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Sample records for global optimum result

  1. Improving Global Gross Primary Productivity Estimates by Computing Optimum Light Use Efficiencies Using Flux Tower Data

    Madani, Nima; Kimball, John S.; Running, Steven W.

    2017-11-01

    In the light use efficiency (LUE) approach of estimating the gross primary productivity (GPP), plant productivity is linearly related to absorbed photosynthetically active radiation assuming that plants absorb and convert solar energy into biomass within a maximum LUE (LUEmax) rate, which is assumed to vary conservatively within a given biome type. However, it has been shown that photosynthetic efficiency can vary within biomes. In this study, we used 149 global CO2 flux towers to derive the optimum LUE (LUEopt) under prevailing climate conditions for each tower location, stratified according to model training and test sites. Unlike LUEmax, LUEopt varies according to heterogeneous landscape characteristics and species traits. The LUEopt data showed large spatial variability within and between biome types, so that a simple biome classification explained only 29% of LUEopt variability over 95 global tower training sites. The use of explanatory variables in a mixed effect regression model explained 62.2% of the spatial variability in tower LUEopt data. The resulting regression model was used for global extrapolation of the LUEopt data and GPP estimation. The GPP estimated using the new LUEopt map showed significant improvement relative to global tower data, including a 15% R2 increase and 34% root-mean-square error reduction relative to baseline GPP calculations derived from biome-specific LUEmax constants. The new global LUEopt map is expected to improve the performance of LUE-based GPP algorithms for better assessment and monitoring of global terrestrial productivity and carbon dynamics.

  2. On convergence of differential evolution over a class of continuous functions with unique global optimum.

    Ghosh, Sayan; Das, Swagatam; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Suresh, Kaushik

    2012-02-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is arguably one of the most powerful stochastic real-parameter optimization algorithms of current interest. Since its inception in the mid 1990s, DE has been finding many successful applications in real-world optimization problems from diverse domains of science and engineering. This paper takes a first significant step toward the convergence analysis of a canonical DE (DE/rand/1/bin) algorithm. It first deduces a time-recursive relationship for the probability density function (PDF) of the trial solutions, taking into consideration the DE-type mutation, crossover, and selection mechanisms. Then, by applying the concepts of Lyapunov stability theorems, it shows that as time approaches infinity, the PDF of the trial solutions concentrates narrowly around the global optimum of the objective function, assuming the shape of a Dirac delta distribution. Asymptotic convergence behavior of the population PDF is established by constructing a Lyapunov functional based on the PDF and showing that it monotonically decreases with time. The analysis is applicable to a class of continuous and real-valued objective functions that possesses a unique global optimum (but may have multiple local optima). Theoretical results have been substantiated with relevant computer simulations.

  3. Global warming and ocean acidification through halted weathering feedback during the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum

    van der Ploeg, R.; Selby, D. S.; Cramwinckel, M.; Bohaty, S. M.; Sluijs, A.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) represents a 500 kyr period of global warming 40 million years ago associated with a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but its cause remains enigmatic. Moreover, on the timescale of the MECO, an increase in silicate weathering rates on the continents is expected to balance carbon input and restore the alkalinity of the oceans, but this is in sharp disagreement with observations of extensive carbonate dissolution. Here we show, based on osmium isotope ratios of marine sediments from three different sites, that CO2 rise and warming did not lead to enhanced continental weathering during the MECO, in contrast to expectations from carbon cycle theory. Remarkably, a minor shift to lower, more unradiogenic osmium isotope ratios rather indicates an episode of increased volcanism or reduced continental weathering. This disproves silicate weathering as a geologically constant feedback to CO2 variations. Rather, we suggest that global Early and Middle Eocene warmth diminished the weatherability of continental rocks, ultimately leading to CO2 accumulation during the MECO, and show the plausibility of this scenario using carbon cycle modeling simulations. We surmise a dynamic weathering feedback might explain multiple enigmatic phases of coupled climate and carbon cycle change in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic.

  4. Theory of optimum financial areas: retooling the debate on the governance of global finance

    Jones, E.; Underhill, G.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the institutional preconditions for stable financial integration in a ‘theory of optimal financial areas’ (OFA). This theory is modelled on the theory of optimal currency areas that has been used to inform the process of monetary integration. Where it differs from optimum

  5. Stability of Global Geodetic Results

    Herring, T.

    The precision of global geodetic techniques has reached unprecedented levels. Sys- tems capable of millimeter level horizontal and several millimeter vertical precisions are now deployed. The Global Positioning System (GPS) has the most deployed continuously-operating receivers with several hundred providing data through the in- ternet for analysis. However, the satellite system used with GPS evolves with time as new generations of GPS satellites are launched. During the 1990's, the constellation evolved from Block I to Block II and IIA with the most recent generation being Block IIR. There are considerable differences in the size and antenna configurations in the different generations of satellites. The antenna configuration specifically could cause systematic changes in the terrestrial reference system. Results from the ITRF2000 combinations suggest that there are significant time variations in the scale of GPS system possibly due to phase center variations in GPS transmission antennas. These variations could result in height changes of up to 3 mm/yr. We will investigate the stability of the GPS system through combination of GPS results with results from VLBI and SLR. All components of the transformation between the systems, rotation, translation and scale will be investigated.

  6. Further results on binary convolutional codes with an optimum distance profile

    Johannesson, Rolf; Paaske, Erik

    1978-01-01

    Fixed binary convolutional codes are considered which are simultaneously optimal or near-optimal according to three criteria: namely, distance profiled, free distanced_{ infty}, and minimum number of weightd_{infty}paths. It is shown how the optimum distance profile criterion can be used to limit...... codes. As a counterpart to quick-look-in (QLI) codes which are not "transparent," we introduce rateR = 1/2easy-look-in-transparent (ELIT) codes with a feedforward inverse(1 + D,D). In general, ELIT codes haved_{infty}superior to that of QLI codes....

  7. Global optimum spacecraft orbit control subject to bounded thrust in presence of nonlinear and random disturbances in a low earth orbit

    Tamer Mekky Ahmed Habib

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this work is to develop an effective spacecraft orbit control algorithm suitable for spacecraft orbital maneuver and/or rendezvous. The actual governing equation of a spacecraft orbiting the earth is merely nonlinear. Disturbance forces resulting from aerodynamic drag, oblateness of the earth till the fourth order (i.e. J4, and random disturbances are modeled for the initial and target orbits. These disturbances increase the complexity of nonlinear governing equations. Global optimum solutions of the control algorithm parameters are determined throughout real coded genetic algorithms such that the steady state difference between the actual and desired trajectories is minimized. The resulting solutions are constrained to avoid spacecraft collision with the surface of the earth taking into account limited thrust budget.

  8. OPTIMUM PROSESSENTRERING

    K. Adendorff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The paper derives an expression for optimum process centreing for a given design specification and spoilage and/or rework costs.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die problem Van prosessentrering vir n gegewe ontwerpspesifikasie en herwerk- en/of skrootkoste word behandel.

  9. Optimum curative dose and the results of radiotherapy of the lower lip, larynx and cervix uteri neoplasms

    Kholin, V.V.; Libson, I.L.; Bartova, V.F.; Lubenets, Eh.N.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the results of radiotherapy of 951 patients with cancer of the lower lip, larynx and cervix uteri on the basis of the concept of a single optimum curative dose (OCD 1 ) is presented. The best long-term results (in good health for 3 years and more) were obtained for T 1 Stage with summary focal doses that were equivalent to OCD 1 : 98% for the lowel lip, 95% for the larynx, and 93.9% for cervix uteri. It has been shown that OCD 1 estimated for identical tumor volumes (1 cm 3 ) taking account of the character of fractionation and dose rate for all known sites is practically the same - about 24 Gy. It has been demonstrated that to reach a maximum effect with the growth of tumor volume, the summary curative dose should be increased; however, of common knowledge is that under the conditions of γ-beam therapy by simple fractionation the summary focal doses cannot exceed 60-80 Gy. The above doses can result in a radical effect in tumor volumes not more than 5-6 cm 3 . This tumor volume is regarded as a maximum one for cure of malignant epithelial tumors. In large volume tumors one should rely upon palliative radiotherapeutic results [ru

  10. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    Byrne, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  11. Improvement of production layout based on optimum production balancing scale results by using Moodie Young and Comsoal method

    Ikhsan, Siregar; Ulina Anastasia Sipangkar, Tri; Prasetio, Aji

    2017-09-01

    This research was conducted at a make to order production system company which is engaged in the car body of the vehicle. One of the products produced is dump truck which is one kind of transportation for the transport of goods equipped with hydraulics to facilitate goods’ loading and unloading process. The company has 7 work stations with different cycle times. Companies often experience delays in order delivery. The production process on the production floor has not been done optimally where there is a build up of work in process in some work centres. The build up of work in process (WIP) products is seen in the welding and painting stations. Stacking that occurs on the production line may cause the company to be liable for damages due to delays in product completion. The WIP occurs due to unbalanced paths can be seen from the variance of cycle time of each station is very diverse. The time difference of each work element is due to the allocation of work elements to each work centre unevenly. On the basis of the allocation of uneven work elements, the dump truck assembly line is made. The analysis is done by using Moodie Young and Comsoal method to do the balancing of production line. The result of layout improvement by using systematic layout planning (SLP) method is change the composition of the work centre from 7 into 4 work centre which enables the movement of material to be more effective and efficient so that it can get an efficient and effective production trajectory and can solve existing problems. The result of the track balancing is then used as a guide in constructing a new layout based on the balancing result with the most optimum method.

  12. Analysis of geologic terrain models for determination of optimum SAR sensor configuration and optimum information extraction for exploration of global non-renewable resources. Pilot study: Arkansas Remote Sensing Laboratory, part 1, part 2, and part 3

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.; Stiles, J. A.; Frost, F. S.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Smith, S. A.; Narayanan, V.; Holtzman, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Computer-generated radar simulations and mathematical geologic terrain models were used to establish the optimum radar sensor operating parameters for geologic research. An initial set of mathematical geologic terrain models was created for three basic landforms and families of simulated radar images were prepared from these models for numerous interacting sensor, platform, and terrain variables. The tradeoffs between the various sensor parameters and the quantity and quality of the extractable geologic data were investigated as well as the development of automated techniques of digital SAR image analysis. Initial work on a texture analysis of SEASAT SAR imagery is reported. Computer-generated radar simulations are shown for combinations of two geologic models and three SAR angles of incidence.

  13. New Results of Global Exponential Stabilization for BLDCMs System

    Fengxia Tian; Fangchao Zhen; Guopeng Zhou; Xiaoxin Liao

    2015-01-01

    The global exponential stabilization for brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) system is studied. Four linear and simple feedback controllers are proposed to realize the global stabilization of BLDCM with exponential convergence rate; the control law used in each theorem is less conservative and more concise. Finally, an example is given to demonstrate the correctness of the proposed results.

  14. Novel results for global robust stability of delayed neural networks

    Yucel, Eylem; Arik, Sabri

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the global robust convergence properties of continuous-time neural networks with discrete time delays. By employing suitable Lyapunov functionals, some sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global robust asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point are derived. The conditions can be easily verified as they can be expressed in terms of the network parameters only. Some numerical examples are also given to compare our results with previous robust stability results derived in the literature.

  15. Nondissipative optimum charge regulator

    Rosen, R.; Vitebsky, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Optimum charge regulator provides constant level charge/discharge control of storage batteries. Basic power transfer and control is performed by solar panel coupled to battery through power switching circuit. Optimum controller senses battery current and modifies duty cycle of switching circuit to maximize current available to battery.

  16. Global inter-annual gravity changes from GRACE: Early results

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Hinderer, J.

    2005-01-01

    with an accuracy of 0.4 muGal corresponding to 9 mm water thickness on spatial scales longer than 1300 km. Four of the most widely used global hydrological models have been investigated for their spatial comparison with GRACE observations of inter-annual gravity field variations due to changes in continental water...... storage. The Global Land Data Assimilation System model has a spatial correlation coefficient with GRACE observations of 0.65 over the northern hemisphere. This demonstrates that the observed gravity field changes on these scales are largely related to changes in continental water storage.......Fifteen monthly gravity field solutions from the GRACE twin satellites launched more than two years ago have been studied to estimate gravity field changes between 2002 and 2003. The results demonstrate that GRACE is capable of capturing the changes in ground water on inter-annual scales...

  17. Optimum Safety Levels for Breakwaters

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Optimum design safety levels for rock and cube armoured rubble mound breakwaters without superstructure are investigated by numerical simulations on the basis of minimization of the total costs over the service life of the structure, taking into account typical uncertainties related to wave...... statistics and structure response. The study comprises the influence of interest rate, service lifetime, downtime costs and damage accumulation. Design limit states and safety classes for breakwaters are discussed. The results indicate that optimum safety levels are somewhat higher than the safety levels...

  18. On Optimum Stratification

    M. G. M. Khan; V. D. Prasad; D. K. Rao

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript, we discuss the problem of determining the optimum stratification of a study (or main) variable based on the auxiliary variable that follows a uniform distribution. If the stratification of survey variable is made using the auxiliary variable it may lead to substantial gains in precision of the estimates. This problem is formulated as a Nonlinear Programming Problem (NLPP), which turn out to multistage decision problem and is solved using dynamic programming technique.

  19. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  20. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  1. Global existence result for the generalized Peterlin viscoelastic model

    Lukáčová-Medviďová, M.; Mizerová, H.; Nečasová, Šárka; Renardy, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2017), s. 2950-2964 ISSN 0036-1410 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Peterlin viscoelastic equations * global existence * weak solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/16M1068505

  2. Tail reconnection in the global magnetospheric context: Vlasiator first results

    Palmroth, Minna; Hoilijoki, Sanni; Juusola, Liisa; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.; Hietala, Heli; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Ganse, Urs; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Vainio, Rami; Hesse, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The key dynamics of the magnetotail have been researched for decades and have been associated with either three-dimensional (3-D) plasma instabilities and/or magnetic reconnection. We apply a global hybrid-Vlasov code, Vlasiator, to simulate reconnection self-consistently in the ion kinetic scales in the noon-midnight meridional plane, including both dayside and nightside reconnection regions within the same simulation box. Our simulation represents a numerical experiment, which turns off the 3-D instabilities but models ion-scale reconnection physically accurately in 2-D. We demonstrate that many known tail dynamics are present in the simulation without a full description of 3-D instabilities or without the detailed description of the electrons. While multiple reconnection sites can coexist in the plasma sheet, one reconnection point can start a global reconfiguration process, in which magnetic field lines become detached and a plasmoid is released. As the simulation run features temporally steady solar wind input, this global reconfiguration is not associated with sudden changes in the solar wind. Further, we show that lobe density variations originating from dayside reconnection may play an important role in stabilising tail reconnection.

  3. The optimum spanning catenary cable

    Wang, C. Y.

    2015-03-01

    A heavy cable spans two points in space. There exists an optimum cable length such that the maximum tension is minimized. If the two end points are at the same level, the optimum length is 1.258 times the distance between the ends. The optimum lengths for end points of different heights are also found.

  4. Is there an optimum level for renewable energy?

    Moriarty, Patrick; Honnery, Damon

    2011-01-01

    Because continued heavy use of fossil fuel will lead to both global climate change and resource depletion of easily accessible fuels, many researchers advocate a rapid transition to renewable energy (RE) sources. In this paper we examine whether RE can provide anywhere near the levels of primary energy forecast by various official organisations in a business-as-usual world. We find that the energy costs of energy will rise in a non-linear manner as total annual primary RE output increases. In addition, increasing levels of RE will lead to increasing levels of ecosystem maintenance energy costs per unit of primary energy output. The result is that there is an optimum level of primary energy output, in the sense that the sustainable level of energy available to the economy is maximised at that level. We further argue that this optimum occurs at levels well below the energy consumption forecasts for a few decades hence. - Highlights: → We need to shift to renewable energy for climate change and fuel depletion reasons. → We examine whether renewable energy can provide the primary energy levels forecast. → The energy costs of energy rise non-linearly with renewable energy output. → There is thus an optimum level of primary energy output. → This optimum occurs at levels well below future official energy use forecasts.

  5. Choosing the optimum burnup

    Geller, L.; Goldstein, L.; Franks, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the considerations utilities must evaluate when going to higher discharge burnups. The advantages and disadvantages of higher discharge burnups are described, as well as a consistent approach for evaluating optimum discharge burnup and its comparison to current practice. When an analysis is performed over the life of the plant, the design of the terminal cycles has significant impact on the lifetime savings from higher burnups. Designs for high burnup cycles have a greater average inventory value in the core. As one goes to higher burnup, there is a greater likelihood of discarding a larger value in unused fuel unless the terminal cycles are designed carefully. This effect can be large enough in some cases to wipe out the lifetime cost savings relative to operating with a higher discharge burnup cycle

  6. On Optimum Safety Levels of Breakwaters

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents results from numerical simulations performed with the objective of identifying optimum design safety levels of conventional rubble mound and caisson breakwaters, corresponding to the lowest costs over the service life of the structures. The work is related to the PIANC Working...... Group 47 on "Selection of type of breakwater structures". The paper summaries results given in Burcharth and Sorensen (2005) related to outer rubble mound breakwaters but focus on optimum safety levels for outer caisson breakwaters on low and high rubble foundations placed on sea beds strong enough...... to resist geotechnical slip failures. Optimum safety levels formulated for use both in deterministic and probabilistic design procedures are given. Results obtained so far indicate that the optimum safety levels for caisson breakwaters are much higher than for rubble mound breakwaters....

  7. Global Existence Results for Viscoplasticity at Finite Strain

    Mielke, Alexander; Rossi, Riccarda; Savaré, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    We study a model for rate-dependent gradient plasticity at finite strain based on the multiplicative decomposition of the strain tensor, and investigate the existence of global-in-time solutions to the related PDE system. We reveal its underlying structure as a generalized gradient system, where the driving energy functional is highly nonconvex and features the geometric nonlinearities related to finite-strain elasticity as well as the multiplicative decomposition of finite-strain plasticity. Moreover, the dissipation potential depends on the left-invariant plastic rate, and thus depends on the plastic state variable. The existence theory is developed for a class of abstract, nonsmooth, and nonconvex gradient systems, for which we introduce suitable notions of solutions, namely energy-dissipation-balance and energy-dissipation-inequality solutions. Hence, we resort to the toolbox of the direct method of the calculus of variations to check that the specific energy and dissipation functionals for our viscoplastic models comply with the conditions of the general theory.

  8. Global nonexistence results for a class of hyperbolic systems

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2011-12-01

    Our concern in this paper is to prove blow-up results to the non-autonomous nonlinear system of wave equations utt-Δu=a(t,x)| v|p,vtt-Δv=b(t,x)|u|q,t>0, x∈RN in any space dimension. We show that a curve F̃(p,q)=0 depending on the space dimension, on the exponents p,q and on the behavior of the functions a(t,x) and b(t,x) exists, such that all nontrivial solutions to the above system blow-up in a finite time whenever F̃(p,q)>0. Our method of proof uses some estimates developed by Galaktionov and Pohozaev in [11] for a single non-autonomous wave equation enabling us to obtain a system of ordinary differential inequalities from which the desired result is derived. Our result generalizes some important results such as the ones in Del Santo et al. (1996) [12] and Galaktionov and Pohozaev (2003) [11]. The advantage here is that our result applies to a wide variety of problems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. FY 1994 Report on the results of the joint research project for optimum introduction of development of fuel cell technologies for urban energy centers; 1994 nendo toshi energy center nado nenryo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu saiteki donyu chosa seika hokokusho

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Described herein are the FY 1994 results of the joint research project for optimum introduction of development of fuel cell technologies for urban energy centers or the like. The necessary economic conditions for introduction of a fuel cell system to be competitive with the conventional system which individually supplies electric power and heat are 250,000 yen/kW as the construction unit cost, 0.10m{sup 2}/kW as the installation area, 5 years as the cell body life, use of an inexpensive fuel gas (2 to 6 yen/Mcal). Moreover, it is an indoor system which shall have the operational characteristics to follow daily demand fluctuations while operating under the optimum conditions in the urban redevelopment area considered. A 5,000kW-class fuel cell plant burning fuel gas (2 yen/Mcal) will need a total floor area of approximately 400,000 m{sup 2} in an energy-intensive office type demand area. These conditions shall be met in order to economically introduce the 5,000kW-class plant. It is also necessary to compare the plant with the competitive cogeneration plants. The specifications for the prototype now under consideration are sufficient for the energy-saving effect, and it is premised that these specifications and characteristics are secured. (NEDO)

  10. Optimum Performance-Based Seismic Design Using a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    S. Talatahari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid optimization method is presented to optimum seismic design of steel frames considering four performance levels. These performance levels are considered to determine the optimum design of structures to reduce the structural cost. A pushover analysis of steel building frameworks subject to equivalent-static earthquake loading is utilized. The algorithm is based on the concepts of the charged system search in which each agent is affected by local and global best positions stored in the charged memory considering the governing laws of electrical physics. Comparison of the results of the hybrid algorithm with those of other metaheuristic algorithms shows the efficiency of the hybrid algorithm.

  11. Optimum Design of Plasma Focus

    Ramos, Ruben; Gonzalez, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    The optimum design of Plasma Focus devices is presented based in a lumped parameter model of the MHD equations.Maps in the design parameters space are obtained, which determine the length and deuterium pressure required to produce a given neutron yield.Sensitivity analyses of the main effective numbers (sweeping efficiencies) was performed, and lately the optimum values were determined in order to set a basis for the conceptual design

  12. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  13. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    Kula, Erhun, E-mail: erhun.kula@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey); Gunalay, Yavuz, E-mail: yavuz.gunalay@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Business Studies, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost-benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO{sub 2}. Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It moderates the problem of global warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

  14. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    Kula, Erhun; Gunalay, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost–benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO 2 . Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: ► Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. ► It moderates the problem of global warming. ► It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. ► This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

  15. Optimum fiber distribution in singlewall corrugated fiberboard

    Millard W. Johnson; Thomas J. Urbanik; William E. Denniston

    1979-01-01

    Determining optimum distribution of fiber through rational design of corrugated fiberboard could result in significant reductions in fiber required to meet end-use conditions, with subsequent reductions in price pressure and extension of the softwood timber supply. A theory of thin plates under large deformations is developed that is both kinematically and physically...

  16. Optimum Tilt Angle at Tropical Region

    S Soulayman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available : One of the important parameters that affect the performance of a solar collector is its tilt angle with the horizon. This is because of the variation of tilt angle changes the amount of solar radiation reaching the collector surface. Meanwhile, is the rule of thumb, which says that solar collector Equator facing position is the best, is valid for tropical region? Thus, it is required to determine the optimum tilt as for Equator facing and for Pole oriented collectors. In addition, the question that may arise: how many times is reasonable for adjusting collector tilt angle for a definite value of surface azimuth angle? A mathematical model was used for estimating the solar radiation on a tilted surface, and to determine the optimum tilt angle and orientation (surface azimuth angle for the solar collector at any latitude. This model was applied for determining optimum tilt angle and orientation in the tropical zones, on a daily basis, as well as for a specific period. The optimum angle was computed by searching for the values for which the radiation on the collector surface is a maximum for a particular day or a specific period. The results reveal that changing the tilt angle 12 times in a year (i.e. using the monthly optimum tilt angle maintains approximately the total amount of solar radiation near the maximum value that is found by changing the tilt angle daily to its optimum value. This achieves a yearly gain in solar radiation of 11% to 18% more than the case of a solar collector fixed on a horizontal surface.

  17. Optimum target thickness for polarimeters

    Sitnik, I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Polarimeters with thick targets are a tool to measure the proton polarization. But the question about the optimum target thickness is still the subject of discussion. An attempt to calculate the most common parameters concerning this problem, in a few GeV region, is made

  18. Optimum gain and phase for stochastic cooling systems

    Meer, S. van der.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed analysis of optimum gain and phase adjustment in stochastic cooling systems reveals that the result is strongly influenced by the beam feedback effect and that for optimum performance the system phase should change appreciably across each Schottky band. It is shown that the performance is not greatly diminished if a constant phase is adopted instead. On the other hand, the effect of mixing between pick-up and kicker (which produces a phase change similar to the optimum one) is shown to be less perturbing than is usually assumed, provided that the absolute value of the gain is not too far from the optimum value. (orig.)

  19. Impacts of optimum cost effective energy efficiency standards

    Brancic, A.B.; Peters, J.S.; Arch, M.

    1991-01-01

    Building Codes are increasingly required to be responsive to social and economic policy concerns. In 1990 the State of Connecticut passes An Act Concerning Global Warming, Public Act 90-219, which mandates the revision of the state building code to require that buildings and building elements be designed to provide optimum cost-effective energy efficiency over the useful life of the building. Further, such revision must meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 - 1989. As the largest electric energy supplier in Connecticut, Northeast Utilities (NU) sponsored a pilot study of the cost effectiveness of alternative building code standards for commercial construction. This paper reports on this study which analyzed design and construction means, building elements, incremental construction costs, and energy savings to determine the optimum cost-effective building code standard. Findings are that ASHRAE 90.1 results in 21% energy savings and alternative standards above it result in significant additional savings. Benefit/cost analysis showed that both are cost effective

  20. The Global Fund's paradigm of oversight, monitoring, and results in Mozambique.

    Warren, Ashley; Cordon, Roberto; Told, Michaela; de Savigny, Don; Kickbusch, Ilona; Tanner, Marcel

    2017-12-12

    The Global Fund is one of the largest actors in global health. In 2015 the Global Fund was credited with disbursing close to 10 % of all development assistance for health. In 2011 it began a reform process in response to internal reviews following allegations of recipients' misuse of funds. Reforms have focused on grant application processes thus far while the core structures and paradigm have remained intact. We report results of discussions with key stakeholders on the Global Fund, its paradigm of oversight, monitoring, and results in Mozambique. We conducted 38 semi-structured in-depth interviews in Maputo, Mozambique and members of the Global Fund Board and Secretariat in Switzerland. In-country stakeholders were representatives from Global Fund country structures (eg. Principle Recipient), the Ministry of Health, health or development attachés bilateral and multilateral agencies, consultants, and the NGO coordinating body. Thematic coding revealed concerns about the combination of weak country oversight with stringent and cumbersome requirements for monitoring and evaluation linked to performance-based financing. Analysis revealed that despite the changes associated with the New Funding Model, respondents in both Maputo and Geneva firmly believe challenges remain in Global Fund's structure and paradigm. The lack of a country office has many negative downstream effects including reliance on in-country partners and ineffective coordination. Due to weak managerial and absorptive capacity, more oversight is required than is afforded by country team visits. In-country partners provide much needed support for Global Fund recipients, but roles, responsibilities, and accountability must be clearly defined for a successful long-term partnership. Furthermore, decision-makers in Geneva recognize in-country coordination as vital to successful implementation, and partners welcome increased Global Fund engagement. To date, there are no institutional requirements for

  1. Assessing flood risk at the global scale: model setup, results, and sensitivity

    Ward, Philip J; Jongman, Brenden; Weiland, Frederiek Sperna; Winsemius, Hessel C; Bouwman, Arno; Ligtvoet, Willem; Van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc F P

    2013-01-01

    Globally, economic losses from flooding exceeded $19 billion in 2012, and are rising rapidly. Hence, there is an increasing need for global-scale flood risk assessments, also within the context of integrated global assessments. We have developed and validated a model cascade for producing global flood risk maps, based on numerous flood return-periods. Validation results indicate that the model simulates interannual fluctuations in flood impacts well. The cascade involves: hydrological and hydraulic modelling; extreme value statistics; inundation modelling; flood impact modelling; and estimating annual expected impacts. The initial results estimate global impacts for several indicators, for example annual expected exposed population (169 million); and annual expected exposed GDP ($1383 billion). These results are relatively insensitive to the extreme value distribution employed to estimate low frequency flood volumes. However, they are extremely sensitive to the assumed flood protection standard; developing a database of such standards should be a research priority. Also, results are sensitive to the use of two different climate forcing datasets. The impact model can easily accommodate new, user-defined, impact indicators. We envisage several applications, for example: identifying risk hotspots; calculating macro-scale risk for the insurance industry and large companies; and assessing potential benefits (and costs) of adaptation measures. (letter)

  2. Optimum unambiguous discrimination of linearly independent pure state

    Pang, Shengshi; Wu, Shengjun

    2009-01-01

    be satisfied by the optimum solution in different situations. We also provide the detailed steps to find the optimum measurement strategy. The method and results we obtain are given a geometrical illustration with a numerical example. Furthermore, using these equations, we derive a formula which shows a clear...

  3. Optimum design of steel structures

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    This book helps designers and manufacturers to select and develop the most suitable and competitive steel structures, which are safe, fit for production and economic. An optimum design system is used to find the best characteristics of structural models, which guarantee the fulfilment of design and fabrication requirements and minimize the cost function. Realistic numerical models are used as main components of industrial steel structures. Chapter 1 containts some experiences with the optimum design of steel structures Chapter 2 treats some newer mathematical optimization methods. Chapter 3 gives formulae for fabrication times and costs. Chapters 4 deals with beams and columns. Summarizes the Eurocode rules for design. Chapter 5 deals with the design of tubular trusses. Chapter 6 gives the design of frame structures and fire-resistant design rules for a frame. In Chapters 7 some minimum cost design problems of stiffened and cellular plates and shells are worked out for cases of different stiffenings and loads...

  4. The IGAC activity for the development of global emissions inventories: Description and initial results

    Benkovitz, C.M.; Graedel, T.E.

    1992-02-01

    Modeling assessments of the atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climatic conditions of the past, present and future require as input inventories of emissions of the appropriate chemical species constructed on appropriate spatial and temporal scales. The task of the Global Emissions Inventories Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) is the production of global inventories suitable for a range of research applications. Current GEIA programs are generally based on addressing emissions by species; these include CO 2 , NH 3 /N 2 O, SO 2 /NO x , CFC, volatile organic compounds and radioisotopes. In addition a separate program to inventory emissions from biomass burning is also being structured, plus an additional program to address data management issues for all the developing inventories. Program priorities are based on current knowledge and tasks needed to produce the desired inventories. This paper will discuss the different types of global inventories to be developed by the GEIA programs, their key characteristics, and areas to be addressed in the compilation of such inventories. Results of the first GEIA task, a survey of existing inventories and auxiliary data, will be presented. The survey included status assessments for the available inventory information for nineteen different atmospheric species or groups of species on global and regional scales and over time. Of this entire body of information, the only inventory regarded as satisfactory was that for the global emissions of CFCs. An implication of the results of these assessments is that properly gridded emissions inventories are badly needed to support atmospheric modeling calculations on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Initial studies in the development of global inventories of sulfur dioxide, currently the most advanced GEIA program, will be presented and discussed

  5. Investigation of earthquake factor for optimum tuned mass dampers

    Nigdeli, Sinan Melih; Bekdaş, Gebrail

    2012-09-01

    In this study the optimum parameters of tuned mass dampers (TMD) are investigated under earthquake excitations. An optimization strategy was carried out by using the Harmony Search (HS) algorithm. HS is a metaheuristic method which is inspired from the nature of musical performances. In addition to the HS algorithm, the results of the optimization objective are compared with the results of the other documented method and the corresponding results are eliminated. In that case, the best optimum results are obtained. During the optimization, the optimum TMD parameters were searched for single degree of freedom (SDOF) structure models with different periods. The optimization was done for different earthquakes separately and the results were compared.

  6. The Philippines Is Marlboro Country for Youth Smoking: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000…

  7. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  8. Biodiversity and global change. Adaptative responses to global change: results and prospective. IFB-GICC restitution colloquium

    Despres, L.; Hossaert-Mckey, M.; Martin, J.F.; Pont, D.; Valero, M.; Chave, J.; Benizri, E.; Amiaud, B.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Fritz, H.; Lavelle, P.; Martin, F.; Poulet, S.; Blanchard, F.; Cheddadi, R.; Dupouey, J.L.; Hulle, M.; Michaux, J.; Souissi, S.; Bridault, A.; Dambrine, E.; Gomez, B.; Thevenard, F.; Legendre, S.; Suc, J.P.; Zeitoun, V.; Bezancon, G.; Frascaria-Lacoste, N.; Ponsard, S.; Bourguet, D.; Vigne, J.D.; Doyen, L.; Joly, P.; Gourlet-Fleury, S.; Garnier, E.; Lebaron, Ph.; Boulinier, Th.; Chuine, I.; Jiguet, F.; Couvet, D.; Soussana, J.F.; Weimerskirsch, H.; Grosbois, V.; Bretagnolle, V.

    2006-01-01

    Global change is the consequence of the worldwide human print on ecology. The uncontrolled use of fossil fuels, the urbanization, the intensifying of agriculture, the homogenization of life styles and cultures, the homogenization of fauna and vegetation, the commercial trades, the bio-invasions, the over-exploitation of resources and the emergence of new economic powers (China, India, Brazil..) represent an adaptative dynamics of interactions which affects the overall biosphere and the adaptative capacities and the future of all species. Biodiversity is an ecological and societal insurance against the risks and uncertainties linked with global change. The French institute of biodiversity (IFB) has created a working group in charge of a study on global change and biodiversity, in particular in terms of: speed and acceleration of processes, interaction between the different organization levels of the world of living, scale changes, and adaptative capacities. 38 projects with an interdisciplinary approach have been retained by the IFB and the Ministry of ecology and sustainable development. The conclusion of these projects were presented at this restitution colloquium and are summarized in this document. The presentations are organized in 7 sessions dealing with: global changes and adaptation mechanisms; functional responses to global changes; spatial responses to global changes; temporal responses to global changes; selective answers to global changes; available tools and ecological services; scenarios and projections. (J.S.)

  9. Experimental results concerning global observables from the CERN SPS heavy ion program

    Young, G.R.

    1990-06-01

    A brief overview is given of experimental results obtained during the initial operation of the heavy-ion program at the CERN SPS during the period 1986--1988. This paper confines itself to a presentation of results on so-called global observables, such as energy flow and multiplicity distributions, and on information extracted from them. Of particular interest among the latter are an estimate of the magnitude and spatial distribution of the energy density attained. 3 refs., 27 figs

  10. Temperature Changes In Poland In 21st Century – Results Of Global Simulation And Regional Downscaling

    Pilarski Michał

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main source of information about future climate changes are the results of numerical simulations performed in scientific institutions around the world. Present projections from global circulation models (GCMs are too coarse and are only usefulness for the world, hemisphere or continent spatial analysis. The low horizontal resolution of global models (100–200 km, does not allow to assess climate changes at regional or local scales. Therefore it is necessary to lead studies concerning how to detail the GCMs information. The problem of information transfer from the GCMs to higher spatial scale solve: dynamical and statistical downscaling. The dynamical downscaling method based on “nesting” global information in a regional models (RCMs, which solve the equations of motion and the thermodynamic laws in a small spatial scale (10–50 km. However, the statistical downscaling models (SDMs identify the relationship between large-scale variable (predictor and small-scale variable (predictand implementing linear regression. The main goal of the study was to compare the global model scenarios of thermal condition in Poland in XXI century with the more accurate statistical and dynamical regional models outcomes. Generally studies confirmed usefulness of statistical downscaling to detail information from GCMs. Basic results present that regional models captured local aspects of thermal conditions variability especially in coastal zone.

  11. A global analysis of recent experimental results: How well determined are the parton distribution functions?

    Morfin, J.G.

    1990-08-01

    Following is a brief summary of the results of an analysis of experimental data performed to extract the patron distribution functions. In contrast to other global analyses, this study investigated how the fit results depend on: Experimental Systematic Errors; Kinematic Cuts on the Analyzed Data and Choice of Initial Functional Forms, with a prime goal being a close look at the range of low-x behavior allowed by data. This is crucial for predictions for the SSC/LHC, HERA, and even at Tevatron Collider energies. Since all details can be found in the just released Fermilab preprint Parton Distributions from a Global QCD Analysis of Deep Inelastic Scattering and Lepton-Pair Production by J. G. M. and Wu-Ki Tung, this summary will be only a brief outline of major results. 11 refs., 13 figs

  12. New results for global robust stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with multiple time delays

    Senan, Sibel; Arik, Sabri

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents some new sufficient conditions for the global robust asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with multiple time delays. The results we obtain impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all bounded continuous non-monotonic neuron activation functions. We also give some numerical examples to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of our results, and compare the results with the previous robust stability results derived in the literature.

  13. Experimental results on the design for the APS PID global orbit control system

    Chung, Y.; Kirchman, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source third generation synchrotrons light source needs a stabilized particle beam position to produce high brightness and low emittance radiation. Global orbit correction control is introduced and is utilized to satisfy the demanding needs of the accelerator. This paper presents the experimental results for determining an effective and optimal controller to meet the global orbit correction requirements. These requirements include frequency/time domain demands consisting of vibrational noise attenuation, limiting of controller gains for stability and improving the system time response. Experiments were conducted with a digital signal processor implementing various PID sets to make comparisons between simulations and experiments. Measurements at these PID sets supported the results of software simulation

  14. Optimum coolant chemistry in BWRs

    Lin, C.C.; Cowan, R.L.; Kiss, E.

    2004-01-01

    LWR water chemistry parameters are directly or indirectly related to the plant's operational performance and for a significant amount of Operation and Maintenance (O and M) costs. Obvious impacts are the operational costs associated with water treatment, monitoring and associated radwaste generation. Less obvious is the important role water chemistry plays in the magnitude of drywell shutdown dose rates, fuel corrosion performance and, (probably most importantly) materials degradation such as from stress corrosion cracking of piping and Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) internal components. To improve the operational excellence of the BWR and to minimize the impact of water chemistry on O and M costs. General Electric has developed the concept of Optimum Water Chemistry (OWC). The 'best practices' and latest technology findings from the U.S., Asia and Europe are integrated into the suggested OWC Specification. This concept, together with cost effective ways to meet the requirement, are discussed. (author)

  15. Global Attractivity Results for Mixed-Monotone Mappings in Partially Ordered Complete Metric Spaces

    Kalabušić S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove fixed point theorems for mixed-monotone mappings in partially ordered complete metric spaces which satisfy a weaker contraction condition than the classical Banach contraction condition for all points that are related by given ordering. We also give a global attractivity result for all solutions of the difference equation , where satisfies mixed-monotone conditions with respect to the given ordering.

  16. Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas-Part II: Implementation and numerical results

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    we use the theory developed in Part I to design a convergent nonlinear branch-and-bound method tailored to solve large-scale instances of the original discrete problem. The problem formulation and the needed theoretical results from Part I are repeated such that this paper is self-contained. We focus...... the largest discrete topology design problems solved by means of global optimization....

  17. Towards the results of global analysis of data on nucleon electromagnetic structure

    Bilen'kaya, S.I.; Dubnicka, S.; Dubnickova, A.Z.; Strizenec, P.

    1991-01-01

    Peculiar features of the recent global analysis of data on the nucleon electromagnetic structure are discussed on the detail in order to reconsider reliability of the predicted result that the electron-positron annihilation into a neutron-antineutron cross-section is considerably larger that the cross-section of the electron-positron annihilation into a proton-antiproton pair. 14 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. Optimum filters for narrow-band frequency modulation.

    Shelton, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a computer search for the optimum type of bandpass filter for low-index angle-modulated signals are reported. The bandpass filters are discussed in terms of their low-pass prototypes. Only filter functions with constant numerators are considered. The pole locations for the optimum filters of several cases are shown in a table. The results are fairly independent of modulation index and bandwidth.

  19. Embedding the results of focussed Bayesian fusion into a global context

    Sander, Jennifer; Heizmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Bayesian statistics offers a well-founded and powerful fusion methodology also for the fusion of heterogeneous information sources. However, except in special cases, the needed posterior distribution is not analytically derivable. As consequence, Bayesian fusion may cause unacceptably high computational and storage costs in practice. Local Bayesian fusion approaches aim at reducing the complexity of the Bayesian fusion methodology significantly. This is done by concentrating the actual Bayesian fusion on the potentially most task relevant parts of the domain of the Properties of Interest. Our research on these approaches is motivated by an analogy to criminal investigations where criminalists pursue clues also only locally. This publication follows previous publications on a special local Bayesian fusion technique called focussed Bayesian fusion. Here, the actual calculation of the posterior distribution gets completely restricted to a suitably chosen local context. By this, the global posterior distribution is not completely determined. Strategies for using the results of a focussed Bayesian analysis appropriately are needed. In this publication, we primarily contrast different ways of embedding the results of focussed Bayesian fusion explicitly into a global context. To obtain a unique global posterior distribution, we analyze the application of the Maximum Entropy Principle that has been shown to be successfully applicable in metrology and in different other areas. To address the special need for making further decisions subsequently to the actual fusion task, we further analyze criteria for decision making under partial information.

  20. First results on the performance of the CMS global calorimeter trigger

    Foudas, C; Jones, J; Rose, A; Stettler, M; Sidiropoulos, G; Tapper, A; Brooke, J; Frazier, R; Heath, G; Hansen, M; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The CMS Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) uses data from the CMS calorimeters to compute a number kinematical quantities which characterize the LHC event. The GTC output is used by the Global Trigger (GT) along with data from the Global Muon Trigger (GMT) to produce the Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision. The design for the current GCT system commenced early in 2006. After a rapid development phase all the different GCT components have been produced and a large fraction of them have been installed at the CMS electronics cavern (USC-55). There the GCT system has been under test since March 2007. This paper reports results from tests which took place at the USC-55. Initial tests aimed to test the integrity of the GCT data and establish that the proper synchronization had been achieved both internally within GCT as well as with the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) which provides the GCT input data and with GT which receives the GCT results. After synchronization and data integrity had been established, Monte Carlo E...

  1. Promoting oral health of children through schools--results from a WHO global survey 2012

    Jürgensen, N; Petersen, P E

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the range of school-based approaches to oral health and describes what is meant by a Health Promoting School. The paper then reports the results of a World Health Organization global survey of school-based health promotion. Purposive sampling across 100 countries produced 108...... evaluations of school oral health projects spread across 61 countries around the globe. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion noted that schools can provide a supportive environment for promoting children's health. However, while a number of well-known strategies are being applied, the full range of health...... promoting actions is not being used globally. A greater emphasis on integrated health promotion is advised in place of narrower, disease- or project-specific approaches. Recommendations are made for improving this situation, for further research and for specifying an operational framework for sharing...

  2. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  3. On the optimum energy mix

    Fujii, Yasumasa

    2011-01-01

    After the Fukushima accident occurred in March 2011, reform of Japan's basic energy plan and energy supply system was reported to be under discussion such as to reduce dependence on nuclear power. Planning of energy policy should be considered based on four evaluation indexes of 'economics'. 'environmental effects', 'stable supply of energy' and 'sustainability'. 'Stable supply of energy' should include stability of domestic energy supply infrastructure against natural disasters in addition to stable supply of overseas resources. 'Sustainability' meant long-term availability of resources. Since there did not exist an almighty energy source and energy supply system superior in terms of every above-mentioned evaluation index, it would be wise to use combining various energy sources and supply system in rational way. This combination lead to optimum energy mix, so-called 'Energy Best Mix'. The author evaluated characteristics of energy sources and energy supply system in terms of four indexes and showed best energy mix from short-, medium- and long-term perspectives. Since fossil fuel resources would deplete anyhow, it would be inevitable for human being to be dependent on non-fossil energy resources regardless of greenhouse effects. At present it would be difficult and no guarantee to establish society fully dependent on renewable energy, then it would be probable to need utilization of nuclear energy in the long term. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Global surgery in a postconflict setting - 5-year results of implementation in the Russian North Caucasus

    Fatima I. Lunze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Collaborations for global surgery face many challenges to achieve fair and safe patient care and to build sustainable capacity. The 2004 terrorist attack on a school in Beslan in North Ossetia in the Russian North Caucasus left many victims with complex otologic barotrauma. In response, we implemented a global surgery partnership between the Vladikavkaz Children's Hospital, international surgical teams, the North Ossetian Health Ministry, and civil society organizations. This study's aim was to describe the implementation and 5-year results of capacity building for complex surgery in a postconflict, mid-income setting. Design: We conducted an observational study at the Children's Hospital in Vladikavkaz in the autonomous Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, part of the Russian Federation. We assessed the outcomes of 15 initial patients who received otologic surgeries for complex barotrauma resulting from the Beslan terrorism attack and for other indications, and report the incidence of intra- and postoperative complications. Results: Patients were treated for trauma related to terrorism (53% and for indications not related to violence (47%. None of the patients developed peri- or postoperative complications. Three patients (two victims of terrorism who underwent repair of tympanic perforations presented with re-perforations. Four junior and senior surgeons were trained on-site and in Germany to perform and teach similar procedures autonomously. Conclusions: In mid-income, postconflict settings, complex surgery can be safely implemented and achieve patient outcomes comparable to global standards. Capacity building can build on existing resources, such as operation room management, nursing, and anesthesia services. In postconflict environments, substantial surgical burden is not directly attributable to conflict-related injury and disease, but to health systems weakened by conflicts. Extending training and safe surgical care to include

  5. New results on global exponential stability of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays

    Xu Shengyuan; Chu Yuming; Lu Junwei

    2006-01-01

    This Letter provides new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays by employing Lyapunov functions and using the Halanay inequality. The time-varying delays are not necessarily differentiable. Both Lipschitz continuous activation functions and monotone nondecreasing activation functions are considered. The derived stability criteria are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be checked easily by resorting to recently developed algorithms solving LMIs. Furthermore, the proposed stability results are less conservative than some previous ones in the literature, which is demonstrated via some numerical examples

  6. New results on global exponential stability of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays

    Xu Shengyuan [Department of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)]. E-mail: syxu02@yahoo.com.cn; Chu Yuming [Department of Mathematics, Huzhou Teacher' s College, Huzhou, Zhejiang 313000 (China); Lu Junwei [School of Electrical and Automation Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, 78 Bancang Street, Nanjing, 210042 (China)

    2006-04-03

    This Letter provides new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays by employing Lyapunov functions and using the Halanay inequality. The time-varying delays are not necessarily differentiable. Both Lipschitz continuous activation functions and monotone nondecreasing activation functions are considered. The derived stability criteria are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be checked easily by resorting to recently developed algorithms solving LMIs. Furthermore, the proposed stability results are less conservative than some previous ones in the literature, which is demonstrated via some numerical examples.

  7. Global interpretation of direct Dark Matter searches after CDMS-II results

    Kopp, Joachim; Schwetz, Thomas; Zupan, Jure

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global fit to data from Dark Matter (DM) direct detection experiments, including the recent CDMS-II results. We discuss possible interpretations of the DAMA annual modulation signal in terms of spin-independent and spin-dependent DM-nucleus interactions, both for elastic and inelastic scattering. We find that for the spin-dependent inelastic scattering off protons a good fit to all data is obtained. We present a simple toy model realizing such a scenario. In all the remaining cases the DAMA allowed regions are disfavored by other experiments or suffer from severe fine tuning of DM parameters with respect to the galactic escape velocity. Finally, we also entertain the possibility that the two events observed in CDMS-II are an actual signal of elastic DM scattering, and we compare the resulting CDMS-II allowed regions to the exclusion limits from other experiments

  8. Laterality across languages: Results from a global dichotic listening study using a smartphone application.

    Bless, Josef J; Westerhausen, René; von Koss Torkildsen, Janne; Gudmundsen, Magne; Kompus, Kristiina; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Left-hemispheric language dominance has been suggested by observations in patients with brain damages as early as the 19th century, and has since been confirmed by modern behavioural and brain imaging techniques. Nevertheless, most of these studies have been conducted in small samples with predominantly Anglo-American background, thus limiting generalization and possible differences between cultural and linguistic backgrounds may be obscured. To overcome this limitation, we conducted a global dichotic listening experiment using a smartphone application for remote data collection. The results from over 4,000 participants with more than 60 different language backgrounds showed that left-hemispheric language dominance is indeed a general phenomenon. However, the degree of lateralization appears to be modulated by linguistic background. These results suggest that more emphasis should be placed on cultural/linguistic specificities of psychological phenomena and on the need to collect more diverse samples.

  9. Toward Global Mapping of Methane With TROPOMI: First Results and Intersatellite Comparison to GOSAT

    Hu, Haili; Landgraf, Jochen; Detmers, Rob; Borsdorff, Tobias; Aan de Brugh, Joost; Aben, Ilse; Butz, André; Hasekamp, Otto

    2018-04-01

    The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), launched on 13 October 2017, aboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, measures reflected sunlight in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared spectral range. It enables daily global mapping of key atmospheric species for monitoring air quality and climate. We present the first methane observations from November and December 2017, using TROPOMI radiance measurements in the shortwave infrared band around 2.3 μm. We compare our results with the methane product obtained from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Although different spectral ranges and retrieval methods are used, we find excellent agreement between the methane products acquired from the two satellites with a mean difference of 13.6 ppb, standard deviation of 19.6 ppb, and Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.95. Our preliminary results capture the latitudinal gradient and show expected regional enhancements, for example, in the African Sudd wetlands, with much more detail than has been observed before.

  10. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  11. Morphology in the total electron content under geomagnetic disturbed conditions: results from global ionosphere maps

    Zhao Biqiang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Using 8-year global ionosphere maps (GIMs of TEC products from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, we make a statistical study on the morphology of the global ionospheric behaviors with respect to the geomagnetic disturbances. Results show that the behaviors of TEC during geomagnetic storm present clear seasonal and local time variations under geomagnetic control in a similar way as those of NmF2 (Field and Rishbeth, 1997. A negative phase of TEC occurs with high probability in the summer hemisphere and most prominent near the geomagnetic poles, while a positive phase is obvious in the winter hemisphere and in the far pole region. A negative storm effect toward lower latitudes tends to occur from post-midnight to the morning sector and recedes to high latitude in the afternoon. A positive storm effect is separated by geomagnetic latitudes and magnetic local time. Furthermore, ionospheric responses at different local time sectors with respect to the storm commencement shows very different developing processes corresponding to the evolution of the geomagnetic storm. A daytime positive storm effect is shown to be more prominent in the American region than those in the Asian and European regions, which may suggest a longitudinal effect of the ionospheric storm.

  12. Morphology in the total electron content under geomagnetic disturbed conditions: results from global ionosphere maps

    Z. Biqiang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Using 8-year global ionosphere maps (GIMs of TEC products from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, we make a statistical study on the morphology of the global ionospheric behaviors with respect to the geomagnetic disturbances. Results show that the behaviors of TEC during geomagnetic storm present clear seasonal and local time variations under geomagnetic control in a similar way as those of NmF2 (Field and Rishbeth, 1997. A negative phase of TEC occurs with high probability in the summer hemisphere and most prominent near the geomagnetic poles, while a positive phase is obvious in the winter hemisphere and in the far pole region. A negative storm effect toward lower latitudes tends to occur from post-midnight to the morning sector and recedes to high latitude in the afternoon. A positive storm effect is separated by geomagnetic latitudes and magnetic local time. Furthermore, ionospheric responses at different local time sectors with respect to the storm commencement shows very different developing processes corresponding to the evolution of the geomagnetic storm. A daytime positive storm effect is shown to be more prominent in the American region than those in the Asian and European regions, which may suggest a longitudinal effect of the ionospheric storm.

  13. Influence of the solar wind and IMF on Jupiter's magnetosphere: Results from global MHD simulations

    Sarkango, Y.; Jia, X.; Toth, G.; Hansen, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Due to its large size, rapid rotation and presence of substantial internal plasma sources, Jupiter's magnetosphere is fundamentally different from that of the Earth. How and to what extent do the external factors, such as the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), influence the internally-driven magnetosphere is an open question. In this work, we solve the 3D semi-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations using a well-established code, BATSRUS, to model the Jovian magnetosphere and study its interaction with the solar wind. Our global model adopts a non-uniform mesh covering the region from 200 RJ upstream to 1800 RJ downstream with the inner boundary placed at a radial distance of 2.5 RJ. The Io plasma torus centered around 6 RJ is generated in our model through appropriate mass-loading terms added to the set of MHD equations. We perform systematic numerical experiments in which we vary the upstream solar wind properties to investigate the impact of solar wind events, such as interplanetary shock and IMF rotation, on the global magnetosphere. From our simulations, we extract the location of the magnetopause boundary, the bow shock and the open-closed field line boundary (OCB), and determine their dependence on the solar wind properties and the IMF orientation. For validation, we compare our simulation results, such as density, temperature and magnetic field, to published empirical models based on in-situ measurements.

  14. THE GLOBAL TANDEM-X DEM: PRODUCTION STATUS AND FIRST VALIDATION RESULTS

    M. Huber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The TanDEM-X mission will derive a global digital elevation model (DEM with satellite SAR interferometry. Two radar satellites (TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X will map the Earth in a resolution and accuracy with an absolute height error of 10m and a relative height error of 2m for 90% of the data. In order to fulfill the height requirements in general two global coverages are acquired and processed. Besides the final TanDEM-X DEM, an intermediate DEM with reduced accuracy is produced after the first coverage is completed. The last step in the whole workflow for generating the TanDEM-X DEM is the calibration of remaining systematic height errors and the merge of single acquisitions to 1°x1° DEM tiles. In this paper the current status of generating the intermediate DEM and first validation results based on GPS tracks, laser scanning DEMs, SRTM data and ICESat points are shown for different test sites.

  15. CT4 - Cost-Optimum Procedures

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects the status in European member states regarding implementation of the cos optimum procedure for setting energy performance requirements to new and existing buildings.......This report collects the status in European member states regarding implementation of the cos optimum procedure for setting energy performance requirements to new and existing buildings....

  16. Effective methods of protection of the intellectual activity results in infosphere of global telematics networks

    D. A. Lovtsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is perfection of using metodology of technological and organization and legal protect of intellectual activity results and related intellectual rights in information sphere of Global Telematics Networks (such as of «Internet», «Relkom», «Sitek», «Sedab», «Remart», and others. On the conduct analysis base of the peculiarities and possibilities of using of different technological, organization and legal methods and ways protection of information objects the offers of perfection of corresponding organization and legal safeguarding are formulated. The effectiveness of the protection is provided on the basis of rational aggregation technological, organization and legal methods and ways possible in a particular situation.

  17. Optimum Maintenance Strategies for Highway Bridges

    Frangopol, Dan M.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Das, Parag C.

    As bridges become older and maintenance costs become higher, transportation agencies are facing challenges related to implementation of optimal bridge management programs based on life cycle cost considerations. A reliability-based approach is necessary to find optimal solutions based on minimum...... expected life-cycle costs or maximum life-cycle benefits. This is because many maintenance activities can be associated with significant costs, but their effects on bridge safety can be minor. In this paper, the program of an investigation on optimum maintenance strategies for different bridge types...... is described. The end result of this investigation will be a general reliability-based framework to be used by the UK Highways Agency in order to plan optimal strategies for the maintenance of its bridge network so as to optimize whole-life costs....

  18. Optimum design of a nuclear heat supply

    Borel, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis for the optimum design of a nuclear heat supply to a given district-heating network. First, a general description of the system is given, which includes a nuclear power plant, a heating power plant and a district-heating network. The heating power plant is fed with steam from the nuclear power plant. It is assumed that the heating network is already in operation and that the nuclear power plant was previously designed to supply electricity. Second, a technical definition of the heat production and transportation installations is given. The optimal power of these installations is examined. The main result is a relationship between the network capacity and the level of the nuclear heat supply as a substitute for oil under the best economic conditions. The analysis also presents information for choosing the best operating mode. Finally, the heating power plant is studied in more detail from the energy, technical and economic aspects. (author)

  19. Global Access to Safe Water: Accounting for Water Quality and the Resulting Impact on MDG Progress

    Joe LoBuglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG drinking water target relies on classification of water sources as “improved” or “unimproved” as an indicator for water safety. We adjust the current Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP estimate by accounting for microbial water quality and sanitary risk using the only-nationally representative water quality data currently available, that from the WHO and UNICEF “Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality”. A principal components analysis (PCA of national environmental and development indicators was used to create models that predicted, for most countries, the proportions of piped and of other-improved water supplies that are faecally contaminated; and of these sources, the proportions that lack basic sanitary protection against contamination. We estimate that 1.8 billion people (28% of the global population used unsafe water in 2010. The 2010 JMP estimate is that 783 million people (11% use unimproved sources. Our estimates revise the 1990 baseline from 23% to 37%, and the target from 12% to 18%, resulting in a shortfall of 10% of the global population towards the MDG target in 2010. In contrast, using the indicator “use of an improved source” suggests that the MDG target for drinking-water has already been achieved. We estimate that an additional 1.2 billion (18% use water from sources or systems with significant sanitary risks. While our estimate is imprecise, the magnitude of the estimate and the health and development implications suggest that greater attention is needed to better understand and manage drinking water safety.

  20. New Community Education Program on Oceans and Global Climate Change: Results from Our Pilot Year

    Bruno, B. C.; Wiener, C.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean FEST (Families Exploring Science Together) engages elementary school students and their parents and teachers in hands-on science. Through this evening program, we educate participants about ocean and earth science issues that are relevant to their local communities. In the process, we hope to inspire more underrepresented students, including Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders and girls, to pursue careers in the ocean and earth sciences. Hawaii and the Pacific Islands will be disproportionately affected by the impacts of global climate change, including rising sea levels, coastal erosion, coral reef degradation and ocean acidification. It is therefore critically important to train ocean and earth scientists within these communities. This two-hour program explores ocean properties and timely environmental topics through six hands-on science activities. Activities are designed so students can see how globally important issues (e.g., climate change and ocean acidification) have local effects (e.g., sea level rise, coastal erosion, coral bleaching) which are particularly relevant to island communities. The Ocean FEST program ends with a career component, drawing parallel between the program activities and the activities done by "real scientists" in their jobs. The take-home message is that we are all scientists, we do science every day, and we can choose to do this as a career. Ocean FEST just completed our pilot year. During the 2009-2010 academic year, we conducted 20 events, including 16 formal events held at elementary schools and 4 informal outreach events. Evaluation data were collected at all formal events. Formative feedback from adult participants (parents, teachers, administrators and volunteers) was solicited through written questionnaires. Students were invited to respond to a survey of five questions both before and after the program to see if there were any changes in content knowledge and career attitudes. In our presentation, we will present our

  1. Global Access to Safe Water: Accounting for Water Quality and the Resulting Impact on MDG Progress

    Onda, Kyle; LoBuglio, Joe; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) drinking water target relies on classification of water sources as “improved” or “unimproved” as an indicator for water safety. We adjust the current Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) estimate by accounting for microbial water quality and sanitary risk using the only-nationally representative water quality data currently available, that from the WHO and UNICEF “Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality”. A principal components analysis (PCA) of national environmental and development indicators was used to create models that predicted, for most countries, the proportions of piped and of other-improved water supplies that are faecally contaminated; and of these sources, the proportions that lack basic sanitary protection against contamination. We estimate that 1.8 billion people (28% of the global population) used unsafe water in 2010. The 2010 JMP estimate is that 783 million people (11%) use unimproved sources. Our estimates revise the 1990 baseline from 23% to 37%, and the target from 12% to 18%, resulting in a shortfall of 10% of the global population towards the MDG target in 2010. In contrast, using the indicator “use of an improved source” suggests that the MDG target for drinking-water has already been achieved. We estimate that an additional 1.2 billion (18%) use water from sources or systems with significant sanitary risks. While our estimate is imprecise, the magnitude of the estimate and the health and development implications suggest that greater attention is needed to better understand and manage drinking water safety. PMID:22690170

  2. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the global influenza B study.

    Caini, S.; Sue Huang, Q.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kasjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Hereaud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5)

  3. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.J.; Feng, L.Z.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.G.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n=5)

  4. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, T.Q. le; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. METHODS: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n =

  5. Stability Results, Almost Global Generalized Beltrami Fields and Applications to Vortex Structures in the Euler Equations

    Enciso, Alberto; Poyato, David; Soler, Juan

    2018-05-01

    Strong Beltrami fields, that is, vector fields in three dimensions whose curl is the product of the field itself by a constant factor, have long played a key role in fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics. In particular, they are the kind of stationary solutions of the Euler equations where one has been able to show the existence of vortex structures (vortex tubes and vortex lines) of arbitrarily complicated topology. On the contrary, there are very few results about the existence of generalized Beltrami fields, that is, divergence-free fields whose curl is the field times a non-constant function. In fact, generalized Beltrami fields (which are also stationary solutions to the Euler equations) have been recently shown to be rare, in the sense that for "most" proportionality factors there are no nontrivial Beltrami fields of high enough regularity (e.g., of class {C^{6,α}}), not even locally. Our objective in this work is to show that, nevertheless, there are "many" Beltrami fields with non-constant factor, even realizing arbitrarily complicated vortex structures. This fact is relevant in the study of turbulent configurations. The core results are an "almost global" stability theorem for strong Beltrami fields, which ensures that a global strong Beltrami field with suitable decay at infinity can be perturbed to get "many" Beltrami fields with non-constant factor of arbitrarily high regularity and defined in the exterior of an arbitrarily small ball, and a "local" stability theorem for generalized Beltrami fields, which is an analogous perturbative result which is valid for any kind of Beltrami field (not just with a constant factor) but only applies to small enough domains. The proof relies on an iterative scheme of Grad-Rubin type. For this purpose, we study the Neumann problem for the inhomogeneous Beltrami equation in exterior domains via a boundary integral equation method and we obtain Hölder estimates, a sharp decay at infinity and some compactness

  6. Symbols or results?. Norway`s contribution to global climate policy; Symboler eller resultater. Norges bidrag til global klimapolitikk

    Haugland, Torleif; Lunde, Leiv; Vraalstad, Knut; Roland, Kjell

    1997-12-31

    The report is part of an evaluation of political climate challenges faced by Norway. The aim to stabilize CO{sub 2} emissions before the year 2000 is unrealistic. This is because (1) almost all electricity produced in Norway is hydropower, (2) more than half of the expected CO{sub 2} emissions up to 2020 comes from increased activities on the large and profitable petroleum deposits in the North Sea; these activities are hard to slow down, (3) substantial emission reductions in the process industry are expensive or impossible because of a lack of raw material without carbon, (4) reductions in the transport sector are impossible because of dispersed settlement, (5) strong economic growth and low unemployment imply increased energy consumption. All together this means that stabilizing the emissions in Norway costs more than in most of the OECD countries. The supposed gain in climate quality from measures in one country may ``leak`` out in the sense that the activities whose reduction caused the gain are moved a country that does not have an active climate policy and thus the global consequences may even be negative. Four examples are given: (1) Unlike most countries, Norway uses high-quality hydropower for heating. If Norway had instead used efficient petroleum fuels for heating and exported this electric energy to countries that generate electricity from inefficient carbon, then these countries would reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} by more than Norway would increase it. (2) Much of the emissions from the activities in the North Sea comes from electricity production in low-efficiency gas turbines. This emission could be eliminated by electricity supplied from land. But with today`s power balance in Norway, such electricity would be Danish carbon-generated. (3) CO{sub 2} tax on the energy intensive but efficient Norwegian process industry could move production to a country with more polluting production. (4) Reducing Norwegian gas export to Europe would decrease

  7. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Under the 10 th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels

  8. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

    2014-10-01

    Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  9. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A., E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Sivapalan, Subarna, E-mail: subarna-sivapalan@petronas.com.my [Department of Management and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  10. The Impact of Knowledge Management Practices on NPP Organizational Performance - Results of a Global Survey

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA has been asked by Member States in the 2012 General Conference Resolutions to ''further increase the level of awareness of efforts in managing nuclear knowledge'' and to continue ''to further develop and disseminate guidance and methodologies for planning, designing, and implementing nuclear knowledge management programs''. The present report summarizes the results of empirical research on the relationship between KM practices in nuclear power plants, their impact on the quality of organizational knowledge processes and the resulting effects on the organizational effectiveness of nuclear power plants. It presents the basic findings of the ''IAEA Global Nuclear Power Plant Survey: Investigating the Link Between Knowledge Management Practices and Organizational Performance'', which was conducted in 2010. This benchmark survey of KM practices in nuclear power plants was developed using a standard research methodology. The survey was made available on a global basis to all nuclear power plant sites. Senior operations managers were asked to complete the survey with input, as required, from their plant management team. Data from individual survey responses were treated as confidential, and only aggregate findings were reported. A total of 124 station ''site organizations'' participated in the survey, representing a response rate of approximately 60%. The findings provide empirical evidence of the importance of KM practices in improving the organizational effectiveness of nuclear power plants. They provide information about the current state of the industry with respect to KM practices, illustrating the direct and tangible benefits of implementing such practices and justifying continued or further efforts to ensure that KM programmes and systems are strategically planned and implemented in operating nuclear power plants. The research provides insights into the mechanisms by which KM practices have an impact on organizational effectiveness and provides a basis for

  11. Air toxic emissions from burning of biomass globally-preliminary results

    Ward, D.E.; Hao, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    Emissions of trace gases, particles, and air toxic substances in the smoke plumes from biomass fires are of importance to global climate change. The potential impact of the air toxic emissions on the human population of specific regions globally is another major concern. The toxic materials are produced in high concentrations in areas of heavy biomass burning, e.g., Amazon Basin and Central/southern Africa. We provide new estimates of air toxics based on the combustion efficiency (percent of total carbon released as CO 2 ) for fires burning in different ecosystems on a global basis. Estimates of total biomass consumed on a global basis range from 2 to 10 Pg (1 petagram = 10 15 g) per year. We apply emission factors for various air toxics (g of emission released per kg of fuel consumed) to the estimate of global biomass consumption of 6.4 Pg per year. The principal air toxics analyzed in this paper include: Total particulate matter, CO, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m, p-xylene, benzo[a]pyrene, and polycyclic organic material. The total emissions calculated for these materials on a yearly global basis are: 75, 362, 4.9, 1.5, 1.5, 2.1, 2.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.001, 0.026, Tg (1 teragram = 10 12 g) per year, respectively. Biomass burning in the United States contributes less than 3% to the total global emissions

  12. New results on global exponential dissipativity analysis of memristive inertial neural networks with distributed time-varying delays.

    Zhang, Guodong; Zeng, Zhigang; Hu, Junhao

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the global exponential dissipativity of memristive inertial neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, some new sufficient conditions ensuring global exponential dissipativity of memristive inertial neural networks are derived. Moreover, the globally exponential attractive sets and positive invariant sets are also presented here. In addition, the new proposed results here complement and extend the earlier publications on conventional or memristive neural network dynamical systems. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of obtained results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parametric Investigation of Optimum Thermal Insulation Thickness for External Walls

    Omer Kaynakli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have estimated the optimum thickness of thermal insulation materials used in building walls for different climate conditions. The economic parameters (inflation rate, discount rate, lifetime and energy costs, the heating/cooling loads of the building, the wall structure and the properties of the insulation material all affect the optimum insulation thickness. This study focused on the investigation of these parameters that affect the optimum thermal insulation thickness for building walls. To determine the optimum thickness and payback period, an economic model based on life-cycle cost analysis was used. As a result, the optimum thermal insulation thickness increased with increasing the heating and cooling energy requirements, the lifetime of the building, the inflation rate, energy costs and thermal conductivity of insulation. However, the thickness decreased with increasing the discount rate, the insulation material cost, the total wall resistance, the coefficient of performance (COP of the cooling system and the solar radiation incident on a wall. In addition, the effects of these parameters on the total life-cycle cost, payback periods and energy savings were also investigated.

  14. The global unified parallel file system (GUPFS) project: FY 2002 activities and results

    Butler, Gregory F.; Lee, Rei Chi; Welcome, Michael L.

    2003-04-07

    The Global Unified Parallel File System (GUPFS) project is a multiple-phase, five-year project at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center to provide a scalable, high performance, high bandwidth, shared file system for all the NERSC production computing and support systems. The primary purpose of the GUPFS project is to make it easier to conduct advanced scientific research using the NERSC systems. This is to be accomplished through the use of a shared file system providing a unified file namespace, operating on consolidated shared storage that is directly accessed by all the NERSC production computing and support systems. During its first year, FY 2002, the GUPFS project focused on identifying, testing, and evaluating existing and emerging shared/cluster file system, SAN fabric, and storage technologies; identifying NERSC user input/output (I/O) requirements, methods, and mechanisms; and developing appropriate benchmarking methodologies and benchmark codes for a parallel environment. This report presents the activities and progress of the GUPFS project during its first year, the results of the evaluations conducted, and plans for near-term and longer-term investigations.

  15. Global Energy-Optimal Redundancy Resolution of Hydraulic Manipulators: Experimental Results for a Forestry Manipulator

    Jarmo Nurmi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the energy-inefficiency problem of four-degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF hydraulic manipulators through redundancy resolution in robotic closed-loop controlled applications. Because conventional methods typically are local and have poor performance for resolving redundancy with respect to minimum hydraulic energy consumption, global energy-optimal redundancy resolution is proposed at the valve-controlled actuator and hydraulic power system interaction level. The energy consumption of the widely popular valve-controlled load-sensing (LS and constant-pressure (CP systems is effectively minimised through cost functions formulated in a discrete-time dynamic programming (DP approach with minimum state representation. A prescribed end-effector path and important actuator constraints at the position, velocity and acceleration levels are also satisfied in the solution. Extensive field experiments performed on a forestry hydraulic manipulator demonstrate the performance of the proposed solution. Approximately 15–30% greater hydraulic energy consumption was observed with the conventional methods in the LS and CP systems. These results encourage energy-optimal redundancy resolution in future robotic applications of hydraulic manipulators.

  16. Global Monthly CO2 Flux Inversion Based on Results of Terrestrial Ecosystem Modeling

    Deng, F.; Chen, J.; Peters, W.; Krol, M.

    2008-12-01

    Most of our understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 has come from inverse studies of atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements. However, the number of currently available observation stations and our ability to simulate the diurnal planetary boundary layer evolution over continental regions essentially limit the number of regions that can be reliably inverted globally, especially over continental areas. In order to overcome these restrictions, a nested inverse modeling system was developed based on the Bayesian principle for estimating carbon fluxes of 30 regions in North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Inverse modeling was conducted in monthly steps using CO2 concentration measurements of 5 years (2000 - 2005) with the following two models: (a) An atmospheric transport model (TM5) is used to generate the transport matrix where the diurnal variation n of atmospheric CO2 concentration is considered to enhance the use of the afternoon-hour average CO2 concentration measurements over the continental sites. (b) A process-based terrestrial ecosystem model (BEPS) is used to produce hourly step carbon fluxes, which could minimize the limitation due to our inability to solve the inverse problem in a high resolution, as the background of our inversion. We will present our recent results achieved through a combination of the bottom-up modeling with BEPS and the top-down modeling based on TM5 driven by offline meteorological fields generated by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMFW).

  17. NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) SST V2

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The optimum interpolation (OI) sea surface temperature (SST) analysis is produced weekly on a one-degree grid. The analysis uses in situ and satellite SST's plus...

  18. NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (or daily OISST) is an analysis constructed by combining observations from different platforms...

  19. Optimum Stratification of a Skewed Population

    D.K. Rao; M.G.M. Khan; K.G. Reddy

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to develop a technique of solving a combined problem of determining Optimum Strata Boundaries(OSB) and Optimum Sample Size (OSS) of each stratum, when the population understudy isskewed and the study variable has a Pareto frequency distribution. The problem of determining the OSB isformulated as a Mathematical Programming Problem (MPP) which is then solved by dynamic programming technique. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the compu...

  20. Development of the Global Disability Scale (Glo.Di.S: preliminary results

    Fountoulakis Konstantinos N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of functioning and disability is an important part of the clinical evaluation, since it measures disease burden and reflects the effectiveness of therapeutic planning and interventions. The aim of the current study was to develop such a self-report instrument on the basis of a review of the literature, and compatible with the WHO approach. Material and methods The review of the literature led to the development of the Global Disability Scale (Glo.Di.S with 25 items assessing different aspects of disability. The study sample included 728 persons from vulnerable populations (homeless, jobless, very low income, single parent families etc.; (29.12% males and 70.88% females; aged 55.96 ± 15.22 years. The protocol included also the STAI and the CES-D. The statistical analysis included factor analysis item analysis and ANCOVA. Results The factor analysis revealed the presence of 4 factors explaining 71% of total variance (Everyday functioning, Social and interpersonal functioning, Severity and Mental disability. Chronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was 0.95 and for subscales were 0.74–0.94. Discussion The results of the current study suggest that the Glo.Di.S. has the potential to serve as a reliable and valid tool for assessing functioning and disability. Further research is needed to prove that it could be useful across countries, populations and diseases, and whether it provides data that are culturally meaningful and comparable. It can be used in surveys and in clinical research settings and it can generate information of use in evaluating health needs and the effectiveness of interventions to reduce disability and improve health.

  1. Project Solaris, a Global Network of Autonomous Observatories: Design, Commissioning, and First Science Results

    Kozłowski, S. K.; Sybilski, P. W.; Konacki, M.; Pawłaszek, R. K.; Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Litwicki, M.

    2017-10-01

    We present the design and commissioning of Project Solaris, a global network of autonomous observatories. Solaris is a Polish scientific undertaking aimed at the detection and characterization of circumbinary exoplanets and eclipsing binary stars. To accomplish this, a network of four fully autonomous observatories has been deployed in the Southern Hemisphere: Solaris-1 and Solaris-2 in the South African Astronomical Observatory in South Africa; Solaris-3 in Siding Spring Observatory in Australia; and Solaris-4 in Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito in Argentina. The four stations are nearly identical and are equipped with 0.5-m Ritchey-Crétien (f/15) or Cassegrain (f/9, Solaris-3) optics and high-grade 2 K × 2 K CCD cameras with Johnson and Sloan filter sets. We present the design and implementation of low-level security; data logging and notification systems; weather monitoring components; all-sky vision system, surveillance system; and distributed temperature and humidity sensors. We describe dedicated grounding and lighting protection system design and robust fiber data transfer interfaces in electrically demanding conditions. We discuss the outcomes of our design, as well as the resulting software engineering requirements. We describe our system’s engineering approach to achieve the required level of autonomy, the architecture of the custom high-level industry-grade software that has been designed and implemented specifically for the use of the network. We present the actual status of the project and first photometric results; these include data and models of already studied systems for benchmarking purposes (Wasp-4b, Wasp-64b, and Wasp-98b transits, PG 1663-018, an eclipsing binary with a pulsator) as well J024946-3825.6, an interesting low-mass binary system for which a complete model is provided for the first time.

  2. Determination of optimum filter in myocardial SPECT: A phantom study

    Takavar, A.; Shamsipour, Gh.; Sohrabi, M.; Eftekhari, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In myocardial perfusion SPECT images are degraded by photon attenuation, the distance-dependent collimator, detector response and photons scatter. Filters greatly affect quality of nuclear medicine images. Materials and Methods: A phantom simulating heart left ventricle was built. About 1mCi of 99m Tc was injected into the phantom. Images was taken from this phantom. Some filters including Parzen, Hamming, Hanning, Butter worth and Gaussian were exerted on the phantom images. By defining some criteria such as contrast, signal to noise ratio, and defect size detectability, the best filter can be determined. Results: 0.325 Nyquist frequency and 0.5 nq was obtained as the optimum cut off frequencies respectively for hamming and handing filters. Order 11, cut off 0.45 Nq and order 20 cut off 0.5 Nq obtained optimum respectively for Butter worth and Gaussian filters. Conclusion: The optimum member of every filter's family was obtained

  3. Optimum Combining for Rapidly Fading Channels in Ad Hoc Networks

    Sonia Furman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Research and technology in wireless communication systems such as radar and cellular networks have successfully implemented alternative design approaches that utilize antenna array techniques such as optimum combining, to mitigate the degradation effects of multipath in rapid fading channels. In ad hoc networks, these methods have not yet been exploited primarily due to the complexity inherent in the network's architecture. With the high demand for improved signal link quality, devices configured with omnidirectional antennas can no longer meet the growing need for link quality and spectrum efficiency. This study takes an empirical approach to determine an optimum combining antenna array based on 3 variants of interelement spacing. For rapid fading channels, the simulation results show that the performance in the network of devices retrofitted with our antenna arrays consistently exceeded those with an omnidirectional antenna. Further, with the optimum combiner, the performance increased by over 60% compared to that of an omnidirectional antenna in a rapid fading channel.

  4. Statistical Modelling of Global Tectonic Activity and some Physical Consequences of its Results

    Konstantin Statnikov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of global earthquake data bank for the last thirty years, a global tectonic activity indicator was proposed comprising a weekly globally averaged mean earthquake magnitude value. It was shown that 84% of indicator variability is a harmonic oscillation with a fundamental period of 37.2 years, twice the maximum period in the tidal oscillation spectrum (18.6 years. From this observation, a conclusion was drawn that parametric resonance (PR exists between global tectonic activity and low-frequency tides. The conclusion was also confirmed by the existence of the statistically significant PR response at the second lowest tidal frequency i.e. 182.6 days. It was shown that the global earthquake flow, with a determination factor 93%, is a sum of two Gaussian streams, nearly equally intense, with mean values of 23 and 83 events per week and standard deviations of 9 and 30 events per week, respectively. The Earth periphery to 'mean time interval between earthquakes' ratios in the first and the second flow modes described above match, by the order of magnitude, the sound velocity in the fluid (~1500 m/s and in elastic medium (5500 m/s.

  5. Handedness results from Complementary Hemispheric Dominance, not Global Hemispheric Dominance: Evidence from Mechanically Coupled Bilateral Movements.

    Woytowicz, Elizabeth J; Westlake, Kelly P; Whitall, Jill; Sainburg, Robert L

    2018-05-09

    Two contrasting views of handedness can be described as 1) complementary dominance, in which each hemisphere is specialized for different aspects of motor control, and 2) global dominance, in which the hemisphere contralateral to the dominant arm is specialized for all aspects of motor control. The present study sought to determine which motor lateralization hypothesis best predicts motor performance during common bilateral task of stabilizing an object (e.g. bread) with one hand while applying forces to the object (e.g. slicing) using the other hand. We designed an experimental equivalent of this task, performed in a virtual environment with the unseen arms supported by frictionless air-sleds. The hands were connected by a spring, and the task was to maintain the position of one hand, while moving the other hand to a target. Thus, the reaching hand was required to take account of the spring load to make smooth and accurate trajectories, while the stabilizer hand was required to impede the spring load to keep a constant position. Right-handed subjects performed two task sessions (right hand reach and left hand stabilize; left hand reach and right hand stabilize) with the order of the sessions counterbalanced between groups. Our results indicate a hand by task-component interaction, such that the right hand showed straighter reaching performance while the left showed more stable holding performance. These findings provide support for the complementary dominance hypothesis and suggest that the specializations of each cerebral hemisphere for impedance and dynamic control mechanisms are expressed during bilateral interactive tasks.

  6. Improved optimum condition for recovery and measurement of 210 ...

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for deposition of 210Po and evaluate the accuracy and precision of the results for its determination in environmental samples. To improve the technique for measurement of polonium-210(210Po) in environmental samples. The optimization of five factors (volume ...

  7. Cost Effectiveness Study of Wastewater Management Systems for Selected U.S. Coast Guard Vessels. Volume I. Results of Cost and Effectiveness Analyses and Selection of Optimum Candidate Systems

    1977-04-01

    extreme is the viewpoint that such analyses are modern types of witchcraft, or numerology , practiced by a priestly cast. Results and con- clusions... numerology . 3 Although such a simple buying strategy may b, adequate for products which are used or consumed at the time of purchase or soon thereafter

  8. Generic Advertising Optimum Budget for Iran’s Milk Industry

    H. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the main targets of planners, decision makers and governments is increasing society health with promotion and production of suitable and healthy food. One of the basic commodities that have important role in satisfaction of required human food is milk. So, some part of government and producer healthy budget allocate to milk consumption promotion by using generic advertising. If effectiveness of advertising budget on profitability is more, producer will have more willing to spend for advertising. Determination of optimal generic advertising budget is one of important problem in managerial decision making in producing firm as well as increase in consumption and profit and decrease in wasting and non-optimality of budget. Materials and Methods: In this study, optimal generic advertising budget intensity index (advertising budget share of production cost was estimated under two different scenarios by using equilibrium replacement model. In equilibrium replacement model, producer surplus are maximized in respect to generic advertising in retail level. According to market where two levels of farm and processing before retail exist and there is trade in farm and retail level, we present different models. Fixed and variable proportion hypothesis is another one. Finally, eight relations are presented for determination of milk generic advertising optimum budget. So, we use data from several resources such as previous studies, national (Iran Static center and international institute (Fao formal data and own estimation. Because there are several estimations in previous studies, we identify some scenarios (in two general scenarios for calculation of milk generic advertising optimum budget. Results and Discussion: Estimation of milk generic advertising optimum budget in scenario 1 shows that in case of one market level, fixed supplies and no trade, optimum budget is 0.4672539 percent. In case of one market level and no trade, optimum

  9. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  10. Economic opportunities resulting from a global deployment of concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies-The example of German technology providers

    Vallentin, Daniel; Viebahn, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Several energy scenario studies consider concentrated solar power (CSP) plants as an important technology option to reduce the world's CO 2 emissions to a level required for not letting the global average temperature exceed a threshold of 2-2.4 o C. A global ramp up of CSP technologies offers great economic opportunities for technology providers as CSP technologies include highly specialised components. This paper analyses possible value creation effects resulting from a global deployment of CSP until 2050 as projected in scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and Greenpeace International. The analysis focuses on the economic opportunities of German technology providers since companies such as Schott Solar, Flabeg or Solar Millennium are among the leading suppliers of CSP technologies on the global market.

  11. Optimum burnup of BAEC TRIGA research reactor

    Lyric, Zoairia Idris; Mahmood, Mohammad Sayem; Motalab, Mohammad Abdul; Khan, Jahirul Haque

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optimum loading scheme for BAEC TRIGA core is out-to-in loading with 10 fuels/cycle starting with 5 for the first reload. ► The discharge burnup ranges from 17% to 24% of U235 per fuel element for full power (3 MW) operation. ► Optimum extension of operating core life is 100 MWD per reload cycle. - Abstract: The TRIGA Mark II research reactor of BAEC (Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission) has been operating since 1986 without any reshuffling or reloading yet. Optimum fuel burnup strategy has been investigated for the present BAEC TRIGA core, where three out-to-in loading schemes have been inspected in terms of core life extension, burnup economy and safety. In considering different schemes of fuel loading, optimization has been searched by only varying the number of fuels discharged and loaded. A cost function has been defined and evaluated based on the calculated core life and fuel load and discharge. The optimum loading scheme has been identified for the TRIGA core, the outside-to-inside fuel loading with ten fuels for each cycle starting with five fuels for the first reload. The discharge burnup has been found ranging from 17% to 24% of U235 per fuel element and optimum extension of core operating life is 100 MWD for each loading cycle. This study will contribute to the in-core fuel management of TRIGA reactor

  12. Seasonal and global behavior of water vapor in the Mars atmosphere: Complete global results of the Viking atmospheric water detector experiment

    Jakosky, B.M.; Farmer, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor content of the Mars atmosphere was measured from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) for a period of more than 1 Martian year, from June 1976 through April 1979. Results are presented in the form of global maps of column abundance for 24 periods throughout each Mars year. The data reduction incorporates spatial and seasonal variations in surface pressure and supplements earlier published versions of less complete data

  13. Analytical Solution for Optimum Design of Furrow Irrigation Systems

    Kiwan, M. E.

    1996-05-01

    An analytical solution for the optimum design of furrow irrigation systems is derived. The non-linear calculus optimization method is used to formulate a general form for designing the optimum system elements under circumstances of maximizing the water application efficiency of the system during irrigation. Different system bases and constraints are considered in the solution. A full irrigation water depth is considered to be achieved at the tail of the furrow line. The solution is based on neglecting the recession and depletion times after off-irrigation. This assumption is valid in the case of open-end (free gradient) furrow systems rather than closed-end (closed dike) systems. Illustrative examples for different systems are presented and the results are compared with the output obtained using an iterative numerical solution method. The final derived solution is expressed as a function of the furrow length ratio (the furrow length to the water travelling distance). The function of water travelling developed by Reddy et al. is considered for reaching the optimum solution. As practical results from the study, the optimum furrow elements for free gradient systems can be estimated to achieve the maximum application efficiency, i.e. furrow length, water inflow rate and cutoff irrigation time.

  14. How stem defects affect the capability of optimum bucking method?

    Abdullah Emin Akay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In forest harvesting activities, computer-assisted optimum bucking method increases the economic value of harvested trees. The bucking decision highly depends on the log quality grades which mainly vary with the surface characteristics such as stem defects and form of the stems. In this study, the effects of stem defects on optimum bucking method was investigated by comparing bucking applications which were conducted during the logging operations in two different Brutian Pine (Pinus brutia Ten stands. In the applications, the first stand contained the stems with relatively more stem defects than that of the stems in the second stand. The average number of defects per log for sample trees in the first and the second stand was recorded as 3.64 and 2.70, respectively. The results indicated that optimum bucking method increased the average economic value of harvested trees by 15.45% and 8.26 % in the stands, respectively. Therefore, the computer-assisted optimum bucking method potentially provides better results than that of traditional bucking method especially for the harvested trees with more stem defects.

  15. Business as usual? Results of Global Continuous Miner and Bolter Miner Census 2008

    Bayer, Arne K. [RWTH Aachen (DE). Excavation and Mining Equipment Group (BGMR); E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Nienhaus, Karl; Dangela, Manuel [RWTH Aachen (DE). Excavation and Mining Equipment Group (BGMR)

    2009-08-27

    The Global Continuous Miner and Bolter Miner Census 2008 conducted by the Excavation and Mining Equipment Group (BGMR), RWTH Aachen, identified globally the 1,400 CM production units and about 200 Bolter Miners are mainly employed in coal mining operations. The study identified a number of relevant trends of interest to both mining companies as well as original equipment manufacturers (OEM). E.g. new markets like China, India or Russia are not developing as quickly as expected, the large CM and BM nations like US, South Africa and Australia will remain saturated and the annual replacement rate of new machines will stabilize at some 160 units. Other key findings highlight the growing importance of after sales services and a stronger focus on automation, as well as, aspects of Health, Safety and Environment (HSE). (orig.)

  16. The motion of the rigid body in viscous fluid including collisions. Global solvability result

    Chemetov, N.; Nečasová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, April (2017), s. 416-445 ISSN 1468-1218 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03230S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : rigid body * global weak solution * collisions in finite time Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1468121816301146

  17. Evaluation of stratospheric temperature simulation results by the global GRAPES model

    Liu, Ningwei; Wang, Yangfeng; Ma, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yunhai

    2017-12-01

    Global final analysis (FNL) products and the general circulation spectral model (ECHAM) were used to evaluate the simulation of stratospheric temperature by the global assimilation and prediction system (GRAPES). Through a series of comparisons, it was shown that the temperature variations at 50 hPa simulated by GRAPES were significantly elevated in the southern hemisphere, whereas simulations by ECHAM and FNL varied little over time. The regional warming predicted by GRAPES seemed to be too distinct and uncontrolled to be reasonable. The temperature difference between GRAPES and FNL (GRAPES minus FNL) was small at the start time on the global scale. Over time, the positive values became larger in more locations, especially in parts of the southern hemisphere, where the warming predicted by GRAPES was dominant, with a maximal value larger than 24 K. To determine the reasons for the stratospheric warming, we considered the model initial conditions and ozone data to be possible factors; however, a comparison and sensitivity test indicated that the errors produced by GRAPES were not significantly related to either factor. Further research focusing on the impact of factors such as vapor, heating rate, and the temperature tendency on GRAPES simulations will be conducted.

  18. Evaluation of mathematical methods for predicting optimum dose of gamma radiation in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.)

    Wu, K.K.; Siddiqui, S.H.; Heinz, D.J.; Ladd, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    Two mathematical methods - the reversed logarithmic method and the regression method - were used to compare the predicted and the observed optimum gamma radiation dose (OD 50 ) in vegetative propagules of sugarcane. The reversed logarithmic method, usually used in sexually propagated crops, showed the largest difference between the predicted and observed optimum dose. The regression method resulted in a better prediction of the observed values and is suggested as a better method for the prediction of optimum dose for vegetatively propagated crops. (author)

  19. Optimum supervision intervals and order of supervision in nuclear reactor protective systems

    Kontoleon, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The optimum inspection strategy of an m-out-of-n:G nuclear reactor protective system with nonidentical units is analyzed. A 2-out-of-4:G system is used to formulate a multi-variable optimization problem to determine (a) the optimum order of supervision of the units and (b) the optimum supervision intervals between units. The case of systems with identical units is a special case of the above. Numerical results are derived using a computer algorithm

  20. Optimum tilt angle and orientation for solar collectors in Syria

    Skeiker, Kamal

    2009-01-01

    One of the important parameters that affect the performance of a solar collector is its tilt angle with the horizon. This is because of the variation of tilt angle changes the amount of solar radiation reaching the collector surface. A mathematical model was used for estimating the solar radiation on a tilted surface, and to determine the optimum tilt angle and orientation (surface azimuth angle) for the solar collector in the main Syrian zones, on a daily basis, as well as for a specific period. The optimum angle was computed by searching for the values for which the radiation on the collector surface is a maximum for a particular day or a specific period. The results reveal that changing the tilt angle 12 times in a year (i.e. using the monthly optimum tilt angle) maintains approximately the total amount of solar radiation near the maximum value that is found by changing the tilt angle daily to its optimum value. This achieves a yearly gain in solar radiation of approximately 30% more than the case of a solar collector fixed on a horizontal surface.

  1. Biodiversity and global change. Adaptative responses to global change: results and prospective. IFB-GICC restitution colloquium; Biodiversite et changement global. Reponses adaptatives au changement global: resultats et prospective. Colloque de restitution IFB-GICC

    Despres, L; Hossaert-Mckey, M; Martin, J F; Pont, D; Valero, M; Chave, J; Benizri, E; Amiaud, B; Boury-Esnault, N; Fritz, H; Lavelle, P; Martin, F; Poulet, S; Blanchard, F; Cheddadi, R; Dupouey, J L; Hulle, M; Michaux, J; Souissi, S; Bridault, A; Dambrine, E; Gomez, B; Thevenard, F; Legendre, S; Suc, J P; Zeitoun, V; Bezancon, G; Frascaria-Lacoste, N; Ponsard, S; Bourguet, D; Vigne, J D; Doyen, L; Joly, P; Gourlet-Fleury, S; Garnier, E; Lebaron, Ph; Boulinier, Th; Chuine, I; Jiguet, F; Couvet, D; Soussana, J F; Weimerskirsch, H; Grosbois, V; Bretagnolle, V

    2006-07-01

    Global change is the consequence of the worldwide human print on ecology. The uncontrolled use of fossil fuels, the urbanization, the intensifying of agriculture, the homogenization of life styles and cultures, the homogenization of fauna and vegetation, the commercial trades, the bio-invasions, the over-exploitation of resources and the emergence of new economic powers (China, India, Brazil..) represent an adaptative dynamics of interactions which affects the overall biosphere and the adaptative capacities and the future of all species. Biodiversity is an ecological and societal insurance against the risks and uncertainties linked with global change. The French institute of biodiversity (IFB) has created a working group in charge of a study on global change and biodiversity, in particular in terms of: speed and acceleration of processes, interaction between the different organization levels of the world of living, scale changes, and adaptative capacities. 38 projects with an interdisciplinary approach have been retained by the IFB and the Ministry of ecology and sustainable development. The conclusion of these projects were presented at this restitution colloquium and are summarized in this document. The presentations are organized in 7 sessions dealing with: global changes and adaptation mechanisms; functional responses to global changes; spatial responses to global changes; temporal responses to global changes; selective answers to global changes; available tools and ecological services; scenarios and projections. (J.S.)

  2. Classification of Global Urban Centers Using ASTER Data: Preliminary Results From the Urban Environmental Monitoring Program

    Stefanov, W. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2001-05-01

    Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of global ecologic and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of these changes are part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument, and comprise the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program. The UEM program will acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared ASTER data twice per year for 100 global urban centers over the duration of the mission (6 years). Data are currently available for a number of these urban centers and allow for initial comparison of global city structure using spatial variance texture analysis of the 15 m/pixel visible to near infrared ASTER bands. Variance texture analysis highlights changes in pixel edge density as recorded by sharp transitions from bright to dark pixels. In human-dominated landscapes these brightness variations correlate well with urbanized vs. natural land cover and are useful for characterizing the geographic extent and internal structure of cities. Variance texture analysis was performed on twelve urban centers (Albuquerque, Baghdad, Baltimore, Chongqing, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Lisbon, Madrid, Phoenix, Puebla, Riyadh, Vancouver) for which cloud-free daytime ASTER data are available. Image transects through each urban center produce texture profiles that correspond to urban density. These profiles can be used to classify cities into centralized (ex. Baltimore), decentralized (ex. Phoenix), or intermediate (ex. Madrid) structural types. Image texture is one of the primary data inputs (with vegetation indices and visible to thermal infrared image spectra) to a knowledge-based land cover classifier currently under development for application to ASTER UEM data as it is acquired. Collaboration with local investigators is sought to both verify the accuracy of the knowledge-based system and to develop more sophisticated classification models.

  3. Microplastic distribution in global marine surface waters: results of an extensive citizen science study

    Barrows, A.; Petersen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Plastic is a major pollutant throughout the world. The majority of the 322 million tons produced annually is used for single-use packaging. What makes plastic an attractive packaging material: cheap, light-weight and durable are also the features that help make it a common and persistent pollutant. There is a growing body of research on microplastic, particles less than 5 mm in size. Microfibers are the most common microplastic in the marine environment. Global estimates of marine microplastic surface concentrations are based on relatively small sample sizes when compared to the vast geographic scale of the ocean. Microplastic residence time and movement along the coast and sea surface outside of the gyres is still not well researched. This five-year project utilized global citizen scientists to collect 1,628 1-liter surface grab samples in every major ocean. The Artic and Southern oceans contained highest average of particles per liter of surface water. Open ocean samples (further than 12 nm from land, n = 686) contained a higher particle average (17 pieces L-1) than coastal samples (n = 723) 6 pieces L-1. Particles were predominantly 100 µm- 1.5 mm in length (77%), smaller than what has been captured in the majority of surface studies. Utilization of citizen scientists to collect data both in fairly accessible regions of the world as well as from areas hard to reach and therefore under sampled, provides us with a wider perspective of global microplastics occurrence. Our findings confirm global microplastic accumulation zone model predictions. The open ocean and poles have sequestered and trapped plastic for over half a century, and show that not only plastics, but anthropogenic fibers are polluting the environment. Continuing to fill knowledge gaps on microplastic shape, size and color in remote ocean areas will drive more accurate oceanographic models of plastic accumulation zones. Incorporation of smaller-sized particles in these models, which has previously

  4. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  5. Calculations enable optimum design of magnetic brake

    Kosmahl, H. G.

    1966-01-01

    Mathematical analysis and computations determine optimum magnetic coil configurations for a magnetic brake which controllably decelerates a free falling load to a soft stop. Calculations on unconventionally wound coils determine the required parameters for the desired deceleration with minimum electrical energy supplied to the stationary coil.

  6. Genotype x environment interaction and optimum resource ...

    ... x E) interaction and to determine the optimum resource allocation for cassava yield trials. The effects of environment, genotype and G x E interaction were highly significant for all yield traits. Variations due to G x E interaction were greater than those due to genotypic differences for all yield traits. Genotype x location x year ...

  7. Determination of the Optimum Thickness of Approximately ...

    In an attempt to conserve the world's scarce energy and material resources, a balance between the cost of heating a material and the optimum thickness of the material becomes vey essential. One of such materials is the local cast aluminium pot commonly used as cooking ware in Nigeria. This paper therefore sets up a ...

  8. Development of the optimum rotor theories

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; van Kuik, Gijs A.M.

    The purpose of this study is the examination of optimum rotor theories with ideal load distributions along the blades, to analyze some of the underlying ideas and concepts, as well as to illuminate them. The book gives the historical background of the issue and presents the analysis of the problems...

  9. Global monitoring of Salmonella serovar distribution from the World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network Country Data Bank: results of quality assured laboratories from 2001 to 2007.

    Hendriksen, Rene S; Vieira, Antonio R; Karlsmose, Susanne; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Jensen, Arne B; Wegener, Henrik C; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella enterica is commonly acquired from contaminated food and is an important cause of illness worldwide. Interventions are needed to control Salmonella; subtyping Salmonella by serotyping is useful for targeting such interventions. We, therefore, analyzed the global distribution of the 15 most frequently identified serovars of Salmonella isolated from humans from 2001 to 2007 in laboratories from 37 countries that participated in World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network and demonstrated serotyping proficiency in the Global Foodborne Infections Network External Quality Assurance System. In all regions throughout the study period, with the exception of the Oceania and North American regions, Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium ranked as the most common and second most common serovar, respectively. In the North American and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) regions, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was the most common serovar reported, and Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was the second most common serovar. During the study period, the proportion of Salmonella isolates reported from humans that were Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was 43.5% (range: 40.6% [2007] to 44.9% [2003]), and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was 17.1% (range: 15% [2007] to 18.9% [2001]). Salmonella serovars Newport (mainly observed in Latin and North American and European countries), Infantis (dominating in all regions), Virchow (mainly observed in Asian, European, and Oceanic countries), Hadar (profound in European countries), and Agona (intense in Latin and North American and European countries) were also frequently isolated with an overall proportion of 3.5%, 1.8%, 1.5%, 1.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. There were large differences in the most commonly isolated serovars between regions, but lesser differences between countries within the same region. The results also highlight the complexity of the global epidemiology of Salmonella and the need and importance

  10. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 - summary of validation results

    Tachikawa, Tetushi; Kaku, Manabu; Iwasaki, Akira; Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Zhang, Z.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Krieger, Tabatha; Curtis, Bill; Haase, Jeff; Abrams, Michael; Carabajal, C.; Meyer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    On June 29, 2009, NASA and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan released a Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) to users worldwide at no charge as a contribution to the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). This “version 1” ASTER GDEM (GDEM1) was compiled from over 1.2 million scenebased DEMs covering land surfaces between 83°N and 83°S latitudes. A joint U.S.-Japan validation team assessed the accuracy of the GDEM1, augmented by a team of 20 cooperators. The GDEM1 was found to have an overall accuracy of around 20 meters at the 95% confidence level. The team also noted several artifacts associated with poor stereo coverage at high latitudes, cloud contamination, water masking issues and the stacking process used to produce the GDEM1 from individual scene-based DEMs (ASTER GDEM Validation Team, 2009). Two independent horizontal resolution studies estimated the effective spatial resolution of the GDEM1 to be on the order of 120 meters.

  11. Theoretical and numerical study of an optimum design algorithm

    Destuynder, Philippe.

    1976-08-01

    This work can be separated into two main parts. First, the behavior of the solution of an elliptic variational equation is analyzed when the domain is submitted to a small perturbation. The case of inequations is also considered. Secondly the previous results are used for deriving an optimum design algorithm. This algorithm was suggested by the center-method proposed by Huard. Numerical results show the superiority of the method on other different optimization techniques [fr

  12. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts: results from a global science program

    Stocks, K.; Clark, M.; Rowden, A.; Consalvey, M.

    2010-12-01

    CenSeam (a Global Census of Marine Life on Seamounts) is a network of more than 500 scientists, policy makers and conservationists around the world. These participants are collaborating to increase our understanding of the factors driving seamount community composition and diversity, such that we can better understand and manage the effects of human activities. The major scientific outcomes of the CenSeam community include the findings that 1) Seamount community composition is often similar to surrounding habitats; however, community structure can be different. 2) Contrary to conventional wisdom, few seamounts follow island biogeography predictions. 3) Seamounts can support a higher benthic biomass than surrounding habitats. 4) Seamounts can support species and communities new to science, and represent range extensions for known species, which are being described from CenSeam voyages. 5) For the first time, the extent of the vulnerability and risk to seamount benthic communities from fishing has been quantified. 6) Whilst long assumed, CenSeam researchers have demonstrated that seamount communities are disturbed by fishing and are slow to recover. And 7) Seamounts might act as repositories of biodiversity during future periods of extreme environmental change, as they have likely done in the past. The major products of Censeam include 1) a book synthesizing seamount knowledge: Seamounts: Ecology, Fisheries and Conservation (from Blackwell Publishing); 2) a recent review of the structure and function of seamount benthic communities, human impacts, and seamount management and conservation (Ann Rev Mar Sci); 3) hundreds of scientific publications, including Special Issues in Marine Ecology and Oceanography (in collaboration with the Seamount Biogeogsciences Network), and a Special Collection in PLoSONE; 4) guidance documents and formal advising for seamount management communities, including the United Nations Environment Program, International Seabed Authority

  13. Visualization of Global Sensitivity Analysis Results Based on a Combination of Linearly Dependent and Independent Directions

    Davies, Misty D.; Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2010-01-01

    A useful technique for the validation and verification of complex flight systems is Monte Carlo Filtering -- a global sensitivity analysis that tries to find the inputs and ranges that are most likely to lead to a subset of the outputs. A thorough exploration of the parameter space for complex integrated systems may require thousands of experiments and hundreds of controlled and measured variables. Tools for analyzing this space often have limitations caused by the numerical problems associated with high dimensionality and caused by the assumption of independence of all of the dimensions. To combat both of these limitations, we propose a technique that uses a combination of the original variables with the derived variables obtained during a principal component analysis.

  14. Determinants of heavy smoking: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009-2010).

    Kaleta, Dorota; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Fronczak, Adam

    2012-03-01

    The aim of current analysis was to identify socio-demographic correlates of heavy smoking. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative household study was implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. We used data on representative sample of 1915 adults, age 25 years and older. The Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for heavy smoking to the broad number of variables including age, age at smoking onset, education, occupational classification, living conditions, place of residence, place of residence at age about 14 years, awareness of smoking health consequences were tested in logistic regression model. Among daily smokers the rate of heavy smokers was 63% in males and 45% in females (p things, educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse tobacco health effects should be widely implemented.

  15. PFS/Mars Express first results: water vapour and carbon monoxide global distribution

    Ignatiev, N. I.; Titov, D. V.; Formisano, V.; Moroz, V. I.; Lellouch, E.; Encrenaz, Th.; Fouchet, T.; Grassi, D.; Giuranna, M.; Atreya, S.; Pfs Team

    Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard Mars Express, with its wide spectral range (1.2--45 um) and high spectral resolution (1.4 cm-1), makes it possible to study in a self-consistent manner the Martian atmosphere by means of simultaneous analysis of spectral features in several spectral regions. As concerned small species, we observe 30--50, 6.3, 2.56, 1.87 and 1.38 μ m H2O bands, and 4.7 and 2.35 μ m CO bands. The most favourable, with respect to the instrument performance, 2.56 μ m H2O and 4.7 μ m CO bands, are used to study the variations of column abundance of water vapour and carbon monoxide on a global scale from pole to pole. All necessary atmospheric parameters, namely temperature profiles, surface pressure, and dust density are obtained from the same spectra, whenever possible.

  16. A novel approach for optimum allocation of FACTS devices using multi-objective function

    Gitizadeh, M.; Kalantar, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to find optimum type, location, and capacity of flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS) devices in a power system using a multi-objective optimization function. Thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) and static var compensator (SVC) are utilized to achieve these objectives: active power loss reduction, new introduced FACTS devices cost reduction, increase the robustness of the security margin against voltage collapse, and voltage deviation reduction. The operational and controlling constraints as well as load constraints are considered in the optimum allocation procedure. Here, a goal attainment method based on simulated annealing is used to approach the global optimum. In addition, the estimated annual load profile has been utilized to the optimum siting and sizing of FACTS devices to approach a practical solution. The standard IEEE 14-bus test system is used to validate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method

  17. Response of permafrost to projected climate change: Results from global offline model simulations with JSBACH

    Blome, Tanja; Ekici, Altug; Beer, Christian; Hagemann, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Permafrost or perennially frozen ground is an important part of the terrestrial cryosphere; roughly one quarter of Earth's land surface is underlain by permafrost. As it is a thermal phenomenon, its characteristics are highly dependent on climatic factors. The impact of the currently observed warming, which is projected to persist during the coming decades due to anthropogenic CO2 input, certainly has effects for the vast permafrost areas of the high northern latitudes. The quantification of these effects, however, is scientifically still an open question. This is partly due to the complexity of the system, where several feedbacks are interacting between land and atmosphere, sometimes counterbalancing each other. Moreover, until recently, many global circulation models (GCMs) lacked the sufficient representation of permafrost physics in their land surface schemes. In order to assess the response of permafrost to projected climate change for the 21st century, the land surface scheme of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, JSBACH, has recently been equipped with the important physical processes for permafrost studies, and was driven globally with bias corrected climate data, thereby spanning a period from 1850 until 2100. The applied land surface scheme JSBACH now considers the effects of freezing and thawing of soil water for both energy and water cycles, thermal properties depending on soil water and ice contents, and soil moisture movement being influenced by the presence of soil ice. To address the uncertainty range arising through different greenhouse gas concentrations as well as through different climate realisations when using various climate models, combinations of two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and two GCMs were used as driving data. In order to focus only on the climatic impact on permafrost, effects due to feedbacks between climate and permafrost (namely via carbon fluxes between land and atmosphere) are excluded in the experiments

  18. Determination of optimum pressurizer level for kori unit 1

    Song, Dong Soo; Lee, Chang Sup; Lee Jae Yong; Kim, Yo Han; Lee, Dong Hyuk [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    To determine the optimum pressurizer water level during normal operation for Kori unit 1, performance and safety analysis are performed. The methodology is developed by evaluating {sup d}ecrease in secondary heat removal{sup e}vents such as Loss of Normal Feedwater accident. To demonstrate optimum pressurizer level setpoint, RETRAN-03 code is used for performance analysis. Analysis results of RETRAN following reactor trip are compared with the actual plant data to justify RETRAN code modelling. The results of performance and safety analyses show that the newly established level setpoints not only improve the performance of pressurizer during transient including reactor trip but also meet the design bases of the pressurizer volume and pressure. 6 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  19. Determination of optimum pressurizer level for kori unit 1

    Song, Dong Soo; Lee, Chang Sup; Yong, Lee Jae; Kim, Yo Han; Lee, Dong Hyuk [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    To determine the optimum pressurizer water level during normal operation for Kori unit 1, performance and safety analysis are performed. The methodology is developed by evaluating {sup d}ecrease in secondary heat removal{sup e}vents such as Loss of Normal Feedwater accident. To demonstrate optimum pressurizer level setpoint, RETRAN-03 code is used for performance analysis. Analysis results of RETRAN following reactor trip are compared with the actual plant data to justify RETRAN code modelling. The results of performance and safety analyses show that the newly established level setpoints not only improve the performance of pressurizer during transient including reactor trip but also meet the design bases of the pressurizer volume and pressure. 6 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  20. Optimum Operational Parameters for Yawed Wind Turbines

    David A. Peters

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of systematical optimum operational parameters for wind turbines under various wind directions is derived by using combined momentum-energy and blade-element-energy concepts. The derivations are solved numerically by fixing some parameters at practical values. Then, the interactions between the produced power and the influential factors of it are generated in the figures. It is shown that the maximum power produced is strongly affected by the wind direction, the tip speed, the pitch angle of the rotor, and the drag coefficient, which are specifically indicated by figures. It also turns out that the maximum power can take place at two different optimum tip speeds in some cases. The equations derived herein can also be used in the modeling of tethered wind turbines which can keep aloft and deliver energy.

  1. Optimum tilt angle for flat plate collectors all over the World – A declination dependence formula and comparisons of three solar radiation models

    Stanciu, Camelia; Stanciu, Dorin

    2014-01-01

    consists in finding this global optimum instead of “local” ones for which monthly adjustment is required. The results are compared to the approximation given in the technical literature according to which the optimum tilt angle should be local latitude plus or minus (for winter or summer seasons, respectively) 10° or 15° (with small variations as it is further presented)

  2. OPTIMUM PROGRAMMABLE CONTROL OF UNMANNED FLYING VEHICLE

    A. А. Lobaty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an analytical synthesis problem pertaining to programmable control of an unmanned flying vehicle while steering it to the fixed space point. The problem has been solved while applying a maximum principle which takes into account a final control purpose and its integral expenses. The paper presents an optimum law of controlling overload variation of a flying vehicle that has been obtained analytically

  3. Techniques for evaluating optimum data center operation

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Rodriguez, Sergio Adolfo Bermudez; Wehle, Hans-Dieter

    2017-06-14

    Techniques for modeling a data center are provided. In one aspect, a method for determining data center efficiency is provided. The method includes the following steps. Target parameters for the data center are obtained. Technology pre-requisite parameters for the data center are obtained. An optimum data center efficiency is determined given the target parameters for the data center and the technology pre-requisite parameters for the data center.

  4. Probabilistic studies for safety at optimum cost

    Pitner, P.

    1999-01-01

    By definition, the risk of failure of very reliable components is difficult to evaluate. How can the best strategies for in service inspection and maintenance be defined to limit this risk to an acceptable level at optimum cost? It is not sufficient to design structures with margins, it is also essential to understand how they age. The probabilistic approach has made it possible to develop well proven concepts. (author)

  5. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    Horiuchi, Youko

    2015-12-23

    Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis-eQTLs. Expression

  6. Determination of optimum filter in inferolateral view of myocardial SPECT

    Takavar; Eftekhari, M.; Fallahi, B.; Shamsipour, Gh.; Sohrabi, M.; Saghari, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging, images are degraded by photon attenuation, distance-dependent collimator, detector response and photon scattering. As filters greatly affect quality of nuclear medicine images, in this study determination of optimum filter for inferolateral view is our prime objective. Materials and Methods: .A phantom simulating heart left ventricle was built. About 1mCi of 99m Tc, was injected into the phantom. Images were taken from this phantom. Parzen, Hamming, Hanning, Butter worth and Gaussian filters were exerted on the images obtained from the phantom.. By defining some criteria such as contrast, signal to noise ratio, and defect size delectability, the best filter was determined for our ADAC spect system at our nuclear medicine center. In this study, 27 patients who previously had undergone coronary angiography were chosen to be included. All of these patients revealed significant stenosis in the left circumflex artery. Myocardial SPECT images of these patients had inferolateral defect. The images of these patients were processed with 12 filters including the optimum filters obtained from phantom study and some other non-optimum filters. A nuclear medicine physician quantified the results by assigmng mark from 0 to 4. to every image. 0 mark for images that didn't show the defect properly and 4 for the best one. The data from patient study were analyzed with non-related, non -parametric Friedman test. Results: Nyquist frequency of 0.325 and 0.5 were obtained as the optimum cut-off frequencies for hamming and Hanning filters respectively. Order 11 and cut-off frequency of 0.45 and order 20. with cut-off frequency of 0.5 were found to be optimum for Butter worth and Gaussian filters. In patient studies it was found that, Butter worth filter with cut-off frequency of 0.45 and order of 11 produced the best quality images. Conclusion: In this study. Butter worth filter with cut-off frequency of 0.45 and order of 11 was the

  7. The Global Epidemiology and Contribution of Cannabis Use and Dependence to the Global Burden of Disease: Results from the GBD 2010 Study

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Ferrari, Alize J.; Calabria, Bianca; Hall, Wayne D.; Norman, Rosana E.; McGrath, John; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Engell, Rebecca E.; Freedman, Greg D.; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Vos, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Aims Estimate the prevalence of cannabis dependence and its contribution to the global burden of disease. Methods Systematic reviews of epidemiological data on cannabis dependence (1990-2008) were conducted in line with PRISMA and meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Culling and data extraction followed protocols, with cross-checking and consistency checks. DisMod-MR, the latest version of generic disease modelling system, redesigned as a Bayesian meta-regression tool, imputed prevalence by age, year and sex for 187 countries and 21 regions. The disability weight associated with cannabis dependence was estimated through population surveys and multiplied by prevalence data to calculate the years of life lived with disability (YLDs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). YLDs and DALYs attributed to regular cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia were also estimated. Results There were an estimated 13.1 million cannabis dependent people globally in 2010 (point prevalence0.19% (95% uncertainty: 0.17-0.21%)). Prevalence peaked between 20-24 yrs, was higher in males (0.23% (0.2-0.27%)) than females (0.14% (0.12-0.16%)) and in high income regions. Cannabis dependence accounted for 2 million DALYs globally (0.08%; 0.05-0.12%) in 2010; a 22% increase in crude DALYs since 1990 largely due to population growth. Countries with statistically higher age-standardised DALY rates included the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Western European countries such as the United Kingdom; those with lower DALY rates were from Sub-Saharan Africa-West and Latin America. Regular cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia accounted for an estimated 7,000 DALYs globally. Conclusion Cannabis dependence is a disorder primarily experienced by young adults, especially in higher income countries. It has not been shown to increase mortality as opioid and other forms of illicit drug dependence do. Our estimates suggest that

  8. The optimum lead thickness for lead-activation detectors

    Si Fenni; Hu Qingyuan

    2009-01-01

    The optimum lead thickness for lead-activation detectors has been studied in this paper. First existence of the optimum lead thickness is explained theoretically. Then the optimum lead thickness is obtained by two methods, MCNP5 calculation and mathematical estimation. At last factors which affect the optimum lead thickness are discussed. It turns out that the optimum lead thickness is irrelevant to incident neutron energies. It is recommended 2.5 cm generally.

  9. Variation in global chemical composition of PM2.5: emerging results from SPARTAN

    Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal L.; Murdymootoo, Kalaivani K.; Ring, Amanda; Ritchie, Yvonne; Stone, Emily; Walsh, Ainsley; Akoshile, Clement; Anh, Nguyen Xuan; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Brook, Jeff; Qonitan, Fatimah D.; Dong, Jinlu; Griffith, Derek; He, Kebin; Holben, Brent N.; Kahn, Ralph; Lagrosas, Nofel; Lestari, Puji; Ma, Zongwei; Misra, Amit; Norford, Leslie K.; Quel, Eduardo J.; Salam, Abdus; Schichtel, Bret; Segev, Lior; Tripathi, Sachchida; Wang, Chien; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Yuxuan; Brauer, Michael; Cohen, Aaron; Gibson, Mark D.; Liu, Yang; Vanderlei Martins, J.; Rudich, Yinon; Martin, Randall V.

    2016-08-01

    The Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN) is a long-term project that includes characterization of chemical and physical attributes of aerosols from filter samples collected worldwide. This paper discusses the ongoing efforts of SPARTAN to define and quantify major ions and trace metals found in fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our methods infer the spatial and temporal variability of PM2.5 in a cost-effective manner. Gravimetrically weighed filters represent multi-day averages of PM2.5, with a collocated nephelometer sampling air continuously. SPARTAN instruments are paired with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun photometers to better understand the relationship between ground-level PM2.5 and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD).We have examined the chemical composition of PM2.5 at 12 globally dispersed, densely populated urban locations and a site at Mammoth Cave (US) National Park used as a background comparison. So far, each SPARTAN location has been active between the years 2013 and 2016 over periods of 2-26 months, with an average period of 12 months per site. These sites have collectively gathered over 10 years of quality aerosol data. The major PM2.5 constituents across all sites (relative contribution ± SD) are ammoniated sulfate (20 % ± 11 %), crustal material (13.4 % ± 9.9 %), equivalent black carbon (11.9 % ± 8.4 %), ammonium nitrate (4.7 % ± 3.0 %), sea salt (2.3 % ± 1.6 %), trace element oxides (1.0 % ± 1.1 %), water (7.2 % ± 3.3 %) at 35 % RH, and residual matter (40 % ± 24 %).Analysis of filter samples reveals that several PM2.5 chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammoniated sulfate ranges from 1.1 µg m-3 (Buenos Aires, Argentina) to 17 µg m-3 (Kanpur, India in the dry season). Ammonium nitrate ranged from 0.2 µg m-3 (Mammoth Cave, in summer) to 6.8 µg m-3 (Kanpur, dry season). Equivalent black carbon ranged from 0.7 µg m-3 (Mammoth Cave) to over 8 µg m-3 (Dhaka, Bangladesh and Kanpur

  10. An integrated expert system for optimum in core fuel management

    Abd Elmoatty, Mona S.; Nagy, M.S.; Aly, Mohamed N.; Shaat, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → An integrated expert system constructed for optimum in core fuel management. → Brief discussion of the ESOIFM Package modules, inputs and outputs. → Package was applied on the DALAT Nuclear Research Reactor (0.5 MW). → The Package verification showed good agreement. - Abstract: An integrated expert system called Efficient and Safe Optimum In-core Fuel Management (ESOIFM Package) has been constructed to achieve an optimum in core fuel management and automate the process of data analysis. The Package combines the constructed mathematical models with the adopted artificial intelligence techniques. The paper gives a brief discussion of the ESOIFM Package modules, inputs and outputs. The Package was applied on the DALAT Nuclear Research Reactor (0.5 MW). Moreover, the data of DNRR have been used as a case study for testing and evaluation of ESOIFM Package. This paper shows the comparison between the ESOIFM Package burn-up results, the DNRR experimental burn-up data, and other DNRR Codes burn-up results. The results showed good agreement.

  11. Hardcore smoking in three South-East asian countries: results from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Kishore, Jugal; Jena, Pratap Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Chandan; Swain, Monali; Das, Sagarika; Banerjee, Indrani

    2013-01-01

    Hardcore smoking is represented by a subset of daily smokers with high nicotine dependence, inability to quit and unwillingness to quit. Estimating the related burden could help us in identifying a high risk population prone to tobacco induced diseases and improve cessation planning for them. This study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smoking in three South-East Asian countries and discussed its implication for smoking cessation intervention in this region. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data of India, Bangladesh and Thailand were analyzed to quantify the hardcore smoking prevalence in the region. On the basis of review, an operational definition of hardcore smoking was adopted that includes (1) current daily smoker, (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration, (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting, (4) time to first smoke within 30 minutes of waking up, and (5) knowledge of smoking hazards. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using hardcore smoking status as response variable and gender, type of residence, occupation, education, wealth index and age-group as possible predictors. There were 31.3 million hardcore smokers in the three Asian countries. The adult prevalence of hardcore smoking in these countries ranges between 3.1% in India to 6% in Thailand. These hardcore smokers constitute 18.3-29.7% of daily smokers. The logistic regression model indicated that age, gender, occupation and wealth index are the major predictors of hardcore smoking with varied influence across countries. Presence of a higher number of hardcore smoking populations in Asia is a major public health challenge for tobacco control and cancer prevention. There is need of intensive cessation interventions with due consideration of contextual predictors.

  12. Factors Influencing Global Health Related Quality of Life in Elderly Cancer Patients: Results of a Secondary Data Analysis

    Heike Schmidt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer treatment for elderly patients is often complicated by poor physical condition, impaired functioning and comorbidities. Patient reported health related quality of life (HRQOL can contribute to decisions about treatment goals and supportive therapy. Knowledge about factors influencing HRQOL is therefore needed for the development of supportive measures and care pathways. An exploratory secondary data analysis on 518 assessments of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC core questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 and the elderly module (EORTC QLQ-ELD14 was performed to identify factors predictive for global HRQOL. Preliminary simple and multivariable regression analyses were conducted resulting in a final model comprising sociodemographic and disease specific variables and scales of the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-ELD14. Age, sex and disease related variables explained only part of the variance of global HRQOL (adjusted R2 = 0.203. In the final model (adjusted R2 = 0.504 fatigue, social function, burden of illness and joint stiffness showed possible influence on global HRQOL. Fatigue, social function and burden of illness seem to have the largest impact on global HRQOL of elderly cancer patients. Further prospective studies should examine these domains. Actionable symptoms should be given special attention to initiate targeted supportive measures aiming to maximize HRQOL of older cancer patients.

  13. Optimum Parameters of a Tuned Liquid Column Damper in a Wind Turbine Subject to Stochastic Load

    Alkmim, M. H.; de Morais, M. V. G.; Fabro, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    Parameter optimization for tuned liquid column dampers (TLCD), a class of passive structural control, have been previously proposed in the literature for reducing vibration in wind turbines, and several other applications. However, most of the available work consider the wind excitation as either a deterministic harmonic load or random load with white noise spectra. In this paper, a global direct search optimization algorithm to reduce vibration of a tuned liquid column damper (TLCD), a class of passive structural control device, is presented. The objective is to find optimized parameters for the TLCD under stochastic load from different wind power spectral density. A verification is made considering the analytical solution of undamped primary system under white noise excitation by comparing with result from the literature. Finally, it is shown that different wind profiles can significantly affect the optimum TLCD parameters.

  14. Optimum design of 6-DOF parallel manipulator with translational/rotational workspaces for haptic device application

    Yoon, Jung Won; Hwang, Yoon Kwon [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Je Ha [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    This paper proposes an optimum design method that satisfies the desired orientation workspace at the boundary of the translation workspace while maximizing the mechanism isotropy for parallel manipulators. A simple genetic algorithm is used to obtain the optimal linkage parameters of a six-degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator that can be used as a haptic device. The objective function is composed of a desired spherical shape translation workspace and a desired orientation workspace located on the boundaries of the desired translation workspace, along with a global conditioning index based on a homogeneous Jacobian matrix. The objective function was optimized to satisfy the desired orientation workspace at the boundary positions as translated from a neutral position of the increased entropy mechanism. An optimization result with desired translation and orientation workspaces for a haptic device was obtained to show the effectiveness of the suggested scheme, and the kinematic performances of the proposed model were compared with those of a preexisting base model

  15. Optimum design of 6-DOF parallel manipulator with translational/rotational workspaces for haptic device application

    Yoon, Jung Won; Hwang, Yoon Kwon; Ryu, Je Ha

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimum design method that satisfies the desired orientation workspace at the boundary of the translation workspace while maximizing the mechanism isotropy for parallel manipulators. A simple genetic algorithm is used to obtain the optimal linkage parameters of a six-degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator that can be used as a haptic device. The objective function is composed of a desired spherical shape translation workspace and a desired orientation workspace located on the boundaries of the desired translation workspace, along with a global conditioning index based on a homogeneous Jacobian matrix. The objective function was optimized to satisfy the desired orientation workspace at the boundary positions as translated from a neutral position of the increased entropy mechanism. An optimization result with desired translation and orientation workspaces for a haptic device was obtained to show the effectiveness of the suggested scheme, and the kinematic performances of the proposed model were compared with those of a preexisting base model

  16. RECENT APPROACHES IN THE OPTIMUM CURRENCY AREAS THEORY

    AURA SOCOL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is dealing with the endogenous characteristic of the OCA criteria, starting from the idea that a higherconformity of the business cycles will result in a better timing of the economic cycles and, thus, in getting closerto the quality of an optimum currency area. Thus, if the classical theory is focused on a static approach of theproblem, the new theories assert that these conditions are dynamic, and they cannot be positively affected evenby the establishment of the Economic and Monetary Union. The consequences are overwhelming, as theendogenous approach shows that a monetary union can be achieved even if all the conditions mentioned inMundell’s optimum currency areas theory are not met, showing that some of them may also be met subsequentto the unification. Thus, a country joining a monetary union, althogh it does not meet the criteria for an optimumcurrency area, will ex post lead to the increase of the integration and business cycle correlation degree.

  17. Determination of the Optimum Ozone Product on the Plasma Ozonizer

    Agus Purwadi; Widdi Usada; Suryadi; Isyuniarto; Sri Sukmajaya

    2002-01-01

    An experiment of the optimum ozone product determination on the cylindrical plasma ozonizer has been done. The experiment is carried out by using alternating high voltage power supply, oscilloscope CS-1577 A, flow meter and spectronik-20 instrument for the absorbance solution samples which produced by varying the physics parameter values of the discharge alternating high voltage and velocity of oxygen gas input. The plasma ozonizer is made of cylinder stainless steel as the electrode and cylinder glass as the dielectric with 1.00 mm of the discharge gap and 7.225 mm 3 of the discharge tube volume. The experiment results shows that the optimum ozone product is 0.360 mg/s obtained at the the discharge of alternating high voltage of 25.50 kV, the frequency of 1.00 kHz and the rate of oxygen gas input of 1.00 lpm. (author)

  18. A methodology for selecting optimum organizations for space communities

    Ragusa, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper suggests that a methodology exists for selecting optimum organizations for future space communities of various sizes and purposes. Results of an exploratory study to identify an optimum hypothetical organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary research and applications (R&A) Space Base manned by a mixed crew of technologists are presented. Since such a facility does not presently exist, in situ empirical testing was not possible. Study activity was, therefore, concerned with the identification of a desired organizational structural model rather than the empirical testing of it. The principal finding of this research was that a four-level project type 'total matrix' model will optimize the effectiveness of Space Base technologists. An overall conclusion which can be reached from the research is that application of this methodology, or portions of it, may provide planning insights for the formal organizations which will be needed during the Space Industrialization Age.

  19. Optimum Conditions for Uricase Enzyme Production by Gliomastix gueg

    Atalla, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen strains of microorganisms were screened for uricase production. Gliomastix gueg was recognized to produce high levels of the enzyme. The optimum fermentation conditions for uricase production by Gliomastix gueg were examined. Results showed that uric acid medium was the most favorable one, the optimum temperature was at 30ºC, and incubation period required for maximum production was 8 days with aeration level at 150 rpm and at pH 8.0. Sucrose proved to be the best carbon source, uric acid was found to be the best nitrogen source. Both, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and ferrous chloride as well as some vitamins gave the highest amount of uricase by Gliomastix gueg.

  20. Global atmospheric carbon budget: results from an ensemble of atmospheric CO2 inversions

    P. Peylin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 inversions estimate surface carbon fluxes from an optimal fit to atmospheric CO2 measurements, usually including prior constraints on the flux estimates. Eleven sets of carbon flux estimates are compared, generated by different inversions systems that vary in their inversions methods, choice of atmospheric data, transport model and prior information. The inversions were run for at least 5 yr in the period between 1990 and 2010. Mean fluxes for 2001–2004, seasonal cycles, interannual variability and trends are compared for the tropics and northern and southern extra-tropics, and separately for land and ocean. Some continental/basin-scale subdivisions are also considered where the atmospheric network is denser. Four-year mean fluxes are reasonably consistent across inversions at global/latitudinal scale, with a large total (land plus ocean carbon uptake in the north (−3.4 Pg C yr−1 (±0.5 Pg C yr−1 standard deviation, with slightly more uptake over land than over ocean, a significant although more variable source over the tropics (1.6 ± 0.9 Pg C yr−1 and a compensatory sink of similar magnitude in the south (−1.4 ± 0.5 Pg C yr−1 corresponding mainly to an ocean sink. Largest differences across inversions occur in the balance between tropical land sources and southern land sinks. Interannual variability (IAV in carbon fluxes is larger for land than ocean regions (standard deviation around 1.06 versus 0.33 Pg C yr−1 for the 1996–2007 period, with much higher consistency among the inversions for the land. While the tropical land explains most of the IAV (standard deviation ~ 0.65 Pg C yr−1, the northern and southern land also contribute (standard deviation ~ 0.39 Pg C yr−1. Most inversions tend to indicate an increase of the northern land carbon uptake from late 1990s to 2008 (around 0.1 Pg C yr−1, predominantly in North Asia. The mean seasonal cycle appears to be well constrained by the atmospheric data over

  1. The global unified parallel file system (GUPFS) project: FY 2003 activities and results

    Butler, Gregory F.; Baird William P.; Lee, Rei C.; Tull, Craig E.; Welcome, Michael L.; Whitney Cary L.

    2004-04-30

    The Global Unified Parallel File System (GUPFS) project is a multiple-phase project at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center whose goal is to provide a scalable, high-performance, high-bandwidth, shared file system for all of the NERSC production computing and support systems. The primary purpose of the GUPFS project is to make the scientific users more productive as they conduct advanced scientific research at NERSC by simplifying the scientists' data management tasks and maximizing storage and data availability. This is to be accomplished through the use of a shared file system providing a unified file namespace, operating on consolidated shared storage that is accessible by all the NERSC production computing and support systems. In order to successfully deploy a scalable high-performance shared file system with consolidated disk storage, three major emerging technologies must be brought together: (1) shared/cluster file systems software, (2) cost-effective, high-performance storage area network (SAN) fabrics, and (3) high-performance storage devices. Although they are evolving rapidly, these emerging technologies individually are not targeted towards the needs of scientific high-performance computing (HPC). The GUPFS project is in the process of assessing these emerging technologies to determine the best combination of solutions for a center-wide shared file system, to encourage the development of these technologies in directions needed for HPC, particularly at NERSC, and to then put them into service. With the development of an evaluation methodology and benchmark suites, and with the updating of the GUPFS testbed system, the project did a substantial number of investigations and evaluations during FY 2003. The investigations and evaluations involved many vendors and products. From our evaluation of these products, we have found that most vendors and many of the products are more focused on the commercial market. Most vendors

  2. Variation in global chemical composition of PM2.5: emerging results from SPARTAN

    G. Snider

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN is a long-term project that includes characterization of chemical and physical attributes of aerosols from filter samples collected worldwide. This paper discusses the ongoing efforts of SPARTAN to define and quantify major ions and trace metals found in fine particulate matter (PM2.5. Our methods infer the spatial and temporal variability of PM2.5 in a cost-effective manner. Gravimetrically weighed filters represent multi-day averages of PM2.5, with a collocated nephelometer sampling air continuously. SPARTAN instruments are paired with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET sun photometers to better understand the relationship between ground-level PM2.5 and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD.We have examined the chemical composition of PM2.5 at 12 globally dispersed, densely populated urban locations and a site at Mammoth Cave (US National Park used as a background comparison. So far, each SPARTAN location has been active between the years 2013 and 2016 over periods of 2–26 months, with an average period of 12 months per site. These sites have collectively gathered over 10 years of quality aerosol data. The major PM2.5 constituents across all sites (relative contribution ± SD are ammoniated sulfate (20 % ± 11 %, crustal material (13.4 % ± 9.9 %, equivalent black carbon (11.9 % ± 8.4 %, ammonium nitrate (4.7 % ± 3.0 %, sea salt (2.3 % ± 1.6 %, trace element oxides (1.0 % ± 1.1 %, water (7.2 % ± 3.3 % at 35 % RH, and residual matter (40 % ± 24 %.Analysis of filter samples reveals that several PM2.5 chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammoniated sulfate ranges from 1.1 µg m−3 (Buenos Aires, Argentina to 17 µg m−3 (Kanpur, India in the dry season. Ammonium nitrate ranged from 0.2 µg m−3 (Mammoth Cave, in summer to 6.8  µg m−3 (Kanpur, dry season. Equivalent

  3. Multimillennium changes in dissolved oxygen under global warming: results from an AOGCM and offline ocean biogeochemical model

    Yamamoto, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Shigemitsu, M.; Oka, A.; Takahashi, K.; Ohgaito, R.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term oceanic oxygen change due to global warming is still unclear; most future projections (such as CMIP5) are only performed until 2100. Indeed, few previous studies using conceptual models project oxygen change in the next thousands of years, showing persistent global oxygen reduction by about 30% in the next 2000 years, even after atmospheric carbon dioxide stops rising. Yet, these models cannot sufficiently represent the ocean circulation change: the key driver of oxygen change. Moreover, considering serious effect oxygen reduction has on marine life and biogeochemical cycling, long-term oxygen change should be projected for higher validity. Therefore, we used a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) and an offline ocean biogeochemical model, investigating realistic long-term changes in oceanic oxygen concentration and ocean circulation. We integrated these models for 2000 years under atmospheric CO2 doubling and quadrupling. After global oxygen reduction in the first 500 years, oxygen concentration in deep ocean globally recovers and overshoots, despite surface oxygen decrease and weaker Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Deep ocean convection in the Weddell Sea recovers and overshoots, after initial cessation. Thus, enhanced deep convection and associated Antarctic Bottom Water supply oxygen-rich surface waters to deep ocean, resulting global deep ocean oxygenation. We conclude that the change in ocean circulation in the Southern Ocean potentially drives millennial-scale oxygenation in the deep ocean; contrary to past reported long-term oxygen reduction and general expectation. In presentation, we will discuss the mechanism of response of deep ocean convection in the Weddell Sea and show the volume changes of hypoxic waters.

  4. Search Results | Page 11 | IDRC - International Development ...

    Results 101 - 110 of 8523 ... ... (568) Apply Food, Environment, and Health filter · Agriculture and Food Security ... To sustain democratization in Myanmar, IDRC and Global Affairs ... Energy efficiency optimum strategies for low carbon ... Sub-Saharan Africa's most pressing challenges include both the development of skills and ...

  5. Search Results | Page 12 | IDRC - International Development ...

    Results 111 - 120 of 8531 ... ... (570) Apply Food, Environment, and Health filter · Agriculture and Food Security ... To sustain democratization in Myanmar, IDRC and Global Affairs ... Energy efficiency optimum strategies for low carbon ... Sub-Saharan Africa's most pressing challenges include both the development of skills and ...

  6. High resolution or optimum resolution? Spatial analysis of the Federmesser site at Andernach, Germany

    Stapert, D; Street, M

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses spatial analysis at site level. It is suggested that spatial analysis has to proceed in several levels, from global to more detailed questions, and that optimum resolution should be established when applying any quantitative methods in this field. As an example, the ring and

  7. Early Eocene climatic optimum: Environmental impact on the North Iberian continental margin

    Payros, A.; Ortiz, S.; Millán, I.; Arostegi, J.; Orue-Etxebarria, X.; Apellaniz, E.

    2015-01-01

    The early Eocene climatic optimum, which constituted the peak of the long-term early Cenozoic global warming, had a significant impact on the environmental evolution of terrestrial and oceanic areas. Surprisingly, however, its influence on continental margins is poorly known. New insights are

  8. Experiences and results multitasking a hydrodynamics code on global and local memory machines

    Mandell, D.

    1987-01-01

    A one-dimensional, time-dependent Lagrangian hydrodynamics code using a Godunov solution method has been multimasked for the Cray X-MP/48, the Intel iPSC hypercube, the Alliant FX series and the IBM RP3 computers. Actual multitasking results have been obtained for the Cray, Intel and Alliant computers and simulated results were obtained for the Cray and RP3 machines. The differences in the methods required to multitask on each of the machines is discussed. Results are presented for a sample problem involving a shock wave moving down a channel. Comparisons are made between theoretical speedups, predicted by Amdahl's law, and the actual speedups obtained. The problems of debugging on the different machines are also described

  9. New results for global exponential synchronization in neural networks via functional differential inclusions.

    Wang, Dongshu; Huang, Lihong; Tang, Longkun

    2015-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the synchronization dynamical behaviors for a class of delayed neural networks with discontinuous neuron activations. Continuous and discontinuous state feedback controller are designed such that the neural networks model can realize exponential complete synchronization in view of functional differential inclusions theory, Lyapunov functional method and inequality technique. The new proposed results here are very easy to verify and also applicable to neural networks with continuous activations. Finally, some numerical examples show the applicability and effectiveness of our main results.

  10. Estimation of global daily irradiation in complex topography zones using digital elevation models and meteosat images: Comparison of the results

    Martinez-Durban, M.; Zarzalejo, L.F.; Bosch, J.L.; Rosiek, S.; Polo, J.; Batlles, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of the solar irradiation in a certain place is fundamental for the suitable location of solar systems, both thermal and photovoltaic. On the local scale, the topography is the most important modulating factor of the solar irradiation on the surface. In this work the global daily irradiation is estimated concerning various sky conditions, in zones of complex topography. In order to estimate the global daily irradiation we use a methodology based on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM), on one hand making use of pyranometer measurements and on the other hand utilizing satellite images. We underline that DTM application employing pyranometer measurements produces better results than estimation using satellite images, though accuracy of the same order is obtained in both cases for Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias Error (MBE).

  11. Estimation of global daily irradiation in complex topography zones using digital elevation models and meteosat images: Comparison of the results

    Martinez-Durban, M. [Dpto. de Lenguajes y Computacion, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Zarzalejo, L.F.; Polo, J. [Dpto. de Energia, CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bosch, J.L.; Rosiek, S.; Batlles, F.J. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    The knowledge of the solar irradiation in a certain place is fundamental for the suitable location of solar systems, both thermal and photovoltaic. On the local scale, the topography is the most important modulating factor of the solar irradiation on the surface. In this work the global daily irradiation is estimated concerning various sky conditions, in zones of complex topography. In order to estimate the global daily irradiation we use a methodology based on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM), on one hand making use of pyranometer measurements and on the other hand utilizing satellite images. We underline that DTM application employing pyranometer measurements produces better results than estimation using satellite images, though accuracy of the same order is obtained in both cases for Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias Error (MBE). (author)

  12. An optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectrometry

    De la Torre, F.; Rios M, C.; Ruvalcaba A, M. G.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J. L., E-mail: fta777@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Centro Regional de Estudis Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    This work aims to obtain an optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectroscopy by means of Genie 2000 (Canberra). Twenty different analysis sequences were customized using different peak area percentages and different algorithms for: 1) peak finding, and 2) peak area determination, and with or without the use of a library -based on evaluated nuclear data- of common gamma-ray emitters in environmental samples. The use of an optimum analysis sequence with certified nuclear information avoids the problems originated by the significant variations in out-of-date nuclear parameters of commercial software libraries. Interference-free gamma ray energies with absolute emission probabilities greater than 3.75% were included in the customized library. The gamma-ray spectroscopy system (based on a Ge Re-3522 Canberra detector) was calibrated both in energy and shape by means of the IAEA-2002 reference spectra for software intercomparison. To test the performance of the analysis sequences, the IAEA-2002 reference spectrum was used. The z-score and the reduced {chi}{sup 2} criteria were used to determine the optimum analysis sequence. The results show an appreciable variation in the peak area determinations and their corresponding uncertainties. Particularly, the combination of second derivative peak locate with simple peak area integration algorithms provides the greater accuracy. Lower accuracy comes from the combination of library directed peak locate algorithm and Genie's Gamma-M peak area determination. (Author)

  13. An optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectrometry

    De la Torre, F.; Rios M, C.; Ruvalcaba A, M. G.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J. L.

    2010-10-01

    This work aims to obtain an optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectroscopy by means of Genie 2000 (Canberra). Twenty different analysis sequences were customized using different peak area percentages and different algorithms for: 1) peak finding, and 2) peak area determination, and with or without the use of a library -based on evaluated nuclear data- of common gamma-ray emitters in environmental samples. The use of an optimum analysis sequence with certified nuclear information avoids the problems originated by the significant variations in out-of-date nuclear parameters of commercial software libraries. Interference-free gamma ray energies with absolute emission probabilities greater than 3.75% were included in the customized library. The gamma-ray spectroscopy system (based on a Ge Re-3522 Canberra detector) was calibrated both in energy and shape by means of the IAEA-2002 reference spectra for software intercomparison. To test the performance of the analysis sequences, the IAEA-2002 reference spectrum was used. The z-score and the reduced χ 2 criteria were used to determine the optimum analysis sequence. The results show an appreciable variation in the peak area determinations and their corresponding uncertainties. Particularly, the combination of second derivative peak locate with simple peak area integration algorithms provides the greater accuracy. Lower accuracy comes from the combination of library directed peak locate algorithm and Genie's Gamma-M peak area determination. (Author)

  14. Optimum Antenna Downtilt Angles for Macrocellular WCDMA Network

    Niemelä Jarno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of antenna downtilt on the performance of cellular WCDMA network has been studied by using a radio network planning tool. An optimum downtilt angle has been evaluated for numerous practical macrocellular site and antenna configurations for electrical and mechanical antenna downtilt concepts. The aim of this massive simulation campaign was expected to provide an answer to two questions: firstly, how to select the downtilt angle of a macrocellular base station antenna? Secondly, what is the impact of antenna downtilt on system capacity and network coverage? Optimum downtilt angles were observed to vary between – depending on the network configuration. Moreover, the corresponding downlink capacity gains varied between – . Antenna vertical beamwidth affects clearly the required optimum downtilt angle the most. On the other hand, with wider antenna vertical beamwidth, the impact of downtilt on system performance is not such imposing. In addition, antenna height together with the size of the dominance area affect the required downtilt angle. Finally, the simulation results revealed how the importance of the antenna downtilt becomes more significant in dense networks, where the capacity requirements are typically also higher.

  15. Planning of optimum production from a natural gas field

    Van Dam, J

    1968-03-01

    The design of an optimum development plan for a natural gas field always depends on the typical characteristics of the producing field, as well as those of the market to be served by this field. Therefore, a good knowledge of the field parameters, such as the total natural gas reserves, the well productivity, and the dependence of production rates on pipeline pressure and depletion of natural gas reserves, is required prior to designing the development scheme of the field, which in fact depends on the gas-sales contract to be concluded in order to commit the natural gas reserves to the market. In this paper these various technical parameters are discussed in some detail, and on this basis a theoretical/economical analysis of natural gas production is given. For this purpose a simplified economical/mathematical model for the field is proposed, from which optimum production rates at various future dates can be calculated. The results of these calculations are represented in a dimensionless diagram which may serve as an aid in designing optimum development plans for a natural gas field. The use of these graphs is illustrated in a few examples.

  16. Optimum moisture levels for biodegradation of mortality composting envelope materials.

    Ahn, H K; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2008-01-01

    Moisture affects the physical and biological properties of compost and other solid-state fermentation matrices. Aerobic microbial systems experience different respiration rates (oxygen uptake and CO2 evolution) as a function of moisture content and material type. In this study the microbial respiration rates of 12 mortality composting envelope materials were measured by a pressure sensor method at six different moisture levels. A wide range of respiration (1.6-94.2mg O2/g VS-day) rates were observed for different materials, with alfalfa hay, silage, oat straw, and turkey litter having the highest values. These four envelope materials may be particularly suitable for improving internal temperature and pathogen destruction rates for disease-related mortality composting. Optimum moisture content was determined based on measurements across a range that spans the maximum respiration rate. The optimum moisture content of each material was observed near water holding capacity, which ranged from near 60% to over 80% on a wet basis for all materials except a highly stabilized soil compost blend (optimum around 25% w.b.). The implications of the results for moisture management and process control strategies during mortality composting are discussed.

  17. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 1

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  18. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 2

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  19. Evaluation results of the GlobalWatershed GK-12 Fellowship Program - a model for increased science literacy and partnership

    Mayer, A. S.; Vye, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Michigan Tech GlobalWatershed GK-12 Fellowship program bridges the gap between K-12 learning institutions and the scientific community with a focus on watershed research. Michigan Tech graduate students (fellows) work in tandem with teachers on the development of relevant hands-on, inquiry based lesson plans and activities based on their doctoral research projects in watershed science. By connecting students and teachers to state of the art academic research in watershed science, teachers are afforded a meaningful way in which to embed scientific research as a component of K-12 curricula, while mentoring fellows on the most pertinent and essential topics for lesson plan development. Fellows fulfill their vital responsibility of communicating their academic research to a broader public while fostering improved teaching and communication skills. A goal of the project is to increase science literacy among students so they may understand, communicate and participate in decisions made at local, regional, and global levels. The project largely works with schools located in Michigan's western Upper Peninsula but also partners with K-12 systems in Sonora, Mexico. While focusing on local and regional issues, the international element of the project helps expand student, teacher, and fellow worldviews and global awareness of watershed issues and creates meaningful partnerships. Lesson plans are available online and teacher workshops are held regularly to disseminate the wealth of information and resources available to the broader public. Evaluation results indicate that fellows' skill and confidence in their ability to communicate science increased as a results of their participation of the program, as well as their desire to communicate science in their future careers. Teachers' confidence in their capacity to present watershed science to their students increased, along with their understanding of how scientific research contributes to understanding of water

  20. Global distribution of revenue loss from tax avoidance: Re-estimation and country results

    Cobham, Alex; Janský, Petr

    2017-01-01

    International corporate tax is an important source of government revenue, especially in lower-income countries. An important recent study of the scale of this problem was carried out by International Monetary Fund researchers Ernesto Crivelli, Ruud De Mooij, and Michael Keen. We first re-estimate their innovative model, and then explore the effects of introducing higher-quality revenue data from the ICTD-WIDER Government Revenue Database. Whereas Crivelli et al. report results for two country...

  1. Design issues for optimum solar cell configuration

    Kumar, Atul; Thakur, Ajay D.

    2018-05-01

    A computer based simulation of solar cell structure is performed to study the optimization of pn junction configuration for photovoltaic action. The fundamental aspects of photovoltaic action viz, absorption, separation collection, and their dependence on material properties and deatails of device structures is discussed. Using SCAPS 1D we have simulated the ideal pn junction and shown the effect of band offset and carrier densities on solar cell performance. The optimum configuration can be achieved by optimizing transport of carriers in pn junction under effect of field dependent recombination (tunneling) and density dependent recombination (SRH, Auger) mechanisms.

  2. Distinct differences in global gene expression profiles in non-implanted blastocysts and blastocysts resulting in live birth

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine Kjær; Fredsted, Palle Villesen; Jensen, Jacob Malte

    2015-01-01

    Results from animal models points towards the existence of a gene expression profile that is distinguishably different in viable embryos compared with non-viable embryos. Knowledge of human embryo transcripts is however limited, in particular with regard to how gene expression is related...... to clinical outcome. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the global gene expression profiles of human blastocysts. Next Generation Sequencing was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed in non-implanted embryos and embryos resulting in live birth. Three trophectoderm...

  3. IRSN 2014 opinion survey - The perception of risks and security by the French population. Global results

    El Jammal, Marie-Helene; Mur, Emmanuelle; Rollinger, Francois; Schuler, Matthieu; Tchernia, Jean-Francois

    2014-06-01

    A first and synthetic part of this report comments the most remarkable results of the opinion survey. It first addresses results related to a context of economic crisis (importance of the economic crisis and unemployment as major concerns for French people, environmental concerns) and then analyzes the different aspects of the nuclear risk, from the accident to nuclear safety: strong fears of a nuclear accident, Fukushima and Chernobyl are immediately present in people's mind, concerns about nuclear are also related to the environment and health, the actual benefit of nuclear is an economic one, nuclear safety is a major challenge on which French people doubt, French people wish a citizen look on nuclear safety, the opinion of French people on nuclear worsened in 2013. Then, this report, illustrated by several graphs, presents and discusses the results of an annual opinion survey on the present concerns of French people (in the present society, for the environment, and as far as science is concerned), the opinion of French people on expertise (about who must control a risky installation, about the role and image of scientific experts, about the diffusion and sharing of scientific expertise, and about the perception of pluralistic structures), on the attitude of French people in front of 33 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed to, confidence of French people in authorities to protect them, the truth of information on hazards, the hierarchy of 33 situations according to 3 aspects and their relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses more particularly the nuclear sector: expectations in terms of nuclear risk management, fear of a serious accident, benefits and drawbacks of nuclear energy, skill and credibility of interveners. Graphs notably present the evolution of opinions with respect to last year or over the past years

  4. The IRSN 2006 barometer. The opinion on risks and security of the French population. Global results

    2006-01-01

    This report presents and comments the results of a survey during which a sample of the French population has been questioned on their current concerns (about the society, about the environment, about their opinion on industrial risks, on scientific expertise, on who should control a risky installation), the opinion on 28 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed, confidence in authorities, truth of information on hazards, hierarchy of the 28 situations, acceptability of installations), the opinion on the nuclear activity and industry (the nuclear risk, the credibility and expertise of interveners, and the issue of radioactive wastes and public debate)

  5. Optimum value of original events on the PEPT technique

    Sadremomtaz, Alireza; Taherparvar, Payvand

    2011-01-01

    Do Positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) has been used to track the motion of a single radioactively labeled tracer particle within a bed of similar particles. In this paper, the effect of the original event fraction on the results precise in two experiments has been reviewed. Results showed that the algorithm can no longer distinguish some corrupt trajectories, in addition to; further iteration reduces the statistical significance of the sample without improving its quality. Results show that the optimum value of trajectories depends on the type of experiment.

  6. Optimum Value of Original Events on the Pept Technique

    Sadremomtaz, Alireza; Taherparvar, Payvand

    2011-12-01

    Do Positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) has been used to track the motion of a single radioactively labeled tracer particle within a bed of similar particles. In this paper, the effect of the original event fraction on the results precise in two experiments has been reviewed. Results showed that the algorithm can no longer distinguish some corrupt trajectories, in addition to; further iteration reduces the statistical significance of the sample without improving its quality. Results show that the optimum value of trajectories depends on the type of experiment.

  7. Climate vs grapevine pests and diseases worldwide: the first results of a global survey

    Benjamin Bois

    2017-05-01

    Methods and results: Based on the answer of respondent about the main reported diseases/pests in their region, a severity index was calculated. Each region was geolocalised and data were compared to the WorldClim gridded climate database to document the range of climate conditions (growing season temperature and rainfall associated to the main diseases/pests. The potential climatic-induced changes of grapevine disease and pest geography by 2050 are assessed using agro-climate projections from the ARPEGE CNRM model, using the RCP 4.5 scenario. The preliminary results allow to determine the distribution of diseases as function of agroclimatic indicators. Conclusion: While the distribution of diseases differs according to the region of the world, the current analysis suggests that mildews remain the major phytosanitary threat in most of the regions. Powdery mildew, trunk diseases and viruses were reported in extremely diverse climatic conditions, including intermediate and wet regions.  Significance and impact of the study: This paper present an original methodology to address the relationship between grapevine disease and pest occurrences and climate. Such documentation is scarce in the current literature. Further analysis is currently being performed, including additional survey answers, climate indices and supplementary data collected (spatial extension, frequency of treatments… to better depict the challenges of grapevine phytosanitary management in a changing climate.

  8. P-001: Koi herpes virus world wide: results of the global KHV questionnaire 2007-2009

    Haenen, Olga; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    , prevention, detection, and control of epizootic diseases within Europe to reduce the economic and social impact of future outbreaks of emerging/notifiable diseases, like Foot-and-mouth disease through increased excellence by collaboration. Within EPIZONE, Work package 6.1 covers emerging diseases of fish...... was sent to > 65 countries world wide. By the start of May 2009, 40 countries had responded, i.e. > 60%. The results of the KHV questionnaire will be presented as a poster, and hand-out. Questions of the questionnaire were about koi (1), cultured (2) and wild carp (3), all Cyprinus carpio: • Prevalence...... and confirmation? Did/do you participate in the KHV PCR ring test of CEFAS (UK); • Susceptible fish species: Was KHV isolated from other species than koi/carp? • Latent carriers: Do you have any experience with latency of KHV in koi/carp? • Measures (stamping out, temp change, therapy) and effects in 1, 2, and 3...

  9. IRSN 2011 opinion survey. The perception of risks and safety by French people. Global results

    2011-01-01

    Like every year, this report presents and comments the results of an opinion survey on risks, and more particularly on nuclear and radiological risks. The first part addresses the current concerns of French people (the main concerns in the present society and with respect to the environment, how science is considered). The second part addresses the opinion on expertise (who should control a hazardous installation, the role and image of experts, the access to expertise files, the perception of pluralist bodies). The third part examines the reaction of people in front of 33 different hazardous situations (risks to which people feel being exposed, confidence in authorities, confidence in information on hazards, hierarchy of 33 situations and relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses the nuclear issue (nuclear risk, ability and credibility of nuclear actors, the Chernobyl accident, radioactive wastes, demand of information on the nuclear risk).

  10. The IRSN 2012 barometer. The opinion on risks and security of the French population. Global results

    El Jammal, Marie-Helene; Rollinger, Francois; Mur, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    This report presents and comments the results of a survey during which a sample of the French population has been questioned on their current concerns (what is the most concerning issue in the present society and in the environment, science within concerns), on their opinion on scientific expertise (who should control a risky installation, the role and image of experts, the access to expertise files, the perception of pluralist structures), on their opinion on 33 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed, confidence in authorities to protect them, truth of information on hazards, hierarchy of the 33 situations), on their opinion on the nuclear activity and industry (the nuclear risk, the credibility and expertise of interveners), and on the Fukushima accident (perception of the accident, quality of information, expectations on the assessment of nuclear power stations)

  11. IRSN 2007 barometer: perception of risks and security by French people. Global results

    2007-07-01

    This report presents under the form of graphs and comments the results of the annual IRSN opinion poll on matters of risk and security. The IRSN is the French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety. Different themes are analysed: the present concerns for French people (in the present society, for the environment, about industrial risks and the image of science), the perception of expertise (who should control an installation, the role and the image of scientific experts, access to expertise documents), the public interest in risk issues (topic of interest, participation to information sessions), the attitude in front of 30 risk situations (presently perceived risks, confidence in public authorities to ensure their protection, truth about information on hazards, hierarchy of 30 situations). The last part is dedicated to the nuclear domain (nuclear risk, skill and credibility of interveners)

  12. The IRSN 2010 barometer. The opinion on risks and security of the French population. Global results

    2010-01-01

    This report presents and comments the results of a survey during which a sample of the French population has been questioned on their current concerns (about the society, about the environment, about the image of science), on their opinion on scientific expertise (who should control a risky installation, the role and image of experts, the access to expertise files, the perception of pluralist structures), the opinion on 32 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed, confidence in authorities, truth of information on hazards, hierarchy of the 32 situations), the opinion on the nuclear activity and industry (the nuclear risk, the credibility and expertise of interveners, incidents which occurred in 2008, the demand of information on the nuclear risk)

  13. The IRSN 2009 barometer. The opinion on risks and security of the French population. Global results

    2009-01-01

    This report presents and comments the results of a survey during which a sample of the French population has been questioned on their current concerns (about the society, about the environment, about the image of science), on their opinion on scientific expertise (who should control a risky installation, the role and image of experts, the access to expertise files, the perception of pluralist structures), the opinion on 31 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed, confidence in authorities, truth of information on hazards, hierarchy of the 31 situations), the opinion on the nuclear activity and industry (the nuclear risk, the credibility and expertise of interveners, incidents which occurred in 2008, the demand of information on the nuclear risk)

  14. The IRSN 2008 barometer. The opinion on risks and security of the French population. Global results

    2008-01-01

    This report presents and comments the results of a survey during which a sample of the French population has been questioned on their current concerns (about the society, about the environment, about quantitative criteria of risk management and about the image of science), on their opinion of scientific expertise (who should control a risky installation, the role and image of experts, the access to expertise files, the perception of pluralist structures), the opinion on 31 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed, confidence in authorities, truth of information on hazards, hierarchy of the 31 situations), the opinion on the nuclear activity and industry (the nuclear risk, the credibility and expertise of interveners), incidents which occurred in 2007, the demand of information on the nuclear risk), and on their opinion about radiotherapy accidents in France

  15. The economic impact of poor sample quality in clinical chemistry laboratories: results from a global survey.

    Erdal, Erik P; Mitra, Debanjali; Khangulov, Victor S; Church, Stephen; Plokhoy, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Background Despite advances in clinical chemistry testing, poor blood sample quality continues to impact laboratory operations and the quality of results. While previous studies have identified the preanalytical causes of lower sample quality, few studies have examined the economic impact of poor sample quality on the laboratory. Specifically, the costs associated with workarounds related to fibrin and gel contaminants remain largely unexplored. Methods A quantitative survey of clinical chemistry laboratory stakeholders across 10 international regions, including countries in North America, Europe and Oceania, was conducted to examine current blood sample testing practices, sample quality issues and practices to remediate poor sample quality. Survey data were used to estimate costs incurred by laboratories to mitigate sample quality issues. Results Responses from 164 participants were included in the analysis, which was focused on three specific issues: fibrin strands, fibrin masses and gel globules. Fibrin strands were the most commonly reported issue, with an overall incidence rate of ∼3%. Further, 65% of respondents indicated that these issues contribute to analyzer probe clogging, and the majority of laboratories had visual inspection and manual remediation practices in place to address fibrin- and gel-related quality problems (55% and 70%, respectively). Probe maintenance/replacement, visual inspection and manual remediation were estimated to carry significant costs for the laboratories surveyed. Annual cost associated with lower sample quality and remediation related to fibrin and/or gel globules for an average US laboratory was estimated to be $100,247. Conclusions Measures to improve blood sample quality present an important step towards improved laboratory operations.

  16. The Effects of Globalization on Working Conditions in Developing Countries : An Analysis Framework and Country Study Results

    Ruwan Jayasuriya

    2008-01-01

    Globalization defined as falling barriers to, and the increase in, trade, migration, and investment across borders directly affects workers in both developed and developing countries. While most global trade and investment is between the developed countries, globalization has increased dramatically in a number of developing countries. Understanding the effects of globalization is critical ...

  17. REGARDING "TRAGIC ECONOMIC OPTIMUM" FROM HOLISTIC+ PERSPECTIVE

    Constantin Popescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication aims to discuss the new scientific vision of "the entire integrated" as it follows the recent achievements of quantum physics, psychology and biology. From this perspective, economy is seen as a living organism, part of the social organism and together with de bright ecology. The optimum of the economy as a living organism is based on dynamic compatibilities with all common living requirements. The evolution of economic life is organically linked to the unavoidable circumstances contained in the form of V. Frankl ‘s tragic triad consisting of: pain, guilt and death. In interaction with the holistic triad circumscribed by limitations, uncertainties and open interdependencies, the tragic economic optimum (TEO is formed. It can be understood as that state of economic life in which freedom of choice of scarce resources under uncertainty has in the compatibility of rationality and hope the development criteria of MEANING. TEO means to say YES to economic life even in conditions of resource limitations, bankruptcies and unemployment, negative externalities, stress, etc. By respiritualization of responsibility using scientific knowledge. TEO - involves multicriteria modeling of economic life by integrating human demands, community, environmental, spiritual and business development in the assessment predicting human GDP as a variable wave aggregate.

  18. Optimum body size of Holstein replacement heifers.

    Hoffman, P C

    1997-03-01

    Criteria that define optimum body size of replacement heifers are required by commercial dairy producers to evaluate replacement heifer management programs. Historically recommended body size criteria have been based on live BW measurements. Numerous research studies have observed a positive relationship between BW at first calving and first lactation milk yield, which has served as the impetus for using live BW to define body size of replacement heifers. Live BW is, however, not the only available measurement to define body size. Skeletal measurements such as wither height, length, and pelvic area have been demonstrated to be related to first lactation performance and (or) dystocia. Live BW measurements also do not define differences in body composition. Differences in body composition of replacement heifers at first calving are also related to key performance variables. An updated research data base is available for the modern Holstein genotype to incorporate measures of skeletal growth and body composition with BW when defining body size. These research projects also lend insight into the relative importance of measurements that define body size of replacement heifers. Incorporation of these measurements from current research into present BW recommendations should aid commercial dairy producers to better define replacement heifer growth and management practices. This article proposes enhancements in defining optimum body size and growth characteristics of Holstein replacement heifers.

  19. Different Mechanisms of Soil Microbial Response to Global Change Result in Different Outcomes in the MIMICS-CN Model

    Kyker-Snowman, E.; Wieder, W. R.; Grandy, S.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial-explicit models of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling have improved upon simulations of C and N stocks and flows at site-to-global scales relative to traditional first-order linear models. However, the response of microbial-explicit soil models to global change factors depends upon which parameters and processes in a model are altered by those factors. We used the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization Model with coupled N cycling (MIMICS-CN) to compare modeled responses to changes in temperature and plant inputs at two previously-modeled sites (Harvard Forest and Kellogg Biological Station). We spun the model up to equilibrium, applied each perturbation, and evaluated 15 years of post-perturbation C and N pools and fluxes. To model the effect of increasing temperatures, we independently examined the impact of decreasing microbial C use efficiency (CUE), increasing the rate of microbial turnover, and increasing Michaelis-Menten kinetic rates of litter decomposition, plus several combinations of the three. For plant inputs, we ran simulations with stepwise increases in metabolic litter, structural litter, whole litter (structural and metabolic), or labile soil C. The cumulative change in soil C or N varied in both sign and magnitude across simulations. For example, increasing kinetic rates of litter decomposition resulted in net releases of both C and N from soil pools, while decreasing CUE produced short-term increases in respiration but long-term accumulation of C in litter pools and shifts in soil C:N as microbial demand for C increased and biomass declined. Given that soil N cycling constrains the response of plant productivity to global change and that soils generate a large amount of uncertainty in current earth system models, microbial-explicit models are a critical opportunity to advance the modeled representation of soils. However, microbial-explicit models must be improved by experiments to isolate the physiological and stoichiometric

  20. IRSN 2017 opinion survey. The perception of risks and safety by French people. Global results

    El Jammal, Marie-Helene; Charron, Sylvie; Mur, Emmanuelle; Schuler, Matthieu; Tchernia, Jean-francois

    2017-07-01

    Like every year, this report presents and comments the results of an opinion survey on risks, and more particularly on risks related to nuclear and radiological activities. The first part addresses the current concerns of French people (main concerns in the present society, with respect to the environment, and risks related to industrial installations). The second part addresses the opinion on expertise (the role and image of experts, diffusion and sharing of scientific expertise, and the perception of pluralistic structures). The third part examines the reaction of people in front of 34 different hazardous situations (risks to which people feel being exposed, confidence people have in authorities to protect them, confidence in information on hazards, hierarchy of the 34 situations according to three different aspects, and relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses the nuclear domain: expectations related to the control of the nuclear risk, benefits and drawbacks of nuclear energy, fear of a severe accident, attention given by French people to nuclear energy, expertise and credibility of interveners in the nuclear sector

  1. IRSN 2016 opinion survey. The perception of risks and safety by French people. Global results

    El Jammal, Marie-Helene; Charron, Sylvie; Mur, Emmanuelle; Schuler, Matthieu; Tchernia, Jean-francois

    2016-07-01

    Like every year, this report presents and comments the results of an opinion survey on risks, and more particularly on risks related to nuclear and radiological activities. The first part addresses the current concerns of French people (main concerns in the present society, with respect to the environment, and risks related to industrial installations). The second part addresses the opinion on expertise (the role and image of experts, diffusion and sharing of scientific expertise, and the perception of pluralistic structures). The third part examines the reaction of people in front of 34 different hazardous situations (risks to which people feel being exposed, confidence people have in authorities to protect them, confidence in information on hazards, hierarchy of the 34 situations according to three different aspects, and relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses the nuclear domain: expectations related to the control of the nuclear risk, fear of a severe accident, benefits and drawbacks of nuclear energy, expertise and credibility of interveners in the nuclear sector, fear of serious nuclear accidents, perception of the two main nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011)

  2. IRSN 2015 opinion survey. The perception of risks and safety by French people. Global results

    El Jammal, Marie-Helene; Mur, Emmanuelle; Rollinger, Francois; Schuler, Matthieu; Tchernia, Jean-Francois

    2015-07-01

    Like every year, this report presents and comments the results of an opinion survey on risks, and more particularly on risks related to nuclear and radiological activities. The first part addresses the current concerns of French people (main concerns in the present society, with respect to the environment, and risks related to industrial installations). The second part addresses the opinion on expertise (the role and image of experts, diffusion and sharing of scientific expertise, and who should control a hazardous installation). The third part examines the reaction of people in front of 34 different hazardous situations (risks to which people feel being exposed, confidence people have in authorities to protect them, confidence in information on hazards, hierarchy of the 34 situations according to three different aspects, and relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses the nuclear domain: expectations related to the control of the nuclear risk, fear of a severe accident, benefits and drawbacks of nuclear energy, expertise and credibility of interveners in the nuclear sector. The fifth part addresses the presence of radon in dwellings (awareness of the risk, measures related to the control of radon in dwellings)

  3. Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models

    Herbert Formayer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily globalradiation (RG values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequentcrop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis ofthe RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central Europeanclimate conditions. The research was conducted i at the eight individual sites in Austria andthe Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, withseven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii for the agricultural areas of the CzechRepublic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In thelatter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the ångström-Prescottformula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At thesite level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showedthe lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs.When the ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviationsgreater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 percent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lowerwhen RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent. The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We

  4. Tracer simulation using a global general circulation model: Results from a midlatitude instantaneous source experiment

    Mahlman, J.D.; Moxim, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    An 11-level general circulation model with seasonal variation is used to perform an experiment on the dispersion of passive tracers. Specially constructed time-dependent winds from this model are used as input to a separate tracer model. The methodologies employed to construct the tracer model are described.The experiment presented is the evolution of a hypothetical instantaneous source of tracer on 1 Janaury with maximum initial concentration at 65 mb, 36 0 N, 180 0 E. The tracer is assumed to have no sources or sinks in the stratosphere, but is subject to removal processes in the lower troposphere.The experimental results reveal a number of similarities to observed tracer behavior, including the average poleward-downward slope of mixing ratio isopleths, strong tracer gradients across the tropopause, intrusion of tracer into the Southern Hemisphere lower stratosphere, and the long-term interhemispheric exchange rate. The model residence times show behavior intermediate to those exhibited for particulate radioactive debris and gaseous C 14 O 2 . This suggests that caution should be employed when either radioactive debris or C 14 O 2 data are used to develop empirical models for prediction of gaseous tracers which are efficiently removed in the troposphere.In this experiment, the tracer mixing ratio and potential vorticity evolve to very high correlations. Mechanisms for this correlation are discussed. The zonal mean tracer balances exhibit complex behavior among the various transport terms. At early stages, the tracer evolution is dominated by eddy effects. Later, a very large degree of self-cancellation between mean cell and eddy effects is observed. During seasonal transitions, however, this self-cancellation diminishes markedly, leading to significant changes in the zonal mean tracer distribution. A possible theoretical explanation is presented

  5. GLOBAL MODELING OF NEBULAE WITH PARTICLE GROWTH, DRIFT, AND EVAPORATION FRONTS. I. METHODOLOGY AND TYPICAL RESULTS

    Estrada, Paul R. [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Avenue # 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. [Ames Research Center, NASA, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morgan, Demitri A., E-mail: Paul.R.Estrada@nasa.gov [USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We model particle growth in a turbulent, viscously evolving protoplanetary nebula, incorporating sticking, bouncing, fragmentation, and mass transfer at high speeds. We treat small particles using a moments method and large particles using a traditional histogram binning, including a probability distribution function of collisional velocities. The fragmentation strength of the particles depends on their composition (icy aggregates are stronger than silicate aggregates). The particle opacity, which controls the nebula thermal structure, evolves as particles grow and mass redistributes. While growing, particles drift radially due to nebula headwind drag. Particles of different compositions evaporate at “evaporation fronts” (EFs) where the midplane temperature exceeds their respective evaporation temperatures. We track the vapor and solid phases of each component, accounting for advection and radial and vertical diffusion. We present characteristic results in evolutions lasting 2 × 10{sup 5} years. In general, (1) mass is transferred from the outer to the inner nebula in significant amounts, creating radial concentrations of solids at EFs; (2) particle sizes are limited by a combination of fragmentation, bouncing, and drift; (3) “lucky” large particles never represent a significant amount of mass; and (4) restricted radial zones just outside each EF become compositionally enriched in the associated volatiles. We point out implications for millimeter to submillimeter SEDs and the inference of nebula mass, radial banding, the role of opacity on new mechanisms for generating turbulence, the enrichment of meteorites in heavy oxygen isotopes, variable and nonsolar redox conditions, the primary accretion of silicate and icy planetesimals, and the makeup of Jupiter’s core.

  6. GLOBAL MODELING OF NEBULAE WITH PARTICLE GROWTH, DRIFT, AND EVAPORATION FRONTS. I. METHODOLOGY AND TYPICAL RESULTS

    Estrada, Paul R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morgan, Demitri A.

    2016-01-01

    We model particle growth in a turbulent, viscously evolving protoplanetary nebula, incorporating sticking, bouncing, fragmentation, and mass transfer at high speeds. We treat small particles using a moments method and large particles using a traditional histogram binning, including a probability distribution function of collisional velocities. The fragmentation strength of the particles depends on their composition (icy aggregates are stronger than silicate aggregates). The particle opacity, which controls the nebula thermal structure, evolves as particles grow and mass redistributes. While growing, particles drift radially due to nebula headwind drag. Particles of different compositions evaporate at “evaporation fronts” (EFs) where the midplane temperature exceeds their respective evaporation temperatures. We track the vapor and solid phases of each component, accounting for advection and radial and vertical diffusion. We present characteristic results in evolutions lasting 2 × 10 5 years. In general, (1) mass is transferred from the outer to the inner nebula in significant amounts, creating radial concentrations of solids at EFs; (2) particle sizes are limited by a combination of fragmentation, bouncing, and drift; (3) “lucky” large particles never represent a significant amount of mass; and (4) restricted radial zones just outside each EF become compositionally enriched in the associated volatiles. We point out implications for millimeter to submillimeter SEDs and the inference of nebula mass, radial banding, the role of opacity on new mechanisms for generating turbulence, the enrichment of meteorites in heavy oxygen isotopes, variable and nonsolar redox conditions, the primary accretion of silicate and icy planetesimals, and the makeup of Jupiter’s core

  7. How many infants likely died in Africa as a result of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis?

    Friedman, Jed; Schady, Norbert

    2013-05-01

    The human consequences of the recent global financial crisis for the developing world are presumed to be severe, but few studies have quantified them. This letter estimates the human cost of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis in one critical dimension-infant mortality-for countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis pools birth-level data, as reported in female adult retrospective birth histories from all Demographic and Health Surveys collected in sub-Saharan Africa. This results in a data set of 639,000 births to 264,000 women in 30 countries. We use regression models with flexible controls for temporal trends to assess an infant's likelihood of death as a function of fluctuations in national income. We then calculate the expected number of excess deaths by combining these estimates with growth shortfalls as a result of the crisis. The results suggest 28,000-50,000 excess infant deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in the crisis-affected year of 2009. Notably, most of these additional deaths were concentrated among girls. Policies that protect the income of poor households and that maintain critical health services during times of economic contraction may reduce the expected increase in mortality. Interventions targeted at female infants and young girls can be particularly beneficial. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Precipitation and total power consumption in the ionosphere: Global MHD simulation results compared with Polar and SNOE observations

    M. Palmroth

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We compare the ionospheric electron precipitation morphology and power from a global MHD simulation (GUMICS-4 with direct measurements of auroral energy flux during a pair of substorms on 28-29 March 1998. The electron precipitation power is computed directly from global images of auroral light observed by the Polar satellite ultraviolet imager (UVI. Independent of the Polar UVI measurements, the electron precipitation energy is determined from SNOE satellite observations on the thermospheric nitric oxide (NO density. We find that the GUMICS-4 simulation reproduces the spatial variation of the global aurora rather reliably in the sense that the onset of the substorm is shown in GUMICS-4 simulation as enhanced precipitation in the right location at the right time. The total integrated precipitation power in the GUMICS-4 simulation is in quantitative agreement with the observations during quiet times, i.e., before the two substorm intensifications. We find that during active times the GUMICS-4 integrated precipitation is a factor of 5 lower than the observations indicate. However, we also find factor of 2-3 differences in the precipitation power among the three different UVI processing methods tested here. The findings of this paper are used to complete an earlier objective, in which the total ionospheric power deposition in the simulation is forecasted from a mathematical expression, which is a function of solar wind density, velocity and magnetic field. We find that during this event, the correlation coefficient between the outcome of the forecasting expression and the simulation results is 0.83. During the event, the simulation result on the total ionospheric power deposition agrees with observations (correlation coefficient 0.8 and the AE index (0.85.

  9. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system. Part 2. Study of the effective utilization technology of high efficiency energy (Study of the optimum system design technology); 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The paper conducted the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system and the R and D of the high efficiency energy effective utilization technology, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the energy transportation/storage technology, the R and D were made on the following: methanol/energy system, non-equilibrium high efficiency methanol decomposition reaction technology, development of multiple functions of catalyst, high efficiency heat pump technology using hydrogen storage alloys, heat-hydrogen recovery/transportation/utilization technology, vacuum insulated heat transport piping system, surfactant used for high density heat transport, high density latent heat transportation technology, etc. Concerning the energy supply/utilization technology, the R and D were made of the heat supply system using high efficient heat pump corresponding to multiple fuels. Relating to the environmental load reduction technology, the energy conserved heat pump system using natural coolant. As to the optimum system design technology, the comprehensive preparation of element technology, etc. (NEDO)

  10. Design chart of optimum current leads

    Ishibashi, K.; Katase, A.; Maechata, K.

    1986-01-01

    The heat flow through current leads is one of major heat losses in a superconducting magnet system. To reduce the heat flow, current leads have been optimized in a complex way by varying such quantities as conductor length, cross-sectional area, heat transfer coefficient and cooling perimeter. Therefore, this study is made to simplify the design procedure, and to explain the general characteristics of the current leads. A new combined parameter which takes turbulent flow into account is introduced in the present work to enable us to draw a useful design chart. This chart gives, to a wide variety of current leads, detailed information about the optimum design-viz. geometric dimensions, heat flow into liquid helium, and pressure drop of the cooling gas. Change of the cross-sectional area along the conductor may improve the current lead performance. The effects of this area change are examined in detail

  11. Optimum utilisation of the uranium resource

    Ion, S. E.; Wilson, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear industry faces many challenges, notably to maximise safety, secure an adequate energy supply, manage wastes satisfactorily and achieve political acceptability. One way forward is to optimise together the various interdependent stages of the fuel cycle - the now familiar 'holistic approach'. Many of the issues will demand large R and D expenditure, most effectively met through international collaboration. Sustainable development requires optimum utilisation of energy potential, to which the most accessible key is recycling uranium and the plutonium bred from it. Realising anything like this full potential requires fast-neutron reactors, and therefore BNFL continues to sustain the UK involvement in their international development. Meanwhile, current R and D programmes must aim to make the nuclear option more competitive against fossil resources, while maintaining and developing the necessary skills for more advanced technologies The paper outlines the strategies being pursued and highlights BNFL 's programmes. (author)

  12. Hadamard upper bound on optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner Gaussian cellular MAC

    Shakir, Muhammad; Durrani, Tariq S; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    demonstrates that the analytical HUB based on the proposed approximation approach converges to the theoretical upper bound results in the medium to high signal to noise ratio regime and shows a reasonably tighter bound on optimum joint decoding capacity

  13. Developed Hybrid Model for Propylene Polymerisation at Optimum Reaction Conditions

    Mohammad Jakir Hossain Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A statistical model combined with CFD (computational fluid dynamic method was used to explain the detailed phenomena of the process parameters, and a series of experiments were carried out for propylene polymerisation by varying the feed gas composition, reaction initiation temperature, and system pressure, in a fluidised bed catalytic reactor. The propylene polymerisation rate per pass was considered the response to the analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM, with a full factorial central composite experimental design, was applied to develop the model. In this study, analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated an acceptable value for the coefficient of determination and a suitable estimation of a second-order regression model. For better justification, results were also described through a three-dimensional (3D response surface and a related two-dimensional (2D contour plot. These 3D and 2D response analyses provided significant and easy to understand findings on the effect of all the considered process variables on expected findings. To diagnose the model adequacy, the mathematical relationship between the process variables and the extent of polymer conversion was established through the combination of CFD with statistical tools. All the tests showed that the model is an excellent fit with the experimental validation. The maximum extent of polymer conversion per pass was 5.98% at the set time period and with consistent catalyst and co-catalyst feed rates. The optimum conditions for maximum polymerisation was found at reaction temperature (RT 75 °C, system pressure (SP 25 bar, and 75% monomer concentration (MC. The hydrogen percentage was kept fixed at all times. The coefficient of correlation for reaction temperature, system pressure, and monomer concentration ratio, was found to be 0.932. Thus, the experimental results and model predicted values were a reliable fit at optimum process conditions. Detailed and adaptable CFD results were capable

  14. Modified loss coefficients in the determination of optimum generation scheduling

    Hazarika, D.; Bordoloi, P.K. (Assam Engineering Coll. (IN))

    1991-03-01

    A modified method has been evolved to form the loss coefficients of an electrical power system network by decoupling load and generation and thereby creating additional fictitious load buses. The system losses are then calculated and co-ordinated to arrive at an optimum scheduling of generation using the standard co-ordination equation. The method presented is superior to the ones currently available, in that it is applicable to a multimachine system with random variation of load and it accounts for limits in plant generations and line losses. The precise nature of results and the economy in the cost of energy production obtained by this method is quantified and presented. (author).

  15. Stakeholders' perceptions of 10years of the Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) - Results from a survey.

    Nannei, Claudia; Goldin, Shoshanna; Torelli, Guido; Fatima, Hiba; Kumar, Kaveri; Bubb-Humfryes, Oliver; Stenson, Bo; Sparrow, Erin

    2016-10-26

    Ten years after the launch of the Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP), the World Health Organization (WHO) surveyed stakeholders to understand their perceptions of what the programme had achieved. This article provides a summary of the findings; the full report will be available on-line on the GAP website in November 2016 (http://www.who.int/influenza_vaccines_plan/en/). Seventy-seven responses were received from stakeholders including medical doctors, national influenza center officials, country immunization programme teams, surveillance and disease centers, policy-makers, researchers, vaccine manufacturers, and non-governmental organizations from 28 countries, representing all six WHO regions. Respondents cited GAP's biggest successes as capacity building in developing countries; raising international awareness of global needs in the event of a pandemic; and collaborative alignment of influenza stakeholders. The most commonly reported challenges were the limited progress in development of a broadly protective or universal vaccine and the perceived absence of a major increase in seasonal demand. These findings aligned with the perception that less global progress had been made under the third GAP objective, focused on research and development of better vaccines, than on increasing seasonal vaccine use (objective 1) and pandemic vaccine production capacity (objective 2). Respondents explained what they saw as the major challenges to development of better vaccines, including to development of a universal influenza vaccine. The majority of respondents agreed that the goal chosen at the GAP II consultation is still relevant. Results highlighted the importance of promoting research and development of better vaccines, both for facilitating uptake of seasonal vaccines and for ensuring timely vaccine availability in the event of a pandemic. As the GAP concludes its mandate this year, these findings will contribute to discussions on the impact of programme

  16. Development of Non-Optimum Factors for Launch Vehicle Propellant Tank Bulkhead Weight Estimation

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Wallace, Matthew L.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-optimum factors are used during aerospace conceptual and preliminary design to account for the increased weights of as-built structures due to future manufacturing and design details. Use of higher-fidelity non-optimum factors in these early stages of vehicle design can result in more accurate predictions of a concept s actual weights and performance. To help achieve this objective, non-optimum factors are calculated for the aluminum-alloy gores that compose the ogive and ellipsoidal bulkheads of the Space Shuttle Super-Lightweight Tank propellant tanks. Minimum values for actual gore skin thicknesses and weld land dimensions are extracted from selected production drawings, and are used to predict reference gore weights. These actual skin thicknesses are also compared to skin thicknesses predicted using classical structural mechanics and tank proof-test pressures. Both coarse and refined weights models are developed for the gores. The coarse model is based on the proof pressure-sized skin thicknesses, and the refined model uses the actual gore skin thicknesses and design detail dimensions. To determine the gore non-optimum factors, these reference weights are then compared to flight hardware weights reported in a mass properties database. When manufacturing tolerance weight estimates are taken into account, the gore non-optimum factors computed using the coarse weights model range from 1.28 to 2.76, with an average non-optimum factor of 1.90. Application of the refined weights model yields non-optimum factors between 1.00 and 1.50, with an average non-optimum factor of 1.14. To demonstrate their use, these calculated non-optimum factors are used to predict heavier, more realistic gore weights for a proposed heavy-lift launch vehicle s propellant tank bulkheads. These results indicate that relatively simple models can be developed to better estimate the actual weights of large structures for future launch vehicles.

  17. Recent results in the development of a global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus optical-model potential

    Madland, D.G.

    1988-02-01

    Initial results are presented for the determination of a global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus phenomenological optical-model potential using a relativistic Schroedinger representation. The starting point for this work is the global phenomenological optical-model potential of Schwandt /ital et al./, which is based on measured elastic scattering cross sections and analyzing power for polarized protons ranging from 80 to 180 MeV. This potential is optimally modified to reproduce experimental proton reaction cross sections as a function of energy, while allowing only minimal deterioration in the fits to the elastic cross sections and analyzing powers. Further modifications in the absorptive potential were found necessary to extrapolate the modified potential to higher energies. The final potential is converted to a neutron-nucleus potential by use of standard Lane model assumptions and by accounting approximately for the Coulomb correction. Comparisons of measured and calculated proton reaction and neutron total cross sections are presented for 27 Al, 56 Fe, and 208 Pb. Medium-energy optical-model potentials for complex projectiles are briefly discussed in an appendix. 7 refs., 20 figs

  18. Design optimum frac jobs using virtual intelligence techniques

    Mohaghegh, Shahab; Popa, Andrei; Ameri, Sam

    2000-10-01

    Designing optimal frac jobs is a complex and time-consuming process. It usually involves the use of a two- or three-dimensional computer model. For the computer models to perform as intended, a wealth of input data is required. The input data includes wellbore configuration and reservoir characteristics such as porosity, permeability, stress and thickness profiles of the pay layers as well as the overburden layers. Among other essential information required for the design process is fracturing fluid type and volume, proppant type and volume, injection rate, proppant concentration and frac job schedule. Some of the parameters such as fluid and proppant types have discrete possible choices. Other parameters such as fluid and proppant volume, on the other hand, assume values from within a range of minimum and maximum values. A potential frac design for a particular pay zone is a combination of all of these parameters. Finding the optimum combination is not a trivial process. It usually requires an experienced engineer and a considerable amount of time to tune the parameters in order to achieve desirable outcome. This paper introduces a new methodology that integrates two virtual intelligence techniques, namely, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms to automate and simplify the optimum frac job design process. This methodology requires little input from the engineer beyond the reservoir characterizations and wellbore configuration. The software tool that has been developed based on this methodology uses the reservoir characteristics and an optimization criteria indicated by the engineer, for example a certain propped frac length, and provides the detail of the optimum frac design that will result in the specified criteria. An ensemble of neural networks is trained to mimic the two- or three-dimensional frac simulator. Once successfully trained, these networks are capable of providing instantaneous results in response to any set of input parameters. These

  19. Design optimum frac jobs using virtual intelligence techniques

    Shahab Mohaghegh; Andrei Popa; Sam Ameri [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering

    2000-10-01

    Designing optimal frac jobs is a complex and time-consuming process. It usually involves the use of a two- or three-dimensional computer model. For the computer models to perform as intended, a wealth of input data is required. The input data includes wellbore configuration and reservoir characteristics such as porosity, permeability, stress and thickness profiles of the pay layers as well as the overburden layers. Among other essential information required for the design process is fracturing fluid type and volume, proppant type and volume, injection rate, proppant concentration and frac job schedule. Some of the parameters such as fluid and proppant types have discrete possible choices. Other parameters such as fluid and proppant volume, on the other hand, assume values from within a range of minimum and maximum values. A potential frac design for a particular pay zone is a combination of all of these parameters. Finding the optimum combination is not a trivial process. It usually requires an experienced engineer and a considerable amount of time to tune the parameters in order to achieve desirable outcome. This paper introduces a new methodology that integrates two virtual intelligence techniques, namely, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms to automate and simplify the optimum frac job design process. This methodology requires little input from the engineer beyond the reservoir characterizations and wellbore configuration. The software tool that has been developed based on this methodology uses the reservoir characteristics and an optimization criteria indicated by the engineer, for example a certain propped frac length, and provides the detail of the optimum frac design that will result in the specified criteria. An ensemble of neural networks is trained to mimic the two- or three-dimensional frac simulator. Once successfully trained, these networks are capable of providing instantaneous results in response to any set of input parameters. These

  20. Global Monitoring of Salmonella Serovar Distribution from the World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network Country Data Bank: Results of Quality Assured Laboratories from 2001 to 2007

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Vieira, Antonio; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is commonly acquired from contaminated food and is an important cause of illness worldwide. Interventions are needed to control Salmonella; subtyping Salmonella by serotyping is useful for targeting such interventions. We, therefore, analyzed the global distribution of the 15...

  1. External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) of the WHO Global Salmonella Surveillance and Laboratory Support Project (Global Salm-Surv) Results from 2001

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Evans, M.C.

    An international collaborative study on serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of eight Salmonella enterica strains was performed to enhance the capacity of national and regional reference laboratories in WHO Global Salm-Surv to conduct Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial suscept...... of the quality control range specified by NCCLS guidelines....

  2. An Optimum Solution for Electric Power Theft

    Aamir Hussain Memon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric power theft is a problem that continues to plague power sector across the whole country. Every year, the electricity companies face the line losses at an average 20-30% and according to power ministry estimation WAPDA companies lose more than Rs. 125 billion. Significantly, it is enough to destroy the entire power sector of country. According to sources 20% losses means the masses would have to pay extra 20% in terms of electricity tariffs. In other words, the innocent consumers pay the bills of those who steal electricity. For all that, no any permanent solution for this major issue has ever been proposed. We propose an applicable and optimum solution for this impassable problem. In our research, we propose an Electric power theft solution based on three stages; Transmission stage, Distribution stage, and User stage. Without synchronization among all, the complete solution can not be achieved. The proposed solution is simulated on NI (National Instruments Circuit Design Suite Multisim v.10.0. Our research work is an implicit and a workable approach towards the Electric power theft, as for conditions in Pakistan, which is bearing the brunt of power crises already

  3. Mesh networks: an optimum solution for AMR

    Mimno, G.

    2003-12-01

    Characteristics of mesh networks and the advantage of using them in automatic meter reading equipment (AMR) are discussed. Mesh networks are defined as being similar to a fishing net made of knots and links. In mesh networks the knots represent meter sites and the links are the radio paths between the meter sites and the neighbourhood concentrator. In mesh networks any knot in the communications chain can link to any other and the optimum path is calculated by the network by hopping from meter to meter until the radio message reaches a concentrator. This mesh communications architecture is said to be vastly superior to many older types of radio-based meter reading technologies; its main advantage is that it not only significantly improves the economics of fixed network deployment, but also supports time-of-use metering, remote disconnect services and advanced features, such as real-time pricing, demand response, and other efficiency measures, providing a better return on investment and reliability.

  4. Designing from minimum to optimum functionality

    Bannova, Olga; Bell, Larry

    2011-04-01

    This paper discusses a multifaceted strategy to link NASA Minimal Functionality Habitable Element (MFHE) requirements to a compatible growth plan; leading forward to evolutionary, deployable habitats including outpost development stages. The discussion begins by reviewing fundamental geometric features inherent in small scale, vertical and horizontal, pressurized module configuration options to characterize applicability to meet stringent MFHE constraints. A proposed scenario to incorporate a vertical core MFHE concept into an expanded architecture to provide continuity of structural form and a logical path from "minimum" to "optimum" design of a habitable module. The paper describes how habitation and logistics accommodations could be pre-integrated into a common Hab/Log Module that serves both habitation and logistics functions. This is offered as a means to reduce unnecessary redundant development costs and to avoid EVA-intensive on-site adaptation and retrofitting requirements for augmented crew capacity. An evolutionary version of the hard shell Hab/Log design would have an expandable middle section to afford larger living and working accommodations. In conclusion, the paper illustrates that a number of cargo missions referenced for NASA's 4.0.0 Lunar Campaign Scenario could be eliminated altogether to expedite progress and reduce budgets. The plan concludes with a vertical growth geometry that provides versatile and efficient site development opportunities using a combination of hard Hab/Log modules and a hybrid expandable "CLAM" (Crew Lunar Accommodations Module) element.

  5. Achieving optimum diffraction based overlay performance

    Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee; Coogans, Martyn; Fuchs, Andreas; Ponomarenko, Mariya; van der Schaar, Maurits; Vanoppen, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) metrology has been shown to have significantly reduced Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) compared to Image Based Overlay (IBO), primarily due to having no measurable Tool Induced Shift (TIS). However, the advantages of having no measurable TIS can be outweighed by increased susceptibility to WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) caused by target damage, process non-uniformities and variations. The path to optimum DBO performance lies in having well characterized metrology targets, which are insensitive to process non-uniformities and variations, in combination with optimized recipes which take advantage of advanced DBO designs. In this work we examine the impact of different degrees of process non-uniformity and target damage on DBO measurement gratings and study their impact on overlay measurement accuracy and precision. Multiple wavelength and dual polarization scatterometry are used to characterize the DBO design performance over the range of process variation. In conclusion, we describe the robustness of DBO metrology to target damage and show how to exploit the measurement capability of a multiple wavelength, dual polarization scatterometry tool to ensure the required measurement accuracy for current and future technology nodes.

  6. Optimum Discharge Burnup and Cycle Length for PWRs

    Secker, Jeffrey R.; Johansen, Baard J.; Stucker, David L.; Ozer, Odelli; Ivanov, Kostadin; Yilmaz, Serkan; Young, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a pressurized water reactor fuel management study determining the optimum discharge burnup and cycle length. A comprehensive study was performed considering 12-, 18-, and 24-month fuel cycles over a wide range of discharge burnups. A neutronic study was performed followed by an economic evaluation. The first phase of the study limited the fuel enrichments used in the study to 235 U consistent with constraints today. The second phase extended the range of discharge burnups for 18-month cycles by using fuel enriched in excess of 5 wt%. The neutronic study used state-of-the-art reactor physics methods to accurately determine enrichment requirements. Energy requirements were consistent with today's high capacity factors (>98%) and short (15-day) refueling outages. The economic evaluation method considers various component costs including uranium, conversion, enrichment, fabrication and spent-fuel storage costs as well as the effect of discounting of the revenue stream. The resulting fuel cycle costs as a function of cycle length and discharge burnup are presented and discussed. Fuel costs decline with increasing discharge burnup for all cycle lengths up to the maximum discharge burnup considered. The choice of optimum cycle length depends on assumptions for outage costs

  7. Determination of optimum growth conditions and biodiesel ...

    Lotfy H.

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Namibia, P. Bag 13301,. Windhoek ... global warming that is associated with burning fossil fuels ... quantities of lipids per dry weight biomass, algae biofuel contains no ... They can form dense .... Transesterification reaction to produce biodiesel.

  8. Deposition uniformity, particle nucleation and the optimum conditions for CVD in multi-wafer furnaces

    Griffiths, S.K.; Nilson, R.H.

    1996-06-01

    A second-order perturbation solution describing the radial transport of a reactive species and concurrent deposition on wafer surfaces is derived for use in optimizing CVD process conditions. The result is applicable to a variety of deposition reactions and accounts for both diffusive and advective transport, as well as both ordinary and Knudsen diffusion. Based on the first-order approximation, the deposition rate is maximized subject to a constraint on the radial uniformity of the deposition rate. For a fixed reactant mole fraction, the optimum pressure and optimum temperature are obtained using the method of Lagrange multipliers. This yields a weak one-sided maximum; deposition rates fall as pressures are reduced but remain nearly constant at all pressures above the optimum value. The deposition rate is also maximized subject to dual constraints on the uniformity and particle nucleation rate. In this case, the optimum pressure, optimum temperature and optimum reactant fraction are similarly obtained, and the resulting maximum deposition rate is well defined. These results are also applicable to CVI processes used in composites manufacturing.

  9. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    Horiuchi, Youko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Mochizuki, Takako; Fujita, Masahiro; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue

  10. Optimum Wing Shape of Highly Flexible Morphing Aircraft for Improved Flight Performance

    Su, Weihua; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, optimum wing bending and torsion deformations are explored for a mission adaptive, highly flexible morphing aircraft. The complete highly flexible aircraft is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with unsteady aerodynamics and six-degrees-of-freedom rigid-body motions. Since there are no conventional discrete control surfaces for trimming the flexible aircraft, the design space for searching the optimum wing geometries is enlarged. To achieve high performance flight, the wing geometry is best tailored according to the specific flight mission needs. In this study, the steady level flight and the coordinated turn flight are considered, and the optimum wing deformations with the minimum drag at these flight conditions are searched by utilizing a modal-based optimization procedure, subject to the trim and other constraints. The numerical study verifies the feasibility of the modal-based optimization approach, and shows the resulting optimum wing configuration and its sensitivity under different flight profiles.

  11. Global demethylation of rat chondrosarcoma cells after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine results in increased tumorigenicity.

    Christopher A Hamm

    Full Text Available Abnormal patterns of DNA methylation are observed in several types of human cancer. While localized DNA methylation of CpG islands has been associated with gene silencing, the effect that genome-wide loss of methylation has on tumorigenesis is not completely known. To examine its effect on tumorigenesis, we induced DNA demethylation in a rat model of human chondrosarcoma using 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Rat specific pyrosequencing assays were utilized to assess the methylation levels in both LINEs and satellite DNA sequences following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Loss of DNA methylation was accompanied by an increase in invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, as well as by an increase in tumor growth in vivo. Subsequent microarray analysis provided insight into the gene expression changes that result from 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation. In particular, two genes that may function in tumorigenesis, sox-2 and midkine, were expressed at low levels in control cells but upon 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment these genes became overexpressed. Promoter region DNA analysis revealed that these genes were methylated in control cells but became demethylated following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Following withdrawal of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, the rat chondrosarcoma cells reestablished global DNA methylation levels that were comparable to that of control cells. Concurrently, invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, decreased to a level indistinguishable to that of control cells. Taken together these experiments demonstrate that global DNA hypomethylation induced by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine may promote specific aspects of tumorigenesis in rat chondrosarcoma cells.

  12. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004

    Muula Adamson S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. Methods We used data from the Somaliland Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS of 2004 to estimate the prevalence of smoking. We also assessed whether being exposed to anti-smoking media, education and having discussed with family members on the harmful effects of smoking were associated with smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess these associations. Current smoking was defined as having reported smoking cigarettes, even a single puff, in the last 30 days preceding the survey (main outcome. Results Altogether 1563 adolescents participated in the survey. However, 1122 had data on the main outcome. Altogether, 15.8% of the respondents reported having smoked cigarettes (10.3% among males, and 11.1% among females. Factors that were associated with reported non-smoking were: discussing harmful effects of smoking cigarettes with their family members (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52, 0.71; being taught that smoking makes teeth yellow, causes wrinkles and smokers smell badly (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.52, 0.74; being taught that people of the respondent's age do not smoke (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.69, 0.95; and having reported that religious organizations discouraged young people smoking (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.60, 0.82. However, exposure to a lot many antismoking messages at social gatherings was associated with smoking. Exposure to antismoking print media was not associated with smoking status. Conclusion A combination of school and home based antismoking interventions may be effective in controlling adolescent smoking in Somaliland.

  13. Effects of stratocumulus, cumulus, and cirrus clouds on the UV-B diffuse to global ratio: Experimental and modeling results

    López, María Laura; Palancar, Gustavo G.; Toselli, Beatriz M.

    2012-01-01

    Broadband measurements of global and diffuse UV-B irradiance (280-315 nm) together with modeled and measured diffuse to global ratios (DGR) have been used to characterize the influence of different types of clouds on irradiance at the surface. Measurements were carried out during 2000-2001 in Córdoba City, Argentina. The Tropospheric Ultraviolet Visible (TUV) model was used to analyze the behavior of the modeled DGRs for different cloud optical depths and at different altitudes and solar zenith angles (SZA). Different cloud altitudes were also tested, although only the results for a cloud placed at 1.5-2.5 km of altitude are shown. A total of 16 day with stratocumulus, 12 with cumulus, and 16 with cirrus have been studied and compared among them and also against 21 clear sky days. Different behaviors were clearly detected and also differentiated through the analysis of the averages and the standard deviations of the DGRs: 1.02±0.06 for stratocumulus, 0.74±0.18 for cumulus, 0.63±0.12 for cirrus, and 0.60±0.13 for the clear sky days, respectively. Stratocumulus clouds showed a low variability in the DGR values, which were concentrated close to one at all SZAs. DGR values for cumulus clouds presented a large variability at all SZAs, mostly associated with the different optical depths. Finally, the closeness between the DGR values for cirrus clouds and the DGR values for clear days showed that these clouds generally do not strongly affect the UV-B irradiance at the surface at any SZA. In the opposite side, stratocumulus clouds were identified as those with the largest effects, at all SZAs, on the UV-B irradiance at the surface.

  14. Some results about the global attractivity of bounded solutions of difference equations with applications to periodic solutions

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Mazrooei-Sebdani, Reza

    2007-01-01

    We obtain some results about the global attractivity of bounded solutions of difference equation x n+1 =f(x n ,x n-1 ,...,x n-k ), n=0,1,... where f is non-increasing or non-decreasing in each argument and every point in I is an equilibrium point of above equation where I is an invariant interval for this equation. By our results we prove that when k is an odd positive integer and p>=1 is a real number, every positive solution ofx n+1 =p+x n-k 1+x n ,n=0,1,...converges to a period-two solution of this equation. We also apply our results to the rational difference equationx n+1 =1+x n-2k+1 x n-2l ,n=0,1,...where k,l-bar {0,1,...}, and we show that every positive solution of this equation converges to a period-two solution of this equation

  15. The economic benefits resulting from the first 8 years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000-2007.

    Brian K Chu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 2000-2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine to all at-risk for 4-6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations.To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour OrganizationAn estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion.MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with favorable program implementation costs (largely a result of

  16. Optimum Operating Conditions for PZT Actuators for Vibrotactile Wearables

    Logothetis, Irini; Matsouka, Dimitra; Vassiliadis, Savvas; Vossou, Clio; Siores, Elias

    2018-04-01

    Recently, vibrotactile wearables have received much attention in fields such as medicine, psychology, athletics and video gaming. The electrical components presently used to generate vibration are rigid; hence, the design and creation of ergonomical wearables are limited. Significant advances in piezoelectric components have led to the production of flexible actuators such as piezoceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film. To verify the functionality of PZT actuators for use in vibrotactile wearables, the factors influencing the electromechanical conversion were analysed and tested. This was achieved through theoretical and experimental analyses of a monomorph clamped-free structure for the PZT actuator. The research performed for this article is a three-step process. First, a theoretical analysis presents the equations governing the actuator. In addition, the eigenfrequency of the film was analysed preceding the experimental section. For this stage, by applying an electric voltage and varying the stimulating electrical characteristics (i.e., voltage, electrical waveform and frequency), the optimum operating conditions for a PZT film were determined. The tip displacement was measured referring to the mechanical energy converted from electrical energy. From the results obtained, an equation for the mechanical behaviour of PZT films as actuators was deduced. It was observed that the square waveform generated larger tip displacements. In conjunction with large voltage inputs at the predetermined eigenfrequency, the optimum operating conditions for the actuator were achieved. To conclude, PZT films can be adapted to assist designers in creating comfortable vibrotactile wearables.

  17. Optimum concrete compression strength using bio-enzyme

    Bagio Tony Hartono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To make concrete with high compressive strength and has a certain concrete specifications other than the main concrete materials are also needed concrete mix quality control and other added material is also in line with the current technology of concrete mix that produces concrete with specific characteristics. Addition of bio enzyme on five concrete mixture that will be compared with normal concrete in order to know the optimum level bio-enzyme in concrete to increase the strength of the concrete. Concrete with bio-enzyme 200 ml/m3, 400 ml/m3, 600 ml/m3, 800 ml/m3, 1000 ml/m3 and normal concrete. Refer to the crushing test result, its tends to the mathematical model using 4th degree polynomial regression (least quartic, as represent on the attached data series, which is for the design mix fc′ = 25 MPa generate optimum value for 33,98 MPa, on the bio-additive dosage of 509 ml bio enzymes.

  18. Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Production of Chitosan Nanoparticles

    A. Dustgani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioedegradable nanoparticles are intensively investigated for their potential applications in drug delivery systems. Being a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, chitosan holds great promise for use in this area. This investigation was concerned with determination and optimization of the effective parameters involved in the production of chitosan nanoparticles using ionic gelation method. Studied variables were concentration and pH of the chitosan solution, the ratio of chitosan to sodium tripolyphosphate therein and the molecular weight of chitosan. For this purpose, Taguchistatistical method was used for design of experiments in three levels. The size of chitosan nanoparticle was determined using laser light scattering. The experimental results showed that concentration of chitosan solution was the most important parameter and chitosan molecular weight the least effective parameter. The optimum conditions for preparation of nanoparticles were found to be 1 mg/mL chitosan solution with pH=5, chitosan to sodium tripolyphosphate ratio of 3 and chitosan molecular weight of 200,000 daltons. The average nanoparticle size at optimum conditions was found to be about 150 nm.

  19. Optimum energies for dual-energy computed tomography

    Talbert, A.J.; Brooks, R.A.; Morgenthaler, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    By performing a dual-energy scan, separate information can be obtained on the Compton and photoelectric components of attenuation for an unknown material. This procedure has been analysed for the optimum energies, and for the optimum dose distribution between the two scans. It was found that an equal dose at both energies was a good compromise, compared with optimising the dose distributing for either the Compton or photoelectric components individually. For monoenergetic beams, it was found that low energy of 40 keV produced minimum noise when using high-energy beams of 80 to 100 keV. This was true whether one maintained constant integral dose or constant surface dose. A low energy of 50 keV which is more nearly attainable in practice, produced almost as good a degree of accuracy. The analysis can be extended to polyenergetic beams by the inclusion of a noise factor. The above results were qualitatively unchanged, although the noise was increased by about 20% with integral dose equivalence and 50% with surface dose equivalence. It is very important to make the spectra as narrow as possible, especially at the low energy, in order to minimise the noise. (author)

  20. Cross-Cultural and Global Interdependency Development in STEM Undergraduate Students: Results from Singapore Study Abroad Program

    Alexis, Frank; Casco, M.; Martin, J.; Zhang, G.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of study abroad programs is to educate and train future global leaders. This article examines the effectiveness of Clemson University's Singapore Study Abroad program in meeting this goal by exposing students to global perspectives of science technology, engineering and math (STEM) research and learning through an international summer…

  1. Cenozoic global sea level, sequences, and the New Jersey transect: Results from coastal plain and continental slope drilling

    Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.; Sugarman, P.J.; Christie-Blick, N.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The New Jersey Sea Level Transect was designed to evaluate the relationships among global sea level (eustatic) change, unconformity-bounded sequences, and variations in subsidence, sediment supply, and climate on a passive continental margin. By sampling and dating Cenozoic strata from coastal plain and continental slope locations, we show that sequence boundaries correlate (within ??0.5 myr) regionally (onshore-offshore) and interregionally (New Jersey-Alabama-Bahamas), implicating a global cause. Sequence boundaries correlate with ??18O increases for at least the past 42 myr, consistent with an ice volume (glacioeustatic) control, although a causal relationship is not required because of uncertainties in ages and correlations. Evidence for a causal connection is provided by preliminary Miocene data from slope Site 904 that directly link ??18O increases with sequence boundaries. We conclude that variation in the size of ice sheets has been a primary control on the formation of sequence boundaries since ~42 Ma. We speculate that prior to this, the growth and decay of small ice sheets caused small-amplitude sea level changes (changes on mid-ocean ridges. Although our results are consistent with the general number and timing of Paleocene to middle Miocene sequences published by workers at Exxon Production Research Company, our estimates of sea level amplitudes are substantially lower than theirs. Lithofacies patterns within sequences follow repetitive, predictable patterns: (1) coastal plain sequences consist of basal transgressive sands overlain by regressive highstand silts and quartz sands; and (2) although slope lithofacies variations are subdued, reworked sediments constitute lowstand deposits, causing the strongest, most extensive seismic reflections. Despite a primary eustatic control on sequence boundaries, New Jersey sequences were also influenced by changes in tectonics, sediment supply, and climate. During the early to middle Eocene, low siliciclastic and

  2. Global atmospheric response to specific linear combinations of the main SST modes. Part I: numerical experiments and preliminary results

    S. Trzaska

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates through numerical experiments the controversial question of the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phenomena on climate according to large-scale and regional-scale interhemispheric thermal contrast. Eight experiments (two considering only inversed Atlantic thermal anomalies and six combining ENSO warm phase with large-scale interhemispheric contrast and Atlantic anomaly patterns were performed with the Météo-France atmospheric general circulation model. The definition of boundary conditions from observed composites and principal components is presented and preliminary results concerning the month of August, especially over West Africa and the equatorial Atlantic are discussed. Results are coherent with observations and show that interhemispheric and regional scale sea-surface-temperature anomaly (SST patterns could significantly modulate the impact of ENSO phenomena: the impact of warm-phase ENSO, relative to the atmospheric model intercomparison project (AMIP climatology, seems stronger when embedded in global and regional SSTA patterns representative of the post-1970 conditions [i.e. with temperatures warmer (colder than the long-term mean in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere]. Atlantic SSTAs may also play a significant role.

  3. Comparison of optimum tilt angles of solar collectors determined at yearly, seasonal and monthly levels

    Despotovic, Milan; Nedic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimum yearly, biannual, seasonal, monthly, and daily tilt angles were found. • Energy collected per square meter is compared for ten different scenarios. • Four seasonal scenarios and two biannual scenarios were considered. • It is sufficient to adjust tilt angles only twice per year. - Abstract: The amount of energy that is transformed in solar collector depends on its tilt angle with respect to horizontal plane and orientation of the collector. In this article the optimum tilt angle of solar collectors for Belgrade, which is located at the latitude of 44°47′N is determined. The optimum tilt angle was found by searching for the values for which the solar radiation on the collector surface is maximum for a particular day or a specific period. In that manner the yearly, biannual, seasonal, monthly, fortnightly, and daily optimum tilt angles are determined. Annually collected energy per square meter of tilted surface is compared for ten different scenarios. In addition, these optimum tilt angles are used to calculate the amount of energy on the surface of PV panels that could be installed at the roof of the building. The results show that for observed case study placing the panels at yearly, seasonal and monthly optimum tilt angles, would yield increasing yearly amount of collected energy by factor of 5.98%, 13.55%, and 15.42% respectively compared to energy that could be collected by putting the panels at current roofs’ surface angles

  4. Developing an optimum protocol for thermoluminescence dosimetry with gr-200 chips using Taguchi method

    Sadeghi, Maryam; Faghihi, Reza; Sina, Sedigheh

    2017-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is a powerful technique with wide applications in personal, environmental and clinical dosimetry. The optimum annealing, storage and reading protocols are very effective in accuracy of TLD response. The purpose of this study is to obtain an optimum protocol for GR-200; LiF: Mg, Cu, P, by optimizing the effective parameters, to increase the reliability of the TLD response using Taguchi method. Taguchi method has been used in this study for optimization of annealing, storage and reading protocols of the TLDs. A number of 108 GR-200 chips were divided into 27 groups, each containing four chips. The TLDs were exposed to three different doses, and stored, annealed and read out by different procedures as suggested by Taguchi Method. By comparing the signal-to-noise ratios the optimum dosimetry procedure was obtained. According to the results, the optimum values for annealing temperature (de.C), Annealing Time (s), Annealing to Exposure time (d), Exposure to Readout time (d), Pre-heat Temperature (de.C), Pre-heat Time (s), Heating Rate (de.C/s), Maximum Temperature of Readout (de.C), readout time (s) and Storage Temperature (de.C) are 240, 90, 1, 2, 50, 0, 15, 240, 13 and -20, respectively. Using the optimum protocol, an efficient glow curve with low residual signals can be achieved. Using optimum protocol obtained by Taguchi method, the dosimetry can be effectively performed with great accuracy. (authors)

  5. Optimum Choice of RF Frequency for Two Beam Linear Colliders

    Braun, Hans Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    Recent experimental results on normal conducting RF structures indicate that the scaling of the gradient limit with frequency is less favourable than what was believed. We therefore reconsider the optimum choice of RF frequency and iris aperture for a normal conducting, two-beam linear collider with E_CMS=3 TeV, a loaded accelerating gradient of 150 MV/m and a luminosity of 8 10^34 cm-^2 s^-1. The optimisation criterion is minimizing overall RF costs for investment and operation with constraints put on peak surface electric fields and pulsed heating of accelerating structures. Analytical models are employed where applicable, while interpolation on simulation program results is used for the calculation of luminosity and RF structure properties.

  6. Test Results of an F/A-18 Automatic Carrier Landing Using Shipboard Relative Global Positioning System

    Sousa, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Defense's Joint Precision Approach and Landing System program, the Navy is responsible for developing the shipboard coreponent, termed Shipboard Relative Global Positioning System (SRGPS...

  7. Global proteomics profiling improves drug sensitivity prediction: results from a multi-omics, pan-cancer modeling approach.

    Ali, Mehreen; Khan, Suleiman A; Wennerberg, Krister; Aittokallio, Tero

    2018-04-15

    Proteomics profiling is increasingly being used for molecular stratification of cancer patients and cell-line panels. However, systematic assessment of the predictive power of large-scale proteomic technologies across various drug classes and cancer types is currently lacking. To that end, we carried out the first pan-cancer, multi-omics comparative analysis of the relative performance of two proteomic technologies, targeted reverse phase protein array (RPPA) and global mass spectrometry (MS), in terms of their accuracy for predicting the sensitivity of cancer cells to both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and molecularly targeted anticancer compounds. Our results in two cell-line panels demonstrate how MS profiling improves drug response predictions beyond that of the RPPA or the other omics profiles when used alone. However, frequent missing MS data values complicate its use in predictive modeling and required additional filtering, such as focusing on completely measured or known oncoproteins, to obtain maximal predictive performance. Rather strikingly, the two proteomics profiles provided complementary predictive signal both for the cytotoxic and targeted compounds. Further, information about the cellular-abundance of primary target proteins was found critical for predicting the response of targeted compounds, although the non-target features also contributed significantly to the predictive power. The clinical relevance of the selected protein markers was confirmed in cancer patient data. These results provide novel insights into the relative performance and optimal use of the widely applied proteomic technologies, MS and RPPA, which should prove useful in translational applications, such as defining the best combination of omics technologies and marker panels for understanding and predicting drug sensitivities in cancer patients. Processed datasets, R as well as Matlab implementations of the methods are available at https://github.com/mehr-een/bemkl-rbps. mehreen

  8. Smoking behaviour of Czech adolescents: results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in the Czech Republic, 2002.

    Sovinová, H; Csémy, L

    2004-03-01

    The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs.

  9. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010

    Kaleta Dorota

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Methods Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Results Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p  Conclusion Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on younger age groups are vital for curbing tobacco epidemic in Poland and should become a public health main concern. There is also the need for interventions to raise awareness on smoking health risks and quitting benefits are crucial to increase cessation potential among adult smokers. Nevertheless further effort needs to be done to prevent smoking uptake.

  10. First-year results of the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network: 2012–2013 Northern hemisphere influenza season

    2014-01-01

    Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN) was developed to improve understanding of severe influenza infection, as represented by hospitalized cases. The GIHSN is composed of coordinating sites, mainly affiliated with health authorities, each of which supervises and compiles data from one to seven hospitals. This report describes the distribution of influenza viruses A(H1N1), A(H3N2), B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata resulting in hospitalization during 2012–2013, the network’s first year. Methods In 2012–2013, the GIHSN included 21 hospitals (five in Spain, five in France, four in the Russian Federation, and seven in Turkey). All hospitals used a reference protocol and core questionnaire to collect data, and data were consolidated at five coordinating sites. Influenza infection was confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Hospitalized patients admitted within 7 days of onset of influenza-like illness were included in the analysis. Results Of 5034 patients included with polymerase chain reaction results, 1545 (30.7%) were positive for influenza. Influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and both B lineages co-circulated, although distributions varied greatly between coordinating sites and over time. All age groups were affected. A(H1N1) was the most common influenza strain isolated among hospitalized adults 18–64 years of age at four of five coordinating sites, whereas A(H3N2) and B viruses were isolated more often than A(H1N1) in adults ≥65 years of age at all five coordinating sites. A total of 16 deaths and 20 intensive care unit admissions were recorded among patients with influenza. Conclusions Influenza strains resulting in hospitalization varied greatly between coordinating sites and over time. These first-year results of the GIHSN are relevant, useful, and timely. Due to its broad regional representativeness and sustainable framework, this growing network should contribute substantially to understanding the

  11. The optimum decision rules for the oddity task

    Versfeld, N.J.; Dai, H.; Green, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the optimum decision rule for an m-interval oddity task in which m-1 intervals contain the same signal and one is different or odd. The optimum decision rule depends on the degree of correlation among observations. The present approach unifies the different strategies that occur

  12. Optimum mobility’ facelift. Part 2 – the technique

    Fanous, Nabil; Karsan, Naznin; Zakhary, Kristina; Tawile, Carolyne

    2006-01-01

    In the first of this two-part article on the ‘optimum mobility’ facelift, facial tissue mobility was analyzed, and three theories or mechanisms emerged: ‘intrinsic mobility’, ‘surgically induced mobility’ and ‘optimum mobility points’.

  13. Problem of determining optimum geological and technical measures

    Osipov, G N; Roste, Z A; Salimzhanov, E S

    1968-01-01

    This article is concerned with the mathematical simulation of oilfield operation, particularly the use of linear programing to determine optimum conditions for exploitation of a field. The basic approach is to define the field operation by a series of equations, apply boundary conditions and through an iterative computer technique find optimum operating conditions. Application of the method to Tuimazy field is illustrated.

  14. Optimum material gradient composition for the functionally graded ...

    This study investigates the relation between the material gradient properties and the optimum sensing/actuation design of the functionally graded piezoelectric beams. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis has been employed for the prediction of an optimum composition profile in these types of sensors and ...

  15. Optimum investment strategy in the power industry mathematical models

    Bartnik, Ryszard; Hnydiuk-Stefan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an innovative methodology for identifying optimum investment strategies in the power industry. To do so, it examines results including, among others, the impact of oxy-fuel technology on CO2 emissions prices, and the specific cost of electricity production. The technical and economic analysis presented here extend the available knowledge in the field of investment optimization in energy engineering, while also enabling investors to make decisions involving its application. Individual chapters explore the potential impacts of different factors like environmental charges on costs connected with investments in the power sector, as well as discussing the available technologies for heat and power generation. The book offers a valuable resource for researchers, market analysts, decision makers, power engineers and students alike.

  16. A Decision Support System for Optimum Use of Fertilizers

    R. L. Hoskinson; J. R. Hess; R. K. Fink

    1999-07-01

    The Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) is an expert system being developed by the Site-Specific Technologies for Agriculture (SST4Ag) precision farming research project at the INEEL. DSS4Ag uses state-of-the-art artificial intelligence and computer science technologies to make spatially variable, site-specific, economically optimum decisions on fertilizer use. The DSS4Ag has an open architecture that allows for external input and addition of new requirements and integrates its results with existing agricultural systems' infrastructures. The DSS4Ag reflects a paradigm shift in the information revolution in agriculture that is precision farming. We depict this information revolution in agriculture as an historic trend in the agricultural decision-making process.

  17. A Decision Support System for Optimum Use of Fertilizers

    Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Hess, John Richard; Fink, Raymond Keith

    1999-07-01

    The Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) is an expert system being developed by the Site-Specific Technologies for Agriculture (SST4Ag) precision farming research project at the INEEL. DSS4Ag uses state-of-the-art artificial intelligence and computer science technologies to make spatially variable, site-specific, economically optimum decisions on fertilizer use. The DSS4Ag has an open architecture that allows for external input and addition of new requirements and integrates its results with existing agricultural systems’ infrastructures. The DSS4Ag reflects a paradigm shift in the information revolution in agriculture that is precision farming. We depict this information revolution in agriculture as an historic trend in the agricultural decision-making process.

  18. Testing Optimum Seeding Rates for five Bread Wheat Cultivars

    Wekesa, S.J.; Kiriswa, F.; Owuoche, J.

    1999-01-01

    A cultivar by seed rate trial was conducted in 1994-1995 crop seasons at Njoro, Kenya. Yield results were found to be significant (P > 0.01) for year, variety, seed rate and year by seed rate interaction. Test weight was highly significant (P -1 were grouped together for significantly higher yields (A) whereas seed rates 85 and 50 kg ha -1 had lower significant yields (B and C respectively). The same grouping was repeated for test weight. There was no significant cultivar by seed rate interaction and no cultivar, specific seed rate. However, since seed rates 245, 205, 165 and 125 kg ha -1 were grouped together, the lowest seed rate, 125 kg ha -1 can be recommended as the optimum seed rate for the above cultivars, as higher seed rates do not give significantly higher yields or higher test weights

  19. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Zacarias, A. [ESIME UPA, IPN, Av. de las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  20. Optimum Identification Method of Sorting Green Household Waste

    Daud Mohd Hisam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This project is related to design of sorting facility for reducing, reusing, recycling green waste material, and in particular to invent an automatic system to distinguish household waste in order to separate them from the main waste stream. The project focuses on thorough analysis of the properties of green household waste. The method of identification is using capacitive sensor where the characteristic data taken on three different sensor drive frequency. Three types of material have been chosen as a medium of this research, to be separated using the selected method. Based on capacitance characteristics and its ability to penetrate green object, optimum identification method is expected to be recognized in this project. The output capacitance sensor is in analogue value. The results demonstrate that the information from the sensor is enough to recognize the materials that have been selected.

  1. Constraint-Based Local Search for Constrained Optimum Paths Problems

    Pham, Quang Dung; Deville, Yves; van Hentenryck, Pascal

    Constrained Optimum Path (COP) problems arise in many real-life applications and are ubiquitous in communication networks. They have been traditionally approached by dedicated algorithms, which are often hard to extend with side constraints and to apply widely. This paper proposes a constraint-based local search (CBLS) framework for COP applications, bringing the compositionality, reuse, and extensibility at the core of CBLS and CP systems. The modeling contribution is the ability to express compositional models for various COP applications at a high level of abstraction, while cleanly separating the model and the search procedure. The main technical contribution is a connected neighborhood based on rooted spanning trees to find high-quality solutions to COP problems. The framework, implemented in COMET, is applied to Resource Constrained Shortest Path (RCSP) problems (with and without side constraints) and to the edge-disjoint paths problem (EDP). Computational results show the potential significance of the approach.

  2. Optimum Actuator Selection with a Genetic Algorithm for Aircraft Control

    Rogers, James L.

    2004-01-01

    The placement of actuators on a wing determines the control effectiveness of the airplane. One approach to placement maximizes the moments about the pitch, roll, and yaw axes, while minimizing the coupling. For example, the desired actuators produce a pure roll moment without at the same time causing much pitch or yaw. For a typical wing, there is a large set of candidate locations for placing actuators, resulting in a substantially larger number of combinations to examine in order to find an optimum placement satisfying the mission requirements and mission constraints. A genetic algorithm has been developed for finding the best placement for four actuators to produce an uncoupled pitch moment. The genetic algorithm has been extended to find the minimum number of actuators required to provide uncoupled pitch, roll, and yaw control. A simplified, untapered, unswept wing is the model for each application.

  3. Optimum fuel allocation in parallel steam generator systems

    Bollettini, U.; Cangioli, E.; Cerri, G.; Rome Univ. 'La Sapienza'; Trento Univ.

    1991-01-01

    An optimization procedure was developed to allocate fuels into parallel steam generators. The procedure takes into account the level of performance deterioration connected with the loading history (fossil fuel allocation and maintenance) of each steam generator. The optimization objective function is the system hourly cost, overall steam demand being satisfied. Costs are due to fuel and electric power supply and to plant depreciation and maintenance as well. In order to easily updata the state of each steam generator, particular care was put in the general formulation of the steam production function by adopting a special efficiency-load curve description based on a deterioration scaling parameter. The influence of the characteristic time interval length on the optimum operation result is investigated. A special implementation of the method based on minimum cost paths is suggested

  4. The optimum functionalization of carbon nanotube/ferritin composites

    Lee, Ji Won; Shin, Kwang Min; Kim, Seon Jeong; Lynam, Carol; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Wallace, Gordon G

    2008-01-01

    We fabricated a covalently linked composite composed of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWNT) and ferritin protein as nanoparticles. The various f-SWNTs were prepared using an acid treatment of purified SWNT for different functionalization times (30, 60, 120 and 180 min), and ferritin was immobilized on each of the f-SWNT by covalent immobilization. The specific capacitance of the f-SWNT and the electrochemical activity of the f-SWNT/ferritin composites showed a Gaussian distribution. From the electrochemical analysis, the ferritin composite with functionalized SWNT for 60 min showed the highest capacitance and electrochemical activity than other f-SWNT/ferritin composites. This result suggests the optimum value for the best performance of the electrochemical properties of f-SWNT/ferritin composites was found for a potential bioapplication

  5. results

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  6. The optimum choice of gate width for neutron coincidence counting

    Croft, S., E-mail: crofts@ornl.gov [Safeguards and Security Technology (SST), Global Nuclear Security Technology Divisions, PO Box 2008, Building 5700, MS-6166, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6166 (United States); Henzlova, D.; Favalli, A.; Hauck, D.K.; Santi, P.A. [Safeguards Science and Technology Group (NEN-1), Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, MS-E540, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-11-11

    In the measurement field of international nuclear safeguards, passive neutron coincidence counting is used to quantify the spontaneous fission rate of certain special nuclear materials. The shift register autocorrelation analysis method is the most commonly used approach. However, the Feynman-Y technique, which is more commonly applied in reactor noise analysis, provides an alternative means to extract the correlation information from a pulse train. In this work we consider how to select the optimum gate width for each of these two time-correlation analysis techniques. The optimum is considered to be that which gives the lowest fractional precision on the net doublets rate. Our theoretical approach is approximate but is instructional in terms of revealing the key functional dependence. We show that in both cases the same performance figure of merit applies so that common design criteria apply to the neutron detector head. Our prediction is that near optimal results, suitable for most practical applications, can be obtained from both techniques using a common gate width setting. The estimated precision is also comparable in the two cases. The theoretical expressions are tested experimentally using {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission sources measured in two thermal well counters representative of the type in common use by international inspectorates. Fast accidental sampling was the favored method of acquiring the Feynman-Y data. Our experimental study confirmed the basic functional dependences predicted although experimental results when available are preferred. With an appropriate gate setting Feynman-Y analysis provides an alternative to shift register analysis for safeguards applications which is opening up new avenues of data collection and data reduction to explore.

  7. Defining poor and optimum performance in an IVF programme.

    Castilla, Jose A; Hernandez, Juana; Cabello, Yolanda; Lafuente, Alejandro; Pajuelo, Nuria; Marqueta, Javier; Coroleu, Buenaventura

    2008-01-01

    At present there is considerable interest in healthcare administration, among professionals and among the general public concerning the quality of programmes of assisted reproduction. There exist various methods for comparing and analysing the results of clinical activity, with graphical methods being the most commonly used for this purpose. As yet, there is no general consensus as to how the poor performance (PP) or optimum performance (OP) of assisted reproductive technologies should be defined. Data from the IVF/ICSI register of the Spanish Fertility Society were used to compare and analyse different definitions of PP or OP. The primary variable best reflecting the quality of an IVF/ICSI programme was taken to be the percentage of singleton births per IVF/ICSI cycle initiated. Of the 75 infertility clinics that took part in the SEF-2003 survey, data on births were provided by 58. A total of 25 462 cycles were analysed. The following graphical classification methods were used: ranking of the proportion of singleton births per cycles started in each centre (league table), Shewhart control charts, funnel plots, best and worst-case scenarios and state of the art methods. The clinics classified as producing PP or OP varied considerably depending on the classification method used. Only three were rated as providing 'PP' or 'OP' by all methods, unanimously. Another four clinics were classified as 'poor' or 'optimum' by all the methods except one. On interpreting the results derived from IVF/ICSI centres, it is essential to take into account the characteristics of the method used for this purpose.

  8. Optimum design of cogeneration system for nuclear seawater desalination - 15272

    Jung, Y.H.; Jeong, Y.H.

    2015-01-01

    A nuclear desalination process, which uses the energy released by nuclear fission, has less environmental impact and is generally cost-competitive with a fossil-fuel desalination process. A reference cogeneration system focused on in this study is the APR-1400 coupled with a MED (multi-effect distillation) process using the thermal vapor compression (TVC) technology. The thermal condition of the heat source is the most crucial factor that determines the desalination performance, i.e. energy consumption or freshwater production, of the MED-TVC process. The MED-TVC process operating at a higher motive steam pressure clearly shows a higher desalination performance. However, this increased performance does not necessarily translate to an advantage over processes operated at lower motive steam pressures. For instance, a higher motive steam pressure will increase the heat cost resulting from larger electricity generation loss, and thus may make this process unfavorable from an economic point of view. Therefore, there exists an optimum design point in the coupling configuration that makes the nuclear cogeneration system the most economical. This study is mainly aimed at investigating this optimum coupling design point of the reference nuclear cogeneration system using corresponding analysis tools. The following tools are used: MEE developed by the MEDRC for desalination performance analysis of the MED-TVC process, DE-TOP and DEEP developed by the IAEA for modeling of coupling configuration and economic evaluation of the nuclear cogeneration system, respectively. The results indicate that steam extraction from the MS exhaust and condensate return to HP FWHTR 5 is the most economical coupling design

  9. Assimilation of TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data into a global ocean circulation model: How good are the results?

    Fukumori, Ichiro; Raghunath, Ramanujam; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Chao, Yi

    1999-11-01

    The feasibility of assimilating satellite altimetry data into a global ocean general circulation model is studied. Three years of TOPEX/Poseidon data are analyzed using a global, three-dimensional, nonlinear primitive equation model. The assimilation's success is examined by analyzing its consistency and reliability measured by formal error estimates with respect to independent measurements. Improvements in model solution are demonstrated, in particular, properties not directly measured. Comparisons are performed with sea level measured by tide gauges, subsurface temperatures and currents from moorings, and bottom pressure measurements. Model representation errors dictate what can and cannot be resolved by assimilation, and its identification is emphasized.

  10. [Global Public Health - Results of the Working Group 3 of the Forum Future Public Health, Berlin 2016].

    Razum, Oliver; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-11-01

    In the age of globalization, few health issues remain "local". For example, neither infectious diseases nor climate change stop at national borders, and hence cannot be controlled only within the nation state. The same applies to smoking and nutritional behaviors that affect health and are influenced by multinational companies and transnational policies. Therefore, public health needs to develop strategies and interventions that are not restricted to the nation state alone. This also applies to public health in Germany that needs a stronger global health perspective. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Salinity changes and anoxia resulting from enhanced run-off during the late Permian global warming and mass extinction event

    E. E. van Soelen

    2018-04-01

    in salinity can only be explained by increased run-off. High amounts of both terrestrial and marine organic fragments in the first anoxic layers suggest that high run-off, increased nutrient availability, possibly in combination with soil erosion, are responsible for the development of anoxia in the basin. Enhanced run-off could result from changes in the hydrological cycle during the late Permian extinction event, which is a likely consequence of global warming. In addition, vegetation destruction and soil erosion may also have resulted in enhanced run-off. Salinity stratification could potentially explain the development of anoxia in other shallow marine sites. The input of freshwater and related changes in coastal salinity could also have implications for the interpretation of oxygen isotope records and seawater temperature reconstructions at some sites.

  12. Salinity changes and anoxia resulting from enhanced run-off during the late Permian global warming and mass extinction event

    van Soelen, Elsbeth E.; Twitchett, Richard J.; Kürschner, Wolfram M.

    2018-04-01

    explained by increased run-off. High amounts of both terrestrial and marine organic fragments in the first anoxic layers suggest that high run-off, increased nutrient availability, possibly in combination with soil erosion, are responsible for the development of anoxia in the basin. Enhanced run-off could result from changes in the hydrological cycle during the late Permian extinction event, which is a likely consequence of global warming. In addition, vegetation destruction and soil erosion may also have resulted in enhanced run-off. Salinity stratification could potentially explain the development of anoxia in other shallow marine sites. The input of freshwater and related changes in coastal salinity could also have implications for the interpretation of oxygen isotope records and seawater temperature reconstructions at some sites.

  13. Spatial Model for Determining the Optimum Placement of Logistics Centers in a Predefined Economic Area

    Ramona Iulia Țarțavulea (Dieaconescu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization has stimulated the demand for logistics services at a level of speed and increased efficiency, which involves using of techniques, tools, technologies and modern models in supply chain management. The aim of this research paper is to present a model that can be used in order to achieve an optimized supply chain, associated with minimum transportation costs. The utilization of spatial modeling for determining the optimal locations for logistics centers in a predefined economic area is proposd in this paper. The principal methods used to design the model are mathematic optimization and linear programming. The output data of the model are the precise placement of one up to ten logistics centers, in terms of minimum operational costs for delivery from the optimum locations to consumer points. The results of the research indicate that by using the proposed model, an efficient supply chain that is consistent with optimization of transport can be designed, in order to streamline the delivery process and thus reduce operational costs

  14. The water footprints of Morocco and the Netherlands: Global water use as a result of domestic consumption of agricultural commodities

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Chapagain, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    The volume of international trade in agricultural commodities is increasing faster than the global volume of production, which is an indicator of growing international dependencies in the area of food supply. Although less obvious, it also implies growing international dependencies in the field of

  15. Change in optimum genetic algorithm solution with changing band discontinuities and band widths of electrically conducting copolymers

    Kaur, Avneet; Bakhshi, A. K.

    2010-04-01

    The interest in copolymers stems from the fact that they present interesting electronic and optical properties leading to a variety of technological applications. In order to get a suitable copolymer for a specific application, genetic algorithm (GA) along with negative factor counting (NFC) method has recently been used. In this paper, we study the effect of change in the ratio of conduction band discontinuity to valence band discontinuity (Δ Ec/Δ Ev) on the optimum solution obtained from GA for model binary copolymers. The effect of varying bandwidths on the optimum GA solution is also investigated. The obtained results show that the optimum solution changes with varying parameters like band discontinuity and band width of constituent homopolymers. As the ratio Δ Ec/Δ Ev increases, band gap of optimum solution decreases. With increasing band widths of constituent homopolymers, the optimum solution tends to be dependent on the component with higher band gap.

  16. Severe malnutrition evaluated by patient-generated subjective global assessment results in poor outcome among adult patients with acute leukemia

    Li, Ji; Wang, Chang; Liu, Xiaoliang; Liu, Qiuju; Lin, Hai; Liu, Chunshui; Jin, Fengyan; Yang, Yan; Bai, Ou; Tan, Yehui; Gao, Sujun; Li, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate nutritional status in adult patients with acute leukemia (AL) using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and to investigate the influence of nutritional status on prognosis. We observationally investigated 68 adult patients with newly diagnosed AL who received PG-SGA at the First Hospital of Jilin University between May 2013 and July 2015. Clinical features, chemotherapy regimens, biochemical indexes, body composition, complete remission (CR) rate, minimal residual disease (MRD), survival time, and side-effects of chemotherapy were compared between patients with and without severe malnutrition. Mean PG-SGA scores of the total patients were 6.1 ± 4.0, and 19 of 68 (27.9%) patients had severe malnutrition (PG-SGA score ≥9). Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) had higher scores than those with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL; P = .011) and high-risk patients had higher scores regardless of whether they had AML or ALL (AML, P = .012; ALL, P = .043). Univariate analysis showed that severe malnutrition was correlated with age (P = .041), transferrin (P = .042), Karnofsky Performance Status score (P = .006), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = .018). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that severe malnutrition was associated with CRP (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.020, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002–1.039, P = .026). No difference was found in CR rate (P = .831) between patients with and without malnutrition, but those who were severely malnourished had higher MRD (P = .048 in AML patients, P = .036 in ALL patients) and more gastrointestinal side-effects (P = .014). Severe malnutrition was also associated with inferior overall survival (HR = 0.243, 95% CI: 0.063–0.945, P = .041) but not with event-free survival (HR = 0.808, 95% CI: 0.338–1.934, P = .663). Severe malnutrition defined by PG-SGA in adult patients with de novo AL may result in poor outcome

  17. Forest, Trees, Dynamics: Results from a novel Wisconsin Card Sorting Test variant Protocol for Studying Global-Local Attention and Complex Cognitive Processes

    Benjamin eCowley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecognition of objects and their context relies heavily on the integrated functioning of global and local visual processing. In a realistic setting such as work, this processing becomes a sustained activity, implying a consequent interaction with executive functions.MotivationThere have been many studies of either global-local attention or executive functions; however it is relatively novel to combine these processes to study a more ecological form of attention. We aim to explore the phenomenon of global-local processing during a task requiring sustained attention and working memory.MethodsWe develop and test a novel protocol for global-local dissociation, with task structure including phases of divided ('rule search' and selective ('rule found' attention, based on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task.We test it in a laboratory study with 25 participants, and report on behaviour measures (physiological data was also gathered, but not reported here. We develop novel stimuli with more naturalistic levels of information and noise, based primarily on face photographs, with consequently more ecological validity.ResultsWe report behavioural results indicating that sustained difficulty when participants test their hypotheses impacts matching-task performance, and diminishes the global precedence effect. Results also show a dissociation between subjectively experienced difficulty and objective dimension of performance, and establish the internal validity of the protocol.ContributionWe contribute an advance in the state of the art for testing global-local attention processes in concert with complex cognition. With three results we establish a connection between global-local dissociation and aspects of complex cognition. Our protocol also improves ecological validity and opens options for testing additional interactions in future work.

  18. OPTIMUM: a protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing Out Patient Talc slurry via Indwelling pleural catheter for Malignant pleural effusion vs Usual inpatient Management.

    Sivakumar, P; Douiri, A; West, A; Rao, D; Warwick, G; Chen, T; Ahmed, L

    2016-10-18

    The development of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) results in disabling breathlessness, pain and reduced physical capability with treatment a palliative strategy. Ambulatory management of MPE has the potential to improve quality of life (QoL). The OPTIMUM trial is designed to determine whether full outpatient management of MPE with an indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) and pleurodesis improves QoL compared with traditional inpatient care with a chest drain and talc pleurodesis. OPTIMUM is currently open for any centres interested in collaborating in this study. OPTIMUM is a multicentre non-blinded randomised controlled trial. Patients with a diagnosis of MPE will be identified and screened for eligibility. Consenting participants will be randomised 1:1 either to an outpatient ambulatory pathway using IPCs and talc pleurodesis or standard inpatient treatment with chest drain and talc pleurodesis as per British Thoracic Society guidelines. The primary outcome measure is global health-related QoL at 30 days measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Secondary outcome measures include breathlessness and pain measured using a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale and health-related QoL at 60 and 90 days. A sample size of 142 patients is needed to demonstrate a clinically significant difference of 8 points in global health status at 30 days, for an 80% power and a 5% significance level. The study has been approved by the NRES Committee South East Coast-Brighton and Sussex (reference 15/LO/1018). The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific conferences. UKCRN19615 and ISRCTN15503522; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal......; to what degree its reach has to do with a universal appeal inherent in the genre and/or the innovative character of individual formats, and to what degree its global success is due to local broadcasters’ ability to successfully adapt the formats to local audience tastes. A consensus has developed...

  20. Predicting optimum crop designs using crop models and seasonal climate forecasts.

    Rodriguez, D; de Voil, P; Hudson, D; Brown, J N; Hayman, P; Marrou, H; Meinke, H

    2018-02-02

    Expected increases in food demand and the need to limit the incorporation of new lands into agriculture to curtail emissions, highlight the urgency to bridge productivity gaps, increase farmers profits and manage risks in dryland cropping. A way to bridge those gaps is to identify optimum combination of genetics (G), and agronomic managements (M) i.e. crop designs (GxM), for the prevailing and expected growing environment (E). Our understanding of crop stress physiology indicates that in hindsight, those optimum crop designs should be known, while the main problem is to predict relevant attributes of the E, at the time of sowing, so that optimum GxM combinations could be informed. Here we test our capacity to inform that "hindsight", by linking a tested crop model (APSIM) with a skillful seasonal climate forecasting system, to answer "What is the value of the skill in seasonal climate forecasting, to inform crop designs?" Results showed that the GCM POAMA-2 was reliable and skillful, and that when linked with APSIM, optimum crop designs could be informed. We conclude that reliable and skillful GCMs that are easily interfaced with crop simulation models, can be used to inform optimum crop designs, increase farmers profits and reduce risks.

  1. Environmental and economic effects of post-Kyoto carbon regimes. Results of simulations with the global model GINFORS

    Lutz, Christian; Meyer, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Using the extensive and disaggregated global GINFORS model, consequences of different possible post-Kyoto regimes on the German and European economy and other major economies in the medium run until 2020 are depicted. The approach is very extensive and detailed in comparison to already existing analyses: this holds for the number of explicitly modelled countries (50 and 2 regions) and 41 economic sectors, input-output tables, the bilateral trade flows, the detailed coverage of behavioural parameters, the coverage of energy balances and CO 2 emissions as well as for the number and precise economic-political design of simulation runs. Global emissions will double until 2030 compared to 1990 levels without the existence of a far-reaching climate regime after 2012. A unilateral commitment of the EU would only be a 'drop in the bucket', which solely strengthens the credibility of the EU in international negotiations. A stabilisation of global emissions in 2020 compared to 2010, which is consistent with the 2 target of the EU can only be achieved, if all developed and at least the large emerging economies participate and if all possible existing market-ready reduction technologies are used. (author)

  2. Optimum Temperature and Thermal Stability of Crude Polyphenol ...

    The optimum temperature was found to be 300C for the enzyme extracted from guava, ... processing industries because during the processing ... enhance the brown colour produced (Valero et al., ... considerable economic and nutritional loss.

  3. Performance characteristics of aerodynamically optimum turbines for wind energy generators

    Rohrbach, C.; Worobel, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a brief discussion of the aerodynamic methodology for wind energy generator turbines, an approach to the design of aerodynamically optimum wind turbines covering a broad range of design parameters, some insight on the effect on performance of nonoptimum blade shapes which may represent lower fabrication costs, the annual wind turbine energy for a family of optimum wind turbines, and areas of needed research. On the basis of the investigation, it is concluded that optimum wind turbines show high performance over a wide range of design velocity ratios; that structural requirements impose constraints on blade geometry; that variable pitch wind turbines provide excellent power regulation and that annual energy output is insensitive to design rpm and solidity of optimum wind turbines.

  4. Optimum strategies for nuclear energy system development (method of synthesis)

    Belenky, V.Z.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of optimum long-term development of the nuclear energy system is considered. The optimum strategies (i.e. minimum total uranium consumption) for the transition phase leading to a stationary regime of development are found. For this purpose the author has elaborated a new method of solving linear problems of optimal control which can include jumps in trajectories. The method gives a possibility to fulfil a total synthesis of optimum strategies. A key characteristic of the problem is the productivity function of the nuclear energy system which connects technological system parameters with its growth rate. There are only two types of optimum strategies, according to an increasing or decreasing productivity function. Both cases are illustrated with numerical examples. (orig.) [de

  5. Experimental validation of optimum resistance moment of concrete ...

    Experimental validation of optimum resistance moment of concrete slabs reinforced ... other solutions to combat corrosion problems in steel reinforced concrete. ... Eight specimens of two-way spanning slabs reinforced with CFRP bars were ...

  6. Determination of optimum insulation thickness in pipe for exergetic life cycle assessment

    Keçebaş, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • It is aimed to determine optimum insulation thickness in pipe. • A new methodology is used as exergetic life cycle assessment for this purpose. • It is evaluated for various fuels, different pipe diameters and some combustion parameters. • This methodology is not suitable for determining optimum insulation thickness of a pipe. • There are benefits to our understanding of the need for insulation use in pipes. - Abstract: The energy saving and the environmental impacts’ reduction in the world building sector have gained great importance. Therefore, great efforts have been invested to create energy-saving green buildings. To do so, one of the many things to be done is the insulation of cylindrical pipes, canals and tanks. In the current study, the main focus is on the determination of the optimum insulation thickness of the pipes with varying diameters when different fuels are used. Therefore, through a new method combining exergy analysis and life cycle assessment, optimum insulation thickness of the pipes, total exergetic environmental impact, net saving and payback period were calculated. The effects of the insulation thickness on environmental and combustion parameters were analyzed in a detailed manner. The results revealed that optimum insulation thickness was affected by the temperature of the fuel when it enters into the combustion chamber, the temperature of the stack gas and the temperature of the combustion chamber. Under these optimum effects, the optimum insulation thickness of a 100 mm pipe was determined to be 55.7 cm, 57.2 cm and 59.3 cm for coal, natural gas and fuel–oil, respectively with the ratios of 76.32%, 81.84% and 84.04% net savings in the exergetic environmental impact. As the environmental impacts of the fuels and their products are bigger than those of the insulation material, the values of the optimum insulation thickness of the method used this study was found greater. Moreover, in the pipes with greater

  7. Exact Optimum Design of Segmented Thermoelectric Generators

    M. Zare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A considerable difference between experimental and theoretical results has been observed in the studies of segmented thermoelectric generators (STEGs. Because of simplicity, the approximate methods are widely used for design and optimization of the STEGs. This study is focused on employment of exact method for design and optimization of STEGs and comparison of exact and approximate results. Thus, using new highly efficient thermoelectric materials, four STEGs are proposed to operate in the temperature range of 300 to 1300 kelvins. The proposed STEGs are optimally designed to achieve maximum efficiency. Design and performance characteristics of the optimized generators including maximum conversion efficiency and length of elements are calculated through both exact and approximate methods. The comparison indicates that the approximate method can cause a difference up to 20% in calculation of some design characteristics despite its appropriate results in efficiency calculation. The results also show that the maximum theoretical efficiency of 23.08% is achievable using the new proposed STEGs. Compatibility factor of the selected materials for the proposed STEGs is also calculated using both exact and approximate methods. The comparison indicates a negligible difference in calculation of compatibility factor, despite the considerable difference in calculation of reduced efficiency (temperature independence efficiency.

  8. DETERMINATION of OPTIMUM CONDITION of PAPAIN ENZYME FROM PAPAYA VAR JAVA (Carica papaya

    Aline Puspita Kusumadjaja

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study to investigate the optimum condition of papain enzyme has been carried out. The condition that are investigated are pH and temperature, based on measurement of enzyme activity which is defined as mmole tyrosin that are released in reaction between papain enzyme and casein as substrat per minute. In this research, the papain enzyme was isolated from pepaya burung varietas Java. The enzyme was partially purified by precipitation method using 30% - 50% saturated acetone. The result showed that the optimum conditions of papain enzyme are in pH 6 with activity 2,606 U/mL, and temperature at 50 oC with activity 2,469 U/mL. Keywords : Papaya var Java, papain, optimum condition, enzymatic activity

  9. Finding the Optimum Scenario in Risk-benefit Assessment: An Example on Vitamin D

    Berjia, Firew Lemma; Hoekstra, J.; Verhagen, H.

    2014-01-01

    when changing from the reference to the optimum scenario. Conclusion: The method allowed us to find the optimum serum level in the vitamin D example. Additional case studies are needed to further validate the applicability of the approach to other nutrients or foods, especially with regards...... a method for finding the optimum scenario that provides maximum net health gains. Methods: A multiple scenario simulation. The method is presented using vitamin D intake in Denmark as an example. In addition to the reference scenario, several alternative scenarios are simulated to detect the scenario...... that provides maximum net health gains. As a common health metric, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) has been used to project the net health effect by using the QALIBRA (Quality of Life for Benefit Risk Assessment) software. Results: The method used in the vitamin D example shows that it is feasible to find...

  10. Dependence of optimum baseline setting on scatter fraction and detector response function

    Atkins, F.B.; Beck, R.N.; Hoffer, P.B.; Palmer, D.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation has been undertaken to determine the dependence of an optimum baseline setting on the amount of scattered radiation recorded in a spectrum, and on the energy resolution of the detector. In particular, baseline settings were established for clinical examinations which differed greatly in the amount of scattered radiation, namely, liver and brain scans, for which individual variations were found to produce only minimal fluctuations in the optimum baseline settings. This analysis resulted in an optimum baseline setting of 125.0 keV for brain scans and 127.2 keV for liver scans for the scintillation camera used in these studies. The criterion that was used is based on statistical considerations of the measurement of an unscattered component in the presence of a background due to scattered photons. The limitations of such a criterion are discussed, and phantom images are presented to illustrate these effects at various baseline settings. (author)

  11. Method for Estimating Optimum Free Resonant Frequencies in Overcoupled WPT System

    Dong-Wook Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In our previous work, we proposed the method to maximize the output power even in the overcoupled state of the wireless power transfer (WPT system by controlling free resonant frequencies and derived closed-form expression for optimum free resonant frequencies of the primary and secondary resonators. In this paper, we propose the mutual coupling approach to derive the optimum free resonant frequencies and show the measured power transfer efficiency (PTE using the transmission efficiency as well as the system energy efficiency. The results of the proposed approach exactly coincide with those of the previous work, and the fabricated prototype achieves the transmission efficiency of about 80% by tuning the free resonant frequencies to the optimum values in the overcoupled state.

  12. Compaction Filter as an Optimum Solution for Multirate Subband Coder of Cyclostationary Signals

    D. Kula

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A consistent theory of optimum subband coding of zero meanwide-sense cyclostationary signals with N-periodic statistics ispresented in this paper. Blocked polyphase representation of theanalysis and synthesis filter banks is introduced as an effective wayof multirate subband coder description. Optimum energy compaction usingNyquist-M process is presented as a solution for maximizing the codinggain of the coder. In two definitions and four theorems the authorproves that Nyquist-M filters fulfill necessary and sufficientconditions imposed on subband signals. Results from Matlab simulationsare presented to support theoretical conclusions.

  13. Simulation of optimum parameters for GaN MSM UV photodetector

    Alhelfi, Mohanad A., E-mail: mhad12344@gmail.com; Ahmed, Naser M., E-mail: nas-tiji@yahoo.com; Hashim, M. R., E-mail: roslan@usm.my; Hassan, Z., E-mail: zai@usm.my [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Al-Rawi, Ali Amer, E-mail: aliamer@unimap.edu.my [School of Computer and Communication Eng. 3st Floor, Pauh Putra Main Campus 02600 Arau, Perlis Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    In this study the optimum parameters of GaN M-S-M photodetector are discussed. The evaluation of the photodetector depends on many parameters, the most of the important parameters the quality of the GaN film and others depend on the geometry of the interdigited electrode. In this simulation work using MATLAB software with consideration of the reflection and absorption on the metal contacts, a detailed study involving various electrode spacings (S) and widths (W) reveals conclusive results in device design. The optimum interelectrode design for interdigitated MSM-PD has been specified and evaluated by effect on quantum efficiency and responsivity.

  14. Optimum fuel use in PWR reactors

    Neubauer, W.

    1979-07-01

    An optimization program was developed to calculate minimum-cost refuelling schedules for PWR reactors. Optimization was made over several cycles, without any constraints (equilibrium cycle). In developing the optimization program, special consideration was given to an individual treatment of every fuel element and to a sufficiently accurate calculation of all the data required for safe reactor operation. The results of the optimization program were compared with experimental values obtained at Obrigheim nuclear power plant. (orig.) [de

  15. Design alternatives, components key to optimum flares

    Cunha-Leite, O.

    1992-01-01

    A properly designed flare works as an emissions control system with greater than 98% combustion efficiency. The appropriate use of steam, natural gas, and air-assisted flare tips can result in smokeless combustion. Ground flare, otherwise the elevated flare is commonly chosen because it handles larger flow releases more economically. Flaring has become more complicated than just lighting up waste gas. Companies are increasingly concerned about efficiency. In addition, U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have become more active, resulting in tighter regulations on both safety and emissions control. These regulations have resulted in higher levels of concern and involvement in safety and emissions matters, not to mention smoke, noise, glare, and odor. This first to two articles on flare design and components looks at elevated flares, flare tips, incinerator-type flares, flare pilots, and gas seals. Part 2 will examine knockout drums, liquid-seal drums, ignition systems, ground flares, vapor recovery systems, and flare noise

  16. Optimum Image Formation for Spaceborne Microwave Radiometer Products.

    Long, David G; Brodzik, Mary J

    2016-05-01

    This paper considers some of the issues of radiometer brightness image formation and reconstruction for use in the NASA-sponsored Calibrated Passive Microwave Daily Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature Earth System Data Record project, which generates a multisensor multidecadal time series of high-resolution radiometer products designed to support climate studies. Two primary reconstruction algorithms are considered: the Backus-Gilbert approach and the radiometer form of the scatterometer image reconstruction (SIR) algorithm. These are compared with the conventional drop-in-the-bucket (DIB) gridded image formation approach. Tradeoff study results for the various algorithm options are presented to select optimum values for the grid resolution, the number of SIR iterations, and the BG gamma parameter. We find that although both approaches are effective in improving the spatial resolution of the surface brightness temperature estimates compared to DIB, SIR requires significantly less computation. The sensitivity of the reconstruction to the accuracy of the measurement spatial response function (MRF) is explored. The partial reconstruction of the methods can tolerate errors in the description of the sensor measurement response function, which simplifies the processing of historic sensor data for which the MRF is not known as well as modern sensors. Simulation tradeoff results are confirmed using actual data.

  17. Analysis of optimum density of forest roads in rural properties

    Flávio Cipriano de Assis do Carmo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the density of roads in rural properties in the south of the Espírito Santo and compared it with the calculation of the optimal density in forestry companies in steep areas. The work was carried out in six small rural properties based on the costs of roads of forest use, wood extraction and the costs of loss of productive area. The technical analysis included time and movement study and productivity. The economic analysis included operational costs, production costs and returns for different scenarios of productivity (180m.ha-1, 220m.ha-1and 250 m.ha-1. According to the results, all the properties have densities of road well above the optimum, which reflects the lack of criteria in the planning of the forest stands, resulting in a inadequate use of plantation area. Property 1 had the highest density of roads (373.92 m.ha-1 and the property 5 presented the lowest density (111.56 m.ha-1.

  18. Predicting Tropical Cyclogenesis with a Global Mesoscale Model: Preliminary Results with Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Nargis (2008)

    Shen, B.; Tao, W.; Atlas, R.

    2008-12-01

    Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Nargis, the deadliest named tropical cyclone (TC) in the North Indian Ocean Basin, devastated Burma (Myanmar) in May 2008, causing tremendous damage and numerous fatalities. An increased lead time in the prediction of TC Nargis would have increased the warning time and may therefore have saved lives and reduced economic damage. Recent advances in high-resolution global models and supercomputers have shown the potential for improving TC track and intensity forecasts, presumably by improving multi-scale simulations. The key but challenging questions to be answered include: (1) if and how realistic, in terms of timing, location and TC general structure, the global mesoscale model (GMM) can simulate TC genesis and (2) under what conditions can the model extend the lead time of TC genesis forecasts. In this study, we focus on genesis prediction for TCs in the Indian Ocean with the GMM. Preliminary real-data simulations show that the initial formation and intensity variations of TC Nargis can be realistically predicted at a lead time of up to 5 days. These simulations also suggest that the accurate representations of a westerly wind burst (WWB) and an equatorial trough, associated with monsoon circulations and/or a Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), are important for predicting the formation of this kind of TC. In addition to the WWB and equatorial trough, other favorable environmental conditions will be examined, which include enhanced monsoonal circulation, upper-level outflow, low- and middle-level moistening, and surface fluxes.

  19. Development of antimicrobial optimum glass ionomer

    Angioletto, E.; Tezza, V.B.; Santos, M.J.; Montedo, O.R.K.; Pich, C.T.; Fiori, M.A.; Angioletto, Ev.

    2010-01-01

    The use of glass ionomer for restorations in dentistry for lower income population is a well established practice in public clinics of Brazil. However the average price of this kind of material and its low durability still have a negative impact on public health for being imported and frequently replaced it becomes expensive for the manufacturers and for public agencies. In glass ionomer the main antimicrobial agent is fluoride, which is released gradually. The material used for filling provides an average life of five years and its durability can be increased if the ionomer contains other oligodynamic elements. It was formulated, merged a new optimized glass ionomer which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, ion measurement and antimicrobial activity. This new product showed promising results, that pointed structural stability an increase of antimicrobial efficiency. (author)

  20. Optimum input leads for cryogenic apparatus

    Der Nigohossian, G.

    1967-02-01

    The electrical leads used to introduce a current into a cryostat cause a heat influx due to thermal conduction and to Joule heating. It is very important to be able to minimize this flux. Theoretical calculation of optimized leads takes into account the varying heat and electrical conductivities of the leads as well as the heat exchange coefficient with the effluent gas. Practical results have been summarized in different tables which permit for a specific material i.e. copper, aluminium, brass, stainless steel with the intensity and end temperatures being known (i.e. 4,2 or 18,5 deg. K at the cold end; 77,295 or 320 deg. K at the warm end) to deduce the minimum heat flow and the length-cross section ratio of the optimized leads. A general method is indicated, which would allow to solve the same problem for other materials. (author) [fr

  1. Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease.

    Heilberg, Ita P; Goldfarb, David S

    2013-03-01

    We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Energy - achieving an optimum through information

    Gitt, W.

    1986-01-01

    What have computer programs in common with everyday human behaviour. Or the birds' passage, or photosynthesis, or the chemical reactions in a cell. They all primarily are information-controlled processes. The book under review deals with 'information' and 'energy', two main concepts in today's technological world. 'Energy' during the last few years has become a significant criterion with regard to technological progress. 'Information' is not only a main term in informatics terminology, but also a central concept for example in biology, linguistics, and communication science. The author shows that every 'information' is the result of an intellectual and purposeful process. The concept of information is taken as the red thread leading the author's journey through manifold strata of modern life, asking questions, finding answers, discussing problems. The wide spectrum of aspects discussed, including for instance a new approach to the Bible, and the remarkable examples presented by the author, make this book a treasure of knowledge, and of faith. (orig./HP) [de

  3. OPTIMUM DESIGN OF ULTRAHIGH STRENGTH NANOLAYERED COMPOSITES

    H. KUNG; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Refinement of the microstructure in metallic multilayers from the micrometer-scale to the nanometer-scale often results in a break down of the classical Hall-Petch model relating strength to the microstructural length scale. The critical length scale at which this behavior breaks down is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Using transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation, we evaluated the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu/Cr, Cu./Ni, and Cu/Nb multilayers that had different shear moduli mismatch between layers and lattice misfit strain between layers. Two-dimensional maps showing layer thickness and grain size ranges over which different deformation mechanisms operate were constructed using dislocation theory. The deformation mechanisms responsible for the breakdown of Hall-Petch behavior are discussed. By correlating the deformation mechanism maps with the experimental data, we show that these maps serve as guidelines for interpreting the scale-dependent deformation mechanisms in multilayers. Atomistic simulation was also used to evaluate the interaction between interfaces and glide dislocations to provide atomic scale insights into the deformation mechanisms.

  4. Optimum measuring net for correcting mineralizing heterogeneity effect in XRF sampling

    Zhou Sichun; Zhao Youqing; Zhang Yuhuan

    2000-01-01

    The mineralizing heterogeneity effect in XRF sampling was investigated with theory of mathematical statistics. A method called 'Optimum measuring Net' has been developed. The theoretical estimation and experimental results show that the mineralizing heterogeneity effect can be cut down to the minimum with the method

  5. Developing an Optimum Protocol for Thermoluminescence Dosimetry with GR-200 Chips using Taguchi Method.

    Sadeghi, Maryam; Faghihi, Reza; Sina, Sedigheh

    2017-06-15

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is a powerful technique with wide applications in personal, environmental and clinical dosimetry. The optimum annealing, storage and reading protocols are very effective in accuracy of TLD response. The purpose of this study is to obtain an optimum protocol for GR-200; LiF: Mg, Cu, P, by optimizing the effective parameters, to increase the reliability of the TLD response using Taguchi method. Taguchi method has been used in this study for optimization of annealing, storage and reading protocols of the TLDs. A number of 108 GR-200 chips were divided into 27 groups, each containing four chips. The TLDs were exposed to three different doses, and stored, annealed and read out by different procedures as suggested by Taguchi Method. By comparing the signal-to-noise ratios the optimum dosimetry procedure was obtained. According to the results, the optimum values for annealing temperature (°C), Annealing Time (s), Annealing to Exposure time (d), Exposure to Readout time (d), Pre-heat Temperature (°C), Pre-heat Time (s), Heating Rate (°C/s), Maximum Temperature of Readout (°C), readout time (s) and Storage Temperature (°C) are 240, 90, 1, 2, 50, 0, 15, 240, 13 and -20, respectively. Using the optimum protocol, an efficient glow curve with low residual signals can be achieved. Using optimum protocol obtained by Taguchi method, the dosimetry can be effectively performed with great accuracy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A sensitivity study to global desertification in cold and warm climates: results from the IPSL OAGCM model

    Alkama, Ramdane [GAME/CNRM, CNRS/Meteo-France, Toulouse (France); Kageyama, Masa; Ramstein, Gilles [LSCE/IPSL UMR CEA-CNRS-UVSQ 8212, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2012-04-15

    Many simulations have been devoted to study the impact of global desertification on climate, but very few have quantified this impact in very different climate contexts. Here, the climatic impacts of large-scale global desertification in warm (2100 under the SRES A2 scenario forcing), modern and cold (Last Glacial Maximum, 21 thousand years ago) climates are assessed by using the IPSL OAGCM. For each climate, two simulations have been performed, one in which the continents are covered by modern vegetation, the other in which global vegetation is changed to desert i.e. bare soil. The comparison between desert and present vegetation worlds reveals that the prevailing signal in terms of surface energy budget is dominated by the reduction of upward latent heat transfer. Replacing the vegetation by bare soil has similar impacts on surface air temperature South of 20 N in all three climatic contexts, with a warming over tropical forests and a slight cooling over semi-arid and arid areas, and these temperature changes are of the same order of magnitude. North of 20 N, the difference between the temperatures simulated with present day vegetation and in a desert world is mainly due to the change in net radiation related to the modulation of the snow albedo by vegetation, which is obviously absent in the desert world simulations. The enhanced albedo in the desert world simulations induces a large temperature decrease, especially during summer in the cold and modern climatic contexts, whereas the largest difference occurs during winter in the warm climate. This temperature difference requires a larger heat transport to the northern high latitudes. Part of this heat transport increase is achieved through an intensification of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. This intensification reduces the sea-ice extent and causes a warming over the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans in the warm climate context. In contrast, the large cooling North of 20 N in both the modern

  7. The association between poor sleep quality and global cortical atrophy is related to age. Results from the Atahualpa Project

    Oscar H. Del Brutto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Community-dwellers aged ≥60 years enrolled in the Atahualpa Project underwent brain MRI and were interviewed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Of 290 participants, 94 (32% had poor sleep quality and 143 (49% had global cortical atrophy (GCA. In a logistic regression model (adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factor, severe edentulism, symptoms of depression, the MoCA score, and neuroimaging signatures of cerebrovascular damage, poor sleep quality was associated with GCA (p=0.004. A multivariate probability model showed that the probability of moderate-to-severe GCA significantly increased in individuals with poor sleep quality aged ≥67 years. This study provides evidence for an association between poor sleep quality and GCA in older adults and the important interaction of age in this association.

  8. Optimum Drafting Conditions Of Polyester And Viscose Blend Yarns

    Hatamvand Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used an experimental design to investigate the influence of the total draft, break draft, distance between the aprons (Clips and production roller pressure on yarn quality in order to obtain optimum drafting conditions for polyester and viscose (PES/CV blend yarns in ring spinning frame. We used PES fibers (1.4 dtex × 38 mm long and CV fibers (1.6 dtex × 38 mm long to spin a 20 Tex blend yarn of PES (70%/CV (30% blend ratio. When the break draft, adjustment of distance between of aprons and roller pressure is not reasonable, controlling and leading of the fibers is not sufficient for proper orientation of the fibers in the yarn structure to produce a high quality yarn. Experimental results and statistical analysis show that the best yarn quality will be obtained under drafting conditions total draft of 38, 1.2 break draft, 2.8 mm distance between of aprons and maximum pressure of the production top roller (18daN.

  9. Optimum sizing of wind-battery systems incorporating resource uncertainty

    Roy, Anindita; Kedare, Shireesh B.; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2010-01-01

    The inherent uncertainty of the wind is a major impediment for successful implementation of wind based power generation technology. A methodology has been proposed in this paper to incorporate wind speed uncertainty in sizing wind-battery system for isolated applications. The uncertainty associated with the wind speed is incorporated using chance constraint programming approach. For a pre-specified reliability requirement, a deterministic equivalent energy balance equation may be derived from the chance constraint that allows time series simulation of the entire system. This results in a generation of the entire set of feasible design options, satisfying different system level constraints, on a battery capacity vs. generator rating diagram, also known as the design space. The proposed methodology highlights the trade-offs between the wind turbine rating, rotor diameter and the battery size for a given reliability of power supply. The optimum configuration is chosen on the basis of the minimum cost of energy (US$/kWh). It is shown with the help of illustrative examples that the proposed methodology is generic and flexible to incorporate alternate sub-component models. (author)

  10. Time-optimum packet scheduling for many-to-one routing in wireless sensor networks

    Song, W.-Z.; Yuan, F.; LaHusen, R.; Shirazi, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the wireless sensor networks (WSN) application scenario with periodical traffic from all sensors to a sink. We present a time-optimum and energy-efficient packet scheduling algorithm and its distributed implementation. We first give a general many-to-one packet scheduling algorithm for wireless networks, and then prove that it is time-optimum and costs [image omitted], N(u0)-1) time slots, assuming each node reports one unit of data in each round. Here [image omitted] is the total number of sensors, while [image omitted] denotes the number of sensors in a sink's largest branch subtree. With a few adjustments, we then show that our algorithm also achieves time-optimum scheduling in heterogeneous scenarios, where each sensor reports a heterogeneous amount of data in each round. Then we give a distributed implementation to let each node calculate its duty-cycle locally and maximize efficiency globally. In this packet-scheduling algorithm, each node goes to sleep whenever it is not transceiving, so that the energy waste of idle listening is also mitigated. Finally, simulations are conducted to evaluate network performance using the Qualnet simulator. Among other contributions, our study also identifies the maximum reporting frequency that a deployed sensor network can handle.

  11. Technoeconomical Assessment of Optimum Design for Photovoltaic Water Pumping System for Rural Area in Oman

    Hussein A. Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems have been used globally for a long time to supply electricity for water pumping system for irrigation. System cost drops down with time since PV technology, efficiency, and design methodology have been improved and cost of wattage drops dramatically in the last decade. In the present paper optimum PV system design for water pumping system has been proposed for Oman. Intuitive and numerical methods were used to design the system. HOMER software as a numerical method was used to design the system to come up with optimum design for Oman. Also, REPS.OM software has been used to find the optimum design based on hourly meteorological data. The daily solar energy in Sohar was found to be 6.182 kWh/m2·day. However, it is found that the system annual yield factor is 2024.66 kWh/kWp. Furthermore, the capacity factor was found to be 23.05%, which is promising. The cost of energy and system capital cost has been compared with that of diesel generator and systems in literature. The comparison shows that the cost of energy is 0.180, 0.309, and 0.790 USD/kWh for PV-REPS.OM, PV-HOMER, and diesel systems, respectively, which sound that PV water pumping systems are promising in Oman.

  12. Optimum Parameters for Tuned Mass Damper Using Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE Algorithm

    Hessamoddin Meshkat Razavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is investigated the optimum parameters for a tuned mass damper (TMD under the seismic excitation. Shuffled complex evolution (SCE is a meta-heuristic optimization method which is used to find the optimum damping and tuning frequency ratio for a TMD. The efficiency of the TMD is evaluated by decreasing the structural displacement dynamic magnification factor (DDMF and acceleration dynamic magnification factor (ADMF for a specific vibration mode of the structure. The optimum TMD parameters and the corresponding optimized DDMF and ADMF are achieved for two control levels (displacement control and acceleration control, different structural damping ratio and mass ratio of the TMD system. The optimum TMD parameters are checked for a 10-storey building under earthquake excitations. The maximum storey displacement and acceleration obtained by SCE method are compared with the results of other existing approaches. The results show that the peak building response decreased with decreases of about 20% for displacement and 30% for acceleration of the top floor. To show the efficiency of the adopted algorithm (SCE, a comparison is also made between SCE and other meta-heuristic optimization methods such as genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO method and harmony search (HS algorithm in terms of success rate and computational processing time. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other meta-heuristic optimization methods.

  13. Optimum coagulant forecasting by modeling jar test experiments using ANNs

    Haghiri, Sadaf; Daghighi, Amin; Moharramzadeh, Sina

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the proper utilization of water treatment plants and optimizing their use is of particular importance. Coagulation and flocculation in water treatment are the common ways through which the use of coagulants leads to instability of particles and the formation of larger and heavier particles, resulting in improvement of sedimentation and filtration processes. Determination of the optimum dose of such a coagulant is of particular significance. A high dose, in addition to adding costs, can cause the sediment to remain in the filtrate, a dangerous condition according to the standards, while a sub-adequate dose of coagulants can result in the reducing the required quality and acceptable performance of the coagulation process. Although jar tests are used for testing coagulants, such experiments face many constraints with respect to evaluating the results produced by sudden changes in input water because of their significant costs, long time requirements, and complex relationships among the many factors (turbidity, temperature, pH, alkalinity, etc.) that can influence the efficiency of coagulant and test results. Modeling can be used to overcome these limitations; in this research study, an artificial neural network (ANN) multi-layer perceptron (MLP) with one hidden layer has been used for modeling the jar test to determine the dosage level of used coagulant in water treatment processes. The data contained in this research have been obtained from the drinking water treatment plant located in Ardabil province in Iran. To evaluate the performance of the model, the mean squared error (MSE) and correlation coefficient (R2) parameters have been used. The obtained values are within an acceptable range that demonstrates the high accuracy of the models with respect to the estimation of water-quality characteristics and the optimal dosages of coagulants; so using these models will allow operators to not only reduce costs and time taken to perform experimental jar tests

  14. Optimum Arrangement of Reactive Power Sources While Using Genetic Algori

    A. M. Gashimov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of total losses in distribution electricity supply network is considered as an important measure which serves for improvement of efficiency of electric power supply systems. This objective can be achieved by optimum distribution of reactive power sources in proper places of distribution electricity supply network. The proposed methodology is based on application of a genetic algorithm. Total expenses for installation of capacitor banks, their operation and also expenses related to electric power losses are considered as an efficiency function which is used for determination of places with optimum values of capacitor bank power. The methodology is the most efficient for selection of optimum places in the network where it is necessary to install capacitor banks with due account of their power control depending on a switched-on load value in the units.

  15. Optimum detection for extracting maximum information from symmetric qubit sets

    Mizuno, Jun; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Akiba, Makoto; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate a class of optimum detection strategies for extracting the maximum information from sets of equiprobable real symmetric qubit states of a single photon. These optimum strategies have been predicted by Sasaki et al. [Phys. Rev. A 59, 3325 (1999)]. The peculiar aspect is that the detections with at least three outputs suffice for optimum extraction of information regardless of the number of signal elements. The cases of ternary (or trine), quinary, and septenary polarization signals are studied where a standard von Neumann detection (a projection onto a binary orthogonal basis) fails to access the maximum information. Our experiments demonstrate that it is possible with present technologies to attain about 96% of the theoretical limit

  16. Research on decommissioning of nuclear facilities 2. Study on optimum scenario using the AHP (Joint research)

    Shibahara, Yuji; Morishita, Yoshitsugu; Ishigami, Tsutomu; Yanagihara, Satoshi; Arita, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    To implement a decommissioning project reasonably, it is necessary and important to calculate project management data beforehand as well as to select an optimum dismantling scenario among various scenarios postulated. Little study on the subject of selecting an optimum scenario has been carried out, and it is one of the most important issues in terms of decision making. In FY 2009, Japan Atomic Energy Agency and University of Fukui launched the joint research of a decision making method which is important to determine a decommissioning plan. The purpose of this research is to formulate a methodology for selecting an optimum dismantling scenario among various scenarios postulated based on calculated results of project management data for FUGEN. Project management data for several dismantling scenarios postulated at FUGEN were evaluated based on actual dismantling work for feedwater heater at FUGEN, and an optimum scenario was discussed using the AHP, one of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Methods. This report describes the results of the joint research in FY 2010. (author)

  17. Buried Object Detection Method Using Optimum Frequency Range in Extremely Shallow Underground

    Sugimoto, Tsuneyoshi; Abe, Touma

    2011-07-01

    We propose a new detection method for buried objects using the optimum frequency response range of the corresponding vibration velocity. Flat speakers and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) are used for noncontact acoustic imaging in the extremely shallow underground. The exploration depth depends on the sound pressure, but it is usually less than 10 cm. Styrofoam, wood (silver fir), and acrylic boards of the same size, different size styrofoam boards, a hollow toy duck, a hollow plastic container, a plastic container filled with sand, a hollow steel can and an unglazed pot are used as buried objects which are buried in sand to about 2 cm depth. The imaging procedure of buried objects using the optimum frequency range is given below. First, the standardized difference from the average vibration velocity is calculated for all scan points. Next, using this result, underground images are made using a constant frequency width to search for the frequency response range of the buried object. After choosing an approximate frequency response range, the difference between the average vibration velocity for all points and that for several points that showed a clear response is calculated for the final confirmation of the optimum frequency range. Using this optimum frequency range, we can obtain the clearest image of the buried object. From the experimental results, we confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed method. In particular, a clear image of the buried object was obtained when the SLDV image was unclear.

  18. Factors associated with tobacco use among adolescents in India: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, India (2000-2003).

    Oswal, Kunal C

    2015-03-01

    To differentiate between the different types of tobacco users and analyze the association between types of tobacco users and factors like pocket money and peer and parental influence across most of the state in India using the data obtained from Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) between 2000 and 2004. The GYTS data encompassed a representative 2-stage probability sample of students aged 13 to 15 years across 24 states and 2 union territories in India. These students were interviewed using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. A very strong association between users and pocket money was found in most of the states, with northeastern states having a very strong association-Sikkim, odds ratio (OR) = 8.43 (confidence interval [CI] = 6.08-11.69), and Manipur, OR = 5.58 (CI = 3.60-8.65)-after adjusting for close friend being smoker, close friend being smokeless tobacco user, parental influence, age, and gender. This study found a strong association between tobacco use by adolescents and having pocket money and close friends being tobacco users. © 2012 APJPH.

  19. Psychologists’ perspectives on the diagnostic classification of mental disorders: Results from the WHO-IUPsyS Global Survey

    Evans, Spencer C.; Reed, Geoffrey M.; Roberts, Michael C.; Esparza, Patricia; Watts, Ann D.; Correia, João Mendonça; Ritchie, Pierre; Maj, Mario; Saxena, Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    This study examined psychologists’ views and practices regarding diagnostic classification systems for mental and behavioral disorders so as to inform the development of the ICD-11 by the World Health Organization (WHO). WHO and the International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS) conducted a multilingual survey of 2155 psychologists from 23 countries, recruited through their national psychological associations. Sixty percent of global psychologists routinely used a formal classification system, with ICD-10 used most frequently by 51% and DSM-IV by 44%. Psychologists viewed informing treatment decisions and facilitating communication as the most important purposes of classification, and preferred flexible diagnostic guidelines to strict criteria. Clinicians favorably evaluated most diagnostic categories, but identified a number of problematic diagnoses. Substantial percentages reported problems with crosscultural applicability and cultural bias, especially among psychologists outside the USA and Europe. Findings underscore the priority of clinical utility and professional and cultural differences in international psychology. Implications for ICD-11 development and dissemination are discussed. PMID:23750927

  20. Results of using the global positioning system to maintain the time and frequency synchronization in the Deep Space Network

    Clements, P. A.; Kirk, A.; Unglaub, R.

    1987-01-01

    There are two hydrogen maser clocks located at each signal processing center (SPC) in the DSN. Close coordination of the time and frequency of the SPC clocks is needed to navigate spacecraft to the outer planets. A recent example was the Voyager spacecraft's encounter with Uranus in January 1986. The clocks were adjusted with the goal of minimizing time and frequency offsets between the SPCs at encounter. How time and frequency at each SPC is estimated using data acquired from the Global Positioning System Timing Receivers operating on the NBS-BIH (National Bureau of Standards-Bureau International de l'Heure) tracking schedule is described. These data are combined with other available timing receiver data to calculate the time offset estimates. The adjustment of the clocks is described. It was determined that long range hydrogen maser drift is quite predictable and adjustable within limits. This enables one to minimize time and frequency differences between the three SPCs for many months by matching the drift rates of the three standards. Data acquisition and processing techniques using a Kalman filter to make estimates of time and frequency offsets between the clocks at the SPCs and UTC(NBS) (Coordinated Universal Time realized at NBS) are described.

  1. Impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral therapy on protease and reverse transcriptase genotype: results of a global collaboration.

    Rami Kantor

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic differences among HIV-1 subtypes may be critical to clinical management and drug resistance surveillance as antiretroviral treatment is expanded to regions of the world where diverse non-subtype-B viruses predominate.To assess the impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral treatment on the distribution of mutations in protease and reverse transcriptase, a binomial response model using subtype and treatment as explanatory variables was used to analyze a large compiled dataset of non-subtype-B HIV-1 sequences. Non-subtype-B sequences from 3,686 persons with well characterized antiretroviral treatment histories were analyzed in comparison to subtype B sequences from 4,769 persons. The non-subtype-B sequences included 461 with subtype A, 1,185 with C, 331 with D, 245 with F, 293 with G, 513 with CRF01_AE, and 618 with CRF02_AG. Each of the 55 known subtype B drug-resistance mutations occurred in at least one non-B isolate, and 44 (80% of these mutations were significantly associated with antiretroviral treatment in at least one non-B subtype. Conversely, of 67 mutations found to be associated with antiretroviral therapy in at least one non-B subtype, 61 were also associated with antiretroviral therapy in subtype B isolates.Global surveillance and genotypic assessment of drug resistance should focus primarily on the known subtype B drug-resistance mutations.

  2. Optimum Design Of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Using Concentrators

    Eng. Mohammed Fawzy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the increasing demand of electrical energy in Egypt and also in many neighboring countries around the world the main problem facing electrical energy production using classical methods such steam power stations is the depletion of fossil fuels. The gap between the electrical energy demand and the continuous increase on the fossil fuel cost make the problem of electricity generation more sophisticated. With the continuous decrease of the photovoltaic PV technologies cost it doesnt make sense neglecting the importance of electricity production using solar photovoltaic PV especially that the annual average daily energy received is about 6 kamp12310whmamp123112day in Cairo Egypt 30N.In this work a detailed simulation model including photovoltaic PV module characteristics and climatic conditions of Cairo Egypt is developed. The model compares fixed PV systems electrical energy output with photovoltaic PV system using concentrators and double axis tracker systems. The comparison includes the energy generated area required as well as the cost per kwh generated. The optimality criterion is the cost per kwh generated. The system that gives the minimum cost per kwh is the optimum system. To verify the developed model the simulation results of fixed PV modules and CPV using tracking system obtained by the model are compared with practical measurements of 40KW peak station erected in Cairo Egypt 30N.Very good agreement between measured values and results obtained from detailed simulation model. For fixed PV system the detailed economic analysis showed that it gives minimum cost perkwh generated Comparisons among these systems are presented. For Cairo results showed that a cost of about 6 to 9 US centskwh is attainable.

  3. Supplementary Material for: Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    Horiuchi, Youko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Mochizuki, Takako; Fujita, Masahiro; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis

  4. Determination of optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef products

    Rodas?Gonz?lez, Argenis; Larsen, Ivy L.; Uttaro, Bethany; Ju?rez, Manuel; Parslow, Joyce; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In order to determine optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef, the effects of searing at 232 or 260?C for 0, 10, 20 or 30?min, and roasting at 160 or 135?C on semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were evaluated. In addition, the optimum determined cooking method (oven?seared for 10?min at 232?C and roasted at 135?C) was applied to SM roasts varying in weight from 0.5 to 2.5?kg. Mainly, SM muscles seared for 0 or 10?min at 232?C followed by roast at 135?C h...

  5. A first course in optimum design of yacht sails

    Sugimoto, Takeshi

    1993-03-01

    The optimum sail geometry is analytically obtained for the case of maximizing the thrust under equality and inequality constraints on the lift and the heeling moment. A single mainsail is assumed to be set close-hauled in uniform wind and upright on the flat sea surface. The governing parameters are the mast height and the gap between the sail foot and the sea surface. The lifting line theory is applied to analyze the aerodynamic forces acting on a sail. The design method consists of the variational principle and a feasibility study. Almost triangular sails are found to be optimum. Their advantages are discussed.

  6. Optimum position of isolators within erbium-doped fibers

    Lumholt, Ole; Schüsler, Kim; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1992-01-01

    An isolator is used as an amplified spontaneous emission suppressing component within an erbium-doped fiber. The optimum isolator placement is both experimentally and theoretically determined and found to be slightly dependent upon pump power. Improvements of 4 dB in gain and 2 dB in noise figure...... are measured for the optimum isolator location at 25% of the fiber length when the fiber is pumped with 60 mW of pump power at 1.48 μm...

  7. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Malawi: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2005.

    Muula, A S; Siziya, S; Rudatsikira, E

    2008-07-01

    The majority of adults who smoke cigarettes initiated the habit when they were adolescents or young adults. While rates of smoking and associated factors are known among 13-15 year olds in Malawi, correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in a national representative sample in Malawi have not been studied. We, therefore, carried out this study to estimate the prevalence of current smoking and determine its correlates in a nationally representative sample of in-school adolescents in Malawi. An analysis of the Malawi Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2005 was conducted. Using logistic regression analysis, we estimated the association between current cigarette smoking and potential explanatory variables. Overall, 2.5% of adolescents (3.2% among males, and 1.8% among females) were current cigarette smokers. Smoking among parents was 9.6% with no significant difference between males and females (10.3% versus 10.1%). Stronger associations with smoking were observed for friends smoking status (AOR=3.07, 95%CI 2.99, 3.16), receiving pocket money (AOR=3.06, 95%CI 2.98, 3.14), and perception that smoking increases body weight (AOR=2.98, 95%CI 2.81, 3.16). Students who thought that cigarette smoking is harmful to health were 56% (AOR=0.44, 95%CI 0.43, 0.45) less likely to smoke than students who thought otherwise. Despite being the world's second leading grower of tobacco, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescent is lower than has been reported elsewhere.

  8. Agricultural drought in a future climate: results from 15 global climate models participating in the IPCC 4th assessment

    Wang, Guiling

    2005-12-01

    This study examines the impact of greenhouse gas warming on soil moisture based on predictions of 15 global climate models by comparing the after-stabilization climate in the SRESA1b experiment with the pre-industrial control climate. The models are consistent in predicting summer dryness and winter wetness in only part of the northern middle and high latitudes. Slightly over half of the models predict year-round wetness in central Eurasia and/or year-round dryness in Siberia and mid-latitude Northeast Asia. One explanation is offered that relates such lack of seasonality to the carryover effect of soil moisture storage from season to season. In the tropics and subtropics, a decrease of soil moisture is the dominant response. The models are especially consistent in predicting drier soil over the southwest North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, Australia, and the South Africa in all seasons, and over much of the Amazon and West Africa in the June July August (JJA) season and the Asian monsoon region in the December January February (DJF) season. Since the only major areas of future wetness predicted with a high level of model consistency are part of the northern middle and high latitudes during the non-growing season, it is suggested that greenhouse gas warming will cause a worldwide agricultural drought. Over regions where there is considerable consistency among the analyzed models in predicting the sign of soil moisture changes, there is a wide range of magnitudes of the soil moisture response, indicating a high degree of model dependency in terrestrial hydrological sensitivity. A major part of the inter-model differences in the sensitivity of soil moisture response are attributable to differences in land surface parameterization.

  9. Analysis of the Optimum Usage of Slag for the Compressive Strength of Concrete.

    Lee, Han-Seung; Wang, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Li-Na; Koh, Kyung-Taek

    2015-03-18

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag is widely used as a mineral admixture to replace partial Portland cement in the concrete industry. As the amount of slag increases, the late-age compressive strength of concrete mixtures increases. However, after an optimum point, any further increase in slag does not improve the late-age compressive strength. This optimum replacement ratio of slag is a crucial factor for its efficient use in the concrete industry. This paper proposes a numerical procedure to analyze the optimum usage of slag for the compressive strength of concrete. This numerical procedure starts with a blended hydration model that simulates cement hydration, slag reaction, and interactions between cement hydration and slag reaction. The amount of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is calculated considering the contributions from cement hydration and slag reaction. Then, by using the CSH contents, the compressive strength of the slag-blended concrete is evaluated. Finally, based on the parameter analysis of the compressive strength development of concrete with different slag inclusions, the optimum usage of slag in concrete mixtures is determined to be approximately 40% of the total binder content. The proposed model is verified through experimental results of the compressive strength of slag-blended concrete with different water-to-binder ratios and different slag inclusions.

  10. Development of optimum conditions for modification of Kpautagi clay for application in petroleum refinery wastewater treatment

    Matthew A. ONU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kautagi clay is a kaolin type deposit that is abundantly available in Niger State, Nigeria with potential for application in pollution control such as wastewater treatment. This study investigates the optimum conditions for modification of Kpautagi clay for application in refinery wastewater treatment. Sulphuric acid was used in the modification of the clay and the modification variables considered were acid concentration, activation time and temperature. To develop the optimum conditions for the modification variables, the sulphuric acid modified Kpautagi clay was applied in the treatment of refinery wastewater in column mode at a fixed flow rate and mass of adsorbent. The results obtained indicate that the optimum conditions for modification of Kpautagi clay for application in the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater are: acid concentration of 4M; activation time of 120min and activation temperature of 100°C. Therefore, the optimum conditions developed in this study for modification of Kpautagi clay could be applied for improved performance in the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater.

  11. Optimum Remediation Conditions of Vertical Electrokinetic-Flushing Equipment to Decontaminate a Radioactive Soil

    Kim, Gye Nam; Yang, Byeong IL; Moon, Jei Kwon; Lee, Kune Woo

    2009-01-01

    Vertical electrokintic-flushing remediation equipment was developed for the remediation of a radioactive soil near nuclear facilities. An optimum reagent was selected to decontaminate the radioactive soil near nuclear facilities with the developed vertical electrokintic-flushing remediation equipment, and the optimum remediation conditions were established to obtain a higher remediation efficiency. Namely, acetic acid was selected as an optimum reagent due to its higher remediation efficiency. When the electrokinetic remediation and the electrokinetic-flushing remediation results were compared, the removal efficiency of 4.6% and the soil waste solution volume of 1.5 times were increased in the electrokinetic remediation. When the potential gradient within an electrokinetic soil cell was increased by two times (4.0 V/cm), the removal efficiencies of Co 2+ and Cs + were increased by about 4.3%( Co 2+ : 98.9%, Cs + : 96.7%). Also, when the reagent concentration was increased from 0.01 M to 0.05 M, the removal efficiency of Co 2+ was increased but that of Cs + was decreased. Therefore, the optimum remediation conditions were that the acetic concentration was 0.01 M ∼ 0.05 M, the potential gradient was 4 V/cm, the injection of reagent 2.4 ml/g, and the remediation period was 20 days.

  12. A techno-economic model for optimum regeneration of surface mined land

    Mukhopadhyay, Manas K.; Sinha, Indra N.

    2006-07-01

    The recent global scenario in the mineral sector may be characterized by rising competitiveness, increasing production costs and a slump in market price. This has pushed the mineral sector in general and that in the developing countries in particular to a situation where the industry has a limited capacity to sustain unproductive costs. This, more often than not, results in a situation where the industry fails to ensure environmental safeguards during and after mineral extraction. The situation is conspicuous in the Indian coal mining industry where more than 73% production comes from surface operations. India has an ambitious power augmentation projection for the coming 10 years. A phenomenal increase in coal production is proposed from the power grade coalfields in India. One of the most likely fall-outs of land degradation due to mining in these areas would be significant reduction of agricultural and other important land-uses. Currently, backfilling costs are perceived as prohibitive and abandonment of land is the easy way out. This study attempts to provide mine planners with a mathematical model that distributes generated overburden at defined disposal options while ensuring maximization of backfilled land area at minimum direct and economic costs. Optimization has been accomplished by linear programming (LP) for optimum distribution of each year’s generated overburden. Previous year’s disposal quantity outputs are processed as one set of the inputs to the LP model for generation of current year’s disposal output. From various geo-mining inputs, site constants of the LP constraints are calculated. Arrived value of economic vectors, which guide the programming statement, decides the optimal overburden distribution in defined options. The case example (with model test run) indicates that overburden distribution is significantly sensitive to coal seam gradient. The model has universal applicability to cyclic system (shovel dumper combination) of opencast

  13. Spherical Harmonics Analysis of the ECMWF Global Wind Fields at the 10-Meter Height Level During 1985: A Collection of Figures Illustrating Results

    Sanchez, Braulio V.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Half-daily global wind speeds in the east-west (u) and north-south (v) directions at the 10-meter height level were obtained from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data set of global analyses. The data set covered the period 1985 January to 1995 January. A spherical harmonic expansion to degree and order 50 was used to perform harmonic analysis of the east-west (u) and north-south (v) velocity field components. The resulting wind field is displayed, as well as the residual of the fit, at a particular time. The contribution of particular coefficients is shown. The time variability of the coefficients up to degree and order 3 is presented. Corresponding power spectrum plots are given. Time series analyses were applied also to the power associated with degrees 0-10; the results are included.

  14. Optimum design for rotor-bearing system using advanced generic algorithm

    Kim, Young Chan; Choi, Seong Pil; Yang, Bo Suk

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a combinational method to compute the global and local solutions of optimization problems. The present hybrid algorithm uses both a generic algorithm and a local concentrate search algorithm (e.g simplex method). The hybrid algorithm is not only faster than the standard genetic algorithm but also supplies a more accurate solution. In addition, this algorithm can find the global and local optimum solutions. The present algorithm can be supplied to minimize the resonance response (Q factor) and to yield the critical speeds as far from the operating speed as possible. These factors play very important roles in designing a rotor-bearing system under the dynamic behavior constraint. In the present work, the shaft diameter, the bearing length, and clearance are used as the design variables

  15. Prevalence of tobacco use and perceptions of student health professionals about cessation training: results from Global Health Professions Students Survey.

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mir, Imtiyaz Ali

    2018-05-26

    Health professionals play an important role in providing advice to their patients about tobacco prevention and cessation. Health professionals who use tobacco may be deterred from providing cessation advice and counselling to their patients. We aimed to provide prevalence estimates of tobacco use among student health professionals and describe their attitudes towards tobacco cessation training. Country-wise aggregate data from the Global Health Professions Student Survey on 'c urrent cigarette smoking' (smoking cigarettes on 1 or more days during the past 30 days), and ' curren t use of tobacco products other than cigarettes' (chewing tobacco, snuff, bidis, cigars or pipes, 1 or more days during the past 30 days) were analysed. For each WHO region, we estimated mean prevalence rates of tobacco use weighted by the population of the sampling frame and aggregate proportions for ' health professionals' role' and ' cessation training' indicators using ' metaprop ' command on Stata V.11. A total of 107 527 student health professionals participated in 236 surveys done in four health profession disciplines spanning 70 countries with response rates ranging from 40% to 100%. Overall, prevalence of smoking was highest in European countries (20% medical and 40% dental students) and the Americas (13% pharmacy to 23% dental students). Other tobacco use was higher in eastern Mediterranean (10%-23%) and European countries (7%-13%). In most WHO regions, ≥70% of the students agreed that health professionals are role models, and have a role in advising about smoking cessation to their patients and the public. Only ≤33% of all student health professionals in most WHO regions (except 80% dental students in the Eastern Mediterranean region) had received formal training on smoking cessation approaches and ≥80% of all students agreed that they should receive formal cessation training. Tobacco control should take place together with medical educators to discourage tobacco use among

  16. The Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM): A Global Approach to Promote the Standardisation of Clinical Laboratory Test Results

    Armbruster, David; Miller, Richard R

    2007-01-01

    Clinical laboratories are moving towards global standardisation to produce equivalent test results across space and time. Standardisation allows use of evidence-based medicine, eliminates the need of method-specific reference intervals, decision levels and cut-offs, and can be achieved by application of metrological principles. For example, in vitro diagnostics (IVD) manufacturers can make kit calibrators traceable to internationally recognised reference materials and reference methods.

  17. Multidisciplinary Aerodynamic Design of a Rotor Blade for an Optimum Rotor Speed Helicopter

    Jiayi Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamic design of rotor blades is challenging, and is crucial for the development of helicopter technology. Previous aerodynamic optimizations that focused only on limited design points find it difficult to balance flight performance across the entire flight envelope. This study develops a global optimum envelope (GOE method for determining blade parameters—blade twist, taper ratio, tip sweep—for optimum rotor speed helicopters (ORS-helicopters, balancing performance improvements in hover and various freestream velocities. The GOE method implements aerodynamic blade design by a bi-level optimization, composed of a global optimization step and a secondary optimization step. Power loss as a measure of rotor performance is chosen as the objective function, referred to as direct power loss (DPL in this study. A rotorcraft comprehensive code for trim simulation with a prescribed wake method is developed. With the application of the GOE method, a DPL reduction of as high as 16.7% can be achieved in hover, and 24% at high freestream velocity.

  18. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    USER

    ABSTRACT: After processing the palm fruit for oil, the nut is usually dried in order to loosen the kernel from the shell. The drying is necessary to enhance the release of whole kernel when the nut is cracked. A study was carried out to determine the optimum moisture content of nuts for high yield of whole kernels during ...

  19. Optimum position for wells producing at constant wellbore pressure

    Camacho-Velazquez, R.; Rodriguez de la Garza, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Galindo-Nava, A. [Inst. Mexicanos del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico)]|[Univ. Nacional de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Prats, M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with the determination of the optimum position of several wells, producing at constant different wellbore pressures from a two-dimensional closed-boundary reservoirs, to maximize the cumulative production or the total flow rate. To achieve this objective they authors use an improved version of the analytical solution recently proposed by Rodriguez and Cinco-Ley and an optimization algorithm based on a quasi-Newton procedure with line search. At each iteration the algorithm approximates the negative of the objective function by a cuadratic relation derived from a Taylor series. The improvement of rodriguez and Cinco`s solution is attained in four ways. First, an approximation is obtained, which works better at earlier times (before the boundary dominated period starts) than the previous solution. Second, the infinite sums that are present in the solution are expressed in a condensed form, which is relevant for reducing the computer time when the optimization algorithm is used. Third, the solution is modified to take into account the possibility of having wells starting to produce at different times. This point allows them to deal with the problem of getting the optimum position for an infill drilling program. Last, the solution is extended to include the possibility of changing the value of wellbore pressure or being able to stimulate any of the wells at any time. When the wells are producing at different wellbore pressures it is found that the optimum position is a function of time, otherwise the optimum position is fixed.

  20. Optimum Onager: The Classical Mechanics of a Classical Siege Engine

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The onager is a throwing weapon of classical antiquity, familiar to both the ancient Greeks and Romans. Here we analyze the dynamics of onager operation and derive the optimum angle for launching a projectile to its maximum range. There is plenty of scope for further considerations about increasing onager range, and so by thinking about how this…

  1. The effects of physical and chemical changes on the optimum ...

    The aim of this study was to determine physical and chemical changes during fruit development and their relationship with optimum harvest maturity for Bacon, Fuerte and Zutano avocado cultivars grown under Dörtyol ecological condition. Fruits cv. Bacon, Fuerte and Zutano were obtained trees grafted on seedlings and ...

  2. Applied orthogonal experiment design for the optimum microwave ...

    An experiment on polysaccharides from Rhodiolae Radix (PRR) extraction was carried out using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method with an objective to establishing the optimum MAE conditions of PRR. Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions, and the ...

  3. Optimum geometry for torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance motors

    Sahin, F.; Ertan, H.B.; Leblebicioglu, K.

    2000-01-01

    For switched reluctance motors, one of the major problems is torque ripple which causes increased undesirable acoustic noise and possibly speed ripple. This paper describes an approach to determine optimum magnetic circuit parameters to minimize low speed torque ripple for such motors. The

  4. METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMUM EXPLOSIVES IN DIFFERENT ROCKS

    Josip Krsnik

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The most appropriate explosives required for blasting of the particular types of rocks were established by test blasting method with linear burden increase. By the same method the optimum magnitudes of deep-holes blasting were established (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. Applicability Problem in Optimum Reinforced Concrete Structures Design

    Ashara Assedeq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimum reinforced concrete structures design is very complex problem, not only considering exactness of calculus but also because of questionable applicability of existing methods in practice. This paper presents the main theoretical mathematical and physical features of the problem formulation as well as the review and analysis of existing methods and solutions considering their exactness and applicability.

  6. Optimum length of finned pipe for waste heat recovery

    Soeylemez, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A thermoeconomic feasibility analysis is presented yielding a simple algebraic optimization formula for estimating the optimum length of a finned pipe that is used for waste heat recovery. A simple economic optimization method is used in the present study by combining it with an integrated overall heat balance method based on fin effectiveness for calculating the maximum savings from a waste heat recovery system

  7. The Optimum Conditions of Foreign Languages in Primary Education

    Giannikas, Christina Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to review the primary language learning situation in Europe and shed light on the benefits it carries. Early language learning is the biggest policy development in education and has developed in rapid speed over the past 30 years; this article considers the effects and advantages of the optimum condition of an early start,…

  8. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    user

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... optimum weights at dietary energy levels of 13.81, 13.23, 13.43 and ... Tadelle & Ogle (2000) reported that energy requirement of ..... The authors would like to acknowledge the National Research Foundation (NRF) and VLIR ...

  9. Bud initiation and optimum harvest date in Brussels sprouts

    Everaarts, A.P.; Sukkel, W.

    1999-01-01

    For six cultivars of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) with a decreasing degree of earliness, or optimum harvest date, the time of bud initiation was determined during two seasons. Fifty percent of the plants had initiated buds between 60 and 75 days after planting (DAP) in 1994

  10. Optimum dietary protein requirement of genetically male tilapia ...

    The study was conducted to investigate the optimum dietary protein level needed for growing genetically male tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Diets containing crude protein levels 40, 42.5, 45, 47.5 and 50% were formulated and tried in triplicates. Test diets were fed to 20 fish/1m3 floating hapa at 5% of fish body weight daily ...

  11. Optimum development temperature and duration for nuclear plate

    Nagoshi, Chieko.

    1975-01-01

    Sakura 100 μm thick nuclear plates have been employed to determine optimum temperature and duration of the Amidol developer for low energy protons (Ep 0 C were tried for periods of 15--35 min. For Ep 0 C and for development time less than 30 min. (auth.)

  12. Optimum workforce-size model using dynamic programming approach

    This paper presents an optimum workforce-size model which determines the minimum number of excess workers (overstaffing) as well as the minimum total recruitment cost during a specified planning horizon. The model is an extension of other existing dynamic programming models for manpower planning in the sense ...

  13. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    A study was conducted to determine dietary energy levels for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement. Four dietary treatments were considered in the first phase (1 to 7 weeks) on two hundred day-old unsexed indigenous Venda chicks indicated as EVS1, ...

  14. Procedure for determining the optimum rate of increasing shaft depth

    Durov, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    Presented is an economic analysis of increasing shaft depth during mine modernization. Investigations carried out by the Yuzhgiproshakht Institute are analyzed. The investigations are aimed at determining the optimum shaft sinking rate (the rate which reduces investment to the minimum). The following factors are considered: coal output of a mine (0.9, 1.2, 1.5 and 1.8 Mt/year), depth at which the new mining level is situated (600, 800, 1200, 1400 and 1600 m), four schemes of increasing depth of 2 central shafts (rock hoisting to ground surface, rock hoisting to the existing level, rock haulage to the developed level, rock haulage to the level being developed using a large diameter borehole drilled from the new level to the shaft bottom and enlarged from shaft bottom to the new level), shaft sinking rate (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 m/month), range of increasing shaft depth (the difference between depth of the shaft before and after increasing its depth by 100, 200, 300 and 400 m). Comparative evaluations show that the optimum shaft sinking rate depends on the scheme for rock hoisting (one of 4 analyzed), range of increasing shaft depth and gas content in coal seams. The optimum shaft sinking rate ranges from 20 to 40 m/month in coal mines with low methane content and from 20 to 30 m/month in gassy coal mines. The planned coal output of a mine does not influence the optimum shaft sinking rate.

  15. Deuterium–tritium catalytic reaction in fast ignition: Optimum ...

    proton beam, the corresponding optimum interval values are proton average energy 3 ... contributions, into the study of the ignition and burn dynamics in a fast ignition frame- ..... choice of proton beam energy would fall in 3 ≤ Ep ≤ 10 MeV.

  16. Modeling Budget Optimum Allocation of Khorasan Razavi Province Agriculture Sector

    Seyed Mohammad Fahimifard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stock shortage is one of the development impasses in developing countries and trough it the agriculture sector has faced with the most limitation. The share of Iran’s agricultural sector from total investments after the Islamic revolution (1979 has been just 5.5 percent. This fact causes low efficiency in Iran’s agriculture sector. For instance per each 1 cubic meter of water in Iran’s agriculture sector, less that 1 kilogram dry food produced and each Iranian farmer achieves less annual income and has less mechanization in comparison with similar countries in Iran’s 1404 perspective document. Therefore, it is clear that increasing investment in agriculture sector, optimize the budget allocation for this sector is mandatory however has not been adequately and scientifically revised until now. Thus, in this research optimum budget allocation of Iran- Khorasan Razavi province agriculture sector was modeled. Materials and Methods: In order to model the optimum budget allocation of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector at first optimum budget allocation between agriculture programs was modeled with compounding three indexes: 1. Analyzing the priorities of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector experts with the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, 2. The average share of agriculture sector programs from 4th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector, and 3.The average share of agriculture sector programs from 5th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector. Then, using Delphi technique potential indexes of each program was determined. After that, determined potential indexes were weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and finally, using numerical taxonomy model to optimize allocation of the program’s budget between cities based on two scenarios. Required data, also was gathered from the budget and planning

  17. The first conference of Signatory States to the UN Global Climate Convention: Results of the Berlin summit conference

    Ehrmann, M.

    1996-01-01

    The article briefly explains the background of the Berlin summit conference as well as some results, as for instance the ''Berlin mandate'', or agreements concerning organisational structures or procedures like those termed ''joint implementation''. (Orig./CB) [de

  18. Optimum design of vaporizer fin with liquefied natural gas by numerical analysis

    Jeong, Hyo Min; Chung, Han Shik; Lee, Sang Chul; Kong, Tae Woo; Yi, Chung Seub

    2006-01-01

    Generally, the temperature drop under 0 .deg. C on vaporizer surface creates frozen dews. This problem seems to increase as the time progress and humidity rises. In addition, the frozen dews create frost deposition. Consequently, heat transfer on vaporizer decreases because frost deposition causes adiabatic condition. Therefore, it is very important to solve this problem. This paper aims to study of the optimum design of used vaporizer at local LNG station. In this paper, experimental results were compared with numerical results. Geometries of numerical and experimental vaporizers were identical. Studied parameters of vaporizer are angle between two fins (Φ) and fin thickness (TH F ). Numerical analysis results were presented through the correlations between the ice layer thickness (TH ICE ) on the vaporizer surface to the temperature distribution of inside vaporizer (T IN ), fin thickness (TH F ), and angle between two fins (Φ). Numerical result shows good agreement with experimental outcome. Finally, the correlations for optimum design of vaporizer are proposed on this paper

  19. Optimum design for pipe-support allocation against seismic loading

    Hara, Fumio; Iwasaki, Akira

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimum design methodology of a piping system subjected to a seismic design loading to reduce its dynamic response by selecting the location of pipe supports and whereby reducing the number of pipe supports to be used. The author employs the Genetic Algorithm for obtaining a reasonably optimum solution of the pipe support location, support capacity and number of supports. The design condition specified by the support location, support capacity and the number of supports to be used is encored by an integer number string for each of the support allocation candidates and they prepare many strings for expressing various kinds of pipe-support allocation state. Corresponding to each string, the authors evaluate the seismic response of the piping system to the design seismic excitation and apply the Genetic Algorithm to select the next generation candidates of support allocation to improve the seismic design performance specified by a weighted linear combination of seismic response magnitude, support capacity and the number of supports needed. Continuing this selection process, they find a reasonably optimum solution to the seismic design problem. They examine the feasibility of this optimum design method by investigating the optimum solution for 5, 7 and 10 degree-of-freedom models of piping system, and find that this method can offer one a theoretically feasible solution to the problem. They will be, thus, liberated from the severe uncertainty of damping value when the pipe support guaranties the design capacity of damping. Finally, they discuss the usefulness of the Genetic Algorithm for the seismic design problem of piping systems and some sensitive points when it will be applied to actual design problems

  20. Tropical Rainfall Analysis Using TRMM in Combination With Other Satellite Gauge Data: Comparison with Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Results

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes recent results of using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) information as the key calibration tool in a merged analysis on a 1 deg x 1 deg latitude/longitude monthly scale based on multiple satellite sources and raingauge analysis. The procedure used to produce the GPCP data set is a stepwise approach which first combines the satellite low-orbit microwave and geosynchronous IR observations into a "multi-satellite" product and than merges that result with the raingauge analysis. Preliminary results produced with the still-stabilizing TRMM algorithms indicate that TRMM shows tighter spatial gradients in tropical rain maxima with higher peaks in the center of the maxima. The TRMM analyses will be used to evaluate the evolution of the 1998 ENSO variations, again in comparison with the GPCP analyses.

  1. Global results of the participation of ARN Argentina in the quality assessment program, EML-DOE since 1995-2004

    Equillor, Hugo E.; Serdeiro, Nelida H.; Fernandez, Jorge A.; Gavini, Ricardo M.; Grinman, Ana. D. R.; Lewis, Esther C.; Palacios, Miguel A.; Bonino, Nestor O.; Diodati, Jorge M.; Medici, Marcela A.

    2006-01-01

    In this report, the results obtained by the laboratories of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in measurements of alpha, beta and gamma emitters in four types of matrix are presented, in the frame of the Quality Assessment Program organized for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the United States of America corresponding to 19 exercises of the period 1995-2004. (author) [es

  2. Results of Use of WHO Global Salm-Surv External Quality Assurance System for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella Isolates from 2000 to 2007

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Jensen, Arne Bent

    2009-01-01

    laboratories in 102 countries participated in at least one EQAS iteration. A large number of laboratories reported results for the E. coli ATCC 25922 reference strain which were outside the quality control ranges. Critical deviations for susceptibility testing of the Salmonella isolates varied from 4% in 2000......An international External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella was initiated in 2000 by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Salm-Surv in order to enhance the capacities of national reference laboratories to obtain reliable data....... In particular, further training and dissemination of information on quality control, appropriate interpretive criteria (breakpoints), and harmonization of the methodology worldwide through WHO Global Salm-Surv and other programs will contribute to the generation of comparable and reliable antimicrobial...

  3. IRSN opinion survey - The perception of risks and security by the French population. Global results June 2013

    2013-06-01

    After having commented the most remarkable results (importance of the economic crisis as a major concern for French people before environmental concerns, an improved perception of industrial risks, the Fukushima accident is fading away but specific traces remain, expectations regarding nuclear energy), this report, illustrated by several graphs, presents and discusses the results of an annual opinion survey on the present concerns of French people (in the present society, for the environment, and as far as science is concerned), the opinion of French people on expertise (about who must control a risky installation, about the role and image of scientific experts, about the diffusion and sharing of scientific expertise, and about the perception of pluralistic structures), on the attitude of French people in front of 33 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed to, confidence of French people in authorities to protect them, the truth of information on hazards, the hierarchy of 33 situations according to three aspects and their relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses more particularly the nuclear sector: nuclear risk, ability and credibility of interveners, debate on energy transition. A last part addresses the perception of the Fukushima accident. Graphs notably present the evolution of opinions with respect to last year or over the past years

  4. Optimum gas turbine cycle for combined cycle power plant

    Polyzakis, A.L.; Koroneos, C.; Xydis, G.

    2008-01-01

    The gas turbine based power plant is characterized by its relatively low capital cost compared with the steam power plant. It has environmental advantages and short construction lead time. However, conventional industrial engines have lower efficiencies, especially at part load. One of the technologies adopted nowadays for efficiency improvement is the 'combined cycle'. The combined cycle technology is now well established and offers superior efficiency to any of the competing gas turbine based systems that are likely to be available in the medium term for large scale power generation applications. This paper has as objective the optimization of a combined cycle power plant describing and comparing four different gas turbine cycles: simple cycle, intercooled cycle, reheated cycle and intercooled and reheated cycle. The proposed combined cycle plant would produce 300 MW of power (200 MW from the gas turbine and 100 MW from the steam turbine). The results showed that the reheated gas turbine is the most desirable overall, mainly because of its high turbine exhaust gas temperature and resulting high thermal efficiency of the bottoming steam cycle. The optimal gas turbine (GT) cycle will lead to a more efficient combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and this will result in great savings. The initial approach adopted is to investigate independently the four theoretically possible configurations of the gas plant. On the basis of combining these with a single pressure Rankine cycle, the optimum gas scheme is found. Once the gas turbine is selected, the next step is to investigate the impact of the steam cycle design and parameters on the overall performance of the plant, in order to choose the combined cycle offering the best fit with the objectives of the work as depicted above. Each alterative cycle was studied, aiming to find the best option from the standpoint of overall efficiency, installation and operational costs, maintainability and reliability for a combined power

  5. Maritime Aerosol Network as a Component of AERONET - First Results and Comparison with Global Aerosol Models and Satellite Retrievals

    Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.; Giles, D. M.; Slutsker, I.; O'Neill, N. T.; Eck, T. F.; Macke, A.; Croot, P.; Courcoux, Y.; Sakerin, S. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) has been collecting data over the oceans since November 2006. Over 80 cruises were completed through early 2010 with deployments continuing. Measurement areas included various parts of the Atlantic Ocean, the Northern and Southern Pacific Ocean, the South Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and inland seas. MAN deploys Microtops handheld sunphotometers and utilizes a calibration procedure and data processing traceable to AERONET. Data collection included areas that previously had no aerosol optical depth (AOD) coverage at all, particularly vast areas of the Southern Ocean. The MAN data archive provides a valuable resource for aerosol studies in maritime environments. In the current paper we present results of AOD measurements over the oceans, and make a comparison with satellite AOD retrievals and model simulations.

  6. Maritime aerosol network as a component of AERONET – first results and comparison with global aerosol models and satellite retrievals

    A. Smirnov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN has been collecting data over the oceans since November 2006. Over 80 cruises were completed through early 2010 with deployments continuing. Measurement areas included various parts of the Atlantic Ocean, the Northern and Southern Pacific Ocean, the South Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and inland seas. MAN deploys Microtops hand-held sunphotometers and utilizes a calibration procedure and data processing traceable to AERONET. Data collection included areas that previously had no aerosol optical depth (AOD coverage at all, particularly vast areas of the Southern Ocean. The MAN data archive provides a valuable resource for aerosol studies in maritime environments. In the current paper we present results of AOD measurements over the oceans, and make a comparison with satellite AOD retrievals and model simulations.

  7. Harnessing opportunities for good governance of health impacts of mining projects in Mongolia: results of a global partnership.

    Pfeiffer, Michaela; Vanya, Delgermaa; Davison, Colleen; Lkhagvasuren, Oyunaa; Johnston, Lesley; Janes, Craig R

    2017-06-27

    The Sustainable Development Goals call for the effective governance of shared natural resources in ways that support inclusive growth, safeguard the integrity of the natural and physical environment, and promote health and well-being for all. For large-scale resource extraction projects -- e.g. in the mining sector -- environmental regulations and in particular environmental impact assessments (EIA) provide an important but insufficiently developed avenue to ensure that wider sustainable development issues, such as health, have been considered prior to the permitting of projects. In recognition of the opportunity provided in EIA to influence the extent to which health issues would be addressed in the design and delivery of mining projects, an international and intersectoral partnership, with the support of WHO and public funds from Canadian sources, engaged over a period of six years in a series of capacity development activities and knowledge translation/dissemination events aimed at influencing policy change in the extractives sector so as to include consideration of human health impacts. Early efforts significantly increased awareness of the need to include health considerations in EIAs. Coupling effective knowledge translation about health in EIA with the development of networks that fostered good intersectoral partnerships, this awareness supported the development and implementation of key pieces of legislation. These results show that intersectoral collaboration is essential, and must be supported by an effective conceptual understanding about which methods and models of impact assessment, particularly for health, lend themselves to integration within EIA. The results of our partnership demonstrate that when specific conditions are met, integrating health into the EIA system represents a promising avenue to ensure that mining activities contribute to wider sustainable development goals and objectives.

  8. Brief report: Assessing youth well-being in global emergency settings: Early results from the Emergency Developmental Assets Profile.

    Scales, Peter C; Roehlkepartain, Eugene C; Wallace, Teresa; Inselman, Ashley; Stephenson, Paul; Rodriguez, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The 13-item Emergency Developmental Assets Profile measures the well-being of children and youth in emergency settings such as refugee camps and armed conflict zones, assessing whether young people are experiencing adequate positive relationships and opportunities, and developing positive values, skills, and self-perceptions, despite being in crisis circumstances. The instrument was found to have acceptable and nearly identical internal consistency reliability in 22 administrations in non-emergency samples in 15 countries (.75), and in 4 samples of youth ages 10-18 (n = 1550) in the emergency settings (war refugees and typhoon victims, .74) that are the measure's focus, and evidence of convergent validity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed acceptable model fit among those youth in emergency settings. Measures of model fit showed that the Em-DAP has configural and metric invariance across all emergency contexts and scalar invariance across some. The Em-DAP is a promising brief cross-cultural tool for assessing the developmental quality of life as reported by samples of youth in a current humanitarian crisis situation. The results can help to inform international relief program decisions about services and activities to be provided for children, youth, and families in emergency settings. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. NSTX Disruption Simulations of Detailed Divertor and Passive Plate Models by Vector Potential Transfer from OPERA Global Analysis Results

    Titus, P.H.; Avasaralla, S.; Brooks, A.; Hatcher, R.

    2010-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) project is planning upgrades to the toroidal field, plasma current and pulse length. This involves the replacement of the center-stack, including the inner legs of the TF, OH, and inner PF coils. A second neutral beam will also be added. The increased performance of the upgrade requires qualification of the remaining components including the vessel, passive plates, and divertor for higher disruption loads. The hardware needing qualification is more complex than is typically accessible by large scale electromagnetic (EM) simulations of the plasma disruptions. The usual method is to include simplified representations of components in the large EM models and attempt to extract forces to apply to more detailed models. This paper describes a more efficient approach of combining comprehensive modeling of the plasma and tokamak conducting structures, using the 2D OPERA code, with much more detailed treatment of individual components using ANSYS electromagnetic (EM) and mechanical analysis. This capture local eddy currents and resulting loads in complex details, and allows efficient non-linear, and dynamic structural analyses.

  10. NSTX Disruption Simulations of Detailed Divertor and Passive Plate Models by Vector Potential Transfer from OPERA Global Analysis Results

    P. H. Titus, S. Avasaralla, A.Brooks, R. Hatcher

    2010-09-22

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) project is planning upgrades to the toroidal field, plasma current and pulse length. This involves the replacement of the center-stack, including the inner legs of the TF, OH, and inner PF coils. A second neutral beam will also be added. The increased performance of the upgrade requires qualification of the remaining components including the vessel, passive plates, and divertor for higher disruption loads. The hardware needing qualification is more complex than is typically accessible by large scale electromagnetic (EM) simulations of the plasma disruptions. The usual method is to include simplified representations of components in the large EM models and attempt to extract forces to apply to more detailed models. This paper describes a more efficient approach of combining comprehensive modeling of the plasma and tokamak conducting structures, using the 2D OPERA code, with much more detailed treatment of individual components using ANSYS electromagnetic (EM) and mechanical analysis. This capture local eddy currents and resulting loads in complex details, and allows efficient non-linear, and dynamic structural analyses.

  11. Analytical upper bound on optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner GCMAC using hadamard inequality

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an original analytical expression for an upper bound on the optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner circular Gaussian cellular multiple access channel (C-GCMAC) for uniformly distributed mobile terminals (MTs) across the cells. This upper bound is referred to as Hadamard upper bound (HUB) and is a novel application of the Hadamard inequality established by exploiting the Hadamard operation between the channel fading and channel path gain matrices. In this context, we employ an approximation approach based on the estimation of probability density function (PDF) of Hadamard product of two matrices. A closed-form expression has been derived to capture the effect of variable user density in adjacent cells on optimal joint decoding capacity. The results of this paper demonstrate that the analytical HUB based on the proposed approximation approach converges to the theoretical results for medium range of signal to noise ratios and shows a comparable tighter bound on optimum joint decoding capacity. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Determination of the optimum concentration cellulose baggase in making film bioplastic

    Chadijah, S.; Rustiah, W. O.; Munir, M. I. D.

    2018-03-01

    The hoarding rubbish synthetic plastic caused pollution and demage in life circles, to cope it can be done with synthesizing the plastic from agriculture substance or called biopolymer (bioplastic). It was that potentially as bioplastic was biopolymer from agriculture substance baggase that contain cellulose 40 %. This research aimed to determine the optimum concentration cellulose baggase in making bioplastic film with adding chitosan and sorbitol plasticizer and also to know the result of characterization film bioplastic. The steps in this research were; the extraction of cellulose, making film bioplastic, tensile strenght test and used characterization spectrofotometer FTIR. In this research showed that optimum concentration cellulose baggase in making film bioplastic was 2% with adding chitosan and sorbitol plasticizer. The optimal result of tensile strenght test was 0,089 Kgf/cm2 with elongation percent 15,90 %. The analyzing FTIR in all of variation that looked almost same with characterization with tapes -OH, -NH and C-O.

  13. Optimum Envelope of a Single-Family House Based on Life Cycle Analysis

    Marie-Claude Hamelin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology used for the life cycle cost (LCC and life cycle energy (LCE analyses of the case study house in Quebec, Canada. The TRNSYS energy analysis program is coupled with GenOpt, a general purpose optimization program, for the purpose of this study. The particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is used for the search for the optimum solution. Results show that the optimum levels of insulation should be higher than the reference values, even for the case of LCC analysis. The results are for the most part still valid if electricity costs are assumed to increase below the inflation rate for the duration of the study period.

  14. Optimum Design of Multi-Function Robot Arm Gripper for Varying Shape Green Product

    Razali Zol Bahri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The project focuses on thorough experimentally studies of the optimum design of Multi-function Robot Arm Gripper for varying shape green product. The purpose of this project is to design a few of robot arm gripper for multi-functionally grip a green product with varying shape. The main character of the gripper is that it can automated adjust its finger to suit with the shape of the product. An optimum design of multi-function robot arm gripper is verified through experimental study. The expected result is a series of analytical results on the proposal of gripper design and material that will be selected for the gripper. The analysis of the gripper design proposal by using ANSYS and CATIA software is described in detail in this paper.

  15. The Development of a Long-Term, Continually Updated Global Solar Resource at 10 km Resolution: Preliminary Results From Test Processing and Continuing Plans

    Stackhouse, P.; Perez, R.; Sengupta, M.; Knapp, K.; Cox, Stephen; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Zhang, T.; Hemker, K.; Schlemmer, J.; Kivalov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the likelihood of global climatic weather pattern changes and the global competition for energy resources, there is an increasing need to provide improved and continuously updated global Earth surface solar resource information. Toward this end, a project was funded under the NASA Applied Science program involving the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the State University of New York/Albany (SUNY) and the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) to provide NREL with a global long-term advanced global solar mapping production system for improved depiction of historical solar resources and variability and to provide a mechanism for continual updates of solar resource information. This new production system is made possible by the efforts of NOAA and NASA to completely reprocess the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data set that provides satellite visible and infrared radiances together with retrieved cloud and surface properties on a 3-hourly basis beginning from July 1983. The old version of the ISCCP data provided this information for all the world TMs available geosynchronous satellite systems and NOAA TMs AVHRR data sets at a 30 km effective resolution. This new version aims to provide a new and improved satellite calibration at an effective 10 km resolution. Thus, working with SUNY, NASA will develop and test an improved production system that will enable NREL to continually update the Earth TM solar resource. Objective and Methods: In this presentation, we provide a general overview of this project together with samples of the new solar irradiance mapped data products and comparisons to surface measurements at various locations across the world. An assessment of the solar resource values relative to calibration uncertainty and assumptions are presented. Errors resulting assumptions in snow cover and background aerosol

  16. Attitudes and perceptions towards novel objective measures of ARV-based vaginal ring use: Results from a global stakeholder survey.

    Stalter, Randy M; Tharaldson, Jenae; Owen, Derek H; Okumu, Eunice; Moench, Thomas; Mack, Natasha; Tolley, Elizabeth E; MacQueen, Kathleen M

    2017-01-01

    Results of recent microbicide and pre-exposure prophylaxis clinical trials have shown adherence to be a significant challenge with new HIV prevention technologies. As the vaginal ring containing dapivirine moves into two open label follow-on studies (HOPE/MTN-025 and DREAM) and other antiretroviral-based and multi-purpose prevention technology ring products advance through the development pipeline, there is a need for more accurate and reliable measures of adherence to microbicide ring products. We previously conducted a comprehensive landscape analysis to identify new technologies that could be applied to adherence measurement of vaginal rings containing antiretrovirals. To explore attitudes and perceptions towards the approaches that we identified, we conducted a survey of stakeholders with experience and expertise in microbicide and HIV prevention clinical trials. From May to July 2015 an electronic survey was distributed via email to 894 stakeholders; a total of 206 eligible individuals responded to at least one question and were included in the data analysis. Survey respondents were presented with various objective measures and asked about their perceived acceptability to trial participants, feasibility of implementation by study staff, usefulness for measuring adherence and ethical concerns. Methods that require no additional input from the participant and require no modifications to the existing ring product (i.e., measurement of residual drug or excipient, or a vaginal analyte that enters the ring) were viewed as being more acceptable to trial participants and more feasible to implement in the field. Respondents saw value in using objective measures to provide real-time feedback on adherence. However, approaches that involve unannounced home visits for sample collection or spot checks of ring use, which could provide significant value to adherence feedback efforts, were met with skepticism. Additional research on the acceptability of these methods to

  17. Attitudes and perceptions towards novel objective measures of ARV-based vaginal ring use: Results from a global stakeholder survey.

    Randy M Stalter

    Full Text Available Results of recent microbicide and pre-exposure prophylaxis clinical trials have shown adherence to be a significant challenge with new HIV prevention technologies. As the vaginal ring containing dapivirine moves into two open label follow-on studies (HOPE/MTN-025 and DREAM and other antiretroviral-based and multi-purpose prevention technology ring products advance through the development pipeline, there is a need for more accurate and reliable measures of adherence to microbicide ring products. We previously conducted a comprehensive landscape analysis to identify new technologies that could be applied to adherence measurement of vaginal rings containing antiretrovirals. To explore attitudes and perceptions towards the approaches that we identified, we conducted a survey of stakeholders with experience and expertise in microbicide and HIV prevention clinical trials. From May to July 2015 an electronic survey was distributed via email to 894 stakeholders; a total of 206 eligible individuals responded to at least one question and were included in the data analysis. Survey respondents were presented with various objective measures and asked about their perceived acceptability to trial participants, feasibility of implementation by study staff, usefulness for measuring adherence and ethical concerns. Methods that require no additional input from the participant and require no modifications to the existing ring product (i.e., measurement of residual drug or excipient, or a vaginal analyte that enters the ring were viewed as being more acceptable to trial participants and more feasible to implement in the field. Respondents saw value in using objective measures to provide real-time feedback on adherence. However, approaches that involve unannounced home visits for sample collection or spot checks of ring use, which could provide significant value to adherence feedback efforts, were met with skepticism. Additional research on the acceptability of these

  18. Optimum Assembly Sequence Planning System Using Discrete Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Özkan Özmen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly refers both to the process of combining parts to create a structure and to the product resulting therefrom. The complexity of this process increases with the number of pieces in the assembly. This paper presents the assembly planning system design (APSD program, a computer program developed based on a matrix-based approach and the discrete artificial bee colony (DABC algorithm, which determines the optimum assembly sequence among numerous feasible assembly sequences (FAS. Specifically, the assembly sequences of three-dimensional (3D parts prepared in the computer-aided design (CAD software AutoCAD are first coded using the matrix-based methodology and the resulting FAS are assessed and the optimum assembly sequence is selected according to the assembly time optimisation criterion using DABC. The results of comparison of the performance of the proposed method with other methods proposed in the literature verify its superiority in finding the sequence with the lowest overall time. Further, examination of the results of application of APSD to assemblies consisting of parts in different numbers and shapes shows that it can select the optimum sequence from among hundreds of FAS.

  19. Determination of optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef products.

    Rodas-González, Argenis; Larsen, Ivy L; Uttaro, Bethany; Juárez, Manuel; Parslow, Joyce; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    In order to determine optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef, the effects of searing at 232 or 260°C for 0, 10, 20 or 30 min, and roasting at 160 or 135°C on semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were evaluated. In addition, the optimum determined cooking method (oven-seared for 10 min at 232°C and roasted at 135°C) was applied to SM roasts varying in weight from 0.5 to 2.5 kg. Mainly, SM muscles seared for 0 or 10 min at 232°C followed by roast at 135°C had lower cooking loss, higher external browning color, more uniform internal color, and were more tender and flavorful (P searing is the recommended oven cooking procedure; with best response from muscle roast weight ≥1 kg.

  20. Optimum design of exploding pusher target to produce maximum neutrons

    Kitagawa, Y.; Miyanaga, N.; Kato, Y.; Nakatsuka, M.; Nishiguchi, A.; Yabe, T.; Yamanaka, C.

    1985-03-01

    Exploding pusher target experiments have been conducted with the 1.052-μm GEKKO MII two-beam glass laser system to design an optimum target, which couples to the incident laser light most effectively to produce the maximum neutrons. Since hot electrons preheat the shell entirely in spite of strongly nonuniform irradiation, a simple model can design the optimum target, of which the shell/fuel interface is accelerated to 0.5 to 0.7 times the initial radius within a laser pulse. A 2-dimensional computer simulation supports this target design. The scaling of the neutron yield N with the laser power P is N ∝ P 2.4±0.4 . (author)

  1. Optimum Design of Heat Exchangers Networks Part -I: Software Development

    Gabr, E.M.A.; EI-Temtamy, S.A.; Deriasl, S.F.; Moustafa, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we have developed a computerized framework for Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis (HENS) with optimality conditions of achieving the least operating and capital cost. The framework of HEN design involves the development three-computer programs, which applied sequentially to design an optimum HEN. The first program Automatic Minimum Utilities [AMU] developed for automatic formulation of LP equations, these equations can be solved by the optimization software [LINDO] to predict minimum hot and cold utilities. The second program based on Vertical Heat Transfer Method [VHTM] for predicting minimum overall heat transfer area and defining the optimum δbT m in. The third program [Mod.RESHEX] developed for targeting of heat transfer area and automatic synthesis of HEN. This program represents the modifications and development of RESHEX method to overcome the design defects, which appeared on original RESHEX applications

  2. Determining optimum aging time using novel core flooding equipment

    Ahkami, Mehrdad; Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Xiarchos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    the optimum aging time regardless of variations in crude oil, rock, and brine properties. State of the art core flooding equipment has been developed that can be used for consistently determining the resistivity of the coreplug during aging and waterflooding using advanced data acquisition software......New methods for enhanced oil recovery are typically developed using core flooding techniques. Establishing reservoir conditions is essential before the experimental campaign commences. The realistic oil-rock wettability can be obtained through optimum aging of the core. Aging time is affected....... In the proposed equipment, independent axial and sleeve pressure can be applied to mimic stresses at reservoir conditions. 10 coreplugs (four sandstones and six chalk samples) from the North Sea have been aged for more than 408 days in total and more than 29000 resistivity data points have been measured...

  3. Application of customer-interruption costs for optimum distribution planning

    Mok, Y.L.; Chung, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    We present a new methodology for obtaining optimum values of the integrated cost of utility investment with customer interruption in distribution planning for electric power systems by determining the reliability cost and worth of the distribution system. Reliability cost refers to investment cost of the utility in achieving a defined level of reliability. Reliability worth is the benefit gained by the utility customer from an increase of reliability. A computer program has been developed to determine comparative reliability indices for a typical distribution network. With the average interruption cost, outage duration, average disconnected load, cost data for distribution equipment, etc. being known, the relation between reliability cost, reliability worth and reliability at the specified load point are obtained. The optimum reliability of the distribution system is then determined from the minimum cost to the utility with customer interruption. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated by several practical networks. (Author)

  4. Optimum biasing of integral equations in Monte Carlo calculations

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    In solving integral equations and estimating average values with the Monte Carlo method, biasing functions may be used to reduce the variancee of the estimates. A simple derivation was used to prove the existence of a zero-variance collision estimator if a specific biasing function and survival probability are applied. This optimum biasing function is the same as that used for the well known zero-variance last-event estimator

  5. Optimum design of Nd-doped fiber optical amplifiers

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Lumholt, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The waveguide parameters for a Nd-doped fluoride (Nd:ZBLANP) fiber amplifier have been optimized for small-signal and booster operation using an accurate numerical model. The optimum cutoff wavelength is shown to be 800 nm and the numerical aperture should be made as large as possible. Around 80%......% booster quantum conversion efficiency can be reached for an input power of 10 dBm and a pump power of 100 mW by the use of one filter...

  6. Optimum concrete compression strength using bio-enzyme

    Bagio Tony Hartono; Basoeki Makno; Tistogondo Julistyana; Pradana Sofyan Ali

    2017-01-01

    To make concrete with high compressive strength and has a certain concrete specifications other than the main concrete materials are also needed concrete mix quality control and other added material is also in line with the current technology of concrete mix that produces concrete with specific characteristics. Addition of bio enzyme on five concrete mixture that will be compared with normal concrete in order to know the optimum level bio-enzyme in concrete to increase the strength of the con...

  7. Generating AN Optimum Treatment Plan for External Beam Radiation Therapy.

    Kabus, Irwin

    1990-01-01

    The application of linear programming to the generation of an optimum external beam radiation treatment plan is investigated. MPSX, an IBM linear programming software package was used. All data originated from the CAT scan of an actual patient who was treated for a pancreatic malignant tumor before this study began. An examination of several alternatives for representing the cross section of the patient showed that it was sufficient to use a set of strategically placed points in the vital organs and tumor and a grid of points spaced about one half inch apart for the healthy tissue. Optimum treatment plans were generated from objective functions representing various treatment philosophies. The optimum plans were based on allowing for 216 external radiation beams which accounted for wedges of any size. A beam reduction scheme then reduced the number of beams in the optimum plan to a number of beams small enough for implementation. Regardless of the objective function, the linear programming treatment plan preserved about 95% of the patient's right kidney vs. 59% for the plan the hospital actually administered to the patient. The clinician, on the case, found most of the linear programming treatment plans to be superior to the hospital plan. An investigation was made, using parametric linear programming, concerning any possible benefits derived from generating treatment plans based on objective functions made up of convex combinations of two objective functions, however, this proved to have only limited value. This study also found, through dual variable analysis, that there was no benefit gained from relaxing some of the constraints on the healthy regions of the anatomy. This conclusion was supported by the clinician. Finally several schemes were found that, under certain conditions, can further reduce the number of beams in the final linear programming treatment plan.

  8. Choice of economical optimum blanket of hybrid reactors

    Blinkin, V L; Novikov, V M

    1981-01-01

    The economical effectiveness of symbiotic power systems depends on the choice of the correlation between energy production and fissile fuel production in blankets of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor (CTR), what is investigated here. It is shown that the optimum value of this correlation essentially depends on the ratio between the specific costs for energy production in hybrid thermonuclear reactors and that in fission reactors as part of the symbiotic system.

  9. Optimum condition for spatial ion cyclotron resonance in a multiple magnetic mirror field

    Mieno, Tetsu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Sato, Noriyoshi

    1988-01-01

    A Spatial cyclotron resonance of ion beams passing through a multiple magnetic mirror field is investigated experimentally by varying parameters of the multiple mirror field. The optimum resonance condition is realized with a decrease in the cell length of the multiple mirror along the beams to satisfy the local condition of the spatial ion cyclotron resonance. The results show a remarkable increase of nonadiabatic transfer of the beam energy into the transverse direction to the magnetic field. (author)

  10. Determination of the optimum pressure for neutron yield with d2, in the PF facility dena

    Siahpoush, V.; Khorram, C.; Sobhanian, S.; Hamzeh Fafreshi, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Using physical model, which describes the dynamics of plasma in the Filipov type plasma focus, we have simulated the pinch current for different voltages and pressures. The results show that for a specific voltage, there is an optimum pressure for which the pinch current has maximum value. A comparison between the simulated and the experimental data from dena shows that the maximum values of pinch current are obtained at the same pressure for which the maximum neutron yield is observed

  11. Determination of optimum thermal debinding and sintering process parameters using Taguchi Method

    Seerane, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available powder and a wax-based binder. The binder’s backbone component is a low density polyethylene (LDPE). Careful selection of thermal debinding parameters was guided by thermo- gravimetric analysis (TGA) results. The Taguchi method was used to determine... International Light Metals Technology Conference (LMT 2015), Port Elizabeth, South Africa, July 27-29 Determination of Optimum Process for Thermal Debinding and Sintering using Taguchi Method SEERANE Mandya,*, CHIKWANDA Hildab, MACHAKA Ronaldc CSIR...

  12. Optimum angle of incidence for monochromatic interference in transparent films on absorbing substrates

    Muller, R.H.; Sand, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Angles of incidence for s- and p-polarized light have been computed and confirmed experimentally for which monochromatic interference in transparent thin films on absorbing substrates results in optimum interference fringe contrast (visibility=1). Under these angles of incidence and with polarized light, film thickness determinations which are not possible at normal incidence or with unpolarized light can be carried out by use of thin-film interference

  13. Which lamp will be optimum to eye? Incandescent, fluorescent or LED etc

    Liang Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Low frequency flicker, high frequency flicker, strong light, strong blue light, infrared, ultraviolet, electromagnetic radiation, ripple flicker and dimming flicker produced by different lamps have negative impact on vision, eyes and health. Negative impact on eyes resulting in myopia or cataract etc:the solution is to remove all the negative factors by applying upright lighting technology and that is optimum to vision, eyes and health.

  14. Optimum profit model considering production, quality and sale problem

    Chen, Chung-Ho; Lu, Chih-Lun

    2011-12-01

    Chen and Liu ['Procurement Strategies in the Presence of the Spot Market-an Analytical Framework', Production Planning and Control, 18, 297-309] presented the optimum profit model between the producers and the purchasers for the supply chain system with a pure procurement policy. However, their model with a simple manufacturing cost did not consider the used cost of the customer. In this study, the modified Chen and Liu's model will be addressed for determining the optimum product and process parameters. The authors propose a modified Chen and Liu's model under the two-stage screening procedure. The surrogate variable having a high correlation with the measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the first stage. The measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the second stage when the product decision cannot be determined in the first stage. The used cost of the customer will be measured by adopting Taguchi's quadratic quality loss function. The optimum purchaser's order quantity, the producer's product price and the process quality level will be jointly determined by maximising the expected profit between them.

  15. WHAT IS THE OPTIMUM SIZE OF GOVERNMENT: A SUGGESTION

    Aykut Ekinci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What is the optimum size of government? When the rule of law and the establishment of private property rights are taken into consideration, it is clear that the answer will not be at some 0%. On the other hand, when the experience of the old Soviet Union, East Germany and North Korea is considered, the answer will not be at some 100% either. Therefore, extreme points should not be the right answer. This study offers using normal distribution to answer this question. The study has revealed the following findings: (i The total amount of public expenditures as % of GDP, a is at minimum level at 4.55% rate, b is at optimum level at 13.4% rate, c is at maximum level at 31.7%. (ii Thus, as a fiscal rule, countries should: a choose the total amount of public expenditures as % of GDP ≤ 31.7% b target 13.4%. (iii Tree dimensional (3D normal distribution demonstrates that a healthy market system could be built upon a healthy government system (iv This approach rejects Wagner’s law. In a healthy growing economy, optimum government size could be kept at 13.4%. (v The UK, the USA and the European countries have been in the Keynesian-Marxist area, which reduces their average growth.

  16. The theory of an ‘optimum currency area’

    Jarosław Kundera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to analyse and distinguish the main components of the theory of an ‘Optimum Currency Area’. The theory of an optimum currency area indicates some essential elements as preconditions for the successful introduction of a common currency: high mobility of labour, openness of the economy defined as a high proportion of tradable to non-tradable goods, and high diversification of domestic production before joining the union. The article’s analysis helps to better understanding the reasons of the current crisis in the euro zone. The main problem with a common currency area is the adjustment to imbalances, which cannot take place through exchange rates in conditions of a common currency. The missing elements of the theory are the role of the mobility of capital to correct interregional balance of payments disequilibria and lack of a common budget with sufficient own resources during the occurrence of debt crises in member countries. The theory of an optimum currency area has noticed the importance of coordination between fiscal and monetary policy and the necessity of redistribution of resources among partners. However, it does not say much about the methods applied, how to deal with debt crises and what the cost of a potential breaking up of monetary union would be.

  17. Semianalytical and Seminumerical Calculations of Optimum Material Distributions

    Andersson, Gunnar

    1963-06-15

    Perturbation theory applied to the multigroup diffusion equations gives a general condition for optimum distribution of reactor materials. A certain function of the material densities and the fluxes, here called the W (eight) function, must thus be constant where the variable material density is larger than zero if changes in this density affect only the group constants where the changes occur. The weight function is, however, generally a complicated function and complete solutions have therefore previously been presented only for the special case when constant weight function implies constant thermal flux. It is demonstrated that the condition of constant weight function can be used together with well known methods for numerical solution of the multigroup diffusion equations to obtain optimum material distributions also when the thermal flux varies over the core. Solution of the minimum fuel mass problem for two reflected reactors thus shows that an effective reflector such as D{sub 2}O gives a peak in the optimum fuel distribution at the core-reflector interface, while an ineffective reflector such as a breeder blanket or a steel tank wall 'pushes' the fuel away from the strongly absorbing zone. It is also interesting to compare the effective reflector case with analytically obtained solutions corresponding to flat power density, flat thermal flux and flat fuel density.

  18. Optimum heat power cycles for specified boundary conditions

    Ibrahim, O.M.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper optimization of the power output of Carnot and closed Brayton cycles is considered for both finite and infinite thermal capacitance rates of the external fluid streams. The method of Lagrange multipliers is used to solve for working fluid temperatures that yield maximum power. Analytical expressions for the maximum power and the cycle efficiency at maximum power are obtained. A comparison of the maximum power from the two cycles for the same boundary conditions, i.e., the same heat source/sink inlet temperatures, thermal capacitance rates, and heat exchanger conductances, shows that the Brayton cycle can produce more power than the Carnot cycle. This comparison illustrates that cycles exist that can produce more power than the Carnot cycle. The optimum heat power cycle, which will provide the upper limit of power obtained from any thermodynamic cycle for specified boundary conditions and heat exchanger conductances is considered. The optimum heat power cycle is identified by optimizing the sum of the power output from a sequence of Carnot cycles. The shape of the optimum heat power cycle, the power output, and corresponding efficiency are presented. The efficiency at maximum power of all cycles investigated in this study is found to be equal to (or well approximated by) η = 1 - sq. root T L.in /φT H.in where φ is a factor relating the entropy changes during heat rejection and heat addition

  19. Optimum structure of Whipple shield against hypervelocity impact

    Lee, M

    2014-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact of a spherical aluminum projectile onto two spaced aluminum plates (Whipple shield) was simulated to estimate an optimum structure. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code which has a unique migration scheme from a rectangular coordinate to an axisymmetic coordinate was used. The ratio of the front plate thickness to sphere diameter varied from 0.06 to 0.48. The impact velocities considered here were 6.7 km/s. This is the procedure we explored. To guarantee the early stage simulation, the shapes of debris clouds were first compared with the previous experimental pictures, indicating a good agreement. Next, the debris cloud expansion angle was predicted and it shows a maximum value of 23 degree for thickness ratio of front bumper to sphere diameter of 0.23. A critical sphere diameter causing failure of rear wall was also examined while keeping the total thickness of two plates constant. There exists an optimum thickness ratio of front bumper to rear wall, which is identified as a function of the size combination of the impacting body, front and rear plates. The debris cloud expansion-correlated-optimum thickness ratio study provides a good insight on the hypervelocity impact onto spaced target system.

  20. Optimum structure of Whipple shield against hypervelocity impact

    Lee, M.

    2014-05-01

    Hypervelocity impact of a spherical aluminum projectile onto two spaced aluminum plates (Whipple shield) was simulated to estimate an optimum structure. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code which has a unique migration scheme from a rectangular coordinate to an axisymmetic coordinate was used. The ratio of the front plate thickness to sphere diameter varied from 0.06 to 0.48. The impact velocities considered here were 6.7 km/s. This is the procedure we explored. To guarantee the early stage simulation, the shapes of debris clouds were first compared with the previous experimental pictures, indicating a good agreement. Next, the debris cloud expansion angle was predicted and it shows a maximum value of 23 degree for thickness ratio of front bumper to sphere diameter of 0.23. A critical sphere diameter causing failure of rear wall was also examined while keeping the total thickness of two plates constant. There exists an optimum thickness ratio of front bumper to rear wall, which is identified as a function of the size combination of the impacting body, front and rear plates. The debris cloud expansion-correlated-optimum thickness ratio study provides a good insight on the hypervelocity impact onto spaced target system.

  1. The optimum decision rules for the oddity task.

    Versfeld, N J; Dai, H; Green, D M

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the optimum decision rule for an m-interval oddity task in which m-1 intervals contain the same signal and one is different or odd. The optimum decision rule depends on the degree of correlation among observations. The present approach unifies the different strategies that occur with "roved" or "fixed" experiments (Macmillan & Creelman, 1991, p. 147). It is shown that the commonly used decision rule for an m-interval oddity task corresponds to the special case of highly correlated observations. However, as is also true for the same-different paradigm, there exists a different optimum decision rule when the observations are independent. The relation between the probability of a correct response and d' is derived for the three-interval oddity task. Tables are presented of this relation for the three-, four-, and five-interval oddity task. Finally, an experimental method is proposed that allows one to determine the decision rule used by the observer in an oddity experiment.

  2. Multi-objective optimum design of fast tool servo based on improved differential evolution algorithm

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Shaoxin

    2011-01-01

    The flexure-based mechanism is a promising realization of fast tool servo (FTS), and the optimum determination of flexure hinge parameters is one of the most important elements in the FTS design. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization approach to optimizing the dimension and position parameters of the flexure-based mechanism, which is based on the improved differential evolution algorithm embedding chaos and nonlinear simulated anneal algorithm. The results of optimum design show that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance and a well-balanced compromise is made between two conflicting objectives, the stroke and natural frequency of the FTS mechanism. The validation tests based on finite element analysis (FEA) show good agreement with the results obtained by using the proposed theoretical algorithm of this paper. Finally, a series of experimental tests are conducted to validate the design process and assess the performance of the FTS mechanism. The designed FTS reaches up to a stroke of 10.25 μm with at least 2 kHz bandwidth. Both of the FEA and experimental results demonstrate that the parameters of the flexure-based mechanism determined by the proposed approaches can achieve the specified performance and the proposed approach is suitable for the optimum design of FTS mechanism and of excellent performances

  3. Evaluation of combustion, performance, and emissions of optimum palm–coconut blend in turbocharged and non-turbocharged conditions of a diesel engine

    Arbab, M.I.; Varman, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Imtenan, S.; Sajjad, H.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Properties limitation of biodiesel has been overcome using multiple biodiesel blends. • New biodiesel was developed using biodiesel–biodiesel optimum blend. • Engine performance and emission was tested with the newly developed biodiesels. • New biodiesels showed better engine performance than other tested fuels. - Abstract: Fossil fuel depletion, global warming with rapid changes in climate, and increases in oil prices have motivated scientists to search for alternative fuel. Biodiesel can be an effective solution despite some limitations, such as poor fuel properties and engine performance. From this perspective, experiments were carried out to improve fuel properties and engine performance by using a binary blend of palm and coconut biodiesel at an optimized ratio. MATLAB optimization tool was used to determine this blend ratio. A new biodiesel was developed and represented by PC (optimum blend of palm and coconut biodiesel). Engine performance and emission were tested under a full load at variable speed condition by using a 20% blend of each biodiesel with petroleum diesel, and the results were compared with petroleum diesel under both turbocharged and non-turbocharged conditions. PC20 (blend of 20% PC biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel) showed the highest engine power with lower brake-specific fuel consumption than the other tested fuels in the presence of a turbocharger. The emissions of PC20 were lower than those of all other tested fuels. The experimental analysis reveals that PC showed superior performance and emission over palm biodiesel blend

  4. Palynological Investigation of the Holocene Thermal Optimum in New Zealand

    Newnham, R. M.; McGlone, M. S.; Wilmshurst, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    It has long been assumed in New Zealand (NZ) that the Holocene Thermal Optimum (HTO) occurred at the beginning of the Holocene. Nearly 40 years ago, Hendy and Wilson pioneered the use of 18O/16O composition of calcite in NZ speleothems to reconstruct past climate and in so doing showed an HTO occurring earlier in NZ than in comparable Northern Hemisphere records (Hendy & Wilson,1968). More recent work on NZ speleothems (Williams et al., 2005) corroborates the concept of an early HTO dated between ca 11.7 and 10.6 ka, but there is no definitive description of the event as a NZ-wide phenomenon, no intensive dating of it, nor temperature quantification. Moreover, there is no firm conclusion as to whether it is registered consistently between different proxies and across NZ regions. Until recently, attempts to quantify past climate change from NZ pollen data have been hindered by failure to demonstrate robust relationships between modern pollen assemblages and climate due, it is thought, to strong anthropogenic modification of natural vegetation patterns and steep climatic gradients (Norton et al., 1986). However, as deforestation commenced only ca 700 years ago, and is unambiguously detected in pollen records from throughout NZ, an almost unique opportunity exists to develop pollen-climate transfer functions using pre-human pollen-vegetation sources. McGlone and Wilmshurst have assembled an extensive (138-site) `modern' pollen database, based on ca 700 yr BP pre-deforestation pollen assemblages from peat and lake cores. This now provides a basis for more secure pollen-climate reconstruction than hitherto has been possible. Statistical modelling of the environmental determinants of patterns in the pre-deforestation pollen database indicates the strongest relationship (r2 > 0.8) is with Mean Annual Temperature (MAT) and suggests that this parameter can be reliably reconstructed, with error estimates, from Late Quaternary NZ pollen profiles. We use this database to

  5. Optimum design for 12 MeV linear induction accelerator diode

    Yu Haijun; Shi Jinshui; Li Qin; He Guorong; Ma Bing; Wang Jingsheng; Wang Liping

    2001-01-01

    A series of optimization designs of electron diode in 12 Mev linear induction accelerator are studied by using numerical simulation code MAGIC and experiment method in order to improve the electron beam quality. MAGIC code solves the Maxwell equations in the presence of charged particle, electron field distribution on cathode surface which influences electron emission is given, the optimum diode is obtained by comparing the results of experiment in 12 MeV linear induction accelerator. The author also gives SEM analysis and experiment comparison of velvet emission. Finally, emitted current I e = 8.52 kA, beam current I 8 ≥ 3.0 kA, targeted current I 0 ≥ 2.30 kA with optimum diode are obtained

  6. Finding the Optimum Scenario in Risk-benefit Assessment: An Example on Vitamin D

    Berjia, Firew Lemma; Hoekstra, J.; Verhagen, H.

    2014-01-01

    an optimum scenario that provides maximum net health gain in health risk-benefit assessment of dietary exposure as expressed by serum vitamin D level. With regard to the vitamin D assessment, a considerable health gain is observed due to the reduction of risk of other cause mortality, fall and hip fractures......Background: In risk-benefit assessment of food and nutrients, several studies so far have focused on comparison of two scenarios to weigh the health effect against each other. One obvious next step is finding the optimum scenario that provides maximum net health gains. Aim: This paper aims to show...... that provides maximum net health gains. As a common health metric, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) has been used to project the net health effect by using the QALIBRA (Quality of Life for Benefit Risk Assessment) software. Results: The method used in the vitamin D example shows that it is feasible to find...

  7. Optimum Design of FGX-CNT-Reinforced Reddy Pipes Conveying Fluid Subjected to Moving Load

    Farid Vakili Tahami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The harmony search algorithm is applied to the optimum designs of functionally graded (FG-carbon nanotubes (CNTs-reinforced pipes conveying fluid which are subjected to a moving load. The structure is modeled by the Reddy cylindrical shell theory, and the motion equations are derived by Hamilton's principle. The dynamic displacement of the system is derived based on the differential quadrature method (DQM. Moreover, the length, thickness, diameter, velocity, and acceleration of the load, the temperature and velocity of the fluid, and the volume fraction of CNT are considered for the design variables. The results illustrate that the optimum diameter of the pipe is decreased by increasing the volume percentage of CNTs. In addition, by increasing the moving load velocity and acceleration, the FS is decreased.

  8. Optimum Design of a Coil Spring for Improving the Performance of a Spring -Operated Mechanism

    Lee, Dae Woo; Sohn, Jeong Hyun; Yoo, Wan Suk

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a release test bed is designed to evaluate the dynamic behaviors of a coil spring. From the release tests, the dynamic behaviors of a coil spring are analyzed. A lumped parameter spring model was established for numerical simulation of a spring. The design variables of a coil spring are optimized by using the design of experiments approach. Two-level factorial designs are used for the design optimization, and the primary effects of the design variables are analyzed. Based on the results of the interaction analysis and design sensitivity analysis, the level of the design variables is rearranged. Finally, the mixed-level factorial design is used for the optimum design process. According to the optimum design of the opening spring, the dynamic performance of the spring-operated mechanism increases by 2.90

  9. Optimum phase shift in the self-oscillating loop for piezoelectric transformer-based power converters

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2017-01-01

    A new method is implemented in designing of self-oscillating loop for driving piezoelectric transformers. The implemented method is based on combining both analog and digital control systems. Digitally controlled time delay through the self-oscillating loop results in very precise frequency control...... and ensures optimum operation of the piezoelectric transformer in terms of gain and efficiency. Time delay is implemented digitally for the first time through a 16 bit digital-to-analog converter in the self-oscillating loop. The new design of the delay circuit provides 45 ps time resolution, enabling fine......-grained control of phase in the self-oscillating loop. This allows the control loop to dynamically follow frequency changes of the transformer in each resonant cycle. Ultimately, by selecting the optimum phase shift, maximum efficiency under the load and temperature condition is achievable....

  10. How Near is a Near-Optimal Solution: Confidence Limits for the Global Optimum.

    1980-05-01

    TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY COLlGE STATION, TEXAS 77843 T(kH,,JE MI S/ 80101 0 9 10 016 TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY PROJECT THEMIS () -Technical eport6 o/ OW NEAR... physical characteristics of the problem. The collection gl, "’’ gL represents L nonrandom estimates of C Since they are nonrandom, the confidence

  11. Optimum plastic scintillator and optical fiber combination for brachytherapy dosimetry

    Arnfield, Mark R.; Gaballa, Hani E.; Zwicker, Robert D.; Islam, Quazi; Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: There have been several recent reports using plastic scintillators to measure dose in photon and electron beams. External beam measurements agreed well with standard ion chamber dosimetry. This was implemented by using two identical, parallel optical fibers with a small piece of plastic scintillator attached to one. We have constructed a similar device for application to brachytherapy. Brachytherapy dosimetry is a more difficult problem than external beam because of high dose gradients and widely ranging photon energies. Based on detailed spectral measurements, we have designed a dosimeter specifically to meet the unique, stringent needs of brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: The work consisted of two stages. In the first stage, we measured the optical spectra emitted by commercial plastic scintillators and silica core optical fibers in the presence of a 10 Curie iridium 192 HDR source. In the second stage, the spectral information was used to select an optimum combination of scintillator and fiber which were incorporated in the dosimeter. Equipment for the spectral measurements included a 0.1 meter monochromator with a sensitive photomultiplier (PMT) with flat response across the visible. The resolution of spectral scans was 4 nm. The dosimeter was constructed with a 1mm x 3mm piece of plastic scintillator bonded with optical cement to a 0.6 mm diameter silica core optical fiber. A second, identical optical fiber running alongside the first, with no scintillator attached, was used for background subtraction. Two PMTs with high sensitivity in the visible were used at the fiber distal ends. There was a space for an optical filter between the fiber and the PMTs, whose purpose is described below. The PMTs were connected to a differential pair whose output was transferred to a current source for measurement by a standard electrometer. Results: The scintillation spectra of six different types of silica core optical fibers in the presence of the

  12. Determination of optimum insulation thicknesses using economical analyse for exterior walls of buildings with different masses

    Okan Kon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, five different cities were selected from the five climatic zones according to Turkish standard TS 825, and insulation thicknesses of exterior walls of sample buildings were calculated by using optimization. Vertical perforated bricks with density of 550 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 were chosen within the study content. Glass wool, expanded polystyrene (XPS, extruded polystyrene (EPS were considered as insulation materials. Additionally, natural gas, coal, fuel oil and LPG were utilized as fuel for heating process while electricity was used for cooling.  Life cycle cost (LCC analysis and degree-day method were the approaches for optimum insulation thickness calculations. As a result, in case of usage vertical perforated bricks with density of 550 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 resulted different values in between 0.005-0.007 m (5-7 mm in the optimum insulation thickness calculations under different insulation materials.  Minimum optimum insulation thickness was calculated in case XPS was preferred as insulation material, and the maximum one was calculated in case of using glass wool.

  13. The Model of Optimum Economic Growth with the Induced Scientific-Technological Progress

    Dilenko Viktor A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the economic dynamics of the Harrod – Domar model, a model of optimum economic growth in line with the induced scientific-technological progress (STP has been built. In order to reflect the induced scientific-technological progress, with this model is proposed to further allocate the income element that is specially used for the investment of innovation activity, implementation of which reduces the capital intensity in development of the discussed economy. For the simplest way of presenting an economic mechanism for the investment of induced STP, analytical solutions of an appropriate task in optimum management have been obtained. Studying these decisions allowed to reveal the characteristics of the impact of parameters of scientific-technological progress and the analyzed economic system on choosing the best trajectory for its evolution. Possible directions for further developing the results presented can be considered the tasks in building and analyzing models of optimum economic growth that implement different investment options for the induced STP, as well as the models in which this investment mechanism is not exogenouslyed, but rather the result of the corresponding economic-mathematical research.

  14. Tax Efficiency vs. Tax Equity – Points of View regarding Tax Optimum

    Stela Aurelia Toader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Starting from the idea that tax equity requirements, administration costs and the tendency towards tax evasion determine the design of tax systems, it is important to identify a satisfactory efficiency/equity deal in order to build a tax system as close to optimum requirements as possible. Prior Work Previous studies proved that an optimum tax system is that through which it will be collected a level of tax revenues which will satisfy budgetary demands, while losing only a minimum ‘amount’ of welfare. In what degree the Romanian tax system meets these requirements? Approach We envisage analyzing the possibilities of improving Romanian tax system as to come nearest to optimum requirements. Results We can conclude fiscal system can uphold important improvements in what assuring tax equity is concerned, resulting in raising the degree of free conformation in the field of tax payment and, implicitly, the degree of tax efficiency. Implications Knowing to what extent it can be acted upon in the direction of finding that satisfactory efficiency/equity deal may allow oneself to identify the blueprint of a tax system in which the loss of welfare is kept down to minimum. Value For the Romanian institutions empowered to impose taxes, the knowledge of the possibilities of making the tax system more efficient can be important while aiming at reducing the level of evasion phenomenon.

  15. Optimum technoeconomic energy autonomous photovoltaic solution for remote consumers throughout Greece

    Kaldellis, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous photovoltaic systems have turned into one of the most promising ways to handle the electrification requirements of numerous isolated consumers worldwide. Such an autonomous system comprises a number of photovoltaic panels, properly connected, and a battery storage device, along with the corresponding electronic equipment. Considering the high solar potential of most Greek territories, an integrated study is conducted based on long term solar potential experimental measurements in order to determine the optimum configuration of a stand alone photovoltaic system at representative locations all over Greece. The proposed solution 'guarantees' zero load rejections for all the areas and time periods examined. For this purpose, a fast and reliable numerical code 'PHOTOV-III' has been used. The algorithm provides analytical results concerning the energy autonomy and the operational status of the autonomous system components. Besides, the optimum panel tilt angle, minimizing the first installation cost of a small photovoltaic system, is predicted. Finally, by introducing available financial aspects, it is possible to determine the optimum system dimensions on a minimum first installation cost basis. According to the results obtained, an autonomous photovoltaic system can definitely contribute to solution of the urgent electrification problem of remote consumers spread throughout Greece, also improving their life quality level

  16. Study on the optimum PCM melting temperature for energy savings in residential buildings worldwide

    Saffari, M.; de Gracia, A.; Fernández, C.; Zsembinszki, G.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2017-10-01

    To maintain comfort conditions in residential buildings along a full year period, the use of active systems is generally required to either supply heating or cooling. The heating and cooling demands strongly depend on the climatic conditions, type of building and occupants’ behaviour. The overall annual energy consumption of the building can be reduced by the use of renewable energy sources and/or passive systems. The use of phase change materials (PCM) as passive systems in buildings enhances the thermal mass of the envelope, and reduces the indoor temperature fluctuations. As a consequence, the overall energy consumption of the building is generally lower as compared to the case when no PCM systems are used. The selection of the PCM melting temperature is a key issue to reduce the energy consumption of the buildings. The main focus of this study is to determine the optimum PCM melting temperature for passive heating and cooling according to different weather conditions. To achieve that, numerical simulations were carried out using EnergyPlus v8.4 coupled with GenOpt® v3.1.1 (a generic optimization software). A multi-family residential apartment was selected from ASHRAE Standard 90.1- 2013 prototype building model, and different climate conditions were considered to determine the optimum melting temperature (in the range from 20ºC to 26ºC) of the PCM contained in gypsum panels. The results confirm that the optimum melting temperature of the PCM strongly depends on the climatic conditions. In general, in cooling dominant climates the optimum PCM temperature is around 26ºC, while in heating dominant climates it is around 20ºC. Furthermore, the results show that an adequate selection of the PCM as passive system in building envelope can provide important energy savings for both heating dominant and cooling dominant regions.

  17. Estimates of mercury flux into the United States from non-local and global sources : results from a 3-D CTM simulation.

    Drewniak, B. A.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Streets, D.; Kim, M.; Crist, K.; Ohio Univ.

    2008-11-01

    The sensitivity of Hg concentration and deposition in the United States to emissions in China was investigated by using a global chemical transport model: Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART). Two forms of gaseous Hg were included in the model: elemental Hg (HG(0)) and oxidized or reactive Hg (HGO). We simulated three different emission scenarios to evaluate the model's sensitivity. One scenario included no emissions from China, while the others were based on different estimates of Hg emissions in China. The results indicated, in general, that when Hg emissions were included, HG(0) concentrations increased both locally and globally. Increases in Hg concentrations in the United States were greatest during spring and summer, by as much as 7%. Ratios of calculated concentrations of Hg and CO near the source region in eastern Asia agreed well with ratios based on measurements. Increases similar to those observed for HG(0) were also calculated for deposition of HGO. Calculated increases in wet and dry deposition in the United States were 5-7% and 5-9%, respectively. The results indicate that long-range transcontinental transport of Hg has a non-negligible impact on Hg deposition levels in the United States.

  18. Results from a global survey of contact lens-wearer satisfaction with OPTI-FREE® PureMoist® Multi-Purpose Disinfecting Solution

    Lemp J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jessie Lemp, Jami R Kern Global Medical Affairs, Alcon Laboratories, Inc, Fort Worth, Texas, USA Purpose: The objective of the study reported here was to obtain information on acceptance and satisfaction with OPTI-FREE® PureMoist® Multi-Purpose Disinfecting Solution (MPDS from contact lens wearers globally. Methods: Eligible contact lens wearers provided baseline demographic and lens-wear-regimen information, and advised their ocular dryness/discomfort level and current lens-wear experience. Volunteers received OPTI-FREE PureMoist MPDS and a survey consisting of ten statements about the trial solution. Volunteers were instructed to use the solution daily and to complete the survey after 2 weeks of use. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on data from the entire group, from the subset of respondents reporting ocular dryness and/or discomfort at trial initiation (symptomatic subgroup, and from each geographic region. Results: Volunteers from nine countries returned 10,610 surveys, in which 50% of respondents classified themselves as having ocular dryness/discomfort. Lens comfort and visual performance responses from the total population and the symptomatic subgroup were significantly more positive after 2 weeks of OPTI-FREE PureMoist use than at baseline, irrespective of the habitual lens-care solution. In the USA, Southeast Asia, and Europe, 14% to 20% more respondents reported that their contact lenses provided all-day comfort after 2 weeks of OPTI-FREE PureMoist use compared with baseline (P<0.0001. Australia reported 31% more patients with all-day comfort after OPTI-FREE PureMoist use (P<0.0001. Approximately four out of five respondents from both populations reported their intent to continue using OPTI-FREE PureMoist. Globally, 39% of all respondents and 58% of symptomatic respondents experienced reduced end-of-day dryness with their contact lenses after use of OPTI-FREE PureMoist (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Results from this large

  19. Mode analysis of heuristic behavior of searching for multimodal optimum point

    Kamei, K; Araki, Y; Inoue, K

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experimental study of a heuristic behavior of searching for the global optimum (maximum) point of a two-dimensional, multimodal, nonlinear and unknown function. First, the authors define three modes dealing with the trial purposes, called the purpose modes and show the heuristic search behaviors expressed by the purpose modes which the human subjects select in the search experiments. Second, the authors classify the heuristic search behaviors into three types according to the mode transitions and extracts eight states of searches which cause the mode transitions. Third, a model of the heuristic search behavior is composed of the eight mode transitions. The analysis of the heuristic search behaviors by use of the purpose modes plays an important role in the heuristic search techniques. 6 references.

  20. Inequities in access to HIV prevention services for transgender men: results of a global survey of men who have sex with men.

    Scheim, Ayden I; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arreola, Sonya; Makofane, Keletso; Do, Tri D; Hebert, Patrick; Thomann, Matthew; Ayala, George

    2016-01-01

    globally found that most reported inadequate access to basic prevention services and that they were less likely than cisgender MSM to have access to HIV testing and lubricants. Results indicate the need to enhance access to basic HIV prevention services for trans MSM, including MSM-specific services.

  1. Optimum pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis value can be determined by individual pelvic incidence.

    Inami, Satoshi; Moridaira, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Daisaku; Shiba, Yo; Nohara, Yutaka; Taneichi, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Adult spinal deformity (ASD) classification showing that ideal pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) value is within 10° has been received widely. But no study has focused on the optimum level of PI-LL value that reflects wide variety in PI among patients. This study was conducted to determine the optimum PI-LL value specific to an individual's PI in postoperative ASD patients. 48 postoperative ASD patients were recruited. Spino-pelvic parameters and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were measured at the final follow-up. Factors associated with good clinical results were determined by stepwise multiple regression model using the ODI. The patients with ODI under the 75th percentile cutoff were designated into the "good" health related quality of life (HRQOL) group. In this group, the relationship between the PI-LL and PI was assessed by regression analysis. Multiple regression analysis revealed PI-LL as significant parameters associated with ODI. Thirty-six patients with an ODI <22 points (75th percentile cutoff) were categorized into a good HRQOL group, and linear regression models demonstrated the following equation: PI-LL = 0.41PI-11.12 (r = 0.45, P = 0.0059). On the basis of this equation, in the patients with a PI = 50°, the PI-LL is 9°. Whereas in those with a PI = 30°, the optimum PI-LL is calculated to be as low as 1°. In those with a PI = 80°, PI-LL is estimated at 22°. Consequently, an optimum PI-LL is inconsistent in that it depends on the individual PI.

  2. Sequence homolog-based molecular engineering for shifting the enzymatic pH optimum

    Fuqiang Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell-free synthetic biology system organizes multiple enzymes (parts from different sources to implement unnatural catalytic functions. Highly adaption between the catalytic parts is crucial for building up efficient artificial biosynthetic systems. Protein engineering is a powerful technology to tailor various enzymatic properties including catalytic efficiency, substrate specificity, temperature adaptation and even achieve new catalytic functions. However, altering enzymatic pH optimum still remains a challenging task. In this study, we proposed a novel sequence homolog-based protein engineering strategy for shifting the enzymatic pH optimum based on statistical analyses of sequence-function relationship data of enzyme family. By two statistical procedures, artificial neural networks (ANNs and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso, five amino acids in GH11 xylanase family were identified to be related to the evolution of enzymatic pH optimum. Site-directed mutagenesis of a thermophilic xylanase from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii revealed that four out of five mutations could alter the enzymatic pH optima toward acidic condition without compromising the catalytic activity and thermostability. Combination of the positive mutants resulted in the best mutant M31 that decreased its pH optimum for 1.5 units and showed increased catalytic activity at pH < 5.0 compared to the wild-type enzyme. Structure analysis revealed that all the mutations are distant from the active center, which may be difficult to be identified by conventional rational design strategy. Interestingly, the four mutation sites are clustered at a certain region of the enzyme, suggesting a potential “hot zone” for regulating the pH optima of xylanases. This study provides an efficient method of modulating enzymatic pH optima based on statistical sequence analyses, which can facilitate the design and optimization of suitable catalytic parts for the construction

  3. Microstructure, optimum pigment content and low infrared emissivity of polyurethane/Ag composite coatings

    Zhang, Weigang; Xu, Guoyue; Ding, Ruya; Qiao, Jialiang; Duan, Kaige

    2013-01-01

    Polyurethane (PU)/Ag composite coatings with low infrared emissivity were successfully prepared by using PU and flaky Ag powders as adhesives and pigments, respectively. The infrared emissivity and microstructure of as-prepared products were systematically investigated by infrared emissometer and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Infrared emissivity measurement shows that the emissivity of the coatings approaches the lowest value of 0.082 at the wavelength of 8–14 µm when the Ag content is about 20 wt%. Microstructure observation shows that the coatings have similar one-dimensional photonic structural characteristics. According to the structural characteristics, a simulation method for optimum pigment content and the cause of low infrared emissivity of the coatings were successfully obtained and discussed by using the theories of one-dimensional photonic structure, respectively. The results indicate that the low infrared emissivity of PU/Ag composite coatings is derived from the similar one-dimensional photonic structure in the coatings, and the calculated optimum Ag content is in good agreement with the experimental value, which reveals that it is a practical simulation method for optimum pigment content of low infrared emissivity composite coatings

  4. Optimum Control for Nonlinear Dynamic Radial Deformation of Turbine Casing with Time-Varying LSSVM

    Cheng-Wei Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the high performance and high reliability of aeroengine, the blade-tip radial running clearance (BTRRC of high pressure turbine seriously influences the reliability and performance of aeroengine, wherein the radial deformation control of turbine casing has to be concerned in BTRRC design. To improve BTRRC design, the optimum control-based probabilistic optimization of turbine casing radial deformation was implemented using time-varying least square support vector machine (T-LSSVM by considering nonlinear material properties and dynamic thermal load. First the T-LSSVM method was proposed and its mathematical model was established. And then the nonlinear dynamic optimal control model of casing radial deformation was constructed with T-LSSVM. Thirdly, through the numerical experiments, the T-LSSVM method is demonstrated to be a promising approach in reducing additional design samples and improving computational efficiency with acceptable computational precision. Through the optimum control-based probabilistic optimization for nonlinear dynamic radial turbine casing deformation, the optimum radial deformation is 7.865 × 10−4 m with acceptable reliability degree 0.995 6, which is reduced by 7.86 × 10−5 m relative to that before optimization. These results validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed T-LSSVM method, which provides a useful insight into casing radial deformation, BTRRC control, and the development of gas turbine with high performance and high reliability.

  5. Analysis of the Optimum Gain of a High-Pass L-Matching Network for Rectennas.

    Gasulla, Manel; Jordana, Josep; Robert, Francesc-Josep; Berenguer, Jordi

    2017-07-25

    Rectennas, which mainly consist of an antenna, matching network, and rectifier, are used to harvest radiofrequency energy in order to power tiny sensor nodes, e.g., the nodes of the Internet of Things. This paper demonstrates for the first time, the existence of an optimum voltage gain for high-pass L-matching networks used in rectennas by deriving an analytical expression. The optimum gain is that which leads to maximum power efficiency of the rectenna. Here, apart from the L-matching network, a Schottky single-diode rectifier was used for the rectenna, which was optimized at 868 MHz for a power range from -30 dBm to -10 dBm. As the theoretical expression depends on parameters not very well-known a priori, an accurate search of the optimum gain for each power level was performed via simulations. Experimental results show remarkable power efficiencies ranging from 16% at -30 dBm to 55% at -10 dBm, which are for almost all the tested power levels the highest published in the literature for similar designs.

  6. Optimum injection dose rate of hydrogen sulfide scavenger for treatment of petroleum crude oil

    T.M. Elshiekh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide H2S scavengers are chemicals that favorably react with hydrogen sulfide gas to eliminate it and produce environmental friendly products. These products depend on the type and composition of the scavenger and the conditions at which the reaction takes place. The scavenger should be widely available and economical for industry acceptance by having a low unit cost. The optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate of scavenging hydrogen sulfide from the multiphase fluid produced at different wells conditions in one of the Petroleum Companies in Egypt were studied. The optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate depend on pipe diameter, pipe length, gas molar mass velocity, inlet H2S concentration and pressure. The optimization results are obtained for different values of these parameters using the software program Lingo. In general, the optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate of the scavenging of hydrogen sulfide are increased by increasing of the pipe diameter and increasing the inlet H2S concentration, and decreased by increasing the pipe length, gas molar mass velocity and pressure.

  7. Analysis of the Optimum Gain of a High-Pass L-Matching Network for Rectennas

    Manel Gasulla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rectennas, which mainly consist of an antenna, matching network, and rectifier, are used to harvest radiofrequency energy in order to power tiny sensor nodes, e.g., the nodes of the Internet of Things. This paper demonstrates for the first time, the existence of an optimum voltage gain for high-pass L-matching networks used in rectennas by deriving an analytical expression. The optimum gain is that which leads to maximum power efficiency of the rectenna. Here, apart from the L-matching network, a Schottky single-diode rectifier was used for the rectenna, which was optimized at 868 MHz for a power range from −30 dBm to −10 dBm. As the theoretical expression depends on parameters not very well-known a priori, an accurate search of the optimum gain for each power level was performed via simulations. Experimental results show remarkable power efficiencies ranging from 16% at −30 dBm to 55% at −10 dBm, which are for almost all the tested power levels the highest published in the literature for similar designs.

  8. Hadamard upper bound on optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner Gaussian cellular MAC

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    This article presents an original analytical expression for an upper bound on the optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner circular Gaussian cellular multiple access channel (C-GCMAC) for uniformly distributed mobile terminals (MTs). This upper bound is referred to as Hadamard upper bound (HUB) and is a novel application of the Hadamard inequality established by exploiting the Hadamard operation between the channel fading matrix G and the channel path gain matrix Ω. This article demonstrates that the actual capacity converges to the theoretical upper bound under the constraints like low signal-to-noise ratios and limiting channel path gain among the MTs and the respective base station of interest. In order to determine the usefulness of the HUB, the behavior of the theoretical upper bound is critically observed specially when the inter-cell and the intra-cell time sharing schemes are employed. In this context, we derive an analytical form of HUB by employing an approximation approach based on the estimation of probability density function of trace of Hadamard product of two matrices, i.e., G and Ω. A closed form of expression has been derived to capture the effect of the MT distribution on the optimum joint decoding capacity of C-GCMAC. This article demonstrates that the analytical HUB based on the proposed approximation approach converges to the theoretical upper bound results in the medium to high signal to noise ratio regime and shows a reasonably tighter bound on optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner GCMAC.

  9. The temporal distribution of directional gradients under selection for an optimum.

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Haller, Benjamin C

    2014-12-01

    Temporal variation in phenotypic selection is often attributed to environmental change causing movements of the adaptive surface relating traits to fitness, but this connection is rarely established empirically. Fluctuating phenotypic selection can be measured by the variance and autocorrelation of directional selection gradients through time. However, the dynamics of these gradients depend not only on environmental changes altering the fitness surface, but also on evolution of the phenotypic distribution. Therefore, it is unclear to what extent variability in selection gradients can inform us about the underlying drivers of their fluctuations. To investigate this question, we derive the temporal distribution of directional gradients under selection for a phenotypic optimum that is either constant or fluctuates randomly in various ways in a finite population. Our analytical results, combined with population- and individual-based simulations, show that although some characteristic patterns can be distinguished, very different types of change in the optimum (including a constant optimum) can generate similar temporal distributions of selection gradients, making it difficult to infer the processes underlying apparent fluctuating selection. Analyzing changes in phenotype distributions together with changes in selection gradients should prove more useful for inferring the mechanisms underlying estimated fluctuating selection. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Studies on optimum harvest time for hybrid rice seed.

    Fu, Hong; Cao, Dong-Dong; Hu, Wei-Min; Guan, Ya-Jing; Fu, Yu-Ying; Fang, Yong-Feng; Hu, Jin

    2017-03-01

    Timely harvest is critical for hybrid rice to achieve maximum seed viability, vigor and yield. However, how to predict the optimum harvest time has been rarely reported so far. The seed vigor of Zhuliangyou 06 (ZLY06) increased and reached the highest level at 20 days after pollination (DAP), when seed moisture content had a lower value, which was maintained until final seed maturation. For Chunyou 84 (CY84), seed vigor, fresh and dry weight had relatively high values at 25 DAP, when seed moisture content reached the lowest value and changed slightly from 25 to 55 DAP. In both hybrid rice varieties, seed glume chlorophyll content declined rapidly from 10 to 30 DAP and remained at a very low level after 35 DAP. Starch content exhibited an increasing trend during seed maturation, while both soluble sugar content and amylase activity decreased significantly at the early stages of seed development. Moreover, correlation analyses showed that seed dry weight, starch content and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly positively correlated with seed vigor. In contrast, chlorophyll content, moisture content, soluble sugar, soluble protein, abscisic acid, gibberellin content, electrical conductivity, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were significantly negatively correlated with seed vigor. Physiological and biochemical parameters were obviously more closely related with seed vigor than with seed germinability during seed development. Seed vigor could be better used as a comprehensive factor to predict the optimum seed harvest time. It is suggested that for ZLY06 seeds could be harvested as early as 20 DAP, whereas for CY84 the earliest optimum harvest time was 25 DAP. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Optimum MRS site location to minimize spent fuel transportation impacts

    Hoskins, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A range of spent fuel transportation system parameters are examined in terms of attributes important to minimizing transportation impacts as a basis for identifying geographic regions best suited for siting a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Transportation system parameters within existing transport cask design and transportation mode capabilities were systematically analyzed. The optimum MRS location was found to be very sensitive to transportation system assumptions particularly with regard to the relative efficiencies of the reactor-to-MRS and MRS-to-repository components of the system. Moreover, dramatic improvements in the reactor-to-MRS component can be made through use of multiple cask shipment of the largest practical casks by dedicated train compared to the traditional single cask rail (70%) and truck (30%) shipments assumed the Department of Energy in their studies that defined the optimum MRS location in the vicinity of Tennessee. It is important to develop and utilize an efficient transportation system irrespective of whether or not an MRS is in the system. Assuming reasonably achievable efficiency in reactor-to-MRS spent fuel transportation and assigning equal probabilities to the three western sites selected for characterization of being the repository site, the optimum MRS location would be in the far-mid-western states. Based on various geographic criteria including barge access and location in a nuclear service area, the State of Tennessee ranks any place from 12th to the 25th at a penalty of about 30% over the minimum achievable impacts. While minimizing transportation impacts is an important factor, other criteria should also be considered in selecting an MRS site

  12. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  13. Shadow Globalization

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  14. Correlates of current cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Punjab, India: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. There is therefore need to identify relevant factors associated with smoking among adolescents in order to better tailor public health interventions aimed at preventing smoking. Methods We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS conducted in 2003 in Punjab, India, on 2014 adolescents of whom 58.9% were males. We conducted a weighted logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age and sex, to determine associations between predictor variables and current tobacco smoking status. Results A total of 2014 adolescents participated in the survey in 2003, and of these 58.9% were males. Male respondents tended to be older than females (21.2% of males, and 13.1% of females were of age 16 years or above. The percent of males and females in the other age groups were: 23.0% and 28.6% for Conclusion The observed associations between current smoking on one hand and peer smoking, and perception that boys who smoke are less attractive on the other, deserve further studies. The factors reported in the current study should be considered in the design of public health interventions aimed to reduce adolescent cigarette smoking.

  15. On the physical interpretation of torsion-rotation parameters in methanol and acetaldehyde: Comparison of global fit and ab initio results

    Xu, L.; Lees, R.M.; Hougen, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Equilibrium structural constants and certain torsion endash rotation interaction parameters have been determined for methanol and acetaldehyde from ab initio calculations using GAUSSIAN 94. The substantial molecular flexing which occurs in going from the bottom to the top of the torsional potential barrier can be quantitatively related to coefficients of torsion endash rotation terms having a (1-cos ampersand hthinsp;3γ) dependence on torsional angle γ. The barrier height, six equilibrium structural constants characterizing the bottom of the potential well, and six torsion endash rotation constants are all compared to experimental parameters obtained from global fits to large microwave and far-infrared data sets for methanol and acetaldehyde. The rather encouraging agreement between the Gaussian and global fit results for methanol seems both to validate the accuracy of ab initio calculations of these parameters, and to demonstrate that the physical origin of these torsion endash rotation interaction terms in methanol lies primarily in structural relaxation with torsion. The less satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment for acetaldehyde requires further study. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  16. Is optimum and effective work done in administrative jurisdiction

    Hoecht, H.

    1980-01-01

    Is optimum and effective work done in administrative jurisdiction. The author describes the general situation prevailing in administrative jurisdiction. He gives tables on the number of subjects received per annum, of judges administering justice and figures on executed and non-executed proceedings. He reports on districts of jurisdiction, personnel, court administration and the amount of work. The investigation into administrative jurisdiction has shown accomplishments for 1978 which are not bad at all. Sporadic administrative shortcomings are to be realized and put to an end. (HSCH) [de

  17. Optimum filter-based discrimination of neutrons and gamma rays

    Amiri, Moslem; Prenosil, Vaclav; Cvachovec, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    An optimum filter-based method for discrimination of neutrons and gamma-rays in a mixed radiation field is presented. The existing filter-based implementations of discriminators require sample pulse responses in advance of the experiment run to build the filter coefficients, which makes them less practical. Our novel technique creates the coefficients during the experiment and improves their quality gradually. Applied to several sets of mixed neutron and photon signals obtained through different digitizers using stilbene scintillator, this approach is analyzed and its discrimination quality is measured. (authors)

  18. Optimum policies for a system with general imperfect maintenance

    Sheu, S.-H.; Lin, Y.-B.; Liao, G.-L.

    2006-01-01

    This study considers periodic preventive maintenance policies, which maximizes the availability of a repairable system with major repair at failure. Three types of preventive maintenance are performed, namely: imperfect preventive maintenance (IPM), perfect preventive maintenance (PPM) and failed preventive maintenance (FPM). The probability that preventive maintenance is perfect depends on the number of imperfect maintenances conducted since the previous renewal cycle, and the probability that preventive maintenance remains imperfect is not increasing. The optimum preventive maintenance time that maximizes availability is derived. Various special cases are considered. A numerical example is given

  19. Optimum amount of an insurance sum in life insurance

    Janez Balkovec

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal insurance represents one of the sources of personal social security as a category of personal property. How to get a proper life insurance is a frequently asked question. When insuring material objects (car, house..., the problem is usually not in the amount of the taken insurance. With life insurance (abstract goods, problems as such occur. In this paper, we wish to present a model that, according to the financial situation and the anticipated future, makes it possible to calculate the optimum insurance sum in life insurance.

  20. Search for an optimum time response of spark counters

    Devismes, A.; Finck, Ch.; Kress, T.; Gobbi, A.; Eschke, J.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Koczon, P.; Petrovici, M.

    2002-01-01

    A spark counter of the type developed by Pestov has been tested with the aim of searching for an optimum time response function, changing voltage, content of noble and quencher gases, pressure and energy-loss. Replacing the usual argon by neon has brought an improvement of the resolution and a significant reduction of tails in the time response function. It has been proven that a counter as long as 90 cm can deliver, using neon gas mixture, a time resolution σ<60 ps with about 1% absolute tail and an efficiency of about 90%

  1. Optimum commodity taxation with a non-renewable resource

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We examine optimum commodity taxation (OCT), including the taxation of non-renewable resources (NRRs), by a government that needs to rely on commodity taxes to raise revenues. NRRs should be taxed at higher rates than otherwise-identical conventional commodities, according to an augmented, dynamic...... formulas can directly be used to indicate how Pigovian taxation of carbon NRRs should be increased in the presence of public-revenue needs, as illustrated in a numerical example. We show that NRR substitutes and complements should receive a particular tax treatment. Finally, in a NRR-importing economy...

  2. Optimum back-pressure forging using servo die cushion

    Kawamoto, Kiichiro; Yoneyama, Takeshi; Okada, Masato; Kitayama, Satoshi; Chikahisa, Junpei

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on utilizing a servo die cushion (in conjunction with a servo press) as a "back-pressure load generator," to determine its effect on shape accuracy of the formed part and total forming load in forward extrusion during cold forging. The effect of back-pressure load application was confirmed in experiments, and the optimum setting pattern of back-pressure load was considered to minimize both shape accuracy of the formed part and back-pressure energy, which was representative ...

  3. Optimum heat storage design for heat integrated multipurpose batch plants

    Stamp, J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available procedure is presented tha journal homepage: www All rights reserved. ajozi T, Optimum heat storage grated multipurpose batch plants , South Africa y usage in multipurpose batch plants has been in published literature most present methods, time... � 2pL?u?kins ? 1 h3A3?u?cu?U (36) The internal area for heat loss by convection from the heat transfer medium is given by Constraint (37) and the area for convective heat transfer losses to the environment is given in Constraint (38). A1?u? ? 2...

  4. Optimum distribution between autumn-applied and spring-applied nitrogen in seed production of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    Gislum, René; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Kristensen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different autumn and spring nitrogen (N) application rates on plant establishment, plant development, and seed yield were tested in a field experiment using tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Results clearly showed that the optimum distribution of N between autumn and spring...... to achieve the highest seed yield and economical benefit was dependent on the choice of cover crops and location. The economically optimum N application rate was in the range from 44 to 73 kg ha−1 in autumn and 94 to 157 kg ha−1 in spring. The results are discussed in relation to Danish N regulations...... and plant establishment and development....

  5. Evaluation of chromite ore and the optimum methods for industrial extraction of chromium

    Salih, Bakheit Mustafa Mohamed

    1999-10-01

    Samples of chromite ore, collected from Gam and Cheikay mining area (Ingaessana Hills) in east Sudan, were analysed to assess the chromium content. Analysis were carried out using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) to estimate the contents of chromium, iron, calcium and magnesium. X-ray florescence (XRF) was used to evaluate the levels of chromium, iron and calcium in the ore. Volumetric analysis was performed to assess chromium and iron, whilest gravimetric analysis was employed to measure the amounts of calcium, magnesium, aluminum and silicon present in the ore. The results are in a good agreement except iron oxide, which displayed a significantly different value when measured by x-ray fluorescence. The data obtained exhibited similarity in almost all cases, when compared with local and global researches, reports and literature. The study has revealed the average contents of Cr 2 O 3 , FeO, CaO, MgO, Al 2 O 3 , and SiO 2 as 40.66, 11.96, 11.94, 0.36, 16.94, 11.45% respectively. MnO and NiO were detected in trace amounts, the corresponding levels in the ore being 72 and 27 ppm. The average chromium content in extracted potassium dichromate measured by using AAS, XRF, and volumetric methods was found to be 31.7%. The highest grade reached by individual technique being 33.10%. The extraction with sodium peroxide is the optimum method for preparation of potassium dichromate. X-ray diffraction analysis, has showed that the d spaces and intensities of prepared potassium dichromate are isostructural with the corresponding ones of standard potassium dichromate. This suggests that the composition of the two samples is identical. Chromite samples were analysed using gamma ray spectroscopy in order to estimate the levels of radioactive elements present. It was found that the concentrations of 232 Th and 40 K range from 7.62 to 10.98 Bq/kg and 47.38 to 56.28 Bq/kg respectively

  6. Optimum Tower Crane Selection and Supporting Design Management

    Hyo Won Sohn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To optimize tower crane selection and supporting design, lifting requirements (as well as stability should be examined, followed by a review of economic feasibility. However, construction engineers establish plans based on data provided by equipment suppliers since there are no tools with which to thoroughly examine a support design's suitability for various crane types, and such plans lack the necessary supporting data. In such cases it is impossible to optimize a tower crane selection to satisfy lifting requirements in terms of cost, and to perform lateral support and foundation design. Thus, this study is intended to develop an optimum tower crane selection and supporting design management method based on stability. All cases that are capable of generating an optimization of approximately 3,000 ˜ 15,000 times are calculated to identify the candidate cranes with minimized cost, which are examined. The optimization method developed in the study is expected to support engineers in determining the optimum lifting equipment management.

  7. The optimum content of rubber ash in concrete: flexural strength

    Senin, M. S.; Shahidan, S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Ariffin, S. F. A.; Othman, N. H.; Rahman, R.; Khalid, F. S.; Nazri, F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Discarded scrap tyres have become one of the major environmental problems nowadays. Several studies have been carried out to reuse waste tires as an additive or sand replacement in concrete with appropriate percentages of tire rubber, called as rubberized concrete to solve this problem. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the flexural strength performance of concrete when adding the rubber ash and also to analyse the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prisms. The performance total of 30 number of concrete prisms in size of 100mm x 100mm x 500 mm were investigated, by partially replacement of rubber ash with percentage of 0%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% from the volume of the sand. The flexural strength is increased when percentage of rubber ash is added 3% from control concrete prism, RA 0 for both concrete prism age, 7 days and 28 days with value 1.21% and 0.976% respectively. However, for RA 5, RA 7 and RA 9, the flexural strength was decreased compared to the control for both age, 7 days and 28 days. In conclusion, 3% is the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prism for both concrete age

  8. Optimum distributed generation placement with voltage sag effect minimization

    Biswas, Soma; Goswami, Swapan Kumar; Chatterjee, Amitava

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new optimal distributed generation placement algorithm is proposed. ► Optimal number, sizes and locations of the DGs are determined. ► Technical factors like loss, voltage sag problem are minimized. ► The percentage savings are optimized. - Abstract: The present paper proposes a new formulation for the optimum distributed generator (DG) placement problem which considers a hybrid combination of technical factors, like minimization of the line loss, reduction in the voltage sag problem, etc., and economical factors, like installation and maintenance cost of the DGs. The new formulation proposed is inspired by the idea that the optimum placement of the DGs can help in reducing and mitigating voltage dips in low voltage distribution networks. The problem is configured as a multi-objective, constrained optimization problem, where the optimal number of DGs, along with their sizes and bus locations, are simultaneously obtained. This problem has been solved using genetic algorithm, a traditionally popular stochastic optimization algorithm. A few benchmark systems radial and networked (like 34-bus radial distribution system, 30 bus loop distribution system and IEEE 14 bus system) are considered as the case study where the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is aptly demonstrated.

  9. Optimum dietary protein requirement of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerling.

    Misieng, Josephine Dorin; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Musa, Mazlinda

    2011-02-01

    The optimum dietary protein requirement of the Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerlings was determined in this study. In this completely randomized designed experiment, formulated diets of five levels of dietary protein (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50%) were tested on the T. tambroides fingerlings (initial body weight of 5.85 +/- 0.40 g), reared in aquarium fitted with a biofiltering system. The fingerlings were fed twice daily at 5% of biomass. The fingerling body weight and total length was taken at every two weeks. Mortality was recorded daily. The dietary protein had significant effects on the body weight gain and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) of the fingerlings. The body weight gain and SGR of fingerlings fed with the diet with the dietary protein level of 40% was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of 30, 35 and 50%. The feed conversion ratio of the 40% dietary protein was the significantly lowest at 2.19 +/- 0.163. The dietary protein level of 40% was the most optimum for T. tambroides fingerlings.

  10. “The Effects of Limited Resources and Opportunities on Women’s Careers in Physics: Results from the Global Survey of Physicists

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with 15000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful ...

  11. Results from a Field Trial of the Radio Frequency Based Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System at the Global Nuclear Fuel Americas Fuel Fabrication Facility

    Fitzgerald, Peter; Laughter, Mark D.; Martyn, Rose; Pickett, Chris A.; Rowe, Nathan C.; Younkin, James R.; Shephard, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    The Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System (CATS) is a tool designed for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to improve overall inspector efficiency through real-time unattended monitoring of cylinder movements, site specific rules-based event detection, and the capability to integrate many types of monitoring technologies. The system is based on the tracking of cylinder movements using (radio frequency) RF tags, and the collection of data, such as accountability weights, that can be associated with the cylinders. This presentation will cover the installation and evaluation of the CATS at the Global Nuclear Fuels (GNF) fuel fabrication facility in Wilmington, NC. This system was installed to evaluate its safeguards applicability, operational durability under operating conditions, and overall performance. An overview of the system design and elements specific to the GNF deployment will be presented along with lessons learned from the installation process and results from the field trial.

  12. Mid-Pliocene global climate simulation with MRI-CGCM2.3: set-up and initial results of PlioMIP Experiments 1 and 2

    Y. Kamae

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The mid-Pliocene (3.3 to 3.0 million yr ago, a globally warm period before the Quaternary, is recently attracting attention as a new target for paleoclimate modelling and data-model synthesis. This paper reports set-ups and results of experiments proposed in Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP using a global climate model, MRI-CGCM2.3. We conducted pre-industrial and mid-Pliocene runs by using the coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM and its atmospheric component (AGCM for the PlioMIP Experiments 2 and 1, respectively. In addition, we conducted two types of integrations in AOGCM simulation, with and without flux adjustments on sea surface. General characteristics of differences in the simulated mid-Pliocene climate relative to the pre-industrial in the three integrations are compared. In addition, patterns of predicted mid-Pliocene biomes resulting from the three climate simulations are compared in this study. Generally, difference of simulated surface climate between AGCM and AOGCM is larger than that between the two AOGCM runs, with and without flux adjustments. The simulated climate shows different pattern between AGCM and AOGCM particularly over low latitude oceans, subtropical land regions and high latitude oceans. The AOGCM simulations do not reproduce wetter environment in the subtropics relative to the present-day, which is suggested by terrestrial proxy data. The differences between the two types of AOGCM runs are small over the land, but evident over the ocean particularly in the North Atlantic and polar regions.

  13. Global Managers

    Barakat, Livia L.; Lorenz, Melanie P.; Ramsey, Jase R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cultural intelligence (CQ) on the job performance of global managers. Design/methodology/approach: – In total, 332 global managers were surveyed from multinational companies operating in Brazil. The mediating effect of job...... satisfaction was tested on the CQ-job performance relationship. Findings: – The findings suggest that job satisfaction transmits the effect of CQ to job performance, such that global managers high in CQ exhibit more job satisfaction in an international setting, and therefore perform better at their jobs....... Practical implications: – Results imply that global managers should increase their CQ in order to improve their job satisfaction and ultimately perform better in an international context. Originality/value: – The authors make three primary contributions to the international business literature. First...

  14. Analysis and Experimental Investigation of Optimum Design of Thermoelectric Cooling/Heating System for Car Seat Climate Control (CSCC)

    Elarusi, Abdulmunaem; Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung

    2018-02-01

    The optimum design of a thermoelectric system for application in car seat climate control has been modeled and its performance evaluated experimentally. The optimum design of the thermoelectric device combining two heat exchangers was obtained by using a newly developed optimization method based on the dimensional technique. Based on the analytical optimum design results, commercial thermoelectric cooler and heat sinks were selected to design and construct the climate control heat pump. This work focuses on testing the system performance in both cooling and heating modes to ensure accurate analytical modeling. Although the analytical performance was calculated using the simple ideal thermoelectric equations with effective thermoelectric material properties, it showed very good agreement with experiment for most operating conditions.

  15. High-throughput method for optimum solubility screening for homogeneity and crystallization of proteins

    Kim, Sung-Hou [Moraga, CA; Kim, Rosalind [Moraga, CA; Jancarik, Jamila [Walnut Creek, CA

    2012-01-31

    An optimum solubility screen in which a panel of buffers and many additives are provided in order to obtain the most homogeneous and monodisperse protein condition for protein crystallization. The present methods are useful for proteins that aggregate and cannot be concentrated prior to setting up crystallization screens. A high-throughput method using the hanging-drop method and vapor diffusion equilibrium and a panel of twenty-four buffers is further provided. Using the present methods, 14 poorly behaving proteins have been screened, resulting in 11 of the proteins having highly improved dynamic light scattering results allowing concentration of the proteins, and 9 were crystallized.

  16. A research on the importance function used in the calculation of the fracture probability through the optimum method

    Zegong, Zhou; Changhong, Liu

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the research into original distribution function as the importance function after shifting an appropriate distance, this paper takes the variation of similar ratio of the original function to the importance function as the objective function, the optimum shifting distance obtained by use of an optimization method. The optimum importance function resulting from the optimization method can ensure that the number of Monte Carlo simulations is decreased and at the same time the good estimates of the yearly failure probabilities are obtained

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system. Part 1. Study of the effective utilization technology of high efficiency energy (Study of the optimum system design technology); 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The paper conducted the development of element technology and comprehensive adjustment which are related to the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system and the study of the high efficiency energy utilization technology, and the results of FY 2000, the final fiscal year, were summed up. As to the R and D of the exhaust heat reforming/recovery system, the internal heat exchange type distillation tower was developed which has a good energy conservation effect and enables the heat supply outside. Concerning the R and D of the cogeneration system using low calorie exhaust gas, the following were conducted for further improvement of the performance of electrothermic elements: evaluation of the thermoelectric performance using bulk elements, development of new elements and evaluation of the energy balance at the time of combustion, etc. Relating to the R and D of the low temperature exhaust heat utilization cogeneration system, conducted were the development of thermoelectric materials and the fabrication/evaluation study of module. Moreover, WATT20A equipped with the original power generation module developed in this study was fabricated, and the data on the operation at the temperature of 150 degrees C were obtained by WATT-20HT. (NEDO)

  18. Prime mission results of the dual-frequency precipitation radar on the global precipitation measurement core spacecraft and the version 5 GPM standard products

    Furukawa, K.; Nio, T.; Oki, R.; Kubota, T.; Iguchi, T.

    2017-09-01

    The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite was developed by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The objective of the GPM mission is to observe global precipitation more frequently and accurately. The GPM core satellite is a joint product of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), JAXA and NICT. NASA developed the satellite bus and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), and JAXA and NICT developed the DPR. The inclination of the GPM core satellite is 65 degrees, and the nominal flight altitude is 407 km. The non-sunsynchronous circular orbit is necessary for measuring the diurnal change of rainfall. The DPR consists of two radars, which are Ku-band precipitation radar (KuPR) and Ka-band precipitation radar (KaPR). GPM core observatory was successfully launched by H2A launch vehicle on Feb. 28, 2014. DPR orbital check out was completed in May 2014. DPR products were released to the public on Sep. 2, 2014 and Normal Observation Operation period was started. JAXA is continuing DPR trend monitoring, calibration and validation operations to confirm that DPR keeps its function and performance on orbit. The results of DPR trend monitoring, calibration and validation show that DPR kept its function and performance on orbit during the 3 years and 2 months prime mission period. The DPR Prime mission period was completed in May 2017. The version 5 GPM products were released to the public in 2017. JAXA confirmed that GPM/DPR total system performance and the GPM version 5 products achieved the success criteria and the performance indicators that were defined for the JAXA GPM/DPR mission.

  19. Genetic influences on individual differences in longitudinal changes in global and subcortical brain volumes: Results of the ENIGMA plasticity working group.

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Panizzon, Matthew S; Glahn, David C; Hibar, Derrek P; Hua, Xue; Jahanshad, Neda; Abramovic, Lucija; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Franz, Carol E; Hansell, Narelle K; Hickie, Ian B; Koenis, Marinka M G; Martin, Nicholas G; Mather, Karen A; McMahon, Katie L; Schnack, Hugo G; Strike, Lachlan T; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Wen, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Gogtay, Nitin; Kahn, René S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kremen, William S; Thompson, Paul M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-09-01

    Structural brain changes that occur during development and ageing are related to mental health and general cognitive functioning. Individuals differ in the extent to which their brain volumes change over time, but whether these differences can be attributed to differences in their genotypes has not been widely studied. Here we estimate heritability (h 2 ) of changes in global and subcortical brain volumes in five longitudinal twin cohorts from across the world and in different stages of the lifespan (N = 861). Heritability estimates of brain changes were significant and ranged from 16% (caudate) to 42% (cerebellar gray matter) for all global and most subcortical volumes (with the exception of thalamus and pallidum). Heritability estimates of change rates were generally higher in adults than in children suggesting an increasing influence of genetic factors explaining individual differences in brain structural changes with age. In children, environmental influences in part explained individual differences in developmental changes in brain structure. Multivariate genetic modeling showed that genetic influences of change rates and baseline volume significantly overlapped for many structures. The genetic influences explaining individual differences in the change rate for cerebellum, cerebellar gray matter and lateral ventricles were independent of the genetic influences explaining differences in their baseline volumes. These results imply the existence of genetic variants that are specific for brain plasticity, rather than brain volume itself. Identifying these genes may increase our understanding of brain development and ageing and possibly have implications for diseases that are characterized by deviant developmental trajectories of brain structure. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4444-4458, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Optimum community energy storage system for demand load shifting

    Parra, David; Norman, Stuart A.; Walker, Gavin S.; Gillott, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PbA-acid and lithium-ion batteries are optimised up to a 100-home community. • A 4-period real-time pricing and Economy 7 (2-period time-of-use) are compared. • Li-ion batteries perform worse with Economy 7 for small communities and vice versa. • The community approach reduced the levelised cost by 56% compared to a single home. • Heat pumps reduced the levelised cost and increased the profitability of batteries. - Abstract: Community energy storage (CES) is becoming an attractive technological option to facilitate the use of distributed renewable energy generation, manage demand loads and decarbonise the residential sector. There is strong interest in understanding the techno-economic benefits of using CES systems, which energy storage technology is more suitable and the optimum CES size. In this study, the performance including equivalent full cycles and round trip efficiency of lead-acid (PbA) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries performing demand load shifting are quantified as a function of the size of the community using simulation-based optimisation. Two different retail tariffs are compared: a time-of-use tariff (Economy 7) and a real-time-pricing tariff including four periods based on the electricity prices on the wholesale market. Additionally, the economic benefits are quantified when projected to two different years: 2020 and a hypothetical zero carbon year. The findings indicate that the optimum PbA capacity was approximately twice the optimum Li-ion capacity in the case of the real-time-pricing tariff and around 1.6 times for Economy 7 for any community size except a single home. The levelised cost followed a negative logarithmic trend while the internal rate of return followed a positive logarithmic trend as a function of the size of the community. PbA technology reduced the levelised cost down to 0.14 £/kW h when projected to the year 2020 for the retail tariff Economy 7. CES systems were sized according to the demand load and

  1. Optimum regulation of grid monopoly in the power trade

    Hope, E.

    1994-06-01

    The report discusses the organization and behaviour of grid monopolies in the Norwegian power trade and relations to the socio-economic effectiveness. The main attention is laid on analyzing regulation mechanisms and measures leading to an efficient short-term operation and to the investment of optimum production capacity in a long run. Regarding the management, measures are discussed for increasing the efficiency of total power trade by evaluating the existing marketing function of Statnett. Some basic conditions are accounted concerning the regulation problem of grid monopolies with a particular attention to asymmetric information between the authority and the monopoly. In addition, forms of regulation and regulation mechanisms together with the incentive characteristics of these, are discussed. The existing profit regulation principles in relation to an alternative system design such as maximum price regulation combined with standard regulation, are evaluated. 16 refs., 7 figs

  2. Kernel Optimum Nearly-analytical Discretization (KOND) algorithm

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Hosaka, Yasuo; Ishii, Kenji

    1992-10-01

    Two applications of the Kernel Optimum Nearly-analytical Discretization (KOND) algorithm to the parabolic- and the hyperbolic type equations a presented in detail to lead to novel numerical schemes with very high numerical accuracy. It is demonstrated numerically that the two dimensional KOND-P scheme for the parabolic type yields quite less numerical error by over 2-3 orders and reduces the CPU time to about 1/5 for a common numerical accuracy, compared with the conventional explicit scheme of reference. It is also demonstrated numerically that the KOND-H scheme for the hyperbolic type yields fairly less diffusive error and has fairly high stability for both of the linear- and the nonlinear wave propagations compared with other conventional schemes. (author)

  3. Problems in the optimum display of SPECT images

    Fielding, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    The instrumentation, computer hardware and software, and the image display system are all very important in the production of diagnostically useful SPECT images. Acquisition and processing parameters are discussed which can affect the quality of SPECT images. Regular quality control of the gamma camera and computer is important to keep the artifacts due to instrumentation to a minimum. The choice of reconstruction method will depend on the statistics in the study. The paper has shown that for high count rate studies, a high pass filter can be used to enhance the reconstructions. For lower count rate studies, pre-filtering is useful and the data can be reconstructed into thicker slices to reduce the effect of image noise. Finally, the optimum display for the images must be chosen, so that the information contained in the SPECT data can be easily perceived by the clinician. (orig.) [de

  4. Narratives of Optimum Currency Area theory and Eurozone Governance

    Snaith, Holly Grace

    2014-01-01

    is the subject of very significant internal disagreement, to the extent that economists writing within the field do not commonly agree upon the ontological foundations of the theory. This entails that the translation of the theory into political reality has been characterised by a series of often mutually...... contradictory narratives, which build upon schisms in the academic corpus. The political realisation of this can be seen during the negotiations over the 1992 process, where certain aspects of the theory concerning governance (of fiscal policy and preferences for conflict adjudication) have been notably......Optimum Currency Area theory (OCA) is a body of research that has, since its inception in 1961, been highly influential for the discourse and design of Economic and Monetary Union, exercising a significant hermeneutical force. Nonetheless, there has been little acknowledgement that OCA...

  5. Optimum conditions for aging of stainless maraging steels

    Mironenko, P.A.; Krasnikova, S.I.; Drobot, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    Aging kinetics of two 0Kh11N10M2T type steels in which 3 % Mo (steel 1), and 3 % Mo and 11 % Co (steel 2) had been additionally introduced instead of titanium were investigated. Electron microscopy and X-ray methods were used. It was ascertained that the process of steel aging proceeded in 3 stages. Steel 2 was hardened more intensively during the aging, had a higher degree of hardness and strength after the aging, weakened more slowly if overaged than steel 1. The intermetallide hcp-phase Fe 2 Mo was the hardening phase on steels extended aging. Optimum combination of impact strength and strength was was achieved using two-stage aging: the first stage - maximum strength aging was achieved, the second stage - aging at minimum temperatures of two-phase α+γ region

  6. Optimum design of band-gap beam structures

    Olhoff, Niels; Niu, Bin; Cheng, Gengdong

    2012-01-01

    The design of band-gap structures receives increasing attention for many applications in mitigation of undesirable vibration and noise emission levels. A band-gap structure usually consists of a periodic distribution of elastic materials or segments, where the propagation of waves is impeded...... or significantly suppressed for a range of external excitation frequencies. Maximization of the band-gap is therefore an obvious objective for optimum design. This problem is sometimes formulated by optimizing a parameterized design model which assumes multiple periodicity in the design. However, it is shown...... in the present paper that such an a priori assumption is not necessary since, in general, just the maximization of the gap between two consecutive natural frequencies leads to significant design periodicity. The aim of this paper is to maximize frequency gaps by shape optimization of transversely vibrating...

  7. Optimum energy management of a photovoltaic water pumping system

    Sallem, Souhir; Chaabene, Maher; Kamoun, M.B.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new management approach which makes decision on the optimum connection times of the elements of a photovoltaic water pumping installation: battery, water pump and photovoltaic panel. The decision is made by fuzzy rules considering the battery safety on the first hand and the Photovoltaic Panel Generation (PVPG) forecast during a considered day and the load required power on the second hand. The optimization approach consists of the extension of the operation time of the water pump with respects to multi objective management criteria. Compared to the stand alone management method, the new approach effectiveness is confirmed by the extension of the pumping period for more than 5 h a day.

  8. On the optimum area-balanced filters for nuclear spectroscopy

    Ripamonti, G.; Pullia, A.

    1996-01-01

    The minimum noise area-balanced (A-B) filters for nuclear spectroscopy are disentangled in the sum of two optimized individual filters. The former is the unipolar finite cusp filter, used for pulse amplitude estimation but affected by baseline shift errors, the latter is a specific filter used for baseline estimation. Each of them is optimized so as to give the minimum noise in the estimation of the pulse amplitude or of its baseline level. It is shown that double optimisation produces an overall optimum filter exhibiting a total noise V 2 n equal to the sum of the noises V 2 n1 and V 2 n2 exhibited by each filter individually. This is a consequence of the orthogonality of the individual filter weight-functions in a function space where the norm is defined as √(V 2 n ). (orig.)

  9. Environmental Planning Strategies for Optimum Solid Waste Landfill Siting

    Sumiani, Y.; Onn, C.C.; Mohd, M.A.D.; Wan, W.Z.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of environmental planning tools for optimum solid waste landfill siting taking into account all environmental implications was carried out by applying Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) to enhance the research information obtained from initial analysis using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The objective of this study is to identify the most eco-friendly landfill site by conducting a LCA analysis upon 5 potential GIS generated sites which incorporated eleven important criteria related to the social, environmental, and economical factors. The LCA analysis utilized the daily distance covered by collection trucks among the 5 selected landfill sites to generate inventory data on total energy usage for each landfill sites. The planning and selection of the potential sites were facilitated after conducting environmental impact analysis upon the inventory data which showed the least environmental impact. (author)

  10. Optimum radars and filters for the passive sphere system

    Luers, J. K.; Soltes, A.

    1971-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to determine the influence of the tracking radar and data reduction technique on the accuracy of the meteorological measurements made in the 30 to 100 kilometer altitude region by the ROBIN passive falling sphere. A survey of accuracy requirements was made of agencies interested in data from this region of the atmosphere. In light of these requirements, various types of radars were evaluated to determine the tracking system most applicable to the ROBIN, and methods were developed to compute the errors in wind and density that arise from noise errors in the radar supplied data. The effects of launch conditions on the measurements were also examined. Conclusions and recommendations have been made concerning the optimum tracking and data reduction techniques for the ROBIN falling sphere system.

  11. Optimum selection of an energy resource using fuzzy logic

    Abouelnaga, Ayah E.; Metwally, Abdelmohsen; Nagy, Mohammad E.; Agamy, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Optimum selection of an energy resource is a vital issue in developed countries. Considering energy resources as alternatives (nuclear, hydroelectric, gas/oil, and solar) and factors upon which the proper decision will be taken as attributes (economics, availability, environmental impact, and proliferation), one can use the multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) to optimize the selection process. Recently, fuzzy logic is extensively applied to the MAUT as it expresses the linguistic appraisal for all attributes in wide and reliable manners. The rise in oil prices and the increased concern about environmental protection from CO 2 emissions have promoted the attention to the use of nuclear power as a viable energy source for power generation. For Egypt, as a case study, the nuclear option is found to be an appropriate choice. Following the introduction of innovative designs of nuclear power plants, improvements in the proliferation resistance, environmental impacts, and economics will enhance the selection of the nuclear option.

  12. Optimum off-line trace synchronization of computer clusters

    Jabbarifar, Masoume; Dagenais, Michel; Roy, Robert; Sendi, Alireza Shameli

    2012-01-01

    A tracing and monitoring framework produces detailed execution trace files for a system. Each trace file contains events with associated timestamps based on the local clock of their respective system, which are not perfectly synchronized. To monitor all behavior in multi-core distributed systems, a global time reference is required, thus the need for traces synchronization techniques. The synchronization is time consuming when there is a cluster of many computers. In this paper we propose an optimized technique to reduce the total synchronization time. Compared with related techniques that have been used on kernel level traces, this method improves the performance while maintaining a high accuracy. It uses the packet rate and the hop count as two major criteria to focus the computation on more accurate network links during synchronization. These criteria, tested in real-word experiments, were identified as most important features of a network. Furthermore, we present numerical and analytical evaluation results, and compare these with previous methods demonstrating the accuracy and the performance of the method.

  13. Revisiting global mean sea level budget closure : Preliminary results from an integrative study within ESA's Climate Change Initiative -Sea level Budget Closure-Climate Change Initiative

    Palanisamy, H.; Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The global mean sea level budget is revisited over two time periods: the entire altimetry era, 1993-2015 and the Argo/GRACE era, 2003-2015 using the version '0' of sea level components estimated by the SLBC-CCI teams. The SLBC-CCI is an European Space Agency's project on sea level budget closure using CCI products. Over the entire altimetry era, the sea level budget was performed as the sum of steric and mass components that include contributions from total land water storage, glaciers, ice sheets (Greenland and Antarctica) and total water vapor content. Over the Argo/GRACE era, it was performed as the sum of steric and GRACE based ocean mass. Preliminary budget analysis performed over the altimetry era (1993-2015) results in a trend value of 2.83 mm/yr. On comparison with the observed altimetry-based global mean sea level trend over the same period (3.03 ± 0.5 mm/yr), we obtain a residual of 0.2 mm/yr. In spite of a residual of 0.2 mm/yr, the sea level budget result obtained over the altimetry era is very promising as this has been performed using the version '0' of the sea level components. Furthermore, uncertainties are not yet included in this study as uncertainty estimation for each sea level component is currently underway. Over the Argo/GRACE era (2003-2015), the trend estimated from the sum of steric and GRACE ocean mass amounts to 2.63 mm/yr while that observed by satellite altimetry is 3.37 mm/yr, thereby leaving a residual of 0.7 mm/yr. Here an ensemble GRACE ocean mass data (mean of various available GRACE ocean mass data) was used for the estimation. Using individual GRACE data results in a residual range of 0.5 mm/yr -1.1 mm/yr. Investigations are under way to determine the cause of the vast difference between the observed sea level and the sea level obtained from steric and GRACE ocean mass. One main suspect is the impact of GRACE data gaps on sea level budget analysis due to lack of GRACE data over several months since 2011. The current action plan

  14. Monitoring Isotopes in Rivers: Creation of the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR). Results of a Coordinated Research Project 2002-2006

    2012-03-01

    River runoff plays a key role in human development in all societies through the provision of water for agriculture, industry and domestic use. Although the monitoring of water availability and our understanding of the main hydrological processes at the catchment scale are relatively good, many important aspects, especially those related to the interaction of runoff and groundwater, remain poorly understood. Additionally, the impact of human activities - such as the construction of large reservoirs and diversions, and the redirection of rivers to supply drinking water or water for irrigation or hydropower - are highly relevant and, together with the predicted impact of climate change, are likely to heavily impact local water cycles. The effects of such changes include: limited availability of water; changes in flood or drought frequency; changes in water quality, sediment load and groundwater recharge; and biodiversity loss in riparian environments. Additionally, political disputes may result as water resources become affected in terms of availability and/or quality. In most instances, stable isotopes and other water tracers provide a deeper insight into hydrological processes, especially in aspects related to water pathways, interconnections, transport of water and pollutants, and the transit time of water. To explore the contribution of these techniques in more detail, the IAEA has launched a monitoring programme, the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR), aimed at regular analysis of the isotope composition of runoff in large rivers. This isotope monitoring network complements an earlier precipitation network, the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). To prepare for GNIR, the IAEA launched a coordinated research project (CRP) called Design Criteria for a Network to Monitor Isotope Compositions of Runoff in Large Rivers. The main aim of the CRP was to develop a scientific rationale and a protocol for the operation of such a network, as well as

  15. Optimum conditions for the determination of ionization potentials, appearance potentials and fine structure in ionization efficiency curves using edd technique

    Selim, Ezzat T.; El-Kholy, S.B.; Zahran, Nagwa F.

    1978-01-01

    The optimum conditions for determining ionization potentials as well as fine structure in electron impact ionization efficiency curves are studied using energy distribution difference technique. Applying these conditions to Ar + , Kr + , CO + 2 and N + from N 2 , very good agreement is obtained when compared with results determined by other techniques including UV spectroscopy. The merits and limitation of the technique are also discussed

  16. Optimum design of dual pressure heat recovery steam generator using non-dimensional parameters based on thermodynamic and thermoeconomic approaches

    Naemi, Sanaz; Saffar-Avval, Majid; Behboodi Kalhori, Sahand; Mansoori, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses are investigated to achieve the optimum operating parameters of a dual pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), coupled with a heavy duty gas turbine. In this regard, the thermodynamic objective function including the exergy waste and the exergy destruction, is defined in such a way to find the optimum pinch point, and consequently to minimize the objective function by using non-dimensional operating parameters. The results indicated that, the optimum pinch point from thermodynamic viewpoint is 2.5 °C and 2.1 °C for HRSGs with live steam at 75 bar and 90 bar respectively. Since thermodynamic analysis is not able to consider economic factors, another objective function including annualized installation cost and annual cost of irreversibilities is proposed. To find the irreversibility cost, electricity price and also fuel price are considered independently. The optimum pinch point from thermoeconomic viewpoint on basis of electricity price is 20.6 °C (75 bar) and 19.2 °C (90 bar), whereas according to the fuel price it is 25.4 °C and 23.7 °C. Finally, an extensive sensitivity analysis is performed to compare optimum pinch point for different electricity and fuel prices. -- Highlights: ► Presenting thermodynamic and thermoeconomic optimization of a heat recovery steam generator. ► Defining an objective function consists of exergy waste and exergy destruction. ► Defining an objective function including capital cost and cost of irreversibilities. ► Obtaining the optimized operating parameters of a dual pressure heat recovery boiler. ► Computing the optimum pinch point using non-dimensional operating parameters

  17. Does a web-based feedback training program result in improved reliability in clinicians' ratings of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale?

    Støre-Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Pedersen, Geir A F; Pripp, Are H; Jose, Paul E; Karterud, Sigmund

    2015-09-01

    The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale is used in routine clinical practice and research to estimate symptom and functional severity and longitudinal change. Concerns about poor interrater reliability have been raised, and the present study evaluated the effect of a Web-based GAF training program designed to improve interrater reliability in routine clinical practice. Clinicians rated up to 20 vignettes online, and received deviation scores as immediate feedback (i.e., own scores compared with expert raters) after each rating. Growth curves of absolute SD scores across the vignettes were modeled. A linear mixed effects model, using the clinician's deviation scores from expert raters as the dependent variable, indicated an improvement in reliability during training. Moderation by content of scale (symptoms; functioning), scale range (average; extreme), previous experience with GAF rating, profession, and postgraduate training were assessed. Training reduced deviation scores for inexperienced GAF raters, for individuals in clinical professions other than nursing and medicine, and for individuals with no postgraduate specialization. In addition, training was most beneficial for cases with average severity of symptoms compared with cases with extreme severity. The results support the use of Web-based training with feedback routines as a means to improve the reliability of GAF ratings performed by clinicians in mental health practice. These results especially pertain to clinicians in mental health practice who do not have a masters or doctoral degree. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Streamflow in the upper Mississippi river basin as simulated by SWAT driven by 20{sup th} century contemporary results of global climate models and NARCCAP regional climate models

    Takle, Eugene S.; Jha, Manoj; Lu, Er; Arritt, Raymond W.; Gutowski, William J. [Iowa State Univ. Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    We use Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) when driven by observations and results of climate models to evaluate hydrological quantities, including streamflow, in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) for 1981-2003 in comparison to observed streamflow. Daily meteorological conditions used as input to SWAT are taken from (1) observations at weather stations in the basin, (2) daily meteorological conditions simulated by a collection of regional climate models (RCMs) driven by reanalysis boundary conditions, and (3) daily meteorological conditions simulated by a collection of global climate models (GCMs). Regional models used are those whose data are archived by the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Results show that regional models correctly simulate the seasonal cycle of precipitation, temperature, and streamflow within the basin. Regional models also capture interannual extremes represented by the flood of 1993 and the dry conditions of 2000. The ensemble means of both the GCM-driven and RCM-driven simulations by SWAT capture both the timing and amplitude of the seasonal cycle of streamflow with neither demonstrating significant superiority at the basin level. (orig.)

  19. Global optimization of silicon nanowires for efficient parametric processes

    Vukovic, Dragana; Xu, Jing; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a global optimization of silicon nanowires for parametric single-pump mixing. For the first time, the effect of surface roughness-induced loss is included in the analysis, significantly influencing the optimum waveguide dimensions.......We present a global optimization of silicon nanowires for parametric single-pump mixing. For the first time, the effect of surface roughness-induced loss is included in the analysis, significantly influencing the optimum waveguide dimensions....

  20. Data on optimum recycle aggregate content in production of new structural concrete.

    Paul, Suvash Chandra

    2017-12-01

    This data presented herein are the research summary of "mechanical behavior and durability performance of concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate" (Paul, 2011) [1]. The results reported in this article relate to an important parameter of optimum content of recycle concrete aggregate (RCA) in production of new concrete for both structural and non-structural applications. For the purpose of the research various types of physical, mechanical and durability tests are performed for concrete made with different percentages of RCA. Therefore, this data set can be a great help of the readers to understand the mechanism of RCA in relates to the concrete properties.

  1. An evaluation of the optimum timing for planting short rotation coppice

    Turnbull, D.J.; Jefferies, R.; Parfitt, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to determine the optimum timing for planting, evaluate problems due to late planting in the spring, and to study the planting of willows at different times during the autumn. Details are given of the site installation, previous research on the effect of planting date and storage, and assessment of the establishment and biomass productivity and the viability of cuttings in long-term storage. Charts illustrating biomass productivity are presented, and long-term storage of willow cuttings for autumn planting is discussed.

  2. Investigations on the optimum design of chemical addition system for nuclear power plants

    Chang, Byong Hoon [Junior College of Inchon, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Chang Kyu; Choi, Han Rim; Kim, Eun Kee; Ro, Tae Sun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc. Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Mixing characteristics of the chemical additives in the chemical injection tank of the chemical and volume control system(CVCS) were investigated for the Yonggwang Nuclear units 5 and 6. Numerical calculations were performed with a low-Reynolds number turbulence model. Studies were also conducted for the injection tank with a disk located at 1/4H, 2/4H, and 3/4H from the inlet in order to see the effect in the enhancement of chemical mixing. Results show that the optimum arrangement is to locate a disk close to the inlet. 10 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  3. Determination of the optimum irradiation dose for shelf-life of peas and cherry tomatoes

    Zaman, M. B.; Hayumbu, P.; Siwale, J.; Mutale, C.; Kabwe, L.

    1991-01-01

    Green peas (Pisum Sativum), cultivar (mangetout) and yellow cherry tomatoes (lycoperscum esculantum), cultivar (cerasiforme) were irradiated for different absorbed doses, and their physical characteristics observed under cold storage conditions, in order to extend their shelf lives. Results suggest that 580 Gy is the maximum optimum dose. At this dose the shelf life of cherry tomatoes is shown to be extended. No beneficial effect was recorded on the storage life of green peas. A good correlation was found between the degradation of chlorophill and the spread of spotting disease for this product. (author)., 19 refs., 2 tab

  4. Investigations on the optimum design of chemical addition system for nuclear power plants

    Chang, Byong Hoon [Junior College of Inchon, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Chang Kyu; Choi, Han Rim; Kim, Eun Kee; Ro, Tae Sun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc. Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Mixing characteristics of the chemical additives in the chemical injection tank of the chemical and volume control system(CVCS) were investigated for the Yonggwang Nuclear units 5 and 6. Numerical calculations were performed with a low-Reynolds number turbulence model. Studies were also conducted for the injection tank with a disk located at 1/4H, 2/4H, and 3/4H from the inlet in order to see the effect in the enhancement of chemical mixing. Results show that the optimum arrangement is to locate a disk close to the inlet. 10 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  5. Optimum Availability of Standalone Photovoltaic Power Systems for Remote Housing Electrification

    Tamer Khatib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of PV systems is discussed to determine the optimum availability at which standalone PV systems must be designed. Optimization methods and PV systems software, such as HOMER and PV.MY, were used for this purpose. Six PV systems with six availability levels were analyzed, in terms of wasted energy, cost of energy, battery usage, and power shortages, using real meteorological data. Results show that PV systems with 99% availability are recommended, because of their high reliability and favorably wasted energy.

  6. A Local Search Modeling for Constrained Optimum Paths Problems (Extended Abstract

    Quang Dung Pham

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Constrained Optimum Path (COP problems appear in many real-life applications, especially on communication networks. Some of these problems have been considered and solved by specific techniques which are usually difficult to extend. In this paper, we introduce a novel local search modeling for solving some COPs by local search. The modeling features the compositionality, modularity, reuse and strengthens the benefits of Constrained-Based Local Search. We also apply the modeling to the edge-disjoint paths problem (EDP. We show that side constraints can easily be added in the model. Computational results show the significance of the approach.

  7. Finding optimum airfoil shape to get maximum aerodynamic efficiency for a wind turbine

    Sogukpinar, Haci; Bozkurt, Ismail

    2017-02-01

    In this study, aerodynamic performances of S-series wind turbine airfoil of S 825 are investigated to find optimum angle of attack. Aerodynamic performances calculations are carried out by utilization of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method withstand finite capacity approximation by using Reynolds-Averaged-Navier Stokes (RANS) theorem. The lift and pressure coefficients, lift to drag ratio of airfoil S 825 are analyzed with SST turbulence model then obtained results crosscheck with wind tunnel data to verify the precision of computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approximation. The comparison indicates that SST turbulence model used in this study can predict aerodynamics properties of wind blade.

  8. Calculation of the optimum fuel distribution which maximizes the power output of a reactor

    Santos, W.N. dos.

    1979-01-01

    Using optimal control techniques, the optimum fuel distribution - which maximizes the power output of a thermal reactor - is obtained. The nuclear reactor is described by a diffusion theory model with four energy groups and by assuming plane geometry. Since the analytical solution is impracticable, by using a perturbation method, a FORTRAN program was written, in order to obtain the numerical solution. Numerical results, for a thermal reactor light water moderated, non reflected, are shown. The fissile fuel material considered is Uranium-235. (Author) [pt

  9. The optimum fuel and power distribution for a PWR burnup cycle

    Stillman, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the optimum fuel and power distributions for a PWR burnup cycle. The backward diffusion calculation [1] and the Core-wise Green's Function [2] method were used for the core model which provided analytic derivatives for solving the nonlinear optimization problem using successive linear programming [3] methods. The solution algorithm consisted of a reverse depletion strategy which begins at the end of cycle and solves simultaneously for the optimal fuel and burnable absorber distributions while the core is depleted to the beginning of cycle. The resulting optimal solutions minimize the required fissile fuel inventory and burnable absorber loading for a PWR

  10. On the validation of an Eulerian model with the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. Global and local results for Europe and Japan

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Cozic, Anne [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ UMR 8212, IPSL/LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, L' Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Florou, Heleni; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Kritidis, Panayotis [NCSR ' Demokritos' , Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Energy and Safety (INRASTES), Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, 15310 Athens (Greece)

    2014-07-01

    A large debate about the exact emissions after the Fukushima NPP accident is still ongoing more than 3 years after the original disaster. Terada et al. (2012) reported the total release of {sup 137}Cs to be 13 PBq (x10{sup 15} Bq), based on an inverse modelling using Japanese data only, whereas the IRSN reported releases of {sup 137}Cs to be 20.6 PBq (IRSN, 2011). In the present study, we used the emission inventories for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 133}Xe reported by Stohl et al. (2012) estimated by inverse modelling using the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) and Japanese networks (36.7 PBq of {sup 137}Cs and 15.3 EBq of {sup 133}Xe). For the simulations of the accident, three different versions of the LMDZORINCA model were used; A regular one with a grid resolution of 2.50 deg. x 1.27 deg. for the global comparison with the CTBTO network (19 and 39 vertical layers), and a zoom version over Europe and Asia (0.45 deg. x 0.51 deg. for 19 levels) resulting after 'stretching' the grid using the same number of grid points to assess what happened in Greece, and Japan. Cesium isotopes were treated as sub-micronic aerosols, whereas {sup 133}Xe as a passive tracer within the model, whereas several other radionuclides were estimated from reported isotopic ratios. Our results for the global assessment fit well to the observations. They differ about 0.04% from the measurements for {sup 137}Cs, and around 40% for xenon. The most significant deviations were observed for the northernmost stations due to both scavenging processes and transport over the Arctic. Scattered measurements of several radionuclides from Japan were adopted from literature (Shininaga et al., 2014). The comparison showed a significant quality of our model, although some isotopes are miscalculated. This shows that the reported isotopic ratios might be biased somehow. Finally, in Greece, few measurements of {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were adopted from Potiriadis et al

  11. An Assessment of the Current US Radiation Oncology Workforce: Methodology and Global Results of the American Society for Radiation Oncology 2012 Workforce Study

    Vichare, Anushree; Washington, Raynard; Patton, Caroline; Arnone, Anna [ASTRO, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Olsen, Christine [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, (United States); Fung, Claire Y. [Commonwealth Newburyport Cancer Center, Newburyport, Massachusetts (United States); Hopkins, Shane [William R. Bliss Cancer Center, Ames, Iowa (United States); Pohar, Surjeet, E-mail: spohar@netzero.net [Indiana University Health Cancer Center East, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the characteristics, needs, and concerns of the current radiation oncology workforce, evaluate best practices and opportunities for improving quality and safety, and assess what we can predict about the future workforce. Methods and Materials: An online survey was distributed to 35,204 respondents from all segments of the radiation oncology workforce, including radiation oncologists, residents, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, medical physicists, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, and practice managers/administrators. The survey was disseminated by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) together with specialty societies representing other workforce segments. An overview of the methods and global results is presented in this paper. Results: A total of 6765 completed surveys were received, a response rate of 19%, and the final analysis included 5257 respondents. Three-quarters of the radiation oncologists, residents, and physicists who responded were male, in contrast to the other segments in which two-thirds or more were female. The majority of respondents (58%) indicated they were hospital-based, whereas 40% practiced in a free-standing/satellite clinic and 2% in another setting. Among the practices represented in the survey, 21.5% were academic, 25.2% were hospital, and 53.3% were private. A perceived oversupply of professionals relative to demand was reported by the physicist, dosimetrist, and radiation therapist segments. An undersupply was perceived by physician's assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses. The supply of radiation oncologists and residents was considered balanced. Conclusions: This survey was unique as it attempted to comprehensively assess the radiation oncology workforce by directly surveying each segment. The results suggest there is potential to improve the diversity of the workforce and optimize the supply of the workforce segments. The survey also provides a benchmark for

  12. An Assessment of the Current US Radiation Oncology Workforce: Methodology and Global Results of the American Society for Radiation Oncology 2012 Workforce Study

    Vichare, Anushree; Washington, Raynard; Patton, Caroline; Arnone, Anna; Olsen, Christine; Fung, Claire Y.; Hopkins, Shane; Pohar, Surjeet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the characteristics, needs, and concerns of the current radiation oncology workforce, evaluate best practices and opportunities for improving quality and safety, and assess what we can predict about the future workforce. Methods and Materials: An online survey was distributed to 35,204 respondents from all segments of the radiation oncology workforce, including radiation oncologists, residents, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, medical physicists, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, and practice managers/administrators. The survey was disseminated by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) together with specialty societies representing other workforce segments. An overview of the methods and global results is presented in this paper. Results: A total of 6765 completed surveys were received, a response rate of 19%, and the final analysis included 5257 respondents. Three-quarters of the radiation oncologists, residents, and physicists who responded were male, in contrast to the other segments in which two-thirds or more were female. The majority of respondents (58%) indicated they were hospital-based, whereas 40% practiced in a free-standing/satellite clinic and 2% in another setting. Among the practices represented in the survey, 21.5% were academic, 25.2% were hospital, and 53.3% were private. A perceived oversupply of professionals relative to demand was reported by the physicist, dosimetrist, and radiation therapist segments. An undersupply was perceived by physician's assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses. The supply of radiation oncologists and residents was considered balanced. Conclusions: This survey was unique as it attempted to comprehensively assess the radiation oncology workforce by directly surveying each segment. The results suggest there is potential to improve the diversity of the workforce and optimize the supply of the workforce segments. The survey also provides a benchmark for

  13. Flooding Model as the Analysis of the Sea Level Increase as a Result of Global Warming in Coastal Area in Lampung

    Agung Kurniawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The melting of ice layers, as a direct impact on global warming, is indicated from a lesser thickness of ice layers is specifically causing an increase on the sea level. Lampung, as a province that has an ecosistem of regional coast, can be estimated to submerge. Flood modelling can be done to know the estimated flood range. The model of the flooded region is taken from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission(SRTM data, which is nomalized to get the visualisation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM. The purpose of this research is to know the estimated region of provincial coast of Lampung that is going to be flooded because of the raising of sea surface. This research uses flood inundation technique that uses one of the GIS mapping software. The result can be used as consideration to achieve policy in the building of regional coast. The regions that are flooded based on the scenario of the raising of two and three meter surface sea level are East Lampung Regency, West Lampung Regency, South Lampung Regency, Tanggamus Regency, Pesawaran Regency, and Bandar Lampung.

  14. Three years of global carbon monoxide from SCIAMACHY: comparison with MOPITT and first results related to the detection of enhanced CO over cities

    M. Buchwitz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is an important atmospheric constituent affecting air quality and climate. SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT is currently the only satellite instrument that can measure the vertical column of CO with nearly equal sensitivity at all altitudes down to the Earth's surface because of its near-infrared nadir observations of reflected solar radiation. Here we present three years' (2003–2005 of SCIAMACHY CO columns consistently retrieved with the latest version of our retrieval algorithm (WFMDv0.6. We describe the retrieval method and discuss the multi-year global CO data set focusing on a comparison with the operational CO column data product of MOPITT. We found reasonable to good agreement (~20% with MOPITT, with the best agreement for 2004. We present detailed results for various regions (Europe, Middle East, India, China and discuss to what extent enhanced levels of CO can be detected over populated areas including individual cities. The expected CO signal from cities is close to or even below the detection limit of individual measurements. We show that cities can be identified when averaging long time series.

  15. Saturation of superstorms and finite compressibility of the magnetosphere: Results of the magnetogram inversion technique and global PPMLR-MHD model

    Mishin, V. V.; Mishin, V. M.; Karavaev, Yu.; Han, J. P.; Wang, C.

    2016-07-01

    We report on novel features of the saturation process of the polar cap magnetic flux and Poynting flux into the magnetosphere from the solar wind during three superstorms. In addition to the well-known effect of the interplanetary electric (Esw) and southward magnetic (interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz) fields, we found that the saturation depends also on the solar wind ram pressure Pd. By means of the magnetogram inversion technique and a global MHD numerical model Piecewise Parabolic Method with a Lagrangian Remap, we explore the dependence of the magnetopause standoff distance on ram pressure and the southward IMF. Unlike earlier studies, in the considered superstorms both Pd and Bz achieve extreme values. As a result, we show that the compression rate of the dayside magnetosphere decreases with increasing Pd and the southward Bz, approaching very small values for extreme Pd ≥ 15 nPa and Bz ≤ -40 nT. This dependence suggests that finite compressibility of the magnetosphere controls saturation of superstorms.

  16. Activities of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Programme (formerly RS10) in Russia: promising results from a sub-national project.

    Slyunkina, Ekaterina S; Kliavin, Vladimir E; Gritsenko, Elena A; Petruhin, Alexandr B; Zambon, Francesco; He, Huan; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-12-01

    In Russia, the high Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) rate has been attributed to two well-known risk factors - the low rates of seatbelt and child restraints use and speeding. Despite the importance of understanding both speeding and seatbelt use patterns for the purpose of direct interventions or monitoring road safety situation, no study has assessed the current status of speeding among all vehicles and seatbelt wearing rates among all vehicle occupants in Russia. We are aware that alcohol is a known risk factor for RTI in the country however the work focused on seat belts and speed. This research was conducted as part of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Programme and focuses on observed speeding and seatbelt use in two Russian regions: Lipetskaya and Ivanovskaya Oblast. Data was collected through observational surveys on selected roads in the two interventions sites (Lipetskaya and Ivanovskaya Oblast) between October 2010 and March 2013. The percentage of seatbelt use by drivers and passengers and the percentage of speeding vehicles by speed limit and road types were calculated. Observational studies on speeding show signs that drivers are speeding less from the first survey held in July 2011 in Lipetskaya Oblast and March 2012 in Ivanovksya Oblast. Overall the observational studies showed a consistent reduction in the proportion of vehicles exceeding the speed limit: from 54.7% (2012) to 40.1% (2013) in Ivanovskaya Oblast and from 47.0% (2011) to 26.1% (2013) in Lipetskaya Oblast. Observational studies on seatbelt use demonstrate an increase in seatbelt wearing rates from the first survey held in October 2010 in Lipetskaya Oblast and April 2011 in Ivanovskaya Oblast. The overall prevalence of seatbelt use increased from 52.4% (2010) to 73.5% (2013) amongst all occupants in Lipetskaya Oblast and from 47.5% (2011) to 88.8% (2013) in Ivanovskaya Oblast. Preliminary results show some promising signs that speeding and seatbelt use are moving in the right

  17. Setting global research priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM: Results from a CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative exercise

    Kerri Wazny

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: to systematically identify global research gaps and resource priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM. Methods: an iCCM Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI Advisory Group, in collaboration with the Community Case Management Operational Research Group (CCM ORG identified experts to participate in a CHNRI research priority setting exercise. These experts generated and systematically ranked research questions for iCCM. Research questions were ranked using a “Research Priority Score” (RPS and the “Average Expert Agreement” (AEA was calculated for every question. Our groups of experts were comprised of both individuals working in Ministries of Health or Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs in low– and middle–income countries (LMICs and individuals working in high–income countries (HICs in academia or NGO headquarters. A Spearman's Rho was calculated to determine the correlation between the two groups' research questions' ranks. Results: The overall RPS ranged from 64.58 to 89.31, with a median score of 81.43. AEA scores ranged from 0.54 to 0.86. Research questions involving increasing the uptake of iCCM services, research questions concerning the motivation, retention, training and supervision of Community Health Workers (CHWs and concerning adding additional responsibilities including counselling for infant and young child feeding (IYCF and treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM ranked highly. There was weak to moderate, statistically significant, correlation between scores by representatives of high–income countries and those working in–country or regionally (Spearman's ρ = 0.35034, P < 0.01. Conclusions: Operational research to determine optimal training, supervision and modes of motivation and retention for the CHW is vital for improving iCCM, globally, as is research to motivate caregivers to take advantage of iCCM services. Experts working in–country or regionally in

  18. Solving optimum operation of single pump unit problem with ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm

    Yuan, Y; Liu, C

    2012-01-01

    For pumping stations, the effective scheduling of daily pump operations from solutions to the optimum design operation problem is one of the greatest potential areas for energy cost-savings, there are some difficulties in solving this problem with traditional optimization methods due to the multimodality of the solution region. In this case, an ACO model for optimum operation of pumping unit is proposed and the solution method by ants searching is presented by rationally setting the object function and constrained conditions. A weighted directed graph was constructed and feasible solutions may be found by iteratively searching of artificial ants, and then the optimal solution can be obtained by applying the rule of state transition and the pheromone updating. An example calculation was conducted and the minimum cost was found as 4.9979. The result of ant colony algorithm was compared with the result from dynamic programming or evolutionary solving method in commercial software under the same discrete condition. The result of ACO is better and the computing time is shorter which indicates that ACO algorithm can provide a high application value to the field of optimal operation of pumping stations and related fields.

  19. OPTIMUM, CRITICAL AND THRESHOLD VALUES FOR WATER OXYGENATION FOR MULLETS (MUGILIDAE AND FLATFISHES (PLEURONECTIDAE IN ONTOGENESIS

    P. Shekk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the optimum, critical, and threshold values of water oxygenation for embryos, larvae and fingerlings of mullets and flatfishes under different temperature conditions. Methodology. Oxygen consumption was studied in chronic experiments with «interrupted flow» method with automatic fixation of dissolved oxygen in water with the aid of an oxygen sensor and automatic, continuous recording of the obtained results. «Critical» (Pcrit., and the «threshold» (Pthr. oxygen tension in the water have been determined. Findings. Under optimum conditions, the normal embryogenesis of mullets and flatfish to the gastrulation stage, provided 90–130% oxygen saturation. The critical content was 80–85%, the threshold – 65–70% of the saturation. At the stage of «movable embryo» depending on water temperature and fish species, the optimum range of water oxygenation was within 70‒127.1%. The most tolerant to oxygen deficiency was flounder Platichthys luscus (Pcrit – 25.4–27,5; Pthr. – 20.5–22.5%, the least resistant to hypoxia was striped mullet Mugil серhalus (Pcrit. – 50–60; Pthr. – 35–40%. The limits of the critical and threshold concentration of dissolved oxygen directly depended on the temperature and salinity, at which embryogenesis occurred. An increase in water temperature and salinity resulted in an increase in critical and threshold values for oxygen tension embryos. Mullet and flatfish fingerlings in all stages of development had a high tolerance to hypoxia, which increased as they grew. They were resistant to the oversaturation of water with oxygen. The most demanding for the oxygen regime are larvae and fingerlings of striped mullet and Liza aurata. Hypoxia tolerance of Psetta maeoticus (Psetta maeoticus and flounder at all stages of development is very high. The fingerlings of these species can endure reduction of the dissolved oxygen in water to 2.10 and 1.65 mgO2/dm3 respectively for a long time

  20. Determination of Optimum Cross-section for Oran Highway Revetment

    Velioglu, Deniz; Sogut, Erdinc; Guler, Isikhan

    2017-04-01

    Revetments are shore parallel, sloping coastal structures which are built to provide protection from the negative effects of the sea. The revetment mentioned in this study is located in the City of Oran, Algeria and is currently under construction. This study investigates the determination of the optimum revetment cross section for Oran highway, considering both the hydraulic stability of the revetment and economy. The existence of cliffs in the region and the settlement of the City of Oran created a necessity to re-align Oran highway; therefore, it was shifted towards the Gulf of Oran. Approximately 1 km of the highway is to be constructed on the Mediterranean Sea due to the new alignment. In order to protect the sea side of the road from the adverse effects of the sea, a revetment was designed. The proposed cross section had an armour layer composed of 23 tons of antifer units and regular placement of armour units was recommended. In order to check the hydraulic stability of the proposed section, physical model tests were performed in the laboratory of LEM (Laboratoire d'Etudes Maritimes) in Algeria, using the pre-determined design wave conditions. The physical model tests revealed that the trunk of the revetment was totaly damaged. Accordingly, the proposed section was found insufficient and certain modifications were required. The first modification was made in the arrangement of armour units, changing them from regular to irregular. After testing the new cross section, it was observed that the revetment was vulnerable to breaking wave attack due to the toe geometry and thus the toe of the revetment had to be re-shaped. Therefore, the second option was to reduce the toe elevation. It was observed that even though the revetment trunk was safe, the damage in the toe was not in acceptable limits. The new cross section was found insufficient and as the final option, the weight of the antifer units used in the armour layer was increased, the toe length of the