WorldWideScience

Sample records for global open ocean

  1. The growth of finfish in global open-ocean aquaculture under climate change.

    Klinger, Dane H; Levin, Simon A; Watson, James R

    2017-10-11

    Aquaculture production is projected to expand from land-based operations to the open ocean as demand for seafood grows and competition increases for inputs to land-based aquaculture, such as freshwater and suitable land. In contrast to land-based production, open-ocean aquaculture is constrained by oceanographic factors, such as current speeds and seawater temperature, which are dynamic in time and space, and cannot easily be controlled. As such, the potential for offshore aquaculture to increase seafood production is tied to the physical state of the oceans. We employ a novel spatial model to estimate the potential of open-ocean finfish aquaculture globally, given physical, biological and technological constraints. Finfish growth potential for three common aquaculture species representing different thermal guilds-Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ), gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata ) and cobia ( Rachycentron canadum )-is compared across species and regions and with climate change, based on outputs of a high-resolution global climate model. Globally, there are ample areas that are physically suitable for fish growth and potential expansion of the nascent aquaculture industry. The effects of climate change are heterogeneous across species and regions, but areas with existing aquaculture industries are likely to see increases in growth rates. In areas where climate change results in reduced growth rates, adaptation measures, such as selective breeding, can probably offset potential production losses. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  3. Open ocean tide modelling

    Parke, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Two trends evident in global tidal modelling since the first GEOP conference in 1972 are described. The first centers on the incorporation of terms for ocean loading and gravitational self attraction into Laplace's tidal equations. The second centers on a better understanding of the problem of near resonant modelling and the need for realistic maps of tidal elevation for use by geodesists and geophysicists. Although new models still show significant differences, especially in the South Atlantic, there are significant similarities in many of the world's oceans. This allows suggestions to be made for future locations for bottom pressure gauge measurements. Where available, estimates of M2 tidal dissipation from the new models are significantly lower than estimates from previous models.

  4. Global OpenSearch

    Newman, D. J.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    At AGU 2014, NASA EOSDIS demonstrated a case-study of an OpenSearch framework for Earth science data discovery. That framework leverages the IDN and CWIC OpenSearch API implementations to provide seamless discovery of data through the 'two-step' discovery process as outlined by the Federation for Earth Sciences (ESIP) OpenSearch Best Practices. But how would an Earth Scientist leverage this framework and what are the benefits? Using a client that understands the OpenSearch specification and, for further clarity, the various best practices and extensions, a scientist can discovery a plethora of data not normally accessible either by traditional methods (NASA Earth Data Search, Reverb, etc) or direct methods (going to the source of the data) We will demonstrate, via the CWICSmart web client, how an earth scientist can access regional data on a regional phenomena in a uniform and aggregated manner. We will demonstrate how an earth scientist can 'globalize' their discovery. You want to find local data on 'sea surface temperature of the Indian Ocean'? We can help you with that. 'European meteorological data'? Yes. 'Brazilian rainforest satellite imagery'? That too. CWIC allows you to get earth science data in a uniform fashion from a large number of disparate, world-wide agencies. This is what we mean by Global OpenSearch.

  5. Ecological niches of open ocean phytoplankton taxa

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Vogt, Meike; Payne, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We characterize the realized ecological niches of 133 phytoplankton taxa in the open ocean based on observations from the MAREDAT initiative and a statistical species distribution model (MaxEnt). The models find that the physical conditions (mixed layer depth, temperature, light) govern large...... conditions in the open ocean. Our estimates of the realized niches roughly match the predictions of Reynolds' C-S-R model for the global ocean, namely that taxa classified as nutrient stress tolerant have niches at lower nutrient and higher irradiance conditions than light stress tolerant taxa. Yet...

  6. Plastic debris in the open ocean

    Cozar, Andres

    2014-06-30

    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean.

  7. Plastic debris in the open ocean.

    Cózar, Andrés; Echevarría, Fidel; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Irigoien, Xabier; Ubeda, Bárbara; Hernández-León, Santiago; Palma, Alvaro T; Navarro, Sandra; García-de-Lomas, Juan; Ruiz, Andrea; Fernández-de-Puelles, María L; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-07-15

    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean.

  8. Plastic debris in the open ocean

    Cózar, Andrés; Echevarría, Fidel; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Irigoien, Xabier; Úbeda, Bárbara; Hernández-León, Santiago; Palma, Álvaro T.; Navarro, Sandra; García-de-Lomas, Juan; Ruiz, Andrea; Fernández-de-Puelles, María L.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean. PMID:24982135

  9. An open ocean record of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    D. R. Gröcke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic anoxic events were time intervals in the Mesozoic characterized by widespread distribution of marine organic matter-rich sediments (black shales and significant perturbations in the global carbon cycle. These perturbations are globally recorded in sediments as carbon isotope excursions irrespective of lithology and depositional environment. During the early Toarcian, black shales were deposited on the epi- and pericontinental shelves of Pangaea, and these sedimentary rocks are associated with a pronounced (ca. 7 ‰ negative (organic carbon isotope excursion (CIE which is thought to be the result of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle. For this reason, the lower Toarcian is thought to represent an oceanic anoxic event (the T-OAE. If the T-OAE was indeed a global event, an isotopic expression of this event should be found beyond the epi- and pericontinental Pangaean localities. To address this issue, the carbon isotope composition of organic matter (δ13Corg of lower Toarcian organic matter-rich cherts from Japan, deposited in the open Panthalassa Ocean, was analysed. The results show the presence of a major (>6 ‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg that, based on radiolarian biostratigraphy, is a correlative of the lower Toarcian negative CIE known from Pangaean epi- and pericontinental strata. A smaller negative excursion in δ13Corg (ca. 2 ‰ is recognized lower in the studied succession. This excursion may, within the current biostratigraphic resolution, represent the excursion recorded in European epicontinental successions close to the Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary. These results from the open ocean realm suggest, in conjunction with other previously published datasets, that these Early Jurassic carbon cycle perturbations affected the active global reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon cycle (deep marine, shallow marine, atmospheric.

  10. HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): Global

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) 3-day, daily forecast at approximately 9-km (1/12-degree)...

  11. Plastic debris in the open ocean

    Cózar, Andrés; Echevarría, Fidel; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Irigoien, Xabier; Úbeda, Bárbara; Hernández-León, Santiago; Palma, Álvaro T.; Navarro, Sandra; García-de-Lomas, Juan; Ruiz, Andrea; Fernández-de-Puelles, María L.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. Howeve...

  12. Practical global oceanic state estimation

    Wunsch, Carl; Heimbach, Patrick

    2007-06-01

    The problem of oceanographic state estimation, by means of an ocean general circulation model (GCM) and a multitude of observations, is described and contrasted with the meteorological process of data assimilation. In practice, all such methods reduce, on the computer, to forms of least-squares. The global oceanographic problem is at the present time focussed primarily on smoothing, rather than forecasting, and the data types are unlike meteorological ones. As formulated in the consortium Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO), an automatic differentiation tool is used to calculate the so-called adjoint code of the GCM, and the method of Lagrange multipliers used to render the problem one of unconstrained least-squares minimization. Major problems today lie less with the numerical algorithms (least-squares problems can be solved by many means) than with the issues of data and model error. Results of ongoing calculations covering the period of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, and including among other data, satellite altimetry from TOPEX/POSEIDON, Jason-1, ERS- 1/2, ENVISAT, and GFO, a global array of profiling floats from the Argo program, and satellite gravity data from the GRACE mission, suggest that the solutions are now useful for scientific purposes. Both methodology and applications are developing in a number of different directions.

  13. Distribution and behavior of transuranics in the open ocean

    Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    1996-01-01

    The major source of 239,240 Pu in the open ocean is the global fallout from the atmospheric weapon testing. In 1987-1989, the latitudinal distribution of 239,240 Pu in the surface water showed the pattern reflecting a global deposition in both the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean. The feature of the 239,240 Pu vertical distribution is that a subsurface maximum exists at depth from 200m to 1000m over a large area of the ocean. Inventories of 239,240 Pu in the water column are often higher than those expected from global fallout and close-in fallout is suggested to be the additional inventory in the Pacific Ocean. The 239,240 Pu inventory in sediment has the values in the range of 2 to 27% of that in sea water. The use of a multiple corer is suggested for sediment sampling. (author)

  14. Enhanced deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation with global warming

    Froelicher, T. L.; Jaccard, S.; Dunne, J. P.; Paynter, D.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-first century coupled climate model simulations, observations from the recent past, and theoretical arguments suggest a consistent trend towards warmer ocean temperatures and fresher polar surface oceans in response to increased radiative forcing resulting in increased upper ocean stratification and reduced ventilation and oxygenation of the deep ocean. Paleo-proxy records of the warming at the end of the last ice age, however, suggests a different outcome, namely a better ventilated and oxygenated deep ocean with global warming. Here we use a four thousand year global warming simulation from a comprehensive Earth System Model (GFDL ESM2M) to show that this conundrum is a consequence of different rates of warming and that the deep ocean is actually better ventilated and oxygenated in a future warmer equilibrated climate consistent with paleo-proxy records. The enhanced deep ocean ventilation in the Southern Ocean occurs in spite of increased positive surface buoyancy fluxes and a constancy of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds - circumstances that would otherwise be expected to lead to a reduction in deep ocean ventilation. This ventilation recovery occurs through a global scale interaction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation undergoing a multi-centennial recovery after an initial century of transient decrease and transports salinity-rich waters inform the subtropical surface ocean to the Southern Ocean interior on multi-century timescales. The subsequent upwelling of salinity-rich waters in the Southern Ocean strips away the freshwater cap that maintains vertical stability and increases open ocean convection and the formation of Antarctic Bottom Waters. As a result, the global ocean oxygen content and the nutrient supply from the deep ocean to the surface are higher in a warmer ocean. The implications for past and future changes in ocean heat and carbon storage will be discussed.

  15. The Open Global Glacier Model

    Marzeion, B.; Maussion, F.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain glaciers are one of the few remaining sub-systems of the global climate system for which no globally applicable, open source, community-driven model exists. Notable examples from the ice sheet community include the Parallel Ice Sheet Model or Elmer/Ice. While the atmospheric modeling community has a long tradition of sharing models (e.g. the Weather Research and Forecasting model) or comparing them (e.g. the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project or CMIP), recent initiatives originating from the glaciological community show a new willingness to better coordinate global research efforts following the CMIP example (e.g. the Glacier Model Intercomparison Project or the Glacier Ice Thickness Estimation Working Group). In the recent past, great advances have been made in the global availability of data and methods relevant for glacier modeling, spanning glacier outlines, automatized glacier centerline identification, bed rock inversion methods, and global topographic data sets. Taken together, these advances now allow the ice dynamics of glaciers to be modeled on a global scale, provided that adequate modeling platforms are available. Here, we present the Open Global Glacier Model (OGGM), developed to provide a global scale, modular, and open source numerical model framework for consistently simulating past and future global scale glacier change. Global not only in the sense of leading to meaningful results for all glaciers combined, but also for any small ensemble of glaciers, e.g. at the headwater catchment scale. Modular to allow combinations of different approaches to the representation of ice flow and surface mass balance, enabling a new kind of model intercomparison. Open source so that the code can be read and used by anyone and so that new modules can be added and discussed by the community, following the principles of open governance. Consistent in order to provide uncertainty measures at all realizable scales.

  16. Building a Global Ocean Science Education Network

    Scowcroft, G. A.; Tuddenham, P. T.; Pizziconi, R.

    2016-02-01

    It is imperative for ocean science education to be closely linked to ocean science research. This is especially important for research that addresses global concerns that cross national boundaries, including climate related issues. The results of research on these critical topics must find its way to the public, educators, and students of all ages around the globe. To facilitate this, opportunities are needed for ocean scientists and educators to convene and identify priorities and strategies for ocean science education. On June 26 and 27, 2015 the first Global Ocean Science Education (GOSE) Workshop was convened in the United States at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. The workshop, sponsored by the Consortium for Ocean Science Exploration and Engagement (COSEE) and the College of Exploration, had over 75 participants representing 15 nations. The workshop addressed critical global ocean science topics, current ocean science research and education priorities, advanced communication technologies, and leveraging international ocean research technologies. In addition, panels discussed elementary, secondary, undergraduate, graduate, and public education across the ocean basins with emphasis on opportunities for international collaboration. Special presentation topics included advancements in tropical cyclone forecasting, collaborations among Pacific Islands, ocean science for coastal resiliency, and trans-Atlantic collaboration. This presentation will focus on workshop outcomes as well as activities for growing a global ocean science education network. A summary of the workshop report will also be provided. The dates and location for the 2016 GOES Workshop will be announced. See http://www.coexploration.net/gose/index.html

  17. The global marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation

    C. P. Slomp

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new mass balance model for the coupled marine cycles of phosphorus (P and carbon (C is used to examine the relationships between oceanic circulation, primary productivity, and sedimentary burial of reactive P and particulate organic C (POC, on geological time scales. The model explicitly represents the exchanges of water and particulate matter between the continental shelves and the open ocean, and it accounts for the redox-dependent burial of POC and the various forms of reactive P (iron(III-bound P, particulate organic P (POP, authigenic calcium phosphate, and fish debris. Steady state and transient simulations indicate that a slowing down of global ocean circulation decreases primary production in the open ocean, but increases that in the coastal ocean. The latter is due to increased transfer of soluble P from deep ocean water to the shelves, where it fuels primary production and causes increased reactive P burial. While authigenic calcium phosphate accounts for most reactive P burial ocean-wide, enhanced preservation of fish debris may become an important reactive P sink in deep-sea sediments during periods of ocean anoxia. Slower ocean circulation globally increases POC burial, because of enhanced POC preservation under anoxia in deep-sea depositional environments and higher primary productivity along the continental margins. In accordance with geological evidence, the model predicts increased accumulation of reactive P on the continental shelves during and following periods of ocean anoxia.

  18. Manifestation, Drivers, and Emergence of Open Ocean Deoxygenation

    Levin, Lisa A.

    2018-01-01

    Oxygen loss in the ocean, termed deoxygenation, is a major consequence of climate change and is exacerbated by other aspects of global change. An average global loss of 2% or more has been recorded in the open ocean over the past 50-100 years, but with greater oxygen declines in intermediate waters (100-600 m) of the North Pacific, the East Pacific, tropical waters, and the Southern Ocean. Although ocean warming contributions to oxygen declines through a reduction in oxygen solubility and stratification effects on ventilation are reasonably well understood, it has been a major challenge to identify drivers and modifying factors that explain different regional patterns, especially in the tropical oceans. Changes in respiration, circulation (including upwelling), nutrient inputs, and possibly methane release contribute to oxygen loss, often indirectly through stimulation of biological production and biological consumption. Microbes mediate many feedbacks in oxygen minimum zones that can either exacerbate or ameliorate deoxygenation via interacting nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon cycles. The paleo-record reflects drivers of and feedbacks to deoxygenation that have played out through the Phanerozoic on centennial, millennial, and hundred-million-year timescales. Natural oxygen variability has made it difficult to detect the emergence of a climate-forced signal of oxygen loss, but new modeling efforts now project emergence to occur in many areas in 15-25 years. Continued global deoxygenation is projected for the next 100 or more years under most emissions scenarios, but with regional heterogeneity. Notably, even small changes in oxygenation can have significant biological effects. New efforts to systematically observe oxygen changes throughout the open ocean are needed to help address gaps in understanding of ocean deoxygenation patterns and drivers.

  19. Manifestation, Drivers, and Emergence of Open Ocean Deoxygenation.

    Levin, Lisa A

    2018-01-03

    Oxygen loss in the ocean, termed deoxygenation, is a major consequence of climate change and is exacerbated by other aspects of global change. An average global loss of 2% or more has been recorded in the open ocean over the past 50-100 years, but with greater oxygen declines in intermediate waters (100-600 m) of the North Pacific, the East Pacific, tropical waters, and the Southern Ocean. Although ocean warming contributions to oxygen declines through a reduction in oxygen solubility and stratification effects on ventilation are reasonably well understood, it has been a major challenge to identify drivers and modifying factors that explain different regional patterns, especially in the tropical oceans. Changes in respiration, circulation (including upwelling), nutrient inputs, and possibly methane release contribute to oxygen loss, often indirectly through stimulation of biological production and biological consumption. Microbes mediate many feedbacks in oxygen minimum zones that can either exacerbate or ameliorate deoxygenation via interacting nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon cycles. The paleo-record reflects drivers of and feedbacks to deoxygenation that have played out through the Phanerozoic on centennial, millennial, and hundred-million-year timescales. Natural oxygen variability has made it difficult to detect the emergence of a climate-forced signal of oxygen loss, but new modeling efforts now project emergence to occur in many areas in 15-25 years. Continued global deoxygenation is projected for the next 100 or more years under most emissions scenarios, but with regional heterogeneity. Notably, even small changes in oxygenation can have significant biological effects. New efforts to systematically observe oxygen changes throughout the open ocean are needed to help address gaps in understanding of ocean deoxygenation patterns and drivers.

  20. State of Climate 2011 - Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Siegel, D. A.; Antoine, D.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; d'Andon, O. H. Fanton; Fields, E.; Franz, B. A.; Goryl, P.; Maritorena, S.; McClain, C. R.; Wang, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton photosynthesis in the sun lit upper layer of the global ocean is the overwhelmingly dominant source of organic matter that fuels marine ecosystems. Phytoplankton contribute roughly half of the global (land and ocean) net primary production (NPP; gross photosynthesis minus plant respiration) and phytoplankton carbon fixation is the primary conduit through which atmospheric CO2 concentrations interact with the ocean s carbon cycle. Phytoplankton productivity depends on the availability of sunlight, macronutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorous), and micronutrients (e.g., iron), and thus is sensitive to climate-driven changes in the delivery of these resources to the euphotic zone

  1. Improved Global Ocean Color Using Polymer Algorithm

    Steinmetz, Francois; Ramon, Didier; Deschamps, ierre-Yves; Stum, Jacques

    2010-12-01

    A global ocean color product has been developed based on the use of the POLYMER algorithm to correct atmospheric scattering and sun glint and to process the data to a Level 2 ocean color product. Thanks to the use of this algorithm, the coverage and accuracy of the MERIS ocean color product have been significantly improved when compared to the standard product, therefore increasing its usefulness for global ocean monitor- ing applications like GLOBCOLOUR. We will present the latest developments of the algorithm, its first application to MODIS data and its validation against in-situ data from the MERMAID database. Examples will be shown of global NRT chlorophyll maps produced by CLS with POLYMER for operational applications like fishing or oil and gas industry, as well as its use by Scripps for a NASA study of the Beaufort and Chukchi seas.

  2. Degradation Signatures of Open Ocean Microplastic Debris

    Lavender Law, K. L.; Donohue, J. L.; Collins, T.; Proskurowsi, G.; Andrady, A. L.

    2016-02-01

    Microplastics collected from the open ocean offer few clues about their origin and history. There is currently no method to determine how long ocean plastic has undergone environmental weathering, how quickly fragmentation has occurred, or how small microplastic particles will ultimately become before (or if) they are fully degraded by microbial action. In the current absence of results from laboratory and field experiments designed to address these questions, we meticulously examined physical and chemical characteristics of open ocean microplastic particles collected over a 16-year period for clues about their weathering history. More than 1000 microplastic particles collected in the western North Atlantic between 1991 and 2007 were analyzed to determine polymer type, material density, mass and particle size, and were used to create a detailed catalogue of common microscopic surface features likely related to environmental exposure and weathering. Polyethylene and polypropylene, the two buoyant resins most commonly collected at the sea surface, can typically be distinguished by visual microscopy alone, and their particular characteristics lead us to hypothesize that these two resins weaken and fragment in different ways and on different time scales. A subset of resin pellets collected at sea were also analyzed using FTIR-ATR and/or FTIR microscopy for signatures of chemical degradation (e.g., carbonyl index) that are related to physical weathering characteristics such as color, quantified by the yellowness index.

  3. Global Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Coordination

    Telszewski, Maciej; Tanhua, Toste; Palacz, Artur

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of the marine carbon cycle and its numerous connections to carbon's atmospheric and terrestrial pathways means that a wide range of approaches have to be used in order to establish it's qualitative and quantitative role in the global climate system. Ocean carbon and biogeochemistry research, observations, and modelling are conducted at national, regional, and global levels to quantify the global ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 and to understand controls of this process, the variability of uptake and vulnerability of carbon fluxes into the ocean. These science activities require support by a sustained, international effort that provides a central communication forum and coordination services to facilitate the compatibility and comparability of results from individual efforts and development of the ocean carbon data products that can be integrated with the terrestrial, atmospheric and human dimensions components of the global carbon cycle. The International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP) was created in 2005 by the IOC of UNESCO and the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research. IOCCP provides an international, program-independent forum for global coordination of ocean carbon and biogeochemistry observations and integration with global carbon cycle science programs. The IOCCP coordinates an ever-increasing set of observations-related activities in the following domains: underway observations of biogeochemical water properties, ocean interior observations, ship-based time-series observations, large-scale ocean acidification monitoring, inorganic nutrients observations, biogeochemical instruments and autonomous sensors and data and information creation. Our contribution is through the facilitation of the development of globally acceptable strategies, methodologies, practices and standards homogenizing efforts of the research community and scientific advisory groups as well as integrating the ocean biogeochemistry observations with the

  4. Optimizing Ocean Space: Co-siting Open Ocean Aquaculture

    Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.

  5. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  6. Perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates in open ocean waters of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans

    Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Horii, Yuichi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Kannan, K.; Sinclair, E. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, CA (United States); Petrick, G. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Marine Research; Gamo, Toshitaka [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Ocean Research Institute

    2004-09-15

    Environmentally stable perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have appeared as a new class of global pollutants within the last four years. These compounds in general, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in particular, can elicit toxic effects in wildlife and humans. PFCs have unique physicochemical properties due to the highly persistent C-F bond of the non-polar moiety and exhibit a wide variety of volatility/ water solubility depending on the nature of the substituted polar moiety. Environmental kinetics of PFCs is very complex because of the unique characteristics and their wide applications in various products. It is clear that PFCs pollution is a global problem involving several international organizations such as OECD. We have reported the initial survey of open ocean pollution by PFCs in 2003. Our studies have shown that part per quadrillion (ppq) level analysis of PFCs is necessary to obtain reliable information of open ocean pollution. We have developed reliable analytical and sampling method for ultra-trace level analysis of PFCs that is applicable to global survey of open ocean pollution. Analysis of PFCs in open ocean waters is challenging because of the need for ppq level analysis and no earlier studies have reported such a sensitive method. There were two approaches to enable trace level analysis of PFCs, namely, to decrease the blank and to solve co-elution problem. We have tested low blank solid phase extraction method and improvements in the analytical procedures and instrumentation, the blank/background levels of target perfluorinated acids were reduced significantly. Field blanks containing 800 mL of HPLC-grade water taken in a polypropylene bottle were transported to sampling locations. Two hundred microliter of sodium thiosulfate solution has been added to the field blanks. Although the concentrations of target fluorochemicals in field blanks were similar to those in procedural blanks in most cases, any sample sets that were found to have notable

  7. Ocean plankton. Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome.

    Sunagawa, Shinichi; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Chaffron, Samuel; Kultima, Jens Roat; Labadie, Karine; Salazar, Guillem; Djahanschiri, Bardya; Zeller, Georg; Mende, Daniel R; Alberti, Adriana; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Costea, Paul I; Cruaud, Corinne; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Engelen, Stefan; Ferrera, Isabel; Gasol, Josep M; Guidi, Lionel; Hildebrand, Falk; Kokoszka, Florian; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Poulain, Julie; Poulos, Bonnie T; Royo-Llonch, Marta; Sarmento, Hugo; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Bowler, Chris; de Vargas, Colomban; Gorsky, Gabriel; Grimsley, Nigel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Jaillon, Olivier; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Sullivan, Matthew B; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric; Raes, Jeroen; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer

    2015-05-22

    Microbes are dominant drivers of biogeochemical processes, yet drawing a global picture of functional diversity, microbial community structure, and their ecological determinants remains a grand challenge. We analyzed 7.2 terabases of metagenomic data from 243 Tara Oceans samples from 68 locations in epipelagic and mesopelagic waters across the globe to generate an ocean microbial reference gene catalog with >40 million nonredundant, mostly novel sequences from viruses, prokaryotes, and picoeukaryotes. Using 139 prokaryote-enriched samples, containing >35,000 species, we show vertical stratification with epipelagic community composition mostly driven by temperature rather than other environmental factors or geography. We identify ocean microbial core functionality and reveal that >73% of its abundance is shared with the human gut microbiome despite the physicochemical differences between these two ecosystems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Open Data for Global Science

    Paul F Uhlir

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available he digital revolution has transformed the accumulation of properly curated public research data into an essential upstream resource whose value increases with use. The potential contributions of such data to the creation of new knowledge and downstream economic and social goods can in many cases be multiplied exponentially when the data are made openly available on digital networks. Most developed countries spend large amounts of public resources on research and related scientific facilities and instruments that generate massive amounts of data. Yet precious little of that investment is devoted to promoting the value of the resulting data by preserving and making them broadly available. The largely ad hoc approach to managing such data, however, is now beginning to be understood as inadequate to meet the exigencies of the national and international research enterprise. The time has thus come for the research community to establish explicit responsibilities for these digital resources. This article reviews the opportunities and challenges to the global science system associated with establishing an open data policy.

  9. Global oceanic production of nitrous oxide

    Freing, Alina; Wallace, Douglas W. R.; Bange, Hermann W.

    2012-01-01

    We use transient time distributions calculated from tracer data together with in situ measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) to estimate the concentration of biologically produced N2O and N2O production rates in the ocean on a global scale. Our approach to estimate the N2O production rates integrates the effects of potentially varying production and decomposition mechanisms along the transport path of a water mass. We estimate that the oceanic N2O production is dominated by nitrification with a contribution of only approximately 7 per cent by denitrification. This indicates that previously used approaches have overestimated the contribution by denitrification. Shelf areas may account for only a negligible fraction of the global production; however, estuarine sources and coastal upwelling of N2O are not taken into account in our study. The largest amount of subsurface N2O is produced in the upper 500 m of the water column. The estimated global annual subsurface N2O production ranges from 3.1 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.9 Tg N yr−1. This is in agreement with estimates of the global N2O emissions to the atmosphere and indicates that a N2O source in the mixed layer is unlikely. The potential future development of the oceanic N2O source in view of the ongoing changes of the ocean environment (deoxygenation, warming, eutrophication and acidification) is discussed. PMID:22451110

  10. Global oceanic production of nitrous oxide.

    Freing, Alina; Wallace, Douglas W R; Bange, Hermann W

    2012-05-05

    We use transient time distributions calculated from tracer data together with in situ measurements of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) to estimate the concentration of biologically produced N(2)O and N(2)O production rates in the ocean on a global scale. Our approach to estimate the N(2)O production rates integrates the effects of potentially varying production and decomposition mechanisms along the transport path of a water mass. We estimate that the oceanic N(2)O production is dominated by nitrification with a contribution of only approximately 7 per cent by denitrification. This indicates that previously used approaches have overestimated the contribution by denitrification. Shelf areas may account for only a negligible fraction of the global production; however, estuarine sources and coastal upwelling of N(2)O are not taken into account in our study. The largest amount of subsurface N(2)O is produced in the upper 500 m of the water column. The estimated global annual subsurface N(2)O production ranges from 3.1 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.9 Tg N yr(-1). This is in agreement with estimates of the global N(2)O emissions to the atmosphere and indicates that a N(2)O source in the mixed layer is unlikely. The potential future development of the oceanic N(2)O source in view of the ongoing changes of the ocean environment (deoxygenation, warming, eutrophication and acidification) is discussed.

  11. Arabian Sea upwelling - A comparison between coastal and open ocean regions

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    The response of the eastern Arabian Sea to prevailing winds during an upwelling event, in the peak of southwest monsoon, was studied at both coastal and open ocean environment based on the data collected as a part of the Indian Joint Global Ocean...

  12. Global Ocean Currents Database (GOCD) (NCEI Accession 0093183)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Ocean Currents Database (GOCD) is a collection of quality controlled ocean current measurements such as observed current direction and speed obtained from...

  13. Scientists’ perspectives on global ocean research priorities

    Murray Alan Rudd

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverse natural and social science research is needed to support policies to recover and sustain healthy oceans. While a wide variety of expert-led prioritization initiatives have identified research themes and priorities at national and regional scale, over the past several years there has also been a surge in the number of scanning exercises that have identified important environmental research questions and issues ‘from the bottom-up’. From those questions, winnowed from thousands of contributions by scientists and policy-makers around the world who participated in terrestrial, aquatic and domain-specific horizon scanning and big question exercises, I identified 657 research questions potentially important for informing decisions regarding ocean governance and sustainability. These were distilled to a short list of 67 distinctive research questions that, in an internet survey, were ranked by 2179 scientists from 94 countries. Five of the top 10 research priorities were shared by respondents globally. Despite significant differences between physical and ecological scientists’ priorities regarding specific research questions, they shared seven common priorities among their top 10. Social scientists’ priorities were, however, much different, highlighting their research focus on managerial solutions to ocean challenges and questions regarding the role of human behavior and values in attaining ocean sustainability. The results from this survey provide a comprehensive and timely assessment of current ocean research priorities among research-active scientists but highlight potential challenges in stimulating crossdisciplinary research. As ocean and coastal research necessarily becomes more transdisciplinary to address complex ocean challenges, it will be critical for scientists and research funders to understand how scientists from different disciplines and regions might collaborate and strengthen the overall evidence base for ocean

  14. Recent Trends in Global Ocean Chlorophyll

    Gregg, Watson; Casey, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Recent analyses of SeaWiFS data have shown that global ocean chlorophyll has increased more than 5% since 1998. The North Pacific ocean basin has increased nearly 19%. To understand the causes of these trends we have applied the newly developed NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Assimilation Model (OBAM), which is driven in mechanistic fashion by surface winds, sea surface temperature, atmospheric iron deposition, sea ice, and surface irradiance. The mode1 utilizes chlorophyll from SeaWiFS in a daily assimilation. The model has in place many of the climatic variables that can be expected to produce the changes observed in SeaWiFS data. Ths enables us to diagnose the model performance, the assimilation performance, and possible causes for the increase in chlorophyll.

  15. Will open ocean oxygen stress intensify under climate change?

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Dunne, J. P.; John, J.

    2011-07-01

    Global warming is expected to reduce oxygen solubility and vertical exchange in the ocean, changes which would be expected to result in an increase in the volume of hypoxic waters. A simulation made with a full earth system model with dynamical atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and biogeochemical cycling shows that this holds true if the condition for hypoxia is set relatively high. However, the volume of the most hypoxic waters does not increase under global warming, as these waters actually become more oxygenated. We show that the rise in oxygen is associated with a drop in ventilation time. A term-by-term analysis within the least oxygenated waters shows an increased supply of oxygen due to lateral diffusion. compensating an increase in remineralization within these highly hypoxic waters. This lateral diffusive flux is the result of an increase of ventilation along the Chilean coast, as a drying of the region under global warming opens up a region of wintertime convection in our model.

  16. Climatological distribution of aragonite saturation state in the global oceans

    Jiang, Li-Qing; Feely, Richard A.; Carter, Brendan R.; Greeley, Dana J.; Gledhill, Dwight K.; Arzayus, Krisa M.

    2015-10-01

    Aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) in surface and subsurface waters of the global oceans was calculated from up-to-date (through the year of 2012) ocean station dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data. Surface Ωarag in the open ocean was always supersaturated (Ω > 1), ranging between 1.1 and 4.2. It was above 2.0 (2.0-4.2) between 40°N and 40°S but decreased toward higher latitude to below 1.5 in polar areas. The influences of water temperature on the TA/DIC ratio, combined with the temperature effects on inorganic carbon equilibrium and apparent solubility product (K'sp), explain the latitudinal differences in surface Ωarag. Vertically, Ωarag was highest in the surface mixed layer. Higher hydrostatic pressure, lower water temperature, and more CO2 buildup from biological activity in the absence of air-sea gas exchange helped maintain lower Ωarag in the deep ocean. Below the thermocline, aerobic decomposition of organic matter along the pathway of global thermohaline circulation played an important role in controlling Ωarag distributions. Seasonally, surface Ωarag above 30° latitudes was about 0.06 to 0.55 higher during warmer months than during colder months in the open-ocean waters of both hemispheres. Decadal changes of Ωarag in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans showed that Ωarag in waters shallower than 100 m depth decreased by 0.10 ± 0.09 (-0.40 ± 0.37% yr-1) on average from the decade spanning 1989-1998 to the decade spanning 1998-2010.

  17. Open access: changing global science publishing.

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D

    2013-08-01

    The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability.

  18. Open-Ocean and Coastal Properties of Recent Major Tsunamis

    Rabinovich, A.; Thomson, R.; Zaytsev, O.

    2017-12-01

    The properties of six major tsunamis during the period 2009-2015 (2009 Samoa; 2010 Chile; 2011 Tohoku; 2012 Haida Gwaii; 2014 and 2015 Chile) were thoroughly examined using coastal data from British Columbia, the U.S. West Coast and Mexico, and offshore open-ocean DART and NEPTUNE stations. Based on joint spectral analyses of the tsunamis and background noise, we have developed a method to suppress the influence of local topography and to use coastal observations to determine the underlying spectra of tsunami waves in the deep ocean. The "reconstructed" open-ocean tsunami spectra were found to be in close agreement with the actual tsunami spectra evaluated from the analysis of directly measured open-ocean tsunami records. We have further used the spectral estimates to parameterize tsunamis based on their integral open-ocean spectral characteristics. Three key parameters are introduced to describe individual tsunami events: (1) Integral open-ocean energy; (2) Amplification factor (increase of the mean coastal tsunami variance relative to the open-ocean variance); and (3) Tsunami colour, the frequency composition of the open-ocean tsunami waves. In particular, we found that the strongest tsunamis, associated with large source areas (the 2010 Chile and 2011 Tohoku) are "reddish" (indicating the dominance of low-frequency motions), while small-source events (the 2009 Samoa and 2012 Haida Gwaii) are "bluish" (indicating strong prevalence of high-frequency motions).

  19. Global equivalent magnetization of the oceanic lithosphere

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Lesur, V.; Thebault, E.

    2015-11-01

    As a by-product of the construction of a new World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map over oceanic areas, we use an original approach based on the global forward modeling of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and their comparison to the available marine magnetic data to derive the first map of the equivalent magnetization over the World's ocean. This map reveals consistent patterns related to the age of the oceanic lithosphere, the spreading rate at which it was formed, and the presence of mantle thermal anomalies which affects seafloor spreading and the resulting lithosphere. As for the age, the equivalent magnetization decreases significantly during the first 10-15 Myr after its formation, probably due to the alteration of crustal magnetic minerals under pervasive hydrothermal alteration, then increases regularly between 20 and 70 Ma, reflecting variations in the field strength or source effects such as the acquisition of a secondary magnetization. As for the spreading rate, the equivalent magnetization is twice as strong in areas formed at fast rate than in those formed at slow rate, with a threshold at ∼40 km/Myr, in agreement with an independent global analysis of the amplitude of Anomaly 25. This result, combined with those from the study of the anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies, allows building a unified model for the magnetic structure of normal oceanic lithosphere as a function of spreading rate. Finally, specific areas affected by thermal mantle anomalies at the time of their formation exhibit peculiar equivalent magnetization signatures, such as the cold Australian-Antarctic Discordance, marked by a lower magnetization, and several hotspots, marked by a high magnetization.

  20. Global Modeling Study of the Bioavailable Atmospheric Iron Supply to the Global Ocean

    Myriokefalitakis, S.; Krol, M. C.; van Noije, T.; Le Sager, P.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of trace constituents acts as a nutrient source to the open ocean and affect marine ecosystem. Dust is known as a major source of nutrients to the global ocean, but only a fraction of these nutrients is released in a bioavailable form that can be assimilated by the marine biota. Iron (Fe) is a key micronutrient that significantly modulates gross primary production in the High-Nutrient-Low-Chlorophyll (HNLC) oceans, where macronutrients like nitrate are abundant, but primary production is limited by Fe scarcity. The global atmospheric Fe cycle is here parameterized in the state-of-the-art global Earth System Model EC-Earth. The model takes into account the primary emissions of both insoluble and soluble Fe forms, associated with mineral dust and combustion aerosols. The impact of atmospheric acidity and organic ligands on mineral dissolution processes, is parameterized based on updated experimental and theoretical findings. Model results are also evaluated against available observations. Overall, the link between the labile Fe atmospheric deposition and atmospheric composition changes is here demonstrated and quantified. This work has been financed by the Marie-Curie H2020-MSCA-IF-2015 grant (ID 705652) ODEON (Online DEposition over OceaNs; modeling the effect of air pollution on ocean bio-geochemistry in an Earth System Model).

  1. Global health in an open world requires an open mind

    Sodemann, Morten

    Why global health? Health has never been more clearly global than now. Social media have reorganized our way of talking, discussing and interacting globally by spreading happiness, hate speech, obesity and knowledge at the same time. Diseases have never had respect for border control. Polio has s...... is not a fashionable subject anymore but the story of HIV/AIDS is a lesson to global health decision makers. Rephrasing Elisabeth Pisani: whores have wisdom, and we had better open our minds and face it...

  2. Dynamic biogeochemical provinces in the global ocean

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Longhurst, Alan; Martinez, Elodie; Beaugrand, Gregory; Antoine, David; Maury, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, it has been found useful to partition the pelagic environment using the concept of biogeochemical provinces, or BGCPs, within each of which it is assumed that environmental conditions are distinguishable and unique at global scale. The boundaries between provinces respond to features of physical oceanography and, ideally, should follow seasonal and interannual changes in ocean dynamics. But this ideal has not been fulfilled except for small regions of the oceans. Moreover, BGCPs have been used only as static entities having boundaries that were originally established to compute global primary production. In the present study, a new statistical methodology based on non-parametric procedures is implemented to capture the environmental characteristics within 56 BGCPs. Four main environmental parameters (bathymetry, chlorophyll a concentration, surface temperature, and salinity) are used to infer the spatial distribution of each BGCP over 1997-2007. The resulting dynamic partition allows us to integrate changes in the distribution of BGCPs at seasonal and interannual timescales, and so introduces the possibility of detecting spatial shifts in environmental conditions.

  3. Humboldt Open Ocean Disposal Site (HOODS) Survey Work 2014

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Humboldt Open Ocean Disposal Site (HOODS) is a dredged material disposal site located 3 nautical miles (nm) offshore of Humboldt Bay in Northern California....

  4. Impacts of atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen on the open ocean

    Duce, R.A.; LaRoche, J.; Altieri, K.; Arrigo, K.R.; Baker, A.R.; Capone, D.G.; Cornell, S.; Dentener, F.; Galloway, J.; Ganeshram, R.S.; Geider, R.J.; Jickells, T.; Kuypers, M.M.; Langlois, R.; Liss, P.S.; Liu, S.; Middelburg, J.J.; Moore, C.M.; Nickovic, S.; Oschlies, A.; Pedersen, T.; Prospero, J.; Schlitzer, R.; Seitzinger, S.; Sorensen, L.L.; Uematsu, M.; Ulloa, O.; Voss, M.; Ward, B.; Zamora, L.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing quantities of atmospheric anthropogenic fixed nitrogen entering the open ocean could account for up to about a third of the ocean's external (nonrecycled) nitrogen supply and up to 3% of the annual new marine biological production, 0.3 petagram of carbon per year. This input could account

  5. Will open ocean oxygen stress intensify under climate change?

    A. Gnanadesikan; J. P. Dunne; J. John

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is expected to reduce oxygen solubility and vertical exchange in the ocean, changes which would be expected to result in an increase in the volume of hypoxic waters. A simulation made with a full earth system model with dynamical atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and biogeochemical cycling shows that this holds true if the condition for hypoxia is set relatively high. However, the volume of the most hypoxic waters does not increase under global warming, as these waters actually become...

  6. NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GODAS dataset is a real-time ocean analysis and a reanalysis. It is used for monitoring, retrospective analysis as well as for providing oceanic initial...

  7. Plastic debris in the open ocean

    Cozar, Andres; Echevarrí a, Fidel; Gonzaĺez-Gordillo, Juan Igná cio; Irigoien, Xabier; Ú beda, Bá rbara; Hernandez-Leon, Santiago; Palma, Á lvaro T.; Navarro, Sandra; Garcí a-de-Lomas, Juan; Ruiz, Andrea; Ferná ndez De Puelles, Ma Luz; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet

  8. The Global S$_1$ Ocean Tide

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The small S$_1$ ocean tide is caused primarily by diurnal atmospheric pressure loading. Its excitation is therefore unlike any other diurnal tide. The global character of $S-1$ is here determined by numerical modeling and by analysis of Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. The two approaches yield reasonably consistent results, and large ( $ greater than $l\\cm) amplitudes in several regions are further confirmed by comparison with coastal tide gauges. Notwithstanding their excitation differences, S$-1$ and other diurnal tides are found to share several common features, such as relatively large amplitudes in the Arabian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Gulf of Alaska. The most noticeable difference is the lack of an S$-1$ Antarctic Kelvin wave. These similarities and differences can be explained in terms of the coherences between near-diurnal oceanic normal modes and the underlying tidal forcings. While gravitational diurnal tidal forces excite primarily a 28-hour Antarctic-Pacific mode, the S$_1$ air tide excites several other near-diurnal modes, none of which has large amplitudes near Antarctica.

  9. On Verifying Currents and Other Features in the Hawaiian Islands Region Using Fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System Compared to Global Ocean Model and Ocean Observations

    Jessen, P. G.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster introduces and evaluates features concerning the Hawaii, USA region using the U.S. Navy's fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS-OS™) coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). It also outlines some challenges in verifying ocean currents in the open ocean. The system is evaluated using in situ ocean data and initial forcing fields from the operational global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Verification shows difficulties in modelling downstream currents off the Hawaiian islands (Hawaii's wake). Comparing HYCOM to NCOM current fields show some displacement of small features such as eddies. Generally, there is fair agreement from HYCOM to NCOM in salinity and temperature fields. There is good agreement in SSH fields.

  10. Two faces of global open society

    Cvetićanin Neven

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Essay considers 'the rule' of the so called post-civil political centre that corresponds to the familiar concept of open society, questioning the good as well as the bad sides of such 'rule'. The research is in the first place about global open society stability and attention is addressed to its present enemies - from terrorism, over organized crime, all the way to the so called local legitimates that are confronting the universal and global legitimates represented by the followers of the open society from the post civil political centre area. The Essay presents the debate with Fukuyama's thesis about the 'end of history' considering that open society, i.e. global post civil political centre has visible enemies who do not allow for dialectics of history to stand still as Fukuyama believed. Instead of Fukuyama's 'end of history' the Essay comes to the conclusion that present global situation is marked by post-modern opposition of liberal-democratic post civil centre and extreme anti civil margins, with reference to the opposition of open society and its enemies, which will put under limits further steps of history towards new socio-historical forms.

  11. Responding to oil spills in the open ocean environment

    Wood, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objectives in responding to any oil spill is to control the source of the spill, then, contain, collect, and recover the spilled product. Accomplishing those objectives is an immense challenge. It becomes much more difficult when attempted in the open ocean environment due to the more complex logistical and communications problems one encounters when operating miles from the nearest land. Often times, too, the response must be coordinated with either a salvage operation, a fire-fighting operation, a well control operation or a combination of any of these. There have been volumes of papers comparing the relative merits of mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, dispersant application, and bioremediation in responding to open ocean spills. Although each approach deserves special consideration in different circumstances, this presentation focuses on mechanical methods; the specialized equipment and operational tactics that are best utilized in responding to a major spill in the open ocean. This paper is divided into two sections. The first section, Equipment Used in Open Ocean Spills, addresses in general terms, the special equipment required in an offshore response operation. The second section, entitled Operational Tactics Used In Open Ocean Spills offers an overview of the tactics employed to achieve the general objectives of containment, collection, recovery, and temporary storage

  12. Large mesopelagic fishes biomass and trophic efficiency in the open ocean.

    Irigoien, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    With a current estimate of ~1,000 million tons, mesopelagic fishes likely dominate the world total fishes biomass. However, recent acoustic observations show that mesopelagic fishes biomass could be significantly larger than the current estimate. Here we combine modelling and a sensitivity analysis of the acoustic observations from the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition to show that the previous estimate needs to be revised to at least one order of magnitude higher. We show that there is a close relationship between the open ocean fishes biomass and primary production, and that the energy transfer efficiency from phytoplankton to mesopelagic fishes in the open ocean is higher than what is typically assumed. Our results indicate that the role of mesopelagic fishes in oceanic ecosystems and global ocean biogeochemical cycles needs to be revised as they may be respiring ~10% of the primary production in deep waters.

  13. Pollution in the open oceans: 2009-2013

    Boelens, R.; Kershaw, Peter; Angelidis, M.; Baker, Alexander; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Bowmer, T.; Hedgecock, I.; Tyack, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This review of pollution in the open oceans updates a report on this topic prepared by GESAMP five years previously (Reports and Studies No. 79, GESAMP, 2009). The latter report, the first from GESAMP focusing specifically on the oceans beyond the 200 m depth contour, was prepared for purposes of the Assessment of Assessments, the preparatory phase of a regular process for assessing the state of the marine environment, led jointly by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Int...

  14. Variational Data Assimilation for the Global Ocean

    2013-01-01

    ocean includes the Geoid (a fixed gravity equipotential surface ) as well as the MDT, which is not known accurately enough relative to the centimeter...scales, including processes that control the surface mixed layer, the formation of ocean eddies, meandering ocean J.A. Cummings (E3) nography Division...variables. Examples of this in the ocean are integral quantities, such as acous^B travel time and altimeter measures of sea surface height, and direct

  15. Open Educational Resources: American Ideals, Global Questions

    Weiland, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Educational relations between societies and cultures that begin with benevolent intentions can come to be seen as threats to national autonomy and local preferences. Indeed, side by side with the growth since the first years of this century of Open Educational Resources (OER) there has been worry about their impact on global educational…

  16. 3D Visualization of Global Ocean Circulation

    Nelson, V. G.; Sharma, R.; Zhang, E.; Schmittner, A.; Jenny, B.

    2015-12-01

    Advanced 3D visualization techniques are seldom used to explore the dynamic behavior of ocean circulation. Streamlines are an effective method for visualization of flow, and they can be designed to clearly show the dynamic behavior of a fluidic system. We employ vector field editing and extraction software to examine the topology of velocity vector fields generated by a 3D global circulation model coupled to a one-layer atmosphere model simulating preindustrial and last glacial maximum (LGM) conditions. This results in a streamline-based visualization along multiple density isosurfaces on which we visualize points of vertical exchange and the distribution of properties such as temperature and biogeochemical tracers. Previous work involving this model examined the change in the energetics driving overturning circulation and mixing between simulations of LGM and preindustrial conditions. This visualization elucidates the relationship between locations of vertical exchange and mixing, as well as demonstrates the effects of circulation and mixing on the distribution of tracers such as carbon isotopes.

  17. The Global Signature of Ocean Wave Spectra

    Portilla-Yandún, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    A global atlas of ocean wave spectra is developed and presented. The development is based on a new technique for deriving wave spectral statistics, which is applied to the extensive ERA-Interim database from European Centre of Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Spectral statistics is based on the idea of long-term wave systems, which are unique and distinct at every geographical point. The identification of those wave systems allows their separation from the overall spectrum using the partition technique. Their further characterization is made using standard integrated parameters, which turn out much more meaningful when applied to the individual components than to the total spectrum. The parameters developed include the density distribution of spectral partitions, which is the main descriptor; the identified wave systems; the individual distribution of the characteristic frequencies, directions, wave height, wave age, seasonal variability of wind and waves; return periods derived from extreme value analysis; and crossing-sea probabilities. This information is made available in web format for public use at http://www.modemat.epn.edu.ec/#/nereo. It is found that wave spectral statistics offers the possibility to synthesize data while providing a direct and comprehensive view of the local and regional wave conditions.

  18. Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology

    Köhler, Peter; Abrams, Jesse F; Völker, Christoph; Hauck, Judith; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a ‘quick fix’ option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO 2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ∼30%. (letter)

  19. Product bundling in global ocean transportation

    M. Acciaro (Michele); H. Haralambides (Hercules)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThere are over 20 'components' in an international door-to-door transportation, ranging from warehousing and distribution, to forwarding, documentation, transportation, customs clearance, etc.. As tariffs in ocean transportation tend to converge due to competition and service

  20. Oceans, microbes, and global climate change

    Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Sea-surface warming, sea-ice melting and related freshening, changes in circulation and mixing regimes, and ocean acidification induced by the present climate changes are modifying marine ecosystem structure and function and have the potential to alter the cycling of carbon and nutrients in surface oceans. Changing climate has direct and indirect consequences on marine life and on microbial components. Prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), viruses and other microbial life forms are impacted by ...

  1. How does ocean ventilation change under global warming?

    A. Gnanadesikan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero in the mixed layer and ages at 1 yr/yr outside this layer show that the intermediate depths in the low latitudes, Northwest Atlantic, and parts of the Arctic Ocean become younger under global warming. This paper reconciles these apparently contradictory trends, showing that the decreases result from changes in the relative contributions of old deep waters and younger surface waters. Implications for the tropical oxygen minimum zones, which play a critical role in global biogeochemical cycling are considered in detail.

  2. Global Earth Response to Loading by Ocean Tide Models

    Estes, R. H.; Strayer, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical and programming techniques to numerically calculate Earth response to global semidiurnal and diurnal ocean tide models were developed. Global vertical crustal deformations were evaluated for M sub 2, S sub 2, N sub 2, K sub 2, K sub 1, O sub 1, and P sub 1 ocean tide loading, while horizontal deformations were evaluated for the M sub 2 tidal load. Tidal gravity calculations were performed for M sub 2 tidal loads, and strain tensor elements were evaluated for M sub 2 loads. The M sub 2 solution used for the ocean tide included the effects of self-gravitation and crustal loading.

  3. The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming

    Hoffert, M.I.

    1992-12-01

    During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, ''Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature''. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales

  4. Open and reproducible global land use classification

    Nüst, Daniel; Václavík, Tomáš; Pross, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Researchers led by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental research (UFZ) developed a new world map of land use systems based on over 30 diverse indicators (http://geoportal.glues.geo.tu-dresden.de/stories/landsystemarchetypes.html) of land use intensity, climate and environmental and socioeconomic factors. They identified twelve land system archetypes (LSA) using a data-driven classification algorithm (self-organizing maps) to assess global impacts of land use on the environment, and found unexpected similarities across global regions. We present how the algorithm behind this analysis can be published as an executable web process using 52°North WPS4R (https://wiki.52north.org/bin/view/Geostatistics/WPS4R) within the GLUES project (http://modul-a.nachhaltiges-landmanagement.de/en/scientific-coordination-glues/). WPS4R is an open source collaboration platform for researchers, analysts and software developers to publish R scripts (http://www.r-project.org/) as a geo-enabled OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) process. The interoperable interface to call the geoprocess allows both reproducibility of the analysis and integration of user data without knowledge about web services or classification algorithms. The open platform allows everybody to replicate the analysis in their own environments. The LSA WPS process has several input parameters, which can be changed via a simple web interface. The input parameters are used to configure both the WPS environment and the LSA algorithm itself. The encapsulation as a web process allows integration of non-public datasets, while at the same time the publication requires a well-defined documentation of the analysis. We demonstrate this platform specifically to domain scientists and show how reproducibility and open source publication of analyses can be enhanced. We also discuss future extensions of the reproducible land use classification, such as the possibility for users to enter their own areas of interest to the system and

  5. Building Global Support for Open Data Access

    Key, E.; Samors, R. J.; Seltzer, C. E.; Orr, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Belmont Forum, a global partnership of funding organizations, international science councils, and regional consortia is committed to the advancement of international transdisciplinary research providing knowledge for understanding, mitigating and adapting to global environmental change. The Forum is also committed to ensuring appropriate, recognizable credit is awarded to the creators of that data, each and every time it is used. At its 2015 plenary meeting, the Belmont Forum agreed on and adopted an open data policy and principles. The principles are designed to widen access to data and promote its long-term preservation in global change research; help improve data management and exploitation; coordinate and integrate disparate organizational and technical elements; fill critical global e-infrastructure gaps; share best practices; and foster new data literacy. To help implement the policy and principles, the Belmont Forum has established the e-Infrastructures and Data Management (e-I&DM) Initiative which will leverage existing knowledge and resources to illuminate achievable, reproducible systems for effective, sustainable data management practices. The overall objective of the e-I&DM Initiative is to provide advice and recommendations to the Belmont Forum member and partner organizations regarding policies, programs, procedures that could be adopted to accelerate open data sharing, data reproducibility, data curation, and other aspects of long-term data management and access. This presentation will explore current Belmont Forum activities through the e-I&DM Initiative to develop policies and practices that could be adopted by funders, publishers and researchers alike that will lead to increased data sharing with more widespread data citation/attribution - giving credit where credit is due.

  6. Modelling of bio-optical parameters of open ocean waters

    Vadim N. Pelevin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An original method for estimating the concentration of chlorophyll pigments, absorption of yellow substance and absorption of suspended matter without pigments and yellow substance in detritus using spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance and irradiance reflectance data has been applied to sea waters of different types in the open ocean (case 1. Using the effective numerical single parameter classification with the water type optical index m as a parameter over the whole range of the open ocean waters, the calculations have been carried out and the light absorption spectra of sea waters tabulated. These spectra are used to optimize the absorption models and thus to estimate the concentrations of the main admixtures in sea water. The value of m can be determined from direct measurements of the downward irradiance attenuation coefficient at 500 nm or calculated from remote sensing data using the regressions given in the article. The sea water composition can then be readily estimated from the tables given for any open ocean area if that one parameter m characterizing the basin is known.

  7. Tsunami Speed Variations in Density-stratified Compressible Global Oceans

    Watada, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent tsunami observations in the deep ocean have accumulated unequivocal evidence that tsunami traveltime delays compared with the linear long-wave tsunami simulations occur during tsunami propagation in the deep ocean. The delay is up to 2% of the tsunami traveltime. Watada et al. [2013] investigated the cause of the delay using the normal mode theory of tsunamis and attributed the delay to the compressibility of seawater, the elasticity of the solid earth, and the gravitational potential change associated with mass motion during the passage of tsunamis. Tsunami speed variations in the deep ocean caused by seawater density stratification is investigated using a newly developed propagator matrix method that is applicable to seawater with depth-variable sound speeds and density gradients. For a 4-km deep ocean, the total tsunami speed reduction is 0.45% compared with incompressible homogeneous seawater; two thirds of the reduction is due to elastic energy stored in the water and one third is due to water density stratification mainly by hydrostatic compression. Tsunami speeds are computed for global ocean density and sound speed profiles and characteristic structures are discussed. Tsunami speed reductions are proportional to ocean depth with small variations, except for in warm Mediterranean seas. The impacts of seawater compressibility and the elasticity effect of the solid earth on tsunami traveltime should be included for precise modeling of trans-oceanic tsunamis. Data locations where a vertical ocean profile deeper than 2500 m is available in World Ocean Atlas 2009. The dark gray area indicates the Pacific Ocean defined in WOA09. a) Tsunami speed variations. Red, gray and black bars represent global, Pacific, and Mediterranean Sea, respectively. b) Regression lines of the tsunami velocity reduction for all oceans. c)Vertical ocean profiles at grid points indicated by the stars in Figure 1.

  8. Sharing Data in the Global Ocean Observing System (Invited)

    Lindstrom, E. J.; McCurdy, A.; Young, J.; Fischer, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    We examine the evolution of data sharing in the field of physical oceanography to highlight the challenges now before us. Synoptic global observation of the ocean from space and in situ platforms has significantly matured over the last two decades. In the early 1990’s the community data sharing challenges facing the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) largely focused on the behavior of individual scientists. Satellite data sharing depended on the policy of individual agencies. Global data sets were delivered with considerable delay and with enormous personal sacrifice. In the 2000’s the requirements for global data sets and sustained observations from the likes of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have led to data sharing and cooperation at a grander level. It is more effective and certainly more efficient. The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) provided the means to organize many aspects of data collection and data dissemination globally, for the common good. In response the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites organized Virtual Constellations to enable the assembly and sharing of like kinds of satellite data (e.g., sea surface topography, ocean vector winds, and ocean color). Individuals in physical oceanography have largely adapted to the new rigors of sharing data for the common good, and as a result of this revolution new science has been enabled. Primary obstacles to sharing have shifted from the individual level to the national level. As we enter into the 2010’s the demands for ocean data continue to evolve with an expanded requirement for more real-time reporting and broader disciplinary coverage, to answer key scientific and societal questions. We are also seeing the development of more numerous national contributions to the global observing system. The drivers for the establishment of global ocean observing systems are expanding beyond climate to include biological and

  9. Global Climate Change and Ocean Education

    Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    The New England Aquarium, collaborating with other aquariums across the country, is leading a national effort to enable aquariums and related informal science education institutions to effectively communicate the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine animals, habitats and ecosystems. Our goal is to build on visitors' emotional connection with ocean animals, connect to their deeply held values, help them understand causes and effects of climate change and motivate them to embrace effective solutions. Our objectives are to: (1) Build a national coalition of aquariums and related informal education institutions collaborating on climate change education; (2) Develop an interpretive framework for climate change and the ocean that is scientifically sound, research-based, field tested and evaluated; and (3) Build capacity of aquariums to interpret climate change via training for interpreters, interactive exhibits and activities and communities of practice for ongoing support. Centers of informal learning have the potential to bring important environmental issues to the public by presenting the facts, explaining the science, connecting with existing values and interests, and motivating concern and action. Centers that work with live animals (including aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks, national marine sanctuaries, etc.) are unique in that they attract large numbers of people of all ages (over 140 million in the US), have strong connections to the natural, and engage many visitors who may not come with a primary interest in science. Recent research indicates that that the public expects and trusts aquariums, zoos, and museums to communicate solutions to environmental and ocean issues, and to advance ocean conservation, and that climate change is the environmental issue of most concern to the public; Ironically, however, most people do not associate climate change with ocean health, or understand the critical role that the ocean plays in

  10. Insights into global diatom distribution and diversity in the world’s ocean

    Malviya, Shruti; Scalco, Eleonora; Audic, Sté phane; Vincent, Flora; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; Iudicone, Daniele; de Vargas, Colomban; Bittner, Lucie; Zingone, Adriana; Bowler, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) constitute one of the most diverse and ecologically important groups of phytoplankton. They are considered to be particularly important in nutrient-rich coastal ecosystems and at high latitudes, but considerably less so in the oligotrophic open ocean. The Tara Oceans circumnavigation collected samples from a wide range of oceanic regions using a standardized sampling procedure. Here, a total of ∼12 million diatom V9-18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) ribotypes, derived from 293 sizefractionated plankton communities collected at 46 sampling sites across the global ocean euphotic zone, have been analyzed to explore diatom global diversity and community composition. We provide a new estimate of diversity of marine planktonic diatoms at 4,748 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Based on the total assigned ribotypes, Chaetoceros was the most abundant and diverse genus, followed by Fragilariopsis, Thalassiosira, and Corethron. We found only a few cosmopolitan ribotypes displaying an even distribution across stations and high abundance, many of which could not be assigned with confidence to any known genus. Three distinct communities from South Pacific, Mediterranean, and Southern Ocean waters were identified that share a substantial percentage of ribotypes within them. Sudden drops in diversity were observed at Cape Agulhas, which separates the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, and across the Drake Passage between the Atlantic and Southern Oceans, indicating the importance of these ocean circulation choke points in constraining diatom distribution and diversity. We also observed high diatom diversity in the open ocean, suggesting that diatoms may be more relevant in these oceanic systems than generally considered.

  11. Insights into global diatom distribution and diversity in the world’s ocean

    Malviya, Shruti

    2016-03-01

    Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) constitute one of the most diverse and ecologically important groups of phytoplankton. They are considered to be particularly important in nutrient-rich coastal ecosystems and at high latitudes, but considerably less so in the oligotrophic open ocean. The Tara Oceans circumnavigation collected samples from a wide range of oceanic regions using a standardized sampling procedure. Here, a total of ∼12 million diatom V9-18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) ribotypes, derived from 293 sizefractionated plankton communities collected at 46 sampling sites across the global ocean euphotic zone, have been analyzed to explore diatom global diversity and community composition. We provide a new estimate of diversity of marine planktonic diatoms at 4,748 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Based on the total assigned ribotypes, Chaetoceros was the most abundant and diverse genus, followed by Fragilariopsis, Thalassiosira, and Corethron. We found only a few cosmopolitan ribotypes displaying an even distribution across stations and high abundance, many of which could not be assigned with confidence to any known genus. Three distinct communities from South Pacific, Mediterranean, and Southern Ocean waters were identified that share a substantial percentage of ribotypes within them. Sudden drops in diversity were observed at Cape Agulhas, which separates the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, and across the Drake Passage between the Atlantic and Southern Oceans, indicating the importance of these ocean circulation choke points in constraining diatom distribution and diversity. We also observed high diatom diversity in the open ocean, suggesting that diatoms may be more relevant in these oceanic systems than generally considered.

  12. Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses

    Roux, Simon

    2016-05-12

    Ocean microbes drive biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. However, this cycling is constrained by viruses that affect community composition, metabolic activity, and evolutionary trajectories. Owing to challenges with the sampling and cultivation of viruses, genome-level viral diversity remains poorly described and grossly understudied, with less than 1% of observed surface-ocean viruses known. Here we assemble complete genomes and large genomic fragments from both surface-and deep-ocean viruses sampled during the Tara Oceans and Malaspina research expeditions, and analyse the resulting â global ocean virome\\' dataset to present a global map of abundant, double-stranded DNA viruses complete with genomic and ecological contexts. A total of 15,222 epipelagic and mesopelagic viral populations were identified, comprising 867 viral clusters (defined as approximately genus-level groups). This roughly triples the number of known ocean viral populations and doubles the number of candidate bacterial and archaeal virus genera, providing a near-complete sampling of epipelagic communities at both the population and viral-cluster level. We found that 38 of the 867 viral clusters were locally or globally abundant, together accounting for nearly half of the viral populations in any global ocean virome sample. While two-thirds of these clusters represent newly described viruses lacking any cultivated representative, most could be computationally linked to dominant, ecologically relevant microbial hosts. Moreover, we identified 243 viral-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes, of which only 95 were previously known. Deeper analyses of four of these auxiliary metabolic genes (dsrC, soxYZ, P-II (also known as glnB) and amoC) revealed that abundant viruses may directly manipulate sulfur and nitrogen cycling throughout the epipelagic ocean. This viral catalog and functional analyses provide a necessary foundation for the meaningful integration of viruses into ecosystem models where

  13. Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses.

    Roux, Simon; Brum, Jennifer R; Dutilh, Bas E; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Duhaime, Melissa B; Loy, Alexander; Poulos, Bonnie T; Solonenko, Natalie; Lara, Elena; Poulain, Julie; Pesant, Stéphane; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Cruaud, Corinne; Alberti, Adriana; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Vaqué, Dolors; Bork, Peer; Acinas, Silvia G; Wincker, Patrick; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-09-29

    Ocean microbes drive biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. However, this cycling is constrained by viruses that affect community composition, metabolic activity, and evolutionary trajectories. Owing to challenges with the sampling and cultivation of viruses, genome-level viral diversity remains poorly described and grossly understudied, with less than 1% of observed surface-ocean viruses known. Here we assemble complete genomes and large genomic fragments from both surface- and deep-ocean viruses sampled during the Tara Oceans and Malaspina research expeditions, and analyse the resulting 'global ocean virome' dataset to present a global map of abundant, double-stranded DNA viruses complete with genomic and ecological contexts. A total of 15,222 epipelagic and mesopelagic viral populations were identified, comprising 867 viral clusters (defined as approximately genus-level groups). This roughly triples the number of known ocean viral populations and doubles the number of candidate bacterial and archaeal virus genera, providing a near-complete sampling of epipelagic communities at both the population and viral-cluster level. We found that 38 of the 867 viral clusters were locally or globally abundant, together accounting for nearly half of the viral populations in any global ocean virome sample. While two-thirds of these clusters represent newly described viruses lacking any cultivated representative, most could be computationally linked to dominant, ecologically relevant microbial hosts. Moreover, we identified 243 viral-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes, of which only 95 were previously known. Deeper analyses of four of these auxiliary metabolic genes (dsrC, soxYZ, P-II (also known as glnB) and amoC) revealed that abundant viruses may directly manipulate sulfur and nitrogen cycling throughout the epipelagic ocean. This viral catalog and functional analyses provide a necessary foundation for the meaningful integration of viruses into ecosystem models where they

  14. Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses

    Roux, Simon; Brum, Jennifer R; Dutilh, Bas E.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Duhaime, Melissa B; Loy, Alexander; Poulos, Bonnie T; Solonenko, Natalie; Lara, Elena; Poulain, Julie; Pesant, Stephane; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Dimier, Celine; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Cruaud, Corinne; Alberti, Adriana; Duarte, Carlos M.; Gasol, Josep M M; Vaque, Dolors; Bork, Peer; Acinas, Silvia G; Wincker, Patrick; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Ocean microbes drive biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. However, this cycling is constrained by viruses that affect community composition, metabolic activity, and evolutionary trajectories. Owing to challenges with the sampling and cultivation of viruses, genome-level viral diversity remains poorly described and grossly understudied, with less than 1% of observed surface-ocean viruses known. Here we assemble complete genomes and large genomic fragments from both surface-and deep-ocean viruses sampled during the Tara Oceans and Malaspina research expeditions, and analyse the resulting â global ocean virome' dataset to present a global map of abundant, double-stranded DNA viruses complete with genomic and ecological contexts. A total of 15,222 epipelagic and mesopelagic viral populations were identified, comprising 867 viral clusters (defined as approximately genus-level groups). This roughly triples the number of known ocean viral populations and doubles the number of candidate bacterial and archaeal virus genera, providing a near-complete sampling of epipelagic communities at both the population and viral-cluster level. We found that 38 of the 867 viral clusters were locally or globally abundant, together accounting for nearly half of the viral populations in any global ocean virome sample. While two-thirds of these clusters represent newly described viruses lacking any cultivated representative, most could be computationally linked to dominant, ecologically relevant microbial hosts. Moreover, we identified 243 viral-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes, of which only 95 were previously known. Deeper analyses of four of these auxiliary metabolic genes (dsrC, soxYZ, P-II (also known as glnB) and amoC) revealed that abundant viruses may directly manipulate sulfur and nitrogen cycling throughout the epipelagic ocean. This viral catalog and functional analyses provide a necessary foundation for the meaningful integration of viruses into ecosystem models where they

  15. Initial opening of the Eurasian Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Kai Berglar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the transition from the NE Yermak Plateau into the oceanic Eurasian Basin sheds light on the Paleocene formation of this Arctic basin. Newly acquired multichannel seismic data with a 3600 m long streamer shot during ice-free conditions enables the interpretation of crustal structures. Evidence is provided that no major compressional deformation affected the NE Yermak Plateau. The seismic data reveal that the margin is around 80 km wide and consists of rotated fault blocks, major listric normal faults, and half-grabens filled with syn-rift sediments. Taking into account published magnetic and gravimetric data, this setting is interpreted as a rifted continental margin, implying that the NE Yermak Plateau is of continental origin. The transition from the Yermak Plateau to the oceanic Eurasian Basin might be located at a prominent basement high, probably formed by exhumed mantle. In contrast to the Yermak Plateau margin, the North Barents Sea continental margin shows a steep continental slope with a relatively abrupt transition to the oceanic domain. Based on one composite seismic line, it is speculated that the initial opening direction of the Eurasian Basin in the Arctic Ocean was highly oblique to the present day seafloor spreading direction.

  16. The role stratification on Indian ocean mixing under global warming

    Praveen, V.; Valsala, V.; Ravindran, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of changes in Indian ocean stratification on mixing under global warming is examined. Previous studies on global warming and associated weakening of winds reported to increase the stratification of the world ocean leading to a reduction in mixing, increased acidity, reduced oxygen and there by a reduction in productivity. However this processes is not uniform and are also modulated by changes in wind pattern of the future. Our study evaluate the role of stratification and surface fluxes on mixing focusing northern Indian ocean. A dynamical downscaling study using Regional ocean Modelling system (ROMS) forced with stratification and surface fluxes from selected CMIP5 models are presented. Results from an extensive set of historical and Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (rcp8.5) scenario simulations are used to quantify the distinctive role of stratification on mixing.

  17. The growing human footprint on coastal and open-ocean biogeochemistry.

    Doney, Scott C

    2010-06-18

    Climate change, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide, excess nutrient inputs, and pollution in its many forms are fundamentally altering the chemistry of the ocean, often on a global scale and, in some cases, at rates greatly exceeding those in the historical and recent geological record. Major observed trends include a shift in the acid-base chemistry of seawater, reduced subsurface oxygen both in near-shore coastal water and in the open ocean, rising coastal nitrogen levels, and widespread increase in mercury and persistent organic pollutants. Most of these perturbations, tied either directly or indirectly to human fossil fuel combustion, fertilizer use, and industrial activity, are projected to grow in coming decades, resulting in increasing negative impacts on ocean biota and marine resources.

  18. A New Global Open Source Marine Hydrocarbon Emission Site Database

    Onyia, E., Jr.; Wood, W. T.; Barnard, A.; Dada, T.; Qazzaz, M.; Lee, T. R.; Herrera, E.; Sager, W.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrocarbon emission sites (e.g. seeps) discharge large volumes of fluids and gases into the oceans that are not only important for biogeochemical budgets, but also support abundant chemosynthetic communities. Documenting the locations of modern emissions is a first step towards understanding and monitoring how they affect the global state of the seafloor and oceans. Currently, no global open source (i.e. non-proprietry) detailed maps of emissions sites are available. As a solution, we have created a database that is housed within an Excel spreadsheet and use the latest versions of Earthpoint and Google Earth for position coordinate conversions and data mapping, respectively. To date, approximately 1,000 data points have been collected from referenceable sources across the globe, and we are continualy expanding the dataset. Due to the variety of spatial extents encountered, to identify each site we used two different methods: 1) point (x, y, z) locations for individual sites and; 2) delineation of areas where sites are clustered. Certain well-known areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, have a greater abundance of information; whereas significantly less information is available in other regions due to the absence of emission sites, lack of data, or because the existing data is proprietary. Although the geographical extent of the data is currently restricted to regions where the most data is publicly available, as the database matures, we expect to have more complete coverage of the world's oceans. This database is an information resource that consolidates and organizes the existing literature on hydrocarbons released into the marine environment, thereby providing a comprehensive reference for future work. We expect that the availability of seafloor hydrocarbon emission maps will benefit scientific understanding of hydrocarbon rich areas as well as potentially aiding hydrocarbon exploration and environmental impact assessements.

  19. Global ocean modeling on the Connection Machine

    Smith, R.D.; Dukowicz, J.K.; Malone, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed a version of the Bryan-Cox-Semtner ocean model (Bryan, 1969; Semtner, 1976; Cox, 1984) for massively parallel computers. Such models are three-dimensional, Eulerian models that use latitude and longitude as the horizontal spherical coordinates and fixed depth levels as the vertical coordinate. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, with a turbulent eddy viscosity, and mass continuity equation are solved, subject to the hydrostatic and Boussinesq approximations. The traditional model formulation uses a rigid-lid approximation (vertical velocity = 0 at the ocean surface) to eliminate fast surface waves. These waves would otherwise require that a very short time step be used in numerical simulations, which would greatly increase the computational cost. To solve the equations with the rigid-lid assumption, the equations of motion are split into two parts: a set of twodimensional ''barotropic'' equations describing the vertically-averaged flow, and a set of three-dimensional ''baroclinic'' equations describing temperature, salinity and deviations of the horizontal velocities from the vertically-averaged flow

  20. Global ocean monitoring for the World Climate Research Programme.

    Revelle, R; Bretherton, F

    1986-07-01

    Oceanic research and modelling for the World Climate Research Program will utilize several recently-developed instruments and measuring techniques as well as well-tested, long-used instruments. Ocean-scanning satellites will map the component of the ocean-surface topography related to ocean currents and mesoscale eddies and to fluctuating water volumes caused by ocean warming and cooling. Other satellite instruments will measure the direction and magnitude of wind stress on the sea surface, surface water temperatures, the distribution of chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments, the characteristics of internal waves, and possible precipitation over the ocean. Networks of acoustic transponders will obtain a three-dimensional picture of the distribution of temperature from the surface down to mid-depth and of long-term changes in temperature at depth. Ocean research vessels will determine the distribution and fate of geochemical tracers and will also make high-precision, deep hydrographic casts. Ships of opportunity, using expendable instruments, will measure temperature, salinity and currents in the upper water layers. Drifting and anchored buoys will also measure these properties as well as those of the air above the sea surface. Tide gauges installed on islands and exposed coastal locations will measure variations in monthly and shorter-period mean sea level. These tide gauges will provide 'ground truth' for the satellite maps of sea-surface topography, and will also determine variations in ocean currents and temperature.All these instruments will be used in several major programs, the most ambitious of which is the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) designed to obtain global measurements of major currents throughout the world ocean, greater understanding of the transformation of water masses, and the role of advective, convective, and turbulent processes in exchange of properties between surface and deep-ocean layers.A five- to ten-year experiment

  1. The Sun is the climate pacemaker II. Global ocean temperatures

    Douglass, David H., E-mail: douglass@pas.rochester.edu; Knox, Robert S.

    2015-04-17

    In part I, equatorial Pacific Ocean temperature index SST3.4 was found to have segments during 1990–2014 showing a phase-locked annual signal and phase-locked signals of 2- or 3-year periods. Phase locking is to an inferred solar forcing of 1.0 cycle/yr. Here the study extends to the global ocean, from surface to 700 and 2000 m. The same phase-locking phenomena are found. The El Niño/La Niña effect diffuses into the world oceans with a delay of about two months. - Highlights: • Global ocean temperatures at depths 0–700 m and 0–2000 m from 1990 to 2014 are studied. • The same phase-locked phenomena reported in Paper I are observed. • El Niño/La Niña effects diffuse to the global oceans with a two month delay. • Ocean heat content trends during phase-locked time segments are consistent with zero.

  2. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in global oceans

    Dickman, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is characterized in a self-consistent manner by means of introducing a single nondifferential matrix equation compatible with the Liouville equation, modelling the ocean as global and of uniform depth. The deviations of the theory from the realistic ocean, associated with the nonglobality of the latter, are also given consideration, with an inference that in realistic oceans long-period modes of resonances would be increasingly likely to exist. The analysis of the nature of the pole tide and its effects on the Chandler wobble indicate that departures of the pole tide from the equilibrium may indeed be minimal.

  3. The timescales of global surface-ocean connectivity.

    Jönsson, Bror F; Watson, James R

    2016-04-19

    Planktonic communities are shaped through a balance of local evolutionary adaptation and ecological succession driven in large part by migration. The timescales over which these processes operate are still largely unresolved. Here we use Lagrangian particle tracking and network theory to quantify the timescale over which surface currents connect different regions of the global ocean. We find that the fastest path between two patches--each randomly located anywhere in the surface ocean--is, on average, less than a decade. These results suggest that marine planktonic communities may keep pace with climate change--increasing temperatures, ocean acidification and changes in stratification over decadal timescales--through the advection of resilient types.

  4. Open Educational Resources: American Ideals, Global Questions

    Steven Weiland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Educational relations between societies and cultures that begin with benevolent intentions can come to be seen as threats to national autonomy and local preferences. Indeed, side by side with the growth since the first years of this century of Open Educational Resources (OER there has been worry about their impact on global educational development. Evaluation and research have lagged behind the steady expansion of access to online resources, leaving estimates of the value of digital innovation to the enthusiasm of OER providers and technology minded educational reformers. The advent of the “Massive Open Online Course” (or MOOC has exacerbated the problem, with attention moving toward a form of OER reflecting the enthusiasm of leading institutions in industrialized nations. The American led movement on behalf of the MOOC requires new questions about the motives, impact, and future of OER. This essay accounts for the history of OER, culminating in the MOOC, including how the latter in particular is an expression of American pedagogical and institutional interests representing belief in the transformative educational powers of the latest communications technologies. Criticism of OER and MOOCs can reflect organizational, operational, and ideological considerations. But it should recognize what they offer when there are few other opportunities for formal learning, and as research demonstrates their uses and impact.

  5. Assimilation of satellite altimeter data into an open ocean model

    Vogeler, Armin; SchröTer, Jens

    1995-08-01

    Geosat sea surface height data are assimilated into an eddy-resolving quasi-geostrophic open ocean model using the adjoint technique. The method adjusts the initial conditions for all layers and is successful on the timescale of a few weeks. Time-varying values for the open boundaries are prescribed by a much larger quasi-geostrophic model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Both models have the same resolution of approximately 20×20 km (1/3°×1/6°), have three layers, and include realistic bottom topography and coastlines. The open model box is embedded in the African sector of the ACC. For continuous assimilation of satellite data into the larger model the nudging technique is applied. These results are used for the adjoint optimization procedure as boundary conditions and as a first guess for the initial condition. For the open model box the difference between model and satellite sea surface height that remains after the nudging experiment amounts to a 19-cm root-mean-square error (rmse). By assimilation into the regional model this value can be reduced to a 6-cm rmse for an assimilation period of 20 days. Several experiments which attempt to improve the convergence of the iterative optimization method are reported. Scaling and regularization by smoothing have to be applied carefully. Especially during the first 10 iterations, the convergence can be improved considerably by low-pass filtering of the cost function gradient. The result of a perturbation experiment shows that for longer assimilation periods the influence of the boundary values becomes dominant and they should be determined inversely by data assimilation into the open ocean model.

  6. Global oceanic DMS data inter-comparability

    Bell, T. G.; Malin, G.; Lee, G. A.; Stefels, J.; Archer, S.; Steinke, M.; Matrai, P.

    The global surface seawater dimethylsulphide (DMS) database (http://saga.pmel.noaa.gov/dms/) contains > 50,000 data points and is the second largest trace gas database after carbon dioxide. However, there has been relatively little quality control on the data that have been collated to date.

  7. Boundary Conditions, Data Assimilation, and Predictability in Coastal Ocean Models

    Samelson, Roger M; Allen, John S; Egbert, Gary D; Kindle, John C; Snyder, Chris

    2007-01-01

    ...: The specific objectives of this research are to determine the impact on coastal ocean circulation models of open ocean boundary conditions from Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE...

  8. Perfluoroalkylated substances in the global tropical and subtropical surface oceans.

    González-Gaya, Belén; Dachs, Jordi; Roscales, Jose L; Caballero, Gemma; Jiménez, Begoña

    2014-11-18

    In this study, perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analyzed in 92 surface seawater samples taken during the Malaspina 2010 expedition which covered all the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. Nine ionic PFASs including C6-C10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C4 and C6-C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and two neutral precursors perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASAs), were identified and quantified. The Atlantic Ocean presented the broader range in concentrations of total PFASs (131-10900 pg/L, median 645 pg/L, n = 45) compared to the other oceanic basins, probably due to a better spatial coverage. Total concentrations in the Pacific ranged from 344 to 2500 pg/L (median = 527 pg/L, n = 27) and in the Indian Ocean from 176 to 1976 pg/L (median = 329, n = 18). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the most abundant compound, accounting for 33% of the total PFASs globally, followed by perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA, 22%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 12%), being the rest of the individual congeners under 10% of total PFASs, even for perfluorooctane carboxylic acid (PFOA, 6%). PFASAs accounted for less than 1% of the total PFASs concentration. This study reports the ubiquitous occurrence of PFCAs, PFSAs, and PFASAs in the global ocean, being the first attempt, to our knowledge, to show a comprehensive assessment in surface water samples collected in a single oceanic expedition covering tropical and subtropical oceans. The potential factors affecting their distribution patterns were assessed including the distance to coastal regions, oceanic subtropical gyres, currents and biogeochemical processes. Field evidence of biogeochemical controls on the occurrence of PFASs was tentatively assessed considering environmental variables (solar radiation, temperature, chlorophyll a concentrations among others), and these showed significant correlations with some PFASs, but explaining small to moderate percentages of variability

  9. Global Ocean Sedimentation Patterns: Plate Tectonic History Versus Climate Change

    Goswami, A.; Reynolds, E.; Olson, P.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global sediment data (Whittaker et al., 2013) and carbonate content data (Archer, 1996) allows examination of ocean sedimentation evolution with respect to age of the underlying ocean crust (Müller et al., 2008). From these data, we construct time series of ocean sediment thickness and carbonate deposition rate for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian ocean basins for the past 120 Ma. These time series are unique to each basin and reflect an integrated response to plate tectonics and climate change. The goal is to parameterize ocean sedimentation tied to crustal age for paleoclimate studies. For each basin, total sediment thickness and carbonate deposition rate from 0.1 x 0.1 degree cells are binned according to basement crustal age; area-corrected moments (mean, variance, etc.) are calculated for each bin. Segmented linear fits identify trends in present-day carbonate deposition rates and changes in ocean sedimentation from 0 to 120 Ma. In the North and South Atlantic and Indian oceans, mean sediment thickness versus crustal age is well represented by three linear segments, with the slope of each segment increasing with increasing crustal age. However, the transition age between linear segments varies among the three basins. In contrast, mean sediment thickness in the North and South Pacific oceans are numerically smaller and well represented by two linear segments with slopes that decrease with increasing crustal age. These opposing trends are more consistent with the plate tectonic history of each basin being the controlling factor in sedimentation rates, rather than climate change. Unlike total sediment thickness, carbonate deposition rates decrease smoothly with crustal age in all basins, with the primary controls being ocean chemistry and water column depth.References: Archer, D., 1996, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 159-174.Müller, R.D., et al., 2008, Science, 319, 1357-1362.Whittaker, J., et al., 2013, Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst. DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20181

  10. Picoheterotroph (Bacteria and Archaea biomass distribution in the global ocean

    M. R. Landry

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We compiled a database of 39 766 data points consisting of flow cytometric and microscopical measurements of picoheterotroph abundance, including both Bacteria and Archaea. After gridding with 1° spacing, the database covers 1.3% of the ocean surface. There are data covering all ocean basins and depths except the Southern Hemisphere below 350 m or from April until June. The average picoheterotroph biomass is 3.9 ± 3.6 μg C l−1 with a 20-fold decrease between the surface and the deep sea. We estimate a total ocean inventory of about 1.3 × 1029 picoheterotroph cells. Surprisingly, the abundance in the coastal regions is the same as at the same depths in the open ocean. Using an average of published open ocean measurements for the conversion from abundance to carbon biomass of 9.1 fg cell−1, we calculate a picoheterotroph carbon inventory of about 1.2 Pg C. The main source of uncertainty in this inventory is the conversion factor from abundance to biomass. Picoheterotroph biomass is ~2 times higher in the tropics than in the polar oceans. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779142

  11. Seafloor 2030 - Building a Global Ocean Map through International Collaboration

    Ferrini, V. L.; Wigley, R. A.; Falconer, R. K. H.; Jakobsson, M.; Allen, G.; Mayer, L. A.; Schmitt, T.; Rovere, M.; Weatherall, P.; Marks, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    With more than 85% of the ocean floor unmapped, a huge proportion of our planet remains unexplored. Creating a comprehensive map of seafloor bathymetry remains a true global challenge that can only be accomplished through collaboration and partnership between governments, industry, academia, research organizations and non-government organizations. The objective of Seafloor 2030 is to comprehensively map the global ocean floor to resolutions that enable exploration and improved understanding of ocean processes, while informing maritime policy and supporting the management of natural marine resources for a sustainable Blue Economy. Seafloor 2030 is the outcome of the Forum for Future of Ocean Floor Mapping held in Monaco in June 2016, which was held under the auspices of GEBCO and the Nippon Foundation of Japan. GEBCO is the only international organization mandated to map the global ocean floor and is guided by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. The task of completely mapping the ocean floor will require new global coordination to ensure that both existing data are identified and that new mapping efforts are coordinated to help efficiently "map the gaps." Fundamental to achieving Seafloor 2030 will be greater access to data, tools and technology, particularly for developing and coastal nations. This includes bathymetric post-processing and analysis software, database technology, computing infrastructure and gridding techniques as well as the latest developments in seafloor mapping methods and emerging crowd-sourced bathymetry initiatives. The key to achieving this global bathymetric map is capacity building and education - including greater coordination between scientific research and industry and the effective engagement of international organizations such as the United Nations.

  12. Decadal Changes in Global Ocean Annual Primary Production

    Gregg, Watson; Conkright, Margarita E.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Ginoux, Paul; Casey, Nancy W.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) has produced the first multi-year time series of global ocean chlorophyll observations since the demise of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) in 1986. Global observations from 1997-present from SeaWiFS combined with observations from 1979-1986 from the CZCS should in principle provide an opportunity to observe decadal changes in global ocean annual primary production, since chlorophyll is the primary driver for estimates of primary production. However, incompatibilities between algorithms have so far precluded quantitative analysis. We have developed and applied compatible processing methods for the CZCS, using modern advances in atmospheric correction and consistent bio-optical algorithms to advance the CZCS archive to comparable quality with SeaWiFS. We applied blending methodologies, where in situ data observations are incorporated into the CZCS and SeaWiFS data records, to provide improvement of the residuals. These re-analyzed, blended data records provide maximum compatibility and permit, for the first time, a quantitative analysis of the changes in global ocean primary production in the early-to-mid 1980's and the present, using synoptic satellite observations. An intercomparison of the global and regional primary production from these blended satellite observations is important to understand global climate change and the effects on ocean biota. Photosynthesis by chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton is responsible for biotic uptake of carbon in the oceans and potentially ultimately from the atmosphere. Global ocean annual primary decreased from the CZCS record to SeaWiFS, by nearly 6% from the early 1980s to the present. Annual primary production in the high latitudes was responsible for most of the decadal change. Conversely, primary production in the low latitudes generally increased, with the exception of the tropical Pacific. The differences and similarities of the two data records provide evidence

  13. MODELING OF MOVING DEFORMABLE CONTINENTS BY ACTIVE TRACERS: CLOSING AND OPENING OF OCEANS, RECIRCULATION OF OCEANIC CRUST

    A. V. Bobrov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the ‘mantle – moving deformable continents’ system has been studied by numerical experiments. The continents move self-consistently with the mantle flows of thermo-compositional convection. Our model (two-dimensional mantle convection, non-Newtonian rheology, the presence of deformable continents demonstrates the main features of global geodynamics: convergence and divergence of continents; appearance and disappearance of subduction zones; backrolling of subduction zones; restructuring of mantle flows; stretching, breakup and divergence of continents; opening and closing of oceans; oceanic crust recirculation in the mantle, and overriding of hot mantle plumes by continents. In our study, the continental crust is modeled by active markers which transfer additional viscosity and buoyancy, while the continental lithosphere is marked only by increased viscosity with neutral buoyancy. The oceanic crust, in its turn, is modeled by active markers that have only an additional buoyancy. The principal result of our modeling is a consistency between the numerical calculations and the bimodal dynamics of the real Earth: the oceanic crust, despite its positive buoyancy near the surface, submerges in subduction zones and sinks deep into the mantle. (Some part of the oceanic crust remains attached to the continental margins for a long time. In contrast to the oceanic crust, the continental crust does not sink in subduction zones. The continental lithosphere, despite its neutral buoyancy, also remains on the surface due to its viscosity and coupling with the continental crust. It should be noted that when a continent overrides a subduction zone, the subduction zone disappears, and the flows in the mantle are locally reorganized. The effect of basalt-eclogite transition in the oceanic crust on the mantle flow pattern and on the motion of continents has been studied. Our numerical experiments show that the inclusion of this effect in the

  14. M2, S2, K1 models of the global ocean tide

    Parke, M. E.; Hendershott, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Ocean tidal signals appear in many geophysical measurements. Geophysicists need realistic tidal models to aid in interpretation of their data. Because of the closeness to resonance of dissipationless ocean tides, it is difficult for numerical models to correctly represent the actual open ocean tide. As an approximate solution to this problem, test functions derived by solving Laplace's Tidal Equations with ocean loading and self gravitation are used as a basis for least squares dynamic interpolation of coastal and island tidal data for the constituents M2, S2, and Kl. The resulting representations of the global tide are stable over at least a ?5% variation in the mean depth of the model basin, and they conserve mass. Maps of the geocentric tide, the induced free space potential, the induced vertical component of the solid earth tide, and the induced vertical component of the gravitational field for each contituent are presented.

  15. NOAA's Role in Sustaining Global Ocean Observations: Future Plans for OAR's Ocean Observing and Monitoring Division

    Todd, James; Legler, David; Piotrowicz, Stephen; Raymond, Megan; Smith, Emily; Tedesco, Kathy; Thurston, Sidney

    2017-04-01

    The Ocean Observing and Monitoring Division (OOMD, formerly the Climate Observation Division) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Program Office provides long-term, high-quality global observations, climate information and products for researchers, forecasters, assessments and other users of environmental information. In this context, OOMD-supported activities serve a foundational role in an enterprise that aims to advance 1) scientific understanding, 2) monitoring and prediction of climate and 3) understanding of potential impacts to enable a climate resilient society. Leveraging approximately 50% of the Global Ocean Observing System, OOMD employs an internationally-coordinated, multi-institution global strategy that brings together data from multiple platforms including surface drifting buoys, Argo profiling floats, flux/transport moorings (RAMA, PIRATA, OceanSITES), GLOSS tide gauges, SOOP-XBT and SOOP-CO2, ocean gliders and repeat hydrographic sections (GO-SHIP). OOMD also engages in outreach, education and capacity development activities to deliver training on the social-economic applications of ocean data. This presentation will highlight recent activities and plans for 2017 and beyond.

  16. Global ocean conveyor lowers extinction risk in the deep sea

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Frank, Norbert; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wienberg, Claudia; Robinson, Laura; van de Flierdt, Tina; Dahl, Mikael; Douarin, Mélanie; Morrison, Cheryl L.; López Correa, Matthias; Rogers, Alex D.; Ruckelshausen, Mario; Roberts, J. Murray

    2014-06-01

    General paradigms of species extinction risk are urgently needed as global habitat loss and rapid climate change threaten Earth with what could be its sixth mass extinction. Using the stony coral Lophelia pertusa as a model organism with the potential for wide larval dispersal, we investigated how the global ocean conveyor drove an unprecedented post-glacial range expansion in Earth's largest biome, the deep sea. We compiled a unique ocean-scale dataset of published radiocarbon and uranium-series dates of fossil corals, the sedimentary protactinium-thorium record of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength, authigenic neodymium and lead isotopic ratios of circulation pathways, and coral biogeography, and integrated new Bayesian estimates of historic gene flow. Our compilation shows how the export of Southern Ocean and Mediterranean waters after the Younger Dryas 11.6 kyr ago simultaneously triggered two dispersal events in the western and eastern Atlantic respectively. Each pathway injected larvae from refugia into ocean currents powered by a re-invigorated AMOC that led to the fastest postglacial range expansion ever recorded, covering 7500 km in under 400 years. In addition to its role in modulating global climate, our study illuminates how the ocean conveyor creates broad geographic ranges that lower extinction risk in the deep sea.

  17. Coordination and Integration of Global Ocean Observing through JCOMM

    Legler, D. M.; Meldrum, D. T.; Hill, K. L.; Charpentier, E.

    2016-02-01

    The primary objective of the JCOMM Observations Coordination Group (OCG) is to provide technical coordination to implement fully integrated ocean observing system across the entire marine meteorology and oceanographic community. JCOMM OCG works in partnership with the Global Ocean Observing System, , which focusses on setting observing system requirements and conducting evalutions. JCOMM OCG initially focused on major global observing networks (e.g. Argo profiling floats, moored buoys, ship based observations, sea level stations, reference sites, etc), and is now expanding its horizon in recognition of new observing needs and new technologies/networks (e.g. ocean gliders). Over the next five years the JCOMM OCG is focusing its attention on integration and coordination in four major areas: observing network implementation particularly in response to integrated ocean observing requirements; observing system monitoring and metrics; standards and best practices; and improving integrated data management and access. This presentation will describe the scope and mission of JCOMM OCG; summarize the state of the global ocean observing system; highlight recent successes and resources for the research, prediction, and assessment communities; summarize our plans for the next several years; and suggest engagement opportunities.

  18. Twenty Years of Progress on Global Ocean Tides: The Impact of Satellite Altimetry

    Egbert, Gary; Ray, Richard

    2012-01-01

    At the dawn of the era of high-precision altimetry, before the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon, ocean tides were properly viewed as a source of noise--tidal variations in ocean height would represent a very substantial fraction of what the altimeter measures, and would have to be accurately predicted and subtracted if altimetry were to achieve its potential for ocean and climate studies. But to the extent that the altimetry could be severely contaminated by tides, it also represented an unprecedented global-scale tidal data set. These new data, together with research stimulated by the need for accurate tidal corrections, led to a renaissance in tidal studies in the oceanographic community. In this paper we review contributions of altimetry to tidal science over the past 20 years, emphasizing recent progress. Mapping of tides has now been extended from the early focus on major constituents in the open ocean to include minor constituents, (e.g., long-period tides; non-linear tides in shelf waters, and in the open ocean), and into shallow and coastal waters. Global and spatially local estimates of tidal energy balance have been refined, and the role of internal tide conversion in dissipating barotropic tidal energy is now well established through modeling, altimetry, and in situ observations. However, energy budgets for internal tides, and the role of tidal dissipation in vertical ocean mixing remain controversial topics. Altimetry may contribute to resolving some of these important questions through improved mapping of low-mode internal tides. This area has advanced significantly in recent years, with several global maps now available, and progress on constraining temporally incoherent components. For the future, new applications of altimetry (e.g., in the coastal ocean, where barotropic tidal models remain inadequate), and new mission concepts (studies of the submesoscale with SWOT, which will require correction for internal tides) may bring us full circle, again pushing

  19. Strong relationship between DMS and the solar radiation dose over the global surface ocean.

    Vallina, Sergio M; Simó, Rafel

    2007-01-26

    Marine biogenic dimethylsulfide (DMS) is the main natural source of tropospheric sulfur, which may play a key role in cloud formation and albedo over the remote ocean. Through a global data analysis, we found that DMS concentrations are highly positively correlated with the solar radiation dose in the upper mixed layer of the open ocean, irrespective of latitude, plankton biomass, or temperature. This is a necessary condition for the feasibility of a negative feedback in which light-attenuating DMS emissions are in turn driven by the light dose received by the pelagic ecosystem.

  20. Role of coral reefs in global ocean production

    Crossland, C J; Hatcher, B G; Smith, S V [CSIRO Institute of Natural Resources and Environment, Dickson, ACT (Australia)

    1991-01-01

    Coral reefs cover some 600 thousand square kilometres of the earth's surface (0.17% of the ocean surface). First order estimates show coral reefs to contribute about 0.05% of the estimated net CO{sub 2} fixation rate of the global oceans. Gross CO{sub 2} fixation is relatively high (of the order 700 x 10{sup 12}g C year{sup -1}), but most of this material is recycled within the reefs. Excess (net) production of organic material (E) is much smaller, of the order 20 x 10{sup 12}g C year{sup -1}. 75% of E is available for export from coral reefs to adjacent areas. Comparison of estimates for net production by reefs and their surrounding oceans indicates that the excess production by coral reefs is similar to new production in the photic zone of oligotrophic oceans. Consequently, estimates for global ocean production should as a first approximation include reefal areas with the surrounding ocean when assigning average net production rates. It can be concluded that organic production by reefs plays a relatively minor role in the global scale of fluxes and storage of elements. In comparison, the companion process of biologically-mediated inorganic carbon precipitation represents a major role for reefs. While reef production does respond on local scales to variation in ocean climate, neither the absolute rates nor the amount accumulated into organic pools appear to be either sensitive indicators or accurate recorders of climatic change in most reef systems. Similarly, the productivity of most reefs should be little affected by currently predicted environmental changes resulting from the greenhouse effect. 86 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling

    McKay, R.; Naish, T.; Carter, L.; Riesselman, C.; Dunbar, R.; Sjunneskog, C.; Winter, D.; Sangiorgi, F.; Warren, C.; Pagani, M.; Schouten, S.; Willmott, V.; Levy, R.; DeConto , R.M.; Powell, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL

  2. Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton

    M. J. Behrenfeld

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton photosynthesis links global ocean biology and climate-driven fluctuations in the physical environment. These interactions are largely expressed through changes in phytoplankton physiology, but physiological status has proven extremely challenging to characterize globally. Phytoplankton fluorescence does provide a rich source of physiological information long exploited in laboratory and field studies, and is now observed from space. Here we evaluate the physiological underpinnings of global variations in satellite-based phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence. The three dominant factors influencing fluorescence distributions are chlorophyll concentration, pigment packaging effects on light absorption, and light-dependent energy-quenching processes. After accounting for these three factors, resultant global distributions of quenching-corrected fluorescence quantum yields reveal a striking consistency with anticipated patterns of iron availability. High fluorescence quantum yields are typically found in low iron waters, while low quantum yields dominate regions where other environmental factors are most limiting to phytoplankton growth. Specific properties of photosynthetic membranes are discussed that provide a mechanistic view linking iron stress to satellite-detected fluorescence. Our results present satellite-based fluorescence as a valuable tool for evaluating nutrient stress predictions in ocean ecosystem models and give the first synoptic observational evidence that iron plays an important role in seasonal phytoplankton dynamics of the Indian Ocean. Satellite fluorescence may also provide a path for monitoring climate-phytoplankton physiology interactions and improving descriptions of phytoplankton light use efficiencies in ocean productivity models.

  3. Resilience of SAR11 bacteria to rapid acidification in the high-latitude open ocean.

    Hartmann, Manuela; Hill, Polly G; Tynan, Eithne; Achterberg, Eric P; Leakey, Raymond J G; Zubkov, Mikhail V

    2016-02-01

    Ubiquitous SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria numerically dominate marine planktonic communities. Because they are excruciatingly difficult to cultivate, there is comparatively little known about their physiology and metabolic responses to long- and short-term environmental changes. As surface oceans take up anthropogenic, atmospheric CO2, the consequential process of ocean acidification could affect the global biogeochemical significance of SAR11. Shipping accidents or inadvertent release of chemicals from industrial plants can have strong short-term local effects on oceanic SAR11. This study investigated the effect of 2.5-fold acidification of seawater on the metabolism of SAR11 and other heterotrophic bacterioplankton along a natural temperature gradient crossing the North Atlantic Ocean, Norwegian and Greenland Seas. Uptake rates of the amino acid leucine by SAR11 cells as well as other bacterioplankton remained similar to controls despite an instant ∼50% increase in leucine bioavailability upon acidification. This high physiological resilience to acidification even without acclimation, suggests that open ocean dominant bacterioplankton are able to cope even with sudden and therefore more likely with long-term acidification effects. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Oil spill cleanup in severe weather and open ocean conditions

    Kowalski, T.

    1993-01-01

    Most serious oil spills occur in open water under severe weather conditions. At first the oil stays on the surface, where it is spread by winds and water currents. The action of the waves then mixes the oil into the water column. With time the light elements of crude oil evaporate. The remaining residue is of very low commercial value, but of significant environmental impact. The oil spill can move either out to sea or inshore, where it ends up on the beaches. Normal procedures are to let outbound oil disperse by evaporation and mixing into the water column, and to let the inbound oil collect on the beaches, where the cleanup operations are concentrated. The reason for this is that there is no capability to clean the surface of the water in wave conditions-present-day oil skimmers are ineffective in waves approaching 4 ft in height. It would be simpler, more effective and environmentally more beneficial to skim the oil right at the spill location. This paper describes a method to do this. In the case of an oil spill in open water and high wave conditions, it is proposed to reduce the height of the ocean waves by the use of floating breakwaters to provide a relatively calm area. In such protected areas existing oil skimmers can be used to recover valuable oil and clean up the spill long before it hits the beaches. A floating breakwater developed at the University of Rhode Island by the author can be of great benefit in oil spill cleanup for open ocean conditions. This breakwater is constructed from scrap automobile tires. It is built in units of 20 tires each, which are easily transportable and can be connected together at the spill site to form any desired configuration

  5. Distribution of mesozooplankton biomass in the global ocean

    R. Moriarty

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesozooplankton are cosmopolitan within the sunlit layers of the global ocean. They are important in the pelagic food web, having a significant feedback to primary production through their consumption of phytoplankton and microzooplankton. In many regions of the global ocean, they are also the primary contributors to vertical particle flux in the oceans. Through both they affect the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and other nutrients in the oceans. Little, however, is known about their global distribution and biomass. While global maps of mesozooplankton biomass do exist in the literature, they are usually in the form of hand-drawn maps for which the original data associated with these maps are not readily available. The dataset presented in this synthesis has been in development since the late 1990s, is an integral part of the Coastal and Oceanic Plankton Ecology, Production, and Observation Database (COPEPOD, and is now also part of a wider community effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. A total of 153 163 biomass values were collected, from a variety of sources, for mesozooplankton. Of those 2% were originally recorded as dry mass, 26% as wet mass, 5% as settled volume, and 68% as displacement volume. Using a variety of non-linear biomass conversions from the literature, the data have been converted from their original units to carbon biomass. Depth-integrated values were then used to calculate an estimate of mesozooplankton global biomass. Global epipelagic mesozooplankton biomass, to a depth of 200 m, had a mean of 5.9 μg C L−1, median of 2.7 μg C L−1 and a standard deviation of 10.6 μg C L−1. The global annual average estimate of mesozooplankton in the top 200 m, based on the median value, was 0.19 Pg C. Biomass was highest in the Northern Hemisphere, and there were slight decreases from polar oceans (40

  6. Light penetration structures the deep acoustic scattering layers in the global ocean.

    Aksnes, Dag L.

    2017-05-01

    The deep scattering layer (DSL) is a ubiquitous acoustic signature found across all oceans and arguably the dominant feature structuring the pelagic open ocean ecosystem. It is formed by mesopelagic fishes and pelagic invertebrates. The DSL animals are an important food source for marine megafauna and contribute to the biological carbon pump through the active flux of organic carbon transported in their daily vertical migrations. They occupy depths from 200 to 1000 m at daytime and migrate to a varying degree into surface waters at nighttime. Their daytime depth, which determines the migration amplitude, varies across the global ocean in concert with water mass properties, in particular the oxygen regime, but the causal underpinning of these correlations has been unclear. We present evidence that the broad variability in the oceanic DSL daytime depth observed during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition is governed by variation in light penetration. We find that the DSL depth distribution conforms to a common optical depth layer across the global ocean and that a correlation between dissolved oxygen and light penetration provides a parsimonious explanation for the association of shallow DSL distributions with hypoxic waters. In enhancing understanding of this phenomenon, our results should improve the ability to predict and model the dynamics of one of the largest animal biomass components on earth, with key roles in the oceanic biological carbon pump and food web.

  7. Light penetration structures the deep acoustic scattering layers in the global ocean.

    Aksnes, Dag L.; Rø stad, Anders; Kaartvedt, Stein; Martinez, Udane; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2017-01-01

    The deep scattering layer (DSL) is a ubiquitous acoustic signature found across all oceans and arguably the dominant feature structuring the pelagic open ocean ecosystem. It is formed by mesopelagic fishes and pelagic invertebrates. The DSL animals are an important food source for marine megafauna and contribute to the biological carbon pump through the active flux of organic carbon transported in their daily vertical migrations. They occupy depths from 200 to 1000 m at daytime and migrate to a varying degree into surface waters at nighttime. Their daytime depth, which determines the migration amplitude, varies across the global ocean in concert with water mass properties, in particular the oxygen regime, but the causal underpinning of these correlations has been unclear. We present evidence that the broad variability in the oceanic DSL daytime depth observed during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition is governed by variation in light penetration. We find that the DSL depth distribution conforms to a common optical depth layer across the global ocean and that a correlation between dissolved oxygen and light penetration provides a parsimonious explanation for the association of shallow DSL distributions with hypoxic waters. In enhancing understanding of this phenomenon, our results should improve the ability to predict and model the dynamics of one of the largest animal biomass components on earth, with key roles in the oceanic biological carbon pump and food web.

  8. Potential Increasing Dominance of Heterotrophy in the Global Ocean

    Kvale, K.; Meissner, K. J.; Keller, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    Autotrophs are largely limited by resources in the modern ocean. However, standard metabolic theory suggests continued ocean warming could globally benefit heterotrophs, thereby reducing autotrophic nutrient limitation. The paleo record as well as modern observations offer evidence this has happened in the past and could happen again. Increasing dominance of heterotrophs would result in strong nutrient recycling in the upper ocean and high rates of net primary production (NPP), yet low carbon export to the deep ocean and sediments. We describe the transition towards such a state in the early 22nd century as a response to business-as-usual Representative Concentration Pathway forcing (RCP8.5) in an intermediate complexity Earth system model in three configurations: with and without an explicit calcifier phytoplankton class and calcite ballast model. In all models nutrient regeneration in the near surface becomes an increasingly important driver of primary production. The near-linear relationship between changes in NPP and global sea surface temperature (SST) found over the 21st century becomes exponential above a 2-4 °C global mean SST change. This transition to a more heterotrophic ocean agrees roughly with metabolic theory. Inclusion of small phytoplankton and calcifiers increase the model NPP:SST sensitivity because of their relatively higher nutrient affinity than general phytoplankton. Accounting for organic carbon "protected" from remineralization by carbonate ballast mitigates the exponential increase in NPP and provides an increasingly important pathway for deep carbon export with higher SST changes, despite simultaneous increasing carbonate dissolution rates due to ocean acidification.

  9. Long-range transport of airborne microbes over the global tropical and subtropical ocean

    Mayol, Eva; Arrieta, J M; Jimé nez, Maria A.; Martí nez-Asensio, Adriá n; Garcias Bonet, Neus; Dachs, Jordi; Gonzá lez-Gaya, Belé n; Royer, Sarah-J.; Bení tez-Barrios, Veró nica M.; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    The atmosphere plays a fundamental role in the transport of microbes across the planet but it is often neglected as a microbial habitat. Although the ocean represents two thirds of the Earth's surface, there is little information on the atmospheric microbial load over the open ocean. Here we provide a global estimate of microbial loads and air-sea exchanges over the tropical and subtropical oceans based on the data collected along the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition. Total loads of airborne prokaryotes and eukaryotes were estimated at 2.2 × 1021 and 2.1 × 1021 cells, respectively. Overall 33-68% of these microorganisms could be traced to a marine origin, being transported thousands of kilometres before re-entering the ocean. Moreover, our results show a substantial load of terrestrial microbes transported over the oceans, with abundances declining exponentially with distance from land and indicate that islands may act as stepping stones facilitating the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes.The extent to which the ocean acts as a sink and source of airborne particles to the atmosphere is unresolved. Here, the authors report high microbial loads over the tropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans and propose islands as stepping stones for the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes..

  10. Long-range transport of airborne microbes over the global tropical and subtropical ocean

    Mayol, Eva

    2017-07-28

    The atmosphere plays a fundamental role in the transport of microbes across the planet but it is often neglected as a microbial habitat. Although the ocean represents two thirds of the Earth\\'s surface, there is little information on the atmospheric microbial load over the open ocean. Here we provide a global estimate of microbial loads and air-sea exchanges over the tropical and subtropical oceans based on the data collected along the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition. Total loads of airborne prokaryotes and eukaryotes were estimated at 2.2 × 1021 and 2.1 × 1021 cells, respectively. Overall 33-68% of these microorganisms could be traced to a marine origin, being transported thousands of kilometres before re-entering the ocean. Moreover, our results show a substantial load of terrestrial microbes transported over the oceans, with abundances declining exponentially with distance from land and indicate that islands may act as stepping stones facilitating the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes.The extent to which the ocean acts as a sink and source of airborne particles to the atmosphere is unresolved. Here, the authors report high microbial loads over the tropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans and propose islands as stepping stones for the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes..

  11. Effect of ocean gateways on the global ocean circulation in the late Oligocene and early Miocene

    von der Heydt, A.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/245567526; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in the tectonic boundary conditions on global ocean circulation patterns. Using a fully coupled climate model in an idealized setup, we compare situations corresponding to the late Oligocene, the early Miocene, and present day. The model results show the

  12. Global Ocean Data Analysis Project, Version 2 (GLODAPv2) (NCEI Accession 0162565)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data product is composed of data from 724 scientific cruises covering the global ocean. It includes data assembled during the previous interior ocean data...

  13. Geophysical potential for wind energy over the open oceans.

    Possner, Anna; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-10-24

    Wind turbines continuously remove kinetic energy from the lower troposphere, thereby reducing the wind speed near hub height. The rate of electricity generation in large wind farms containing multiple wind arrays is, therefore, constrained by the rate of kinetic energy replenishment from the atmosphere above. In recent years, a growing body of research argues that the rate of generated power is limited to around 1.5 W m -2 within large wind farms. However, in this study, we show that considerably higher power generation rates may be sustainable over some open ocean areas. In particular, the North Atlantic is identified as a region where the downward transport of kinetic energy may sustain extraction rates of 6 W m -2 and above over large areas in the annual mean. Furthermore, our results indicate that the surface heat flux from the oceans to the atmosphere may play an important role in creating regions where sustained high rates of downward transport of kinetic energy and thus, high rates of kinetic energy extraction may be geophysical possible. While no commercial-scale deep water wind farms yet exist, our results suggest that such technologies, if they became technically and economically feasible, could potentially provide civilization-scale power.

  14. Novel lineages of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus in the global oceans.

    Huang, Sijun; Wilhelm, Steven W; Harvey, H Rodger; Taylor, Karen; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2012-02-01

    Picocyanobacteria represented by Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus have an important role in oceanic carbon fixation and nutrient cycling. In this study, we compared the community composition of picocyanobacteria from diverse marine ecosystems ranging from estuary to open oceans, tropical to polar oceans and surface to deep water, based on the sequences of 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS). A total of 1339 ITS sequences recovered from 20 samples unveiled diverse and several previously unknown clades of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Six high-light (HL)-adapted Prochlorococcus clades were identified, among which clade HLVI had not been described previously. Prochlorococcus clades HLIII, HLIV and HLV, detected in the Equatorial Pacific samples, could be related to the HNLC clades recently found in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC), iron-depleted tropical oceans. At least four novel Synechococcus clades (out of six clades in total) in subcluster 5.3 were found in subtropical open oceans and the South China Sea. A niche partitioning with depth was observed in the Synechococcus subcluster 5.3. Members of Synechococcus subcluster 5.2 were dominant in the high-latitude waters (northern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea), suggesting a possible cold-adaptation of some marine Synechococcus in this subcluster. A distinct shift of the picocyanobacterial community was observed from the Bering Sea to the Chukchi Sea, which reflected the change of water temperature. Our study demonstrates that oceanic systems contain a large pool of diverse picocyanobacteria, and further suggest that new genotypes or ecotypes of picocyanobacteria will continue to emerge, as microbial consortia are explored with advanced sequencing technology.

  15. GLobal Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) version 1.1 (NODC Accession 0001644)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GLobal Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a cooperative effort to coordinate global synthesis projects funded through NOAA/DOE and NSF as part of the Joint...

  16. Spacebased Observation of Water Balance Over Global Oceans

    Liu, W.; Xie, X.

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrated that ocean surface fresh water flux less the water discharge into the ocean from river and ice melt balances the mass loss in the ocean both in magnitude and in the phase of annual variation. The surface water flux was computed from the divergence of the water transport integrated over the depth of the atmosphere. The atmospheric water transport is estimated from the precipitable water measured by Special Sensor Microwave Imager, the surface wind vector by QuikSCAT, and the NOAA cloud drift wind through a statistical model. The transport has been extensively validated using global radiosonde and data and operational numerical weather prediction results. Its divergence has been shown to agree with the difference between evaporation estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer data and the precipitation measured by Tropical Rain Measuring Mission over the global tropical and subtropical oceans both in magnitude and geographical distribution for temporal scales ranging from intraseasonal to interannual. The water loss rate in the ocean is estimated by two methods, one is from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and the other is by subtracting the climatological steric change from the sea level change measured by radar altimeter on Jason. Only climatological river discharge and ice melt from in situ measurements are available and the lack of temporal variation may contribute to discrepancies in the balance. We have successfully used the spacebased surface fluxes to estimate to climatological mean heat transport in the Atlantic ocean and is attempting to estimate the meridional fresh water (or salt) transport from the surface flux. The approximate closure of the water balance gives a powerful indirect validation of the spacebased products.

  17. Towards accounting for dissolved iron speciation in global ocean models

    A. Tagliabue

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The trace metal iron (Fe is now routinely included in state-of-the-art ocean general circulation and biogeochemistry models (OGCBMs because of its key role as a limiting nutrient in regions of the world ocean important for carbon cycling and air-sea CO2 exchange. However, the complexities of the seawater Fe cycle, which impact its speciation and bioavailability, are simplified in such OGCBMs due to gaps in understanding and to avoid high computational costs. In a similar fashion to inorganic carbon speciation, we outline a means by which the complex speciation of Fe can be included in global OGCBMs in a reasonably cost-effective manner. We construct an Fe speciation model based on hypothesised relationships between rate constants and environmental variables (temperature, light, oxygen, pH, salinity and assumptions regarding the binding strengths of Fe complexing organic ligands and test hypotheses regarding their distributions. As a result, we find that the global distribution of different Fe species is tightly controlled by spatio-temporal environmental variability and the distribution of Fe binding ligands. Impacts on bioavailable Fe are highly sensitive to assumptions regarding which Fe species are bioavailable and how those species vary in space and time. When forced by representations of future ocean circulation and climate we find large changes to the speciation of Fe governed by pH mediated changes to redox kinetics. We speculate that these changes may exert selective pressure on phytoplankton Fe uptake strategies in the future ocean. In future work, more information on the sources and sinks of ocean Fe ligands, their bioavailability, the cycling of colloidal Fe species and kinetics of Fe-surface coordination reactions would be invaluable. We hope our modeling approach can provide a means by which new observations of Fe speciation can be tested against hypotheses of the processes present in governing the ocean Fe cycle in an

  18. Phylogenetic comparisons of a coastal bacterioplankton community with its counterparts in open ocean and freshwater systems.

    Rappé; Vergin; Giovannoni

    2000-09-01

    In order to extend previous comparisons between coastal marine bacterioplankton communities and their open ocean and freshwater counterparts, here we summarize and provide new data on a clone library of 105 SSU rRNA genes recovered from seawater collected over the western continental shelf of the USA in the Pacific Ocean. Comparisons to previously published data revealed that this coastal bacterioplankton clone library was dominated by SSU rRNA gene phylotypes originally described from surface waters of the open ocean, but also revealed unique SSU rRNA gene lineages of beta Proteobacteria related to those found in clone libraries from freshwater habitats. beta Proteobacteria lineages common to coastal and freshwater samples included members of a clade of obligately methylotrophic bacteria, SSU rRNA genes affiliated with Xylophilus ampelinus, and a clade related to the genus Duganella. In addition, SSU rRNA genes were recovered from such previously recognized marine bacterioplankton SSU rRNA gene clone clusters as the SAR86, SAR11, and SAR116 clusters within the class Proteobacteria, the Roseobacter clade of the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria, the marine group A/SAR406 cluster, and the marine Actinobacteria clade. Overall, these results support and extend previous observations concerning the global distribution of several marine planktonic prokaryote SSU rRNA gene phylotypes, but also show that coastal bacterioplankton communities contain SSU rRNA gene lineages (and presumably bacterioplankton) shown previously to be prevalent in freshwater habitats.

  19. Log-Normal Turbulence Dissipation in Global Ocean Models

    Pearson, Brodie; Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    2018-03-01

    Data from turbulent numerical simulations of the global ocean demonstrate that the dissipation of kinetic energy obeys a nearly log-normal distribution even at large horizontal scales O (10 km ) . As the horizontal scales of resolved turbulence are larger than the ocean is deep, the Kolmogorov-Yaglom theory for intermittency in 3D homogeneous, isotropic turbulence cannot apply; instead, the down-scale potential enstrophy cascade of quasigeostrophic turbulence should. Yet, energy dissipation obeys approximate log-normality—robustly across depths, seasons, regions, and subgrid schemes. The distribution parameters, skewness and kurtosis, show small systematic departures from log-normality with depth and subgrid friction schemes. Log-normality suggests that a few high-dissipation locations dominate the integrated energy and enstrophy budgets, which should be taken into account when making inferences from simplified models and inferring global energy budgets from sparse observations.

  20. Global Partnership on Open Data for Development | CRDI - Centre ...

    Global Partnership on Open Data for Development. Open data can help governments, businesses, and organizations share huge amounts of information with the public that can be used and re-used for a variety of social and economic purposes. Open data creates economic value and helps to foster greater civic ...

  1. In situ imaging reveals the biomass of giant protists in the global ocean.

    Biard, Tristan; Stemmann, Lars; Picheral, Marc; Mayot, Nicolas; Vandromme, Pieter; Hauss, Helena; Gorsky, Gabriel; Guidi, Lionel; Kiko, Rainer; Not, Fabrice

    2016-04-28

    Planktonic organisms play crucial roles in oceanic food webs and global biogeochemical cycles. Most of our knowledge about the ecological impact of large zooplankton stems from research on abundant and robust crustaceans, and in particular copepods. A number of the other organisms that comprise planktonic communities are fragile, and therefore hard to sample and quantify, meaning that their abundances and effects on oceanic ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, using data from a worldwide in situ imaging survey of plankton larger than 600 μm, we show that a substantial part of the biomass of this size fraction consists of giant protists belonging to the Rhizaria, a super-group of mostly fragile unicellular marine organisms that includes the taxa Phaeodaria and Radiolaria (for example, orders Collodaria and Acantharia). Globally, we estimate that rhizarians in the top 200 m of world oceans represent a standing stock of 0.089 Pg carbon, equivalent to 5.2% of the total oceanic biota carbon reservoir. In the vast oligotrophic intertropical open oceans, rhizarian biomass is estimated to be equivalent to that of all other mesozooplankton (plankton in the size range 0.2-20 mm). The photosymbiotic association of many rhizarians with microalgae may be an important factor in explaining their distribution. The previously overlooked importance of these giant protists across the widest ecosystem on the planet changes our understanding of marine planktonic ecosystems.

  2. Energetics of global ocean tides from Geosat altimetry

    Cartwright, David E.; Ray, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper focuses on resonance and energetics of the daily tides, especially in the southern ocean, the distribution of gravitational power input of daily and half-daily tides, and comparison with other estimates of global dissipation rates. The present global tidal maps, derived from Geosat altimetry, compare favorably with ground truth data at about the same rms level as the models of Schwiderski (1983), and are slightly better in lunar than in solar tides. Diurnal admittances clearly show Kelvin wave structure in the southern ocean and confirm the resonant mode of Platzman (1984) at 28.5 + or - 0.1 hr with an apparent Q of about 4. Driving energy is found to enter dominantly in the North Pacific for the daily tides and is strongly peaked in the tropical oceans for the half-daily tides. Global rates of working on all major tide constituents except S2 agree well with independent results from analyses of gravity through satellite tracking. Comparison at S2 is improved by allowing for the air tide in gravitational results but suggests deficiencies in all solar tide models.

  3. Global biogeography of Prochlorococcus genome diversity in the surface ocean.

    Kent, Alyssa G; Dupont, Chris L; Yooseph, Shibu; Martiny, Adam C

    2016-08-01

    Prochlorococcus, the smallest known photosynthetic bacterium, is abundant in the ocean's surface layer despite large variation in environmental conditions. There are several genetically divergent lineages within Prochlorococcus and superimposed on this phylogenetic diversity is extensive gene gain and loss. The environmental role in shaping the global ocean distribution of genome diversity in Prochlorococcus is largely unknown, particularly in a framework that considers the vertical and lateral mechanisms of evolution. Here we show that Prochlorococcus field populations from a global circumnavigation harbor extensive genome diversity across the surface ocean, but this diversity is not randomly distributed. We observed a significant correspondence between phylogenetic and gene content diversity, including regional differences in both phylogenetic composition and gene content that were related to environmental factors. Several gene families were strongly associated with specific regions and environmental factors, including the identification of a set of genes related to lower nutrient and temperature regions. Metagenomic assemblies of natural Prochlorococcus genomes reinforced this association by providing linkage of genes across genomic backbones. Overall, our results show that the phylogeography in Prochlorococcus taxonomy is echoed in its genome content. Thus environmental variation shapes the functional capabilities and associated ecosystem role of the globally abundant Prochlorococcus.

  4. OpenDrift - an open source framework for ocean trajectory modeling

    Dagestad, Knut-Frode; Breivik, Øyvind; Ådlandsvik, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    We will present a new, open source tool for modeling the trajectories and fate of particles or substances (Lagrangian Elements) drifting in the ocean, or even in the atmosphere. The software is named OpenDrift, and has been developed at Norwegian Meteorological Institute in cooperation with Institute of Marine Research. OpenDrift is a generic framework written in Python, and is openly available at https://github.com/knutfrode/opendrift/. The framework is modular with respect to three aspects: (1) obtaining input data, (2) the transport/morphological processes, and (3) exporting of results to file. Modularity is achieved through well defined interfaces between components, and use of a consistent vocabulary (CF conventions) for naming of variables. Modular input implies that it is not necessary to preprocess input data (e.g. currents, wind and waves from Eulerian models) to a particular file format. Instead "reader modules" can be written/used to obtain data directly from any original source, including files or through web based protocols (e.g. OPeNDAP/Thredds). Modularity of processes implies that a model developer may focus on the geophysical processes relevant for the application of interest, without needing to consider technical tasks such as reading, reprojecting, and colocating input data, rotation and scaling of vectors and model output. We will show a few example applications of using OpenDrift for predicting drifters, oil spills, and search and rescue objects.

  5. Geophysical Potential for Wind Energy over the Open Oceans

    Possner, A.; Caldeira, K.

    2017-12-01

    Wind turbines continuously remove kinetic energy from the lower troposphere thereby reducing the wind speed near hub height. The rate of electricity generation in large wind farms containing multiple wind arrays is therefore constrained by the rate of kinetic energy replenishment from the atmosphere above. In particular, this study focuses on the maximum sustained transport of kinetic energy through the troposphere to the lowest hundreds of meters above the surface. In recent years, a growing body of research argues that the rate of generated power is limited to around 1.5 Wm-2 within large wind farms. However, in this study we demonstrate that considerably higher power generation rates may be sustainable over some open ocean areas in giant wind farms. We find that in the North Atlantic maximum extraction rates of up to 6.7 Wm-2 may be sustained by the atmosphere in the annual mean over giant wind farm areas approaching the size of Greenland. In contrast, only a third of this rate is sustained on land for areas of equivalent size. Our simulations indicate a fundamental difference in response of the troposphere and its vertical kinetic energy flux to giant near-surface wind farms. We find that the surface heat flux from the oceans to the atmosphere may play an important role in creating regions where large sustained rates of downward transport of kinetic energy and thus rates of kinetic energy extraction may be geophysically possible. While no commercial-scale deep-water wind turbines yet exist, our results suggest that such technologies, if they became technically and economically feasible, could potentially provide civilization-scale power.

  6. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system structure

    Wittig, J. Michael

    1980-01-01

    A generally mushroom-shaped, open cycle OTEC system and distilled water producer which has a skirt-conduit structure extending from the enlarged portion of the mushroom to the ocean. The enlarged part of the mushroom houses a toroidal casing flash evaporator which produces steam which expands through a vertical rotor turbine, partially situated in the center of the blossom portion and partially situated in the mushroom's stem portion. Upon expansion through the turbine, the motive steam enters a shell and tube condenser annularly disposed about the rotor axis and axially situated beneath the turbine in the stem portion. Relatively warm ocean water is circulated up through the radially outer skirt-conduit structure entering the evaporator through a radially outer portion thereof, flashing a portion thereof into motive steam, and draining the unflashed portion from the evaporator through a radially inner skirt-conduit structure. Relatively cold cooling water enters the annular condenser through the radially inner edge and travels radially outwardly into a channel situated along the radially outer edge of the condenser. The channel is also included in the radially inner skirt-conduit structure. The cooling water is segregated from the potable, motive steam condensate which can be used for human consumption or other processes requiring high purity water. The expansion energy of the motive steam is partially converted into rotational mechanical energy of the turbine rotor when the steam is expanded through the shaft attached blades. Such mechanical energy drives a generator also included in the enlarged mushroom portion for producing electrical energy. Such power generation equipment arrangement provides a compact power system from which additional benefits may be obtained by fabricating the enclosing equipment, housings and component casings from low density materials, such as prestressed concrete, to permit those casings and housings to also function as a floating

  7. Variability in global ocean phytoplankton distribution over 1979-2007

    Masotti, I.; Alvain, S.; Moulin, C.; Antoine, D.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, reanalysis of long-term ocean color data (CZCS and SeaWiFS; Antoine et al., 2005) has shown that world ocean average phytoplankton chlorophyll levels show an increase of 20% over the last two decades. It is however unknown whether this increase is associated with a change in the distribution of phytoplankton groups or if it simply corresponds to an increase of the productivity. Within the framework of the GLOBPHY project, the distribution of the phytoplankton groups was monitored by applying the PHYSAT method (Alvain et al., 2005) to the historical ocean color data series from CZCS, OCTS and SeaWiFS sensors. The PHYSAT algorithm allows identification of several phytoplankton, like nanoeucaryotes, prochlorococcus, synechococcus and diatoms. Because both sensors (OCTS-SeaWiFS) are very similar, OCTS data were processed with the standard PHYSAT algorithm to cover the 1996-1997 period during which a large El Niño event occurred, just before the SeaWiFS era. Our analysis of this dataset (1996-2006) evidences a strong variability in the distribution of phytoplankton groups at both regional and global scales. In the equatorial region (0°-5°S), a three-fold increase of nanoeucaryotes frequency was detected in opposition to a two-fold decrease of synechococcus during the early stages of El Niño conditions (May-June 1997, OCTS). The impact of this El Niño is however not confined to the Equatorial Pacific and has affected the global ocean. The processing of CZCS data with PHYSAT has required several adaptations of this algorithm due to the lower performances and the reduced number of spectral bands of the sensor. Despites higher uncertainties, the phytoplankton groups distribution obtained with CZCS is globally consistent with that of SeaWiFS. A comparison of variability in global phytoplankton distribution between 1979-1982 (CZCS) and 1999-2002 (SeaWiFS) suggests an increase in nanoeucaryotes at high latitudes (>40°) and in the equatorial region (10°S-10

  8. Drivers of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the global epipelagic ocean

    Catalá, T. S.

    2016-03-24

    Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in open surface waters (< 200 m) of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans was analysed by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). A four-component PARAFAC model was fit to the EEMs, which included two humic- (C1 and C2) and two amino acid-like (C3 and C4) components previously identified in ocean waters. Generalized-additive models (GAMs) were used to explore the environmental factors that drive the global distribution of these PARAFAC components. The explained variance for the humic-like components was substantially larger (> 70%) than for the amino acid-like components (< 35%). The environmental variables exhibiting the largest effect on the global distribution of C1 and C2 were apparent oxygen utilisation followed by chlorophyll a. Positive non-linear relationships between both predictor variables and the two humic-like PARAFAC components suggest that their distribution are biologically controlled. Compared with the dark ocean (> 200 m), the relationships of C1 and C2 with AOU indicate a higher C1/AOU and C2/AOU ratios of the humic-like substances in the dark ocean than in the surface ocean where a net effect of photobleaching is also detected. C3 (tryptophan-like) and C4 (tyrosine-like) variability was mostly dictated by salinity (S), by means of positive non-linear relationships, suggesting a primary physical control of their distributions at the global surface ocean scale that could be related to the changing evaporation-precipitation regime. Remarkably, bacterial biomass (BB) only contributed to explain a minor part of the variability of C1 and C4.

  9. Geophysical Global Modeling for Extreme Crop Production Using Photosynthesis Models Coupled to Ocean SST Dipoles

    Kaneko, D.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change appears to have manifested itself along with abnormal meteorological disasters. Instability caused by drought and flood disasters is producing poor harvests because of poor photosynthesis and pollination. Fluctuations of extreme phenomena are increasing rapidly because amplitudes of change are much greater than average trends. A fundamental cause of these phenomena derives from increased stored energy inside ocean waters. Geophysical and biochemical modeling of crop production can elucidate complex mechanisms under seasonal climate anomalies. The models have progressed through their combination with global climate reanalysis, environmental satellite data, and harvest data on the ground. This study examined adaptation of crop production to advancing abnormal phenomena related to global climate change. Global environmental surface conditions, i.e., vegetation, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature observed by satellites, enable global modeling of crop production and monitoring. Basic streams of the concepts of modeling rely upon continental energy flow and carbon circulation among crop vegetation, land surface atmosphere combining energy advection from ocean surface anomalies. Global environmental surface conditions, e.g., vegetation, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature observed by satellites, enable global modeling of crop production and monitoring. The method of validating the modeling relies upon carbon partitioning in biomass and grains through carbon flow by photosynthesis using carbon dioxide unit in photosynthesis. Results of computations done for this study show global distributions of actual evaporation, stomata opening, and photosynthesis, presenting mechanisms related to advection effects from SST anomalies in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans on global and continental croplands. For North America, climate effects appear clearly in severe atmospheric phenomena, which have caused drought and forest fires

  10. The influence of Southern Ocean surface buoyancy forcing on glacial-interglacial changes in the global deep ocean stratification

    Sun, S; Eisenman, I; Stewart, AL

    2016-01-01

    ©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Previous studies have suggested that the global ocean density stratification below ∼3000 m is approximately set by its direct connection to the Southern Ocean surface density, which in turn is constrained by the atmosphere. Here the role of Southern Ocean surface forcing in glacial-interglacial stratification changes is investigated using a comprehensive climate model and an idealized conceptual model. Southern Ocean surface forcing is f...

  11. Formulation of an ocean model for global climate simulations

    S. M. Griffies

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the formulation of the ocean component to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's (GFDL climate model used for the 4th IPCC Assessment (AR4 of global climate change. In particular, it reviews the numerical schemes and physical parameterizations that make up an ocean climate model and how these schemes are pieced together for use in a state-of-the-art climate model. Features of the model described here include the following: (1 tripolar grid to resolve the Arctic Ocean without polar filtering, (2 partial bottom step representation of topography to better represent topographically influenced advective and wave processes, (3 more accurate equation of state, (4 three-dimensional flux limited tracer advection to reduce overshoots and undershoots, (5 incorporation of regional climatological variability in shortwave penetration, (6 neutral physics parameterization for representation of the pathways of tracer transport, (7 staggered time stepping for tracer conservation and numerical efficiency, (8 anisotropic horizontal viscosities for representation of equatorial currents, (9 parameterization of exchange with marginal seas, (10 incorporation of a free surface that accomodates a dynamic ice model and wave propagation, (11 transport of water across the ocean free surface to eliminate unphysical ``virtual tracer flux' methods, (12 parameterization of tidal mixing on continental shelves. We also present preliminary analyses of two particularly important sensitivities isolated during the development process, namely the details of how parameterized subgridscale eddies transport momentum and tracers.

  12. Ocean heat content and ocean energy budget: make better use of historical global subsurface temperature dataset

    Cheng, L.; Zhu, J.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean heat content (OHC) change contributes substantially to global sea level rise, also is a key metric of the ocean/global energy budget, so it is a vital task for the climate research community to estimate historical OHC. While there are large uncertainties regarding its value, here we review the OHC calculation by using the historical global subsurface temperature dataset, and discuss the sources of its uncertainty. The presentation briefly introduces how to correct to the systematic biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data, a alternative way of filling data gaps (which is main focus of this talk), and how to choose a proper climatology. A new reconstruction of historical upper (0-700 m) OHC change will be presented, which is the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) version of historical upper OHC assessment. The authors also want to highlight the impact of observation system change on OHC calculation, which could lead to bias in OHC estimates. Furthermore, we will compare the updated observational-based estimates on ocean heat content change since 1970s with CMIP5 results. This comparison shows good agreement, increasing the confidence of the climate models in representing the climate history.

  13. Seamounts are hotspots of pelagic biodiversity in the open ocean.

    Morato, Telmo; Hoyle, Simon D; Allain, Valerie; Nicol, Simon J

    2010-05-25

    The identification of biodiversity hotspots and their management for conservation have been hypothesized as effective ways to protect many species. There has been a significant effort to identify and map these areas at a global scale, but the coarse resolution of most datasets masks the small-scale patterns associated with coastal habitats or seamounts. Here we used tuna longline observer data to investigate the role of seamounts in aggregating large pelagic biodiversity and to identify which pelagic species are associated with seamounts. Our analysis indicates that seamounts are hotspots of pelagic biodiversity. Higher species richness was detected in association with seamounts than with coastal or oceanic areas. Seamounts were found to have higher species diversity within 30-40 km of the summit, whereas for sets close to coastal habitat the diversity was lower and fairly constant with distance. Higher probability of capture and higher number of fish caught were detected for some shark, billfish, tuna, and other by-catch species. The study supports hypotheses that seamounts may be areas of special interest for management for marine pelagic predators.

  14. Open Questions on the Global Contraction of Mercury

    Klimczak, C.; Byrne, P. K.

    2018-05-01

    Substantial progress has been made on determining the amount, timing, and rate of global contraction on Mercury. But many open questions remain to be answered about the process itself, associated landforms, and interactions with other processes.

  15. Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch.

    Cheung, William W L; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-05-16

    Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through distribution shifts, generally to higher latitudes and deeper waters. Consequently, fisheries should be affected by 'tropicalization' of catch (increasing dominance of warm-water species). However, a signature of such climate-change effects on global fisheries catch has so far not been detected. Here we report such an index, the mean temperature of the catch (MTC), that is calculated from the average inferred temperature preference of exploited species weighted by their annual catch. Our results show that, after accounting for the effects of fishing and large-scale oceanographic variability, global MTC increased at a rate of 0.19 degrees Celsius per decade between 1970 and 2006, and non-tropical MTC increased at a rate of 0.23 degrees Celsius per decade. In tropical areas, MTC increased initially because of the reduction in the proportion of subtropical species catches, but subsequently stabilized as scope for further tropicalization of communities became limited. Changes in MTC in 52 large marine ecosystems, covering the majority of the world's coastal and shelf areas, are significantly and positively related to regional changes in sea surface temperature. This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global fisheries in the past four decades, highlighting the immediate need to develop adaptation plans to minimize the effect of such warming on the economy and food security of coastal communities, particularly in tropical regions.

  16. The EuroSITES network: Integrating and enhancing fixed-point open ocean observatories around Europe

    Lampitt, Richard S.; Larkin, Kate E.; EuroSITES Consortium

    2010-05-01

    EuroSITES is a 3 year (2008-2011) EU collaborative project (3.5MEuro) with the objective to integrate and enhance the nine existing open ocean fixed point observatories around Europe (www.eurosites.info). These observatories are primarily composed of full depth moorings and make multidisciplinary in situ observations within the water column as the European contribution to the global array OceanSITES (www.oceansites.org). In the first 18 months, all 9 observatories have been active and integration has been significant through the maintenance and enhancement of observatory hardware. Highlights include the enhancement of observatories with sensors to measure O2, pCO2, chlorophyll, and nitrate in near real-time from the upper 1000 m. In addition, some seafloor missions are also actively supported. These include seafloor platforms currently deployed in the Mediterranean, one for tsunami detection and one to monitor fluid flow related to seismic activity and slope stability. Upcoming seafloor science missions in 2010 include monitoring benthic biological communities and associated biogeochemistry as indicators of climate change in both the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. EuroSITES also promotes the development of innovative sensors and samplers in order to progress capability to measure climate-relevant properties of the ocean. These include further developing current technologies for autonomous long-term monitoring of oxygen consumption in the mesopelagic, pH and mesozooplankton abundance. Many of these science missions are directly related to complementary activities in other European projects such as EPOCA, HYPOX and ESONET. In 2010 a direct collaboration including in situ field work will take place between ESONET and EuroSITES. The demonstration mission MODOO (funded by ESONET) will be implemented in 2010 at the EuroSITES PAP observatory. Field work will include deployment of a seafloor lander system with various sensors which will send data to shore in real

  17. Global symmetries of open strings in an electromagnetic background

    Ferrer, E.J.; de la Incera, V.

    1994-01-01

    The global symmetries of open bosonic strings in an electromagnetic background are investigated. The Poincare subalgebra and the mass of the open charged string are derived. These results are useful for computing the background electric field dependence of the one-loop free energy and Hagedorn temperature of a neutral string gas

  18. Assessing global carbon burial during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event

    Owens, J. D.; Lyons, T. W.; Lowery, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Reconstructing the areal extent and total amount of organic carbon burial during ancient events remains elusive even for the best documented oceanic anoxic event (OAE) in Earth history, the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event ( 93.9 Ma), or OAE 2. Reports from 150 OAE 2 localities provide a wide global distribution. However, despite the large number of sections, the majority are found within the proto-Atlantic and Tethyan oceans and interior seaways. Considering these gaps in spatial coverage, the pervasive increase in organic carbon (OC) burial during OAE2 that drove carbon isotope values more positive (average of 4‰) can provide additional insight. These isotope data allow us to estimate the total global burial of OC, even for unstudied portions of the global ocean. Thus, we can solve for any `missing' OC sinks by comparing our estimates from a forward carbon-isotope box model with the known, mapped distribution of OC for OAE 2 sediments. Using the known OC distribution and reasonably extrapolating to the surrounding regions of analogous depositional conditions accounts for only 13% of the total seafloor, mostly in marginal marine settings. This small geographic area accounts for more OC burial than the entire modern ocean, but significantly less than the amount necessary to produce the observed isotope record. Using modern and OAE 2 average OC rates we extrapolate further to appropriate depositional settings in the unknown portions of seafloor, mostly deep abyssal plains. This addition significantly increases the predicted amount buried but still does not account for total burial. Additional sources, including hydrocarbon migration, lacustrine, and coal also cannot account for the missing OC. This difference points to unknown portions of the open ocean with high TOC contents or exceptionally high TOC in productive marginal marine regions, which are underestimated in our extrapolations. This difference might be explained by highly productive margins within the

  19. The coastal ocean response to the global warming acceleration and hiatus.

    Liao, Enhui; Lu, Wenfang; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Jiang, Yuwu; Kidwell, Autumn

    2015-11-16

    Coastlines are fundamental to humans for habitation, commerce, and natural resources. Many coastal ecosystem disasters, caused by extreme sea surface temperature (SST), were reported when the global climate shifted from global warming to global surface warming hiatus after 1998. The task of understanding the coastal SST variations within the global context is an urgent matter. Our study on the global coastal SST from 1982 to 2013 revealed a significant cooling trend in the low and mid latitudes (31.4% of the global coastlines) after 1998, while 17.9% of the global coastlines changed from a cooling trend to a warming trend concurrently. The trend reversals in the Northern Pacific and Atlantic coincided with the phase shift of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation, respectively. These coastal SST changes are larger than the changes of the global mean and open ocean, resulting in a fast increase of extremely hot/cold days, and thus extremely hot/cold events. Meanwhile, a continuous increase of SST was detected for a considerable portion of coastlines (46.7%) with a strengthened warming along the coastlines in the high northern latitudes. This suggests the warming still continued and strengthened in some regions after 1998, but with a weaker pattern in the low and mid latitudes.

  20. The coastal ocean response to the global warming acceleration and hiatus

    Liao, Enhui; Lu, Wenfang; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Jiang, Yuwu; Kidwell, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Coastlines are fundamental to humans for habitation, commerce, and natural resources. Many coastal ecosystem disasters, caused by extreme sea surface temperature (SST), were reported when the global climate shifted from global warming to global surface warming hiatus after 1998. The task of understanding the coastal SST variations within the global context is an urgent matter. Our study on the global coastal SST from 1982 to 2013 revealed a significant cooling trend in the low and mid latitudes (31.4% of the global coastlines) after 1998, while 17.9% of the global coastlines changed from a cooling trend to a warming trend concurrently. The trend reversals in the Northern Pacific and Atlantic coincided with the phase shift of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation, respectively. These coastal SST changes are larger than the changes of the global mean and open ocean, resulting in a fast increase of extremely hot/cold days, and thus extremely hot/cold events. Meanwhile, a continuous increase of SST was detected for a considerable portion of coastlines (46.7%) with a strengthened warming along the coastlines in the high northern latitudes. This suggests the warming still continued and strengthened in some regions after 1998, but with a weaker pattern in the low and mid latitudes. PMID:26568024

  1. ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF RECENT GLOBAL OCEAN TIDE MODELS AROUND ANTARCTICA

    J. Lei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the coverage limitation of T/P-series altimeters, the lack of bathymetric data under large ice shelves, and the inaccurate definitions of coastlines and grounding lines, the accuracy of ocean tide models around Antarctica is poorer than those in deep oceans. Using tidal measurements from tide gauges, gravimetric data and GPS records, the accuracy of seven state-of-the-art global ocean tide models (DTU10, EOT11a, GOT4.8, FES2012, FES2014, HAMTIDE12, TPXO8 is assessed, as well as the most widely-used conventional model FES2004. Four regions (Antarctic Peninsula region, Amery ice shelf region, Filchner-Ronne ice shelf region and Ross ice shelf region are separately reported. The standard deviations of eight main constituents between the selected models are large in polar regions, especially under the big ice shelves, suggesting that the uncertainty in these regions remain large. Comparisons with in situ tidal measurements show that the most accurate model is TPXO8, and all models show worst performance in Weddell sea and Filchner-Ronne ice shelf regions. The accuracy of tidal predictions around Antarctica is gradually improving.

  2. Global ocean carbon uptake: magnitude, variability and trends

    R. Wanninkhof

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The globally integrated sea–air anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 flux from 1990 to 2009 is determined from models and data-based approaches as part of the Regional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP project. Numerical methods include ocean inverse models, atmospheric inverse models, and ocean general circulation models with parameterized biogeochemistry (OBGCMs. The median value of different approaches shows good agreement in average uptake. The best estimate of anthropogenic CO2 uptake for the time period based on a compilation of approaches is −2.0 Pg C yr−1. The interannual variability in the sea–air flux is largely driven by large-scale climate re-organizations and is estimated at 0.2 Pg C yr−1 for the two decades with some systematic differences between approaches. The largest differences between approaches are seen in the decadal trends. The trends range from −0.13 (Pg C yr−1 decade−1 to −0.50 (Pg C yr−1 decade−1 for the two decades under investigation. The OBGCMs and the data-based sea–air CO2 flux estimates show appreciably smaller decadal trends than estimates based on changes in carbon inventory suggesting that methods capable of resolving shorter timescales are showing a slowing of the rate of ocean CO2 uptake. RECCAP model outputs for five decades show similar differences in trends between approaches.

  3. Accuracy Assessment of Recent Global Ocean Tide Models around Antarctica

    Lei, J.; Li, F.; Zhang, S.; Ke, H.; Zhang, Q.; Li, W.

    2017-09-01

    Due to the coverage limitation of T/P-series altimeters, the lack of bathymetric data under large ice shelves, and the inaccurate definitions of coastlines and grounding lines, the accuracy of ocean tide models around Antarctica is poorer than those in deep oceans. Using tidal measurements from tide gauges, gravimetric data and GPS records, the accuracy of seven state-of-the-art global ocean tide models (DTU10, EOT11a, GOT4.8, FES2012, FES2014, HAMTIDE12, TPXO8) is assessed, as well as the most widely-used conventional model FES2004. Four regions (Antarctic Peninsula region, Amery ice shelf region, Filchner-Ronne ice shelf region and Ross ice shelf region) are separately reported. The standard deviations of eight main constituents between the selected models are large in polar regions, especially under the big ice shelves, suggesting that the uncertainty in these regions remain large. Comparisons with in situ tidal measurements show that the most accurate model is TPXO8, and all models show worst performance in Weddell sea and Filchner-Ronne ice shelf regions. The accuracy of tidal predictions around Antarctica is gradually improving.

  4. The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS): New developments

    Summerhayes, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    GOOS will provide information about the present and future states of seas and oceans and their living resources, and on the role of the oceans in climate change. Among other things, it will include monitoring the extent to which the sea is polluted, and applying models enabling the behaviour of polluted environments to be forecast given a variety of forcing conditions including anthropogenic and natural changes. Implementation has begun through integration of previously separate existing observing systems into a GOOS Initial Observing System, and through the development of Pilot Projects, most notably in the coastal seas of Europe and North-east Asia. Although the present emphasis is on the measurement of physical properties, plans are underway for increasing the observation of chemical and biological parameters. The main biological thrust at present comes through the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN). Consideration needs to be given to incorporation into the GOOS Initial Observing System of present national, international and global chemical and biological monitoring systems, and the development and implementation of new chemical and biological monitoring subsystems, especially in coastal seas for monitoring the health of those environments. GOOS will offer marine scientists and other users a scheme of continuing measurements on a scale larger in time and space than can be accomplished by individuals for their own applications, and a vastly improved store of basic marine environmental data for a multitude of purposes. For GOOS news see the GOOS Homepage at http://ioc.unesco.org/GOOS/. (author)

  5. Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean

    Pernice, Massimo C; Forn, Irene; Gomes, Ana; Lara, Elena; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Arrieta, Jesus M; del Carmen Garcia, Francisca; Hernando-Morales, Victor; MacKenzie, Roy; Mestre, Mireia; Sintes, Eva; Teira, Eva; Valencia, Joaquin; Varela, Marta M; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The dark ocean is one of the largest biomes on Earth, with critical roles in organic matter remineralization and global carbon sequestration. Despite its recognized importance, little is known about some key microbial players, such as the community of heterotrophic protists (HP), which are likely the main consumers of prokaryotic biomass. To investigate this microbial component at a global scale, we determined their abundance and biomass in deepwater column samples from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation using a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. HP were ubiquitously found at all depths investigated down to 4000 m. HP abundances decreased with depth, from an average of 72±19 cells ml−1 in mesopelagic waters down to 11±1 cells ml−1 in bathypelagic waters, whereas their total biomass decreased from 280±46 to 50±14 pg C ml−1. The parameters that better explained the variance of HP abundance were depth and prokaryote abundance, and to lesser extent oxygen concentration. The generally good correlation with prokaryotic abundance suggested active grazing of HP on prokaryotes. On a finer scale, the prokaryote:HP abundance ratio varied at a regional scale, and sites with the highest ratios exhibited a larger contribution of fungi molecular signal. Our study is a step forward towards determining the relationship between HP and their environment, unveiling their importance as players in the dark ocean's microbial food web. PMID:25290506

  6. AFSC/ABL: Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) fish and oceanography data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Understanding the processes that regulate early marine survival of salmon is a major goal of the Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) Northeast Pacific (NEP)...

  7. NODC Standard Product: Global ocean temperature and salinity profiles (2 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098058)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This set of CD-ROMs contains global ocean temperature and salinity profiles derived from NODC archive data files. It includes oceanographic station (bottle) data,...

  8. Coastal Ocean Observing Network - Open Source Architecture for Data Management and Web-Based Data Services

    Pattabhi Rama Rao, E.; Venkat Shesu, R.; Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S.

    2012-07-01

    The observations from the oceans are the backbone for any kind of operational services, viz. potential fishing zone advisory services, ocean state forecast, storm surges, cyclones, monsoon variability, tsunami, etc. Though it is important to monitor open Ocean, it is equally important to acquire sufficient data in the coastal ocean through coastal ocean observing systems for re-analysis, analysis and forecast of coastal ocean by assimilating different ocean variables, especially sub-surface information; validation of remote sensing data, ocean and atmosphere model/analysis and to understand the processes related to air-sea interaction and ocean physics. Accurate information and forecast of the state of the coastal ocean at different time scales is vital for the wellbeing of the coastal population as well as for the socio-economic development of the country through shipping, offshore oil and energy etc. Considering the importance of ocean observations in terms of understanding our ocean environment and utilize them for operational oceanography, a large number of platforms were deployed in the Indian Ocean including coastal observatories, to acquire data on ocean variables in and around Indian Seas. The coastal observation network includes HF Radars, wave rider buoys, sea level gauges, etc. The surface meteorological and oceanographic data generated by these observing networks are being translated into ocean information services through analysis and modelling. Centralized data management system is a critical component in providing timely delivery of Ocean information and advisory services. In this paper, we describe about the development of open-source architecture for real-time data reception from the coastal observation network, processing, quality control, database generation and web-based data services that includes on-line data visualization and data downloads by various means.

  9. Spiraling pathways of global deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean

    Tamsitt, Veronica; Drake, Henri F.; Morrison, Adele K.; Talley, Lynne D.; Dufour, Carolina O.; Gray, Alison R.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Wang, Jinbo; Weijer, Wilbert

    2017-01-01

    Upwelling of global deep waters to the sea surface in the Southern Ocean closes the global overturning circulation and is fundamentally important for oceanic uptake of carbon and heat, nutrient resupply for sustaining oceanic biological production, and the melt rate of ice shelves. However, the exact pathways and role of topography in Southern Ocean upwelling remain largely unknown. Here we show detailed upwelling pathways in three dimensions, using hydrographic observations and particle trac...

  10. C-GLORSv5: an improved multipurpose global ocean eddy-permitting physical reanalysis

    A. Storto; S. Masina

    2016-01-01

    Global ocean reanalyses combine in situ and satellite ocean observations with a general circulation ocean model to estimate the time-evolving state of the ocean, and they represent a valuable tool for a variety of applications, ranging from climate monitoring and process studies to downstream applications, initialization of long-range forecasts and regional studies. The purpose of this paper is to document the recent upgrade of C-GLORS (version 5), the latest ocean reanalysi...

  11. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): using regional data systems for global ocean research

    Schaap, D.; Thijsse, P.; Glaves, H.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean acidification, loss of coral reefs, sustainable exploitation of the marine environment are just a few of the challenges researchers around the world are currently attempting to understand and address. However, studies of these ecosystem level challenges are impossible unless researchers can discover and re-use the large volumes of interoperable multidisciplinary data that are currently only accessible through regional and global data systems that serve discreet, and often discipline specific, user communities. The plethora of marine data systems currently in existence are also using different standards, technologies and best practices making re-use of the data problematic for those engaged in interdisciplinary marine research. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) is responding to this growing demand for discoverable, accessible and reusable data by establishing the foundations for a common global framework for marine data management. But creation of such an infrastructure is a major undertaking, and one that needs to be achieved in part by establishing different levels of interoperability across existing regional and global marine e-infrastructures. Workshops organised by ODIP II facilitate dialogue between selected regional and global marine data systems in an effort to identify potential solutions that integrate these marine e-infrastructures. The outcomes of these discussions have formed the basis for a number of prototype development tasks that aim to demonstrate effective sharing of data across multiple data systems, and allow users to access data from more than one system through a single access point. The ODIP II project is currently developing four prototype solutions that are establishing interoperability between selected regional marine data management infrastructures in Europe, the USA, Canada and Australia, and with the global POGO, IODE Ocean Data Portal (ODP) and GEOSS systems. The potential impact of implementing these solutions for

  12. Modeling selective pressures on phytoplankton in the global ocean.

    Jason G Bragg

    Full Text Available Our view of marine microbes is transforming, as culture-independent methods facilitate rapid characterization of microbial diversity. It is difficult to assimilate this information into our understanding of marine microbe ecology and evolution, because their distributions, traits, and genomes are shaped by forces that are complex and dynamic. Here we incorporate diverse forces--physical, biogeochemical, ecological, and mutational--into a global ocean model to study selective pressures on a simple trait in a widely distributed lineage of picophytoplankton: the nitrogen use abilities of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria. Some Prochlorococcus ecotypes have lost the ability to use nitrate, whereas their close relatives, marine Synechococcus, typically retain it. We impose mutations for the loss of nitrogen use abilities in modeled picophytoplankton, and ask: in which parts of the ocean are mutants most disadvantaged by losing the ability to use nitrate, and in which parts are they least disadvantaged? Our model predicts that this selective disadvantage is smallest for picophytoplankton that live in tropical regions where Prochlorococcus are abundant in the real ocean. Conversely, the selective disadvantage of losing the ability to use nitrate is larger for modeled picophytoplankton that live at higher latitudes, where Synechococcus are abundant. In regions where we expect Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations to cycle seasonally in the real ocean, we find that model ecotypes with seasonal population dynamics similar to Prochlorococcus are less disadvantaged by losing the ability to use nitrate than model ecotypes with seasonal population dynamics similar to Synechococcus. The model predictions for the selective advantage associated with nitrate use are broadly consistent with the distribution of this ability among marine picocyanobacteria, and at finer scales, can provide insights into interactions between temporally varying

  13. Modeling selective pressures on phytoplankton in the global ocean.

    Bragg, Jason G; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Jahn, Oliver; Follows, Michael J; Chisholm, Sallie W

    2010-03-10

    Our view of marine microbes is transforming, as culture-independent methods facilitate rapid characterization of microbial diversity. It is difficult to assimilate this information into our understanding of marine microbe ecology and evolution, because their distributions, traits, and genomes are shaped by forces that are complex and dynamic. Here we incorporate diverse forces--physical, biogeochemical, ecological, and mutational--into a global ocean model to study selective pressures on a simple trait in a widely distributed lineage of picophytoplankton: the nitrogen use abilities of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria. Some Prochlorococcus ecotypes have lost the ability to use nitrate, whereas their close relatives, marine Synechococcus, typically retain it. We impose mutations for the loss of nitrogen use abilities in modeled picophytoplankton, and ask: in which parts of the ocean are mutants most disadvantaged by losing the ability to use nitrate, and in which parts are they least disadvantaged? Our model predicts that this selective disadvantage is smallest for picophytoplankton that live in tropical regions where Prochlorococcus are abundant in the real ocean. Conversely, the selective disadvantage of losing the ability to use nitrate is larger for modeled picophytoplankton that live at higher latitudes, where Synechococcus are abundant. In regions where we expect Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations to cycle seasonally in the real ocean, we find that model ecotypes with seasonal population dynamics similar to Prochlorococcus are less disadvantaged by losing the ability to use nitrate than model ecotypes with seasonal population dynamics similar to Synechococcus. The model predictions for the selective advantage associated with nitrate use are broadly consistent with the distribution of this ability among marine picocyanobacteria, and at finer scales, can provide insights into interactions between temporally varying ocean processes and

  14. Rapid global ocean-atmosphere response to Southern Ocean freshening during the last glacial.

    Turney, Chris S M; Jones, Richard T; Phipps, Steven J; Thomas, Zoë; Hogg, Alan; Kershaw, A Peter; Fogwill, Christopher J; Palmer, Jonathan; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Adolphi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Hughen, Konrad A; Staff, Richard A; Grosvenor, Mark; Golledge, Nicholas R; Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Hutchinson, David K; Haberle, Simon; Lorrey, Andrew; Boswijk, Gretel; Cooper, Alan

    2017-09-12

    Contrasting Greenland and Antarctic temperatures during the last glacial period (115,000 to 11,650 years ago) are thought to have been driven by imbalances in the rates of formation of North Atlantic and Antarctic Deep Water (the 'bipolar seesaw'). Here we exploit a bidecadally resolved 14 C data set obtained from New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) to undertake high-precision alignment of key climate data sets spanning iceberg-rafted debris event Heinrich 3 and Greenland Interstadial (GI) 5.1 in the North Atlantic (~30,400 to 28,400 years ago). We observe no divergence between the kauri and Atlantic marine sediment 14 C data sets, implying limited changes in deep water formation. However, a Southern Ocean (Atlantic-sector) iceberg rafted debris event appears to have occurred synchronously with GI-5.1 warming and decreased precipitation over the western equatorial Pacific and Atlantic. An ensemble of transient meltwater simulations shows that Antarctic-sourced salinity anomalies can generate climate changes that are propagated globally via an atmospheric Rossby wave train.A challenge for testing mechanisms of past climate change is the precise correlation of palaeoclimate records. Here, through climate modelling and the alignment of terrestrial, ice and marine 14 C and 10 Be records, the authors show that Southern Ocean freshwater hosing can trigger global change.

  15. Impact of biomass burning on nutrient deposition to the global ocean

    Kanakidou, Maria; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Daskalakis, Nikos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition of trace constituents, both of natural and anthropogenic origin, can act as a nutrient source into the open ocean and affect marine ecosystem functioning and subsequently the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the global ocean. Dust is known as a major source of nutrients (Fe and P) into the atmosphere, but only a fraction of these nutrients is released in soluble form that can be assimilated by the ecosystems. Dust is also known to enhance N deposition by interacting with anthropogenic pollutants and neutralisation of part of the acidity of the atmosphere by crustal alkaline species. These nutrients have also primary anthropogenic sources including combustion emissions. The global atmospheric N [1], Fe [2] and P [3] cycles have been parameterized in the global 3-D chemical transport model TM4-ECPL, accounting for inorganic and organic forms of these nutrients, for all natural and anthropogenic sources of these nutrients including biomass burning, as well as for the link between the soluble forms of Fe and P atmospheric deposition and atmospheric acidity. The impact of atmospheric acidity on nutrient solubility has been parameterised based on experimental findings and the model results have been evaluated by extensive comparison with available observations. In the present study we isolate the significant impact of biomass burning emissions on these nutrients deposition by comparing global simulations that consider or neglect biomass burning emissions. The investigated impact integrates changes in the emissions of the nutrients as well as in atmospheric oxidants and acidity and thus in atmospheric processing and secondary sources of these nutrients. The results are presented and thoroughly discussed. References [1] Kanakidou M, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. Daskalakis, G. Fanourgakis, A. Nenes, A. Baker, K. Tsigaridis, N. Mihalopoulos, Past, Present and Future Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (JAS-D-15

  16. The development of radioactivity diffusion model in global ocean

    Nakano, M.; Watanabe, H.; Katagiri, H.

    2000-01-01

    The radioactivity diffusion model in global ocean has been developing in order to assess the long-term behavior of radioactive materials for discharge from nuclear facility. The model system consists of two parts. One is to calculate current velocity; and the other is for particle chasing. Both systems are executed by Macintosh personal computer. A lot of techniques to estimate ocean current velocity were investigated in geophysical field. The robust diagnosis model advocated by Sarmiento and Bryan was applied to build the numerical calculation system for getting the current velocity field in global scale. The latitudinal and longitudinal lattices were 2 degrees each and the number of vertical layer was 15. The movement of radioactive materials by current and diffusion were calculated using the particle chasing system. The above-mentioned current velocity field and the initial particle positions at will were read by the system. The movement of a particle was calculated using the interpolated current data step by step. The diffusion of a particle was calculated by random walk method. The model was verified by using the fallout data from atmospheric nuclear test. Yearly and latitudinal fallout data was adopted from UNSCEAR1977. The calculation result was compared with the observation data that includes total amount and vertical profile of Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 in the North Pacific Ocean. The result of the verification was agreed with the following general knowledge. Though the fallout amount between 40N and 50N was the biggest in the world, the amount in the seawater between 40N and 50N was smaller than that in south of 40N because of horizontal transportation, which carried water from north to south. As for vertical profile, Cs-137 could be accurately calculated except the surface layer. However the observation peak of Pu-239,240 existed deeper than the calculation peak. This model could calculate the vertical profile of Cs-137 because most of Cs exists as dissolved

  17. Glacial-interglacial variability in ocean oxygen and phosphorus in a global biogeochemical model

    Palastanga, V.; Slomp, C.P.; Heinze, C.

    2013-01-01

    Increased transfer of particulate matter from continental shelves to the open ocean during glacials may have had a major impact on the biogeochemistry of the ocean. Here, we assess the response of the coupled oceanic cycles of oxygen, carbon, phosphorus, and iron to the input of particulate organic

  18. GLOBEC: Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics: A component of the US Global Change Research Program

    1991-01-01

    GLOBEC (GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics) is a research initiative proposed by the oceanographic and fisheries communities to address the question of how changes in global environment are expected to affect the abundance and production of animals in the sea. The approach to this problem is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that determine both the abundance of key marine animal populations and their variances in space and time. The assumption is that the physical environment is a major contributor to patterns of abundance and production of marine animals, in large part because the planktonic life stages typical of most marine animals are intrinsically at the mercy of the fluid motions of the medium in which they live. Consequently, the authors reason that a logical approach to predicting the potential impact of a globally changing environment is to understand how the physical environment, both directly and indirectly, contributes to animal abundance and its variability in marine ecosystems. The plans for this coordinated study of of the potential impact of global change on ocean ecosystems dynamics are discussed.

  19. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    Scott, Robert B.; Arbic, Brian K.; Chassignet, Eric P.; Coward, Andrew C.; Maltrud, Mathew; Merryfield, William J.; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Varghese, Anson

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between

  20. The oceanic cycle and global atmospheric budget of carbonyl sulfide

    Weiss, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    A significant portion of stratospheric air chemistry is influenced by the existence of carbonyl sulfide (COS). This ubiquitous sulfur gas represents a major source of sulfur to the stratosphere where it is converted to sulfuric acid aerosol particles. Stratospheric aerosols are climatically important because they scatter incoming solar radiation back to space and are able to increase the catalytic destruction of ozone through gas phase reactions on particle surfaces. COS is primarily formed at the surface of the earth, in both marine and terrestrial environments, and is strongly linked to natural biological processes. However, many gaps in the understanding of the global COS cycle still exist, which has led to a global atmospheric budget that is out of balance by a factor of two or more, and a lack of understanding of how human activity has affected the cycling of this gas. The goal of this study was to focus on COS in the marine environment by investigating production/destruction mechanisms and recalculating the ocean-atmosphere flux.

  1. A Unified Model for Methylmercury Formation and Bioaccumulation in the Global Ocean

    Zhang, Y.; Schartup, A. T.; Soerensen, A.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Marine fish consumption is the main exposure pathway for methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxin, in many countries. The Hg in the ocean is mainly from atmospheric deposition in inorganic forms. How the deposited Hg is methylated and accumulated in biota remain an open question. We develop a 3D model (MITgcm) for MeHg formation and bioaccumulation in the global ocean and evaluate the driving factors. The model is based on a previous published inorganic Hg model and is coupled with the bioaccumulation model for marine methylmercury (BAM3) with ocean biogeochemistry from DARWIN model. We develop a unified scheme that scales methylation by microbe activity and assumes demethylation a function of short wave radiation and temperature. The model result agrees well with currently available observations at the 0-100 m (mod.: 43±52 fM vs obs.: 69±67 fM, 1 fM = 10-15 mol/L), 500 m (360±280 fM vs 340±260 fM), and 1000 m depth (260±170 fM vs 290±210 fM). In the surface ocean, we find the MeHg concentrations are a function of latitude, resulting from photodemethylation. The model reproduces the high concentrations observed over the sub-thermocline of Pacific Subarctic Gyre, which is associated with active microbe activity. On the other hand, both the model and observations suggest low concentrations over oligotrophic regions such as Indian Ocean Gyre. In the tropical oceans, the model predicts the highest MeHg concentrations, consistent with observation, and it is caused by the overlapping high atmospheric deposition and active microbe activities. The model captures the high concentrations in the subsurface of the Arctic and Southern Ocean where low temperature slows down abiotic demethylation. The modeled global average MeHg concentration in phytoplankton is 2.0 ng/g (by wet weight), within the same range of observations. High concentrations are modeled over tropical and high-latitude regions due to the dominance of small sized prochlorococcus and high seawater concentrations

  2. Convergence of marine megafauna movement patterns in coastal and open oceans

    Sequeira, A. M. M.; Rodrí guez, J. P.; Eguí luz, V. M.; Harcourt, R.; Hindell, M.; Sims, D. W.; Duarte, C. M.; Costa, D. P.; Ferná ndez-Gracia, J.; Ferreira, L. C.; Hays, G. C.; Heupel, M. R.; Meekan, M. G.; Aven, A.; Bailleul, F.; Baylis, A. M. M.; Berumen, Michael L.; Braun, C. D.; Burns, J.; Caley, M. J.; Campbell, R.; Carmichael, R. H.; Clua, E.; Einoder, L. D.; Friedlaender, Ari; Goebel, M. E.; Goldsworthy, S. D.; Guinet, C.; Gunn, J.; Hamer, D.; Hammerschlag, N.; Hammill, M.; Hü ckstä dt, L. A.; Humphries, N. E.; Lea, M.-A.; Lowther, A.; Mackay, A.; McHuron, E.; McKenzie, J.; McLeay, L.; McMahon, C. R.; Mengersen, K.; Muelbert, M. M. C.; Pagano, A. M.; Page, B.; Queiroz, N.; Robinson, P. W.; Shaffer, S. A.; Shivji, M.; Skomal, G. B.; Thorrold, S. R.; Villegas-Amtmann, S.; Weise, M.; Wells, R.; Wetherbee, B.; Wiebkin, A.; Wienecke, B.; Thums, M.

    2018-01-01

    The extent of increasing anthropogenic impacts on large marine vertebrates partly depends on the animals' movement patterns. Effective conservation requires identification of the key drivers of movement including intrinsic properties and extrinsic constraints associated with the dynamic nature of the environments the animals inhabit. However, the relative importance of intrinsic versus extrinsic factors remains elusive. We analyze a global dataset of ∼2.8 million locations from >2,600 tracked individuals across 50 marine vertebrates evolutionarily separated by millions of years and using different locomotion modes (fly, swim, walk/paddle). Strikingly, movement patterns show a remarkable convergence, being strongly conserved across species and independent of body length and mass, despite these traits ranging over 10 orders of magnitude among the species studied. This represents a fundamental difference between marine and terrestrial vertebrates not previously identified, likely linked to the reduced costs of locomotion in water. Movement patterns were primarily explained by the interaction between species-specific traits and the habitat(s) they move through, resulting in complex movement patterns when moving close to coasts compared with more predictable patterns when moving in open oceans. This distinct difference may be associated with greater complexity within coastal microhabitats, highlighting a critical role of preferred habitat in shaping marine vertebrate global movements. Efforts to develop understanding of the characteristics of vertebrate movement should consider the habitat(s) through which they move to identify how movement patterns will alter with forecasted severe ocean changes, such as reduced Arctic sea ice cover, sea level rise, and declining oxygen content.

  3. Convergence of marine megafauna movement patterns in coastal and open oceans

    Sequeira, A. M. M.

    2018-02-26

    The extent of increasing anthropogenic impacts on large marine vertebrates partly depends on the animals\\' movement patterns. Effective conservation requires identification of the key drivers of movement including intrinsic properties and extrinsic constraints associated with the dynamic nature of the environments the animals inhabit. However, the relative importance of intrinsic versus extrinsic factors remains elusive. We analyze a global dataset of ∼2.8 million locations from >2,600 tracked individuals across 50 marine vertebrates evolutionarily separated by millions of years and using different locomotion modes (fly, swim, walk/paddle). Strikingly, movement patterns show a remarkable convergence, being strongly conserved across species and independent of body length and mass, despite these traits ranging over 10 orders of magnitude among the species studied. This represents a fundamental difference between marine and terrestrial vertebrates not previously identified, likely linked to the reduced costs of locomotion in water. Movement patterns were primarily explained by the interaction between species-specific traits and the habitat(s) they move through, resulting in complex movement patterns when moving close to coasts compared with more predictable patterns when moving in open oceans. This distinct difference may be associated with greater complexity within coastal microhabitats, highlighting a critical role of preferred habitat in shaping marine vertebrate global movements. Efforts to develop understanding of the characteristics of vertebrate movement should consider the habitat(s) through which they move to identify how movement patterns will alter with forecasted severe ocean changes, such as reduced Arctic sea ice cover, sea level rise, and declining oxygen content.

  4. Globalization: an open door for the knowledge economy

    Andreea MARIN-PANTELESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization refers to an emphasized process of global integration and spreading a set of ideas related to the economical activity and goods’ production, the premises being the liberalization of international commerce and the capital flows, the speeding up of the technological progress and informational society. The cognitive society is more and more obvious and unanimously accepted, which actually proves its efficiency. If traditional, conservative communities, which are not open to change and reject from the start anything new on the horizon, still exist today, they are isolated cases that will eventually be "converted" by this wave of information that has become indispensable to any development because in its absence resources could not be used efficiently. Taking into consideration these elements, this paper wishes to give arguments to the fact that globalization can be seen as being an open door for the cognitive society.

  5. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I. -I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas. PMID:25982028

  6. Trends in the Indian Ocean Climatology due to anthropogenic induced global warming

    Meyer, AA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available clearly show that due to global warming the South West Indian Ocean Climatology has been changing and that this changing trend will continue into the future as global warming continues. The impacts of regional oceanic climate change on the regions coastal...

  7. Bioavailable atmospheric phosphorous supply to the global ocean: a 3-D global modeling study

    Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Nenes, Athanasios; Baker, Alex R.; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric cycle of phosphorus (P) is parameterized here in a state-of-the-art global 3-D chemistry transport model, taking into account primary emissions of total P (TP) and soluble P (DP) associated with mineral dust, combustion particles from natural and anthropogenic sources, bioaerosols, sea spray and volcanic aerosols. For the present day, global TP emissions are calculated to be roughly 1.33 Tg-P yr-1, with the mineral sources contributing more than 80 % to these emissions. The P solubilization from mineral dust under acidic atmospheric conditions is also parameterized in the model and is calculated to contribute about one-third (0.14 Tg-P yr-1) of the global DP atmospheric source. To our knowledge, a unique aspect of our global study is the explicit modeling of the evolution of phosphorus speciation in the atmosphere. The simulated present-day global annual DP deposition flux is 0.45 Tg-P yr-1 (about 40 % over oceans), showing a strong spatial and temporal variability. Present-day simulations of atmospheric P aerosol concentrations and deposition fluxes are satisfactory compared with available observations, indicating however an underestimate of about 70 % on current knowledge of the sources that drive the P atmospheric cycle. Sensitivity simulations using preindustrial (year 1850) anthropogenic and biomass burning emission scenarios showed a present-day increase of 75 % in the P solubilization flux from mineral dust, i.e., the rate at which P is converted into soluble forms, compared to preindustrial times, due to increasing atmospheric acidity over the last 150 years. Future reductions in air pollutants due to the implementation of air-quality regulations are expected to decrease the P solubilization flux from mineral dust by about 30 % in the year 2100 compared to the present day. Considering, however, that all the P contained in bioaerosols is readily available for uptake by marine organisms, and also accounting for all other DP sources, a total

  8. The causes of alkalinity variations in the global surface ocean

    Fry, Claudia Helen

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have caused the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) to increase by 120 ppmv from pre-industrial times to 2014. The ocean takes up approximately a quarter of the anthropogenic CO2, causing ocean acidification (OA). Therefore it is necessary to study the ocean carbonate system, including alkalinity, to quantify the flux of CO2 into the ocean and understand OA. Since the 1970s, carbonate system measurements have been undertaken which can be analyzed to quantify the...

  9. Uranium in open ocean: concentration and isotopic composition

    Ku, T.L.; Knauss, K.G.; Mathieu, G.G.

    1977-01-01

    Uranium concentrations and 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios have been determined in 63 seawater samples (nine vertical profiles) from the Atlantic, and Pacific, and Arctic, and the Antarctic oceans, using the alpha-spectrometric method for their determinations. Correlation between uranium and salinity is well manifested by the data from the Arctic and the Antarctic oceans, but such a relation cannot be clearly defined with the +-(1 to 2)% precision of uranium measurements for the Atlantic and Pacific data. At the 95% confidence level: (1) the uranium/salinity ratio is (9.34 + - 0.56) x 10 -8 g/g for the seawater analyzed with salinity ranging from 30.3 to 36.2 per thousand; the uranium concentration of seawater of 35 per thousand salinity is 3.3 5 + - 0.2 μ g l -1 ; (2) the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio is 1.14 +- 0.03. Uranium isotopes in interstitial waters of the Pacific surface sediments analyzed do not show large concentration differences across the sediment-water interface as suggested by previous measurements. Current estimations of the average world river uranium concentration (0.3 to 0.6 μ g l -1 ) and 234 U/ 238 U ratio (1.2 to 1.3) and of the diffusional 234 U influx from sediments 0.3 dpm cm -2 10 -3 yr -1 ) are essentially consistent with a model which depicts a steady state distribution of uranium in the ocean. However, the 0.3 to 0.6 μ g l -1 value for river uranium may be an upper limit estimate. (author)

  10. On the assimilation of absolute geodetic dynamic topography in a global ocean model: impact on the deep ocean state

    Androsov, Alexey; Nerger, Lars; Schnur, Reiner; Schröter, Jens; Albertella, Alberta; Rummel, Reiner; Savcenko, Roman; Bosch, Wolfgang; Skachko, Sergey; Danilov, Sergey

    2018-05-01

    General ocean circulation models are not perfect. Forced with observed atmospheric fluxes they gradually drift away from measured distributions of temperature and salinity. We suggest data assimilation of absolute dynamical ocean topography (DOT) observed from space geodetic missions as an option to reduce these differences. Sea surface information of DOT is transferred into the deep ocean by defining the analysed ocean state as a weighted average of an ensemble of fully consistent model solutions using an error-subspace ensemble Kalman filter technique. Success of the technique is demonstrated by assimilation into a global configuration of the ocean circulation model FESOM over 1 year. The dynamic ocean topography data are obtained from a combination of multi-satellite altimetry and geoid measurements. The assimilation result is assessed using independent temperature and salinity analysis derived from profiling buoys of the AGRO float data set. The largest impact of the assimilation occurs at the first few analysis steps where both the model ocean topography and the steric height (i.e. temperature and salinity) are improved. The continued data assimilation over 1 year further improves the model state gradually. Deep ocean fields quickly adjust in a sustained manner: A model forecast initialized from the model state estimated by the data assimilation after only 1 month shows that improvements induced by the data assimilation remain in the model state for a long time. Even after 11 months, the modelled ocean topography and temperature fields show smaller errors than the model forecast without any data assimilation.

  11. Remote sensing for global change, climate change and atmosphere and ocean forecasting. Volume 1

    1992-01-01

    This volume is separated in three sessions. First part is on remote sensing for global change (with global modelling, land cover change on global scale, ocean colour studies of marine biosphere, biological and hydrological interactions and large scale experiments). Second part is on remote sensing for climate change (with earth radiation and clouds, sea ice, global climate research programme). Third part is on remote sensing for atmosphere and ocean forecasting (with temperatures and humidity, winds, data assimilation, cloud imagery, sea surface temperature, ocean waves and topography). (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  12. Will high-resolution global ocean models benefit coupled predictions on short-range to climate timescales?

    Hewitt, Helene T.; Bell, Michael J.; Chassignet, Eric P.; Czaja, Arnaud; Ferreira, David; Griffies, Stephen M.; Hyder, Pat; McClean, Julie L.; New, Adrian L.; Roberts, Malcolm J.

    2017-12-01

    As the importance of the ocean in the weather and climate system is increasingly recognised, operational systems are now moving towards coupled prediction not only for seasonal to climate timescales but also for short-range forecasts. A three-way tension exists between the allocation of computing resources to refine model resolution, the expansion of model complexity/capability, and the increase of ensemble size. Here we review evidence for the benefits of increased ocean resolution in global coupled models, where the ocean component explicitly represents transient mesoscale eddies and narrow boundary currents. We consider lessons learned from forced ocean/sea-ice simulations; from studies concerning the SST resolution required to impact atmospheric simulations; and from coupled predictions. Impacts of the mesoscale ocean in western boundary current regions on the large-scale atmospheric state have been identified. Understanding of air-sea feedback in western boundary currents is modifying our view of the dynamics in these key regions. It remains unclear whether variability associated with open ocean mesoscale eddies is equally important to the large-scale atmospheric state. We include a discussion of what processes can presently be parameterised in coupled models with coarse resolution non-eddying ocean models, and where parameterizations may fall short. We discuss the benefits of resolution and identify gaps in the current literature that leave important questions unanswered.

  13. Open science resources for the discovery and analysis of Tara Oceans data.

    Pesant, Stéphane; Not, Fabrice; Picheral, Marc; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Le Bescot, Noan; Gorsky, Gabriel; Iudicone, Daniele; Karsenti, Eric; Speich, Sabrina; Troublé, Romain; Dimier, Céline; Searson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The Tara Oceans expedition (2009-2013) sampled contrasting ecosystems of the world oceans, collecting environmental data and plankton, from viruses to metazoans, for later analysis using modern sequencing and state-of-the-art imaging technologies. It surveyed 210 ecosystems in 20 biogeographic provinces, collecting over 35,000 samples of seawater and plankton. The interpretation of such an extensive collection of samples in their ecological context requires means to explore, assess and access raw and validated data sets. To address this challenge, the Tara Oceans Consortium offers open science resources, including the use of open access archives for nucleotides (ENA) and for environmental, biogeochemical, taxonomic and morphological data (PANGAEA), and the development of on line discovery tools and collaborative annotation tools for sequences and images. Here, we present an overview of Tara Oceans Data, and we provide detailed registries (data sets) of all campaigns (from port-to-port), stations and sampling events.

  14. Reconciling surface ocean productivity, export fluxes and sediment composition in a global biogeochemical ocean model

    M. Gehlen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on an improved representation of the biological soft tissue pump in the global three-dimensional biogeochemical ocean model PISCES. We compare three parameterizations of particle dynamics: (1 the model standard version including two particle size classes, aggregation-disaggregation and prescribed sinking speed; (2 an aggregation-disaggregation model with a particle size spectrum and prognostic sinking speed; (3 a mineral ballast parameterization with no size classes, but prognostic sinking speed. In addition, the model includes a description of surface sediments and organic carbon early diagenesis. Model output is compared to data or data based estimates of ocean productivity, pe-ratios, particle fluxes, surface sediment bulk composition and benthic O2 fluxes. Model results suggest that different processes control POC fluxes at different depths. In the wind mixed layer turbulent particle coagulation appears as key process in controlling pe-ratios. Parameterization (2 yields simulated pe-ratios that compare well to observations. Below the wind mixed layer, POC fluxes are most sensitive to the intensity of zooplankton flux feeding, indicating the importance of zooplankton community composition. All model parameters being kept constant, the capability of the model to reproduce yearly mean POC fluxes below 2000 m and benthic oxygen demand does at first order not dependent on the resolution of the particle size spectrum. Aggregate formation appears essential to initiate an intense biological pump. At great depth the reported close to constant particle fluxes are most likely the result of the combined effect of aggregate formation and mineral ballasting.

  15. Vicariance biogeography of the open-ocean Pacific

    White, Brian N.

    The first cladogram to treat oceanic water masses as distinct geographic units presents a ‘hydrotectonic’ history of Pacific surface water masses. It is used to test the idea that the oceanographic subdivision of the surface waters of the Pacific Basin into separate water masses shaped pelagic biogeographic patterns in much the same way that the tectonic fragmentation of Pangea influenced biogeographic patterns on land. The historical water-mass relationships depicted by the surface water-mass cladogram resemble modern pelagic biogeographic regions. The prediction that the cladistic phylogenies of monophyletic groups having allopatric taxa in three or more surface water masses will be consistent with the topology of the surface water-mass cladogram is met by the pelagic fish genera Stomias and Evermanella.

  16. Simulating the Agulhas system in global ocean models - nesting vs. multi-resolution unstructured meshes

    Biastoch, Arne; Sein, Dmitry; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Wang, Qiang; Danilov, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Many questions in ocean and climate modelling require the combined use of high resolution, global coverage and multi-decadal integration length. For this combination, even modern resources limit the use of traditional structured-mesh grids. Here we compare two approaches: A high-resolution grid nested into a global model at coarser resolution (NEMO with AGRIF) and an unstructured-mesh grid (FESOM) which allows to variably enhance resolution where desired. The Agulhas system around South Africa is used as a testcase, providing an energetic interplay of a strong western boundary current and mesoscale dynamics. Its open setting into the horizontal and global overturning circulations also requires global coverage. Both model configurations simulate a reasonable large-scale circulation. Distribution and temporal variability of the wind-driven circulation are quite comparable due to the same atmospheric forcing. However, the overturning circulation differs, owing each model's ability to represent formation and spreading of deep water masses. In terms of regional, high-resolution dynamics, all elements of the Agulhas system are well represented. Owing to the strong nonlinearity in the system, Agulhas Current transports of both configurations and in comparison with observations differ in strength and temporal variability. Similar decadal trends in Agulhas Current transport and Agulhas leakage are linked to the trends in wind forcing.

  17. Are Global In-Situ Ocean Observations Fit-for-purpose? Applying the Framework for Ocean Observing in the Atlantic.

    Visbeck, M.; Fischer, A. S.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Mowlem, M. C.; Speich, S.; Larkin, K.

    2015-12-01

    There are an increasing number of global, regional and local processes that are in need of integrated ocean information. In the sciences ocean information is needed to support physical ocean and climate studies for example within the World Climate Research Programme and its CLIVAR project, biogeochemical issues as articulated by the GCP, IMBER and SOLAS projects of ICSU-SCOR and Future Earth. This knowledge gets assessed in the area of climate by the IPCC and biodiversity by the IPBES processes. The recently released first World Ocean Assessment focuses more on ecosystem services and there is an expectation that the Sustainable Development Goals and in particular Goal 14 on the Ocean and Seas will generate new demands for integrated ocean observing from Climate to Fish and from Ocean Resources to Safe Navigation and on a healthy, productive and enjoyable ocean in more general terms. In recognition of those increasing needs for integrated ocean information we have recently launched the Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project to promote the transition from a loosely-coordinated set of existing ocean observing activities to a more integrated, more efficient, more sustainable and fit-for-purpose Atlantic Ocean Observing System. AtlantOS takes advantage of the Framework for Ocean observing that provided strategic guidance for the design of the project and its outcome. AtlantOS will advance the requirements and systems design, improving the readiness of observing networks and data systems, and engaging stakeholders around the Atlantic. AtlantOS will bring Atlantic nations together to strengthen their complementary contributions to and benefits from the internationally coordinated Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and the Blue Planet Initiative of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). AtlantOS will fill gaps of the in-situ observing system networks and will ensure that their data are readily accessible and useable. AtlantOS will demonstrate the utility of

  18. Oceanic magmatic evolution during ocean opening under influence of mantle plume

    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Melanholina, Elena; Belyatsky, Boris; Krymsky, Robert; Migdisova, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    Petrology, geochemistry and geophysics as well as numerical simulation of spreading processes in plume impact environments on examples of Atlantic Ocean Iceland and the Central Atlantic plumes and Kerguelen plume in the Indian Ocean reveal: - under interaction of large plume and continental landmass the plume can contribute to splitting off individual lithosphere blocks, and their subsequent movement into the emergent ocean. At the same time enriched plume components often have geochemical characteristics of the intact continental lithosphere by early plume exposure. This is typical for trap magmatism in Antarctica, and for magmatism of North and Central Atlantic margins; - in the course of the geodynamic reconstruction under the whole region of the South Atlantic was formed (not in one step) metasomatized enriched sub-oceanic mantle with pyroxenite mantle geochemical characteristics and isotopic composition of enriched HIMU and EM-2 sources. That is typical for most of the islands in the West Antarctic. This mantle through spreading axes jumping involved in different proportions in the melting under the influence of higher-temperature rising asthenospheric lherzolite mantle; - CAP activity was brief enough (200 ± 2 Ma), but Karoo-Maud plume worked for a longer time and continued from 180 to 170 Ma ago in the main phase. Plume impact within Antarctica distributed to the South and to the East, leading to the formation of extended igneous provinces along the Transantarctic Mountains and along the east coast (Queen Maud Land province and Schirmacher Oasis). Moreover, this plume activity may be continued later on, after about 40 million years cessation, as Kerguelen plume within the newly-formed Indian Ocean, significantly affects the nature of the rift magmatism; - a large extended uplift in the eastern part of the Indian Ocean - Southeastern Indian Ridge (SEIR) was formed on the ancient spreading Wharton ridge near active Kerguelen plume. The strongest plume

  19. Lagrangian analysis of multi-satellite data in support of open ocean Marine Protected Area design

    Della Penna, Alice; Koubbi, Philippe; Cotté, Cedric; Bon, Cécile; Bost, Charles-André; d'Ovidio, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Compared to ecosystem conservation in territorial seas, protecting the open ocean has peculiar geopolitical, economic and scientific challenges. One of the major obstacle is defining the boundary of an open ocean Marine Protected Area (MPA). In contrast to coastal ecosystems, which are mostly constrained by topographic structures fixed in time, the life of marine organisms in the open ocean is entrained by fluid dynamical structures like eddies and fronts, whose lifetime occurs on ecologically-relevant timescales. The position of these highly dynamical structures can vary interannually by hundreds of km, and so too will regions identified as ecologically relevant such as the foraging areas of marine predators. Thus, the expected foraging locations suggested from tracking data cannot be directly extrapolated beyond the year in which the data were collected. Here we explore the potential of Lagrangian methods applied to multisatellite data as a support tool for a MPA proposal by focusing on the Crozet archipelago oceanic area (Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean). By combining remote sensing with biologging information from a key marine top predator (Eudyptes chrysolophus, or Macaroni penguin) of the Southern Ocean foodweb, we identify a highly dynamic branch of the Subantarctic front as a foraging hotspot. By tracking this feature in historical satellite data (1993-2012) we are able to extrapolate the position of this foraging ground beyond the years in which tracking data are available and study its spatial variability.

  20. Resilience of SAR11 bacteria to rapid acidification in the high latitude open ocean

    Hartmann, Manuela; Hill, Polly G.; Tynan, Eithne; Achterberg, Eric P.; Leakey, Raymond J. G.; Zubkov, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitous SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria numerically dominate marine planktonic communities. Because they are excruciatingly difficult to cultivate, there is comparatively little known about their physiology and metabolic responses to long- and short- term environmental changes. As surface oceans take up anthropogenic, atmospheric CO2, the consequential process of ocean acidification could affect the global biogeochemical significance of SAR11. Shipping accidents or inadvertent release of chemica...

  1. Retrieval of the ocean wave spectrum in open and thin ice covered ocean waters from ERS Synthetic Aperture Radar images

    De Carolis, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper concerns with the task of retrieving ocean wave spectra form imagery provided by space-borne SAR systems such as that on board ERS satellite. SAR imagery of surface wave fields travelling into open ocean and into thin sea ice covers composed of frazil and pancake icefields is considered. The major purpose is to gain insight on how the spectral changes can be related to sea ice properties of geophysical interest such as the thickness. Starting from SAR image cross spectra computed from Single Look Complex (SLC) SAR images, the ocean wave spectrum is retrieved using an inversion procedure based on the gradient descent algorithm. The capability of this method when applied to satellite SAR sensors is investigated. Interest in the SAR image cross spectrum exploitation is twofold: first, the directional properties of the ocean wave spectra are retained; second, external wave information needed to initialize the inversion procedure may be greatly reduced using only information included in the SAR image cross spectrum itself. The main drawback is that the wind waves spectrum could be partly lost and its spectral peak wave number underestimated. An ERS-SAR SLC image acquired on April 10, 1993 over the Greenland Sea was selected as test image. A pair of windows that include open-sea only and sea ice cover, respectively, were selected. The inversions were carried out using different guess wave spectra taken from SAR image cross spectra. Moreover, care was taken to properly handle negative values eventually occurring during the inversion runs. This results in a modification of the gradient descending the technique that is required if a non-negative solution of the wave spectrum is searched for. Results are discussed in view of the possibility of SAR data to detect ocean wave dispersion as a means for the retrieval of ice thickness

  2. Evolution of organic carbon burial in the Global Ocean during the Neogene

    LI, Z.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Although only a small fraction of the organic carbon (OC) that rains from surface waters is eventually buried in the sediments, it is a process that controls the organic sub-cycle of the long-term carbon cycle, and the key for atmospheric O2, CO2 and nutrient cycling. Here we constrain the spatiotemporal variability of OC burial by quantifying the total organic carbon (TOC) mass accumulation rate (MAR) over the Neogene (23.0-2.6 Ma) by compiling the TOC, age model and sediment density data from sites retrieved by the Deep Sea Drilling Program, Ocean Drilling Program, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. We screened all available sites which yielded 80 sites with adequate data quality, covering all major ocean basins and sedimentary depositional environments. All age models are updated to the GTS 2012 timescale so the TOC MAR records from different sites are comparable. Preliminary results show a clear early Miocene peak of OC burial in many sites related to high sediment flux which might reflect the orogenic uplift and/or glacier erosion. Places that receive high influx of terrigenous inputs become "hotspots" for Neogene burial of OC. At "open ocean" sites, OC burial seems to be more impacted by marine productivity changes, with a pronounced increase during the middle Miocene "Monterey Formation" and late Miocene - early Pliocene "Biogenic Bloom". Upon the completion of the data collection, we will further explore the regional and global OC burial in the context of tectonic uplift, climate change and the evolution of primary producers and consumers during the last 23 million years of Earth history.

  3. A Compilation of Global Bio-Optical in Situ Data for Ocean-Colour Satellite Applications

    Valente, Andre; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Brotus, Vanda; Groom, Steve; Grant, Michael; Taberner, Malcolm; Antoine, David; Arnone, Robert; Balch, William M.; Barker, Kathryn; hide

    2016-01-01

    A compiled set of in situ data is important to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite-data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GePCO), span between 1997 and 2012, and have a global distribution. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a, spectral inherent optical properties and spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients. The data were from multi-project archives acquired via the open internet services or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenisation, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversion to a standard format. The final result is a merged table designed for validation of satellite-derived ocean-colour products and available in text format. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) were preserved throughout the work and made available in the final table. Using all the data in a validation exercise increases the number of matchups and enhances the representativeness of different marine regimes. By making available the metadata, it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. The compiled data are available at doi:10.1594PANGAEA.854832 (Valente et al., 2015).

  4. The CERN Global Network opens its doors to companies

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    Six months after its launch, the CERN Global Network already has almost one thousand members. Today, it is opening its doors to companies from CERN's Member States. This will open up a variety of new professional and career opportunities to all the members and will enhance the networking capabilities of all parties involved.   Screenshot of the CERN Global Network website. A new item has recently appeared on the top menu of the Network's website: “Organisations”. This is the entry point for companies and, later, research institutes, wishing to join. “The CERN Global Network brings together hundreds of people who have worked at or with CERN and who have a wealth of skills and expertise. Thanks to the Network, the job opportunities made available by the companies will become visible to the wider community,” says Linda Orr-Easo, a member of the Knowledge and Technology Transfer Group and the CERN Global Network Manager. In addition to creating new career opp...

  5. Openness to experience and creativity: When does global citizenship matter?

    Tidikis, Viktoria; Dunbar, Nora D

    2017-10-04

    The relationship between the openness to experience trait (OTE) and creativity has been well documented in previous research. Likewise, the global citizenship construct has theoretical overlap with both OTE and creativity. We hypothesised global citizenship would make a unique contribution to explaining variance in five types of creativity (self/everyday, scholarly, performance, mechanical/scientific and artistic), above and beyond the contribution of OTE. Participants were predominantly female, European American, traditionally aged college students (N = 407). Global citizenship prosocial outcomes explained unique variance in self/everyday (sr 2  = .10), scholarly (sr 2  = .03) and mechanical/scientific (sr 2  = .03) creativity. Results are discussed in terms of dual processes theories of cognition. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Global variations in gravity-derived oceanic crustal thickness: Implications on oceanic crustal accretion and hotspot-lithosphere interactions

    Lin, J.; Zhu, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new global model of oceanic crustal thickness based on inversion of global oceanic gravity anomaly with constrains from seismic crustal thickness profiles. We first removed from the observed marine free-air gravity anomaly all gravitational effects that can be estimated and removed using independent constraints, including the effects of seafloor topography, marine sediment thickness, and the age-dependent thermal structure of the oceanic lithosphere. We then calculated models of gravity-derived crustal thickness through inversion of the residual mantle Bouguer anomaly using best-fitting gravity-modeling parameters obtained from comparison with seismically determined crustal thickness profiles. Modeling results show that about 5% of the global crustal volume (or 9% of the global oceanic surface area) is associated with model crustal thickness 8.6 km and is interpreted to have been affected by excess magmatism. The percentage of oceanic crustal volume that is associated with thick crustal thickness (>8.6 km) varies greatly among tectonic plates: Pacific (33%), Africa (50%), Antarctic (33%), Australia (30%), South America (34%), Nazca (23%), North America (47%), India (74%), Eurasia (68%), Cocos (20%), Philippine (26%), Scotia (41%), Caribbean (89%), Arabian (82%), and Juan de Fuca (21%). We also found that distribution of thickened oceanic crust (>8.6 km) seems to depend on spreading rate and lithospheric age: (1) On ocean basins younger than 5 Ma, regions of thickened crust are predominantly associated with slow and ultraslow spreading ridges. The relatively strong lithospheric plate at slow and ultraslow ridges might facilitate the loading of large magmatic emplacements on the plate. (2) In contrast, crustal thickness near fast and intermediately fast spreading ridges typically does not exceed 7-8 km. The relatively weak lithosphere at fast and intermediately fast ridges might make it harder for excess magmatism to accrete. We further speculate that

  7. NW European shelf under climate warming: implications for open ocean – shelf exchange, primary production, and carbon absorption

    M. Gröger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shelves have been estimated to account for more than one-fifth of the global marine primary production. It has been also conjectured that shelves strongly influence the oceanic absorption of anthropogenic CO2 (carbon shelf pump. Owing to their coarse resolution, currently applied global climate models are inappropriate to investigate the impact of climate change on shelves and regional models do not account for the complex interaction with the adjacent open ocean. In this study, a global ocean general circulation model and biogeochemistry model were set up with a distorted grid providing a maximal resolution for the NW European shelf and the adjacent northeast Atlantic. Using model climate projections we found that already a~moderate warming of about 2.0 K of the sea surface is linked with a reduction by ~ 30% of the biological production on the NW European shelf. If we consider the decline of anthropogenic riverine eutrophication since the 1990s, the reduction of biological production amounts is even larger. The relative decline of NW European shelf productivity is twice as strong as the decline in the open ocean (~ 15%. The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the continental shelf break. This feedback reduces the nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic to about 50%. In turn, the reduced productivity draws down CO2 absorption in the North Sea by ~ 34% at the end of the 21st century compared to the end of the 20th century implying a strong weakening of shelf carbon pumping. Sensitivity experiments with diagnostic tracers indicate that not more than 20% of the carbon absorbed in the North Sea contributes to the long-term carbon uptake of the world ocean. The rest remains within the ocean's mixed layer where it is exposed to the atmosphere. The predicted decline in biological productivity, and decrease of phytoplankton concentration (in the North Sea by averaged 25% due to reduced nutrient imports from

  8. Transforming Ocean Observations of the Carbon Budget, Acidification, Hypoxia, Nutrients, and Biological Productivity: a Global Array of Biogeochemical Argo Floats

    Talley, L. D.; Johnson, K. S.; Claustre, H.; Boss, E.; Emerson, S. R.; Westberry, T. K.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Mazloff, M. R.; Riser, S.; Russell, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Our ability to detect changes in biogeochemical (BGC) processes in the ocean that may be driven by increasing atmospheric CO2, as well as by natural climate variability, is greatly hindered by undersampling in vast areas of the open ocean. Argo is a major international program that measures ocean heat content and salinity with about 4000 floats distributed throughout the ocean, profiling to 2000 m every 10 days. Extending this approach to a global BGC-Argo float array, using recent, proven sensor technology, and in close synergy with satellite systems, will drive a transformative shift in observing and predicting the effects of climate change on ocean metabolism, carbon uptake, acidification, deoxygenation, and living marine resource management. BGC-Argo will add sensors for pH, oxygen, nitrate, chlorophyll, suspended particles, and downwelling irradiance, with sufficient accuracy for climate studies. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) using BGC models indicate that 1000 BGC floats would provide sufficient coverage, hence equipping 1/4 of the Argo array. BGC-Argo (http://biogeochemical-argo.org) will enhance current sustained observational programs such as Argo, GO-SHIP, and long-term ocean time series. BGC-Argo will benefit from deployments on GO-SHIP vessels, which provide sensor verification. Empirically derived algorithms that relate the observed BGC float parameters to the carbon system parameters will provide global information on seasonal ocean-atmosphere carbon exchange. BGC Argo measurements could be paired with other emerging technology, such as pCO2 measurements from ships of opportunity and wave gliders, to extend and validate exchange estimates. BGC-Argo prototype programs already show the potential of a global observing system that can measure seasonal to decadal variability. Various countries have developed regional BGC arrays: Southern Ocean (SOCCOM), North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre (remOcean), Mediterranean (NAOS), the Kuroshio (INBOX

  9. Global Ocean Forecast System 3.1 Validation Test

    2017-05-04

    the relative skill of one analysis region with another. 49 An ice score card similar to the ocean score card has not yet been refined, so...the water column. GOFS nowcasts/forecasts the ocean’s “ weather ”, which includes the three-dimensional ocean temperature, salinity and current...42 4.0 SUMMARY, SCORE CARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................... 46

  10. Oceans around Southern Africa and regional effects of global change

    Lutjeharms, JRE

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, a great deal of work has been carried out on the nature of the oceanic circulation around southern Africa. Attempts have been made to determine regional ocean-atmosphere interactions and the effect of changing sea...

  11. Advancing global marine biogeography research with open-source GIS software and cloud-computing

    Fujioka, Ei; Vanden Berghe, Edward; Donnelly, Ben; Castillo, Julio; Cleary, Jesse; Holmes, Chris; McKnight, Sean; Halpin, patrick

    2012-01-01

    Across many scientific domains, the ability to aggregate disparate datasets enables more meaningful global analyses. Within marine biology, the Census of Marine Life served as the catalyst for such a global data aggregation effort. Under the Census framework, the Ocean Biogeographic Information System was established to coordinate an unprecedented aggregation of global marine biogeography data. The OBIS data system now contains 31.3 million observations, freely accessible through a geospatial portal. The challenges of storing, querying, disseminating, and mapping a global data collection of this complexity and magnitude are significant. In the face of declining performance and expanding feature requests, a redevelopment of the OBIS data system was undertaken. Following an Open Source philosophy, the OBIS technology stack was rebuilt using PostgreSQL, PostGIS, GeoServer and OpenLayers. This approach has markedly improved the performance and online user experience while maintaining a standards-compliant and interoperable framework. Due to the distributed nature of the project and increasing needs for storage, scalability and deployment flexibility, the entire hardware and software stack was built on a Cloud Computing environment. The flexibility of the platform, combined with the power of the application stack, enabled rapid re-development of the OBIS infrastructure, and ensured complete standards-compliance.

  12. Finding the missing plastic -resolving the global mass (im)balance for plastic pollution in the ocean

    Wilcox, C.; van Sebille, E.

    2016-02-01

    Several global studies have attempted to estimate the standing stock of plastic debris in the oceans at the global scale. However, recent work estimating the amount lost from land on an annual basis suggests that the standing stock should be several orders of magnitude larger than the global estimates. We investigate the role of coastal deposition within the first few weeks after plastic enters the ocean and very near its sources, one of the hypothesized sinks for the missing plastic in this mass balance. We utilize a continental scale dataset of plastics collected along Australia's coast and in the offshore regions together with models of plastic release and transport based on Lagrangian tracking to investigate the role of local deposition in the coastal environment. Our models predict that the vast majority of positively buoyant plastic is deposited within a very short distance from its release point, with only a small fraction escaping into the open ocean. These predictions match our coastal and offshore observations, providing clear evidence that this mechanism of immediate coastal deposition is, at least in part, driving the apparent mismatch between coastal emissions and the standing stock in the ocean.

  13. Trace metal determinations by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis in the open Atlantic Ocean

    Schmidt, D.; Gerwinski, W.; Radke, I.

    1993-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), as a major component of its programme ''Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment'' (GIPME), maintains a long-standing project on ''Open Ocean Baseline Studies of Trace Contaminants''. Initially, the Atlantic Ocean and trace metals were selected. Four deep-water stations in the Cape Basin, Angola Basin, Cape Verde Abyssal Plain and Seine Abyssal Plain were regularly sampled for at least 36 depths. Additional samples were taken between stations. Samples were distributed to participants and a similar number of additional laboratories. As a central part of our own contribution to the project, we determined the trace heavy metals manganese, nickel, copper, zinc and lead and the lighter selenium by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. For the TXRF, the pre-enrichment of the trace metals and the separation from the salt matrix were performed by complexation with sodium dibenzyldithiocarbamate and reverse-phase chromatography. Generally, very low levels of trace elements were found in filtered and unfiltered water samples from these remote areas of the open Atlantic Ocean. Typical examples of the distributions of trace metal concentrations on depth profiles from the four deep-water stations as well as intercomparisons between the stations are presented. (author)

  14. Wind energy input into the upper ocean over a lengthening open water season

    Mahoney, A. R.; Rolph, R.; Walsh, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Wind energy input into the ocean has important consequences for upper ocean mixing, heat and gas exchange, and air-sea momentum transfer. In the Arctic, the open water season is increasing and extending further into the fall storm season, allowing for more wind energy input into the water column. The rate at which the delayed freeze-up timing extends into fall storm season is an important metric to evaluate because the expanding overlap between the open water period and storm season could contribute a significant amount of wind energy into the water column in a relatively short period of time. We have shown that time-integrated wind speeds over open water in the Chukchi Sea and southern Beaufort region have increased since 1979 through 2014. An integrated wind energy input value is calculated for each year in this domain over the open water season, as well as for periods over partial concentrations of ice cover. Spatial variation of this integrated wind energy is shown along the Alaskan coastline, which can have implications for different rates of coastal erosion. Spatial correlation between average wind speed over open water and open water season length from 1979-2014 show positive values in the southern Beaufort, but negative values in the northern Chukchi. This suggests possible differences in the role of the ocean on open water season length depending on region. We speculate that the warm Pacific water outflow plays a more dominant role in extending the open water season length in the northern Chukchi when compared to the southern Beaufort, and might help explain why we can show there is a relatively longer open water season length there. The negative and positive correlations in wind speeds over open water and open water season length might also be explained by oceanic changes tending to operate on longer timescales than the atmosphere. Seasonal timescales of wind events such as regional differences in overlap of the extended open water season due to regional

  15. Cascading influence of inorganic nitrogen sources on DOM production, composition, lability and microbial community structure in the open ocean.

    Goldberg, S J; Nelson, C E; Viviani, D A; Shulse, C N; Church, M J

    2017-09-01

    Nitrogen frequently limits oceanic photosynthesis and the availability of inorganic nitrogen sources in the surface oceans is shifting with global change. We evaluated the potential for abrupt increases in inorganic N sources to induce cascading effects on dissolved organic matter (DOM) and microbial communities in the surface ocean. We collected water from 5 m depth in the central North Pacific and amended duplicate 20 liter polycarbonate carboys with nitrate or ammonium, tracking planktonic carbon fixation, DOM production, DOM composition and microbial community structure responses over 1 week relative to controls. Both nitrogen sources stimulated bulk phytoplankton, bacterial and DOM production and enriched Synechococcus and Flavobacteriaceae; ammonium enriched for oligotrophic Actinobacteria OM1 and Gammaproteobacteria KI89A clades while nitrate enriched Gammaproteobacteria SAR86, SAR92 and OM60 clades. DOM resulting from both N enrichments was more labile and stimulated growth of copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria (Alteromonadaceae and Oceanospirillaceae) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae and Hyphomonadaceae) in weeklong dark incubations relative to controls. Our study illustrates how nitrogen pulses may have direct and cascading effects on DOM composition and microbial community dynamics in the open ocean. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Open Data as Open Educational Resources: Towards Transversal Skills and Global Citizenship

    Javiera Atenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Open Data is the name given to datasets which have been generated by international organisations, governments, NGOs and academic researchers, and made freely available online and openly-licensed. These datasets can be used by educators as Open Educational Resources (OER to support different teaching and learning activities, allowing students to gain experience working with the same raw data researchers and policy-makers generate and use. In this way, educators can facilitate students to understand how information is generated, processed, analysed and interpreted. This paper offers an initial exploration of ways in which the use of Open Data can be key in the development of transversal skills (including digital and data literacies, alongside skills for critical thinking, research, teamwork, and global citizenship, enhancing students’ abilities to understand and select information sources, to work with, curate, analyse and interpret data, and to conduct and evaluate research. This paper also presents results of an exploratory survey that can guide further research into Open Data-led learning activities. Our goal is to support educators in empowering students to engage, critically and collaboratively, as 21st century global citizens.

  17. Open Data in Global Environmental Research: The Belmont Forum’s Open Data Survey

    Schmidt, Birgit; Gemeinholzer, Birgit; Treloar, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the Belmont Forum’s survey on Open Data which targeted the global environmental research and data infrastructure community. It highlights users’ perceptions of the term “open data”, expectations of infrastructure functionalities, and barriers and enablers for the sharing of data. A wide range of good practice examples was pointed out by the respondents which demonstrates a substantial uptake of data sharing through e-infrastructures and a further need for enhancement and consolidation. Among all policy responses, funder policies seem to be the most important motivator. This supports the conclusion that stronger mandates will strengthen the case for data sharing. PMID:26771577

  18. Drivers of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the global epipelagic ocean

    Catalá , T. S.; Á lvarez-Salgado, X. A.; Otero, J.; Iuculano, F.; Companys, B.; Horstkotte, B.; Romera-Castillo, C.; Nieto-Cid, M.; Latasa, M.; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.; Gasol, J. M.; Marrasé , C.; Stedmon, C. A.; Reche, I.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in open surface waters (< 200 m) of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans was analysed by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). A four-component PARAFAC

  19. Global monsoons in the mid-Holocene and oceanic feedback

    Liu, Z.; Kutzbach, J. [Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1225 W. Dayton Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Harrison, S.P. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, P.O. Box 100164, 07701 Jena (Germany); Otto-Bliesner, B. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, PO Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2004-03-01

    The response of the six major summer monsoon systems (the North American monsoon, the northern Africa monsoon, the Asia monsoon, the northern Australasian monsoon, the South America monsoon and the southern Africa monsoon) to mid-Holocene orbital forcing has been investigated using a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (FOAM), with the focus on the distinct roles of the direct insolation forcing and oceanic feedback. The simulation result is also found to compare well with the NCAR CSM. The direct effects of the change in insolation produce an enhancement of the Northern Hemisphere monsoons and a reduction of the Southern Hemisphere monsoons. Ocean feedbacks produce a further enhancement of the northern Africa monsoon and the North American monsoon. However, ocean feedbacks appear to weaken the Asia monsoon, although the overall effect (direct insolation forcing plus ocean feedback) remains a strengthened monsoon. The impact of ocean feedbacks on the South American and southern African monsoons is relatively small, and therefore these regions, especially the South America, experienced a reduced monsoon regime compared to present. However, there is a strong ocean feedback on the northern Australian monsoon that negates the direct effects of orbital changes and results in a strengthening of austral summer monsoon precipitation in this region. A new synthesis is made for mid-Holocene paleoenvironmental records and is compared with the model simulations. Overall, model simulations produce changes in regional climates that are generally consistent with paleoenvironmental observations. (orig.)

  20. Open Data in Global Environmental Research: Findings from the Community

    Van Honk, J.; Calero-Medina, C.; Costas, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents findings from the Belmont Forum’s survey on Open Data which targeted the global environmental research and data infrastructure community (Schmidt, Gemeinholzer & Treloar, 2016). It highlights users’ perceptions of the term “open data”, expectations of infrastructure functionalities, and barriers and enablers for the sharing of data. A wide range of good practice examples was pointed out by the respondents which demonstrates a substantial uptake of data sharing through e-infrastructures and a further need for enhancement and consolidation. Among all policy responses, funder policies seem to be the most important motivator. This supports the conclusion that stronger mandates will strengthen the case for data sharing. The Belmont Forum, a group of high-level representatives from major funding agencies across the globe, coordinates funding for collaborative research to address the challenges and opportunities of global environmental change. In particular, the E-Infrastructure and Data Management Collaborative Research Action has brought together domain scientists, computer and information scientists, legal scholars, social scientists, and other experts from more than 14 countries to establish recommendations on how the Belmont Forum can implement a more coordinated, holistic, and sustainable approach to the funding and support of global environmental change research. (Author)

  1. Warming up, turning sour, losing breath: ocean biogeochemistry under global change.

    Gruber, Nicolas

    2011-05-28

    In the coming decades and centuries, the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems will become increasingly stressed by at least three independent factors. Rising temperatures, ocean acidification and ocean deoxygenation will cause substantial changes in the physical, chemical and biological environment, which will then affect the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems in ways that we are only beginning to fathom. Ocean warming will not only affect organisms and biogeochemical cycles directly, but will also increase upper ocean stratification. The changes in the ocean's carbonate chemistry induced by the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (i.e. ocean acidification) will probably affect many organisms and processes, although in ways that are currently not well understood. Ocean deoxygenation, i.e. the loss of dissolved oxygen (O(2)) from the ocean, is bound to occur in a warming and more stratified ocean, causing stress to macro-organisms that critically depend on sufficient levels of oxygen. These three stressors-warming, acidification and deoxygenation-will tend to operate globally, although with distinct regional differences. The impacts of ocean acidification tend to be strongest in the high latitudes, whereas the low-oxygen regions of the low latitudes are most vulnerable to ocean deoxygenation. Specific regions, such as the eastern boundary upwelling systems, will be strongly affected by all three stressors, making them potential hotspots for change. Of additional concern are synergistic effects, such as ocean acidification-induced changes in the type and magnitude of the organic matter exported to the ocean's interior, which then might cause substantial changes in the oxygen concentration there. Ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation are essentially irreversible on centennial time scales, i.e. once these changes have occurred, it will take centuries for the ocean to recover. With the emission of CO(2) being the primary driver

  2. Performance and Quality Assessment of the Forthcoming Copernicus Marine Service Global Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting Real-Time System

    Lellouche, J. M.; Le Galloudec, O.; Greiner, E.; Garric, G.; Regnier, C.; Drillet, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Mercator Ocean currently delivers in real-time daily services (weekly analyses and daily forecast) with a global 1/12° high resolution system. The model component is the NEMO platform driven at the surface by the IFS ECMWF atmospheric analyses and forecasts. Observations are assimilated by means of a reduced-order Kalman filter with a 3D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. It includes an adaptive-error estimate and a localization algorithm. Along track altimeter data, satellite Sea Surface Temperature and in situ temperature and salinity vertical profiles are jointly assimilated to estimate the initial conditions for numerical ocean forecasting. A 3D-Var scheme provides a correction for the slowly-evolving large-scale biases in temperature and salinity.Since May 2015, Mercator Ocean opened the Copernicus Marine Service (CMS) and is in charge of the global ocean analyses and forecast, at eddy resolving resolution. In this context, R&D activities have been conducted at Mercator Ocean these last years in order to improve the real-time 1/12° global system for the next CMS version in 2016. The ocean/sea-ice model and the assimilation scheme benefit among others from the following improvements: large-scale and objective correction of atmospheric quantities with satellite data, new Mean Dynamic Topography taking into account the last version of GOCE geoid, new adaptive tuning of some observational errors, new Quality Control on the assimilated temperature and salinity vertical profiles based on dynamic height criteria, assimilation of satellite sea-ice concentration, new freshwater runoff from ice sheets melting …This presentation doesn't focus on the impact of each update, but rather on the overall behavior of the system integrating all updates. This assessment reports on the products quality improvements, highlighting the level of performance and the reliability of the new system.

  3. Understanding How the "Open" of Open Source Software (OSS) Will Improve Global Health Security.

    Hahn, Erin; Blazes, David; Lewis, Sheri

    2016-01-01

    Improving global health security will require bold action in all corners of the world, particularly in developing settings, where poverty often contributes to an increase in emerging infectious diseases. In order to mitigate the impact of emerging pandemic threats, enhanced disease surveillance is needed to improve early detection and rapid response to outbreaks. However, the technology to facilitate this surveillance is often unattainable because of high costs, software and hardware maintenance needs, limited technical competence among public health officials, and internet connectivity challenges experienced in the field. One potential solution is to leverage open source software, a concept that is unfortunately often misunderstood. This article describes the principles and characteristics of open source software and how it may be applied to solve global health security challenges.

  4. Salinity dependent hydrogen isotope fractionation in alkenones produced by coastal and open ocean haptophyte algae

    M'boule, D.; Chivall, D.; Sinke-Schoen, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; van der Meer, M.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogen isotope fractionation in alkenones produced by haptophyte algae is a promising new proxy for paleosalinity reconstructions. To constrain and further develop this proxy the coastal haptophyte Isochrysis galbana and the open ocean haptophyte alga Emiliania huxleyi were cultured at

  5. Opening Up to the Ocean: The Changing Shape of Maritime East Asia

    Adam Clulow

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Xing Hang, Conflict and Commerce in Maritime East Asia: The Zheng Family and the Shaping of the Modern World, c. 1620-1720. Cambridge University Press, 2016. 344 pp. $100 (cloth. Gang Zhao, The Qing Opening to the Ocean: Chinese Maritime Policies, 1684-1757. Hawai'i University Press, 2013. 280 pp. $56 (cloth.

  6. Life-cycle modification in open oceans accounts for genome variability in a cosmopolitan phytoplankton.

    von Dassow, Peter; John, Uwe; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Probert, Ian; Bendif, El Mahdi; Kegel, Jessica U; Audic, Stéphane; Wincker, Patrick; Da Silva, Corinne; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Doney, Scott; Glover, David M; Flores, Daniella Mella; Herrera, Yeritza; Lescot, Magali; Garet-Delmas, Marie-José; de Vargas, Colomban

    2015-06-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is the most abundant calcifying plankton in modern oceans with substantial intraspecific genome variability and a biphasic life cycle involving sexual alternation between calcified 2N and flagellated 1N cells. We show that high genome content variability in Emiliania relates to erosion of 1N-specific genes and loss of the ability to form flagellated cells. Analysis of 185 E. huxleyi strains isolated from world oceans suggests that loss of flagella occurred independently in lineages inhabiting oligotrophic open oceans over short evolutionary timescales. This environmentally linked physiogenomic change suggests life cycling is not advantageous in very large/diluted populations experiencing low biotic pressure and low ecological variability. Gene loss did not appear to reflect pressure for genome streamlining in oligotrophic oceans as previously observed in picoplankton. Life-cycle modifications might be common in plankton and cause major functional variability to be hidden from traditional taxonomic or molecular markers.

  7. Ocean container transport : an underestimated and critical link in global supply chain performance

    Fransoo, J.C.; Lee, C.Y.

    2010-01-01

    With supply chains distributed across global markets, ocean container transport now is a critical element of any such supply chain. We identify key characteristics of ocean container transport from a supply chain perspective. We find that unlike continental (road) transport, service offerings tend

  8. Sinking of Dense North Atlantic Waters in a Global Ocean Model : Location and Controls

    Katsman, C.A.; Drijfhout, SS; Dijkstra, H. A.; Spall, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the characteristics of the sinking of dense waters in the North Atlantic Ocean that constitute the downwelling limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as simulated by two global ocean models: an eddy-permitting model at 1/4° resolution and its coarser 1°

  9. The critical role of ocean container transport in global supply chain performance

    Fransoo, J.C.; Lee, C.Y.

    2013-01-01

    With supply chains distributed across global markets, ocean container transport now is a critical element of any such supply chain. We identify key characteristics of ocean container transport from a supply chain perspective. We find that unlike continental (road) transport, service offerings tend

  10. Visualization and analysis of eddies in a global ocean simulation

    Williams, Sean J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hecht, Matthew W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Petersen, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Strelitz, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maltrud, Mathew E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hlawitschka, Mario [UC DAVIS; Hamann, Bernd [UC DAVIS

    2010-10-15

    Eddies at a scale of approximately one hundred kilometers have been shown to be surprisingly important to understanding large-scale transport of heat and nutrients in the ocean. Due to difficulties in observing the ocean directly, the behavior of eddies below the surface is not very well understood. To fill this gap, we employ a high-resolution simulation of the ocean developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Using large-scale parallel visualization and analysis tools, we produce three-dimensional images of ocean eddies, and also generate a census of eddy distribution and shape averaged over multiple simulation time steps, resulting in a world map of eddy characteristics. As expected from observational studies, our census reveals a higher concentration of eddies at the mid-latitudes than the equator. Our analysis further shows that mid-latitude eddies are thicker, within a range of 1000-2000m, while equatorial eddies are less than 100m thick.

  11. Ocean Circulation and Mixing Relevant to the Global System

    Gordon, Arnold

    1999-01-01

    .... Arlindo's goal is to resolve the circulation and water mass stratification within the Indonesian Seas in order to formulate a thorough description of the source, spreading patterns, inter-ocean...

  12. GFDL CM2.1 Global Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model Water ...

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. GFDL CM2.1 Global Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model Water Hosing Experiment with 1 Sv equivalent of Freshening Control Expt: 100 yrs After Hosing: 300 yrs.

  13. Accelerated Prediction of the Polar Ice and Global Ocean (APPIGO)

    2014-09-30

    APPIGO) Eric Chassignet Center for Ocean-Atmosphere Prediction Studies (COAPS) Florida State University PO Box 3062840 Tallahassee, FL 32306...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Florida Atlantic University,Center for Ocean-Atmosphere Prediction Studies (COAPS),PO Box 3062840...Cavalieri, D. J., C. I. Parkinson , P. Gloersen, and H. J. Zwally. 1997. Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Concentrations from Multichannel Passive-Microwave

  14. How to re-establish Openness as default? Towards a global joint initiative

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    Stracke, C. M. (2016, 14 April). How to re-establish Openness as default? Towards a global joint initiative. Results from the Action Lab at the Open Education Global Conference 2016, Krakow, Poland. More about the Action Lab:

  15. Door still open for action on issue of global warming

    Crow, P.

    1992-01-01

    Global warming may or may not be a legitimate environmental threat, but Washington lobbyists consider it a legislative threat. It does not appear the current Congress will limit or tax use of U.S. fossil fuels, whose burning releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This paper reports that some scientists have claimed a concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will result in a significant warming of the earth by 2050, threatening agriculture, altering ecosystems, and even melting polar ice and causing rising oceans to flood coastal areas and islands. In 1990 a United Nations panel of climate scientists predicted a 2 degrees C. increase in world temperatures within 35 years and 6 degrees by the end of the next century. Some scientists say preventing further increases will require a 60% reduction in current CO 2 emissions. The oil industry already is beginning to feel heat from the global warming issue. The Environmental Protection Agency calculates energy production and use is responsible for 57% of current emissions caused by man

  16. Respiration of new and old carbon in the surface ocean: Implications for estimates of global oceanic gross primary productivity

    Carvalho, Matheus C.; Schulz, Kai G.; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2017-06-01

    New respiration (Rnew, of freshly fixated carbon) and old respiration (Rold, of storage carbon) were estimated for different regions of the global surface ocean using published data on simultaneous measurements of the following: (1) primary productivity using 14C (14PP); (2) gross primary productivity (GPP) based on 18O or O2; and (3) net community productivity (NCP) using O2. The ratio Rnew/GPP in 24 h incubations was typically between 0.1 and 0.3 regardless of depth and geographical area, demonstrating that values were almost constant regardless of large variations in temperature (0 to 27°C), irradiance (surface to 100 m deep), nutrients (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor waters), and community composition (diatoms, flagellates, etc,). As such, between 10 and 30% of primary production in the surface ocean is respired in less than 24 h, and most respiration (between 55 and 75%) was of older carbon. Rnew was most likely associated with autotrophs, with minor contribution from heterotrophic bacteria. Patterns were less clear for Rold. Short 14C incubations are less affected by respiratory losses. Global oceanic GPP is estimated to be between 70 and 145 Gt C yr-1.Plain Language SummaryHere we present a comprehensive coverage of ocean new and old respiration. Our results show that nearly 20% of oceanic gross primary production is consumed in the first 24 h. However, most (about 60%) respiration is of older carbon fixed at least 24 h before its consumption. Rates of new respiration relative to gross primary production were remarkably constant for the entire ocean, which allowed a preliminary estimation of global primary productivity as between 70 and 145 gt C yr-1.

  17. Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing

    Lee, Zhongping; Hu, Chuanmin; Shang, Shaoling; Du, Keping; Lewis, Marlon; Arnone, Robert; Brewin, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Penetration of solar radiation in the ocean is determined by the attenuation coefficient (Kd(λ)). Following radiative transfer theory, Kd is a function of angular distribution of incident light and water's absorption and backscattering coefficients. Because these optical products are now generated routinely from satellite measurements, it is logical to evolve the empirical Kd to a semianalytical Kd that is not only spectrally flexible, but also the sun-angle effect is accounted for explicitly. Here, the semianalytical model developed in Lee et al. (2005b) is revised to account for the shift of phase function between molecular and particulate scattering from the short to long wavelengths. Further, using field data collected independently from oligotrophic ocean to coastal waters covering >99% of the Kd range for the global oceans, the semianalytically derived Kd was evaluated and found to agree with measured data within ˜7-26%. The updated processing system was applied to MODIS measurements to reveal the penetration of UVA-visible radiation in the global oceans, where an empirical procedure to correct Raman effect was also included. The results indicated that the penetration of the blue-green radiation for most oceanic waters is ˜30-40% deeper than the commonly used euphotic zone depth; and confirmed that at a depth of 50-70 m there is still ˜10% of the surface UVA radiation (at 360 nm) in most oligotrophic waters. The results suggest a necessity to modify or expand the light attenuation product from satellite ocean-color measurements in order to be more applicable for studies of ocean physics and biogeochemistry.

  18. Marine mammal distribution in the open ocean: a comparison of ocean color data products and levant time scales

    Ohern, J.

    2016-02-01

    Marine mammals are generally located in areas of enhanced surface primary productivity, though they may forage much deeper within the water column and higher on the food chain. Numerous studies over the past several decades have utilized ocean color data from remote sensing instruments (CZCS, MODIS, and others) to asses both the quantity and time scales over which surface primary productivity relates to marine mammal distribution. In areas of sustained upwelling, primary productivity may essentially grow in the secondary levels of productivity (the zooplankton and nektonic species on which marine mammals forage). However, in many open ocean habitats a simple trophic cascade does not explain relatively short time lags between enhanced surface productivity and marine mammal presence. Other dynamic features that entrain prey or attract marine mammals may be responsible for the correlations between marine mammals and ocean color. In order to investigate these features, two MODIS (moderate imaging spectroradiometer) data products, the concentration as well as the standard deviation of surface chlorophyll were used in conjunction with marine mammal sightings collected within Ecuadorian waters. Time lags between enhanced surface chlorophyll and marine mammal presence were on the order of 2-4 weeks, however correlations were much stronger when the standard deviation of spatially binned images was used, rather than the chlorophyll concentrations. Time lags also varied between Balaenopterid and Odontocete cetaceans. Overall, the standard deviation of surface chlorophyll proved a useful tool for assessing potential relationships between marine mammal sightings and surface chlorophyll.

  19. Vision for an Open, Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS)

    Duren, R. M.; Butler, J. H.; Rotman, D.; Ciais, P.; Greenhouse Gas Information System Team

    2010-12-01

    Over the next few years, an increasing number of entities ranging from international, national, and regional governments, to businesses and private land-owners, are likely to become more involved in efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. In such a world, geospatially resolved information about the location, amount, and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be needed, as well as the stocks and flows of all forms of carbon through the earth system. The ability to implement policies that limit GHG concentrations would be enhanced by a global, open, and transparent greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS). An operational and scientifically robust GHGIS would combine ground-based and space-based observations, carbon-cycle modeling, GHG inventories, synthesis analysis, and an extensive data integration and distribution system, to provide information about anthropogenic and natural sources, sinks, and fluxes of greenhouse gases at temporal and spatial scales relevant to decision making. The GHGIS effort was initiated in 2008 as a grassroots inter-agency collaboration intended to identify the needs for such a system, assess the capabilities of current assets, and suggest priorities for future research and development. We will present a vision for an open, global GHGIS including latest analysis of system requirements, critical gaps, and relationship to related efforts at various agencies, the Group on Earth Observations, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  20. Bacteria in the greenhouse: Modeling the role of oceanic plankton in the global carbon cycle

    Ducklow, H.W.; Fasham, M.J.R.

    1992-01-01

    To plan effectively to deal with the greenhouse effect, a fundamental understanding is needed of the biogeochemical and physical machinery that cycles carbon in the global system; in addition, models are needed of the carbon cycle to project the effects of increasing carbon dioxide. In this chapter, a description is given of efforts to simulate the cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the upper ocean, concentrating on the model's treatment of marine phytoplankton, and what it reveals of their role in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon between the ocean and atmosphere. The focus is on the upper ocean because oceanic uptake appears to regulate the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

  1. A Stable U Isotopic Perspective on the U Budget and Global Extent of Modern Anoxia in the Ocean.

    Tissot, F.; Dauphas, N.

    2015-12-01

    Isotopic fractionation between U4+ and U6+makes U stable isotopes potential tracers of global paleoredox conditions. In this work [1], we put the U-proxy up to a test against a highly constrained system: the modern ocean. We measured a large number of seawater samples from geographically diverse locations and found that the open ocean has a homogenous isotopic composition at δ238USW= -0.392 ± 0.005 ‰ (rel. to CRM-112a). From our measurement of rock samples (n=64) and compilations of literature data (n=380), we then estimated the U isotopic compositions of the various reservoirs involved in the modern oceanic U budget, as well as the fractionation factors associated with U incorporation into those reservoirs. Using a steady-state model, we compared the isotopic composition of the seawater predicted by the four most recent U oceanic budgets [2-5] to the modern seawater value we measured. Three of these budgets [2-4] predict a seawater isotopic composition in very good agreement with the observed δ238USW, which strengthens our confidence in the isotopic fractionation factors associated with each deposition environment and the fact that U is at steady-state in the modern ocean. The U oceanic budget of Henderson and Anderson (2003) does not reproduce the observed seawater composition because the U flux to anoxic/euxinic sediments relative to the total U flux out of the ocean is high in their model, which our analysis shows cannot be correct. The U isotopic composition of seawater is used to constrain the extent of anoxia in the modern ocean (% of seafloor covered by anoxic/euxinic sediments), which is 0.21 ± 0.09 %. This work demonstrates that stable isotopes of U can indeed trace the extent of anoxia in the modern global ocean, thereby validating the application of U isotope measurements to paleoredox reconstructions. Based on the above work, we will present the best estimate of the modern oceanic U budget. [1] Tissot F.L.H., Dauphas N. (2015) Geochim Cosmochim

  2. US GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)

    2009-06-01

    example, detailed surface current information derived from HYCOM is summarized by OCENS (Ocean and Coastal ENviromental Sensing, http...Computing Modernization Program at the Naval Oceanographic Office, the Engineer Research and Development Center, and the Army Research Laboratory

  3. Extreme diversity in noncalcifying haptophytes explains a major pigment paradox in open oceans

    Liu, Hui; Probert, Ian; Uitz, Julia; Claustre, Hervé; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Frada, Miguel; Not, Fabrice; de Vargas, Colomban

    2009-01-01

    The current paradigm holds that cyanobacteria, which evolved oxygenic photosynthesis more than 2 billion years ago, are still the major light harvesters driving primary productivity in open oceans. Here we show that tiny unicellular eukaryotes belonging to the photosynthetic lineage of the Haptophyta are dramatically diverse and ecologically dominant in the planktonic photic realm. The use of Haptophyta-specific primers and PCR conditions adapted for GC-rich genomes circumvented biases inherent in classical genetic approaches to exploring environmental eukaryotic biodiversity and led to the discovery of hundreds of unique haptophyte taxa in 5 clone libraries from subpolar and subtropical oceanic waters. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that this diversity emerged in Paleozoic oceans, thrived and diversified in the permanently oxygenated Mesozoic Panthalassa, and currently comprises thousands of ribotypic species, belonging primarily to low-abundance and ancient lineages of the “rare biosphere.” This extreme biodiversity coincides with the pervasive presence in the photic zone of the world ocean of 19′-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin (19-Hex), an accessory photosynthetic pigment found exclusively in chloroplasts of haptophyte origin. Our new estimates of depth-integrated relative abundance of 19-Hex indicate that haptophytes dominate the chlorophyll a-normalized phytoplankton standing stock in modern oceans. Their ecologic and evolutionary success, arguably based on mixotrophy, may have significantly impacted the oceanic carbon pump. These results add to the growing evidence that the evolution of complex microbial eukaryotic cells is a critical force in the functioning of the biosphere. PMID:19622724

  4. Frequency of Tropical Ocean Deep Convection and Global Warming

    Aumann, H. H.; Behrangi, A.; Ruzmaikin, A.

    2017-12-01

    The average of 36 CMIP5 models predicts about 3K of warming and a 4.7% increase in precipitation for the tropical oceans with a doubling of the CO2 by the end of this century. For this scenario we evaluate the increase in the frequency of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC) in the tropical oceans. We select only DCC which reach or penetrate the tropopause in the 15 km AIRS footprint. The evaluation is based on Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the current temperatures of the tropical oceans, those predicted by the mean of the CMIP5 models and the PDF of the DCC process. The PDF of the DCC process is derived from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) between the years 2003 and 2016. During this time the variability due Enso years provided a 1 K p-p change in the mean tropical SST. The key parameter is the SST associated with the onset of the DCC process. This parameter shifts only 0.5 K for each K of warming of the oceans. As a result the frequency of DCC is expected to increases by the end of this century by about 50% above the current frequency.

  5. Accuracy Assessment of Global Barotropic Ocean Tide Models

    2014-08-07

    Altimetry, Venice . Cartwright, D. E. (1999), Tides: A Scientific History , Cambridge Univ. Press, New York. Cartwright, D. E., and R. D. Ray (1990), Oceanic...E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, p. 4, ESA Publication WPP-306, Venice , Italy. Book, J. W., H. Perkins, and M. Wimbush (2009), North Adriatic tides

  6. Open and Distance Education in Global Environment: Opportunities for Collaboration

    S. K. PULIST

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance education system in India has undergone many stages and phases of evolution before it really reached the stage of what is called open education, ICT-enabled education and global education. During these phases, it has assimilated different aspects of ICT with all applauds and has been able to go hand-in-hand with it transcending the national and regional boundaries. The distance education institutions have now started giving a serious thought to explore the possibility of cross-boarder expansion. The educational needs of the present society are changing very fast. The education is now being seen as an enabling tool for empowerment and all-round development of individuals. It is difficult for an institution to come up to all the educational requirements of the society. It is, therefore, time to collaborate rather than compete. Quality concern becomes a serious issue in such a situation. Consequently, globalization, internationalization, collaboration, networking have become the buzzwords of the day in distance education. In furtherance of this journey, Indira National Open University, INDIA organized an international conference on the theme “Open and Distance Education in Global Environment: Opportunities for Collaboration” under the aegis of International Council for Distance Education. The articles of the renowned educationists presented in the Conference have reserved their place in the volume under review. The volume is a repository of their experiences in the becoming of distance education all these years. The volume is spread over 32 chapters summed up into four major streams– internationalization are: collaboration and networking; ICT-enabled education; quality assurance; and distance education for development. The canvas of the volume covers the present scenario of open and distance education from the global perspective.The first part discusses as to how collaboration can be tamed to develop joint curriculum and deliver

  7. Analysis of the global ocean sampling (GOS) project for trends in iron uptake by surface ocean microbes.

    Toulza, Eve; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Blain, Stéphane; Piganeau, Gwenael

    2012-01-01

    Microbial metagenomes are DNA samples of the most abundant, and therefore most successful organisms at the sampling time and location for a given cell size range. The study of microbial communities via their DNA content has revolutionized our understanding of microbial ecology and evolution. Iron availability is a critical resource that limits microbial communities' growth in many oceanic areas. Here, we built a database of 2319 sequences, corresponding to 140 gene families of iron metabolism with a large phylogenetic spread, to explore the microbial strategies of iron acquisition in the ocean's bacterial community. We estimate iron metabolism strategies from metagenome gene content and investigate whether their prevalence varies with dissolved iron concentrations obtained from a biogeochemical model. We show significant quantitative and qualitative variations in iron metabolism pathways, with a higher proportion of iron metabolism genes in low iron environments. We found a striking difference between coastal and open ocean sites regarding Fe(2+) versus Fe(3+) uptake gene prevalence. We also show that non-specific siderophore uptake increases in low iron open ocean environments, suggesting bacteria may acquire iron from natural siderophore-like organic complexes. Despite the lack of knowledge of iron uptake mechanisms in most marine microorganisms, our approach provides insights into how the iron metabolic pathways of microbial communities may vary with seawater iron concentrations.

  8. Investigating A Unique Open Ocean Geochemical Record Of the End Triassic Mass Extinction from Panthalassa

    Marroquín, S. M.; Gill, B. C.; Them, T. R., II; Trabucho-Alexandre, J. P.; Aberhan, M.; Owens, J. D.; Gröcke, D. R.; Caruthers, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction ( 201 Ma) was a time of intense disturbance for marine communities. This event is estimated to have produced as much as a loss of 80% of known marine species. The protracted interval of elevated extinction rates is also characterized by a major carbon cycle perturbation and potentially widespread oxygen deficiency within the oceans. While the causes of extinction and environmental feedbacks are still debated it is hypothesized to have been triggered by massive volcanism associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province flood basalts. However, our understanding of the Latest Triassic-Earliest Jurassic interval is limited due to the lack of well-preserved stratigraphic successions outside of the Tethys Ocean (present day Europe), with most of the records from epicontinental and marginal marine settings. To expand our understanding of this critical interval, our study seeks to document biological and environmental changes elsewhere. Specifically, we document and reconstruct these changes in the equatorial Panthalassan Ocean. We will present new data from a sedimentary succession preserved in the Wrangell Mountains of Alaska that spans the Late Triassic through Early Jurassic. The sedimentary succession represents a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp that was deposited at tropical latitudes, adjacent to an island arc in the open Panthalassan Ocean. This succession affords a unique view of open marine conditions, and also holds the potential for excellent temporal control as it contains abundant ash layers throughout, as well as, key ammonite and bivalve fossil occurrences that provide biostratigraphic control. We will present an integrated geochemical and paleontological record from this site using several geochemical proxies (carbon, δ13Ccarb and % total organic carbon, sulfur, δ34S, as well as pyrite contents and iron speciation) along with ammonite and bivalve occurrence data to reconstruct the record of environmental and

  9. Vertical eddy diffusion as a key mechanism for removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the global surface oceans

    Lohmann, Rainer; Jurado, Elena; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Dachs, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Here we estimate the importance of vertical eddy diffusion in removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the surface Ocean and assess its importance as a global sink. Measured water column profiles of PFOA were reproduced by assuming that vertical eddy diffusion in a 3-layer ocean model is the sole cause for the transport of PFOA to depth. The global oceanic sink due to eddy diffusion for PFOA is high, with accumulated removal fluxes over the last 40 years of 660 t, with the Atlantic Ocean accounting for 70% of the global oceanic sink. The global oceans have removed 13% of all PFOA produced to a depth greater than 100 m via vertical eddy diffusion; an additional 4% has been removed via deep water formation. The top 100 m of the surface oceans store another 21% of all PFOA produced (∼1100 t). Highlights: •Eddy diffusion has removed ∼660 t of PFOA from surface oceans over the last 40 years. •Atlantic Ocean accounts for 70% of the global oceanic sink of PFOA. •Vertical eddy diffusion has moved ∼13% of PFOA to oceans deeper than 100 m. •Around 4% of PFOA has been removed via deep water formation. •The top 100 m of global oceans contain ∼21% of historical PFOA production. -- Vertical eddy diffusion is an important removal process for hydrophilic organic pollutants such as PFOA from the surface ocean

  10. Global ocean tide mapping using TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry

    Sanchez, Braulio V.; Cartwright, D. E.; Estes, R. H.; Williamson, R. G.; Colombo, O. L.

    1991-01-01

    The investigation's main goals are to produce accurate tidal maps of the main diurnal, semidiurnal, and long-period tidal components in the world's deep oceans. This will be done by the application of statistical estimation techniques to long time series of altimeter data provided by the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission, with additional information provided by satellite tracking data. In the prelaunch phase, we will use in our simulations and preliminary work data supplied by previous oceanographic missions, such as Seasat and Geosat. These results will be of scientific interest in themselves. The investigation will also be concerned with the estimation of new values, and their uncertainties, for tidal currents and for the physical parameters appearing in the Laplace tidal equations, such as bottom friction coefficients and eddy viscosity coefficients. This will be done by incorporating the altimetry-derived charts of vertical tides as boundary conditions in the integration of those equations. The methodology of the tidal representation will include the use of appropriate series expansions such as ocean-basin normal modes and spherical harmonics. The results of the investigation will be space-determined tidal models of coverage and accuracy superior to that of the present numerical models of the ocean tides, with the concomitant benefits to oceanography and associated disciplinary fields.

  11. Sea surface temperature and salinity from the Global Ocean Surface Underway Data (GOSUD) from 1980-01-03 to present

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains the Global Ocean Surface Underway Data (GOSUD) from 1980-01-03 to present as submitted to NOAA/NCEI. The data includes information about sea...

  12. Validation Test Report for the 1/8 deg Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model Nowcast/Forecast System

    Barron, Charlie N; Kara, A. B; Rhodes, Robert C; Rowley, Clark; Smedstad, Lucy F

    2007-01-01

    .... Global NCOM supports predictions of ocean currents, temperatures, salinity, sea surface height, and sound speed both directly and by providing initial and boundary conditions for higher-resolution nested ocean models...

  13. Carbon dioxide from surface underway survey in global oceans from 1968 to 2006 (Version 1.0) (NODC Accession 0040205)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — More than 3 million measurements of surface water partial pressure of CO2 obtained over the global oceans during 1968 to 2006 are listed in the Lamont-Doherty Earth...

  14. Combined constraints on global ocean primary production using observations and models

    Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Hashioka, Taketo; Quéré, Corinne Le

    2013-09-01

    production is at the base of the marine food web and plays a central role for global biogeochemical cycles. Yet global ocean primary production is known to only a factor of 2, with previous estimates ranging from 38 to 65 Pg C yr-1 and no formal uncertainty analysis. Here, we present an improved global ocean biogeochemistry model that includes a mechanistic representation of photosynthesis and a new observational database of net primary production (NPP) in the ocean. We combine the model and observations to constrain particulate NPP in the ocean with statistical metrics. The PlankTOM5.3 model includes a new photosynthesis formulation with a dynamic representation of iron-light colimitation, which leads to a considerable improvement of the interannual variability of surface chlorophyll. The database includes a consistent set of 50,050 measurements of 14C primary production. The model best reproduces observations when global NPP is 58 ± 7 Pg C yr-1, with a most probable value of 56 Pg C yr-1. The most probable value is robust to the model used. The uncertainty represents 95% confidence intervals. It considers all random errors in the model and observations, but not potential biases in the observations. We show that tropical regions (23°S-23°N) contribute half of the global NPP, while NPPs in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are approximately equal in spite of the larger ocean area in the South.

  15. Atmospheric processing of combustion aerosols as a source of soluble iron to the open ocean

    伊藤, 彰記; ITO, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    The majority of bioavailable iron (Fe) from the atmosphere is delivered from arid and semiarid regions to the oceans because the global deposition of iron from combustion sources is small compared with that from mineral dust. Atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols by inorganic and organic acids from anthropogenic and natural sources has been shown to increase the iron solubility of soils (initially < 0.5%) up to about 10%. On the other hand, atmospheric observations have shown that iron i...

  16. A Southern Ocean variability study using the Argo-based Model for Investigation of the Global Ocean (AMIGO)

    Lebedev, Konstantin

    2017-04-01

    The era of satellite observations of the ocean surface that started at the end of the 20th century and the development of the Argo project in the first years of the 21st century, designed to collect information of the upper 2000 m of the ocean using satellites, provides unique opportunities for continuous monitoring of the Global Ocean state. Starting from 2005, measurements with the Argo floats have been performed over the majority of the World Ocean. In November 2007, the Argo program reached coverage of 3000 simultaneously operating floats (one float in a three-degree square) planned during the development of the program. Currently, 4000 Argo floats autonomously profile the upper 2000-m water column of the ocean from Antarctica to Spitsbergen increasing World Ocean temperature and salinity databases by 12000 profiles per month. This makes it possible to solve problems on reconstructing and monitoring the ocean state on an almost real-time basis, study the ocean dynamics, obtain reasonable estimates of the climatic state of the ocean in the last decade and estimate existing intraclimatic trends. We present the newly developed Argo-Based Model for Investigation of the Global Ocean (AMIGO), which consists of a block for variational interpolation of the profiles of drifting Argo floats to a regular grid and a block for model hydrodynamic adjustment of variationally interpolated fields. Such a method makes it possible to obtain a full set of oceanographic characteristics - temperature, salinity, density, and current velocity - using irregularly located Argo measurements (the principle of the variational interpolation technique entails minimization of the misfit between the interpolated fields defined on the regular grid and irregularly distributed data; hence the optimal solution passes as close to the data as possible). The simulations were performed for the entire globe limited in the north by 85.5° N using 1° grid spacing in both longitude and latitude. At the

  17. Light penetration structures the deep acoustic scattering layers in the global ocean

    Aksnes, Dag L.; Rostad, Anders; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2017-01-01

    The deep scattering layer (DSL) is a ubiquitous acoustic signature found across all oceans and arguably the dominant feature structuring the pelagic open ocean ecosystem. It is formed by mesopelagic fishes and pelagic invertebrates. The DSL animals are an important food source for marine megafauna...... distributions with hypoxic waters. In enhancing understanding of this phenomenon, our results should improve the ability to predict and model the dynamics of one of the largest animal biomass components on earth, with key roles in the oceanic biological carbon pump and food web....

  18. Glacial-interglacial variability in ocean oxygen and phosphorus in a global biogeochemical model

    V Palastanga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased transfer of particulate matter from continental shelves to the open ocean during glacials may have had a major impact on the biogeochemistry of the ocean. Here, we assess the response of the coupled oceanic cycles of oxygen, carbon, phosphorus, and iron to the input of particulate organic carbon and reactive phosphorus from shelves. We use a biogeochemical ocean model and specifically focus on the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. When compared to an interglacial reference run, our glacial scenario with shelf input shows major increases in ocean productivity and phosphorus burial, while mean deep-water oxygen concentrations decline. There is a downward expansion of the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, while the extension of the OMZ in the Pacific is slightly reduced. Oxygen concentrations below 2000 m also decline but bottom waters do not become anoxic. The model simulations show when shelf input of particulate organic matter and particulate reactive P is considered, low oxygen areas in the glacial ocean expand, but concentrations are not low enough to generate wide scale changes in sediment biogeochemistry and sedimentary phosphorus recycling. Increased reactive phosphorus burial in the open ocean during the LGM in the model is related to dust input, notably over the southwest Atlantic and northwest Pacific, whereas input of material from shelves explains higher burial fluxes in continental slope and rise regions. Our model results are in qualitative agreement with available data and reproduce the strong spatial differences in the response of phosphorus burial to glacial-interglacial change. Our model results also highlight the need for additional sediment core records from all ocean basins to allow further insight into changes in phosphorus, carbon and oxygen dynamics in the ocean on glacial-interglacial timescales.

  19. Future habitat suitability for coral reef ecosystems under global warming and ocean acidification

    Couce, Elena M; Ridgwell, Andy J; Hendy, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are placing spatially divergent stresses on the world’s tropical coral reefs through increasing ocean surface temperatures and ocean acidification. We show how these two stressors combine to alter the global habitat suitability for shallow coral reef ecosystems, using statistical Bioclimatic Envelope Models rather than basing projections on any a priori assumptions of physiological tolerances or fixed thresholds. We apply two different modeling approaches...

  20. Assessment of Global Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM) using new satellite SST data

    Ascione Kenov, Isabella; Sykes, Peter; Fiedler, Emma; McConnell, Niall; Ryan, Andrew; Maksymczuk, Jan

    2016-04-01

    There is an increased demand for accurate ocean weather information for applications in the field of marine safety and navigation, water quality, offshore commercial operations, monitoring of oil spills and pollutants, among others. The Met Office, UK, provides ocean forecasts to customers from governmental, commercial and ecological sectors using the Global Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM), an operational modelling system which covers the global ocean and runs daily, using the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) ocean model with horizontal resolution of 1/4° and 75 vertical levels. The system assimilates salinity and temperature profiles, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and sea ice concentration observations on a daily basis. In this study, the FOAM system is updated to assimilate Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) SST data. Model results from one month trials are assessed against observations using verification tools which provide a quantitative description of model performance and error, based on statistical metrics, including mean error, root mean square error (RMSE), correlation coefficient, and Taylor diagrams. A series of hindcast experiments is used to run the FOAM system with AMSR2 and SEVIRI SST data, using a control run for comparison. Results show that all trials perform well on the global ocean and that largest SST mean errors were found in the Southern hemisphere. The geographic distribution of the model error for SST and temperature profiles are discussed using statistical metrics evaluated over sub-regions of the global ocean.

  1. Sensitivity of global ocean biogeochemical dynamics to ecosystem structure in a future climate

    Manizza, Manfredi; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2010-07-01

    Terrestrial and oceanic ecosystem components of the Earth System models (ESMs) are key to predict the future behavior of the global carbon cycle. Ocean ecosystem models represent low complexity compared to terrestrial ecosystem models. In this study we use two ocean biogeochemical models based on the explicit representation of multiple planktonic functional types. We impose to the models the same future physical perturbation and compare the response of ecosystem dynamics, export production (EP) and ocean carbon uptake (OCU) to the same physical changes. Models comparison shows that: (1) EP changes directly translate into changes of OCU on decadal time scale, (2) the representation of ecosystem structure plays a pivotal role at linking OCU and EP, (3) OCU is highly sensitive to representation of ecosystem in the Equatorial Pacific and Southern Oceans.

  2. ASTER Global DEM contribution to GEOSS demonstrates open data sharing

    Sohre, T.; Duda, K. A.; Meyer, D. J.; Behnke, J.; Nasa Esdis Lp Daac

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) remote sensing instrument on the Terra spacecraft has been acquiring images of Earth since launch in 1999. Throughout this time data products have been openly available to the general public through sites in the U.S. and Japan. As the ASTER mission matured, a spatially broad and temporally deep data archive was gradually established. With this extensive accumulation of Earth observations, it became possible to create a new global digital elevation product, the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), using multi-temporal data, resulting in over 22,000 static 10 X 10 tiles. The ASTER GDEM was contributed by Japan’s Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI) and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for distribution at no cost to users. As such, both METI and NASA desired to understand the uses of the ASTER GDEM, expressed as one of the GEOSS applications themes: disasters, health, energy, climate, water, weather, ecosystems, agriculture or biodiversity. This required both the registration of users, and restrictions on redistribution, to capture the intended use in terms of the GEOSS themes. The ASTER GDEM was made available to users worldwide via electronic download from the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) of Japan and from NASA’s Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). During the first three months after product release, over 4 million GDEM tiles were distributed from the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. The ASTER GDEM release generated nearly 20,000 new user registrations in the NASA EOS ClearingHOuse (ECHO)/WIST and the ERSDAC systems. By the end of 2009, over 6.5 Million GDEM tiles were distributed by the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. Users have requested tiles over specific areas of interest as well as the entire dataset for global research. Intense global interest in the GDEM

  3. Retrieving Temperature Anomaly in the Global Subsurface and Deeper Ocean From Satellite Observations

    Su, Hua; Li, Wene; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2018-01-01

    Retrieving the subsurface and deeper ocean (SDO) dynamic parameters from satellite observations is crucial for effectively understanding ocean interior anomalies and dynamic processes, but it is challenging to accurately estimate the subsurface thermal structure over the global scale from sea surface parameters. This study proposes a new approach based on Random Forest (RF) machine learning to retrieve subsurface temperature anomaly (STA) in the global ocean from multisource satellite observations including sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA), sea surface salinity anomaly (SSSA), and sea surface wind anomaly (SSWA) via in situ Argo data for RF training and testing. RF machine-learning approach can accurately retrieve the STA in the global ocean from satellite observations of sea surface parameters (SSHA, SSTA, SSSA, SSWA). The Argo STA data were used to validate the accuracy and reliability of the results from the RF model. The results indicated that SSHA, SSTA, SSSA, and SSWA together are useful parameters for detecting SDO thermal information and obtaining accurate STA estimations. The proposed method also outperformed support vector regression (SVR) in global STA estimation. It will be a useful technique for studying SDO thermal variability and its role in global climate system from global-scale satellite observations.

  4. Global review of open access risk assessment software packages valid for global or continental scale analysis

    Daniell, James; Simpson, Alanna; Gunasekara, Rashmin; Baca, Abigail; Schaefer, Andreas; Ishizawa, Oscar; Murnane, Rick; Tijssen, Annegien; Deparday, Vivien; Forni, Marc; Himmelfarb, Anne; Leder, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Over the past few decades, a plethora of open access software packages for the calculation of earthquake, volcanic, tsunami, storm surge, wind and flood have been produced globally. As part of the World Bank GFDRR Review released at the Understanding Risk 2014 Conference, over 80 such open access risk assessment software packages were examined. Commercial software was not considered in the evaluation. A preliminary analysis was used to determine whether the 80 models were currently supported and if they were open access. This process was used to select a subset of 31 models that include 8 earthquake models, 4 cyclone models, 11 flood models, and 8 storm surge/tsunami models for more detailed analysis. By using multi-criteria analysis (MCDA) and simple descriptions of the software uses, the review allows users to select a few relevant software packages for their own testing and development. The detailed analysis evaluated the models on the basis of over 100 criteria and provides a synopsis of available open access natural hazard risk modelling tools. In addition, volcano software packages have since been added making the compendium of risk software tools in excess of 100. There has been a huge increase in the quality and availability of open access/source software over the past few years. For example, private entities such as Deltares now have an open source policy regarding some flood models (NGHS). In addition, leaders in developing risk models in the public sector, such as Geoscience Australia (EQRM, TCRM, TsuDAT, AnuGA) or CAPRA (ERN-Flood, Hurricane, CRISIS2007 etc.), are launching and/or helping many other initiatives. As we achieve greater interoperability between modelling tools, we will also achieve a future wherein different open source and open access modelling tools will be increasingly connected and adapted towards unified multi-risk model platforms and highly customised solutions. It was seen that many software tools could be improved by enabling user

  5. Global Ocean Circulation in Thermohaline Coordinates and Small-scale and Mesoscale mixing: An Inverse Estimate.

    Groeskamp, S.; Zika, J. D.; McDougall, T. J.; Sloyan, B.

    2016-02-01

    I will present results of a new inverse technique that infers small-scale turbulent diffusivities and mesoscale eddy diffusivities from an ocean climatology of Salinity (S) and Temperature (T) in combination with surface freshwater and heat fluxes.First, the ocean circulation is represented in (S,T) coordinates, by the diathermohaline streamfunction. Framing the ocean circulation in (S,T) coordinates, isolates the component of the circulation that is directly related to water-mass transformation.Because water-mass transformation is directly related to fluxes of salt and heat, this framework allows for the formulation of an inverse method in which the diathermohaline streamfunction is balanced with known air-sea forcing and unknown mixing. When applying this inverse method to observations, we obtain observationally based estimates for both the streamfunction and the mixing. The results reveal new information about the component of the global ocean circulation due to water-mass transformation and its relation to surface freshwater and heat fluxes and small-scale and mesoscale mixing. The results provide global constraints on spatially varying patterns of diffusivities, in order to obtain a realistic overturning circulation. We find that mesoscale isopycnal mixing is much smaller than expected. These results are important for our understanding of the relation between global ocean circulation and mixing and may lead to improved parameterisations in numerical ocean models.

  6. Mapping Global Ocean Surface Albedo from Satellite Observations: Models, Algorithms, and Datasets

    Li, X.; Fan, X.; Yan, H.; Li, A.; Wang, M.; Qu, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Ocean surface albedo (OSA) is one of the important parameters in surface radiation budget (SRB). It is usually considered as a controlling factor of the heat exchange among the atmosphere and ocean. The temporal and spatial dynamics of OSA determine the energy absorption of upper level ocean water, and have influences on the oceanic currents, atmospheric circulations, and transportation of material and energy of hydrosphere. Therefore, various parameterizations and models have been developed for describing the dynamics of OSA. However, it has been demonstrated that the currently available OSA datasets cannot full fill the requirement of global climate change studies. In this study, we present a literature review on mapping global OSA from satellite observations. The models (parameterizations, the coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer (COART), and the three component ocean water albedo (TCOWA)), algorithms (the estimation method based on reanalysis data, and the direct-estimation algorithm), and datasets (the cloud, albedo and radiation (CLARA) surface albedo product, dataset derived by the TCOWA model, and the global land surface satellite (GLASS) phase-2 surface broadband albedo product) of OSA have been discussed, separately.

  7. The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming. Final report

    Hoffert, M.I.

    1996-10-01

    This research focuses on assessing connections between anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and global climatic change. it has been supported since the early 1990s in part by the DOE ``Quantitative Links`` Program (QLP). A three-year effort was originally proposed to the QLP to investigate effects f global cloudiness on global climate and its implications for cloud feedback; and to continue the development and application of climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by clouds and oceans. It is well-known that cloud and ocean processes are major sources of uncertainty in the ability to predict climatic change from humankind`s greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions. And it has always been the objective to develop timely and useful analytical tools for addressing real world policy issues stemming from anthropogenic climate change.

  8. Evidence of a global magma ocean in Io's interior.

    Khurana, Krishan K; Jia, Xianzhe; Kivelson, Margaret G; Nimmo, Francis; Schubert, Gerald; Russell, Christopher T

    2011-06-03

    Extensive volcanism and high-temperature lavas hint at a global magma reservoir in Io, but no direct evidence has been available. We exploited Jupiter's rotating magnetic field as a sounding signal and show that the magnetometer data collected by the Galileo spacecraft near Io provide evidence of electromagnetic induction from a global conducting layer. We demonstrate that a completely solid mantle provides insufficient response to explain the magnetometer observations, but a global subsurface magma layer with a thickness of over 50 kilometers and a rock melt fraction of 20% or more is fully consistent with the observations. We also place a stronger upper limit of about 110 nanoteslas (surface equatorial field) on the dynamo dipolar field generated inside Io.

  9. Spiraling pathways of global deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean.

    Tamsitt, Veronica; Drake, Henri F; Morrison, Adele K; Talley, Lynne D; Dufour, Carolina O; Gray, Alison R; Griffies, Stephen M; Mazloff, Matthew R; Sarmiento, Jorge L; Wang, Jinbo; Weijer, Wilbert

    2017-08-02

    Upwelling of global deep waters to the sea surface in the Southern Ocean closes the global overturning circulation and is fundamentally important for oceanic uptake of carbon and heat, nutrient resupply for sustaining oceanic biological production, and the melt rate of ice shelves. However, the exact pathways and role of topography in Southern Ocean upwelling remain largely unknown. Here we show detailed upwelling pathways in three dimensions, using hydrographic observations and particle tracking in high-resolution models. The analysis reveals that the northern-sourced deep waters enter the Antarctic Circumpolar Current via southward flow along the boundaries of the three ocean basins, before spiraling southeastward and upward through the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Upwelling is greatly enhanced at five major topographic features, associated with vigorous mesoscale eddy activity. Deep water reaches the upper ocean predominantly south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, with a spatially nonuniform distribution. The timescale for half of the deep water to upwell from 30° S to the mixed layer is ~60-90 years.Deep waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans upwell in the Southern Oceanbut the exact pathways are not fully characterized. Here the authors present a three dimensional view showing a spiralling southward path, with enhanced upwelling by eddy-transport at topographic hotspots.

  10. GLOBEC (Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics: Northwest Atlantic program

    1991-01-01

    The specific objective of the meeting was to plan an experiment in the Northwestern Atlantic to study the marine ecosystem and its role, together with that of climate and physical dynamics, in determining fisheries recruitment. The underlying focus of the GLOBEC initiative is to understand the marine ecosystem as it related to marine living resources and to understand how fluctuation in these resources are driven by climate change and exploitation. In this sense the goal is a solid scientific program to provide basic information concerning major fisheries stocks and the environment that sustains them. The plan is to attempt to reach this understanding through a multidisciplinary program that brings to bear new techniques as disparate as numerical fluid dynamic models of ocean circulation, molecular biology and modern acoustic imaging. The effort will also make use of the massive historical data sets on fisheries and the state of the climate in a coordinated manner.

  11. The ocean quasi-homogeneous layer model and global cycle of carbon dioxide in system of atmosphere-ocean

    Glushkov, Alexander; Glushkov, Alexander; Loboda, Nataliya; Khokhlov, Valery; Serbov, Nikoly; Svinarenko, Andrey

    The purpose of this paper is carrying out the detailed model of the CO2 global turnover in system of "atmosphere-ocean" with using the ocean quasi-homogeneous layer model. Practically all carried out models are functioning in the average annual regime and accounting for the carbon distribution in bio-sphere in most general form (Glushkov et al, 2003). We construct a modified model for cycle of the carbon dioxide, which allows to reproduce a season dynamics of carbon turnover in ocean with account of zone ocean structure (up quasi-homogeneous layer, thermocline and deepest layer). It is taken into account dependence of the CO2 transfer through the bounder between atmosphere and ocean upon temperature of water and air, wind velocity, buffer mechanism of the CO2 dissolution. The same program is realized for atmosphere part of whole system. It is obtained a tempo-ral and space distribution for concentration of non-organic carbon in ocean, partial press of dissolute CO2 and value of exchange on the border between atmosphere and ocean. It is estimated a role of the wind intermixing of the up ocean layer. The increasing of this effect leads to increasing the plankton mass and further particles, which are transferred by wind, contribute to more quick immersion of microscopic shells and organic material. It is fulfilled investigation of sen-sibility of the master differential equations system solutions from the model parameters. The master differential equa-tions system, describing a dynamics of the CO2 cycle, is numerically integrated by the four order Runge-Cutt method under given initial values of valuables till output of solution on periodic regime. At first it is indicated on possible real-zation of the chaos scenario in system. On our data, the difference of the average annual values for the non-organic car-bon concentration in the up quasi-homogeneous layer between equator and extreme southern zone is 0.15 mol/m3, be-tween the equator and extreme northern zone is 0

  12. 231Pa and 230Th profiles in the open ocean water column

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Nakanishi, Takashi

    1985-01-01

    231 Pa and two Th isotopes ( 230 Th and 228 Th) were measured using large-volume water samples from the western North Pacific. Although 231 Pa and 230 Th have uniform source distributions (by decay of uranium) throughout the oceans, their vertical profiles are discernibly different from each other. The 231 Pa profile shows a mid-depth maximum around 2.5 km, while 230 Th increases monotonically with depth. This demonstrates that these nuclides follow different pathways for their transport and removal from seawater to depositional sinks. The activity ratio of 230 Th/ 231 Pa in seawater increases from one at the surface to four at a depth of 4 to 5 km, which is lower by a factor of 10 than the ratios published for open ocean particulate matter at the same depth horizon. The distribution coefficient, Ksub(D) for Pa, and the fractionation factor, Fsub(Th/Pa), between natural marine particulate matter and seawater are constant with depth at approx. 2 x 10 6 and 10, respectively. This implies that the adsorptive characteristics of deep open ocean particles are independent of particle composition or the content of manganese. The mean residence time of 231 Pa is estimated to be 200 years, which is considerably longer than that of 230 Th, but close to that of 210 Pb. (author)

  13. C-GLORSv5: an improved multipurpose global ocean eddy-permitting physical reanalysis

    Storto, Andrea; Masina, Simona

    2016-11-01

    Global ocean reanalyses combine in situ and satellite ocean observations with a general circulation ocean model to estimate the time-evolving state of the ocean, and they represent a valuable tool for a variety of applications, ranging from climate monitoring and process studies to downstream applications, initialization of long-range forecasts and regional studies. The purpose of this paper is to document the recent upgrade of C-GLORS (version 5), the latest ocean reanalysis produced at the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) that covers the meteorological satellite era (1980-present) and it is being updated in delayed time mode. The reanalysis is run at eddy-permitting resolution (1/4° horizontal resolution and 50 vertical levels) and consists of a three-dimensional variational data assimilation system, a surface nudging and a bias correction scheme. With respect to the previous version (v4), C-GLORSv5 contains a number of improvements. In particular, background- and observation-error covariances have been retuned, allowing a flow-dependent inflation in the globally averaged background-error variance. An additional constraint on the Arctic sea-ice thickness was introduced, leading to a realistic ice volume evolution. Finally, the bias correction scheme and the initialization strategy were retuned. Results document that the new reanalysis outperforms the previous version in many aspects, especially in representing the variability of global heat content and associated steric sea level in the last decade, the top 80 m ocean temperature biases and root mean square errors, and the Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation; slight worsening in the high-latitude salinity and deep ocean temperature emerge though, providing the motivation for further tuning of the reanalysis system. The dataset is available in NetCDF format at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.857995.

  14. Assessing carbon dioxide removal through global and regional ocean alkalinization under high and low emission pathways

    Lenton, Andrew; Matear, Richard J.; Keller, David P.; Scott, Vivian; Vaughan, Naomi E.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels continue to rise, increasing the risk of severe impacts on the Earth system, and on the ecosystem services that it provides. Artificial ocean alkalinization (AOA) is capable of reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and surface warming and addressing ocean acidification. Here, we simulate global and regional responses to alkalinity (ALK) addition (0.25 PmolALK yr-1) over the period 2020-2100 using the CSIRO-Mk3L-COAL Earth System Model, under high (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5; RCP8.5) and low (RCP2.6) emissions. While regionally there are large changes in alkalinity associated with locations of AOA, globally we see only a very weak dependence on where and when AOA is applied. On a global scale, while we see that under RCP2.6 the carbon uptake associated with AOA is only ˜ 60 % of the total, under RCP8.5 the relative changes in temperature are larger, as are the changes in pH (140 %) and aragonite saturation state (170 %). The simulations reveal AOA is more effective under lower emissions, therefore the higher the emissions the more AOA is required to achieve the same reduction in global warming and ocean acidification. Finally, our simulated AOA for 2020-2100 in the RCP2.6 scenario is capable of offsetting warming and ameliorating ocean acidification increases at the global scale, but with highly variable regional responses.

  15. New Community Education Program on Oceans and Global Climate Change: Results from Our Pilot Year

    Bruno, B. C.; Wiener, C.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean FEST (Families Exploring Science Together) engages elementary school students and their parents and teachers in hands-on science. Through this evening program, we educate participants about ocean and earth science issues that are relevant to their local communities. In the process, we hope to inspire more underrepresented students, including Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders and girls, to pursue careers in the ocean and earth sciences. Hawaii and the Pacific Islands will be disproportionately affected by the impacts of global climate change, including rising sea levels, coastal erosion, coral reef degradation and ocean acidification. It is therefore critically important to train ocean and earth scientists within these communities. This two-hour program explores ocean properties and timely environmental topics through six hands-on science activities. Activities are designed so students can see how globally important issues (e.g., climate change and ocean acidification) have local effects (e.g., sea level rise, coastal erosion, coral bleaching) which are particularly relevant to island communities. The Ocean FEST program ends with a career component, drawing parallel between the program activities and the activities done by "real scientists" in their jobs. The take-home message is that we are all scientists, we do science every day, and we can choose to do this as a career. Ocean FEST just completed our pilot year. During the 2009-2010 academic year, we conducted 20 events, including 16 formal events held at elementary schools and 4 informal outreach events. Evaluation data were collected at all formal events. Formative feedback from adult participants (parents, teachers, administrators and volunteers) was solicited through written questionnaires. Students were invited to respond to a survey of five questions both before and after the program to see if there were any changes in content knowledge and career attitudes. In our presentation, we will present our

  16. Open oceanic productivity changes at mid-latitudes during interglacials and its relation to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Nave, Silvia; Lebreiro, S.; Kissel, C.; Guihou, A.; Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Michel, E.; Cortijo, E.; Labeyrie, L.; Voelker, A.

    2010-05-01

    Variations in the interactions between marine ecosystems, thermohaline circulation, external forcing and atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations are not yet fully represented in detailed models of the glacial-interglacial transitions. Most of the research on past productivity changes has been focused so far on high-productivity areas such as upwelling areas (i.e. equatorial or coastal upwelling areas) even though those regions appraise only a little part of the ocean. Accordingly, the importance of oceanic productivity changes over glacial/interglacial cycles should be better known, as it may also play an important role on the loss of photosynthetically generated carbon as a central mechanism in the global carbon cycle. Its understanding will help quantifying the parameters needed to run comprehensive climate models, and subsequently help to better predict climate change for the near future. A high-resolution study of oceanic productivity, bottom water flow speed, surface and deep-water mass, bottom water ventilation, and terrestrial input changes during two interglacials (Holocene and Marine Isotope Stage [MIS] 5), at an open ocean site approximately 300 km west off Portugal [IMAGES core MD01-2446: 39°03'N, 12°37'W, 3547 m water depth] was conducted within the AMOCINT project (ESF-EUROCORES programme, 06-EuroMARC-FP-008). Even though siliceous productivity is expectedly low for oceanic regions, it shows a robust and consistent pattern with increased values during cold phases of MIS 5, and during the glacial stages 4 and 6 suggesting higher nutrient availability, during these periods. The same pattern is observed for MIS2 and the last deglaciation. The opal record is fully supported by the organic carbon content and to the estimated productivity using foraminifera based FA20 and SIMMAX.28 transfer functions for a near location. The benthic δ13C record suggests less North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) coincident with periods of higher productivity. The grain

  17. Accelerated Prediction of the Polar Ice and Global Ocean (APPIGO)

    2015-09-30

    Dolven (Cray) and Carl Ponder ( NVIDIA ). Eric and Carl and Louis worked on OpenACC in HYCOM before the hackathon, and we had 4.5 days to get HYCOM...that runs with 60 MPI ranks, we have been using the Nvidia profiling tools to analyze performance. Initial code structures in CICE look similar to...above, we have been receiving assistance from Nvidia engineers to improve sharing of GPU devices by more than one MPI rank on a node, as will be the

  18. Global Roads Open Access Data Set, Version 1 (gROADSv1)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Roads Open Access Data Set, Version 1 (gROADSv1) was developed under the auspices of the CODATA Global Roads Data Development Task Group. The data set...

  19. Assimilation of Earth rotation parameters into a global ocean model (FESOM)

    Androsov, A.; Schröter, J.; Brunnabend, S.; Saynisch, J.

    2012-04-01

    Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP) are used to improve estimates of the ocean circulation and mass budget. GRACE data can be used for verification or for further improvements. The Finite Element Sea-ice Ocean Model (FESOM) is used to simulate weekly ocean circulation and mass variations. The FESOM model is a hydrostatic ocean circulation model with a fully non-linear free surface. It solves the hydrostatic primitive equations with volume (Boussinesq approximation) and mass (Greatbatch correction) conservation. Fresh water exchange with the atmosphere and land is modelled as mass flux. This flux is the weakest part of the mass budget as it is the difference of large and uncertain quantities: evaporation, precipitation and river runoff. All uncertainties included in these parameters are directly reflected in the model results. ERP help in closing the budget in a realistic manner. Our strategy is designed for testing parametric estimation on a weekly basis. First, Oceanographic Earth rotation parameters (OERP) are calculated by subtracting atmospheric and hydrologic estimates from observed ERP. They are compared to OERP derived from a global ocean circulation model. The difference can be inverted to diagnose a correction of the oceanic mass budget. Additionally mass variations measured by GRACE are used for verification. In a second step, the global mass correction parameter, derived by the inversion, is used to improve the fresh water budget of FESOM.

  20. Global population genetic structure and biogeography of the oceanic copepods Eucalanus hyalinus and E. spinifer

    Goetze, Erica

    2005-01-01

    Although theory dictates that limited gene flow between populations is a necessary precursor to speciation under allopatric and parapatric models, it is currently unclear how genetic differentiation between conspecific populations can arise in open-ocean plankton species. I examined two recently...

  1. Drivers of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the global epipelagic ocean

    Catalá, T.S.; Álvarez-Salgado, X. A.; Otero, J.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in open surface waters (< 200 m) of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans was analysed by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). A four-component PARAFAC model was fit to the EEMs, which included two hum...

  2. Realistic Paleobathymetry of the Cenomanian–Turonian (94 Ma Boundary Global Ocean

    Arghya Goswami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, global paleoclimate simulations are prepared with bathtub-like, flat, featureless and steep walled ocean bathymetry, which is neither realistic nor suitable. In this article, we present the first enhanced version of a reconstructed paleobathymetry for Cenomanian–Turonian (94 Ma time in a 0.1° × 0.1° resolution, that is both realistic and suitable for use in paleo-climate studies. This reconstruction is an extrapolation of a parameterized modern ocean bathymetry that combines simple geophysical models (standard plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere based on ocean crustal age, global modern oceanic sediment thicknesses, and generalized shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated from a published global relief model of the modern world (ETOPO1 at active and passive continental margins. The base version of this Cenomanian–Turonian paleobathymetry reconstruction is then updated with known submarine large igneous provinces, plateaus, and seamounts to minimize the difference between the reconstructed paleobathymetry and the real bathymetry that once existed.

  3. Thermosteric contribution of warming oceans to the global sea level variations

    Bâki Iz H.

    2016-01-01

    Thermosteric contribution of warming oceans to the global sea level variations during the last century was evaluated at globally distributed 27 tide gauge stations with records over 80 years. The assessment was made using a recently proposed lagged model inclusive of a sea level trend, long and decadal periodicities, and lagged sea surface temperature measurements. The new model solutions revealed that almost all the long period periodic sea level changes experienced a...

  4. Ocean Depths: The Mesopelagic and Implications for Global Warming.

    Costello, Mark J; Breyer, Sean

    2017-01-09

    The mesopelagic or 'twilight zone' of the oceans occurs too deep for photosynthesis, but is a major part of the world's carbon cycle. Depth boundaries for the mesopelagic have now been shown on a global scale using the distribution of pelagic animals detected by compiling echo-soundings from ships around the world, and been used to predict the effect of global warming on regional fish production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Global multi-decadal ocean climate and small-pelagic fish population

    Tourre, Yves M; Lluch-Cota, Salvador E; White, Warren B

    2007-01-01

    Ocean climate, environmental and biological conditions vary on several spatio-temporal scales. Besides climate change associated with anthropogenic activity, there is growing evidence of a natural global multi-decadal climate signal in the ocean-atmosphere-biosphere climate system. The spatio-temporal evolution of this signal is thus analyzed during the 20th century and compared to the variability of small-pelagic fish landings. It is argued that the low-frequency global ocean environment and plankton ecosystems must be modified such that small-pelagic populations vary accordingly. A small-pelagic global index or fishing 'regime indicator series' (RIS) (i.e. a small-pelagic abundance indicator) is used. RIS is derived from fish landings data in the four main fishing areas in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Global RIS changes phase (from positive to negative values) when SST multi-decadal anomalies are out-of-phase between the eastern Pacific and southern Atlantic. RIS also displays maxima during the mid-30s to early-40s and the late-70s to early-80s when the multi-decadal signal was approximately changing phases (Tourre and White 2006 Geophys. Res. Lett. 33 L06716). It is recognized that other factors may modulate fish stocks, including anthropogenic predation. Nevertheless it is proposed that variable climate and environment, and the low-frequency 'global synchrony' of small-pelagic landings (Schwartzlose et al 1999 S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 21 289-347), could be associated with the multi-decadal changes in global ocean climate conditions

  6. Evaluation and Windspeed Dependence of MODIS Aerosol Retrievals Over Open Ocean

    Kleidman, Richard G.; Smirnov, Alexander; Levy, Robert C.; Mattoo, Shana; Tanre, Didier

    2011-01-01

    The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) data set provides high quality ground-truth to validate the MODIS aerosol product over open ocean. Prior validation of the ocean aerosol product has been limited to coastal and island sites. Comparing MODIS Collection 5 ocean aerosol retrieval products with collocated MAN measurements from ships shows that MODIS is meeting the pre-launch uncertainty estimates for aerosol optical depth (AOD) with 64% and 67% of retrievals at 550 nm, and 74% and 78% of retrievals at 870 nm, falling within expected uncertainty for Terra and Aqua, respectively. Angstrom Exponent comparisons show a high correlation between MODIS retrievals and shipboard measurements (R= 0.85 Terra, 0.83 Aqua), although the MODIS aerosol algorithm tends to underestimate particle size for large particles and overestimate size for small particles, as seen in earlier Collections. Prior analysis noted an offset between Terra and Aqua ocean AOD, without concluding which sensor was more accurate. The simple linear regression reported here, is consistent with other anecdotal evidence that Aqua agreement with AERONET is marginally better. However we cannot claim based on the current study that the better Aqua comparison is statistically significant. Systematic increase of error as a function of wind speed is noted in both Terra and Aqua retrievals. This wind speed dependency enters the retrieval when winds deviate from the 6 m/s value assumed in the rough ocean surface and white cap parameterizations. Wind speed dependency in the results can be mitigated by using auxiliary NCEP wind speed information in the retrieval process.

  7. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship RAINIER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1979-09-11 to 1979-09-14 (NODC Accession 8000279)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship RAINIER in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the National Ocean...

  8. Schwarz-Christoffel Conformal Mapping based Grid Generation for Global Oceanic Circulation Models

    Xu, Shiming

    2015-04-01

    We propose new grid generation algorithms for global ocean general circulation models (OGCMs). Contrary to conventional, analytical forms based dipolar or tripolar grids, the new algorithm are based on Schwarz-Christoffel (SC) conformal mapping with prescribed boundary information. While dealing with the conventional grid design problem of pole relocation, it also addresses more advanced issues of computational efficiency and the new requirements on OGCM grids arisen from the recent trend of high-resolution and multi-scale modeling. The proposed grid generation algorithm could potentially achieve the alignment of grid lines to coastlines, enhanced spatial resolution in coastal regions, and easier computational load balance. Since the generated grids are still orthogonal curvilinear, they can be readily 10 utilized in existing Bryan-Cox-Semtner type ocean models. The proposed methodology can also be applied to the grid generation task for regional ocean modeling when complex land-ocean distribution is present.

  9. Climate Change and China as a Global Emerging Regulatory Sea Power in the Arctic Ocean

    Cassotta Pertoldi-Bianchi, Sandra; Hossain, Kamrul; Ren, Jingzheng

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate change in the Arctic Ocean such as ice melting and ice retreat facilitates natural resources extraction. Arctic fossil fuel becomes the drivers of geopolitical changes in the Arctic Ocean. Climate change facilitates natural resource extractions and increases competition...... on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Arctic Council (AC) are taken into consideration under climate change effects, to assess how global legal frameworks and institutions can deal with China’s strategy in the Arctic Ocean. China’s is moving away from its role as “humble power” to one of “informal...... imperialistic” resulting in substantial impact on the Arctic and Antartic dynamism. Due to ice-melting, an easy access to natural resources, China’s Arctic strategy in the Arctic Ocean has reinforced its military martitime strategy and has profoundly changed its maritime military doctrine shifting from regional...

  10. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  11. Synthesis and Assimilation Systems - Essential Adjuncts to the Global Ocean Observing System

    Rienecker, Michele M.; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Barnier, Bernard; Behringer, David; Bell, Mike; Bourassa, Mark; Brasseur, Pierre; Breivik, Lars-Anders; Carton, James; hide

    2009-01-01

    Ocean assimilation systems synthesize diverse in situ and satellite data streams into four-dimensional state estimates by combining the various observations with the model. Assimilation is particularly important for the ocean where subsurface observations, even today, are sparse and intermittent compared with the scales needed to represent ocean variability and where satellites only sense the surface. Developments in assimilation and in the observing system have advanced our understanding and prediction of ocean variations at mesoscale and climate scales. Use of these systems for assessing the observing system helps identify the strengths of each observation type. Results indicate that the ocean remains under-sampled and that further improvements in the observing system are needed. Prospects for future advances lie in improved models and better estimates of error statistics for both models and observations. Future developments will be increasingly towards consistent analyses across components of the Earth system. However, even today ocean synthesis and assimilation systems are providing products that are useful for many applications and should be considered an integral part of the global ocean observing and information system.

  12. Role of zooplankton dynamics for Southern Ocean phytoplankton biomass and global biogeochemical cycles

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Moriarty, Róisín

    2016-01-01

    zooplankton community, despite iron limitation of phytoplankton community growth rates. This result has implications for the representation of global biogeochemical cycles in models as zooplankton faecal pellets sink rapidly and partly control the carbon export to the intermediate and deep ocean....

  13. Turnover time of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the dark global ocean

    Catalá, Teresa Serrano; Reche, Isabel; Fuentes-Lema, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    with a turnover time of 379±103 years is also detected. We propose the use of DOM fluorescence to study the cycling of resistant DOM that is preserved at centennial timescales and could represent a mechanism of carbon sequestration (humic-like fraction) and the decaying DOM injected into the dark global ocean......, where it decreases at centennial timescales (tyrosine-like fraction)...

  14. Global Modeling of Internal Tides Within an Eddying Ocean General Circulation Model

    2012-05-31

    paper aooo not violate: any Oisclosur~,;·of trade• secrets or suggestions of outside individuals on::oncams whiCh have· beE !n communicated 1.o...fully three- dimensional global ocean circulation model, we will provide an internal tide capability everywhere, and allow nested models to include

  15. Catalyzing Open and Collaborative Science to Address Global ...

    As the cost of computer hardware continues to drop and developing-country researchers get increased access to the Internet and mobile phones, each offers the potential for solving these development challenges by opening up the scientific process. What is open science? At the heart of the open science concept is the ...

  16. Response of Southern Ocean circulation to global warming may enhance basal ice shelf melting around Antarctica

    Hattermann, Tore; Levermann, Anders [Potsdam University, Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    We investigate the large-scale oceanic features determining the future ice shelf-ocean interaction by analyzing global warming experiments in a coarse resolution climate model with a comprehensive ocean component. Heat and freshwater fluxes from basal ice shelf melting (ISM) are parameterized following Beckmann and Goosse [Ocean Model 5(2):157-170, 2003]. Melting sensitivities to the oceanic temperature outside of the ice shelf cavities are varied from linear to quadratic (Holland et al. in J Clim 21, 2008). In 1% per year CO{sub 2}-increase experiments the total freshwater flux from ISM triples to 0.09 Sv in the linear case and more than quadruples to 0.15 Sv in the quadratic case after 140 years at which 4 x 280 ppm = 1,120 ppm was reached. Due to the long response time of subsurface temperature anomalies, ISM thereafter increases drastically, if CO{sub 2} concentrations are kept constant at 1,120 ppm. Varying strength of the Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC) is crucial for ISM increase, because southward advection of heat dominates the warming along the Antarctic coast. On centennial timescales the ACC accelerates due to deep ocean warming north of the current, caused by mixing of heat along isopycnals in the Southern Ocean (SO) outcropping regions. In contrast to previous studies we find an initial weakening of the ACC during the first 150 years of warming. This purely baroclinic effect is due to a freshening in the SO which is consistent with present observations. Comparison with simulations with diagnosed ISM but without its influence on the ocean circulation reveal a number of ISM-related feedbacks, of which a negative ISM-feedback, due to the ISM-related local oceanic cooling, is the dominant one. (orig.)

  17. Global assessment of oceanic lead pollution using sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) as an indicator species.

    Savery, Laura C; Wise, Sandra S; Falank, Carolyne; Wise, James; Gianios, Christy; Douglas Thompson, W; Perkins, Christopher; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhu, Cairong; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-02-15

    Lead (Pb) is an oceanic pollutant of global concern. Anthropogenic activities are increasing oceanic levels, but to an unknown extent. The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) has a global distribution and high trophic level. The aim of this study was to establish a global baseline of oceanic Pb concentrations using free-ranging sperm whales as an indicator species. Skin biopsies (n=337) were collected during the voyage of the Odyssey (2000-2005) from 17 regions considering gender and age. Pb was detectable in 315 samples with a global mean of 1.6 ug/gww ranging from 0.1 to 129.6 ug/gww. Papua New Guinea, Bahamas and Australia had the highest regional mean with 6.1, 3.4, and 3.1 ug/gww, respectively. Pb concentrations were not significantly different between sex and age in males. This is the first global toxicological dataset for Pb in a marine mammal and confirms Pb is widely distributed with hotspots in some regions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Global assessment of ocean carbon export by combining satellite observations and food-web models

    Siegel, D. A.; Buesseler, K. O.; Doney, S. C.; Sailley, S. F.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Boyd, P. W.

    2014-03-01

    The export of organic carbon from the surface ocean by sinking particles is an important, yet highly uncertain, component of the global carbon cycle. Here we introduce a mechanistic assessment of the global ocean carbon export using satellite observations, including determinations of net primary production and the slope of the particle size spectrum, to drive a food-web model that estimates the production of sinking zooplankton feces and algal aggregates comprising the sinking particle flux at the base of the euphotic zone. The synthesis of observations and models reveals fundamentally different and ecologically consistent regional-scale patterns in export and export efficiency not found in previous global carbon export assessments. The model reproduces regional-scale particle export field observations and predicts a climatological mean global carbon export from the euphotic zone of 6 Pg C yr-1. Global export estimates show small variation (typically model parameter values. The model is also robust to the choices of the satellite data products used and enables interannual changes to be quantified. The present synthesis of observations and models provides a path for quantifying the ocean's biological pump.

  19. Uncertainty in Indian Ocean Dipole response to global warming: the role of internal variability

    Hui, Chang; Zheng, Xiao-Tong

    2018-01-01

    The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is one of the leading modes of interannual sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO). The response of IOD to global warming is quite uncertain in climate model projections. In this study, the uncertainty in IOD change under global warming, especially that resulting from internal variability, is investigated based on the community earth system model large ensemble (CESM-LE). For the IOD amplitude change, the inter-member uncertainty in CESM-LE is about 50% of the intermodel uncertainty in the phase 5 of the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP5) multimodel ensemble, indicating the important role of internal variability in IOD future projection. In CESM-LE, both the ensemble mean and spread in mean SST warming show a zonal positive IOD-like (pIOD-like) pattern in the TIO. This pIOD-like mean warming regulates ocean-atmospheric feedbacks of the interannual IOD mode, and weakens the skewness of the interannual variability. However, as the changes in oceanic and atmospheric feedbacks counteract each other, the inter-member variability in IOD amplitude change is not correlated with that of the mean state change. Instead, the ensemble spread in IOD amplitude change is correlated with that in ENSO amplitude change in CESM-LE, reflecting the close inter-basin relationship between the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean in this model.

  20. Exploring the sensitivity of global ocean circulation to future ice loss from Antarctica

    Condron, Alan [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The sensitivity of the global ocean circulation and climate to large increases in iceberg calving and meltwater discharges from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) are rarely studied and poorly understood. The requirement to investigate this topic is heightened by growing evidence that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is vulnerable to rapid retreat and collapse on multidecadal-to-centennial timescales. Observations collected over the last 30 years indicate that the WAIS is now losing mass at an accelerated and that a collapse may have already begun in the Amundsen Sea sector. In addition, some recent future model simulations of the AIS show the potential for rapid ice sheet retreat in the next 50 – 300 years. Such a collapse would be associated with the discharge of enormous volumes of ice and meltwater to the Southern Ocean. This project funds PI Condron to begin assessing the sensitivity of the global ocean circulation to projected increases in meltwater discharge and iceberg calving from the AIS for the next 50 – 100 years. A series of climate model simulations will determine changes in ocean circulation and temperature at the ice sheet grounding line, the role of mesoscale ocean eddies in mixing and transporting freshwater away from the continent to deep water formation regions, and the likely impact on the northward transport of heat to Europe and North America.

  1. Benchmarking the mesoscale variability in global ocean eddy-permitting numerical systems

    Cipollone, Andrea; Masina, Simona; Storto, Andrea; Iovino, Doroteaciro

    2017-10-01

    The role of data assimilation procedures on representing ocean mesoscale variability is assessed by applying eddy statistics to a state-of-the-art global ocean reanalysis (C-GLORS), a free global ocean simulation (performed with the NEMO system) and an observation-based dataset (ARMOR3D) used as an independent benchmark. Numerical results are computed on a 1/4 ∘ horizontal grid (ORCA025) and share the same resolution with ARMOR3D dataset. This "eddy-permitting" resolution is sufficient to allow ocean eddies to form. Further to assessing the eddy statistics from three different datasets, a global three-dimensional eddy detection system is implemented in order to bypass the need of regional-dependent definition of thresholds, typical of commonly adopted eddy detection algorithms. It thus provides full three-dimensional eddy statistics segmenting vertical profiles from local rotational velocities. This criterion is crucial for discerning real eddies from transient surface noise that inevitably affects any two-dimensional algorithm. Data assimilation enhances and corrects mesoscale variability on a wide range of features that cannot be well reproduced otherwise. The free simulation fairly reproduces eddies emerging from western boundary currents and deep baroclinic instabilities, while underestimates shallower vortexes that populate the full basin. The ocean reanalysis recovers most of the missing turbulence, shown by satellite products , that is not generated by the model itself and consistently projects surface variability deep into the water column. The comparison with the statistically reconstructed vertical profiles from ARMOR3D show that ocean data assimilation is able to embed variability into the model dynamics, constraining eddies with in situ and altimetry observation and generating them consistently with local environment.

  2. Incentivizing More Effective Marine Protected Areas with the Global Ocean Refuge System (GLORES

    Sarah O. Hameed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy oceans are essential to human survival and prosperity, yet oceans are severely impacted worldwide by anthropogenic threats including overfishing, climate change, industrialization, pollution, and habitat destruction. Marine protected areas (MPAs have been implemented around the world and are effective conservation tools that can mitigate some of these threats and build resilience when designed and managed well. However, despite a rich scientific literature on MPA effectiveness, science is not the main driver behind the design and implementation of many MPAs, leading to variable MPA effectiveness and bias in global MPA representativity. As a result, the marine conservation community focuses on promoting the creation of more MPAs as well as more effective ones, however no structure to improve or accelerate effective MPA implementation currently exists. To safeguard marine ecosystems on a global scale and better monitor progress toward ecosystem protection, robust science-based criteria are needed for evaluating MPAs and synthesizing the extensive and interdisciplinary science on MPA effectiveness. This paper presents a strategic initiative led by Marine Conservation Institute called the Global Ocean Refuge System (GLORES. GLORES aims to set standards to improve the quality of MPAs and catalyze strong protection for at least 30% of the ocean by 2030. Such substantial increase in marine protection is needed to maintain the resilience of marine ecosystems and restore their benefits to people. GLORES provides a comprehensive strategy that employs the rich body of MPA science to scale up existing marine conservation efforts.

  3. The CAFE model: A net production model for global ocean phytoplankton

    Silsbe, Greg M.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Halsey, Kimberly H.; Milligan, Allen J.; Westberry, Toby K.

    2016-12-01

    The Carbon, Absorption, and Fluorescence Euphotic-resolving (CAFE) net primary production model is an adaptable framework for advancing global ocean productivity assessments by exploiting state-of-the-art satellite ocean color analyses and addressing key physiological and ecological attributes of phytoplankton. Here we present the first implementation of the CAFE model that incorporates inherent optical properties derived from ocean color measurements into a mechanistic and accurate model of phytoplankton growth rates (μ) and net phytoplankton production (NPP). The CAFE model calculates NPP as the product of energy absorption (QPAR), and the efficiency (ϕμ) by which absorbed energy is converted into carbon biomass (CPhyto), while μ is calculated as NPP normalized to CPhyto. The CAFE model performance is evaluated alongside 21 other NPP models against a spatially robust and globally representative set of direct NPP measurements. This analysis demonstrates that the CAFE model explains the greatest amount of variance and has the lowest model bias relative to other NPP models analyzed with this data set. Global oceanic NPP from the CAFE model (52 Pg C m-2 yr-1) and mean division rates (0.34 day-1) are derived from climatological satellite data (2002-2014). This manuscript discusses and validates individual CAFE model parameters (e.g., QPAR and ϕμ), provides detailed sensitivity analyses, and compares the CAFE model results and parameterization to other widely cited models.

  4. Small-scale open ocean currents have large effects on wind wave heights

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Gille, Sarah T.; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Rocha, Cesar B.; Rascle, Nicolas; Chapron, Bertrand; Gula, Jonathan; Molemaker, Jeroen

    2017-06-01

    Tidal currents and large-scale oceanic currents are known to modify ocean wave properties, causing extreme sea states that are a hazard to navigation. Recent advances in the understanding and modeling capability of open ocean currents have revealed the ubiquitous presence of eddies, fronts, and filaments at scales 10-100 km. Based on realistic numerical models, we show that these structures can be the main source of variability in significant wave heights at scales less than 200 km, including important variations down to 10 km. Model results are consistent with wave height variations along satellite altimeter tracks, resolved at scales larger than 50 km. The spectrum of significant wave heights is found to be of the order of 70>>2/>(g2>>2>) times the current spectrum, where >> is the spatially averaged significant wave height, >> is the energy-averaged period, and g is the gravity acceleration. This variability induced by currents has been largely overlooked in spite of its relevance for extreme wave heights and remote sensing.Plain Language SummaryWe show that the variations in currents at scales 10 to 100 km are the main source of variations in wave heights at the same scales. Our work uses a combination of realistic numerical models for currents and waves and data from the Jason-3 and SARAL/AltiKa satellites. This finding will be of interest for the investigation of extreme wave heights, remote sensing, and air-sea interactions. As an immediate application, the present results will help constrain the error budget of the up-coming satellite missions, in particular the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, and decide how the data will have to be processed to arrive at accurate sea level and wave measurements. It will also help in the analysis of wave measurements by the CFOSAT satellite.

  5. Multimillennium changes in dissolved oxygen under global warming: results from an AOGCM and offline ocean biogeochemical model

    Yamamoto, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Shigemitsu, M.; Oka, A.; Takahashi, K.; Ohgaito, R.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term oceanic oxygen change due to global warming is still unclear; most future projections (such as CMIP5) are only performed until 2100. Indeed, few previous studies using conceptual models project oxygen change in the next thousands of years, showing persistent global oxygen reduction by about 30% in the next 2000 years, even after atmospheric carbon dioxide stops rising. Yet, these models cannot sufficiently represent the ocean circulation change: the key driver of oxygen change. Moreover, considering serious effect oxygen reduction has on marine life and biogeochemical cycling, long-term oxygen change should be projected for higher validity. Therefore, we used a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) and an offline ocean biogeochemical model, investigating realistic long-term changes in oceanic oxygen concentration and ocean circulation. We integrated these models for 2000 years under atmospheric CO2 doubling and quadrupling. After global oxygen reduction in the first 500 years, oxygen concentration in deep ocean globally recovers and overshoots, despite surface oxygen decrease and weaker Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Deep ocean convection in the Weddell Sea recovers and overshoots, after initial cessation. Thus, enhanced deep convection and associated Antarctic Bottom Water supply oxygen-rich surface waters to deep ocean, resulting global deep ocean oxygenation. We conclude that the change in ocean circulation in the Southern Ocean potentially drives millennial-scale oxygenation in the deep ocean; contrary to past reported long-term oxygen reduction and general expectation. In presentation, we will discuss the mechanism of response of deep ocean convection in the Weddell Sea and show the volume changes of hypoxic waters.

  6. The Change in Oceanic O2 Inventory Associated with Recent Global Warming

    Keeling, Ralph; Garcia, Hernan

    2002-01-01

    Oceans general circulation models predict that global warming may cause a decrease in the oceanic O2 inventory and an associated O2 outgassing. An independent argument is presented here in support of this prediction based on observational evidence of the ocean's biogeochemical response to natural warming. On time scales from seasonal to centennial, natural O2 flux/heat flux ratios are shown to occur in a range of 2 to 10 nmol O2 per Joule of warming, with larger ratios typically occurring at higher latitudes and over longer time scales. The ratios are several times larger than would be expected solely from the effect of heating on the O2 solubility, indicating that most of the O2 exchange is biologically mediated through links between heating and stratification. The change in oceanic O2 inventory through the 1990's is estimated to be 0.3 - 0.4 x 10(exp 14) mol O2 per year based on scaling the observed anomalous long-term ocean warming by natural O2 flux/heating ratios and allowing for uncertainty due to decadal variability. Implications are discussed for carbon budgets based on observed changes in atmospheric O2/N2 ratio and based on observed changes in ocean dissolved inorganic carbon.

  7. Global warming-induced upper-ocean freshening and the intensification of super typhoons.

    Balaguru, Karthik; Foltz, Gregory R; Leung, L Ruby; Emanuel, Kerry A

    2016-11-25

    Super typhoons (STYs), intense tropical cyclones of the western North Pacific, rank among the most destructive natural hazards globally. The violent winds of these storms induce deep mixing of the upper ocean, resulting in strong sea surface cooling and making STYs highly sensitive to ocean density stratification. Although a few studies examined the potential impacts of changes in ocean thermal structure on future tropical cyclones, they did not take into account changes in near-surface salinity. Here, using a combination of observations and coupled climate model simulations, we show that freshening of the upper ocean, caused by greater rainfall in places where typhoons form, tends to intensify STYs by reducing their ability to cool the upper ocean. We further demonstrate that the strengthening effect of this freshening over the period 1961-2008 is ∼53% stronger than the suppressive effect of temperature, whereas under twenty-first century projections, the positive effect of salinity is about half of the negative effect of ocean temperature changes.

  8. Global ocean tide models on the eve of Topex/Poseidon

    Ray, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    Some existing global ocean tide models that can provide tide corrections to Topex/Poseidon altimeter data are described. Emphasis is given to the Schwiderski and Cartwright-Ray models, as these are the most comprehensive, highest resolution models, but other models that will soon appear are mentioned. Differences between models for M2 often exceed 10 cm over vast stretches of the ocean. Comparisons to 80 selected pelagic and island gauge measurements indicate the Schwiderski model is more accurate for the major solar tides, Cartwright-Ray for the major lunar tides. The adequacy of available tide models for studying basin-scale motions is probably marginal at best.

  9. FixO3: Advancement towards Open Ocean Observatory Data Management Harmonisation

    Behnken, Andree; Pagnani, Maureen; Huber, Robert; Lampitt, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Since 2002 there has been a sustained effort, supported as European framework projects, to harmonise both the technology and the data management of Open Ocean fixed observatories run by European nations. FixO3 started in September 2013, and for 3 more years will coordinate the convergence of data management best practice across a constellation of moorings in the Atlantic, in both hemispheres, and in the Mediterranean. To ensure the continued existence of these unique sources of oceanographic data as sustained observatories it is vital to improve access to the data collected, both in terms of methods of presentation, real-time availability, long-term archiving and quality assurance. The data management component of FixO3 improves access to marine observatory data by harmonising data management standards, formats and workflows covering the complete life cycle of data from real time data acquisition to long-term archiving. Legal and data policy aspects have been examined and discussed to identify transnational barriers to open-access to marine observatory data. As a result, a harmonised FixO3 data policy was drafted, which provides a formal basis for data exchange between FixO3 infrastructures, and also enables open access to data for the general public. FixO3 interacts with other European infrastructures such as EMODnet, SeaDataNet, PANGAEA, and especially aims to harmonise efforts with OceanSites and MyOcean. The project landing page (www.fixo3.eu) offers detailed information about every observatory as well as data visualisations and direct downloads. In addition to this, metadata for all FixO3 - relevant data are available from the searchable FixO3 metadata catalogue, which is also accessible from the project web page. This catalogue is hosted by PANGAEA and receives updates in regular intervals. The FixO3 Standards & Services registry ties in with the GEOSS Components and Services Registry (CSR) and provides additional observatory information. The data management

  10. Role of mesoscale eddies in the global ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2

    Zouhair, Lachkar

    2007-02-01

    Mesoscale eddies play a fundamental role in ocean dynamics particularly in the Southern Ocean. Global-scale tracer simulations are typically made at coarse resolution without explicitly modeling eddies. Here we ask what role do eddies play in ocean uptake, storage, and meridional transport of anthropogenic CO 2 , CFC-11 and bomb Δ 14 C. We made global anthropogenic transient tracer simulations in coarse-resolution, ORCA2, and eddy-permitting, ORCA05 and ORCA025, versions of the ocean modelling system NEMO. We focus on the Southern Ocean where tracer air-sea fluxes are largest. Eddies have little effect on bomb Δ 14 C uptake and storage. Yet for CFC-11 and anthropogenic CO 2 , increased eddy activity reduces southern extra-tropical uptake by 28% and 25% respectively, thereby providing better agreement with observations. It is shown that the discrepancies in the equilibration times between the three tracers determine their respective sensitivities to the model horizontal resolution. Applying Gent and McWilliams (1990) (GM) parameterization of eddies in the non-eddying version of the model does improve results, but not enough. An in-depth investigation of the mechanisms by which eddies affect the uptake of the transient tracers shows that including mesoscale eddies leads to an overall reduction in the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) ventilation, and modifies substantially the spatial distribution of their source regions. This investigation reveals also that the GM parameterization still overestimates the ventilation and the subduction of AAIW in the Indian Ocean where the simulated mixed layer is particularly deep during the winter. This work suggests that most current coarse-resolution models may overestimate the ventilation of AAIW in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. This study shows also that the use of the GM parameterization may be of limited utility where mixed layer is relatively deep and confirms the general need for a more adequate

  11. Heavy metals transfer through the Inner Continental Shelf to the open ocean data as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) submitted October, 1972 (NODC Accession 7300575)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Heavy metals transfer through the Inner Continental Shelf to the open ocean data were collected by the Skidway Institute of Oceanography (SKIO). Data were collected...

  12. Global Partnership on Open Data for Development | IDRC ...

    This project will help developing-country governments develop and manage open data policies and practices. ... Data analysts and IT developers in other developing countries are helping to improve ... -UNDP Eastern Europe and Central Asia office. They will work together to harness the potential of open data initiatives to

  13. Open Source Communities in Technical Writing: Local Exigence, Global Extensibility

    Conner, Trey; Gresham, Morgan; McCracken, Jill

    2011-01-01

    By offering open-source software (OSS)-based networks as an affordable technology alternative, we partnered with a nonprofit community organization. In this article, we narrate the client-based experiences of this partnership, highlighting the ways in which OSS and open-source culture (OSC) transformed our students' and our own expectations of…

  14. Forms of Innovation Openness in Global Automotive Groups

    Karlsson, Christer; Sköld, Martin

    2013-01-01

    or less closed innovation are mainly identified in a horizontal dimension. This type of innovation has closed signatures since the underlying technology being more or less general or specifically applicable is not traded on an open market, but developed for specific purposes between cooperating parties......Open innovation can involve more or less information and knowledge from few or many areas and few or many actors. The communication can also be more or less intense and frequent. These are considered here to be aspects of openness. Patterns of open innovation are often identified primarily...... in a vertical dimension in relation to various types of suppliers. Vertical 'open' innovation might however also have 'closed' signatures, especially in relations with suppliers owning scarce and specified technology and/or in relations with large suppliers prescribing technological content. Patterns of more...

  15. Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans.

    Jaffé, Rudolf; Ding, Yan; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Stubbins, Aron; Spencer, Robert G M; Campbell, John; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2013-04-19

    Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent transport to the ocean. The global flux of soluble charcoal accounts to 26.5 ± 1.8 million tons per year, which is ~10% of the global riverine flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We suggest that the mobilization of charcoal and DOC out of soils is mechanistically coupled. This study closes a major gap in the global charcoal budget and provides critical information in the context of geoengineering.

  16. Global Health and Social Media: Using Instagram and Twitter in an Open Online Class for Global Service-Learning Projects

    Messner, Marcus; Medina-Messner, Vivian; Guidry, Jeanine

    2016-01-01

    Course description: An undergraduate open online course used Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram to explore global health issues and designed social media campaigns for nonprofit clients. Social media platforms were used as teaching as well as learning platforms to allow students to explore their real life applications in global health contexts.

  17. Emergence of a global science–business initiative for ocean stewardship

    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Rockström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The ocean represents a fundamental source of micronutrients and protein for a growing world population. Seafood is a highly traded and sought after commodity on international markets, and is critically dependent on healthy marine ecosystems. A global trend of wild stocks being overfished and in decline, as well as multiple sustainability challenges associated with a rapid growth of aquaculture, represent key concerns in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Existing efforts aimed to improve the sustainability of seafood production have generated important progress, primarily at the local and national levels, but have yet to effectively address the global challenges associated with the ocean. This study highlights the importance of transnational corporations in enabling transformative change, and thereby contributes to advancing the limited understanding of large-scale private actors within the sustainability science literature. We describe how we engaged with large seafood producers to coproduce a global science–business initiative for ocean stewardship. We suggest that this initiative is improving the prospects for transformative change by providing novel links between science and business, between wild-capture fisheries and aquaculture, and across geographical space. We argue that scientists can play an important role in facilitating change by connecting knowledge to action among global actors, while recognizing risks associated with such engagement. The methods developed through this case study contribute to identifying key competences in sustainability science and hold promises for other sectors as well. PMID:28784792

  18. A Global Ocean Tide Model From TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimetry: GOT99.2

    Ray, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Goddard Ocean Tide model GOT99.2 is a new solution for the amplitudes and phases of the global oceanic tides, based on over six years of sea-surface height measurements by the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimeter. Comparison with deep-ocean tide-gauge measurements show that this new tidal solution is an improvement over previous global models, with accuracies for the main semidiurnal lunar constituent M2 now below 1.5 cm (deep water only). The new solution benefits from use of prior hydrodynamic models, several in shallow and inland seas as well as the global finite-element model FES94.1. This report describes some of the data processing details involved in handling the altimetry, and it provides a comprehensive set of global cotidal charts of the resulting solutions. Various derived tidal charts are also provided, including tidal loading deformation charts, tidal gravimetric charts, and tidal current velocity (or transport) charts. Finally, low-degree spherical harmonic coefficients are computed by numerical quadrature and are tabulated for the major short-period tides; these are useful for a variety of geodetic and geophysical purposes, especially in combination with similar estimates from satellite laser ranging.

  19. Emergence of a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship.

    Österblom, Henrik; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Rockström, Johan

    2017-08-22

    The ocean represents a fundamental source of micronutrients and protein for a growing world population. Seafood is a highly traded and sought after commodity on international markets, and is critically dependent on healthy marine ecosystems. A global trend of wild stocks being overfished and in decline, as well as multiple sustainability challenges associated with a rapid growth of aquaculture, represent key concerns in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Existing efforts aimed to improve the sustainability of seafood production have generated important progress, primarily at the local and national levels, but have yet to effectively address the global challenges associated with the ocean. This study highlights the importance of transnational corporations in enabling transformative change, and thereby contributes to advancing the limited understanding of large-scale private actors within the sustainability science literature. We describe how we engaged with large seafood producers to coproduce a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship. We suggest that this initiative is improving the prospects for transformative change by providing novel links between science and business, between wild-capture fisheries and aquaculture, and across geographical space. We argue that scientists can play an important role in facilitating change by connecting knowledge to action among global actors, while recognizing risks associated with such engagement. The methods developed through this case study contribute to identifying key competences in sustainability science and hold promises for other sectors as well.

  20. Opening Up: Higher Education Systems in Global Perspective

    van der Wende, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Globalisation has strongly influenced higher education during the last decades. As in many other sectors, this has generated contradictory outcomes. Enhanced competition for reputation, talent, and resources was driven by the paradigm of the global knowledge economy and fuelled by global rankings,

  1. Declining Global Per Capita Agricultural Production and Warming Oceans Threaten Food Security

    Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that was grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be controlled by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices, and policies. In this paper we discuss several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia, and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14 percent between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21 st century food availability by disrupting Indian Ocean moisture transports and tilting the 21 st century climate toward a more El Nino-like state. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced main growing season rainfall along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, we present an analysis of

  2. Global high-resolution monthly pCO2 climatology for the coastal ocean derived from neural network interpolation

    G. G. Laruelle

    2017-10-01

    temperature-induced changes in solubility but are also the result of seasonal changes in circulation, mixing and biological productivity. Our results also reveal that the amplitudes of both thermal and nonthermal seasonal variations in pCO2 are significantly larger at high latitudes. Finally, because this product's spatial extent includes parts of the open ocean as well, it can be readily merged with existing global open-ocean products to produce a true global perspective of the spatial and temporal variability of surface ocean pCO2.

  3. An open ecosystem engagement strategy through the lens of global food safety

    Stacey, Paul; Fons, Garin; Bernardo, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    The Global Food Safety Partnership (GFSP) is a public/private partnership established through the World Bank to improve food safety systems through a globally coordinated and locally-driven approach. This concept paper aims to establish a framework to help GFSP fully leverage the potential of open models. In preparing this paper the authors spoke to many different GFSP stakeholders who asked questions about open models such as: what is it?what’s in it for me?why use an open rather than a proprietary model?how will open models generate equivalent or greater sustainable revenue streams compared to the current “traditional” approaches?  This last question came up many times with assertions that traditional service providers need to see opportunity for equivalent or greater revenue dollars before they will buy-in. This paper identifies open value propositions for GFSP stakeholders and proposes a framework for creating and structuring that value. Open Educational Resources (OER) were the primary open practice GFSP partners spoke to us about, as they provide a logical entry point for collaboration. Going forward, funders should consider requiring that educational resources and concomitant data resulting from their sponsorship should be open, as a public good. There are, however, many other forms of open practice that bring value to the GFSP. Nine different open strategies and tactics (Appendix A) are described, including: open content (including OER and open courseware), open data, open access (research), open government, open source software, open standards, open policy, open licensing and open hardware. It is recommended that all stakeholders proactively pursue "openness" as an operating principle. This paper presents an overall GFSP Open Ecosystem Engagement Strategy within which specific local case examples can be situated. Two different case examples, China and Colombia, are presented to show both project-based and crowd-sourced, direct-to-public paths

  4. Impact of CryoSat-2 for marine gravity field - globally and in the Arctic Ocean

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars; Knudsen, Per

    GDR data, NOAA LRM data, but also Level1b (LRM, SAR and SAR-in waveforms) data have been analyzed. A suite of eight different empirical retrackers have been developed and investigated for their ability to predict marine gravity in the Arctic Ocean. The impact of the various improvement offered by Cryo...... days repeat offered by CryoSat-2 provides denser coverage than older geodetic mission data set like ERS-1. Thirdly, the 92 degree inclination of CryoSat-2 is designed to map more of the Arctic Ocean than previous altimetric satellites. Finally, CryoSat-2 is able to operate in two new modes (SAR and SAR......Sat-2 in comparison with conventional satellite altimetry have been studied and quantified both globally but particularly for the Arctic Ocean using a large number of marine and airborne surveys providing “ground truth” marine gravity....

  5. Catalyzing Open and Collaborative Science to Address Global ...

    Climate change, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, ... Examples include crowdsourcing to map and monitor deforestation in Brazil to support conservation efforts in the Amazon. ... The costs and risks of open science

  6. Community Observatories: Fostering Ideas that STEM From Ocean Sense: Local Observations. Global Connections.

    Pelz, M. S.; Ewing, N.; Hoeberechts, M.; Riddell, D. J.; McLean, M. A.; Brown, J. C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) uses education and communication to inspire, engage and educate via innovative "meet them where they are, and take them where they need to go" programs. ONC data are accessible via the internet allowing for the promotion of programs wherever the learners are located. We use technologies such as web portals, mobile apps and citizen science to share ocean science data with many different audiences. Here we focus specifically on one of ONC's most innovative programs: community observatories and the accompanying Ocean Sense program. The approach is based on equipping communities with the same technology enabled on ONC's large cabled observatories. ONC operates the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories and they collect data on physical, chemical, biological, and geological aspects of the ocean over long time periods, supporting research on complex Earth processes in ways not previously possible. Community observatories allow for similar monitoring on a smaller scale, and support STEM efforts via a teacher-led program: Ocean Sense. This program, based on local observations and global connections improves data-rich teaching and learning via visualization tools, interactive plotting interfaces and lesson plans for teachers that focus on student inquiry and exploration. For example, students use all aspects of STEM by accessing, selecting, and interpreting data in multiple dimensions, from their local community observatories to the larger VENUS and NEPTUNE networks. The students make local observations and global connections in all STEM areas. The first year of the program with teachers and students who use this innovative technology is described. Future community observatories and their technological applications in education, communication and STEM efforts are also described.

  7. Deep oceans may acidify faster than anticipated due to global warming

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Lui, Hon-Kit; Hsieh, Chia-Han; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Kosugi, Naohiro; Ishii, Masao; Gong, Gwo-Ching

    2017-12-01

    Oceans worldwide are undergoing acidification due to the penetration of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere1-4. The rate of acidification generally diminishes with increasing depth. Yet, slowing down of the thermohaline circulation due to global warming could reduce the pH in the deep oceans, as more organic material would decompose with a longer residence time. To elucidate this process, a time-series study at a climatically sensitive region with sufficient duration and resolution is needed. Here we show that deep waters in the Sea of Japan are undergoing reduced ventilation, reducing the pH of seawater. As a result, the acidification rate near the bottom of the Sea of Japan is 27% higher than the rate at the surface, which is the same as that predicted assuming an air-sea CO2 equilibrium. This reduced ventilation may be due to global warming and, as an oceanic microcosm with its own deep- and bottom-water formations, the Sea of Japan provides an insight into how future warming might alter the deep-ocean acidification.

  8. Patterns and Variability in Global Ocean Chlorophyll: Satellite Observations and Modeling

    Gregg, Watson

    2004-01-01

    Recent analyses of SeaWiFS data have shown that global ocean chlorophyll has increased more than 4% since 1998. The North Pacific ocean basin has increased nearly 19%. These trend analyses follow earlier results showing decadal declines in global ocean chlorophyll and primary production. To understand the causes of these changes and trends we have applied the newly developed NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Assimilation Model (OBAM), which is driven in mechanistic fashion by surface winds, sea surface temperature, atmospheric iron deposition, sea ice, and surface irradiance. The model utilizes chlorophyll from SeaWiFS in a daily assimilation. The model has in place many of the climatic variables that can be expected to produce the changes observed in SeaWiFS data. This enables us to diagnose the model performance, the assimilation performance, and possible causes for the increase in chlorophyll. A full discussion of the changes and trends, possible causes, modeling approaches, and data assimilation will be the focus of the seminar.

  9. Combined simulation of carbon and water isotopes in a global ocean model

    Paul, André; Krandick, Annegret; Gebbie, Jake; Marchal, Olivier; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Losch, Martin; Kurahashi-Nakamura, Takasumi; Tharammal, Thejna

    2013-04-01

    Carbon and water isotopes are included as passive tracers in the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The implementation of the carbon isotopes is based on the existing MITgcm carbon cycle component and involves the fractionation processes during photosynthesis and air-sea gas exchange. Special care is given to the use of a real freshwater flux boundary condition in conjunction with the nonlinear free surface of the ocean model. The isotopic content of precipitation and water vapor is obtained from an atmospheric GCM (the NCAR CAM3) and mapped onto the MITgcm grid system, but the kinetic fractionation during evaporation is treated explicitly in the ocean model. In a number of simulations, we test the sensitivity of the carbon isotope distributions to the formulation of fractionation during photosynthesis and compare the results to modern observations of δ13C and Δ14C from GEOSECS, WOCE and CLIVAR. Similarly, we compare the resulting distribution of oxygen isotopes to modern δ18O data from the NASA GISS Global Seawater Oxygen-18 Database. The overall agreement is good, but there are discrepancies in the carbon isotope composition of the surface water and the oxygen isotope composition of the intermediate and deep waters. The combined simulation of carbon and water isotopes in a global ocean model will provide a framework for studying present and past states of ocean circulation such as postulated from deep-sea sediment records.

  10. DE-EE0000319 Final Technical Report [National Open-ocean Energy Laboratory

    Skemp, Susan

    2013-12-29

    Under the authorization provided by Section 634 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-140), in 2009 FAU was awarded U.S. Congressionally Directed Program (CDP) funding through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate and develop technologies to harness the energy of the Florida Current as a source of clean, renewable, base-load power for Florida and the U.S. A second CDP award in 2010 provided additional funding in order to enhance and extend FAU’s activities. These two CDPs in 2009 and 2010 were combined into a single DOE grant, DE-EE0000319, and are the subject of this report. Subsequently, in July 2010 funding was made available under a separate contract, DE-EE0004200. Under that funding, DOE’s Wind and Water Power Program designated FAU’s state of Florida marine renewable energy (MRE) center as the Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center (SNMREC). This report discusses SNMREC activities funded by the DE-EE0000319 grant, but will make reference, as appropriate, to activities that require further investigation under the follow-on grant. The concept of extracting energy from the motions of the oceans has a long history. However, implementation on large scales of the technologies to effect renewable energy recovery from waves, tides, and open-ocean currents is relatively recent. DOE’s establishment of SNMREC recognizes a significant potential for ocean current energy recovery associated with the (relatively) high-speed Florida Current, the reach of the Gulf Stream System flowing through the Straits of Florida, between the Florida Peninsula and the Bahamas Archipelago. The proximity of the very large electrical load center of southeast Florida’s metropolitan area to the resource itself makes this potential all the more attractive. As attractive as this potential energy source is, it is not without its challenges. Although the technology is conceptually simple, its design and implementation in a commercially

  11. Sensitivity of open-water ice growth and ice concentration evolution in a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model

    Shi, Xiaoxu; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2017-09-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model is applied to investigate to what degree the area-thickness distribution of new ice formed in open water affects the ice and ocean properties. Two sensitivity experiments are performed which modify the horizontal-to-vertical aspect ratio of open-water ice growth. The resulting changes in the Arctic sea-ice concentration strongly affect the surface albedo, the ocean heat release to the atmosphere, and the sea-ice production. The changes are further amplified through a positive feedback mechanism among the Arctic sea ice, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and the surface air temperature in the Arctic, as the Fram Strait sea ice import influences the freshwater budget in the North Atlantic Ocean. Anomalies in sea-ice transport lead to changes in sea surface properties of the North Atlantic and the strength of AMOC. For the Southern Ocean, the most pronounced change is a warming along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), owing to the interhemispheric bipolar seasaw linked to AMOC weakening. Another insight of this study lies on the improvement of our climate model. The ocean component FESOM is a newly developed ocean-sea ice model with an unstructured mesh and multi-resolution. We find that the subpolar sea-ice boundary in the Northern Hemisphere can be improved by tuning the process of open-water ice growth, which strongly influences the sea ice concentration in the marginal ice zone, the North Atlantic circulation, salinity and Arctic sea ice volume. Since the distribution of new ice on open water relies on many uncertain parameters and the knowledge of the detailed processes is currently too crude, it is a challenge to implement the processes realistically into models. Based on our sensitivity experiments, we conclude a pronounced uncertainty related to open-water sea ice growth which could significantly affect the climate system sensitivity.

  12. Response of the tropical Pacific Ocean to El Niño versus global warming

    Liu, Fukai; Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-04-15

    Climate models project an El Niño-like SST response in the tropical Pacific Ocean to global warming (GW). By employing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component, Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2), this study investigates the similarity and difference of formation mechanism for the changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean under El Niño and GW. Results show that, despite sharing some similarities between the two scenarios, there are many significant distinctions between GW and El Niño: 1) the phase locking of the seasonal cycle reduction is more notable under GW compared with El Niño, implying more extreme El Niño events in the future; 2) in contrast to the penetration of the equatorial subsurface temperature anomaly that appears to propagate in the form of an oceanic equatorial upwelling Kelvin wave during El Niño, the GW-induced subsurface temperature anomaly manifest in the form of off-equatorial upwelling Rossby waves; 3) while significant across-equator northward heat transport (NHT) is induced by the wind stress anomalies associated with El Niño, little NHT is found at the equator due to a symmetric change in the shallow meridional overturning circulation that appears to be weakened in both North and South Pacific under GW; and 4) the maintaining mechanisms for the eastern equatorial Pacific warming are also substantially different.

  13. Factors influencing the dissolved iron input by river water to the open ocean

    R. Krachler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of natural metal chelators on the bio-available iron input to the ocean by river water was studied. Ferrous and ferric ions present as suspended colloidal particles maintaining the semblance of a dissolved load are coagulated and settled as their freshwater carrier is mixed with seawater at the continental boundary. However, we might argue that different iron-binding colloids become sequentially destabilized in meeting progressively increasing salinities. By use of a 59Fe tracer method, the partitioning of the iron load from the suspended and dissolved mobile fraction to storage in the sediments was measured with high accuracy in mixtures of natural river water with artificial sea water. The results show a characteristic sequence of sedimentation. Various colloids of different stability are removed from a water of increasing salinity, such as it is the case in the transition from a river water to the open sea. However, the iron transport capacities of the investigated river waters differed greatly. A mountainous river in the Austrian Alps would add only about 5% of its dissolved Fe load, that is about 2.0 µg L-1 Fe, to coastal waters. A small tributary draining a sphagnum peat-bog, which acts as a source of refractory low-molecular-weight fulvic acids to the river water, would add approximately 20% of its original Fe load, that is up to 480 µg L-1 Fe to the ocean's bio-available iron pool. This points to a natural mechanism of ocean iron fertilization by terrigenous fulvic-iron complexes originating from weathering processes occurring in the soils upstream.

  14. Factors influencing the dissolved iron input by river water to the open ocean

    Krachler, R.; Jirsa, F.; Ayromlou, S.

    2005-05-01

    The influence of natural metal chelators on the bio-available iron input to the ocean by river water was studied. Ferrous and ferric ions present as suspended colloidal particles maintaining the semblance of a dissolved load are coagulated and settled as their freshwater carrier is mixed with seawater at the continental boundary. However, we might argue that different iron-binding colloids become sequentially destabilized in meeting progressively increasing salinities. By use of a 59Fe tracer method, the partitioning of the iron load from the suspended and dissolved mobile fraction to storage in the sediments was measured with high accuracy in mixtures of natural river water with artificial sea water. The results show a characteristic sequence of sedimentation. Various colloids of different stability are removed from a water of increasing salinity, such as it is the case in the transition from a river water to the open sea. However, the iron transport capacities of the investigated river waters differed greatly. A mountainous river in the Austrian Alps would add only about 5% of its dissolved Fe load, that is about 2.0 µg L-1 Fe, to coastal waters. A small tributary draining a sphagnum peat-bog, which acts as a source of refractory low-molecular-weight fulvic acids to the river water, would add approximately 20% of its original Fe load, that is up to 480 µg L-1 Fe to the ocean's bio-available iron pool. This points to a natural mechanism of ocean iron fertilization by terrigenous fulvic-iron complexes originating from weathering processes occurring in the soils upstream.

  15. Climatology of the HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model - Sea ice general circulation model

    Legutke, S. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Maier-Reimer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    The HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model (OGCM) climatology, obtained in a long-term forced integration is described. HOPE-G is a primitive-equation z-level ocean model which contains a dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model. It is formulated on a 2.8 grid with increased resolution in low latitudes in order to better resolve equatorial dynamics. The vertical resolution is 20 layers. The purpose of the integration was both to investigate the models ability to reproduce the observed general circulation of the world ocean and to obtain an initial state for coupled atmosphere - ocean - sea-ice climate simulations. The model was driven with daily mean data of a 15-year integration of the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM4, the atmospheric component in later coupled runs. Thereby, a maximum of the flux variability that is expected to appear in coupled simulations is included already in the ocean spin-up experiment described here. The model was run for more than 2000 years until a quasi-steady state was achieved. It reproduces the major current systems and the main features of the so-called conveyor belt circulation. The observed distribution of water masses is reproduced reasonably well, although with a saline bias in the intermediate water masses and a warm bias in the deep and bottom water of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The model underestimates the meridional transport of heat in the Atlantic Ocean. The simulated heat transport in the other basins, though, is in good agreement with observations. (orig.)

  16. Global assessment of benthic nepheloid layers and linkage with upper ocean dynamics

    Gardner, Wilford D.; Richardson, Mary Jo; Mishonov, Alexey V.

    2018-01-01

    Global maps of the maximum bottom concentration, thickness, and integrated particle mass in benthic nepheloid layers are published here to support collaborations to understand deep ocean sediment dynamics, linkage with upper ocean dynamics, and assessing the potential for scavenging of adsorption-prone elements near the deep ocean seafloor. Mapping the intensity of benthic particle concentrations from natural oceanic processes also provides a baseline that will aid in quantifying the industrial impact of current and future deep-sea mining. Benthic nepheloid layers have been mapped using 6,392 full-depth profiles made during 64 cruises using our transmissometers mounted on CTDs in multiple national/international programs including WOCE, SAVE, JGOFS, CLIVAR-Repeat Hydrography, and GO-SHIP during the last four decades. Intense benthic nepheloid layers are found in areas where eddy kinetic energy in overlying waters, mean kinetic energy 50 m above bottom (mab), and energy dissipation in the bottom boundary layer are near the highest values in the ocean. Areas of intense benthic nepheloid layers include the Western North Atlantic, Argentine Basin in the South Atlantic, parts of the Southern Ocean and areas around South Africa. Benthic nepheloid layers are weak or absent in most of the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic basins away from continental margins. High surface eddy kinetic energy is associated with the Kuroshio Current east of Japan. Data south of the Kuroshio show weak nepheloid layers, but no transmissometer data exist beneath the Kuroshio, a deficiency that should be remedied to increase understanding of eddy dynamics in un-sampled and under-sampled oceanic areas.

  17. Effects of UVB radiation on net community production in the upper global ocean

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2016-08-31

    Aim Erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer together with oligotrophication of the subtropical ocean is leading to enhanced exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in ocean surface waters. The impact of increased exposure to UVB on planktonic primary producers and heterotrophs is uncertain. Here we test the null hypothesis that net community production (NCP) of plankton communities in surface waters of the tropical and subtropical ocean is not affected by ambient UVB radiation and extend this test to the global ocean, including the polar oceans and the Mediterranean Sea using previous results. Location We conducted experiments with 131 surface communities sampled during a circumnavigation cruise along the tropical and subtropical ocean and combined these results with 89 previous reports encompassing the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic and Southern Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Methods The use of quartz (transparent to UVB radiation) and borosilicate glass materials (opaque to most UVB) for incubations allowed us to compare NCP between communities where UVB is excluded and those receiving natural UVB radiation. Results We found that NCP varies when exposed to natural UVB radiation compared to those where UVB was removed. NCP of autotrophic communities tended to decrease under natural UVB radiation, whereas the NCP of heterotrophic communities tended to increase. However, these variations showed the opposite trend under higher levels of UVB radiation. Main conclusions Our results suggest that earlier estimates of NCP for surface communities, which were hitherto derived using materials blocking UVB radiation were biased, with the direction and magnitude of this bias depending on the metabolic status of the communities and the underwater penetration of UVB radiation.

  18. Shedding light on the Global Ocean microbiome with algorithms and data collection

    Lauro, F.; Ostrowski, M.; Chénard, C.; Acerbi, E.; Paulsen, I.; Jensen, R.

    2016-02-01

    In the Global Oceans, the marine microbiome plays a critical role in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, but surveying marine microbial communities requires ship time for sample collection, economically constraining the number of samples collected. An integrative understanding of the microbiome's activity and performance requires the collection of high-density data, both temporally and spatially in a cost-effective way. We have overcome this bottleneck by crowdsourcing the data collection to vessels of opportunity, including bluewater sailing yachts. Sailors know the oceans, and experience first-hand the declines in ocean productivity and the effects of pollution and climate change. Moreover, simply the ability to sample a microbial community during anomalous or inclement weather conditions is a major advance in sampling strategy. Our approach inherently incorporates the benefit of outreach and participation of people in scientific research, gaining positive media attention for sailors, scientists and concerned citizens alike. We have tested the basic methods during a 2013 Indian Ocean Concept Cruise, from Cape Town to Singapore, performing experimental work and reaching sampling locations inaccessible to traditional Oceanographic Vessels. At the same time we developed a small, yacht-adapted automated sampling device that takes a variety of biological and chemical measurements. In 2015 our first beta-cruisers sampled the Pacific Ocean in the first ever citizen-oceanography transect at high and low latitudes in both hemispheres. The collected samples were characterized with next-gen sequencing technology and analysed with a combination of novel algorithmic approaches. With big data management, machine learning algorithms and agent-based models we show that it is possible to deconvolute the complexity of the Ocean Microbiome for the scientific management of fisheries, marine protected areas and preservation of the oceans and seas for generations to come.

  19. An updated climatology of surface dimethlysulfide concentrations and emission fluxes in the global ocean

    Lana, A.; Bell, T. G.; Simó, R.; Vallina, S. M.; Ballabrera-Poy, J.; Kettle, A. J.; Dachs, J.; Bopp, L.; Saltzman, E. S.; Stefels, J.; Johnson, J. E.; Liss, P. S.

    2011-03-01

    The potentially significant role of the biogenic trace gas dimethylsulfide (DMS) in determining the Earth's radiation budget makes it necessary to accurately reproduce seawater DMS distribution and quantify its global flux across the sea/air interface. Following a threefold increase of data (from 15,000 to over 47,000) in the global surface ocean DMS database over the last decade, new global monthly climatologies of surface ocean DMS concentration and sea-to-air emission flux are presented as updates of those constructed 10 years ago. Interpolation/extrapolation techniques were applied to project the discrete concentration data onto a first guess field based on Longhurst's biogeographic provinces. Further objective analysis allowed us to obtain the final monthly maps. The new climatology projects DMS concentrations typically in the range of 1-7 nM, with higher levels occurring in the high latitudes, and with a general trend toward increasing concentration in summer. The increased size and distribution of the observations in the DMS database have produced in the new climatology substantially lower DMS concentrations in the polar latitudes and generally higher DMS concentrations in regions that were severely undersampled 10 years ago, such as the southern Indian Ocean. Using the new DMS concentration climatology in conjunction with state-of-the-art parameterizations for the sea/air gas transfer velocity and climatological wind fields, we estimate that 28.1 (17.6-34.4) Tg of sulfur are transferred from the oceans into the atmosphere annually in the form of DMS. This represents a global emission increase of 17% with respect to the equivalent calculation using the previous climatology. This new DMS climatology represents a valuable tool for atmospheric chemistry, climate, and Earth System models.

  20. A mechanism for land-ocean contrasts in global monsoon trends in a warming climate

    Fasullo, J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, CAS/NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-09-15

    A central paradox of the global monsoon record involves reported decreases in rainfall over land during an era in which the global hydrologic cycle is both expected and observed to intensify. It is within this context that this work develops a physical basis for both interpreting the observed record and anticipating changes in the monsoons in a warming climate while bolstering the concept of the global monsoon in the context of shared feedbacks. The global-land monsoon record across multiple reanalyses is first assessed. Trends that in other studies have been taken as real are shown to likely be spurious as a result of changes in the assimilated data streams both prior to and during the satellite era. Nonetheless, based on satellite estimates, robust increases in monsoon rainfall over ocean do exist and a physical basis for this land-ocean contrast remains lacking. To address the contrast's causes, simulated trends are therefore assessed. While projections of total rainfall are inconsistent across models, the robust land-ocean contrast identified in observations is confirmed. A feedback mechanism is proposed rooted in the facts that land areas warm disproportionately relative to ocean, and onshore flow is the chief source of monsoonal moisture. Reductions in lower tropospheric relative humidity over land domains are therefore inevitable and these have direct consequences for the monsoonal convective environment including an increase in the lifting condensation level and a shift in the distribution of convection generally towards less frequent and potentially more intense events. The mechanism is interpreted as an important modulating influence on the ''rich-get-richer'' mechanism. Caveats for regional monsoons exist and are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Controls on the global distribution of contourite drifts: Insights from an eddy-resolving ocean model

    Thran, Amanda C.; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Spence, Paul; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2018-05-01

    Contourite drifts are anomalously high sediment accumulations that form due to reworking by bottom currents. Due to the lack of a comprehensive contourite database, the link between vigorous bottom water activity and drift occurrence has yet to be demonstrated on a global scale. Using an eddy-resolving ocean model and a new georeferenced database of 267 contourites, we show that the global distribution of modern contourite drifts strongly depends on the configuration of the world's most powerful bottom currents, many of which are associated with global meridional overturning circulation. Bathymetric obstacles frequently modify flow direction and intensity, imposing additional finer-scale control on drift occurrence. Mean bottom current speed over contourite-covered areas is only slightly higher (2.2 cm/s) than the rest of the global ocean (1.1 cm/s), falling below proposed thresholds deemed necessary to re-suspend and redistribute sediments (10-15 cm/s). However, currents fluctuate more frequently and intensely over areas with drifts, highlighting the role of intermittent, high-energy bottom current events in sediment erosion, transport, and subsequent drift accumulation. We identify eddies as a major driver of these bottom current fluctuations, and we find that simulated bottom eddy kinetic energy is over three times higher in contourite-covered areas in comparison to the rest of the ocean. Our work supports previous hypotheses which suggest that contourite deposition predominantly occurs due to repeated acute events as opposed to continuous reworking under average-intensity background flow conditions. This suggests that the contourite record should be interpreted in terms of a bottom current's susceptibility to experiencing periodic, high-speed current events. Our results also highlight the potential role of upper ocean dynamics in contourite sedimentation through its direct influence on deep eddy circulation.

  2. Buoy observations of the influence of swell on wind waves in the open ocean

    Violante-Carvalho, N.; Robinson, I.S. [University of Southampton (United Kingdom). Oceanography Centre; Ocampo-Torres, F.J. [CICESE, Ensenada (Mexico). Dpto. de Oceanografia Fisica

    2004-04-01

    The influence of longer (swell) on shorter, wind sea waves is examined using an extensive database of directional buoy measurements obtained from a heave-pitch-roll buoy moored in deep water in the South Atlantic. This data set is unique for such an investigation due to the ubiquitous presence of a young swell component propagating closely in direction and frequency with the wind sea, as well as a longer, opposing swell. Our results show, within the statistical limits of the regressions obtained from our analysis when compared to measurements in swell free environments, that there is no obvious influence of swell on wind sea growth. For operational purposes in ocean engineering this means that power-laws from fetch limited situations describing the wind sea growth can be applied in more realistic situations in the open sea when swell is present. (author)

  3. Going with the flow: the role of ocean circulation in global marine ecosystems under a changing climate.

    van Gennip, Simon J; Popova, Ekaterina E; Yool, Andrew; Pecl, Gretta T; Hobday, Alistair J; Sorte, Cascade J B

    2017-07-01

    Ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced productivity are widely considered to be the major stressors to ocean ecosystems induced by emissions of CO 2 . However, an overlooked stressor is the change in ocean circulation in response to climate change. Strong changes in the intensity and position of the western boundary currents have already been observed, and the consequences of such changes for ecosystems are beginning to emerge. In this study, we address climatically induced changes in ocean circulation on a global scale but relevant to propagule dispersal for species inhabiting global shelf ecosystems, using a high-resolution global ocean model run under the IPCC RCP 8.5 scenario. The ¼ degree model resolution allows improved regional realism of the ocean circulation beyond that of available CMIP5-class models. We use a Lagrangian approach forced by modelled ocean circulation to simulate the circulation pathways that disperse planktonic life stages. Based on trajectory backtracking, we identify present-day coastal retention, dominant flow and dispersal range for coastal regions at the global scale. Projecting into the future, we identify areas of the strongest projected circulation change and present regional examples with the most significant modifications in their dominant pathways. Climatically induced changes in ocean circulation should be considered as an additional stressor of marine ecosystems in a similar way to ocean warming or acidification. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Dynamical reconstruction of the global ocean state during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Kurahashi-Nakamura, Takasumi; Paul, André; Losch, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The global ocean state for the modern age and for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was dynamically reconstructed with a sophisticated data assimilation technique. A substantial amount of data including global seawater temperature, salinity (only for the modern estimate), and the isotopic composition of oxygen and carbon (only in the Atlantic for the LGM) were integrated into an ocean general circulation model with the help of the adjoint method, thereby the model was optimized to reconstruct plausible continuous fields of tracers, overturning circulation and water mass distribution. The adjoint-based LGM state estimation of this study represents the state of the art in terms of the length of forward model runs, the number of observations assimilated, and the model domain. Compared to the modern state, the reconstructed continuous sea-surface temperature field for the LGM shows a global-mean cooling of 2.2 K, and the reconstructed LGM ocean has a more vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, shallower North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) equivalent, stronger stratification, and more saline deep water.

  5. Linked Open Data in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    Tilmes, Curt A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program (http://globalchange.gov) coordinates and integrates federal research on changes in the global environment and their implications for society. The USGCRP is developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will centralize access to data and information related to global change across the U.S. federal government. The first implementation will focus on the 2013 National Climate Assessment (NCA) . (http://assessment.globalchange.gov) The NCA integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the USGCRP; analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and analyzes current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years. The NCA has received over 500 distinct technical inputs to the process, many of which are reports distilling and synthesizing even more information, coming from thousands of individuals around the federal, state and local governments, academic institutions and non-governmental organizations. The GCIS will present a web-based version of the NCA including annotations linking the findings and content of the NCA with the scientific research, datasets, models, observations, etc. that led to its conclusions. It will use semantic tagging and a linked data approach, assigning globally unique, persistent, resolvable identifiers to all of the related entities and capturing and presenting the relationships between them, both internally and referencing out to other linked data sources and back to agency data centers. The developing W3C PROV Data Model and ontology will be used to capture the provenance trail and present it in both human readable web pages and machine readable formats such as RDF and SPARQL. This will improve visibility into the assessment process, increase

  6. Directional and Spectral Irradiance in Ocean Models: Effects on Simulated Global Phytoplankton, Nutrients, and Primary Production

    Gregg, Watson W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of including directional and spectral light in simulations of ocean radiative transfer was investigated using a coupled biogeochemical-circulation-radiative model of the global oceans. The effort focused on phytoplankton abundances, nutrient concentrations and vertically-integrated net primary production. The importance was approached by sequentially removing directional (i.e., direct vs. diffuse) and spectral irradiance and comparing results of the above variables to a fully directionally and spectrally-resolved model. In each case the total irradiance was kept constant; it was only the pathways and spectral nature that were changed. Assuming all irradiance was diffuse had negligible effect on global ocean primary production. Global nitrate and total chlorophyll concentrations declined by about 20% each. The largest changes occurred in the tropics and sub-tropics rather than the high latitudes, where most of the irradiance is already diffuse. Disregarding spectral irradiance had effects that depended upon the choice of attenuation wavelength. The wavelength closest to the spectrally-resolved model, 500 nm, produced lower nitrate (19%) and chlorophyll (8%) and higher primary production (2%) than the spectral model. Phytoplankton relative abundances were very sensitive to the choice of non-spectral wavelength transmittance. The combined effects of neglecting both directional and spectral irradiance exacerbated the differences, despite using attenuation at 500 nm. Global nitrate decreased 33% and chlorophyll decreased 24%. Changes in phytoplankton community structure were considerable, representing a change from chlorophytes to cyanobacteria and coccolithophores. This suggested a shift in community function, from light-limitation to nutrient limitation: lower demands for nutrients from cyanobacteria and coccolithophores favored them over the more nutrient-demanding chlorophytes. Although diatoms have the highest nutrient demands in the model, their

  7. Declining global per capita agricultural production and warming oceans threaten food security

    Funk, Christopher C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that is grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be determined by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices and policies. This paper discusses several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14% between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21st century food availability in some countries by disrupting moisture transports and bringing down dry air over crop growing areas. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced rainfall during the main growing season along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, this study presents an analysis of emerging

  8. Poseidon's paintbox : historical archives of ocean colour in global-change perspective

    Wernand, M. R.

    2011-11-01

    In the thesis introduction issues are discussed on the historical background of marine optics and on marine optical devices that were used over the past centuries to observe and measure; as in all sciences, in marine optics we can see a steady development: that of ‘measuring’, beginning many centuries ago, to 'knowing' and since less than a century to the understanding of the phenomenon. Hereafter, six themes are treated successively. The first theme, ‘Ocean optics from 1600 (Hudson) to 1930 (Raman), shift in interpretation of natural water colouring’, addresses the question of why it took so long a time to explain the phenomenon ‘the colouring of the sea’, especially the blue colour, despite the age-long interest of sailors, for practical purposes of navigation and detection of fish - of which more later. The second theme ‘On the history of the Secchi disc’, describes the search to establish methods for the determination of (sea) water clarity concerning purposes of navigation (near coast colour changes) just mentioned to detect shoals, and for a more basic purpose, tracing lost objects. The search to determine the clarity of lakes and seas culminated in the invention of the Secchi disc, used since the late 19th century. The third theme, ‘Spectral analysis of the Forel-Ule ocean colour comparator scale’, addresses the accuracy of a colour scale proposed, used in limnology and oceanography. Scale observations are put into perspective with contemporary measurements on the colour of the sea. The fourth theme, ‘Ocean colour changes in the North Pacific since 1930’, handles the question whether long-term ocean colour changes using historic Forel-Ule observations, in this part of the ocean made very frequently over time, can be determined in relation to global change. In principal global warming may cause a gradual change in ocean colour due to the effect of biological, chemical and physical aspects of the ocean-surface. The fifth theme,

  9. Global and regional ocean carbon uptake and climate change: sensitivity to a substantial mitigation scenario

    Vichi, Marcello; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Manzini, Elisa [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Fogli, Pier Giuseppe [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); ENEA, Rome (Italy); Patara, Lavinia [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna (Italy); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), Kiel (Germany); Scoccimarro, Enrico [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Under future scenarios of business-as-usual emissions, the ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon is anticipated to decrease because of ocean chemistry constraints and positive feedbacks in the carbon-climate dynamics, whereas it is still unknown how the oceanic carbon cycle will respond to more substantial mitigation scenarios. To evaluate the natural system response to prescribed atmospheric ''target'' concentrations and assess the response of the ocean carbon pool to these values, 2 centennial projection simulations have been performed with an Earth System Model that includes a fully coupled carbon cycle, forced in one case with a mitigation scenario and the other with the SRES A1B scenario. End of century ocean uptake with the mitigation scenario is projected to return to the same magnitude of carbon fluxes as simulated in 1960 in the Pacific Ocean and to lower values in the Atlantic. With A1B, the major ocean basins are instead projected to decrease the capacity for carbon uptake globally as found with simpler carbon cycle models, while at the regional level the response is contrasting. The model indicates that the equatorial Pacific may increase the carbon uptake rates in both scenarios, owing to enhancement of the biological carbon pump evidenced by an increase in Net Community Production (NCP) following changes in the subsurface equatorial circulation and enhanced iron availability from extratropical regions. NCP is a proxy of the bulk organic carbon made available to the higher trophic levels and potentially exportable from the surface layers. The model results indicate that, besides the localized increase in the equatorial Pacific, the NCP of lower trophic levels in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans is projected to be halved with respect to the current climate under a substantial mitigation scenario at the end of the twenty-first century. It is thus suggested that changes due to cumulative carbon emissions up to present and the

  10. Enabling socio-economic activities: Opening global markets for the marginalized through secure ICT use

    Phahlamohlaka, Jackie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and describes five economic activities through which ICT could effectively be used to open global markets for rural and marginalized communities. The activities are identified in contexts where there are no industries...

  11. OPENING GLOBAL MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURE: THE NEXT WTO ROUND

    Sumner, Daniel A.

    2000-01-01

    More open international markets benefit the economy as a whole, as well as most U.S. agricultural producers. The Uruguay Round Agreement laid out a useful framework. Specifically addressed here is why the key to further liberalizing agricultural trade is reduction of tariffs as comprehensively and rapidly as politics will allow. Other issues such as export subsidies, tariff-rate quota quantities, and developing-country relationships are also important, especially while tariffs are coming down...

  12. Prediction of the fate of radioactive material in the South Pacific Ocean using a global high-resolution ocean model

    Hazell, Douglas R.; England, Matthew H.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the release of radioactive contaminants from Moruroa Atoll in a global high-resolution off-line model. The spread of tracer is studied in a series of simulations with varying release depths and time-scales, and into ocean velocity fields corresponding to long-term annual mean, seasonal, and interannually varying scenarios. In the instantaneous surface release scenarios we find that the incorporation of a seasonal cycle greatly influences tracer advection, with maximum concentrations still found within the French Polynesia region after 10 years. In contrast, the maximum trace is located in the southeast Pacific when long-term annual mean fields are used. This emphasizes the importance of the seasonal cycle in models of pollution dispersion on large scales. We further find that during an El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event reduced currents in the region of Moruroa Atoll result in increased concentrations of radioactive material in French Polynesia, as direct flushing from the source is reduced. In terms of the sensitivity to tracer release time-rates, we find that a gradual input results in maximum concentrations in the near vicinity of French Polynesia. This contrasts the instantaneous-release scenarios, which see maximum concentrations and tracer spread across much of the South Pacific Ocean. For example, in as little as seven years radioactive contamination can reach the east coast of Australia diluted by only a factor of 1000 of the initial concentration. A comparison of results is made with previous studies. Overall, we find much higher concentrations of radionuclides in the South Pacific than has previously been predicted using coarser-resolution models

  13. Vertical eddy diffusion as a key mechanism for removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the global surface oceans

    Lohmann, R.; Jurado Cojo, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325788227; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467; Dachs, J.

    2013-01-01

    Here we estimate the importance of vertical eddy diffusion in removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the surface Ocean and assess its importance as a global sink. Measured water column profiles of PFOA were reproduced by assuming that vertical eddy diffusion in a 3-layer ocean model is the sole

  14. A global, high-resolution data set of ice sheet topography, cavity geometry, and ocean bathymetry

    Schaffer, Janin; Timmermann, Ralph; Arndt, Jan Erik; Savstrup Kristensen, Steen; Mayer, Christoph; Morlighem, Mathieu; Steinhage, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The ocean plays an important role in modulating the mass balance of the polar ice sheets by interacting with the ice shelves in Antarctica and with the marine-terminating outlet glaciers in Greenland. Given that the flux of warm water onto the continental shelf and into the sub-ice cavities is steered by complex bathymetry, a detailed topography data set is an essential ingredient for models that address ice-ocean interaction. We followed the spirit of the global RTopo-1 data set and compiled consistent maps of global ocean bathymetry, upper and lower ice surface topographies, and global surface height on a spherical grid with now 30 arcsec grid spacing. For this new data set, called RTopo-2, we used the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO_2014) as the backbone and added the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean version 3 (IBCAOv3) and the International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) version 1. While RTopo-1 primarily aimed at a good and consistent representation of the Antarctic ice sheet, ice shelves, and sub-ice cavities, RTopo-2 now also contains ice topographies of the Greenland ice sheet and outlet glaciers. In particular, we aimed at a good representation of the fjord and shelf bathymetry surrounding the Greenland continent. We modified data from earlier gridded products in the areas of Petermann Glacier, Hagen Bræ, and Sermilik Fjord, assuming that sub-ice and fjord bathymetries roughly follow plausible Last Glacial Maximum ice flow patterns. For the continental shelf off Northeast Greenland and the floating ice tongue of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier at about 79° N, we incorporated a high-resolution digital bathymetry model considering original multibeam survey data for the region. Radar data for surface topographies of the floating ice tongues of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier and Zachariæ Isstrøm have been obtained from the data centres of Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Operation Icebridge (NASA

  15. WASS: An open-source pipeline for 3D stereo reconstruction of ocean waves

    Bergamasco, Filippo; Torsello, Andrea; Sclavo, Mauro; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise

    2017-10-01

    Stereo 3D reconstruction of ocean waves is gaining more and more popularity in the oceanographic community and industry. Indeed, recent advances of both computer vision algorithms and computer processing power now allow the study of the spatio-temporal wave field with unprecedented accuracy, especially at small scales. Even if simple in theory, multiple details are difficult to be mastered for a practitioner, so that the implementation of a sea-waves 3D reconstruction pipeline is in general considered a complex task. For instance, camera calibration, reliable stereo feature matching and mean sea-plane estimation are all factors for which a well designed implementation can make the difference to obtain valuable results. For this reason, we believe that the open availability of a well tested software package that automates the reconstruction process from stereo images to a 3D point cloud would be a valuable addition for future researches in this area. We present WASS (http://www.dais.unive.it/wass), an Open-Source stereo processing pipeline for sea waves 3D reconstruction. Our tool completely automates all the steps required to estimate dense point clouds from stereo images. Namely, it computes the extrinsic parameters of the stereo rig so that no delicate calibration has to be performed on the field. It implements a fast 3D dense stereo reconstruction procedure based on the consolidated OpenCV library and, lastly, it includes set of filtering techniques both on the disparity map and the produced point cloud to remove the vast majority of erroneous points that can naturally arise while analyzing the optically complex nature of the water surface. In this paper, we describe the architecture of WASS and the internal algorithms involved. The pipeline workflow is shown step-by-step and demonstrated on real datasets acquired at sea.

  16. In Pursuit of Happiness, Bhutan Opens to Globalization and Business

    Kimberly A. Freeman, Ph.D.; Katherine C. Jackson

    2013-01-01

    The Kingdom of Bhutan, a small country situated on the border between China and India, has in recent years become a constitutional democratic monarchy. As part of its 2008 constitution, Bhutan committed to promote conditions that would enable the pursuit of Gross National Happiness. The countrythus initiated an effort to improve the quality of life and happiness for its citizens and has embraced globalization far more than previouslythrough attracting business, tourism, and communications. Th...

  17. Distribution of known macrozooplankton abundance and biomass in the global ocean

    Moriarty, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Gosselin, M.-P.

    2013-07-01

    Macrozooplankton are an important link between higher and lower trophic levels in the oceans. They serve as the primary food for fish, reptiles, birds and mammals in some regions, and play a role in the export of carbon from the surface to the intermediate and deep ocean. Little, however, is known of their global distribution and biomass. Here we compiled a dataset of macrozooplankton abundance and biomass observations for the global ocean from a collection of four datasets. We harmonise the data to common units, calculate additional carbon biomass where possible, and bin the dataset in a global 1 × 1 degree grid. This dataset is part of a wider effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. Over 387 700 abundance data and 1330 carbon biomass data have been collected from pre-existing datasets. A further 34 938 abundance data were converted to carbon biomass data using species-specific length frequencies or using species-specific abundance to carbon biomass data. Depth-integrated values are used to calculate known epipelagic macrozooplankton biomass concentrations and global biomass. Global macrozooplankton biomass, to a depth of 350 m, has a mean of 8.4 μg C L-1, median of 0.2 μg C L-1 and a standard deviation of 63.5 μg C L-1. The global annual average estimate of macrozooplankton biomass in the top 350 m, based on the median value, is 0.02 Pg C. There are, however, limitations on the dataset; abundance observations have good coverage except in the South Pacific mid-latitudes, but biomass observation coverage is only good at high latitudes. Biomass is restricted to data that is originally given in carbon or to data that can be converted from abundance to carbon. Carbon conversions from abundance are restricted by the lack of information on the size of the organism and/or the absence of taxonomic information. Distribution patterns of global

  18. Open Science & Open Data Global Sprint 2016 | 2–3 June 2016

    Achintya Rao

    2016-01-01

    Join us as we learn to collaboratively build projects transforming science on the web! Thursday 2 June 2016 8.00 a.m. – Friday 3 June 20.00 p.m. CERN (3179-R-E06) This two-day sprint event brings together researchers, coders, librarians and the public from around the globe to hack on open science and open data projects in their communities. This year, we have four tracks you can contribute to: tools, citizen science, curriculum and open data. CERN is hosting three projects: Everware Open Cosmics CrowdAI   You can also participate in any of the other mozsprint projects for 2016. For more information, please visit: https://indico.cern.ch/event/535760/

  19. Sensitivity of sequestration efficiency to mixing processes in the global ocean

    Mignone, B.K.

    2004-01-01

    A number of large-scale sequestration strategies have been considered to help mitigate rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Here, we use an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) to evaluate the efficiency of one such strategy currently receiving much attention, the direct injection of liquid CO 2 into selected regions of the abyssal ocean. We find that currents typically transport the injected plumes quite far before they are able to return to the surface and release CO 2 through air-sea gas exchange. When injected at sufficient depth (well within or below the main thermocline), most of the injected CO 2 outgasses in high latitudes (mainly in the Southern Ocean) where vertical exchange is most favored. Virtually all OGCMs that have performed similar simulations confirm these global patterns, but regional differences are significant, leading efficiency estimates to vary widely among models even when identical protocols are followed. In this paper, we make a first attempt at reconciling some of these differences by performing a sensitivity analysis in one OGCM, the Princeton Modular Ocean Model. Using techniques we have developed to maintain both the modeled density structure and the absolute magnitude of the overturning circulation while varying important mixing parameters, we estimate the sensitivity of sequestration efficiency to the magnitude of vertical exchange within the low-latitude pycnocline. Combining these model results with available tracer data permits us to narrow the range of model behavior, which in turn places important constraints on sequestration efficiency. (author)

  20. Preliminary assessment of the performance of a global coupled atmosphere-ocean model

    Cubasch, U.

    1990-01-01

    A low-resolution version of the ECMWF global atmosphere model has been coupled to a global ocean model developed at the Max Planck Institute in Hamburg. The atmosphere model is driven by the sea surface temperature and the ice thickness calculated by the ocean model, which, in return, is driven by the wind stress, the heat flux and the freshwater flux diagnosed by the atmosphere model. Even though each model reaches stationarity when integrated on its own, the coupling of both creates problems, since the fields calculated by each model are not consistent with the ones the other model has to have in order to stay stationary, because some of the fluxes are not balanced. In the coupled experiment the combined ocean-atmosphere system drifts toward a colder state. To counteract this problem, a flux correction has been applied which balances the mean biases of each model. This method almost eliminates the climate drift of the coupled model. Problems still arise over ice covered regions

  1. Database of diazotrophs in global ocean: abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates

    Y.-W. Luo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine N2 fixing microorganisms, termed diazotrophs, are a key functional group in marine pelagic ecosystems. The biological fixation of dinitrogen (N2 to bioavailable nitrogen provides an important new source of nitrogen for pelagic marine ecosystems and influences primary productivity and organic matter export to the deep ocean. As one of a series of efforts to collect biomass and rates specific to different phytoplankton functional groups, we have constructed a database on diazotrophic organisms in the global pelagic upper ocean by compiling about 12 000 direct field measurements of cyanobacterial diazotroph abundances (based on microscopic cell counts or qPCR assays targeting the nifH genes and N2 fixation rates. Biomass conversion factors are estimated based on cell sizes to convert abundance data to diazotrophic biomass. The database is limited spatially, lacking large regions of the ocean especially in the Indian Ocean. The data are approximately log-normal distributed, and large variances exist in most sub-databases with non-zero values differing 5 to 8 orders of magnitude. Reporting the geometric mean and the range of one geometric standard error below and above the geometric mean, the pelagic N2 fixation rate in the global ocean is estimated to be 62 (52–73 Tg N yr−1 and the pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean is estimated to be 2.1 (1.4–3.1 Tg C from cell counts and to 89 (43–150 Tg C from nifH-based abundances. Reporting the arithmetic mean and one standard error instead, these three global estimates are 140 ± 9.2 Tg N yr−1, 18 ± 1.8 Tg C and 590 ± 70 Tg C, respectively. Uncertainties related to biomass conversion factors can change the estimate of geometric mean pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean by about ±70%. It was recently established that the most commonly applied method used to measure N2

  2. The relationship between the statistics of open ocean currents and the temporal correlations of the wind stress

    Bel, Golan; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2013-01-01

    We study the statistics of wind-driven open ocean currents. Using the Ekman layer model for the integrated currents, we investigate analytically and numerically the relationship between the wind-stress distribution and its temporal correlations and the statistics of the open ocean currents. We found that temporally long-range correlated winds result in currents whose statistics is proportional to the wind-stress statistics. On the other hand, short-range correlated winds lead to Gaussian distributions of the current components, regardless of the stationary distribution of the winds, and therefore to a Rayleigh distribution of the current amplitude, if the wind stress is isotropic. We found that the second moment of the current speed exhibits a maximum as a function of the correlation time of the wind stress for a non-zero Coriolis parameter. The results were validated using an oceanic general circulation model. (paper)

  3. In Pursuit of Happiness, Bhutan Opens to Globalization and Business

    Kimberly A. Freeman, Ph.D.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Bhutan, a small country situated on the border between China and India, has in recent years become a constitutional democratic monarchy. As part of its 2008 constitution, Bhutan committed to promote conditions that would enable the pursuit of Gross National Happiness. The countrythus initiated an effort to improve the quality of life and happiness for its citizens and has embraced globalization far more than previouslythrough attracting business, tourism, and communications. The author’s hereinaddress some of the initiatives provide the context within which these efforts have arisen.

  4. Interhemispheric Changes in Atlantic Ocean Heat Content and Their Link to Global Monsoons

    Lopez, H.; Lee, S. K.; Dong, S.; Goni, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether low frequency decadal variability of the South Atlantic meridional heat transport (SAMHT) influences decadal variability of the global monsoons. A multi-century run from a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model is used as basis for the analysis. Our findings indicate that multi-decadal variability of the South Atlantic Ocean plays a key role in modulating atmospheric circulation via interhemispheric changes in Atlantic Ocean heat content. Weaker SAMHT produces anomalous ocean heat divergence over the South Atlantic resulting in negative ocean heat content anomaly about 15 years later. This, in turn, forces a thermally direct anomalous interhemispheric Hadley circulation in the atmosphere, transporting heat from the northern hemisphere (NH) to the southern hemisphere (SH) and moisture from the SH to the NH, thereby intensify (weaken) summer (winter) monsoon in the NH and winter (summer) monsoon in the SH. Results also show that anomalous atmospheric eddies, both transient and stationary, transport heat northward in both hemispheres producing eddy heat flux convergence (divergence) in the NH (SH) around 15-30°, reinforcing the anomalous Hadley circulation. The effect of eddies on the NH (SH) poleward of 30° is opposite with heat flux divergence (convergence), which must be balanced by sinking (rising) motion, consistent with a poleward (equatorward) displacement of the jet stream and mean storm track. The mechanism described here could easily be interpreted for the case of strong SAMHT, with the reverse influence on the interhemispheric atmospheric circulation and monsoons. Overall, SAMHT decadal variability leads its atmospheric response by about 15 years, suggesting that the South Atlantic is a potential predictor of global climate variability.

  5. Future habitat suitability for coral reef ecosystems under global warming and ocean acidification.

    Couce, Elena; Ridgwell, Andy; Hendy, Erica J

    2013-12-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are placing spatially divergent stresses on the world's tropical coral reefs through increasing ocean surface temperatures and ocean acidification. We show how these two stressors combine to alter the global habitat suitability for shallow coral reef ecosystems, using statistical Bioclimatic Envelope Models rather than basing projections on any a priori assumptions of physiological tolerances or fixed thresholds. We apply two different modeling approaches (Maximum Entropy and Boosted Regression Trees) with two levels of complexity (one a simplified and reduced environmental variable version of the other). Our models project a marked temperature-driven decline in habitat suitability for many of the most significant and bio-diverse tropical coral regions, particularly in the central Indo-Pacific. This is accompanied by a temperature-driven poleward range expansion of favorable conditions accelerating up to 40-70 km per decade by 2070. We find that ocean acidification is less influential for determining future habitat suitability than warming, and its deleterious effects are centered evenly in both hemispheres between 5° and 20° latitude. Contrary to expectations, the combined impact of ocean surface temperature rise and acidification leads to little, if any, degradation in future habitat suitability across much of the Atlantic and areas currently considered 'marginal' for tropical corals, such as the eastern Equatorial Pacific. These results are consistent with fossil evidence of range expansions during past warm periods. In addition, the simplified models are particularly sensitive to short-term temperature variations and their projections correlate well with reported locations of bleaching events. Our approach offers new insights into the relative impact of two global environmental pressures associated with rising atmospheric CO2 on potential future habitats, but greater understanding of past and current controls on coral

  6. Prospects for improving the representation of coastal and shelf seas in global ocean models

    Holt, Jason; Hyder, Patrick; Ashworth, Mike; Harle, James; Hewitt, Helene T.; Liu, Hedong; New, Adrian L.; Pickles, Stephen; Porter, Andrew; Popova, Ekaterina; Icarus Allen, J.; Siddorn, John; Wood, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Accurately representing coastal and shelf seas in global ocean models represents one of the grand challenges of Earth system science. They are regions of immense societal importance through the goods and services they provide, hazards they pose and their role in global-scale processes and cycles, e.g. carbon fluxes and dense water formation. However, they are poorly represented in the current generation of global ocean models. In this contribution, we aim to briefly characterise the problem, and then to identify the important physical processes, and their scales, needed to address this issue in the context of the options available to resolve these scales globally and the evolving computational landscape.We find barotropic and topographic scales are well resolved by the current state-of-the-art model resolutions, e.g. nominal 1/12°, and still reasonably well resolved at 1/4°; here, the focus is on process representation. We identify tides, vertical coordinates, river inflows and mixing schemes as four areas where modelling approaches can readily be transferred from regional to global modelling with substantial benefit. In terms of finer-scale processes, we find that a 1/12° global model resolves the first baroclinic Rossby radius for only ˜ 8 % of regions benefit of improved resolution and process representation using 1/12° global- and basin-scale northern North Atlantic nucleus for a European model of the ocean (NEMO) simulations; the latter includes tides and a k-ɛ vertical mixing scheme. These are compared with global stratification observations and 19 models from CMIP5. In terms of correlation and basin-wide rms error, the high-resolution models outperform all these CMIP5 models. The model with tides shows improved seasonal cycles compared to the high-resolution model without tides. The benefits of resolution are particularly apparent in eastern boundary upwelling zones.To explore the balance between the size of a globally refined model and that of

  7. Constraints on global oceanic emissions of N2O from observations and models

    Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2018-04-01

    We estimate the global ocean N2O flux to the atmosphere and its confidence interval using a statistical method based on model perturbation simulations and their fit to a database of ΔpN2O (n = 6136). We evaluate two submodels of N2O production. The first submodel splits N2O production into oxic and hypoxic pathways following previous publications. The second submodel explicitly represents the redox transformations of N that lead to N2O production (nitrification and hypoxic denitrification) and N2O consumption (suboxic denitrification), and is presented here for the first time. We perturb both submodels by modifying the key parameters of the N2O cycling pathways (nitrification rates; NH4+ uptake; N2O yields under oxic, hypoxic and suboxic conditions) and determine a set of optimal model parameters by minimisation of a cost function against four databases of N cycle observations. Our estimate of the global oceanic N2O flux resulting from this cost function minimisation derived from observed and model ΔpN2O concentrations is 2.4 ± 0.8 and 2.5 ± 0.8 Tg N yr-1 for the two N2O submodels. These estimates suggest that the currently available observational data of surface ΔpN2O constrain the global N2O flux to a narrower range relative to the large range of results presented in the latest IPCC report.

  8. Dynamic ocean provinces: a multi-sensor approach to global marine ecophysiology

    Dowell, M.; Campbell, J.; Moore, T.

    The concept of oceanic provinces or domains has existed for well over a century. Such systems, whether real or only conceptual, provide a useful framework for understanding the mechanisms controlling biological, physical and chemical processes and their interactions. Criteria have been established for defining provinces based on physical forcings, availability of light and nutrients, complexity of the marine food web, and other factors. In general, such classification systems reflect the heterogeneous nature of the ocean environment, and the effort of scientists to comprehend the whole system by understanding its various homogeneous components. If provinces are defined strictly on the basis of geospatial or temporal criteria (e.g., latitude zones, bathymetry, or season), the resulting maps exhibit discontinuities that are uncharacteristic of the ocean. While this may be useful for many purposes, it is unsatisfactory in that it does not capture the dynamic nature of fluid boundaries in the ocean. Boundaries fixed in time and space do not allow us to observe interannual or longer-term variability (e.g., regime shifts) that may result from climate change. The current study illustrates the potential of using fuzzy logic as a means of classifying the ocean into objectively defined provinces using properties measurable from satellite sensors (MODIS and SeaWiFS). This approach accommodates the dynamic variability of provinces which can be updated as each image is processed. We adopt this classification as the basis for parameterizing specific algorithms for each of the classes. Once the class specific algorithms have been applied, retrievals are then recomposed into a single blended product based on the "weighted" fuzzy memberships. This will be demonstrated through animations of multi-year time- series of monthly composites of the individual classes or provinces. The provinces themselves are identified on the basis of global fields of chlorophyll, sea surface temperature

  9. Local Observations, Global Connections: An Educational Program Using Ocean Networks Canada's Community-Based Observatories

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Ewing, N.; Davidson, E.; Riddell, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Schools on Canada's west coast and in the Canadian Arctic are participating in the pilot year of a novel educational program based on analyzing, understanding and sharing ocean data collected by cabled observatories. The core of the program is "local observations, global connections." First, students develop an understanding of ocean conditions at their doorstep through the analysis of community-based observatory data. Then, they connect that knowledge with the health of the global ocean by engaging with students at other schools participating in the educational program and through supplemental educational resources. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data on their computers anywhere around the globe, in near real-time. In addition to the large NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled observatories off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, ONC has been installing smaller, community-based cabled observatories. Currently two are installed: one in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut and one at Brentwood College School, on Mill Bay in Saanich Inlet, BC. Several more community-based observatories are scheduled for installation within the next year. The observatories support a variety of subsea instruments, such as a video camera, hydrophone and water quality monitor and shore-based equipment including a weather station and a video camera. Schools in communities hosting an observatory are invited to participate in the program, alongside schools located in other coastal and inland communities. Students and teachers access educational material and data through a web portal, and use video conferencing and social media tools to communicate their findings. A series of lesson plans

  10. Did the Chicxulub meteorite impact trigger eruptions at mid-ocean ridges globally?

    Byrnes, J. S.; Karlstrom, L.

    2017-12-01

    Are there causal links between the eruption of large igneous provinces, meteorite impacts, and mass extinctions? Recent dating suggests that state shifts in Deccan Traps eruptions, including erupted volumes, feeder dike orientations, and magma chemistry, occurred shortly after the Chicxulub impact. A proposed explanation for this observation is an increase in upper mantle permeability following the Chicxulub impact that accelerated the pace of Deccan volcanism [Richards et al., 2015]. If such triggering occurred, at global distances not associated with the impact antipode, it is reasonable to hypothesize that other reservoirs of stored melt may have been perturbed as well. We present evidence that mid-ocean ridge activity increased globally following the impact. Anomalously concentrated free-air gravity and sea-floor topographic roughness suggest volumes of excess oceanic ridge magmatism in the range of 2 x 105 to 106 km3 within 1 Myrs of the Chicxulub impact. This signal is only clearly observed for half-spreading rates above 35 mm/yr, possibly because crust formed at slower spreading rates is too complex to preserve the signal. Because similar anomalies are observed separately in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and because the timing of the signal does not clearly align with changes in spreading rates, we do not favor plume activity as an explanation. Widespread mobilization of existing mantle melt by post-impact seismic radiation, and subsequent emplacement of melt as crustal intrusions and eruptions, can explain the volume and distribution of anomalous crust without invoking impact-induced melt production. Although the mechanism for increasing permeability is not clear at either Deccan or mid-ocean ridges, these results support the hypothesis that the causes and consequences of the Deccan Traps, Chicxulub impact, and K-Pg mass extinction should not be considered in isolation. We conclude by discussing several enigmatic observations from K-Pg time that heightened

  11. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship Researcher in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1972-04-18 to 1972-04-20 (NODC Accession 7200696)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship Researcher in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US DOC; NOAA;...

  12. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MELLON in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1976-09-21 to 1976-09-27 (NODC Accession 7601816)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MELLON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  13. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1976-03-04 to 1976-03-24 (NODC Accession 7700621)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the National Marine...

  14. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the R/V TRIDENT in the Caribbean Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project for 1971-01-28 (NODC Accession 7600706)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the R/V TRIDENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the University of...

  15. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the TRIDENT in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1972-12-15 to 1972-12-20 (NODC Accession 7600705)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the TRIDENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the the University of Rhode...

  16. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the GILLISS in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1976-02-28 to 1976-03-10 (NODC Accession 7601169)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the GILLISS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the University of Rhode Island;...

  17. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC BIBB in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1977-04-17 to 1977-04-25 (NODC Accession 7700382)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC BIBB in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 17...

  18. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC CAMPBELL in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1979-08-09 to 1979-09-23 (NODC Accession 8000079)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC CAMPBELL in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 09...

  19. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MIDGETT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1977-07-15 to 1977-08-11 (NODC Accession 7700647)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MIDGETT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  20. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC ACUSHNET in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1975-05-13 to 1975-05-19 (NODC Accession 7500547)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC ACUSHNET in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 13...

  1. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC DUANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1975-08-23 to 1975-09-12 (NODC Accession 7500855)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC DUANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  2. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC DALLAS in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1976-04-27 to 1976-05-02 (NODC Accession 7601084)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC DALLAS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 27...

  3. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1979-03-22 to 1979-06-06 (NODC Accession 7900260)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval Oceanographic...

  4. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1975-09-27 to 1975-11-01 (NODC Accession 7601750)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval...

  5. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1977-09-26 to 1977-10-06 (NODC Accession 7800099)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval Oceanographic...

  6. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1975-11-12 to 1975-11-27 (NODC Accession 7601890)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval...

  7. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1974-09-04 to 1974-10-12 (NODC Accession 7400812)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval...

  8. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1978-02-12 to 1978-02-22 (NODC Accession 7800285)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval Oceanographic...

  9. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1977-11-26 to 1977-12-05 (NODC Accession 7800098)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval Oceanographic...

  10. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1977-02-04 to 1977-02-24 (NODC Accession 7700329)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval Oceanographic...

  11. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1977-05-03 to 1977-05-23 (NODC Accession 7700644)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval Oceanographic...

  12. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1976-11-14 to 1976-12-19 (NODC Accession 7700032)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval Oceanographic...

  13. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1977-06-21 to 1977-07-04 (NODC Accession 7700611)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval Oceanographic...

  14. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1975-03-28 to 1975-04-01 (NODC Accession 7500256)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval Oceanographic...

  15. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1976-09-13 to 1976-09-14 (NODC Accession 7601901)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval...

  16. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1975-03-07 to 1975-04-12 (NODC Accession 7500580)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KNORR in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution...

  17. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship Researcher in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1972-12-08 to 1972-12-14 (NODC Accession 7201459)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship Researcher in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US DOC; NOAA;...

  18. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1971-03-04 to 1971-05-18 (NODC Accession 7900281)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US DOC; NOAA;...

  19. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MELLON in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1975-12-09 to 1975-12-15 (NODC Accession 7600031)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MELLON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  20. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the CHAIN in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1975-10-05 to 1975-10-25 (NODC Accession 7601869)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the CHAIN in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution...

  1. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the CHAIN in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1974-07-22 to 1974-08-09 (NODC Accession 7500155)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the CHAIN in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution...

  2. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC CAMPBELL in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1975-09-09 to 1975-10-01 (NODC Accession 7500994)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC CAMPBELL in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 09...

  3. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the BARTLETT in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1977-09-21 to 1977-10-05 (NODC Accession 7800095)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the BARTLETT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval Oceanographic...

  4. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the ARNI FRIDRIKSSON in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1975-04-19 to 1975-04-22 (NODC Accession 7500703)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the ARNI FRIDRIKSSON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the Icelandic Marine...

  5. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1983-12-03 to 1983-12-10 (NODC Accession 8400028)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US DOC; NOAA;...

  6. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the PASSAT and other PLATFORMS from the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 01 March 1991 to 31 March 1991 (NODC Accession 9100071)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from the PASSAT and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by US...

  7. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1978-08-11 to 1978-10-15 (NODC Accession 7900030)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast...

  8. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MELLON in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1978-06-02 to 1978-08-10 (NODC Accession 7800664)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MELLON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  9. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC CHASE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1974-02-26 to 1974-03-01 (NODC Accession 7400264)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC CHASE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 26...

  10. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC INGHAM in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1974-04-14 to 1974-05-14 (NODC Accession 7400400)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC INGHAM in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by US Coast Guard from...

  11. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC DALLAS in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1976-03-10 to 1976-03-28 (NODC Accession 7600862)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC DALLAS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 10...

  12. Disciplinary reporting affects the interpretation of climate change impacts in global oceans.

    Hauser, Donna D W; Tobin, Elizabeth D; Feifel, Kirsten M; Shah, Vega; Pietri, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is affecting marine ecosystems, but different investigative approaches in physical, chemical, and biological disciplines may influence interpretations of climate-driven changes in the ocean. Here, we review the ocean change literature from 2007 to 2012 based on 461 of the most highly cited studies in physical and chemical oceanography and three biological subdisciplines. Using highly cited studies, we focus on research that has shaped recent discourse on climate-driven ocean change. Our review identified significant differences in spatial and temporal scales of investigation among disciplines. Physical/chemical studies had a median duration of 29 years (n = 150) and covered the greatest study areas (median 1.41 × 10(7) km(2) , n = 148). Few biological studies were conducted over similar spatial and temporal scales (median 8 years, n = 215; median 302 km(2) , n = 196), suggesting a more limited ability to separate climate-related responses from natural variability. We linked physical/chemical and biological disciplines by tracking studies examining biological responses to changing ocean conditions. Of the 545 biological responses recorded, a single physical or chemical stressor was usually implicated as the cause (59%), with temperature as the most common primary stressor (44%). The most frequently studied biological responses were changes in physiology (31%) and population abundance (30%). Differences in disciplinary studies, as identified in this review, can ultimately influence how researchers interpret climate-related impacts in marine systems. We identified research gaps and the need for more discourse in (1) the Indian and other Southern Hemisphere ocean basins; (2) research themes such as archaea, bacteria, viruses, mangroves, turtles, and ocean acidification; (3) physical and chemical stressors such as dissolved oxygen, salinity, and upwelling; and (4) adaptive responses of marine organisms to climate-driven ocean change. Our findings reveal

  13. Global patterns of organic carbon export and sequestration in the ocean (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists)

    Henson, S.; Sanders, R.; Madsen, E.; Le Moigne, F.; Quartly, G.

    2012-04-01

    A major term in the global carbon cycle is the ocean's biological carbon pump which is dominated by sinking of small organic particles from the surface ocean to its interior. Here we examine global patterns in particle export efficiency (PEeff), the proportion of primary production that is exported from the surface ocean, and transfer efficiency (Teff), the fraction of exported organic matter that reaches the deep ocean. This is achieved through extrapolating from in situ estimates of particulate organic carbon export to the global scale using satellite-derived data. Global scale estimates derived from satellite data show, in keeping with earlier studies, that PEeff is high at high latitudes and low at low latitudes, but that Teff is low at high latitudes and high at low latitudes. However, in contrast to the relationship observed for deep biomineral fluxes in previous studies, we find that Teff is strongly negatively correlated with opal export flux from the upper ocean, but uncorrelated with calcium carbonate export flux. We hypothesise that the underlying factor governing the spatial patterns observed in Teff is ecosystem function, specifically the degree of recycling occurring in the upper ocean, rather than the availability of calcium carbonate for ballasting. Finally, our estimate of global integrated carbon export is only 50% of previous estimates. The lack of consensus amongst different methodologies on the strength of the biological carbon pump emphasises that our knowledge of a major planetary carbon flux remains incomplete.

  14. Ecological implications of eddy retention in the open ocean: a Lagrangian approach

    D’Ovidio, Francesco; Penna, Alice Della; Cotté, Cedric; De Monte, Silvia; Guinet, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The repartition of tracers in the ocean’s upper layer on the scale of a few tens of kilometres is largely determined by the horizontal transport induced by surface currents. Here we consider surface currents detected from satellite altimetry (Jason and Envisat missions) and we study how surface waters may be trapped by mesoscale eddies through a semi-Lagrangian diagnostic which combines the Lyapunov approach with Eulerian techniques. Such a diagnostic identifies the regions of the ocean’s upper layer with different retention times that appear to influence the behaviour of a tagged marine predator (an elephant seal) along a foraging trip. The comparison between predator trajectory and eddy retention time suggests that water trapping by mesoscale eddies, derived from satellite altimetry, may be an important factor for monitoring hotspots of trophic interactions in the open ocean. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)

  15. A multidisciplinary glider survey of an open ocean dead-zone eddy

    Karstensen, Johannes; Schütte, Florian; Pietri, Alice; Krahmann, Gerd; Fiedler, Björn; Löscher, Carolin; Grundle, Damian; Hauss, Helena; Körtzinger, Arne; Testor, Pierre; Viera, Nuno

    2016-04-01

    The physical (temperature, salinity) and biogeochemical (oxygen, nitrate, chlorophyll fluorescence, turbidity) structure of an anticyclonic modewater eddy, hosting an open ocean dead zone, is investigated using observational data sampled in high temporal and spatial resolution with autonomous gliders in March and April 2014. The core of the eddy is identified in the glider data as a volume of fresher (on isopycnals) water in the depth range from the mixed layer base (about 70m) to about 200m depth. The width is about 80km. The core aligns well with the 40 μmolkg-1 oxygen contour. From two surveys about 1 month apart, changes in the minimal oxygen concentrations (below 5μmolkg-1) are observed that indicate that small scale processes are in operation. Several scales of coherent variability of physical and biogeochemical variable are identified - from a few meters to the mesoscale. One of the gliders carried an autonomous Nitrate (N) sensor and the data is used to analyse the possible nitrogen pathways within the eddy. Also the highest N is accompanied by lowest oxygen concentrations, the AOU:N ratio reveals a preferred oxygen cycling per N.

  16. Uncertainty in the global oceanic CO2 uptake induced by wind forcing: quantification and spatial analysis

    A. Roobaert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of the air–water CO2 exchange (FCO2 in the ocean not only depends on the gradient in CO2 partial pressure at the air–water interface but also on the parameterization of the gas exchange transfer velocity (k and the choice of wind product. Here, we present regional and global-scale quantifications of the uncertainty in FCO2 induced by several widely used k formulations and four wind speed data products (CCMP, ERA, NCEP1 and NCEP2. The analysis is performed at a 1°  ×  1° resolution using the sea surface pCO2 climatology generated by Landschützer et al. (2015a for the 1991–2011 period, while the regional assessment relies on the segmentation proposed by the Regional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP project. First, we use k formulations derived from the global 14C inventory relying on a quadratic relationship between k and wind speed (k = c ⋅ U102; Sweeney et al., 2007; Takahashi et al., 2009; Wanninkhof, 2014, where c is a calibration coefficient and U10 is the wind speed measured 10 m above the surface. Our results show that the range of global FCO2, calculated with these k relationships, diverge by 12 % when using CCMP, ERA or NCEP1. Due to differences in the regional wind patterns, regional discrepancies in FCO2 are more pronounced than global. These global and regional differences significantly increase when using NCEP2 or other k formulations which include earlier relationships (i.e., Wanninkhof, 1992; Wanninkhof et al., 2009 as well as numerous local and regional parameterizations derived experimentally. To minimize uncertainties associated with the choice of wind product, it is possible to recalculate the coefficient c globally (hereafter called c∗ for a given wind product and its spatio-temporal resolution, in order to match the last evaluation of the global k value. We thus performed these recalculations for each wind product at the resolution and time period of our study

  17. Uncertainty in the global oceanic CO2 uptake induced by wind forcing: quantification and spatial analysis

    Roobaert, Alizée; Laruelle, Goulven G.; Landschützer, Peter; Regnier, Pierre

    2018-03-01

    The calculation of the air-water CO2 exchange (FCO2) in the ocean not only depends on the gradient in CO2 partial pressure at the air-water interface but also on the parameterization of the gas exchange transfer velocity (k) and the choice of wind product. Here, we present regional and global-scale quantifications of the uncertainty in FCO2 induced by several widely used k formulations and four wind speed data products (CCMP, ERA, NCEP1 and NCEP2). The analysis is performed at a 1° × 1° resolution using the sea surface pCO2 climatology generated by Landschützer et al. (2015a) for the 1991-2011 period, while the regional assessment relies on the segmentation proposed by the Regional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project. First, we use k formulations derived from the global 14C inventory relying on a quadratic relationship between k and wind speed (k = c ṡ U102; Sweeney et al., 2007; Takahashi et al., 2009; Wanninkhof, 2014), where c is a calibration coefficient and U10 is the wind speed measured 10 m above the surface. Our results show that the range of global FCO2, calculated with these k relationships, diverge by 12 % when using CCMP, ERA or NCEP1. Due to differences in the regional wind patterns, regional discrepancies in FCO2 are more pronounced than global. These global and regional differences significantly increase when using NCEP2 or other k formulations which include earlier relationships (i.e., Wanninkhof, 1992; Wanninkhof et al., 2009) as well as numerous local and regional parameterizations derived experimentally. To minimize uncertainties associated with the choice of wind product, it is possible to recalculate the coefficient c globally (hereafter called c∗) for a given wind product and its spatio-temporal resolution, in order to match the last evaluation of the global k value. We thus performed these recalculations for each wind product at the resolution and time period of our study but the resulting global FCO2 estimates

  18. The Occurrence of Tidal Hybrid Kelvin-Edge Waves in the Global Ocean

    Kaur, H.; Buijsman, M. C.; Yankovsky, A. E.; Zhang, T.; Jeon, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents the analysis of hybrid Kelvin-edge waves on the continental shelves in a global ocean model. Our objective is to find areas where the transition occurs from Kelvin waves to hybrid Kelvin-edge waves. The change in continental shelf width may convert a Kelvin wave into a hybrid Kelvin-edge wave. In this process the group velocity reaches a minimum and tidal energy is radiated on and/or offshore [Zhang 2016]. We extract M2 SSH (Sea Surface Height) and velocity from the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and calculate barotropic energy fluxes. We analyze these three areas: the Bay of Biscay, the Amazon Shelf and North West Africa. In these three regions, the continental shelf widens in the propagation direction and the alongshore flux changes its direction towards the coast. A transect is taken at different points in these areas to compute the dispersion relations of the waves on the continental shelf. In model simulations, we change the bathymetry of the Bay of Biscay to study the behavior of the hybrid Kelvin-edge waves. BibliographyZhang, T., and A. E Yankovsky. (2016), On the nature of cross-isobath energy fluxes in topographically modified barotropic semidiurnal Kelvin waves, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 121, 3058-3074, doi:10.1002/2015JC011617.

  19. Sequential assimilation of multi-mission dynamical topography into a global finite-element ocean model

    S. Skachko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on an accurate estimation of ocean circulation via assimilation of satellite measurements of ocean dynamical topography into the global finite-element ocean model (FEOM. The dynamical topography data are derived from a complex analysis of multi-mission altimetry data combined with a referenced earth geoid. The assimilation is split into two parts. First, the mean dynamic topography is adjusted. To this end an adiabatic pressure correction method is used which reduces model divergence from the real evolution. Second, a sequential assimilation technique is applied to improve the representation of thermodynamical processes by assimilating the time varying dynamic topography. A method is used according to which the temperature and salinity are updated following the vertical structure of the first baroclinic mode. It is shown that the method leads to a partially successful assimilation approach reducing the rms difference between the model and data from 16 cm to 2 cm. This improvement of the mean state is accompanied by significant improvement of temporal variability in our analysis. However, it remains suboptimal, showing a tendency in the forecast phase of returning toward a free run without data assimilation. Both the mean difference and standard deviation of the difference between the forecast and observation data are reduced as the result of assimilation.

  20. Global Ocean Evaporation Increases Since 1960 in Climate Reanalyses: How Accurate Are They?

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Roberts, Jason B.; Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    AGCMs w/ Specified SSTs (AMIPs) GEOS-5, ERA-20CM Ensembles Incorporate best historical estimates of SST, sea ice, radiative forcing Atmospheric "weather noise" is inconsistent with specified SST. Instantaneous Sfc fluxes can be wrong sign (e.g. Indian Ocean Monsoon, high latitude oceans). Averaging over ensemble members helps isolate SST-forced signal. Reduced Observational Reanalyses: NOAA 20CR V2C, ERA-20C, JRA-55C Incorporate observed Sfc Press (20CR), Marine Winds (ERA-20C) and rawinsondes (JRA-55C) to recover much of true synoptic or weather w/o shock of new sat obs. Comprehensive Reanalyses (MERRA-2) Full suite of observational constraints- both conventional and remote sensing. But... substantial uncertainties owing to evolving satellite observing system. Multi-source Statistically Blended OAFlux, LargeYeager Blend reanalysis, satellite, and ocean buoy information. While climatological biases are removed, non-physical trends or variations in components remain. Satellite Retrievals GSSTF3, SeaFlux, HOAPS3... Global coverage. Retrieved near sfc wind speed, & humidity used with SST to drive accurate bulk aerodynamic flux estimates. Satellite inter-calibration, spacecraft pointing variations crucial. Short record ( late 1987-present). In situ Measurements ICOADS, IVAD, Res Cruises VOS and buoys offer direct measurements. Sparse data coverage (esp south of 30S. Changes in measurement techniques (e.g. shipboard anemometer height).

  1. Euro-Argo: The European contribution to the global Argo ocean observations network

    Gourcuff, Claire

    2017-04-01

    The international Argo programme is a major element of the global in-situ ocean observing system. More than 3900 floats are now globally measuring temperature and salinity throughout the global oceans, down to 2,000 meters depth and delivering data both in real time for operational users and after careful scientific quality control for climate change research and monitoring. Argo is the single most important in-situ observing system for the Copernicus Marine Service. The Euro-Argo research infrastructure organizes and federates European contribution to Argo. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014; it allows European countries to consolidate and improve their contribution to Argo international. We will provide an overview of the development of Euro-Argo over the past years and present the now agreed Euro-Argo long term organization. The capability of the Euro-Argo infrastructure to organize Argo floats procurement, deployment and processing at European level and to conduct R&D driven by Copernicus needs will be highlighted. During the recent years, within the H2020 E-AIMS project, Euro-Argo carried R&D activities on new Argo floats, equipped with biogeochemical sensors or able to dive up to 4000m, from the floats design up to the analysis of their measurements. European Argo data centers were adapted so that they can handle the new data. Observing System Evaluations and Simulation Experiments were also conducted to provide robust recommendations for the next phase of Argo. One of the main challenges for Euro-Argo is now to implement the next phase of Argo with an extension towards biogeochemistry (e.g. oxygen, biology), the polar oceans, the marginal seas and the deep ocean. Meeting such challenges is essential for the long term sustainability and evolution of the Copernicus Marine Service. We will present Euro-Argo strategy and provide some highlights on the implementation-plan for the years to come and the Argo extensions for the

  2. Vertical Distributions of Coccolithophores, PIC, POC, Biogenic Silica, and Chlorophyll a Throughout the Global Ocean.

    Balch, William M; Bowler, Bruce C; Drapeau, David T; Lubelczyk, Laura C; Lyczkowski, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Coccolithophores are a critical component of global biogeochemistry, export fluxes, and seawater optical properties. We derive globally significant relationships to estimate integrated coccolithophore and coccolith concentrations as well as integrated concentrations of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) from their respective surface concentration. We also examine surface versus integral relationships for other biogeochemical variables contributed by all phytoplankton (e.g., chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon) or diatoms (biogenic silica). Integrals are calculated using both 100 m integrals and euphotic zone integrals (depth of 1% surface photosynthetically available radiation). Surface concentrations are parameterized in either volumetric units (e.g., m -3 ) or values integrated over the top optical depth. Various relationships between surface concentrations and integrated values demonstrate that when surface concentrations are above a specific threshold, the vertical distribution of the property is biased to the surface layer, and when surface concentrations are below a specific threshold, the vertical distributions of the properties are biased to subsurface maxima. Results also show a highly predictable decrease in explained-variance as vertical distributions become more vertically heterogeneous. These relationships have fundamental utility for extrapolating surface ocean color remote sensing measurements to 100 m depth or to the base of the euphotic zone, well beyond the depths of detection for passive ocean color remote sensors. Greatest integrated concentrations of PIC, coccoliths, and coccolithophores are found when there is moderate stratification at the base of the euphotic zone.

  3. Sensitivity of sequestration efficiency to mixing processes in the global ocean

    B.K. Mignone; J.L. Sarmiento; R.D. Slater; A. Gnanadesikan [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Department of Geosciences

    2003-07-01

    A number of large-scale sequestration strategies have been considered to help mitigate rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Here an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) is used to evaluate the efficiency of one such strategy currently receiving much attention, the direct injection of liquid CO{sub 2} into selected regions of the abyssal ocean. It was found that currents typically transport the injected plumes quite far before they are able to return to the surface and release CO{sub 2} through air-sea gas exchange. When injected at sufficient depth (well within or below the main thermocline), most of the injected CO{sub 2} outgases in high latitudes (mainly in the Southern Ocean) where vertical exchange is most favored. Virtually all OGCMs that have performed similar simulations confirm these global patterns, but regional differences are significant, leading efficiency estimates to vary widely among models even when identical protocols are followed. In this paper, a first attempt is made at reconciling some of these differences by performing a sensitivity analysis in one OGCM, the Princeton Modular Ocean Model. Using techniques developed to maintain both the modeled density structure and the absolute magnitude of the overturning circulation while varying important mixing parameters, the sensitivity of sequestration efficiency to the magnitude of vertical exchange within the low-latitude pycnoclineis is estimated. Combining these model results with available tracer data allows a narrowing of the range of allowable mixing in the model, which in turn places important constraints on sequestration efficiency. 35 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Sensitivity of sequestration efficiency to mixing processes in the global ocean

    Mignone, B.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Geosciences; Sarmiento, J.L.; Slater, R.D. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; Gnanadesikan, A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab., NOAA, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2004-08-01

    A number of large-scale sequestration strategies have been considered to help mitigate rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Here, we use an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) to evaluate the efficiency of one such strategy currently receiving much attention, the direct injection of liquid CO{sub 2} into selected regions of the abyssal ocean. We find that currents typically transport the injected plumes quite far before they are able to return to the surface and release CO{sub 2} through air-sea gas exchange. When injected at sufficient depth (well within or below the main thermocline), most of the injected CO{sub 2} outgasses in high latitudes (mainly in the Southern Ocean) where vertical exchange is most favored. Virtually all OGCMs that have performed similar simulations confirm these global patterns, but regional differences are significant, leading efficiency estimates to vary widely among models even when identical protocols are followed. In this paper, we make a first attempt at reconciling some of these differences by performing a sensitivity analysis in one OGCM, the Princeton Modular Ocean Model. Using techniques we have developed to maintain both the modeled density structure and the absolute magnitude of the overturning circulation while varying important mixing parameters, we estimate the sensitivity of sequestration efficiency to the magnitude of vertical exchange within the low-latitude pycnocline. Combining these model results with available tracer data permits us to narrow the range of model behavior, which in turn places important constraints on sequestration efficiency. (author)

  5. Retrieving near-global aerosol loading over land and ocean from AVHRR

    Hsu, N. C.; Lee, J.; Sayer, A. M.; Carletta, N.; Chen, S.-H.; Tucker, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Tsay, S.-C.

    2017-09-01

    The spaceborne advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor data record is approaching 40 years, providing a crucial asset for studying long-term trends of aerosol properties regionally and globally. However, due to limitations of its channels' information content, aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from AVHRR over land are still largely lacking. In this paper, we describe a new physics-based algorithm to retrieve aerosol loading over both land and ocean from AVHRR for the first time. The over-land algorithm is an extension of our Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue algorithm, while a simplified version of our Satellite Ocean Aerosol Retrieval algorithm is used over ocean. We compare retrieved AVHRR AOD with that from MODIS on a daily and seasonal basis and find, in general, good agreement between the two. For the satellites with equatorial crossing times within 2 h of solar noon, the spatial coverage of the AVHRR aerosol product is comparable to that of MODIS, except over very bright arid regions (such as the Sahara), where the underlying surface reflectance at 630 nm reaches the critical surface reflectance. Based upon comparisons of the AVHRR AOD against Aerosol Robotic Network data, preliminary results indicate that the expected error confidence interval envelope is around ±(0.03 + 15%) over ocean and ±(0.05 + 25%) over land for this first version of the AVHRR aerosol products. Consequently, these new AVHRR aerosol products can contribute important building blocks for constructing a consistent long-term data record for climate studies.

  6. CMIP5-based global wave climate projections including the entire Arctic Ocean

    Casas-Prat, M.; Wang, X. L.; Swart, N.

    2018-03-01

    This study presents simulations of the global ocean wave climate corresponding to the surface winds and sea ice concentrations as simulated by five CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) climate models for the historical (1979-2005) and RCP8.5 scenario future (2081-2100) periods. To tackle the numerical complexities associated with the inclusion of the North Pole, the WAVEWATCH III (WW3) wave model was used with a customized unstructured Spherical Multi-Cell grid of ∼100 km offshore and ∼50 km along coastlines. The climate model simulated wind and sea ice data, and the corresponding WW3 simulated wave data, were evaluated against reanalysis and hindcast data. The results show that all the five sets of wave simulations projected lower waves in the North Atlantic, corresponding to decreased surface wind speeds there in the warmer climate. The selected CMIP5 models also consistently projected an increase in the surface wind speed in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) mid-high latitudes, which translates in an increase in the WW3 simulated significant wave height (Hs) there. The higher waves are accompanied with increased peak wave period and increased wave age in the East Pacific and Indian Oceans, and a significant counterclockwise rotation in the mean wave direction in the Southern Oceans. The latter is caused by more intense waves from the SH traveling equatorward and developing into swells. Future wave climate in the Arctic Ocean in summer is projected to be predominantly of mixed sea states, with the climatological mean of September maximum Hs ranging mostly 3-4 m. The new waves approaching Arctic coasts will be less fetch-limited as ice retreats since a predominantly southwards mean wave direction is projected in the surrounding seas.

  7. Global distribution of dissolved organic matter along the aquatic continuum: Across rivers, lakes and oceans.

    Massicotte, Philippe; Asmala, Eero; Stedmon, Colin; Markager, Stiig

    2017-12-31

    Based on an extensive literature survey containing more than 12,000 paired measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and absorption of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) distributed over four continents and seven oceans, we described the global distribution and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) along the aquatic continuum across rivers and lakes to oceans. A strong log-linear relationship (R 2 =0.92) between DOC concentration and CDOM absorption at 350nm was observed at a global scale, but was found to be ecosystem-dependent at local and regional scales. Our results reveal that as DOM is transported towards the oceans, the robustness of the observed relation decreases rapidly (R 2 from 0.94 to 0.44) indicating a gradual decoupling between DOC and CDOM. This likely reflects the decreased connectivity between the landscape and DOM along the aquatic continuum. To support this hypothesis, we used the DOC-specific UV absorbance (SUVA) to characterize the reactivity of the DOM pool which decreased from 4.9 to 1.7m 2 × gC -1 along the aquatic continuum. Across the continuum, a piecewise linear regression showed that the observed decrease of SUVA occurred more rapidly in freshwater ecosystems compared to marine water ecosystems, suggesting that the different degradation processes act preferentially on CDOM rather than carbon content. The observed change in the DOM characteristics along the aquatic continuum also suggests that the terrestrial DOM pool is gradually becoming less reactive, which has profound consequences on cycling of organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Monte Carlo climate change forecasts with a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    Cubasch, U.; Santer, B.D.; Hegerl, G.; Hoeck, H.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajwicz, U.; Stoessel, A.; Voss, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Monte Carlo approach, which has increasingly been used during the last decade in the field of extended range weather forecasting, has been applied for climate change experiments. Four integrations with a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model have been started from different initial conditions, but with the same greenhouse gas forcing according to the IPCC scenario A. All experiments have been run for a period of 50 years. The results indicate that the time evolution of the global mean warming depends strongly on the initial state of the climate system. It can vary between 6 and 31 years. The Monte Carlo approach delivers information about both the mean response and the statistical significance of the response. While the individual members of the ensemble show a considerable variation in the climate change pattern of temperature after 50 years, the ensemble mean climate change pattern closely resembles the pattern obtained in a 100 year integration and is, at least over most of the land areas, statistically significant. The ensemble averaged sea-level change due to thermal expansion is significant in the global mean and locally over wide regions of the Pacific. The hydrological cycle is also significantly enhanced in the global mean, but locally the changes in precipitation and soil moisture are masked by the variability of the experiments. (orig.)

  9. The open-ocean sensible heat flux and its significance for Arctic boundary layer mixing during early fall

    Ganeshan, Manisha; Wu, Dong L.

    2016-10-01

    The increasing ice-free area during late summer has transformed the Arctic to a climate system with more dynamic boundary layer (BL) clouds and seasonal sea ice growth. The open-ocean sensible heat flux, a crucial mechanism of excessive ocean heat loss to the atmosphere during the fall freeze season, is speculated to play an important role in the recently observed cloud cover increase and BL instability. However, lack of observations and understanding of the resilience of the proposed mechanisms, especially in relation to meteorological and interannual variability, has left a poorly constrained BL parameterization scheme in Arctic climate models. In this study, we use multi-year Japanese cruise-ship observations from R/V Mirai over the open Arctic Ocean to characterize the surface sensible heat flux (SSHF) during early fall and investigate its contribution to BL turbulence. It is found that mixing by SSHF is favored during episodes of high surface wind speed and is also influenced by the prevailing cloud regime. The deepest BLs and maximum ocean-atmosphere temperature difference are observed during cold air advection (associated with the stratocumulus regime), yet, contrary to previous speculation, the efficiency of sensible heat exchange is low. On the other hand, the SSHF contributes significantly to BL mixing during the uplift (low pressure) followed by the highly stable (stratus) regime. Overall, it can explain ˜ 10 % of the open-ocean BL height variability, whereas cloud-driven (moisture and radiative) mechanisms appear to be the other dominant source of convective turbulence. Nevertheless, there is strong interannual variability in the relationship between the SSHF and the BL height which can be intensified by the changing occurrence of Arctic climate patterns, such as positive surface wind speed anomalies and more frequent conditions of uplift. This study highlights the need for comprehensive BL observations like the R/V Mirai for better understanding and

  10. The Open-Ocean Sensible Heat Flux and Its Significance for Arctic Boundary Layer Mixing During Early Fall

    Ganeshan, Manisha; Wu, Dongliang

    2016-01-01

    The increasing ice-free area during late summer has transformed the Arctic to a climate system with more dynamic boundary layer (BL) clouds and seasonal sea ice growth. The open-ocean sensible heat flux, a crucial mechanism of excessive ocean heat loss to the atmosphere during the fall freeze season, is speculated to play an important role in the recently observed cloud cover increase and BL instability. However, lack of observations and understanding of the resilience of the proposed mechanisms, especially in relation to meteorological and interannual variability, has left a poorly constrained BL parameterization scheme in Arctic climate models. In this study, we use multiyear Japanese cruise-ship observations from RV Mirai over the open Arctic Ocean to characterize the surface sensible heat flux (SSHF) during early fall and investigate its contribution to BL turbulence. It is found that mixing by SSHF is favored during episodes of high surface wind speed and is also influenced by the prevailing cloud regime. The deepest BLs and maximum ocean-atmosphere temperature difference are observed during cold air advection (associated with the stratocumulus regime), yet, contrary to previous speculation, the efficiency of sensible heat exchange is low. On the other hand, the SSHF contributes significantly to BL mixing during the uplift (low pressure) followed by the highly stable (stratus) regime. Overall, it can explain 10 of the open ocean BL height variability, whereas cloud-driven (moisture and radiative) mechanisms appear to be the other dominant source of convective turbulence. Nevertheless, there is strong interannual variability in the relationship between the SSHF and the BL height which can be intensified by the changing occurrence of Arctic climate patterns, such as positive surface wind speed anomalies and more frequent conditions of uplift. This study highlights the need for comprehensive BL observations like the RV Mirai for better understanding and

  11. Using Green's Functions to initialize and adjust a global, eddying ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model

    Brix, H.; Menemenlis, D.; Hill, C.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Jahn, O.; Wang, D.; Bowman, K.; Zhang, H.

    2015-11-01

    The NASA Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Flux Project aims to attribute changes in the atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide to spatially resolved fluxes by utilizing the full suite of NASA data, models, and assimilation capabilities. For the oceanic part of this project, we introduce ECCO2-Darwin, a new ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model based on combining the following pre-existing components: (i) a full-depth, eddying, global-ocean configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), (ii) an adjoint-method-based estimate of ocean circulation from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II (ECCO2) project, (iii) the MIT ecosystem model "Darwin", and (iv) a marine carbon chemistry model. Air-sea gas exchange coefficients and initial conditions of dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and oxygen are adjusted using a Green's Functions approach in order to optimize modeled air-sea CO2 fluxes. Data constraints include observations of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) for 2009-2010, global air-sea CO2 flux estimates, and the seasonal cycle of the Takahashi et al. (2009) Atlas. The model sensitivity experiments (or Green's Functions) include simulations that start from different initial conditions as well as experiments that perturb air-sea gas exchange parameters and the ratio of particulate inorganic to organic carbon. The Green's Functions approach yields a linear combination of these sensitivity experiments that minimizes model-data differences. The resulting initial conditions and gas exchange coefficients are then used to integrate the ECCO2-Darwin model forward. Despite the small number (six) of control parameters, the adjusted simulation is significantly closer to the data constraints (37% cost function reduction, i.e., reduction in the model-data difference, relative to the baseline simulation) and to independent observations (e.g., alkalinity). The adjusted air-sea gas

  12. Open Source and Open Content: a Framework for Global Collaboration in Social-Ecological Research

    Charles Schweik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses opportunities for alternative collaborative approaches for social-ecological research in general and, in this context, for modeling land-use/land-cover change. In this field, the rate of progress in academic research is steady but perhaps not as rapid or efficient as might be possible with alternative organizational frameworks. The convergence of four phenomena provides new opportunities for cross-organizational collaboration: (1 collaborative principles related to "open source" (OS software development, (2 the emerging area of "open content" (OC licensing, (3 the World Wide Web as a platform for scientific communication, and (4 the traditional concept of peer review. Although private individuals, government organizations, and even companies have shown interest in the OS paradigm as an alternative model for software development, it is less commonly recognized that this collaborative framework is a potential innovation of much greater proportions. In fact, it can guide the collective development of any intellectual content, not just software. This paper has two purposes. First, we describe OS and OC licensing, dispense with some myths about OS, and relate these structures to traditional scientific process. Second, we outline how these ideas can be applied in an area of collaborative research relevant to the study of social-ecological systems. It is important to recognize that the concept of OS is not new, but the idea of borrowing OS principles and using OC licensing for broader scientific collaboration is new. Over the last year, we have been trying to initiate such an OS/OC collaboration in the context of modeling land use and land cover. In doing so, we have identified some key issues that need to be considered, including project initiation, incentives of project participants, collaborative infrastructure, institutional design and governance, and project finance. OS/OC licensing is not a universal solution suitable for all

  13. Essential ocean variables for global sustained observations of biodiversity and ecosystem changes.

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Bax, Nicholas J; Simmons, Samantha E; Klein, Eduardo; Appeltans, Ward; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Andersen Garcia, Melissa; Batten, Sonia D; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Checkley, David M; Chiba, Sanae; Duffy, J Emmett; Dunn, Daniel C; Fischer, Albert; Gunn, John; Kudela, Raphael; Marsac, Francis; Muller-Karger, Frank E; Obura, David; Shin, Yunne-Jai

    2018-04-05

    Sustained observations of marine biodiversity and ecosystems focused on specific conservation and management problems are needed around the world to effectively mitigate or manage changes resulting from anthropogenic pressures. These observations, while complex and expensive, are required by the international scientific, governance and policy communities to provide baselines against which the effects of human pressures and climate change may be measured and reported, and resources allocated to implement solutions. To identify biological and ecological essential ocean variables (EOVs) for implementation within a global ocean observing system that is relevant for science, informs society, and technologically feasible, we used a driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) model. We (1) examined relevant international agreements to identify societal drivers and pressures on marine resources and ecosystems, (2) evaluated the temporal and spatial scales of variables measured by 100+ observing programs, and (3) analysed the impact and scalability of these variables and how they contribute to address societal and scientific issues. EOVs were related to the status of ecosystem components (phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass and diversity, and abundance and distribution of fish, marine turtles, birds and mammals), and to the extent and health of ecosystems (cover and composition of hard coral, seagrass, mangrove and macroalgal canopy). Benthic invertebrate abundance and distribution and microbe diversity and biomass were identified as emerging EOVs to be developed based on emerging requirements and new technologies. The temporal scale at which any shifts in biological systems will be detected will vary across the EOVs, the properties being monitored and the length of the existing time-series. Global implementation to deliver useful products will require collaboration of the scientific and policy sectors and a significant commitment to improve human and infrastructure

  14. Constraints on global oceanic emissions of N2O from observations and models

    E. T. Buitenhuis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the global ocean N2O flux to the atmosphere and its confidence interval using a statistical method based on model perturbation simulations and their fit to a database of ΔpN2O (n =  6136. We evaluate two submodels of N2O production. The first submodel splits N2O production into oxic and hypoxic pathways following previous publications. The second submodel explicitly represents the redox transformations of N that lead to N2O production (nitrification and hypoxic denitrification and N2O consumption (suboxic denitrification, and is presented here for the first time. We perturb both submodels by modifying the key parameters of the N2O cycling pathways (nitrification rates; NH4+ uptake; N2O yields under oxic, hypoxic and suboxic conditions and determine a set of optimal model parameters by minimisation of a cost function against four databases of N cycle observations. Our estimate of the global oceanic N2O flux resulting from this cost function minimisation derived from observed and model ΔpN2O concentrations is 2.4 ± 0.8 and 2.5 ± 0.8 Tg N yr−1 for the two N2O submodels. These estimates suggest that the currently available observational data of surface ΔpN2O constrain the global N2O flux to a narrower range relative to the large range of results presented in the latest IPCC report.

  15. Seasonal variations in the aragonite saturation state in the upper open-ocean waters of the North Pacific Ocean

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Geun-Ha; Kim, Dongseon; Lee, Kitack; Feely, Richard A.; Millero, Frank J.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variability of the aragonite saturation state (ΩAR) in the upper (50 m and 100 m depths) North Pacific Ocean (NPO) was investigated using multiple linear regression (MLR). The MLR algorithm derived from a high-quality carbon data set accurately predicted the ΩAR of evaluation data sets (three time series stations and P02 section) with acceptable uncertainty (<0.1 ΩAR). The algorithm was combined with seasonal climatology data, and the estimated ΩAR varied in the range of 0.4-0.6 in the midlatitude western NPO, with the largest variation found for the tropical eastern NPO. These marked variations were largely controlled by seasonal changes in vertical mixing and thermocline depth, both of which determine the degree of entrainment of CO2-rich corrosive waters from deeper depths. Our MLR-based subsurface ΩAR climatology is complementary to surface climatology based on pCO2 measurements.

  16. Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Water and Salt Budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    The annual flux of freshwater into the Arctic Ocean by the atmosphere and rivers is balanced by the export of sea ice and oceanic freshwater. Two 150-year simulations of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that the total inflow of water from the atmosphere and rivers increases by 10% primarily due to an increase in river discharge, the annual sea-ice export decreases by about half, the oceanic liquid water export increases, salinity decreases, sea-ice cover decreases, and the total mass and sea-surface height of the Arctic Ocean increase. The closed, compact, and multi-phased nature of the hydrologic cycle in the Arctic Ocean makes it an ideal test of water budgets that could be included in model intercomparisons.

  17. Classification and global distribution of ocean precipitation types based on satellite passive microwave signatures

    Gautam, Nitin

    The main objectives of this thesis are to develop a robust statistical method for the classification of ocean precipitation based on physical properties to which the SSM/I is sensitive and to examine how these properties vary globally and seasonally. A two step approach is adopted for the classification of oceanic precipitation classes from multispectral SSM/I data: (1)we subjectively define precipitation classes using a priori information about the precipitating system and its possible distinct signature on SSM/I data such as scattering by ice particles aloft in the precipitating cloud, emission by liquid rain water below freezing level, the difference of polarization at 19 GHz-an indirect measure of optical depth, etc.; (2)we then develop an objective classification scheme which is found to reproduce the subjective classification with high accuracy. This hybrid strategy allows us to use the characteristics of the data to define and encode classes and helps retain the physical interpretation of classes. The classification methods based on k-nearest neighbor and neural network are developed to objectively classify six precipitation classes. It is found that the classification method based neural network yields high accuracy for all precipitation classes. An inversion method based on minimum variance approach was used to retrieve gross microphysical properties of these precipitation classes such as column integrated liquid water path, column integrated ice water path, and column integrated min water path. This classification method is then applied to 2 years (1991-92) of SSM/I data to examine and document the seasonal and global distribution of precipitation frequency corresponding to each of these objectively defined six classes. The characteristics of the distribution are found to be consistent with assumptions used in defining these six precipitation classes and also with well known climatological patterns of precipitation regions. The seasonal and global

  18. Modeling Global Ocean Biogeochemistry With Physical Data Assimilation: A Pragmatic Solution to the Equatorial Instability

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Stock, Charles A.; Yang, Xiaosong; Dunne, John P.; Rosati, Anthony; John, Jasmin; Zhang, Shaoqing

    2018-03-01

    Reliable estimates of historical and current biogeochemistry are essential for understanding past ecosystem variability and predicting future changes. Efforts to translate improved physical ocean state estimates into improved biogeochemical estimates, however, are hindered by high biogeochemical sensitivity to transient momentum imbalances that arise during physical data assimilation. Most notably, the breakdown of geostrophic constraints on data assimilation in equatorial regions can lead to spurious upwelling, resulting in excessive equatorial productivity and biogeochemical fluxes. This hampers efforts to understand and predict the biogeochemical consequences of El Niño and La Niña. We develop a strategy to robustly integrate an ocean biogeochemical model with an ensemble coupled-climate data assimilation system used for seasonal to decadal global climate prediction. Addressing spurious vertical velocities requires two steps. First, we find that tightening constraints on atmospheric data assimilation maintains a better equatorial wind stress and pressure gradient balance. This reduces spurious vertical velocities, but those remaining still produce substantial biogeochemical biases. The remainder is addressed by imposing stricter fidelity to model dynamics over data constraints near the equator. We determine an optimal choice of model-data weights that removed spurious biogeochemical signals while benefitting from off-equatorial constraints that still substantially improve equatorial physical ocean simulations. Compared to the unconstrained control run, the optimally constrained model reduces equatorial biogeochemical biases and markedly improves the equatorial subsurface nitrate concentrations and hypoxic area. The pragmatic approach described herein offers a means of advancing earth system prediction in parallel with continued data assimilation advances aimed at fully considering equatorial data constraints.

  19. Using an atmospheric boundary layer model to force global ocean models

    Abel, Rafael; Böning, Claus

    2014-05-01

    Current practices in the atmospheric forcing of ocean model simulations can lead to unphysical behaviours. The problem lies in the bulk formulation of the turbulent air-sea fluxes in the conjunction with a prescribed, and unresponsive, atmospheric state (as given by reanalysis products). This can have impacts both on mesoscale processes as well as on the dynamics of the large-scale circulation. First, a possible local mismatch between the given atmospheric state and evolving sea surface temperature (SST) signatures can occur, especially for mesoscale features such as frontal areas, eddies, or near the sea ice edge. Any ocean front shift or evolution of mesoscale anomalies results in excessive, unrealistic surface fluxes due to the lack of atmospheric adaptation. Second, a subtle distortion in the sensitive balance of feedback processes being critical for the thermohaline circulation. Since the bulk formulations assume an infinite atmospheric heat capacity, resulting SST anomalies are strongly damped even on basin-scales (e.g. from trends in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation). In consequence, an important negative feedback is eliminated, rendering the system excessively susceptible to small anomalies (or errors) in the freshwater fluxes. Previous studies (Seager et al., 1995, J. Clim.) have suggested a partial forcing issue remedy that aimed for a physically more realistic determination of air-sea fluxes by allowing some (thermodynamic) adaptation of the atmospheric boundary layer to SST changes. In this study a modernized formulation of this approach (Deremble et al., 2013, Mon. Weather Rev.; 'CheapAML') is implemented in a global ocean-ice model with moderate resolution (0.5°; ORCA05). In a set of experiments we explore the solution behaviour of this forcing approach (where only the winds are prescribed, while atmospheric temperature and humidity are computed), contrasting it with the solution obtained from the classical bulk formulation with a non

  20. Ocean Hydrodynamics Numerical Model in Curvilinear Coordinates for Simulating Circulation of the Global Ocean and its Separate Basins.

    Gusev, Anatoly; Diansky, Nikolay; Zalesny, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    The original program complex is proposed for the ocean circulation sigma-model, developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics (INM), Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). The complex can be used in various curvilinear orthogonal coordinate systems. In addition to ocean circulation model, the complex contains a sea ice dynamics and thermodynamics model, as well as the original system of the atmospheric forcing implementation on the basis of both prescribed meteodata and atmospheric model results. This complex can be used as the oceanic block of Earth climate model as well as for solving the scientific and practical problems concerning the World ocean and its separate oceans and seas. The developed program complex can be effectively used on parallel shared memory computational systems and on contemporary personal computers. On the base of the complex proposed the ocean general circulation model (OGCM) was developed. The model is realized in the curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system obtained by the conformal transformation of the standard geographical grid that allowed us to locate the system singularities outside the integration domain. The horizontal resolution of the OGCM is 1 degree on longitude, 0.5 degree on latitude, and it has 40 non-uniform sigma-levels in depth. The model was integrated for 100 years starting from the Levitus January climatology using the realistic atmospheric annual cycle calculated on the base of CORE datasets. The experimental results showed us that the model adequately reproduces the basic characteristics of large-scale World Ocean dynamics, that is in good agreement with both observational data and results of the best climatic OGCMs. This OGCM is used as the oceanic component of the new version of climatic system model (CSM) developed in INM RAS. The latter is now ready for carrying out the new numerical experiments on climate and its change modelling according to IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios in the

  1. Opening up Global Value Chains : Web 2.0 Technologies and SME ...

    Opening up Global Value Chains : Web 2.0 Technologies and SME Productivity ... Researchers will examine how leading SMEs are currently using Web 2.0 technologies to increase exports, improve productivity and/or increase competitiveness; and the barriers and limitations to achieving greater ICT adoption by SMEs.

  2. Open Education and the Creative Economy: Global Perspectives and Comparative Analysis

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is to deal the issues of open education, creative economies, higher education. It also compares the performances in these aspects among different countries. The conception of the "creative economy" develops within the context of "global neoliberalism" and "knowledge economy." These three notions are…

  3. Meridional transport of salt in the global ocean from an eddy-resolving model

    Treguier, A. M.; Deshayes, J.; Le Sommer, J.; Lique, C.; Madec, G.; Penduff, T.; Molines, J.-M.; Barnier, B.; Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Talandier, C.

    2014-04-01

    The meridional transport of salt is computed in a global eddy-resolving numerical model (1/12° resolution) in order to improve our understanding of the ocean salinity budget. A methodology is proposed that allows a global analysis of the salinity balance in relation to surface water fluxes, without defining a "freshwater anomaly" based on an arbitrary reference salinity. The method consists of a decomposition of the meridional transport into (i) the transport by the time-longitude-depth mean velocity, (ii) time-mean velocity recirculations and (iii) transient eddy perturbations. Water is added (rainfall and rivers) or removed (evaporation) at the ocean surface at different latitudes, which creates convergences and divergences of mass transport with maximum and minimum values close to ±1 Sv. The resulting meridional velocity effects a net transport of salt at each latitude (±30 Sv PSU), which is balanced by the time-mean recirculations and by the net effect of eddy salinity-velocity correlations. This balance ensures that the total meridional transport of salt is close to zero, a necessary condition for maintaining a quasi-stationary salinity distribution. Our model confirms that the eddy salt transport cannot be neglected: it is comparable to the transport by the time-mean recirculation (up to 15 Sv PSU) at the poleward and equatorial boundaries of the subtropical gyres. Two different mechanisms are found: eddy contributions are localized in intense currents such as the Kuroshio at the poleward boundary of the subtropical gyres, while they are distributed across the basins at the equatorward boundaries. Closer to the Equator, salinity-velocity correlations are mainly due to the seasonal cycle and large-scale perturbations such as tropical instability waves.

  4. Habitat suitability and ecological niches of different plankton functional types in the global ocean

    Vogt, Meike; Brun, Philipp; Payne, Mark R.; O'Brien, Colleen J.; Bednaršek, Nina; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Doney, Scott C.; Leblanc, Karine; Le Quéré, Corinne; Luo, Yawei; Moriarty, Róisín; O'Brien, Todd D.; Schiebel, Ralf; Swan, Chantal

    2013-04-01

    Marine plankton play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of important elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur. While our knowledge about marine ecosystem structure and functioning is still scarce and episodic, several recent observational studies confirm that marine ecosystems have been changing due to recent climate change, overfishing, and coastal eutrophication. In order to better understand marine ecosystem dynamics, the MAREDAT initiative has recently collected abundance and biomass data for 5 autotrophic (diatoms, Phaeocystis, coccolithophores, nitrogen fixers, picophytoplankton), and 6 heterotrophic plankton functional types (PFTs; bacteria, micro-, meso- and macrozooplankton, foraminifera and pteropods). Species distribution models (SDMs) are statistical tools that can be used to derive information about species habitats in space and time. They have been used extensively for a wide range of ecological applications in terrestrial ecosystems, but here we present the first global application in the marine realm, which was made possible by the MAREDAT data synthesis effort. We use a maximum entropy SDM to simulate global habitat suitability, habitat extent and ecological niches for different PFTs in the modern ocean. Present habitat suitability is derived from presence-only MAREDAT data and the observed annual and monthly mean levels of physiologically relevant variables such as SST, nutrient concentration or photosynthetic active radiation received in the mixed layer. This information can then be used to derive ecological niches for different species or taxa within each PFT, and to compare the ecological niches of different PFTs. While these results still need verification because data was not available for all ocean regions for all PFTs, they can give a first indication what present and future plankton habitats may look like, and what consequences we may have to expect for future marine ecosystem functioning and service provision in a warmer

  5. A heterogeneous computing accelerated SCE-UA global optimization method using OpenMP, OpenCL, CUDA, and OpenACC.

    Kan, Guangyuan; He, Xiaoyan; Ding, Liuqian; Li, Jiren; Liang, Ke; Hong, Yang

    2017-10-01

    The shuffled complex evolution optimization developed at the University of Arizona (SCE-UA) has been successfully applied in various kinds of scientific and engineering optimization applications, such as hydrological model parameter calibration, for many years. The algorithm possesses good global optimality, convergence stability and robustness. However, benchmark and real-world applications reveal the poor computational efficiency of the SCE-UA. This research aims at the parallelization and acceleration of the SCE-UA method based on powerful heterogeneous computing technology. The parallel SCE-UA is implemented on Intel Xeon multi-core CPU (by using OpenMP and OpenCL) and NVIDIA Tesla many-core GPU (by using OpenCL, CUDA, and OpenACC). The serial and parallel SCE-UA were tested based on the Griewank benchmark function. Comparison results indicate the parallel SCE-UA significantly improves computational efficiency compared to the original serial version. The OpenCL implementation obtains the best overall acceleration results however, with the most complex source code. The parallel SCE-UA has bright prospects to be applied in real-world applications.

  6. The open-ocean sensible heat flux and its significance for Arctic boundary layer mixing during early fall

    M. Ganeshan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing ice-free area during late summer has transformed the Arctic to a climate system with more dynamic boundary layer (BL clouds and seasonal sea ice growth. The open-ocean sensible heat flux, a crucial mechanism of excessive ocean heat loss to the atmosphere during the fall freeze season, is speculated to play an important role in the recently observed cloud cover increase and BL instability. However, lack of observations and understanding of the resilience of the proposed mechanisms, especially in relation to meteorological and interannual variability, has left a poorly constrained BL parameterization scheme in Arctic climate models. In this study, we use multi-year Japanese cruise-ship observations from R/V Mirai over the open Arctic Ocean to characterize the surface sensible heat flux (SSHF during early fall and investigate its contribution to BL turbulence. It is found that mixing by SSHF is favored during episodes of high surface wind speed and is also influenced by the prevailing cloud regime. The deepest BLs and maximum ocean–atmosphere temperature difference are observed during cold air advection (associated with the stratocumulus regime, yet, contrary to previous speculation, the efficiency of sensible heat exchange is low. On the other hand, the SSHF contributes significantly to BL mixing during the uplift (low pressure followed by the highly stable (stratus regime. Overall, it can explain  ∼  10 % of the open-ocean BL height variability, whereas cloud-driven (moisture and radiative mechanisms appear to be the other dominant source of convective turbulence. Nevertheless, there is strong interannual variability in the relationship between the SSHF and the BL height which can be intensified by the changing occurrence of Arctic climate patterns, such as positive surface wind speed anomalies and more frequent conditions of uplift. This study highlights the need for comprehensive BL observations like the R/V Mirai for

  7. Isolating Tracers of Phytoplankton with Allometric Zooplankton (TOPAZ) from Modular Ocean Model (MOM5) to Couple it with a Global Ocean Model

    Jung, H. C.; Moon, B. K.; Wie, J.; Park, H. S.; Kim, K. Y.; Lee, J.; Byun, Y. H.

    2017-12-01

    This research is motivated by a need to develop a new coupled ocean-biogeochemistry model, a key tool for climate projections. The Modular Ocean Model (MOM5) is a global ocean/ice model developed by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) in the US, and it incorporates Tracers of Phytoplankton with Allometric Zooplankton (TOPAZ), which simulates the marine biota associated with carbon cycles. We isolated TOPAZ from MOM5 into a stand-alone version (TOPAZ-SA), and had it receive initial data and ocean physical fields required. Then, its reliability was verified by comparing the simulation results from the TOPAZ-SA with the MOM5/TOPAZ. This stand-alone version of TOPAZ is to be coupled to the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO). Here we present the preliminary results. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the project "Research and Development for KMA Weather, Climate, and Earth system Services" (NIMS-2016-3100) of the National Institute of Meteorological Sciences/Korea Meteorological Administration.

  8. A 4.5 km resolution Arctic Ocean simulation with the global multi-resolution model FESOM 1.4

    Wang, Qiang; Wekerle, Claudia; Danilov, Sergey; Wang, Xuezhu; Jung, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    In the framework of developing a global modeling system which can facilitate modeling studies on Arctic Ocean and high- to midlatitude linkage, we evaluate the Arctic Ocean simulated by the multi-resolution Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM). To explore the value of using high horizontal resolution for Arctic Ocean modeling, we use two global meshes differing in the horizontal resolution only in the Arctic Ocean (24 km vs. 4.5 km). The high resolution significantly improves the model's representation of the Arctic Ocean. The most pronounced improvement is in the Arctic intermediate layer, in terms of both Atlantic Water (AW) mean state and variability. The deepening and thickening bias of the AW layer, a common issue found in coarse-resolution simulations, is significantly alleviated by using higher resolution. The topographic steering of the AW is stronger and the seasonal and interannual temperature variability along the ocean bottom topography is enhanced in the high-resolution simulation. The high resolution also improves the ocean surface circulation, mainly through a better representation of the narrow straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). The representation of CAA throughflow not only influences the release of water masses through the other gateways but also the circulation pathways inside the Arctic Ocean. However, the mean state and variability of Arctic freshwater content and the variability of freshwater transport through the Arctic gateways appear not to be very sensitive to the increase in resolution employed here. By highlighting the issues that are independent of model resolution, we address that other efforts including the improvement of parameterizations are still required.

  9. Understanding the El Niño-like Oceanic Response in the Tropical Pacific to Global Warming

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-10

    The enhanced central and eastern Pacific SST warming and the associated ocean processes under global warming are investigated using the ocean component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2). The tropical SST warming pattern in the coupled CESM can be faithfully reproduced by the POP2 forced with surface fluxes computed using the aerodynamic bulk formula. By prescribing the wind stress and/or wind speed through the bulk formula, the effects of wind stress change and/or the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback are isolated and their linearity is evaluated in this ocean-alone setting. Result shows that, although the weakening of the equatorial easterlies contributes positively to the El Niño-like SST warming, 80% of which can be simulated by the POP2 without considering the effects of wind change in both mechanical and thermodynamic fluxes. This result points to the importance of the air-sea thermal interaction and the relative feebleness of the ocean dynamical process in the El Niño-like equatorial Pacific SST response to global warming. On the other hand, the wind stress change is found to play a dominant role in the oceanic response in the tropical Pacific, accounting for most of the changes in the equatorial ocean current system and thermal structures, including the weakening of the surface westward currents, the enhancement of the near-surface stratification and the shoaling of the equatorial thermocline. Interestingly, greenhouse gas warming in the absence of wind stress change and WES feedback also contributes substantially to the changes at the subsurface equatorial Pacific. Further, this warming impact can be largely replicated by an idealized ocean experiment forced by a uniform surface heat flux, whereby, arguably, a purest form of oceanic dynamical thermostat is revealed.

  10. Developing a global ocean observing system that prioritises ecosystem variables from a political and societal point of view

    Miloslavich, P.; Bax, N. J.; Simmons, S. E.; Appeltans, W.; Garcia, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Biology and Ecosystems Panel of GOOS aims to develop and coordinate efforts to implement a sustained and targeted global ocean observation system. This system will be driven by societal needs (including the Sustainable Development Goals), and identify Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) to inform priority scientific and societal questions that will facilitate critical policy development and management decision-making on ocean and coastal resource sustainability and health. Mature EOVs need to have global relevance and the capacity for global measurement. Our goal is to implement at least one (set of) mature EOVs by 2019, and identify a further three (sets of) pilot EOVs with a clear pathway to maturity. Our initial work includes (1) identifying drivers and pressures of societal and scientific needs, and (2) identifying internationally agreed goals that need sustained global observations of ocean biological & ecosystem variables for a healthy ocean. We reviewed 24 major conventions/international organizations (including the CBD and 16 UN related) to identify the societal needs these organizations address through their goals, and to produce a set of overlapping objectives. Main drivers identified in these conventions were: knowledge (science/data access), development (sustainable economic growth), conservation (biodiversity & ecosystems), sustainable use (biodiversity & resources), environmental quality (health), capacity building (technology transfer), food security, threat prevention and impact mitigation (to different pressures) and improved management (integrated ecosystem approach). The main pressures identified were climate change, ocean acidification, extreme weather events, overfishing/ overexploitation, pollution/ eutrophication, mining, solid wastes. Our next step will be to develop consensus with the observing community about the EOVs that will meet these needs and support the expansion of these identified EOVs into successful global observing systems.

  11. Impact of lengthening open water season on food security in Alaska coastal communities: Global impacts may outweigh local "frontline" effects

    Rolph, R.; Mahoney, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Using ice concentration data from the Alaska Sea Ice Atlas from 1953-2013 for selected communities in Alaska, we find a consistent trend toward later freeze up and earlier breakup, leading a lengthened open water period. Such changes are often considered to bring a variety of "frontline" local impacts to Arctic coastal communities such as increased rates of coastal erosion. However, direct consequences of these changes to local food security (e.g. through impacts on subsistence activities and marine transport of goods) may be outweighed at least in the short term by the effects of large scale Arctic sea ice change coupled with global oil markets. For example, a later freeze-up might delay local hunters' transition from boats to snow-machines, but whether this trend will affect hunting success, especially in the next few years, is uncertain. Likewise, the magnitude of change in open water season length is unlikely to be sufficient to increase the frequency with which communities are served by barges. However, an expanding open water season throughout the Arctic has implications for the global economy, which can have indirect effects on local communities. In the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, where rapid sea ice change has been accompanied by increased interest in oil and gas development, the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management currently requires drilling operations to cease 38 days prior to freeze up. Taking this into account, the lengthening open water season has effectively extended the drilling season for oil companies by 184% since the 1950s. If oil development goes ahead, local communities will likely experience a range of indirect impacts on food security due to increased vessel traffic and demand on infrastructure coupled with changes in local economies and employment opportunities. Increased likelihood of an oil spill in coastal waters also poses a significant threat to local food security. Thus, while Arctic coastal communities are already experiencing

  12. Global seafloor geomorphic features map: applications for ocean conservation and management

    Harris, P. T.; Macmillan-Lawler, M.; Rupp, J.; Baker, E.

    2013-12-01

    Seafloor geomorphology, mapped and measured by marine scientists, has proven to be a very useful physical attribute for ocean management because different geomorphic features (eg. submarine canyons, seamounts, spreading ridges, escarpments, plateaus, trenches etc.) are commonly associated with particular suites of habitats and biological communities. Although we now have better bathymetric datasets than ever before, there has been little effort to integrate these data to create an updated map of seabed geomorphic features or habitats. Currently the best available global seafloor geomorphic features map is over 30 years old. A new global seafloor geomorphic features map (GSGM) has been created based on the analysis and interpretation of the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) 30 arc-second (~1 km) global bathymetry grid. The new map includes global spatial data layers for 29 categories of geomorphic features, defined by the International Hydrographic Organisation. The new geomorphic features map will allow: 1) Characterization of bioregions in terms of their geomorphic content (eg. GOODS bioregions, Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), ecologically or biologically significant areas (EBSA)); 2) Prediction of the potential spatial distribution of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME) and marine genetic resources (MGR; eg. associated with hydrothermal vent communities, shelf-incising submarine canyons and seamounts rising to a specified depth); and 3) Characterization of national marine jurisdictions in terms of their inventory of geomorphic features and their global representativeness of features. To demonstrate the utility of the GSGM, we have conducted an analysis of the geomorphic feature content of the current global inventory of marine protected areas (MPAs) to assess the extent to which features are currently represented. The analysis shows that many features have very low representation, for example fans and rises have less than 1 per cent of their total area

  13. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    Scott, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between models and observations that was greater than estimated statistical uncertainty. Averaging over all current meter records in various depth ranges, all four models had mean TKE within a factor of two of observations above 3500. m, and within a factor of three below 3500. m. With the exception of observations between 20 and 100. m, the models tended to straddle the observations. However, individual models had clear biases. The free running (no data assimilation) model biases were largest below 2000. m. Idealized simulations revealed that the parameterized bottom boundary layer tidal currents were not likely the source of the problem, but that reducing quadratic bottom drag coefficient may improve the fit with deep observations. Data assimilation clearly improved the model-observation comparison, especially below 2000. m, despite assimilated data existing mostly above this depth and only south of 47°N. Different diagnostics revealed different aspects of the comparison, though in general the models appeared to be in an eddying-regime with TKE that compared reasonably well with observations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Consistency of two global MODIS aerosol products over ocean on Terra and Aqua CERES SSF datasets

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce; Loeb, Norman G.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Miller, Walter F.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Laszlo, Istvan; Geier, Erika B.

    2004-12-01

    MODIS aerosol retrievals over ocean from Terra and Aqua platforms are available from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) datasets generated at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Two aerosol products are reported side by side. The primary M product is generated by subsetting and remapping the multi-spectral (0.44 - 2.1 μm) MOD04 aerosols onto CERES footprints. MOD04 processing uses cloud screening and aerosol algorithms developed by the MODIS science team. The secondary (AVHRR-like) A product is generated in only two MODIS bands: 1 and 6 on Terra, and ` and 7 on Aqua. The A processing uses NASA/LaRC cloud-screening and NOAA/NESDIS single channel aerosol algorthm. The M and A products have been documented elsewhere and preliminarily compared using two weeks of global Terra CERES SSF (Edition 1A) data in December 2000 and June 2001. In this study, the M and A aerosol optical depths (AOD) in MODIS band 1 and (0.64 μm), τ1M and τ1A, are further checked for cross-platform consistency using 9 days of global Terra CERES SSF (Edition 2A) and Aqua CERES SSF (Edition 1A) data from 13 - 21 October 2002.

  15. How well will the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission observe global reservoirs?

    Solander, Kurt C.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate observations of global reservoir storage are critical to understand the availability of managed water resources. By enabling estimates of surface water area and height for reservoir sizes exceeding 250 m2 at a maximum repeat orbit of up to 21 days, the NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (anticipated launch date 2020) is expected to greatly improve upon existing reservoir monitoring capabilities. It is thus essential that spatial and temporal measurement uncertainty for water bodies is known a priori to maximize the utility of SWOT observations as the data are acquired. In this study, we evaluate SWOT reservoir observations using a three-pronged approach that assesses temporal aliasing, errors due to specific reservoir spatial properties, and SWOT performance over actual reservoirs using a combination of in situ and simulated reservoir observations from the SWOTsim instrument simulator. Results indicate temporal errors to be less than 5% for the smallest reservoir sizes (100 km2). Surface area and height errors were found to be minimal (area SWOT, this study will be have important implications for future applications of SWOT reservoir measurements in global monitoring systems and models.

  16. Global warming and ocean acidification through halted weathering feedback during the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum

    van der Ploeg, R.; Selby, D. S.; Cramwinckel, M.; Bohaty, S. M.; Sluijs, A.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) represents a 500 kyr period of global warming 40 million years ago associated with a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but its cause remains enigmatic. Moreover, on the timescale of the MECO, an increase in silicate weathering rates on the continents is expected to balance carbon input and restore the alkalinity of the oceans, but this is in sharp disagreement with observations of extensive carbonate dissolution. Here we show, based on osmium isotope ratios of marine sediments from three different sites, that CO2 rise and warming did not lead to enhanced continental weathering during the MECO, in contrast to expectations from carbon cycle theory. Remarkably, a minor shift to lower, more unradiogenic osmium isotope ratios rather indicates an episode of increased volcanism or reduced continental weathering. This disproves silicate weathering as a geologically constant feedback to CO2 variations. Rather, we suggest that global Early and Middle Eocene warmth diminished the weatherability of continental rocks, ultimately leading to CO2 accumulation during the MECO, and show the plausibility of this scenario using carbon cycle modeling simulations. We surmise a dynamic weathering feedback might explain multiple enigmatic phases of coupled climate and carbon cycle change in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic.

  17. Sharing Lessons-Learned on Effective Open Data, Open-Source Practices from OpenAQ, a Global Open Air Quality Community.

    Hasenkopf, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Increasingly, open data, open-source projects are unearthing rich datasets and tools, previously impossible for more traditional avenues to generate. These projects are possible, in part, because of the emergence of online collaborative and code-sharing tools, decreasing costs of cloud-based services to fetch, store, and serve data, and increasing interest of individuals to contribute their time and skills to 'open projects.' While such projects have generated palpable enthusiasm from many sectors, many of these projects face uncharted paths for sustainability, visibility, and acceptance. Our project, OpenAQ, is an example of an open-source, open data community that is currently forging its own uncharted path. OpenAQ is an open air quality data platform that aggregates and universally formats government and research-grade air quality data from 50 countries across the world. To date, we make available more than 76 million air quality (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, CO and black carbon) data points through an open Application Programming Interface (API) and a user-customizable download interface at https://openaq.org. The goal of the platform is to enable an ecosystem of users to advance air pollution efforts from science to policy to the private sector. The platform is also an open-source project (https://github.com/openaq) and has only been made possible through the coding and data contributions of individuals around the world. In our first two years of existence, we have seen requests for data to our API skyrocket to more than 6 million datapoints per month, and use-cases as varied as ingesting data aggregated from our system into real-time models of wildfires to building open-source statistical packages (e.g. ropenaq and py-openaq) on top of the platform to creating public-friendly apps and chatbots. We will share a whirl-wind trip through our evolution and the many lessons learned so far related to platform structure, community engagement, organizational model type

  18. The effect of ocean acidification on carbon storage and sequestration in seagrass beds; a global and UK context.

    Garrard, Samantha L; Beaumont, Nicola J

    2014-09-15

    Ocean acidification will have many negative consequences for marine organisms and ecosystems, leading to a decline in many ecosystem services provided by the marine environment. This study reviews the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on seagrasses, assessing how this may affect their capacity to sequester carbon in the future and providing an economic valuation of these changes. If ocean acidification leads to a significant increase in above- and below-ground biomass, the capacity of seagrass to sequester carbon will be significantly increased. The associated value of this increase in sequestration capacity is approximately £500 and 600 billion globally between 2010 and 2100. A proportionally similar increase in carbon sequestration value was found for the UK. This study highlights one of the few positive stories for ocean acidification and underlines that sustainable management of seagrasses is critical to avoid their continued degradation and loss of carbon sequestration capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) and its impacts on the Indian Ocean during the global warming slowdown period

    Makarim, S.; Liu, Z.; Yu, W.; Yan, X.; Sprintall, J.

    2016-12-01

    The global warming slowdown indicated by a slower warming rate at the surface layer accompanied by stronger heat transport into the deeper layers has been explored in the Indian Ocean. Although the mechanisms of the global warming slowdown are still under warm debate, some clues have been recognized that decadal La Nina like-pattern induced decadal cooling in the Pacific Ocean and generated an increase of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) transport in 2004-2010. However, how the ITF spreading to the interior of the Indian Ocean and the impact of ITF changes on the Indian Ocean, in particular its water mass transformation and current system are still unknown. To this end, we analyzed thermohaline structure and current system at different depths in the Indian Ocean both during and just before the global warming slowdown period using the ORAS4 and ARGO dataset. Here, we found the new edge of ITF at off Sumatra presumably as northward deflection of ITF Lombok Strait, and The Monsoon Onset Monitoring and Social Ecology Impact (MOMSEI) and Java Upwelling Variation Observation (JUVO) dataset confirmed this evident. An isopycnal mixing method initially proposed by Du et al. (2013) is adopted to quantify the spreading of ITF water in the Indian Ocean, and therefore the impacts of ITF changes on the variation of the Agulhas Current, Leuween Current, Bay of Bengal Water. This study also prevailed the fresher salinity in the Indian Ocean during the slowdown warming period were not only contributed by stronger transport of the ITF, but also by freshening Arabian Sea and infiltrating Antartic Intermediate Water (AAIW).

  20. The DEBOT Model, a New Global Barotropic Ocean Tidal Model: Test Computations and an Application in Related Geophysical Disciplines

    Einspigel, D.; Sachl, L.; Martinec, Z.

    2014-12-01

    We present the DEBOT model, which is a new global barotropic ocean model. The DEBOT model is primarily designed for modelling of ocean flow generated by the tidal attraction of the Moon and the Sun, however it can be used for other ocean applications where the barotropic model is sufficient, for instance, a tsunami wave propagation. The model has been thoroughly tested by several different methods: 1) synthetic example which involves a tsunami-like wave propagation of an initial Gaussian depression and testing of the conservation of integral invariants, 2) a benchmark study with another barotropic model, the LSGbt model, has been performed and 3) results of realistic simulations have been compared with data from tide gauge measurements around the world. The test computations prove the validity of the numerical code and demonstrate the ability of the DEBOT model to simulate the realistic ocean tides. The DEBOT model will be principaly applied in related geophysical disciplines, for instance, in an investigation of an influence of the ocean tides on the geomagnetic field or the Earth's rotation. A module for modelling of the secondary poloidal magnetic field generated by an ocean flow is already implemented in the DEBOT model and preliminary results will be presented. The future aim is to assimilate magnetic data provided by the Swarm satellite mission into the ocean flow model.

  1. Assessment of a global climatology of oceanic dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations based on SeaWiFS imagery (1998-2001)

    Belviso, S; Moulin, C; Bopp, L; Stefels, J

    A method is developed to estimate sea-surface particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP(p)) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations from sea-surface concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a). When compared with previous studies, the 1degrees x 1degrees global climatology of oceanic DMS

  2. EarthServer2 : The Marine Data Service - Web based and Programmatic Access to Ocean Colour Open Data

    Clements, Oliver; Walker, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The ESA Ocean Colour - Climate Change Initiative (ESA OC-CCI) has produced a long-term high quality global dataset with associated per-pixel uncertainty data. This dataset has now grown to several hundred terabytes (uncompressed) and is freely available to download. However, the sheer size of the dataset can act as a barrier to many users; large network bandwidth, local storage and processing requirements can prevent researchers without the backing of a large organisation from taking advantage of this raw data. The EC H2020 project, EarthServer2, aims to create a federated data service providing access to more than 1 petabyte of earth science data. Within this federation the Marine Data Service already provides an innovative on-line tool-kit for filtering, analysing and visualising OC-CCI data. Data are made available, filtered and processed at source through a standards-based interface, the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Coverage Service and Web Coverage Processing Service. This work was initiated in the EC FP7 EarthServer project where it was found that the unfamiliarity and complexity of these interfaces itself created a barrier to wider uptake. The continuation project, EarthServer2, addresses these issues by providing higher level tools for working with these data. We will present some examples of these tools. Many researchers wish to extract time series data from discrete points of interest. We will present a web based interface, based on NASA/ESA WebWorldWind, for selecting points of interest and plotting time series from a chosen dataset. In addition, a CSV file of locations and times, such as a ship's track, can be uploaded and these points extracted and returned in a CSV file allowing researchers to work with the extract locally, such as a spreadsheet. We will also present a set of Python and JavaScript APIs that have been created to complement and extend the web based GUI. These APIs allow the selection of single points and areas for extraction. The

  3. High-frequency and meso-scale winter sea-ice variability in the Southern Ocean in a high-resolution global ocean model

    Stössel, Achim; von Storch, Jin-Song; Notz, Dirk; Haak, Helmuth; Gerdes, Rüdiger

    2018-03-01

    This study is on high-frequency temporal variability (HFV) and meso-scale spatial variability (MSV) of winter sea-ice drift in the Southern Ocean simulated with a global high-resolution (0.1°) sea ice-ocean model. Hourly model output is used to distinguish MSV characteristics via patterns of mean kinetic energy (MKE) and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) of ice drift, surface currents, and wind stress, and HFV characteristics via time series of raw variables and correlations. We find that (1) along the ice edge, the MSV of ice drift coincides with that of surface currents, in particular such due to ocean eddies; (2) along the coast, the MKE of ice drift is substantially larger than its TKE and coincides with the MKE of wind stress; (3) in the interior of the ice pack, the TKE of ice drift is larger than its MKE, mostly following the TKE pattern of wind stress; (4) the HFV of ice drift is dominated by weather events, and, in the absence of tidal currents, locally and to a much smaller degree by inertial oscillations; (5) along the ice edge, the curl of the ice drift is highly correlated with that of surface currents, mostly reflecting the impact of ocean eddies. Where ocean eddies occur and the ice is relatively thin, ice velocity is characterized by enhanced relative vorticity, largely matching that of surface currents. Along the ice edge, ocean eddies produce distinct ice filaments, the realism of which is largely confirmed by high-resolution satellite passive-microwave data.

  4. Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry over Coastal and Open Ocean: performance assessment and improved retrieval methods in the ESA SCOOP Project.

    Benveniste, J.; Cotton, D.; Moreau, T.; Raynal, M.; Varona, E.; Cipollini, P.; Cancet, M.; Martin, F.; Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Naeije, M.; Fernandes, J.; Lazaro, C.; Restano, M.; Ambrózio, A.

    2017-12-01

    The ESA Sentinel-3 satellite, launched in February 2016 as a part of the Copernicus programme, is the second satellite to operate a SAR mode altimeter. The Sentinel 3 Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) is based on the heritage from Cryosat-2, but this time complemented by a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) to provide a wet troposphere correction, and operating at Ku and C-Bands to provide an accurate along-track ionospheric correction. The SRAL is operated in SAR mode over the whole ocean and promises increased performance w.r.t. conventional altimetry. SCOOP (SAR Altimetry Coastal & Open Ocean Performance) is a project funded under the ESA SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) Programme Element, started in September 2015, to characterise the expected performance of Sentinel-3 SRAL SAR mode altimeter products, in the coastal zone and open-ocean, and then to develop and evaluate enhancements to the baseline processing scheme in terms of improvements to ocean measurements. There is also a work package to develop and evaluate an improved Wet Troposphere correction for Sentinel-3, based on the measurements from the on-board MWR, further enhanced mostly in the coastal and polar regions using third party data, and provide recommendations for use. In this presentation we present results from the SCOOP project that demonstrate the excellent performance of SRAL in terms of measurement precision, and we illustrate the development and testing of new processing approaches designed specifically to improve performance close to the coast. The SCOOP test data sets and relevant documentation are available to external researchers on application to the project team. At the end of the project recommendations for further developments and implementations will be provided through a scientific roadmap.

  5. The impact of global warming on seasonality of ocean primary production

    S. Henson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal cycle (i.e. phenology of oceanic primary production (PP is expected to change in response to climate warming. Here, we use output from 6 global biogeochemical models to examine the response in the seasonal amplitude of PP and timing of peak PP to the IPCC AR5 warming scenario. We also investigate whether trends in PP phenology may be more rapidly detectable than trends in annual mean PP. The seasonal amplitude of PP decreases by an average of 1–2% per year by 2100 in most biomes, with the exception of the Arctic which sees an increase of ~1% per year. This is accompanied by an advance in the timing of peak PP by ~0.5–1 months by 2100 over much of the globe, and particularly pronounced in the Arctic. These changes are driven by an increase in seasonal amplitude of sea surface temperature (where the maxima get hotter faster than the minima and a decrease in the seasonal amplitude of the mixed layer depth and surface nitrate concentration. Our results indicate a transformation of currently strongly seasonal (bloom forming regions, typically found at high latitudes, into weakly seasonal (non-bloom regions, characteristic of contemporary subtropical conditions. On average, 36 yr of data are needed to detect a climate-change-driven trend in the seasonal amplitude of PP, compared to 32 yr for mean annual PP. Monthly resolution model output is found to be inadequate for resolving phenological changes. We conclude that analysis of phytoplankton seasonality is not necessarily a shortcut to detecting climate change impacts on ocean productivity.

  6. The timescale and extent of thermal expansion of the global ocean due to climate change

    S. Marčelja

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With recently improved instrumental accuracy, the change in the heat content of the oceans and the corresponding contribution to the change of the sea level can be determined from in situ measurements of temperature variation with depth. Nevertheless, it would be favourable if the same changes could be evaluated from just the sea surface temperatures because the past record could then be reconstructed and future scenarios explored. Using a single column model we show that the average change in the heat content of the oceans and the corresponding contribution to a global change in the sea level can be evaluated from the past sea surface temperatures. The calculation is based on the time-dependent diffusion equation with the known fixed average upwelling velocity and eddy diffusivity, as determined from the steady-state limit. In this limit, the model reduces to the 1966 Munk profile of the potential temperature variation as a function of depth.

    There are no adjustable parameters in the calculation and the results are in good agreement with the estimates obtained from the in situ data. The method allows us to obtain relevant timescales and average temperature profiles. The evaluation of the thermosteric sea level change is extended back to the beginning of accurate sea surface temperature records. The changes in sea surface temperature from 1880 until the present time are estimated to have produced a thermosteric sea level rise of 35 mm. Application to future IPCC scenarios gives results similar to the average prediction of more complex climate models.

  7. Global Ocean Data Quality Assessment of SARAL/AltiKa GDR products

    Picot, Nicolas; Prandi, Pierre; desjonqueres, jean-damien

    2015-04-01

    The SARAL mission was successfully launched on February, 5th 2013 and cycle 1 started a few days later on March 14th. For more than 2 years, the Ka-band altimeter and dual frequency radiometer on board have been collecting high quality ocean topography measurements. Within the first months of the mission, a first patch (P1) was developed to correct some small anomalies detected in the products and to account for in-flight calibration data. At the beginning of year 2014, a second patch (P2) was produced (applied from cycle 10 pass 407 on OGDR data and from pass 566 on IGDR data) and the all GDR produced before this were reprocessed in order to deliver a consistent dataset to users. This new version of the products provides, among other changes, important improvements regarding radiometer data processing, sea-state bias and wind speed. Since the beginning of the mission, data quality assessment of OGDR, IGDR and GDR data has been routinely performed at CNES and CLS (as part of the CNES SALP project). We will present the main results of the data quality assessment over ocean based on SARAL/AltiKa GDR data reprocessed using the homogeneous P2 version. The main data quality metrics presented will include: Data availability and validity, Monitoring of the main altimeter and radiometer parameters and comparisons to other altimeter missions such as OSTM/Jason-2, Mission performance through mono-mission crossovers analysis, Investigation of inter-mission biases and large-scale regional differences from multi-mission crossovers between SARAL and Jason-2. Monitoring of the global mean SLA and comparison to Jason-2 Finally, we will present the new product version standard that is currently under development on CNES side.

  8. Opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean: Implications for Geometric Rifting and Asymmetric Initial Seafloor Spreading after Continental Breakup

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Biari, Y.; Sahabi, M.; Funck, T.; Benabdellouahed, M.; Schnabel, M.; Reichert, C. J.; Gutscher, M. A.; Bronner, A.; Austin, J. A., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    The structure of conjugate passive margins provides information about rifting styles, the initial phases of the opening of an ocean and the formation of its associated sedimentary basins. The study of the deep structure of conjugate passive continental margins combined with precise plate kinematic reconstructions can provide constraints on the mechanisms of rifting and formation of initial oceanic crust. In this study the Central Atlantic conjugate margins are compared, based on compilation of wide-angle seismic profiles from the NW-Africa Nova Scotian and US passive margins. Plate cinematic reconstructions were used to place the profiles in the position at opening and at the M25 magnetic anomaly. The patterns of volcanism, crustal thickness, geometry, and seismic velocities in the transition zone. suggest symmetric rifting followed by asymmetric oceanic crustal accretion. Conjugate profiles in the southern Central Atlantic image differences in the continental crustal thickness. While profiles on the eastern US margin are characterized by thick layers of magmatic underplating, no such underplate was imaged along the NW-African continental margin. It has been proposed that these volcanic products form part of the CAMP (Central Atlantic Magmatic Province). In the north, two wide-angle seismic profiles acquired in exactly conjugate positions show that the crustal geometry of the unthinned continental crust and the necking zone are nearly symmetric. A region including seismic velocities too high to be explained by either continental or oceanic crust is imaged along the Nova Scotia margin off Eastern Canada, corresponding on the African side to an oceanic crust with slightly elevated velocities. These might result from asymmetric spreading creating seafloor by faulting the existing lithosphere on the Canadian side and the emplacement of magmatic oceanic crust including pockets of serpentinite on the Moroccan margin. A slightly elevated crustal thickness along the

  9. Open system LANs and their global interconnection electronics and communications reference series

    Houldsworth, Jack; Caves, Keith; Mazda, FF

    2014-01-01

    Open System LANs and Their Global Interconnection focuses on the OSI layer 1 to 4 standards (the OSI bearer service) and also introduces TCP/IP and some of the proprietary PC Local Area Network (LAN) standards.The publication first provides an introduction to Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs), Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), and LAN standards. Discussions focus on MAC bridging, token bus, slotted ring, MAC constraints and design considerations, OSI functional standards, OSI model, value of the transport model, benefits and origins of OSI, and significance of the tran

  10. Global Ocean Evaporation: How Well Can We Estimate Interannual to Decadal Variability?

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Roberts, Jason B.; Wang, Hailan

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation from the world's oceans constitutes the largest component of the global water balance. It is important not only as the ultimate source of moisture that is tied to the radiative processes determining Earth's energy balance but also to freshwater availability over land, governing habitability of the planet. Here we focus on variability of ocean evaporation on scales from interannual to decadal by appealing to three sources of data: the new MERRA-2 (Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications -2); climate models run with historical sea-surface temperatures, ice and atmospheric constituents (so-called AMIP experiments); and state-of-the-art satellite retrievals from the Seaflux and HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean-Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite) projects. Each of these sources has distinct advantages as well as drawbacks. MERRA-2, like other reanalyses, synthesizes evaporation estimates consistent with observationally constrained physical and dynamical models-but data stream discontinuities are a major problem for interpreting multi-decadal records. The climate models used in data assimilation can also be run with lesser constraints such as with SSTs and sea-ice (i.e. AMIPs) or with additional, minimal observations of surface pressure and marine observations that have longer and less fragmentary observational records. We use the new ERA-20C reanalysis produced by ECMWF embodying the latter methodology. Still, the model physics biases in climate models and the lack of a predicted surface energy balance are of concern. Satellite retrievals and comparisons to ship-based measurements offer the most observationally-based estimates, but sensor inter-calibration, algorithm retrieval assumptions, and short records are dominant issues. Our strategy depends on maximizing the advantages of these combined records. The primary diagnostic tool used here is an analysis of bulk aerodynamic computations produced by these sources and uses a first

  11. Open Source Tools for Assessment of Global Water Availability, Demands, and Scarcity

    Li, X.; Vernon, C. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Link, R. P.; Liu, Y.; Feng, L.; Huang, Z.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Water availability and water demands are essential factors for estimating water scarcity conditions. To reproduce historical observations and to quantify future changes in water availability and water demand, two open source tools have been developed by the JGCRI (Joint Global Change Research Institute): Xanthos and GCAM-STWD. Xanthos is a gridded global hydrologic model, designed to quantify and analyze water availability in 235 river basins. Xanthos uses a runoff generation and a river routing modules to simulate both historical and future estimates of total runoff and streamflows on a monthly time step at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees. GCAM-STWD is a spatiotemporal water disaggregation model used with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to spatially downscale global water demands for six major enduse sectors (irrigation, domestic, electricity generation, mining, and manufacturing) from the region scale to the scale of 0.5 degrees. GCAM-STWD then temporally downscales the gridded annual global water demands to monthly results. These two tools, written in Python, can be integrated to assess global, regional or basin-scale water scarcity or water stress. Both of the tools are extensible to ensure flexibility and promote contribution from researchers that utilize GCAM and study global water use and supply.

  12. Enhanced Open Ocean Storage of CO2 from Shelf Sea Pumping

    Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Elkalay, K.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal field observations show that the North Sea, a Northern European shelf sea, is highly efficient in pumping carbon dioxide fromthe atmosphere to the North Atlantic Ocean. The bottom topography–controlled stratification separates production and respiration processes in the North Sea, causing a

  13. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN and other PLATFORMS from the North Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1991-10-01 to 1991-10-31 (NODC Accession 9100209)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were...

  14. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the OKEAN and other PLATFORMS from the North Pacific Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, and other sea areas in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 01 July 1989 to 31 July 1989 (NODC Accession 8900256)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from the OKEAN and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by US...

  15. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the OKEAN and other PLATFORMS from the North Pacific Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, and other sea areas in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 01 May 1989 to 31 May 1989 (NODC Accession 8900179)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from the OKEAN and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by US...

  16. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON and other PLATFORMS from the North/South Pacific Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, and other sea areas in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1991-11-01 to 1991-11-30 (NODC Accession 9100243)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were...

  17. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the OKEAN and other PLATFORMS from the North Pacific Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, and other sea areas in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 01 December 1988 to 31 December 1988 (NODC Accession 8900007)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from the OKEAN and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by US...

  18. International Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) And NCEI Global Marine Observations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — International Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) consists of digital data set DSI-1173, archived at the National Center for Environmental Information...

  19. Efficient computation of past global ocean circulation patterns using continuation in paleobathymetry

    Mulder, T. E.; Baatsen, M. L.J.; Wubs, F.W.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the field of paleoceanographic modeling, the different positioning of Earth's continental configurations is often a major challenge for obtaining equilibrium ocean flow solutions. In this paper, we introduce numerical parameter continuation techniques to compute equilibrium solutions of ocean

  20. Clio: An Autonomous Vertical Sampling Vehicle for Global Ocean Biogeochemical Mapping

    Jakuba, M.; Gomez-Ibanez, D.; Saito, M. A.; Dick, G.; Breier, J. A., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    We report the preliminary design of a fast vertical profiling autonomous underwater vehicle, called Clio, designed to cost-effectively improve the understanding of marine microorganism ecosystem dynamics on a global scale. The insights into biogeochemical cycles to be gained from illuminating the relationships between ocean life and chemistry have led to establishment of the GEOTRACES program. The nutrient and trace element profiles generated by GEOTRACES will provide insight into what is happening biogeochemically, but not how it is happening, i.e., what biochemical pathways are active? Advances in sequencing technology and in situ preservation have made it possible to study the genomics (DNA), transcriptomics (RNA), proteomics (proteins and enzymes), metabolomics (lipids and other metabolites), and metallomics (metals), associated with marine microorganisms; however, these techniques require sample collection. To this end, Clio will carry two to four SUspended Particle Rosette (SUPR) multi-samplers to depths of 6000 m. Clio is being designed specifically to complement the GEOTRACES program—to operate simultaneously and independently of the wire-based sampling protocols developed for GEOTRACES. At each GEOTRACES ocean transect sampling station, Clio will be deployed from the ship, transit vertically to the seafloor, and then ascend to, and stop at up to 32 sampling depths, where it will filter up to 150 l of seawater per sample. Filtered samples for RNA will be administered a dose of preservative (RNALater) in situ. Clio must efficiently hold station at multiple depths between the surface and 6000 m, but also move rapidly between sampling depths. It must be chemically clean and avoid disturbing the water column while sampling. Clio must be operationally friendly, requiring few personnel to operate, and have minimal impact on shipboard operations. We have selected a positively-buoyant thruster-driven design with a quasi-isopycnal construction. Our simulations

  1. Global reanalyses over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean: Can they be used prior to 1979?

    Bromwich, D. H.; Nicolas, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    High southern latitudes are a notoriously challenging area for global reanalyses, largely due to the scarcity of conventional observations in these regions. This lack of observational constraint not only reduces the reanalysis model forecast skill, but is also responsible for artifacts in their time series tied to changes in the observing system. For example, the introduction of new satellite observations (e.g., AMSU in 1998) is now a well-documented cause of widespread spurious changes in the reanalysis moisture and temperature fields, which are often exacerbated over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. This lack of temporal consistency has significantly reduced the reliability of some reanalysis products and their suitability for trend analysis. Century-long reanalysis efforts such as 20CR and ERA-20C, which only assimilate surface pressure observations, have provided ways to achieve greater homogeneity in the observing system through time and (potentially) produce more temporally consistent datasets, particularly across 1979 and the onset of the modern satellite era. However, important issues quickly became apparent in these reanalyses, related in particular to the handling by their data assimilation systems of the near-complete absence of observations poleward of 50°S prior to the 1950s, or to the prescription of ocean boundary conditions (sea ice, SST) prior to 1979. Because of the data scarcity, comparing reanalyses with each other is one of the primary means to assess their reliability. As such, the release of the CERA-20C and ERA5 (partially) by ECMWF in 2017 provides an opportunity to reassess the skill of recent global reanalyses in high southern latitudes and take stock of the recent improvements and remaining challenges, particularly with regard to their use for long-term climate change studies. Our comparison will include both satellite-era comprehensive reanalyses (ERA-Interim, CFSR, MERRA2, JRA-55, and ERA5) and century-long limited reanalyses (20CR

  2. The new version of the Institute of Numerical Mathematics Sigma Ocean Model (INMSOM) for simulation of Global Ocean circulation and its variability

    Gusev, Anatoly; Fomin, Vladimir; Diansky, Nikolay; Korshenko, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    ) Improvement river runoff algorithm accounting the total amount of discharged water. 6) Using explicit leapfrog time scheme for all lateral operators and implicit Euler scheme for vertical diffusion and viscosity. The INMSOM is tested by reproducing World Ocean circulation and thermohaline characteristics using the well-proved CORE dataset. The presentation is devoted to the analysis of new INMSOM simulation results, estimation of their quality and comparison to the ones previously obtained with the INMOM. The main aim of the INMSOM development is using it as the oceanic component of the next version of INMCM. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants № 16-05-00534 and № 15-05-07539) References 1. Danabasoglu, G., Yeager S.G., Bailey D., et al., 2014: North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part I: Mean states. Ocean Modelling, 73, 76-107. 2. Danabasoglu, G., Yeager S.G., Kim W.M. et al., 2016: North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part II: Inter-annual to decadal variability. Ocean Modelling, 97, 65-90. 3. Downes S.M., Farneti R., Uotila P. et al. An assessment of Southern Ocean water masses and sea ice during 1988-2007 in a suite of interannual CORE-II simulations. Ocean Modelling (2015), 94, 67-94. 4. Farneti R., Downes S.M., Griffies S.M. et al. An assessment of Antarctic Circumpolar Current and Southern Ocean Meridional Overturning Circulation during 1958-2007 in a suite of interannual CORE-II simulations, Ocean Modelling (2015), 93, 84-120. 5. Gusev A.V. and Diansky N.A. Numerical simulation of the World ocean circulation and its climatic variability for 1948-2007 using the INMOM. Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2014, V. 50, N. 1, P. 1-12 6. Large, W., Yeager, S., 2009. The global climatology of an interannually varying air-sea flux data set. Clim Dyn, V. 33, P. 341-364. 7. Ushakov K.V., Grankina T.B., Ibraev R

  3. Atmosphere surface storm track response to resolved ocean mesoscale in two sets of global climate model experiments

    Small, R. Justin; Msadek, Rym; Kwon, Young-Oh; Booth, James F.; Zarzycki, Colin

    2018-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that the ocean mesoscale (particularly ocean fronts) can affect the strength and location of the overlying extratropical atmospheric storm track. In this paper, we examine whether resolving ocean fronts in global climate models indeed leads to significant improvement in the simulated storm track, defined using low level meridional wind. Two main sets of experiments are used: (i) global climate model Community Earth System Model version 1 with non-eddy-resolving standard resolution or with ocean eddy-resolving resolution, and (ii) the same but with the GFDL Climate Model version 2. In case (i), it is found that higher ocean resolution leads to a reduction of a very warm sea surface temperature (SST) bias at the east coasts of the U.S. and Japan seen in standard resolution models. This in turn leads to a reduction of storm track strength near the coastlines, by up to 20%, and a better location of the storm track maxima, over the western boundary currents as observed. In case (ii), the change in absolute SST bias in these regions is less notable, and there are modest (10% or less) increases in surface storm track, and smaller changes in the free troposphere. In contrast, in the southern Indian Ocean, case (ii) shows most sensitivity to ocean resolution, and this coincides with a larger change in mean SST as ocean resolution is changed. Where the ocean resolution does make a difference, it consistently brings the storm track closer in appearance to that seen in ERA-Interim Reanalysis data. Overall, for the range of ocean model resolutions used here (1° versus 0.1°) we find that the differences in SST gradient have a small effect on the storm track strength whilst changes in absolute SST between experiments can have a larger effect. The latter affects the land-sea contrast, air-sea stability, surface latent heat flux, and the boundary layer baroclinicity in such a way as to reduce storm track activity adjacent to the western boundary in the N

  4. Impact of Parameterized Lee Wave Drag on the Energy Budget of an Eddying Global Ocean Model

    2013-08-26

    Comparison between vertical shear mixing and surface wave-induced mixing in the extratropical ocean. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans 117, C00J16. Rosmond, T.E...cycle for the World Ocean based on the 1=10 STORM /NCEP simulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 42, 2185–2205. Wallcraft, A.J., Kara, A.B., Hurlburt, H.E., 2005

  5. EDDY RESOLVING NUTRIENT ECODYNAMICS IN THE GLOBAL PARALLEL OCEAN PROGRAM AND CONNECTIONS WITH TRACE GASES IN THE SULFUR, HALOGEN AND NMHC CYCLES

    S. CHU; S. ELLIOTT

    2000-08-01

    Ecodynamics and the sea-air transfer of climate relevant trace gases are intimately coupled in the oceanic mixed layer. Ventilation of species such as dimethyl sulfide and methyl bromide constitutes a key linkage within the earth system. We are creating a research tool for the study of marine trace gas distributions by implementing coupled ecology-gas chemistry in the high resolution Parallel Ocean Program (POP). The fundamental circulation model is eddy resolving, with cell sizes averaging 0.15 degree (lat/long). Here we describe ecochemistry integration. Density dependent mortality and iron geochemistry have enhanced agreement with chlorophyll measurements. Indications are that dimethyl sulfide production rates must be adjusted for latitude dependence to match recent compilations. This may reflect the need for phytoplankton to conserve nitrogen by favoring sulfurous osmolytes. Global simulations are also available for carbonyl sulfide, the methyl halides and for nonmethane hydrocarbons. We discuss future applications including interaction with atmospheric chemistry models, high resolution biogeochemical snapshots and the study of open ocean fertilization.

  6. Investigating Solution Convergence in a Global Ocean Model Using a 2048-Processor Cluster of Distributed Shared Memory Machines

    Chris Hill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to 1920 processors of a cluster of distributed shared memory machines at the NASA Ames Research Center are being used to simulate ocean circulation globally at horizontal resolutions of 1/4, 1/8, and 1/16-degree with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Circulation Model, a finite volume code that can scale to large numbers of processors. The study aims to understand physical processes responsible for skill improvements as resolution is increased and to gain insight into what resolution is sufficient for particular purposes. This paper focuses on the computational aspects of reaching the technical objective of efficiently performing these global eddy-resolving ocean simulations. At 1/16-degree resolution the model grid contains 1.2 billion cells. At this resolution it is possible to simulate approximately one month of ocean dynamics in about 17 hours of wallclock time with a model timestep of two minutes on a cluster of four 512-way NUMA Altix systems. The Altix systems' large main memory and I/O subsystems allow computation and disk storage of rich sets of diagnostics during each integration, supporting the scientific objective to develop a better understanding of global ocean circulation model solution convergence as model resolution is increased.

  7. Crop improvement in the CGIAR as a global success story of open access and international collaboration

    Derek Byerlee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available International agricultural research has historically been an example par excellence of open source approach to biological research. Beginning in the 1950s and especially in the 1960s, a looming global food crisis led to the development of a group of international agricultural research centers with a specific mandate to foster international exchange and crop improvement relevant to many countries. This formalization of a global biological commons in genetic resources was implemented through an elaborate system of international nurseries with a breeding hub, free sharing of germplasm, collaboration in information collection, the development of human resources, and an international collaborative network. This paper traces the history of the international wheat program with particular attention to how this truly open source system operated in practice and the impacts that it had on world poverty and hunger. The paper also highlights the challenges of maintaining and evolving such a system over the long term, both in terms of financing, as well the changing ‘rules of the game’ resulting from international agreements on intellectual property rights and biodiversity. Yet the open source approach is just as relevant today, as witnessed by current crises in food prices and looming crop diseases problem of global significance.

  8. Effects of Model Resolution and Ocean Mixing on Forced Ice-Ocean Physical and Biogeochemical Simulations Using Global and Regional System Models

    Jin, Meibing; Deal, Clara; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Matrai, Patricia; Roberts, Andrew; Osinski, Robert; Lee, Younjoo J.; Frants, Marina; Elliott, Scott; Jeffery, Nicole; Hunke, Elizabeth; Wang, Shanlin

    2018-01-01

    The current coarse-resolution global Community Earth System Model (CESM) can reproduce major and large-scale patterns but is still missing some key biogeochemical features in the Arctic Ocean, e.g., low surface nutrients in the Canada Basin. We incorporated the CESM Version 1 ocean biogeochemical code into the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) and coupled it with a sea-ice algal module to investigate model limitations. Four ice-ocean hindcast cases are compared with various observations: two in a global 1° (40˜60 km in the Arctic) grid: G1deg and G1deg-OLD with/without new sea-ice processes incorporated; two on RASM's 1/12° (˜9 km) grid R9km and R9km-NB with/without a subgrid scale brine rejection parameterization which improves ocean vertical mixing under sea ice. Higher-resolution and new sea-ice processes contributed to lower model errors in sea-ice extent, ice thickness, and ice algae. In the Bering Sea shelf, only higher resolution contributed to lower model errors in salinity, nitrate (NO3), and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). In the Arctic Basin, model errors in mixed layer depth (MLD) were reduced 36% by brine rejection parameterization, 20% by new sea-ice processes, and 6% by higher resolution. The NO3 concentration biases were caused by both MLD bias and coarse resolution, because of excessive horizontal mixing of high NO3 from the Chukchi Sea into the Canada Basin in coarse resolution models. R9km showed improvements over G1deg on NO3, but not on Chl-a, likely due to light limitation under snow and ice cover in the Arctic Basin.

  9. Impact of climate change and variability on the global oceanic sink of CO2

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Takahashi, Taro; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Rödenbeck, Christian; Sutherland, Stewart C.

    2010-01-01

    About one quarter of the CO2 emitted to the atmosphere by human activities is absorbed annually by the ocean. All the processes that influence the oceanic uptake of CO2 are controlled by climate. Hence changes in climate (both natural and human-induced) are expected to alter the uptake of CO2 by the ocean. However, available information that constrains the direction, magnitude, or rapidity of the response of ocean CO2 to changes in climate is limited. We present an analysis of oceanic CO2 tre...

  10. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common framework for global marine data management

    Glaves, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years marine research has become increasingly multidisciplinary in its approach with a corresponding rise in the demand for large quantities of high quality interoperable data as a result. This requirement for easily discoverable and readily available marine data is currently being addressed by a number of regional initiatives with projects such as SeaDataNet in Europe, Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) in Australia, having implemented local infrastructures to facilitate the exchange of standardised marine datasets. However, each of these systems has been developed to address local requirements and created in isolation from those in other regions.Multidisciplinary marine research on a global scale necessitates a common framework for marine data management which is based on existing data systems. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform project is seeking to address this requirement by bringing together selected regional marine e-infrastructures for the purposes of developing interoperability across them. By identifying the areas of commonality and incompatibility between these data infrastructures, and leveraging the development activities and expertise of these individual systems, three prototype interoperability solutions are being created which demonstrate the effective sharing of marine data and associated metadata across the participating regional data infrastructures as well as with other target international systems such as GEO, COPERNICUS etc.These interoperability solutions combined with agreed best practice and approved standards, form the basis of a common global approach to marine data management which can be adopted by the wider marine research community. To encourage implementation of these interoperability solutions by other regional marine data infrastructures an impact assessment is being conducted to determine both the technical and financial implications of deploying them

  11. Global trophic ecology of yellowfin, bigeye, and albacore tunas: Understanding predation on micronekton communities at ocean-basin scales

    Duffy, Leanne M.; Kuhnert, Petra M.; Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Young, Jock W.; Olson, Robert J.; Logan, John M.; Goñi, Nicolas; Romanov, Evgeny; Allain, Valerie; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Abecassis, Melanie; Choy, C. Anela; Hobday, Alistair J.; Simier, Monique; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Potier, Michel; Ménard, Frederic

    2017-06-01

    Predator-prey interactions for three commercially valuable tuna species: yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), bigeye (T. obesus), and albacore (T. alalunga), collected over a 40-year period from the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, were used to quantitatively assess broad, macro-scale trophic patterns in pelagic ecosystems. Analysis of over 14,000 tuna stomachs, using a modified classification tree approach, revealed for the first time the global expanse of pelagic predatory fish diet and global patterns of micronekton diversity. Ommastrephid squids were consistently one of the top prey groups by weight across all tuna species and in most ocean bodies. Interspecific differences in prey were apparent, with epipelagic scombrid and mesopelagic paralepidid fishes globally important for yellowfin and bigeye tunas, respectively, while vertically-migrating euphausiid crustaceans were important for albacore tuna in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Diet diversity showed global and regional patterns among tuna species. In the central and western Pacific Ocean, characterized by low productivity, a high diversity of micronekton prey was detected while low prey diversity was evident in highly productive coastal waters where upwelling occurs. Spatial patterns of diet diversity were most variable in yellowfin and bigeye tunas while a latitudinal diversity gradient was observed with lower diversity in temperate regions for albacore tuna. Sea-surface temperature was a reasonable predictor of the diets of yellowfin and bigeye tunas, whereas chlorophyll-a was the best environmental predictor of albacore diet. These results suggest that the ongoing expansion of warmer, less productive waters in the world's oceans may alter foraging opportunities for tunas due to regional changes in prey abundances and compositions.

  12. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform: developing a common global framework for marine data management

    Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick

    2017-04-01

    elsewhere. To add a further layer of complexity there are also global initiatives providing marine data infrastructures e.g. IOC-IODE, POGO as well as those with a wider remit which includes environmental data e.g. GEOSS, COPERNICUS etc. Ecosystem level marine research requires a common framework for marine data management that supports the sharing of data across these regional and global data systems, and provides the user with access to the data available from these services via a single point of access. This framework must be based on existing data systems and established by developing interoperability between them. The Ocean Data and Interoperability Platform (ODIP/ODIP II) project brings together those organisations responsible for maintaining selected regional data infrastructures along with other relevant experts in order to identify the common standards and best practice necessary to underpin this framework, and to evaluate the differences and commonalties between the regional data infrastructures in order to establish interoperability between them for the purposes of data sharing. This coordinated approach is being demonstrated and validated through the development of a series of prototype interoperability solutions that demonstrate the mechanisms and standards necessary to facilitate the sharing of marine data across these existing data infrastructures.

  13. Ocean acidification over the next three centuries using a simple global climate carbon-cycle model: projections and sensitivities

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Patel, Pralit; Mundra, Anupriya

    2016-08-01

    Continued oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is projected to significantly alter the chemistry of the upper oceans over the next three centuries, with potentially serious consequences for marine ecosystems. Relatively few models have the capability to make projections of ocean acidification, limiting our ability to assess the impacts and probabilities of ocean changes. In this study we examine the ability of Hector v1.1, a reduced-form global model, to project changes in the upper ocean carbonate system over the next three centuries, and quantify the model's sensitivity to parametric inputs. Hector is run under prescribed emission pathways from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and compared to both observations and a suite of Coupled Model Intercomparison (CMIP5) model outputs. Current observations confirm that ocean acidification is already taking place, and CMIP5 models project significant changes occurring to 2300. Hector is consistent with the observational record within both the high- (> 55°) and low-latitude oceans (< 55°). The model projects low-latitude surface ocean pH to decrease from preindustrial levels of 8.17 to 7.77 in 2100, and to 7.50 in 2300; aragonite saturation levels (ΩAr) decrease from 4.1 units to 2.2 in 2100 and 1.4 in 2300 under RCP 8.5. These magnitudes and trends of ocean acidification within Hector are largely consistent with the CMIP5 model outputs, although we identify some small biases within Hector's carbonate system. Of the parameters tested, changes in [H+] are most sensitive to parameters that directly affect atmospheric CO2 concentrations – Q10 (terrestrial respiration temperature response) as well as changes in ocean circulation, while changes in ΩAr saturation levels are sensitive to changes in ocean salinity and Q10. We conclude that Hector is a robust tool well suited for rapid ocean acidification

  14. Avoiding a crisis of motivation for ocean management under global environmental change.

    Mumby, Peter J; Sanchirico, James N; Broad, Kenneth; Beck, Michael W; Tyedmers, Peter; Morikawa, Megan; Okey, Thomas A; Crowder, Larry B; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Kelso, Denny; Kleypas, Joanie A; Munch, Stephan B; Glynn, Polita; Matthews, Kathryn; Lubchenco, Jane

    2017-11-01

    Climate change and ocean acidification are altering marine ecosystems and, from a human perspective, creating both winners and losers. Human responses to these changes are complex, but may result in reduced government investments in regulation, resource management, monitoring and enforcement. Moreover, a lack of peoples' experience of climate change may drive some towards attributing the symptoms of climate change to more familiar causes such as management failure. Taken together, we anticipate that management could become weaker and less effective as climate change continues. Using diverse case studies, including the decline of coral reefs, coastal defences from flooding, shifting fish stocks and the emergence of new shipping opportunities in the Arctic, we argue that human interests are better served by increased investments in resource management. But greater government investment in management does not simply mean more of "business-as-usual." Management needs to become more flexible, better at anticipating and responding to surprise, and able to facilitate change where it is desirable. A range of technological, economic, communication and governance solutions exists to help transform management. While not all have been tested, judicious application of the most appropriate solutions should help humanity adapt to novel circumstances and seek opportunity where possible. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Possible impact of global warming and ocean acidification on underwater sound in northern oceans: another perfect storm

    Browning, David

    2011-04-01

    The greatest ocean pH change, which will result in lower low frequency sound attenuation, is predicted for higher latitudes. Here shallow sound channel axies exist, allowing the impact on sound to be seen sooner and also more extensively since the principal propagation paths will be near the surface. However, at the same time, higher wind speeds and greater ice breakup,as well as increased ship traffic, could result in higher noise levels. Marine mammals in this environment may have, on one hand, improving communication conditions but also the possibility of increased background noise.

  16. The Globalization of the Business Sector in a Small Open Economy

    Thompson, Grahame; Kaspersen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    The growth of multinational corporations (MNCs) is often taken as a quintessential indicator of ‘globalization’. But recent detailed empirical analysis has challenged the idea that most MNCs are global in terms of their business strategy and arena of operations. This article first clarifies...... the differences between globalization, internationalization and supranational-regionalization by examining the evidence on trade and investment patterns for Denmark. In particular, it presents a detailed analysis of the business strategies of the large corporate sector in Denmark. Denmark is an interesting case......, as it is a small open economy (SOE) that might be thought to be one uniquely vulnerable to the forces of globalization. Up until now examination of MNCs' internationalization strategies has concentrated upon large economies. We provide evidence for a SOE. In addition, we expand the range of dimensions used...

  17. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 31; Global Surface Ocean Carbon Estimates in a Model Forced by MERRA

    Gregg, Watson W.; Casey, Nancy W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2013-01-01

    MERRA products were used to force an established ocean biogeochemical model to estimate surface carbon inventories and fluxes in the global oceans. The results were compared to public archives of in situ carbon data and estimates. The model exhibited skill for ocean dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), partial pressure of ocean CO2 (pCO2) and air-sea fluxes (FCO2). The MERRA-forced model produced global mean differences of 0.02% (approximately 0.3 microns) for DIC, -0.3% (about -1.2 (micro) atm; model lower) for pCO2, and -2.3% (-0.003 mol C/sq m/y) for FCO2 compared to in situ estimates. Basin-scale distributions were significantly correlated with observations for all three variables (r=0.97, 0.76, and 0.73, P<0.05, respectively for DIC, pCO2, and FCO2). All major oceanographic basins were represented as sources to the atmosphere or sinks in agreement with in situ estimates. However, there were substantial basin-scale and local departures.

  18. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  19. Tectono-Magmatic Evolution of the South Atlantic Continental Margins with Respect to Opening of the Ocean

    Melankholina, E. N.; Sushchevskaya, N. M.

    2018-03-01

    The history of the opening of the South Atlantic in Early Cretaceous time is considered. It is shown that the determining role for continental breakup preparation has been played by tectono-magmatic events within the limits of the distal margins that developed above the plume head. The formation of the Rio Grande Rise-Walvis Ridge volcanic system along the trace of the hot spot is considered. The magmatism in the South Atlantic margins, its sources, and changes in composition during the evolution are described. On the basis of petrogeochemical data, the peculiarities of rocks with a continental signature are shown. Based on Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic studies, it is found that the manifestations of magmatism in the proximal margins had features of enriched components related to the EM I and EM II sources, sometimes with certain participation of the HIMU source. Within the limits of the Walvis Ridge, as magmatism expanded to the newly formed oceanic crust, the participation of depleted asthenospheric mantle became larger in the composition of magmas. The role played by the Tristan plume in magma generation is discussed: it is the most considered as the heat source that determined the melting of the ancient enriched lithosphere. The specifics of the tectono-magmatic evolution of the South Atlantic is pointed out: the origination during spreading of a number of hot spots above the periphery of the African superplume. The diachronous character of the opening of the ocean is considered in the context of northward progradation of the breakup line and its connection with the northern branch of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mid-Cretaceous.

  20. Comparison of the Carbon System Parameters at the Global CO2 Survey Crossover Locations in the North and South Pacific Ocean, 1990-1996

    Feely, Richard A [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Lamb, Marilyn F. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Greeley, Dana J. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Wanninkhof, Rik [NOAA, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)

    1999-10-01

    As a collaborative program to measure global ocean carbon inventories and provide estimates of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) uptake by the oceans. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy have sponsored the collection of ocean carbon measurements as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study cruises. The cruises discussed here occurred in the North and South Pacific from 1990 through 1996. The carbon parameters from these 30 crossover locations have been compared to ensure that a consistent global data set emerges from the survey cruises. !'he results indicate that for dissolved inorganic carbon. fugacity of C02• and pH. the a~:,rreements at most crossover locations are well within the design specifications for the global CO) survey: whereas. in the case of total alkaliniry. the agreement between crossover locations is not as close.

  1. Iron control on global productivity: an efficient inverse model of the ocean's coupled phosphate and iron cycles.

    Pasquier, B.; Holzer, M.; Frants, M.

    2016-02-01

    We construct a data-constrained mechanistic inverse model of the ocean's coupled phosphorus and iron cycles. The nutrient cycling is embedded in a data-assimilated steady global circulation. Biological nutrient uptake is parameterized in terms of nutrient, light, and temperature limitations on growth for two classes of phytoplankton that are not transported explicitly. A matrix formulation of the discretized nutrient tracer equations allows for efficient numerical solutions, which facilitates the objective optimization of the key biogeochemical parameters. The optimization minimizes the misfit between the modelled and observed nutrient fields of the current climate. We systematically assess the nonlinear response of the biological pump to changes in the aeolian iron supply for a variety of scenarios. Specifically, Green-function techniques are employed to quantify in detail the pathways and timescales with which those perturbations are propagated throughout the world oceans, determining the global teleconnections that mediate the response of the global ocean ecosystem. We confirm previous findings from idealized studies that increased iron fertilization decreases biological production in the subtropical gyres and we quantify the counterintuitive and asymmetric response of global productivity to increases and decreases in the aeolian iron supply.

  2. Proceedings of oceans '91

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Oceans '91 Conference. Topics addressed include: ocean energy conversion, marine communications and navigation, ocean wave energy conversion, environmental modeling, global climate change, ocean minerals technology, oil spill technology, and submersible vehicles

  3. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship RAINIER in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska/British Columbia and North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1978-08-24 to 1978-08-28 (NODC Accession 7800691)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship RAINIER in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the National Ocean...

  4. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition: northwest Atlantic through eastern tropical Pacific.

    Douglas B Rusch

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The world's oceans contain a complex mixture of micro-organisms that are for the most part, uncharacterized both genetically and biochemically. We report here a metagenomic study of the marine planktonic microbiota in which surface (mostly marine water samples were analyzed as part of the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition. These samples, collected across a several-thousand km transect from the North Atlantic through the Panama Canal and ending in the South Pacific yielded an extensive dataset consisting of 7.7 million sequencing reads (6.3 billion bp. Though a few major microbial clades dominate the planktonic marine niche, the dataset contains great diversity with 85% of the assembled sequence and 57% of the unassembled data being unique at a 98% sequence identity cutoff. Using the metadata associated with each sample and sequencing library, we developed new comparative genomic and assembly methods. One comparative genomic method, termed "fragment recruitment," addressed questions of genome structure, evolution, and taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity, as well as the biochemical diversity of genes and gene families. A second method, termed "extreme assembly," made possible the assembly and reconstruction of large segments of abundant but clearly nonclonal organisms. Within all abundant populations analyzed, we found extensive intra-ribotype diversity in several forms: (1 extensive sequence variation within orthologous regions throughout a given genome; despite coverage of individual ribotypes approaching 500-fold, most individual sequencing reads are unique; (2 numerous changes in gene content some with direct adaptive implications; and (3 hypervariable genomic islands that are too variable to assemble. The intra-ribotype diversity is organized into genetically isolated populations that have overlapping but independent distributions, implying distinct environmental preference. We present novel methods for measuring the genomic

  5. A computer software system for the generation of global ocean tides including self-gravitation and crustal loading effects

    Estes, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer software system is described which computes global numerical solutions of the integro-differential Laplace tidal equations, including dissipation terms and ocean loading and self-gravitation effects, for arbitrary diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents. The integration algorithm features a successive approximation scheme for the integro-differential system, with time stepping forward differences in the time variable and central differences in spatial variables. Solutions for M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1 tidal constituents neglecting the effects of ocean loading and self-gravitation and a converged M2, solution including ocean loading and self-gravitation effects are presented in the form of cotidal and corange maps.

  6. How well-connected is the surface of the global ocean?

    Froyland, G; Stuart, RM; van Sebille, E

    2014-01-01

    The Ekman dynamics of the ocean surface circulation is known to contain attracting regions such as the great oceanic gyres and the associated garbage patches. Less well-known are the extents of the basins of attractions of these regions and how strongly attracting they are. Understanding the shape and extent of the basins of attraction sheds light on the question of the strength of connectivity of different regions of the ocean, which helps in understanding the flow of buoyant material like p...

  7. The Impact of Variable Phytoplankton Stoichiometry on Projections of Primary Production, Food Quality, and Carbon Uptake in the Global Ocean

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Ciais, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    Ocean biogeochemical models are integral components of Earth system models used to project the evolution of the ocean carbon sink, as well as potential changes in the physical and chemical environment of marine ecosystems. In such models the stoichiometry of phytoplankton C:N:P is typically fixed at the Redfield ratio. The observed stoichiometry of phytoplankton, however, has been shown to considerably vary from Redfield values due to plasticity in the expression of phytoplankton cell structures with different elemental compositions. The intrinsic structure of fixed C:N:P models therefore has the potential to bias projections of the marine response to climate change. We assess the importance of variable stoichiometry on 21st century projections of net primary production, food quality, and ocean carbon uptake using the recently developed Pelagic Interactions Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies Quota (PISCES-QUOTA) ocean biogeochemistry model. The model simulates variable phytoplankton C:N:P stoichiometry and was run under historical and business-as-usual scenario forcing from 1850 to 2100. PISCES-QUOTA projects similar 21st century global net primary production decline (7.7%) to current generation fixed stoichiometry models. Global phytoplankton N and P content or food quality is projected to decline by 1.2% and 6.4% over the 21st century, respectively. The largest reductions in food quality are in the oligotrophic subtropical gyres and Arctic Ocean where declines by the end of the century can exceed 20%. Using the change in the carbon export efficiency in PISCES-QUOTA, we estimate that fixed stoichiometry models may be underestimating 21st century cumulative ocean carbon uptake by 0.5-3.5% (2.0-15.1 PgC).

  8. Experimental strategies to assess the biological ramifications of multiple drivers of global ocean change-A review.

    Boyd, Philip W; Collins, Sinead; Dupont, Sam; Fabricius, Katharina; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Havenhand, Jonathan; Hutchins, David A; Riebesell, Ulf; Rintoul, Max S; Vichi, Marcello; Biswas, Haimanti; Ciotti, Aurea; Gao, Kunshan; Gehlen, Marion; Hurd, Catriona L; Kurihara, Haruko; McGraw, Christina M; Navarro, Jorge M; Nilsson, Göran E; Passow, Uta; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2018-06-01

    Marine life is controlled by multiple physical and chemical drivers and by diverse ecological processes. Many of these oceanic properties are being altered by climate change and other anthropogenic pressures. Hence, identifying the influences of multifaceted ocean change, from local to global scales, is a complex task. To guide policy-making and make projections of the future of the marine biosphere, it is essential to understand biological responses at physiological, evolutionary and ecological levels. Here, we contrast and compare different approaches to multiple driver experiments that aim to elucidate biological responses to a complex matrix of ocean global change. We present the benefits and the challenges of each approach with a focus on marine research, and guidelines to navigate through these different categories to help identify strategies that might best address research questions in fundamental physiology, experimental evolutionary biology and community ecology. Our review reveals that the field of multiple driver research is being pulled in complementary directions: the need for reductionist approaches to obtain process-oriented, mechanistic understanding and a requirement to quantify responses to projected future scenarios of ocean change. We conclude the review with recommendations on how best to align different experimental approaches to contribute fundamental information needed for science-based policy formulation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Turbulence from a microorganism's perspective: Does the open ocean feel different than a coral reef?

    Pepper, Rachel; Variano, Evan; Koehl, M. A. R.

    2012-11-01

    Microorganisms in the ocean live in turbulent flows. Swimming microorganisms navigate through the water (e.g. larvae land on suitable substrata, predators find patches of prey), but the mechanisms by which they do so in turbulent flow are poorly understood as are the roles of passive transport versus active behaviors. Because microorganisms are smaller than the Kolmagorov length (the smallest scale of eddies in turbulent flow), they experience turbulence as a series of linear gradients in the velocity that vary in time. While the average strength of these gradients and a timescale can be computed from some typical characteristics of the flow, such as the turbulent kinetic energy or the dissipation rate, there are indications that organisms are disproportionally affected by rare, extreme events. Understanding the frequency of such events in different environments will be critical to understanding how microorganisms respond to and navigate in turbulence. To understand the hydrodynamic cues that microorganisms experience in the ocean we must measure velocity gradients in realistic turbulent flow on the spatial and temporal scales encountered by microorganisms. We have been exploring the effect of the spatial resolution of PIV and DNS of turbulent flow on the presence of velocity gradients of different magnitudes at the scale of microorganisms. Here we present some results of PIV taken at different resolutions in turbulent flow over rough biological substrata to illustrate the challenges of quantifying the fluctuations in velocity gradients encountered by aquatic microorganisms.

  10. Meteorology, physical oceanography, transport of water, biogeochemistry, and other parameters collected at fixed locations in the open ocean from the OceanSITES network

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection comprises data covering meteorology, physical oceanography, transport of water, biogeochemistry, and parameters relevant to the carbon cycle, ocean...

  11. The role of the SST-thermocline relationship in Indian Ocean Dipole skewness and its response to global warming

    Ng, Benjamin; Cai, Wenju; Walsh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    A positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) tends to have stronger cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over the eastern Indian Ocean with greater impacts than warm SSTAs that occur during its negative phase. Two feedbacks have been suggested as the cause of positive IOD skewness, a positive Bjerknes feedback and a negative SST-cloud-radiation (SCR) feedback, but their relative importance is debated. Using inter-model statistics, we show that the most important process for IOD skewness is an asymmetry in the thermocline feedback, whereby SSTAs respond to thermocline depth anomalies more strongly during the positive phase than negative phase. This asymmetric thermocline feedback drives IOD skewness despite positive IODs receiving greater damping from the SCR feedback. In response to global warming, although the thermocline feedback strengthens, its asymmetry between positive and negative IODs weakens. This behaviour change explains the reduction in IOD skewness that many models display under global warming. PMID:25112717

  12. Ocean basin volume constraints on global sea level since the Jurassic

    Seton, M.; Müller, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Changes in the volume of the ocean basins, predominately via changes in the age-area distribution of oceanic lithosphere, have been suggested as the main driver for long-term eustatic sea-level change. As ocean lithosphere cools and thickens, ocean depth increases. The balance between the abundance of hot and buoyant crust along mid ocean ridges relative to abyssal plains is the primary driving force of long-term sea level changes. The emplacement of volcanic plateaus and chains as well as sedimentation contribute to raising eustatic sea level. Quantifying the average ocean basin depth through time primarily relies on the present day preserved seafloor spreading record, an analysis of the spatio-temporal record of plate boundary processes recorded on the continental margins adjacent to ocean basins as well as a consideration of the rules of plate tectonics, to reconstruct the history of seafloor spreading in the oceanic basins through time. This approach has been successfully applied to predict the magnitude and pattern of eustatic sea-level change since the Cretaceous (Müller et. al. 2008) but uncertainties in reconstructing mid ocean ridges and flanks increase back through time, given that we mainly depend on information preserved in preserved ocean crust. We have reconstructed the age-area distribution of oceanic lithosphere and the plate boundary configurations back to the Jurassic (200 Ma) in order to assess long-term sea-level change from amalgamation to dispersal of Pangaea. We follow the methodology presented in Müller et. al. (2008) but incorporate a new absolute plate motion model derived from Steinberger and Torsvik (2008) prior to 100 Ma, a merged Wessel et. al. (2006) and Wessel and Kroenke (2008) fixed Pacific hotspot reference frame, and a revised model for the formation of Panthalassa and the Cretaceous Pacific. Importantly, we incorporate a model for the break-up of the Ontong Java-Manihiki-Hikurangi plateaus between 120-86 Ma. We extend a

  13. Peeking out of the basins: looking for the Late Devonian Kellwasser Event in the open ocean in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, southwestern Mongolia

    Thomas, R. M., Jr.; Carmichael, S. K.; Waters, J. A.; Batchelor, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Two of the top five most devastating mass extinctions in Earth's history occurred during the Late Devonian (419.2 Ma - 358.9 Ma), and are commonly associated with the black shale deposits of the Kellwasser and Hangenberg ocean anoxia events. Our understanding of these extinction events is incomplete partly due to sample bias, as 95% of the field sites studying the Late Devonian are limited to continental shelves and continental marine basins, and 77% of these sites are derived from the Euramerican paleocontinent. The Samnuuruul Formation at the Hoshoot Shiveetiin Gol locality (HSG), located in southwestern Mongolia, offers a unique opportunity to better understand global oceanic conditions during the Late Devonian. The HSG locality shows a continuous sequence of terrestrial to marine sediments on the East Junggar arc; an isolated, open-ocean island arc within the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Samples from this near shore locality consist of volcanogenic silts, sands and immature conglomerates as well as calc-alkalic basalt lava flows. Offshore sections contain numerous limestones with Late Devonian fossil assemblages. Preliminary biostratigraphy of the associated marine and terrestrial sequences can only constrain the section to a general Late Devonian age, but TIMS analysis of detrital zircons from volcanogenic sediments from the Samnuuruul Formation in localities 8-50 km from the site suggests a late Frasnian age (375, 376 Ma). To provide a more precise radiometric age of the HSG locality, zircon geochronology using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) will be performed at UNC-Chapel Hill. If the HSG section crosses the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, geochemical, mineralogical, and ichnological signatures of the Kellwasser Event are expected to be preserved, if the Kellwasser Event was indeed global in scope (as suggested by Carmichael et al. (2014) for analogous sites on the West Junggar arc in the CAOB). Black shale

  14. Coupled model of INM-IO global ocean model, CICE sea ice model and SCM OIAS framework

    Bayburin, Ruslan; Rashit, Ibrayev; Konstantin, Ushakov; Vladimir, Kalmykov; Gleb