophillisation & Eye drop Facility Technical Centre UNIT 1 : Oral Solids Sterile Warehouse UNIT 4: High Containment Suite Construction UNIT 3 : General Facility UNIT 2...

  15. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries

    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided.

  16. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. PMID:26378575

  17. Users Ability to Share Knowledge when Integrated in New Product Development - Evidence from the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Smed, Marie; Salomo, Søren; Schultz, Carsten

    their professional experiences, but also concerningissues, which go beyond their pre-defined role. The overall research question for this paper is therefore: Can usersability to share their knowledge obtained in product development integration be differentiated by topic area? Are topicareas related to their own......In technological intensive industries knowledge input from both internal and external sources is crucial (Ahuja 2000,Gulati ét al. 2000, Von Hippel 2005; Thompson 2005). A highly well informed and increasingly recognized source ofknowledge is users of these technological products. By establishing...... and maintaining a close network with key users,firms can tap into unique knowledge, which can be useful in product development processes (Urban and von Hippel1988, Shah 2000, Rothwell 1994). Previous studies have here pointed to the professional capabilities of users, whichmay generate a community of common...

  18. Pharmaceutical virtue.

    Martin, Emily

    2006-06-01

    In the early history of psychopharmacology, the prospect of developing technologically sophisticated drugs to alleviate human ills was surrounded with a fervor that could be described as religious. This paper explores the subsequent history of the development of psychopharmacological agents, focusing on the ambivalent position of both the industry and its employees. Based on interviews with retired pharmaceutical employees who were active in the industry in the 1950s and 1960s when the major breakthroughs were made in the development of MAOIs and SSRIs, the paper explores the initial development of educational materials for use in sales campaigns. In addition, based on interviews with current employees in pharmaceutical sales and marketing, the paper describes the complex perspective of contemporary pharmaceutical employees who must live surrounded by the growing public vilification of the industry as rapacious and profit hungry and yet find ways to make their jobs meaningful and dignified. The paper will contribute to the understudied problem of how individuals function in positions that require them to be part of processes that on one description constitute a social evil, but on another, constitute a social good.

  19. Knowledge, Beliefs and Attitudes of Patients and the General Public towards the Interactions of Physicians with the Pharmaceutical and the Device Industry: A Systematic Review.

    Racha Fadlallah

    Full Text Available To systematically review the evidence on the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of patients and the general public towards the interactions of physicians with the pharmaceutical and the device industry.We included quantitative and qualitative studies addressing any type of interactions between physicians and the industry. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE in August 2015. Two reviewers independently completed data selection, data extraction and assessment of methodological features. We summarized the findings narratively stratified by type of interaction, outcome and country.Of the 11,902 identified citations, 20 studies met the eligibility criteria. Many studies failed to meet safeguards for protecting from bias. In studies focusing on physicians and the pharmaceutical industry, the percentages of participants reporting awareness was higher for office-use gifts relative to personal gifts. Also, participants were more accepting of educational and office-use gifts compared to personal gifts. The findings were heterogeneous for the perceived effects of physician-industry interactions on prescribing behavior, quality and cost of care. Generally, participants supported physicians' disclosure of interactions through easy-to-read printed documents and verbally. In studies focusing on surgeons and device manufacturers, the majority of patients felt their care would improve or not be affected if surgeons interacted with the device industry. Also, they felt surgeons would make the best choices for their health, regardless of financial relationship with the industry. Participants generally supported regulation of surgeon-industry interactions, preferably through professional rather than governmental bodies.The awareness of participants was low for physicians' receipt of personal gifts. Participants also reported greater acceptability and fewer perceived influence for office-use gifts compared to personal gifts. Overall, there appears to be lower awareness

  20. Knowledge, Beliefs and Attitudes of Patients and the General Public towards the Interactions of Physicians with the Pharmaceutical and the Device Industry: A Systematic Review.

    Fadlallah, Racha; Nas, Hala; Naamani, Dana; El-Jardali, Fadi; Hammoura, Ihsan; Al-Khaled, Lina; Brax, Hneine; Kahale, Lara; Akl, Elie A

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the evidence on the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of patients and the general public towards the interactions of physicians with the pharmaceutical and the device industry. We included quantitative and qualitative studies addressing any type of interactions between physicians and the industry. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE in August 2015. Two reviewers independently completed data selection, data extraction and assessment of methodological features. We summarized the findings narratively stratified by type of interaction, outcome and country. Of the 11,902 identified citations, 20 studies met the eligibility criteria. Many studies failed to meet safeguards for protecting from bias. In studies focusing on physicians and the pharmaceutical industry, the percentages of participants reporting awareness was higher for office-use gifts relative to personal gifts. Also, participants were more accepting of educational and office-use gifts compared to personal gifts. The findings were heterogeneous for the perceived effects of physician-industry interactions on prescribing behavior, quality and cost of care. Generally, participants supported physicians' disclosure of interactions through easy-to-read printed documents and verbally. In studies focusing on surgeons and device manufacturers, the majority of patients felt their care would improve or not be affected if surgeons interacted with the device industry. Also, they felt surgeons would make the best choices for their health, regardless of financial relationship with the industry. Participants generally supported regulation of surgeon-industry interactions, preferably through professional rather than governmental bodies. The awareness of participants was low for physicians' receipt of personal gifts. Participants also reported greater acceptability and fewer perceived influence for office-use gifts compared to personal gifts. Overall, there appears to be lower awareness, less concern and

  1. Local industry in global networks : changing competitiveness, corporate strategies and pathways of development in Singapore and Malaysia's garment industry

    Smakman, Floortje

    2004-01-01

    The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies

  2. The Applied Aspects of Transposition and Integration of Development Resources in the System of Strategic Management of the Pharmaceutical Industry Enterprises

    Mykhailiuk Myroslava О.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching the transposition and integration of development resources in the system of strategic management of pharmaceutical enterprises. It has been determined that in the current of market functioning, resources are transformed into development resources. The proposed scheme of transposition and integration of development resources in the system of strategic management of enterprises provides a combination of resource opportunities of company with market conditions and reflects synergistic interaction between two classical theories of strategic management: the M. Porter’s sectoral competition theory and the resource theory. The basic priorities of development of the pharmaceutical industry in the contemporary market environment are defined and trends of activity of pharmaceutical companies are indicated. Enterprises are distributed according to the criterion of introduction of development resources strategy, measures on increase of efficiency of their activity are suggested.

  3. Federalism, the economic-industrial health care complex and high-cost pharmaceutical assistance in Brazil.

    da Fonseca, Elize Massard; Costa, Nilson do Rosario

    2015-04-01

    Brazil has a relevant, although relatively unknown, special medicines programme that distributes high-cost products, such as drugs needed for cancer treatments. In 2009, the purchase of these medicines became the responsibility of the Brazilian Federal Government. Until then, there were no clear norms regarding the responsibilities, in terms of the management/financing of these medicines, of the Brazilian Federal Government and of the states themselves. This qualitative study analyses the policy process needed to transfer this programme to the central government. The study examines the reports of the Tripartite Commission between 2000 and 2012, and in-depth interviews with eleven key informants were conducted. The study demonstrates that throughout the last decade, institutional changes have been made in regard to the federal management of these programmes (such as recentralisation of the purchasing of medicines). It concludes that these changes can be explained because of the efficiency of the coordinating mechanisms of the Federal Government. These findings reinforce the idea that the Ministry of Health is the main driver of public health policies, and it has opted for the recentralisation of activities as a result of the development project implicit in the agenda of the Industrial and Economic Heal.

  4. Numerical simulation of low-pulsation gerotor pumps for use in the pharmaceutical industry and in biomedicine

    Klopsch Vincent

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the pulsation of flow and pressure as well as the increase of the mean flow of a displacement pump will be a benefit to many technical processes, especially in the pharmaceutical industry and in biomedicine. By reducing the flow pulsation, microreactors could work more efficiently and thin-film coatings or fluids in biomedical applications could be applied with more precision. This article presents a new toolbox to analyse and compare different types of gerotor pump gear profiles. The main objective was the development of a toolbox to analyse the mean flow and the flow ripple of theoretical and reverse engineered gerotor gear sets. For that reason, the presented toolbox does not work with analytic functions, but with numerical methods based on point cloud data. A comparison of four different profile types shows that these profiles perform very differently if they are limited by a given maximal outer root diameter and by the numbers of the teeth of both rotors.

  5. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Teacher Strategies. Experimental Edition.

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Designed to assist teachers and supervisors in the implementation of the global history course, this bulletin presents learning activities which include the rationale, performance objectives, and teaching strategies related to Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." This theme has seven subthemes: (1)…

  6. Nontarget analysis of polar contaminants in freshwater sediments influenced by pharmaceutical industry using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Terzic, Senka; Ahel, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical procedure for a reliable identification of nontarget polar contaminants in aquatic sediments was developed, based on the application of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). The procedure was applied for the analysis of freshwater sediment that was highly impacted by wastewater discharges from the pharmaceutical industry. A number of different contaminants were successfully identified owing to the high mass accuracy of the QTOFMS system, used in combination with high chromatographic resolution of UHPLC. The major compounds, identified in investigated sediment, included a series of polypropylene glycols (n = 3-16), alkylbenzene sulfonate and benzalkonium surfactants as well as a number of various pharmaceuticals (chlorthalidone, warfarin, terbinafine, torsemide, zolpidem and macrolide antibiotics). The particular advantage of the applied technique is its capability to detect less known pharmaceutical intermediates and/or transformation products, which have not been previously reported in freshwater sediments. - Research highlights: → UHPLC-QTOFMS coupling was applied for nontarget analysis of polar contaminants. → Wide spectrum of polar contaminants was identified in polluted sediments. → Pharmaceuticals and their intermediates were present in high concentrations. - Comprehensive analysis of freshwater sediments by UPLC/QTOF indicated importance of pharmaceutically-derived polar contaminants.

  7. Nontarget analysis of polar contaminants in freshwater sediments influenced by pharmaceutical industry using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Terzic, Senka, E-mail: terzic@irb.h [Division of Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Ahel, Marijan [Division of Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-02-15

    A comprehensive analytical procedure for a reliable identification of nontarget polar contaminants in aquatic sediments was developed, based on the application of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). The procedure was applied for the analysis of freshwater sediment that was highly impacted by wastewater discharges from the pharmaceutical industry. A number of different contaminants were successfully identified owing to the high mass accuracy of the QTOFMS system, used in combination with high chromatographic resolution of UHPLC. The major compounds, identified in investigated sediment, included a series of polypropylene glycols (n = 3-16), alkylbenzene sulfonate and benzalkonium surfactants as well as a number of various pharmaceuticals (chlorthalidone, warfarin, terbinafine, torsemide, zolpidem and macrolide antibiotics). The particular advantage of the applied technique is its capability to detect less known pharmaceutical intermediates and/or transformation products, which have not been previously reported in freshwater sediments. - Research highlights: UHPLC-QTOFMS coupling was applied for nontarget analysis of polar contaminants. Wide spectrum of polar contaminants was identified in polluted sediments. Pharmaceuticals and their intermediates were present in high concentrations. - Comprehensive analysis of freshwater sediments by UPLC/QTOF indicated importance of pharmaceutically-derived polar contaminants.

  8. Pharmaceutical technology management--profitable business avenue.

    Puthli, Shivanand P

    2010-01-01

    Growing research expenditure, regulatory framework and generic erosion have forced pharmaceutical companies globally to resort to pharmaceutical technology management (PTM). Indeed, the pharmaceutical industry has witnessed the impact of innovative drug delivery and device technologies and their influence on business. PTM has given a new business insight with greater profits and enhancement of product franchise. Promising breakthrough technologies have not been able to reach a commercial platform largely owing to lack of capital at the preliminary stages of the product development program. Intellectual property plays a considerable role in protecting innovative technologies. Joint ventures and strategic alliances also become important for commercializing a new technology. The synergy of PTM with options of in-licensing is expected to infuse newer opportunities to the pharmaceutical business.

  9. Valorization of solid wastes from chestnut industry processing: Extraction and optimization of polyphenols, tannins and ellagitannins and its potential for adhesives, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry.

    Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Saavedra, Maria José

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential of chestnut peels to produce pomaces enhanced with tannins to be used in the formulations of wood adhesives, leather tanning or as natural antioxidants in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. An analytical procedure was planned as 2 factorial design to analyze the influence of solvent (water, Na2SO3 and NaOH at different concentrations of 1, 2, 4, and 8% in water) and extraction time (30, 60, and 120, 240, 480 and 960min) on extraction yield, pH, Stiasny index, and tannins. HPLC-diode array detector equipped with an ionization mass spectrophotometer was used to assess the polyphenol composition. Our results showed that both extraction properties and phytochemicals were significantly affected (Ptannins identified were the hydrolyzable gallic acid, vescalagin castalagin and ellagic acid, and the condensed epigallocatechin, catechin and epicatechin. The solvent 1% Na2SO3 was more effective to extract the condensed tannins whilst hydrolyzable tannins were extracted efficiently by 1% NaOH. The multivariable analysis and the Pearson's correlation coefficients showed a direct association between Stiasny number and the average levels of condensed tannins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Emerging Genetic Counselor Roles within the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries: as Industry Interest Grows in Rare Genetic Disorders, How are Genetic Counselors Joining the Discussion?

    Field, Tessa; Brewster, Stephanie Jo; Towne, Meghan; Campion, MaryAnn W

    2016-08-01

    Traditionally, the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry (BPI) has focused drug development at the mass-market level targeting common medical issues. However, a recent trend is the development of therapies for orphan or rare disorders, including many genetic disorders. Developing treatments for genetic disorders requires an understanding of the needs of the community and translating genomic information to clinical and non-clinical audiences. The core skills of genetic counselors (GCs) include a deep knowledge of genetics and ability to communicate complex information to a broad audience, making GCs a choice fit for this shift in drug development. To date there is limited data defining the roles GCs hold within this industry. This exploratory study aimed to define the roles and motivation of GCs working in BPI, assess job satisfaction, and identify translatable skills and current gaps in GC training programs. The authors surveyed 26 GCs working in BPI in the United States; 79 % work for companies focused on rare disorders. GC positions in BPI are growing, with 57 % of respondents being the first GC in their role. GCs in BPI continue to utilize core genetic counseling competencies, though 72 % felt their training did not fully prepare them for BPI. These data suggest opportunities for exposure to BPI in GC training to better prepare future generations of GCs for these career opportunities. GC satisfaction was high in BPI, notably in areas traditionally reported as less satisfying on the National Society for Genetic Counselors Professional Status Survey: salary and advancement opportunities. BPI's growing interest in rare disorders represents a career opportunity for GCs, addressing both historic areas of dissatisfaction for GCs and BPI's genomic communication needs.

  11. Actitud de los médicos frente a las prácticas de promoción de la industria farmacéutica The attitude of physicians regarding the promotion strategies of the pharmaceutical industry

    Leonardo Castresana

    2005-06-01

    practices are commonly used, little has been published about the attitude of physicians concerning their interaction with the pharmaceutical industry. We performed a cross sectional anonymous survey to identify the extent of and attitudes towards the relationship between the physicians and the pharmaceutical industry and its representatives with its impact on the knowledge, attitude and behavior of the physicians. Internists, cardiologists and dermatologists who work in ambulatory settings from private and public hospitals in Buenos Aires city participated in this study, 44% were female, 35% residents, 65% staff physicians, averaging 41 years of age. Of these, 86% receive medical samples frecuently, 39% desk gifts, 19% invitations to congresses and 12% free lunches. Half of the doctors believe that receiving benefits from the pharmaceutical industry has an influence on medical prescription, but only 27% accept this as influential in their own prescriptions. Residents consider, more frequently than others, that these activities affect their decisions, (42% vs. 18% p = 0.007, global 30%. Most of the participants consider appropriate receiving these benefits, although 35% think that they affect the final price of medications. In conclusion, there is a high level of interaction between the pharmaceutical industry and our medical population. Although the latter recognize the influence of these interactions on prescriptions and the elevation of the cost of the final product, they find it appropriate to receive benefits.

  12. Fighting windmills? EU industrial interests and global climate negotiations

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    for setting a target of 15% of all energy to come from sources such as windmills, solar panels and waves by 2015. Such a target would further the EU's interests globally, and could explain, in economic terms, why the EU eagerly promotes GHG trade at a global level whereas the US has left the Kyoto agreement...

  13. Globalization Revisited: The Case of Uniqueness and "Creative Industries"

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Choi, C.J.; Chen, Shu

    2005-01-01

    AbstractThe debate about the extent of globalization of firms and markets continues to be a major research area within international business (Rugman 2000). Rugman and Verbeke (2003) have provided compelling evidence for a tendency to regionalization rather than globalization for the large majority

  14. Exploring Multidimensional View of Intellectual Capital and Business Ethics on Organizational Performance by Using Bootstrapping Method: Evidence from Pakistani Pharmaceutical Industry

    Rizwan Raheem Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to examine the effect of business ethics (BE and intellectual capital (IC on the organizational performance (OP. In order to run this study, a conceptual model was designed based on the literature review, and the employees of the knowledge-based organization in pharmaceutical sector were surveyed using a closed-ended questionnaire. Modern successful and thriving organizations are those that create IC and convert it into applicable methods to improve their activities and performance within the boundaries of BE. This research is exploratory and quantitative in nature: 400 responses were directly gathered from the employees of the pharmaceutical industry through five-scaled questionnaire. This research examined the direct and indirect effect of BE and IC on the OP. Structural equation modeling (SEM, descriptive statistics, correlation, multiple regression techniques were used to analyze the impact of IC and BE on the performance. Bootstrapping method is employed in order to test the mediating effect of variables. Two-step SEM was used to the models to regress the cause and effect relation. The findings depicted that there is a very significant effect on BE and IC in the performance of pharmaceutical organizations. General BE, ethics in finance, ethics in human resource management, and ethics in sales and marketing have direct and significant impact on the OP. Human capital, structural capital and relational capital have significant indirect (mediating effect on the performance of the pharmaceutical industry. Finally, it has been concluded from the results of the research study that IC is the major contributor of the OP as a mediating variable with defined set of principles of BE in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan.

  15. Access to essential medicines for sexual and reproductive health care: the role of the pharmaceutical industry and international regulation.

    Cottingham, Jane; Berer, Marge

    2011-11-01

    The range of medicines and technologies that are essential for sexual and reproductive health care is well established, but access to them is far from universally assured, particularly in less developed countries. This paper shows how the pharmaceutical industry plays a major role in the lack of access to essential medicines for sexual and reproductive health care, by a) investing in products for profit-making reasons despite their negative health impact (e.g. hormone replacement therapy), b) marketing new essential medicines at prices beyond the reach of countries that most need them (e.g. HPV vaccines), and c) failing to invest in the development of new products (e.g. microbicides and medical abortion pills). Small companies, some of them non-profit-making, struggle to fill some of that demand (e.g. for female condoms). International patent protection contributes to high prices of medicines, and while international agreements such as compulsory licensing under TRIPS and the Medicines Patent Pool allow for mechanisms to enable poorer countries to get access to essential medicines, the obstacles created by "big pharma" are daunting. All these barriers have fostered a market in sub-standard medicines (e.g. fake medical abortion pills sold over the internet). An agenda driven by sexual and reproductive health needs, based on the right to health, must focus on universal access to essential medicines at prices developing countries can afford. We call for greater public investment in essential medicines, expanded production of affordable generic drugs, and the development of broad strategic plans, that include affordable medicines and technologies, for addressing identified public health problems, such as cervical cancer. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Globalization : the challenge of the 1990s for the chemical industry

    Wilcock, D.

    1992-01-01

    The challenges facing the chemical industry in Canada were discussed. In recent years, Canada has scored low in polls measuring public confidence in the chemical industry. The industry is also suffering from continuing recession, global competition, increased environmental demands and strict legislation. The impact of globalization, total quality management, free trade, environmental concerns, and government policies on the chemical industry were reviewed. In the view of this author (President and CEO of Dow Chemicals) globalization is not a matter of choice, it is an industry imperative. Survival in the globalized economy will require not only to be successful competitors, but even more importantly to be successful cooperators with other stakeholders, and successful in forming partnerships with customers

  17. Effects of the M&A Wave in the Global Brewing Industry 2000-2010

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewing groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. Industry consolidation has taken the shape of merger...... and acquisition activity more than organic growth or international joint ventures. Based on a major data base the paper traces some causes and assesses the effects of M&A strategies in the global beer industry....

  18. M&A as a driver of global competition in the brewing industry

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewer groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. The paper describes the development and puts it into an ...... it into an industrial economics framework. Based on a major data base the paper further assesses the effects of M&A strategies in the global beer industry....

  19. Pemberdayaan Pendidikan Teknik Busana Di Perguruan Tinggi Untuk Pengembangan Industri Garmen Di Pasar Global

    Fitrihana, Noor

    2005-01-01

    Indonesian garment industries have been sluggishness. Since economic crisis incoming, Indonesian garment products loose ofthe competitiveness until now. In the last five years, perfonnance oftextile industry got decrease because many domestic probleII\\'l. The problems are skills ofworkforce, out ofdate technology and poor of-fashion product inovation. Facing the global market ifnot good plan anticipate, gannent industries are cannot running growthand become sunset industry. To solve the probl...

  20. Hollywood, The American Image And The Global Film Industry

    Andrew Ali Ibbi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of indigenous film industries across the world has been seen by many as a threat to the influence of Hollywood on the movie scene. This paper tries to look at the ideological influence of Hollywood on movies the world over. the paper considered the Chinese, Indian and Nigerian film industries. the three industries were chosen because of their influence on their continents and some parts of the world. The Theory of cultural Imperialism is chosen as the supporting theory for the paper.

  1. Does brand differentiate pharmaceuticals?

    Bednarik, Josef

    2005-12-01

    Role of marketing in pharmaceutical industry is increasing and inspiration by successful brands known from consumer goods market influenced pharmaceutical companies enough to switch their attention to branding initiatives. Still there is little evidence that pharmaceutical brands represent anything more than product only. This study aims to explore the area of branding in pharmaceutical industry. Central hypothesis of the research has been that brand and its emotional content differentiate pharmaceuticals as well as rational data derived from clinical studies. It has been tested by extensive review of available literature as well as by primary research focused on drivers of physicians' attitudes towards products and their influence on prescribing behavior. The research has been conducted in the sample of psychiatrists in the Czech Republic. No evidence about pharmaceutical brand exceeding value of product has been found in reviewed literature. Nevertheless, the primary research conducted in the sample of Czech psychiatrists indicates that emotional brand in pharmaceutical industry exists and enables author to draw a model of Customer/product life cycle that describes likely impact of functional, emotional and self-expressive benefits throughout pharmaceutical product's market presence. Pharmaceutical brand is likely to develop differently than the same of consumer goods products--it seems to be built predominantly on long-term positive experience. Marketing role in this process should lie in finding relevant product position and building brand identity compliant with real product capabilities.

  2. Innovation and technology transfer through global value chains: Evidence from China's PV industry

    Zhang, Fang; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2016-01-01

    China's success as a rapid innovation follower in the infant Photovoltaic (PV) industry surprised many observers. This paper explores how China inserted itself into global clean energy innovation systems by examining the case of the solar PV industry. The paper decomposes the global PV industrial value chain, and determines the main factors shaping PV technology transfer and diffusion. Chinese firms first entered PV module manufacturing through technology acquisition, and then gradually built their global competitiveness by utilizing a vertical integration strategy within segments of the industry as well as the broader PV value chain. The main drivers for PV technology transfer from the global innovation system to China are global market formation policy, international mobilization of talent, the flexibility of manufacturing in China, and belated policy incentives from China's government. The development trajectory of the PV industry in China indicates that innovation in cleaner energy technologies can occur through both global and national innovation processes, and knowledge exchange along the global PV value chain. - Highlights: •The value chain analytical approach is synergized with the theories of technology transfer and innovation systems. •A detailed review of how China integrated itself into the global solar PV innovation system is provided. •Four main factors shape PV technology transfer to China across various value chain segments. •Innovation in cleaner energy technologies is a combination of global and national innovation processes.

  3. Globalization of fluid power industry; Fluid power sangyokai no global ka

    Ogasawara, F. [Kayaba Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-15

    This paper takes a view of hydraulic and pneumatic industry. The United States accounts for 33% of hydraulic and pneumatic device shipment, while Japan accounts for 16% and Germany 14%. Japan has recorded the highest shipment record in 1991, but the shipment decreased largely in 1992 as a result of the collapse of the bubble economy. Thereafter, pneumatic devices recovered production in 1995, and continuing smooth growth since then. However, hydraulic devices have not reached the level of 1989. Pneumatic devices have achieved great progress as a result of making them lighter, thinner, shorter and smaller to meet users` strong demands, development of energy saving, space saving and life extending technologies and control technologies, function combination, and diversification. International competition is so intense that, in order to survive this mega-competition age, efforts must be made in areas of noise, oil leakage, positioning control and energy conservation as substantial technological issues. Measures against global environmental problems may include prevention of pollution and disaster caused from working oils and development of hydraulic devices. Transferring the excellent Japanese technologies and know-hows to developing countries constitutes international contribution. Progress in hydraulic and pneumatic technologies combined with electronics technologies is also desired. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Automobile industry and globalization in Asian market; Asia ni okeru jidosha sangyo to globalization

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Asian countries are now attracting attention of automobile manufacturers of the world for their capabilities of buying, producing, and assembling of automobiles, and producing and supplying of parts, which means that the Asian market is now exposed to globalization. As for the automobile and part manufacturers of Japan, in the presence of economic depression lingering in Asia affecting motorization and rapid changes in the circumstances Japan`s automobile industry finds itself under, are pressed to work out new strategies as a member of the Asian community. A panel discussion of the same name as the subject held in 1997 won favor as a fine initiative to suitably cope with the difficult situation. Useful suggestions and proposals were made concerning the panel discussion, calling the event a new type of round-table talks well responding to the rapid changes in the world economy since 1997, by learned and experienced people, the government offices concerned, staffers of manufacturers in charge of overseas marketing, and international information analysts. They related to the current state and tasks of automobile manufacturing in Asia, trends of regulations and standardization, rolls of technical assistance and the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Ltd., expressed from a wide angle covering various problems relative to environmental protection, safety, etc. (NEDO)

  5. globalization of the fashion industry and its effects on Ghanaian

    User

    as a growing integration of the world's econ- omy. To Walters ... facturers produce and distribute their economic wealth in ..... Regular organization of Fashion Trade Fairs, shows and. Exhibition at .... vulnerable local industries to collapse. The.

  6. Industry structure and the performance of the Global System for ...

    telecommunication operators in Nigeria. ... This study investigates industry structure and its relationship with the performance of GSM network operators in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey research design was adopted with the use of primary data, ...

  7. Preclinical Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling and Simulation in the Pharmaceutical Industry: An IQ Consortium Survey Examining the Current Landscape

    Schuck, Edgar; Bohnert, Tonika; Chakravarty, Arijit; Damian-Iordache, Valeriu; Gibson, Christopher; Hsu, Cheng-Pang; Heimbach, Tycho; Krishnatry, Anu Shilpa; Liederer, Bianca M; Lin, Jing; Maurer, Tristan; Mettetal, Jerome T; Mudra, Daniel R; Nijsen, Marjoleen JMA; Raybon, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The application of modeling and simulation techniques is increasingly common in preclinical stages of the drug discovery and development process. A survey focusing on preclinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) analysis was conducted across pharmaceutical companies that are members of the International Consortium for Quality and Innovation in Pharmaceutical Development. Based on survey responses, ~68% of companies use preclinical PK/PD analysis in all therapeutic areas indicating its...

  8. Global climate change due to the hydrocarbon industry

    Almasi, M.; Racz, L.

    1999-01-01

    An overview is presented on the industry's response to the agreements of the Rio de Janeiro (1992) and Kyoto (1987) conventions on climate change, and to other international agreements. The announcements by large petroleum companies on the changes introduced according to the international commitments in order to fight climatic impacts of hydrocarbon fuels. The problems and foreseeable future of the Hungarian hydrocarbon industry with environmental protection are discussed. Finally, emission abatement and control possibilities of hydrocarbon combustion are considered. (R.P.)

  9. Occurrence and removal of antibiotics, hormones and several other pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants of the largest industrial city of Korea.

    Behera, Shishir Kumar; Kim, Hyeong Woo; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Park, Hung-Suck

    2011-09-15

    Occurrence and removal efficiencies of 20 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) including antibiotics, hormones, and several other miscellaneous pharmaceuticals (analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics, antihypertensives, antiseptics, and stimulants) were investigated in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Ulsan, the largest industrial city of Korea. The compounds were extracted from wastewater samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that acetaminophen, atenolol and lincomycin were the main individual pollutants usually found in concentrations over 10 μg/L in the sewage influent. In the WWTPs, the concentrations of analgesic acetaminophen, stimulant caffeine, hormones estriol and estradiol decreased by over 99%. On the contrary, the antibiotic sulfamethazine, the antihypertensive metoprolol, and the antiepileptic carbamazepine exhibited removal efficiencies below 30%. Particularly, removal of antibiotics was observed to vary between -11.2 and 69%. In the primary treatment (physico-chemical processes), the removal of pharmaceuticals was insignificant (up to 28%) and removal of majority of the pharmaceuticals occurred during the secondary treatment (biological processes). The compounds lincomycin, carbamazepine, atenolol, metoprolol, and triclosan showed better removal in WWTPs employing modified activated sludge process with co-existence of anoxic-oxic condition. Further investigation into the design and operational aspects of the biological processes is warranted for the efficient removal of PPCPs, particularly antibiotics, to secure healthy water resource in the receiving downstream, thereby ensuring a sustainable water cycle management. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Monitoring of trace metals and pharmaceuticals as anthropogenic and socio-economic indicators of urban and industrial impact on surface waters

    Vystavna, Yuliya

    2014-05-01

    The research focuses on the monitoring of trace metals and pharmaceuticals as potential anthropogenic indicators of industrial and urban influences on surface water in poorly gauged transboundary Ukraine/Russia region. This study includes analysis of tracers use for the indication of water pollution events, including controlled and emerging discharges, and discussion of the detection method of these chemicals. The following criteria were proposed for the evaluation of indicators: specificity (physical chemical properties), variability (spatial and temporal) and practicality (capacity of the sampling and analytical techniques). The combination of grab and passive water sampling (i.e. DGT and POCIS) procedure was applied for the determination of dissolved and labile trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diazepam, paracetamol, caffeine, diclofenac and ketoprofen). Samples were analysed using ICP - MS (trace metals) and LC-MS/MS ESI +/- (pharmaceuticals). Our results demonstrate the distinctive spatial and temporal patterns of trace elements distribution along an urban watercourse. Accordingly, two general groups of trace metals have been discriminated: 'stable' (Cd and Cr) and 'time-varying' (Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb). The relationship Cd >> Cu > Ag > Cr ≥ Zn was proposed as an anthropogenic signature of the industrial and urban activities pressuring the environment from point sources (municipal wastewaters) and the group Pb - Ni was discussed as a relevant fingerprint of the economic activity (industry and transport) mainly from non-point sources (run-off, atmospheric depositions, etc.). Pharmaceuticals with contrasting hydro-chemical properties of molecules (water solubility, bioaccumulation, persistence during wastewater treatment processes) were discriminated on conservative, labile and with combined properties in order to provide information on wastewater treatment plant efficiency, punctual events (e.g. accidents on sewage

  11. Local industry in global networks : changing competitiveness, corporate strategies and pathways of development in Singapore and Malaysia's garment industry

    Smakman, Floortje

    2004-01-01

    The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies adopted by both countries. However, since incorporation, changing competitiveness due to both international, regional end local pressures, has meant local garment firms have had to implement a range ...

  12. How did the Global Financial Crisis Influence the Automobile Industry: Comparison between the US and Japanese Auto Industry

    SUN, YAN

    2013-01-01

    The 2008 global financial crisis was the worst one in seventy-five years and had great negative impact on the economy worldwide. Automobile industry, the pillar to the economic development, was hit most by the recession among the sectors. The purpose of this study is to analyze the financial crisis impacts on the automobile industry and find out strategies to decrease the occurrence rate and the loss if a similar crisis occurs. The study, firstly, describes the impact of financial crisis...

  13. Functional Demand Satiation and Industrial Dynamcis - The Emergence of the Global Value Chain for the U.S. Footwear Industry

    Alexander Frenzel Baudisch

    2006-01-01

    Around 1940 Schumpeter draws on an analysis of the U.S. footwear industry as an exemplar case to formulate his famous hypothesis about the positive relation between market concentration and innovative activity. Starting in the 1970s the value chain of U.S. footwear producers disintegrates, eventually separating the process of product innovation from manufacturing in this industry. Studies testing Schumpeter’s hypothesis commonly do not account for the modularity and globalization of an indust...

  14. Competing in the Global LED Industry: The Case of Taiwan

    Yu-Shan Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Light-emitting diode (LED is a very essential application for energy-savings nowadays. The revenue of the Taiwan LED components industry is ranked top one in the world, followed by that of Japan and South Korea. Based on the advantage of their electronics industry, Taiwanese LED companies create a unique model to compete with the international firms. Large international LED companies achieve economies of scale by vertically integrating their operations. Taiwanese LED companies specialize and achieve an optimal efficiency by vertically disintegrating across the upstream, midstream, and downstream sectors in the value chains. Taiwanese LED companies create economies of scale and economies of scope through a complete industrial value chain.

  15. R&D investment and impact in the global construction industry

    Hampson, Keith

    2014-01-01

    "R&D Investment and Impact in the Global Construction Industry brings together contributions from leading academics in a diverse group of countries to investigate the role of research and development (R&D...

  16. Analysis of the importance of drug packaging quality for end users and pharmaceutical industry as a part of the quality management system

    Lončar Irma M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we collected and analyzed information on the importance of drug packaging quality to end users and pharmaceutical industry, as an indicator of the process of traceability and originality of drugs. Two surveys were conducted: one among the end users of drugs (252 patients and the other among professionals working in seven pharmaceutical companies in Serbia. For most end users (82.5% quality on the packaging of drugs was important, but only 41.8% of them thought that the appearance of the packaging could be an indicator of genuinity of drugs. The existence of the control marks (KM on drug packaging was not of great importance, since most of them (86.9% know, its function, but majority (60.2% would nevertheless decide to buy the drug without KM. Regarding the experts from the pharmaceutical industry, more then two-thirds of them (68.4% believed that the existence of KM did not contribute to efficient operations. Although a great number of pharmaceutical industry professionals (84.2% answered that the introduction of GS1 DataMatrix system would allow for complete traceability of the drug from the manufacturer to the end user, only 22.2% of them introduced this system to their products. This study also showed that domestic producers did not have a great interest for additional protection (special inks, holograms, special graphics, smart multicolor design, watermark, chemically labeled paper and cardboard etc.. on their products, given that only 15.8 % of them had some kind of additional protection against counterfeiting. Monitoring drug traceability from a manufacturer to end user is achieved by many complex activities regulated by law. A high percentage of responders said they were satisfied with the functionality of traceability systems used in their companies. As a way to increase the quality of drug packaging and business performance most responders saw in the continuous improvement of the system of traceability within the company

  17. Reconsidering Japan's underperformance in pharmaceuticals: evidence from Japan's anticancer drug sector.

    Umemura, Maki

    2010-01-01

    Unlike its automobile or electronics industries, Japan's pharmaceutical industry did not become a global leader. Japan remains a net importer of pharmaceuticals and has introduced few global blockbuster drugs. Alfred Chandler argued that Japan's pharmaceutical firms remained relatively weak because Western firms enjoyed an insurmountable first first-mover advantage. However, this case study of the anticancer drug sector illustrates that Chandler's explanation is incomplete. Japanese medical culture, government policy, and research environment also played a substantial role in shaping the industry. In the 1970s and 1980s, these factors encouraged firms to develop little few effective drugs with low side effects, and profit from Japan's domestic market. But, these drugs were unsuitable to foreign markets with more demanding efficacy standards. As a result, Japan not only lost more than a decade in developing ineffective drugs, but also neglected to create the infrastructure necessary to develop innovative drugs and build a stronger pharmaceutical industry.

  18. The need for a transparent, ethical, and successful relationship between academic scientists and the pharmaceutical industry: a view of the Group for the Respect of Ethics and Excellence in Science (GREES).

    Bruyere, O; Kanis, J A; Ibar-Abadie, M-E; Alsayed, N; Brandi, M L; Burlet, N; Cahall, D L; Chines, A; Devogelaer, J-P; Dere, W; Goel, N; Hughes, N; Kaufman, J-M; Korte, S; Mitlak, B H; Niese, D; Rizzoli, R; Rovati, L C; Reginster, J-Y

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides recommendations for fair and unbiased relationship between academic scientists and the pharmaceutical industry. Real or perceived problems in the relationship between academics and the industry have been the subject of much recent debate. It has been suggested that academic clinicians should sever all links with the industry-a view that is rarely challenged. Academic experts and members of the pharmaceutical industry were invited to an expert consensus meeting to debate this topic. This meeting was organized by the Group for the Respect of Ethics and Excellence in Science. Conflict of interest, competing interest, right and duties of academic scientist, authorship, and staff and student education were discussed. Guidelines for a transparent, ethical, strong, and successful partnership between the academic scientist and the pharmaceutical industry have been provided. The Group support interactions between the industry and clinicians provided that it is transparent and ethical.

  19. Industry to benefit from India's global projects tie-ups

    2007-01-01

    "Indian Industry should take advantage of the country's involvement in prestigious international projects like ITER and work with top scientific institutions to meet the huge demand for ultra vacuum systems, S. Banerjee of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre said here on Wednesday. (1/2 page)

  20. From Confrontation to Coopetition in the Globalized Semiconductor Industry

    van de Gevel, A.J.W.

    2000-01-01

    The silicon chip is not only a symbol of marvellous technologies that are transforming industrial production and leisure time in society, but also of trade and technology conflicts while at the same time offering the potential for cooperation.The purpose of this paper is to show that the

  1. Global Credit Risk: World, Country and Industry Factors

    Schwaab, B.; Koopman, S.J.; Lucas, A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic properties of systematic default risk conditions for firms in different countries, industries and rating groups. We use a high-dimensional nonlinear non-Gaussian state-space model to estimate common components in corporate defaults in a 41 country samples between 1980:Q1

  2. Chemical process research and development in the 21st century: challenges, strategies, and solutions from a pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-05-19

    In process research and development (PR&D), the generation and manipulation of small-molecule drugs ranges from bench-scale (laboratory) chemistry to pilot plant manufacture to commercial production. A broad range of disciplines, including process chemistry (organic synthesis), analytical chemistry, process engineering (mass and heat transfer, unit operations), process safety (chemical risk assessment), regulatory compliance, and plant operation, must be effectively applied. In the critical handover between medicinal chemistry and PR&D, compound production is typically scaled up from a few hundred grams to several kilograms. Can the methodologies applied to the former also satisfy the technical, safety, and scalability aspects that come into play in the latter? Occasionally, the transition might occur smoothly, but more often the situation is the opposite: much work and resources must be invested to design a process that is feasible for manufacturing on pilot scale and, eventually, for commercial production. Authentic examples provide enlightening illustrations of dos and don'ts for developing syntheses designed for round-flask operation into production-scale processes. Factors that are easily underestimated or even neglected in the laboratory, such as method robustness, chemical hazards, safety concerns, environmental impact, availability of starting materials and building blocks in bulk quantities, intellectual property (IP) issues, and the final cost of the product, will come into play and need to be addressed appropriately. The decision on which route will be the best for further development is a crucial event and should come into focus early on the R&D timeline. In addition to scientific and technical concerns, the parameter of speed has come to the forefront in the pharmaceutical arena. Although historically the drug industry has tolerated a total time investment of far more than 10 years from idea to market, the current worldwide paradigm requires a

  3. The Evolution of a Creative Industry : The industrial dynamics and spatial evolution of the global fashion design industry

    Wenting, R.

    2008-01-01

    The recent growth of creative industries has raised the interest of both policy makers and academic scholars. However, we know very little about the forces that drive the development and geography of these industries. This dissertation provides an in-depth study of the industrial dynamics and

  4. Financing pharmaceuticals in transition economies.

    Kanavos, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper (a) provides a methodological taxonomy of pricing, financing, reimbursement, and cost containment methodologies for pharmaceuticals; (b) analyzes complex agency relationships and the health versus industrial policy tradeoff; (c) pinpoints financing measures to balance safety and effectiveness of medicines and their affordability by publicly funded systems in transition; and (d) highlights viable options for policy-makers for the financing of pharmaceuticals in transition. Three categories of measures and their implications for pharmaceutical policy cost containing are analyzed: supply-side measures, targeting manufacturers, proxy demand-side measures, targeting physicians and pharmacists, and demand-side measures, targeting patients. In pursuing supply side measures, we explore free pricing for pharmaceuticals, direct price controls, cost-plus and cost pricing, average pricing and international price comparisons, profit control, reference pricing, the introduction of a fourth hurdle, positive and negative lists, and other price control measures. The analysis of proxy-demand measures includes budgets for physicians, generic policies, practice guidelines, monitoring the authorizing behavior of physicians, and disease management schemes. Demand-side measures explore the effectiveness of patient co-payments, the impact of allowing products over-the-counter and health promotion programs. Global policies should operate simultaneously on the supply, the proxy demand, and the demand-side. Policy-making needs to have a continuous long-term planning. The importation of policies into transition economy may require extensive and expensive adaptation, and/or lead to sub-optimal policy outcomes.

  5. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    Journal Homepage Image. We seek to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical and international relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and the healthcare professionals. We publish articles in pharmaceutical sciences and related ...

  6. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Student Worksheets. Experimental Edition.

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The worksheets contained in this bulletin are designed for use in conjunction with the teaching strategies for Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." The worksheets correspond to specific strategies with accompanying questions on the appropriate strategy page. Included are activities for the seven subthemes: (1)…

  7. Globalization of the natural gas industry; La mondialisation de l`industrie du gaz naturel

    Deyirmendjan, J. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-05-01

    After presenting a panorama of the international gas industry, a description of changes affecting the world gas industry, and an analysis of how environment-related demands give gas an opportunity to become the leading source of energy in the 21. century, Mr Jacques Deyirmendjan, Senior Executive-Vice-President of Gaz de France, tells his interviewer how French industry and national companies are designing their strategies to respond effectively to these changes.

  8. The sequential patterning of tactics: Activism in the global sports apparel industry, 1988–2002

    den Hond, F.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; de Haan, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Activist groups apply a range of tactics in order to improve labour conditions in the global sports and apparel industry. The accumulation of these tactics leads to the build-up of pressure on firms within this industry (brands, retailers) to change their policies and activities on labour

  9. Do company strategies and structures converge in global markets? Evidence from the computer industry

    Duysters, G.M.; Hagedoorn, J.

    2001-01-01

    This note examines isomorphism and diversity in a global industry. We study how the ongoing internationalisation process has affected companies from various regions of the world. Empirical research is focussed on the international computer industry. We find that companies in this sector have become

  10. A Future-Oriented, Globally Based Curriculum Model for Industrial Technology.

    Hacker, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Presents a future-oriented curriculum approach for industrial technology programs. Major global issues provide the basic structure for curriculum development. These issues include energy management, resource management, technological advancement, and international relations. Rationales for industrial technology are discussed and a curriculum…

  11. Biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored global clinical trials in emerging countries.

    Alvarenga, Lenio Souza; Martins, Elisabeth Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials placed in countries previously described as emerging regions for clinical research, and potential differences for those placed in Brazil. Data regarding recruitment of subjects for clinical trials were retrieved from www.clinicaltrials.gov on February 2nd 2009. Proportions of sites in each country were compared among emerging countries. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate whether trial placement in Brazil could be predicted by trial location in other countries and/or by trial features. A total of 8,501 trials were then active and 1,170 (13.8%) included sites in emerging countries (i.e., Argentina, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, and South Africa). South Korea and China presented a significantly higher proportion of sites when compared to other countries (pattractiveness for biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials.

  12. A global strategy for the European PV industry

    Viaud, M.; Despotou, E.; Latour, M.; Hoffmann, W.; Macias, E.; Cameron, M.; Laborde, E.

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to develop a comprehensive strategy that answers to the need of today European PV industry. Namely: - Develop PV markets in Europe - Develop export markets. - Position the European PV industry within the European political environment and support the effort of national actors in their local objectives. This method lends itself to brainstorming to create actions and synergies, on order to achieve strategy objectives. The whole work is based on working groups clearly defined on the purpose, where all EPIA members are invited to participate. The overall first results are presented during the 19. EU PV Conference in Paris and EPIA will do recommendations on actions to be undertaken in the future. This strategy is co-financed by EPIA members and the 6. Framework Programme for research of the European Commission through the PV Catapult project. (authors)

  13. The Magnesium Industry Today…The Global Perspective

    Patzer, Greg

    World demand for magnesium will show a decline in 2009. The outlook for 2010, which is guardedly optimistic, will be for a resumption of slow growth. The industry has seen marked changes in the sources of supply for primary and alloyed magnesium in recent years. Technological advances in magnesium continue at a strong pace as does interest in the material as a substitute for other light metals. The automotive segment remains the end-use area with the largest growth potential, if for no other reason than the size and quantity of the potential materials substitution applications. However, the shrinkage of that market, particularly in North America will have a definite impact on expectations for magnesium. The 3C market (computers, communications & consumer electronics) will continue to show above average growth. Other niche markets related to medical and construction industries also offer potential.

  14. Global change: The new challenge for the fossil carbon industries

    Fyfe, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Human population growth, at 90 million more per year and at least 10 billion next century, is forcing a re-examination of our values and technologies. Technology concerns are energy, food production, water and air quality, and waste disposal. All of these involve exact knowledge of the outer few km of our planet because this film forms the basis of all our resources. A great new challenge faces people with expertise in the fine structure and dynamics of the porous-cracked outer layers of earth. Much of this expertise is centered in the fossil carbon industries. All must be involved in the problems of water supply, soil conservation, waste disposal, and clean energy production. Perhaps the greatest question facing the fossil fuel industry concerns whether greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced

  15. Trends driving the hotel industry global evolution. Case of Romania

    Codruţa-Adina BĂLTESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tourism field is well known for the dynamic of changes over recent years. We witness the continous growth of the number of tourists, the increase of consumers demands, the development of new markets and the changes determined by information technologies implementation and adaptations and innovations supported at the level of tourism business. Being a defining component in the tourism industry, the hotel field is individualized through specific evolutions and significant adjustments in relation to the general rate of changes and development trends recorded. In this framework, through this article, the author aims to assess which are the most relevant changes recorded in the Romanian hotel industry and the degree in which this specific activity field follow the trend of changes recorded at international level.

  16. Global warming and the energy efficiency of Spanish industry

    Feijoo, Maria L.; Hernandez, Jose M.; Franco, Juan F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses a stochastic frontier production function model to analyze the energy efficiency of Spanish industry. We used minimum cost input demand equations as the reference in order to calculate the demand for electricity, gas and other fuels. On this basis, we found that there is no inherent conflict between the objectives of achieving productive efficiency and reducing energy consumption. Indeed, it is possible to reduce the industrial emissions of CO 2 by up to 29.4% by means of a bottom-up energy efficiency policy. However, if the government wants firms to reduce their emissions even further, then it would be necessary to implement some form of energy regulatory policy. In this respect, we estimate the cost of reducing CO 2 emissions by 20%

  17. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  18. Industrial Wage Inequality in Latin America in Global Perspective, 1900-2000

    Frankema, E.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Standard economic theories of wage inequality focus on the factor-biased nature of technological change and globalization. This paper examines the long-run development of industrial wage inequality in Latin America from a global comparative perspective. We find that wage inequality was comparatively

  19. The Triumph of the Industrial-Consumer Paradigm and English as the Global Language

    Spring, Joel

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the role of English as the global language within the industrial-consumer paradigm. In the 21st century, the English language plays a different function in the global economy than it did during the 19th century when it was used as an instrument of cultural imperialism. Today, English serves as a vehicle for participation in…

  20. RoHS Compliance - Is the Global Electronics Industry Ready?

    Head, Marieke; Hróarsson, Hallur

    2006-01-01

    RoHS is an EU directive that was proposed along with the WEEE Directive in 2002 as a part of a plan to promote extended producer responsibility within the electronics industry. Together, these two directives seek to make electrical and electronic equipment easier to manage both in terms of environmental impacts and recycling. The RoHS Directive seeks to remove lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium and two brominated flame retardants from all consumer electrical equipment. This paper dea...

  1. The energy industries reorganization in the economic globalization

    Amouroux, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The author wonders on the energy supply evolution since thirty years and more specially the fossil fuels industries reconstruction. The energy panorama has been completely modified by a serial of processes which stopped the nuclear energy expansion and replaced the fossil fuels in the front of the energy scene. The processes are examined to evaluate the consequences of theses transformations on the model of economic development developed by the capitalism. (A.L.B)

  2. Foreign subsidiary development of furniture industry in the context of global recession: case of Vietnam

    Hoang, Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    Wooden furniture industry is a traditional low-technology based and labor intensive industry (Kaplinsky & Readman, 2000), which is highly recommended for global outsourcing. Besides, the raising of “China plus one” manufacturing strategy made Southeast Asian countries became new investment destinations. In case of Vietnam, the largest exporter of wood products in Southeast Asian, wooden furniture industry is highly export-oriented with a fast growing rate especially since 2008 (MARD, 2012). W...

  3. Dilip Subramanian, Telecommunications Industry in India: State, Business and Labour in a Global Economy

    David Picherit

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1948, Indian Telephone Industries (ITI, a telecommunications equipment manufacturer, became India’s first State-run enterprise. In 2009, the company was privatized. Dilip Subramanian’s book provides a remarkable in-depth history of the journey of this Indian State-owned factory in post-colonial India, from the birth of the Nehruvian model of industrialization to the contemporary deregulation of the telecommunications industry. In a context of global neoliberal policies and discourses agai...

  4. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-05

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical-pharmaceutical

  5. The present effect of global warming on U.S. industry

    Bendel, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss how global warming issues are currently affecting U.S. industry. Global climate models are projecting global temperature increases in the 1.5-4.5 degrees C range within the next 50-60 years. This increase is based on the assumption that CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere will continue to increase 1-2% per year, resulting in a doubling of preindustrial CO 2 levels by mid twenty-first century. These projections may cause U.S. industry to readjust its thinking with respect to the benefits of pollution prevention as they relate to global warming, corporate image enhancement, global competitiveness and risk assessment or balance. Real or perceived impacts of global warming are already influencing U.S. competitiveness within the global economy because Japan and the European countries are taking the global warming threat more seriously than is the U.S. Mitigation of CO 2 emissions through carbon taxes or permitting will be discussed. Options available to U.S. industry to deal with the current uncertainties of global warming will be presented. Examples of how specific companies are coping with this issue will be given. Finally, recommendations are presented for proactive planning to determine which segments, divisions or facilities in a multinational company would be most sensitive to CO 2 stabilization regulations

  6. The global methanol industry -- Is it deja vu all over again?

    Crocco, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The author reviews the methanol industry in the 1980's and uses this to forecast the future of the industry, attempting to be as realistic as possible. Data are presented on the global methanol supply and demand, anticipated new methanol production capacity, and the 1995 worldwide methanol capacity. Although the global methanol industry, and most especially the producers, are entering some stormy seas, they are not completely uncharted. Those who were around ten or more years ago can see some similarities between current and anticipated market conditions. The similarities and differences are discussed

  7. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    Green, L.

    2004-01-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA Regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both, the regulator and the transporter, can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they co-operate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated - there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. I suggest, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  8. Industrial applications of high-performance computing best global practices

    Osseyran, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    ""This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the rapidly expanding field of the industrial use of supercomputers. It is just a pleasure reading through informative country reports and in-depth case studies contributed by leading researchers in the field.""-Jysoo Lee, Principal Researcher, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information""From telescopes to microscopes, from vacuums to hyperbaric chambers, from sonar waves to laser beams, scientists have perpetually strived to apply technology and invention to new frontiers of scientific advancement. Along the way, they hav

  9. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    Green, L.

    2004-01-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated-the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both the regulator and the transporter can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they cooperate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated-there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. It is suggested, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  10. Cross Border EU Defence Industry Consolidation between Globalization and Europeanization

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    as it constitute a rendezvous of traditional market-based efficiency logics and concerns over sovereignty. Moreover, the defence industry has been an institutional island still exhibiting all the national protectionist mechanisms that European integration mostly has done away with in other sectors. The paper...... will depart from these institutional peculiarities drawing on the varieties of capitalism literature. Different patterns in ownership, public-private R&D links and business promotion policies are a key constraint in cross-border mergers. This is compounded by sovereignty concerns hosted by the national...

  11. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    Green, L. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA Regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both, the regulator and the transporter, can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they co-operate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated - there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. I suggest, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  12. Continuous improvement concepts as a link between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production: Case study in the generic pharmaceutical industry

    Boltić Zorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject and the research objective presented in this article is establishing of the relationship between quality assurance and implementation of cleaner production in the generic pharmaceutical industry through the comprehensive concept of continuous improvement. This is mostly related to application of Lean and Six Sigma tools and techniques for process improvement and their link to other known concepts used in the industrial environment, especially manufacturing of generic pharmaceutical products from which two representative case studies were selected for comparative analysis, also considering relevant regulatory requirements in the field of quality management, as well as appropriate quality standards. Although the methodology discussed in this conceptual and practice oriented article is strongly related to chemical engineering, the focus is mainly on process industry, i.e. production systems, rather than any specific technological process itself. The scope of this research is an engineering approach to evaluation of the production systems in terms of continuous improvement concepts application, considering both quality aspects and efficiency of such systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34009

  13. Nuclear English: Language skills for a globalizing industry

    Gorlin, S

    2005-07-01

    Nuclear English is a new course designed for English language learners working in the nuclear industry and in other fields of nuclear science and technology. The textbook is composed of 12 units, each covering a different aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle or a relevant topic such as non-proliferation, safety and the use of radioisotopes in medicine. Nuclear English offers a flexible approach, allowing learners to: Study the units in any order according to professional need or interest; Focus on listening, grammar and pronunciation tasks, which are clearly signposted; Work independently or with other students in a classroom. The other main features of the course are: A audio CD containing authentic interviews with industry specialists. The course covers various accents, including British, American, Australian, South African and Indian; Transcripts of the listening materials; A language orientation test, which learners can take at the start of the course to identify their grammar weaknesses; Teacher-led exercises for working in pairs or groups; A glossary of key terms; An answer key; a downloadable teacher's guide to help teachers maximize the learning potential of the materials (available at: www.world-nuclear-university.org)

  14. Nuclear English: Language skills for a globalizing industry

    Gorlin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear English is a new course designed for English language learners working in the nuclear industry and in other fields of nuclear science and technology. The textbook is composed of 12 units, each covering a different aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle or a relevant topic such as non-proliferation, safety and the use of radioisotopes in medicine. Nuclear English offers a flexible approach, allowing learners to: Study the units in any order according to professional need or interest; Focus on listening, grammar and pronunciation tasks, which are clearly signposted; Work independently or with other students in a classroom. The other main features of the course are: A audio CD containing authentic interviews with industry specialists. The course covers various accents, including British, American, Australian, South African and Indian; Transcripts of the listening materials; A language orientation test, which learners can take at the start of the course to identify their grammar weaknesses; Teacher-led exercises for working in pairs or groups; A glossary of key terms; An answer key; a downloadable teacher's guide to help teachers maximize the learning potential of the materials (available at: www.world-nuclear-university.org)

  15. 2. Industrial countries: Promoting sustainable growth in a global economy

    Hammond, A.; MacKenzie, J.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter discusses the following topics: dimensions of sustainable development; energy resources (energy transitions, energy efficiency, renewable energy resources, economic and regulatory policies); agricultural and forest resources (effects of present policies, unsustainable practices, needed policy reform); waste, pollution, and sustainable technologies (cleanup strategies, more efficient manufacturing, emerging technologies); and a global context. It is concluded that the US could markedly improve its efficiency in using energy and other natural resources and, at the same time, reduce local and regional pollution, avoid waste, and lower its contribution to the threat of global warming. With appropriate, market-based policies, these steps need not carry heavy economic penalties and could indeed improve the country's economic competitiveness. To a large degree, similar steps could be taken, with equal benefit, in other OECD countries. Many promising new technologies exist that are both more efficient and more sustainable. The US and other OECD countries will need to move toward such technologies, and toward policies that encourage their development and use, to improve not only their own destinies but also those of other countries

  16. Globalization of the nuclear industry: Developing technology - Framatome ANP's experience

    Kaluzny, Y.; Dams, W.; Reynolds, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the last 15 years, Framatome ANP has moved from being a purely national player to being a global market leader. This is due to a series of successful mergers and acquisitions, including the acquisition of the nonmilitary nuclear activity of Babcock and Wilcox in the late 1980s and, more recently, the merger with Siemens-KWU's nuclear activities. Integration presented a number of challenges. There were undeniable cultural differences, reorganization was required to bring the business under control and a number of activities, such as finance, sales, R and D, marketing, engineering and manufacturing, and information systems had to be rationalized and integrated. The key factors that contributed to the success of this integration included a management team that was clearly committed to the success of the merger and the quick and clear definition of the strategy, vision and values of the new company, which had to be effectively communicated. A global organization which was not simply a group of three companies, each working in its own corner, was quickly established and multiregional task forces were appointed to identify possible synergies and propose how they could be put into practice. One of the key issues is R and D, which will be discussed as an example of what has been achieved. This activity is essential when preparing the future of the company as a whole, and one of the major challenges that had to be met was to find the best way of making use of all the skills available in it. A special multiregional, multi-activity organization has identified the existing skills and potential synergies in each of the technical areas and core businesses. A global R and D management process has been put in place under the strong leadership of the corporate R and D function. This process involves all the business units worldwide and has made it possible to set R and D objectives and identify the action to be taken in line with the group's strategic objectives

  17. Generic versus innovator: Analysis of the pharmaceutical qualities of ...

    owner

    1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of ... ibuprofen tablets sourced from retail Pharmacy outlets in the Nigerian market to their ... However, five brands of paracetamol failed the friability test, one brand of ... Asian countries to combat the global threat ... of proving the safety and efficacy of the drugs.

  18. Opportunities for Data Science in the Pharmaceutical Industry: The Use of Data to Find Efficiencies in Drug Development Can?t Come Too Soon.

    Keshava, Nirmal

    2017-01-01

    By the numbers, 2016 was not a good year for the U.S. pharmaceutical industry. As of early December, only 19 new drugs had been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), fewer than half of those approved in 2015 and the lowest number since 2007. Further, the FDA approved only 61% of submissions in 2016, compared to 95% in 2015 [1]. And, among the largest companies, the return on investment for research and development (R&D) fell to 3.7% [2].

  19. The Importance of Enhancing Worldwide Industry Cooperation in Radiological Protection, Waste Management and Decommissioning - Views from the Global Nuclear Industry

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2008-01-01

    The slow or stagnant rate of nuclear power generation development in many developed countries over the last two decades has resulted in a significant shortage in the population of mid-career nuclear industry professionals. This shortage is even more pronounced in some specific areas of expertise such as radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning. This situation has occurred at a time when the renaissance of nuclear power and the globalization of the nuclear industry are steadily gaining momentum and when the industry's involvement in international and national debates in these three fields of expertise (and the industry's impact on these debates) is of great relevance.This paper presents the World Nuclear Association (WNA) approach to building and enhancing worldwide industry cooperation in radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning, which is manifested through the activities of the two WNA working groups on radiological protection (RPWG) and on waste management and decommissioning (WM and DWG). This paper also briefly describes the WNA's participatory role, as of Summer 2005, in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard development committees on radiation safety (RASSC), waste safety (WASSC) and nuclear safety (NUSSC). This participation provides the worldwide nuclear industry with an opportunity to be part of IAEA's discussions on shaping changes to the control regime of IAEA safety standards. The review (and the prospect of a revision) of IAEA safety standards, which began in October 2005, makes this WNA participation and the industry's involvement at the national level timely and important. All of this excellent industry cooperation and team effort is done through 'collegial' exchanges between key industry experts, which help tackle important issues more effectively. The WNA is continuously looking to enhance its worldwide industry representation in these fields of expertise through the RPWG and WM and DWG

  20. Logistics Concepts at the Industrial Enterprise under Conditions of the Globalization of Markets

    Trushkina Nataliia V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the dynamics of indicators of Ukraine’s foreign trade in goods and services; conduct a comparative analysis of logistics concepts used at industrial enterprises under conditions of the globalization of markets; determine the ways to improve the management of international production and distribution activities of industrial enterprises. The study analyzes the dynamics of volumes of exports–imports of goods and transport services in Ukraine; freight traffic by mode of transport; export, import and transit of goods; foreign direct investment from countries of the world in the Ukrainian economy. Modern information systems and logistics concepts used at industrial enterprises under conditions of the globalization of markets are considered. The ways to improve the management of international production and distribution activities of industrial enterprises are defined and systematized. Prospects for further research in this direction are the development of proposals for information support of providing services for customers of the industrial enterprise.