WorldWideScience

Sample records for global nuclear material

  1. Global nuclear material control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of a disposition program for special nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool that treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. Such a tool must represent the fundamental data, information, and capabilities of the fuel cycle including an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, and a framework supportive of national or international perspective. They have developed a prototype global nuclear material management and control systems analysis capability, the Global Nuclear Material Control (GNMC) model. The GNMC model establishes the framework for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material

  2. Global nuclear material flow/control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.S.; Fasel, P.K.; Riese, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of an international regime for nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool which treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. The prototype model developed visually represents the fundamental data, information, and capabilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle in a framework supportive of national or an international perspective. This includes an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, facility specific geographic identification, and the capability to estimate resource requirements for the management and control of nuclear material. The model establishes the foundation for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material and supports the development of other pertinent algorithmic capabilities necessary to undertake further global nuclear material related studies

  3. Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management Preliminary Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E; Dreicer, M.

    2006-01-01

    The world is at a turning point, moving away from the Cold War nuclear legacy towards a future global nuclear enterprise; and this presents a transformational challenge for nuclear materials management. Achieving safety and security during this transition is complicated by the diversified spectrum of threat 'players' that has greatly impacted nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and homeland security requirements. Rogue states and non-state actors no longer need self-contained national nuclear expertise, materials, and equipment due to availability from various sources in the nuclear market, thereby reducing the time, effort and cost for acquiring a nuclear weapon (i.e., manifestations of latency). The terrorist threat has changed the nature of military and national security requirements to protect these materials. An Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management (IGNMM) approach would address the existing legacy nuclear materials and the evolution towards a nuclear energy future, while strengthening a regime to prevent nuclear weapon proliferation. In this paper, some preliminary concepts and studies of IGNMM will be presented. A systematic analysis of nuclear materials, activities, and controls can lead to a tractable, integrated global nuclear materials management architecture that can help remediate the past and manage the future. A systems approach is best suited to achieve multi-dimensional and interdependent solutions, including comprehensive, end-to-end capabilities; coordinated diverse elements for enhanced functionality with economy; and translation of goals/objectives or standards into locally optimized solutions. A risk-informed basis is excellent for evaluating system alternatives and performances, and it is especially appropriate for the security arena. Risk management strategies--such as defense-in-depth, diversity, and control quality--help to weave together various technologies and practices into a strong and robust security fabric. Effective

  4. Management of Global Nuclear Materials for International Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T; Choi, J-S

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear materials were first used to end the World War II. They were produced and maintained during the cold war for global security reasons. In the succeeding 50 years since the Atoms for Peace Initiative, nuclear materials were produced and used in global civilian reactors and fuel cycles intended for peaceful purposes. The Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970 established a framework for appropriate applications of both defense and civilian nuclear activities by nuclear weapons states and non-nuclear weapons states. As global inventories of nuclear materials continue to grow, in a diverse and dynamically changing manner, it is time to evaluate current and future trends and needed actions: what are the current circumstances, what has been done to date, what has worked and what hasn't? The aim is to identify mutually reinforcing programmatic directions, leading to global partnerships that measurably enhance international security. Essential elements are material protection, control and accountability (MPC and A) of separated nuclear materials, interim storage, and geologic repositories for all nuclear materials destined for final disposal. Cooperation among key partners, such as the MPC and A program between the U.S. and Russia for nuclear materials from dismantled weapons, is necessary for interim storage and final disposal of nuclear materials. Such cooperative partnerships can lead to a new nuclear regime where a complete fuel cycle service with fuel leasing and spent fuel take-back can be offered to reactor users. The service can effectively minimize or even eliminate the incentive or rationale for the user-countries to develop their indigenous enrichment and reprocessing technologies. International cooperation, supported by governments of key countries can be best to facilitate the forum for formation of such cooperative partnerships

  5. A Uniform Framework of Global Nuclear Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, S.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Sanders, T.L; Sellers, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global Nuclear Materials Management (GNMM) anticipates and supports a growing international recognition of the importance of uniform, effective management of civilian, excess defense, and nuclear weapons materials. We expect thereto be a continuing increase in both the number of international agreements and conventions on safety, security, and transparency of nuclear materials, and the number of U.S.-Russian agreements for the safety, protection, and transparency of weapons and excess defense materials. This inventory of agreements and conventions may soon expand into broad, mandatory, international programs that will include provisions for inspection, verification, and transparency, To meet such demand the community must build on the resources we have, including State agencies, the IAEA and regional organizations. By these measures we will meet the future expectations for monitoring and inspection of materials, maintenance of safety and security, and implementation of transparency measures

  6. A Uniform Framework of Global Nuclear Materials Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, S.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Sanders, T.L; Sellers, T.A.

    1999-04-20

    Global Nuclear Materials Management (GNMM) anticipates and supports a growing international recognition of the importance of uniform, effective management of civilian, excess defense, and nuclear weapons materials. We expect thereto be a continuing increase in both the number of international agreements and conventions on safety, security, and transparency of nuclear materials, and the number of U.S.-Russian agreements for the safety, protection, and transparency of weapons and excess defense materials. This inventory of agreements and conventions may soon expand into broad, mandatory, international programs that will include provisions for inspection, verification, and transparency, To meet such demand the community must build on the resources we have, including State agencies, the IAEA and regional organizations. By these measures we will meet the future expectations for monitoring and inspection of materials, maintenance of safety and security, and implementation of transparency measures.

  7. Strengthening global practices for protecting nuclear material (NUMAT). Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.; Heissl, C.

    2002-08-01

    The International Conference on Physical Protection 'Strengthening Global Practices for Protecting Nuclear Material' was organized by the Institute of Physics and Biophysics, Salzburg University in cooperation with/supported by the European Commission, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, European Forum of the Stanford University's Institute for International Studies and Austria Institute for European Security. Its purpose was fostering exchange of information on the policy and technical aspects require to ensure the security of nuclear material around the world. There is a general concern that the international community needs to establish effective measures to counter theft, sabotage, and other illicit uses of nuclear fissile and other radioactive materials. The main subjects addressed by this conference were: a) global and local threat development and 'design basis'; b) standards for physical protection (PP), its adequacy and future needs; c) national practices in PP of nuclear materials (how to strengthen national security culture?); d) current R and D in security and detection technologies (identification of focus points for future R and D); e) programmes to aid in training, design, and implementation of physical protection systems (how to improve efficiency and assure sustainability of assistance programmes?). (nevyjel)

  8. Global risks due to illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The global widespread applications of of the peaceful uses of atomic energy resulted in the production and accumulation of huge amounts of dangerous nuclear wastes and nuclear materials, the greater part of which is left either unattended or insufficiently protected. In the mean time, many terrorist groups appeared in the international arena aiming at fighting against all forms of pressure, discrimination or injustice in the international relations among developed and developing countries particularly in politically unstable regions of the world. Unfortunately, these terrorist groups were inclined to adopt the use of nuclear or radiological rather crude weapons to improve their methods and efforts in imposing situations of maximum horror possible to subjected communities. In the present work a brief study of the dimensions of nuclear terrorism, its forms and means directed to its support , has been carried out. The efforts to combat against nuclear proliferation in Central Asia as a region in which most of the violations of the non proliferation efforts occurred has been treated. In contrast, the prevailing conditions and efforts in the Americas region are discussed being a region in which combined efforts of the united states with other American countries were rather successful in combating nuclear proliferation. Some recommendations have been given concerning the necessary measures to face the global risk of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials all over the world. (author)

  9. Nuclear security: A global response to a global threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2016-01-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real. The possibility of criminals getting hold of nuclear and other radioactive material cannot be ruled out. Much progress has been made in tackling this threat nationally, regionally and globally, but more needs to be done. International cooperation is vital. As the global platform for cooperation in nuclear security, the IAEA helps countries to establish and maintain robust and sustainable national nuclear security regimes. We help ensure that measures are taken to protect nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as the facilities in which such material is housed, from malicious acts. This has been an important year for nuclear security with the entry into force of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. This establishes legally binding commitments for countries to protect nuclear facilities as well as nuclear material in domestic use, storage and transport. I encourage all countries that have not yet done so to adhere to this Amendment and thereby contribute to a stronger global nuclear security regime. In this edition of the IAEA Bulletin, you will learn about the different areas of security where our work is making a real difference. We highlight the progress made in a number of countries.

  10. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefidvash, Farhang

    1997-01-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  11. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefidvash, Farhang [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1997-07-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  12. Global nuclear cleanout initiative 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlow, J.; Gruber, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: During more than 50 years of Atoms for Peace programmes nuclear materials were spread out worldwide. Stranded nuclear materials from nuclear research are left over without any safe back-end solution. 'Dirty Bombs' or so-called 'Radioactive Dispersal Devices (RDD)' are no longer science fiction since the world experienced the 9/11 attack. Governmental, NGO's and private industry organizations having discussed Global Nuclear Cleanout since then and start to take actions. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has announced to establish a dedicated organization in cooperation with IAEA and start the 'Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)'. The US government will allocate to that program USD 450 M over the next 10 years. Besides the historical development the paper will focus on the progress of the different initiatives and perspectives to threat reduction. (author)

  13. Uncertainty estimation in nuclear material weighing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaure, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses, (France)

    2011-12-15

    The assessment of nuclear material quantities located in nuclear plants requires knowledge of additions and subtractions of amounts of different types of materials. Most generally, the quantity of nuclear material held is deduced from 3 parameters: a mass (or a volume of product); a concentration of nuclear material in the product considered; and an isotopic composition. Global uncertainties associated with nuclear material quantities depend upon the confidence level of results obtained in the measurement of every different parameter. Uncertainties are generally estimated by considering five influencing parameters (ISHIKAWA's rule): the material itself; the measurement system; the applied method; the environmental conditions; and the operator. A good practice guide, to be used to deal with weighing errors and problems encountered, is presented in the paper.

  14. Global Risk of Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Diez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of nuclear terrorism, a threat that President Obama called "the gravest danger we face," has signaled a paradigm shift in international security. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, sensitive nuclear technologies and materials have become increasingly available. Globalization and the inadequate enforcement of treaties and export controls have allowed the proliferation of nuclear weapons materials. Today, international terrorist organizations seek to employ weapons of mass destruction (WMD as a means to influence national policies around the world. AlQaida spokesman Suleiman Abu Gheith declared that in order to balance the injustices that have been inflicted on the Muslim population worldwide, al-Qaida's new objective is "to kill 4 million Americans–2 million of them children." As political scientist Graham Allison notes, this could be achieved with either 1,334 attacks similar in magnitude to those of 9/11, or one nuclear bomb.Building a nuclear program is an arduous task that requires tacit knowledge, the recruitment of nuclear scientists, engineers, and machinists, and the resources and time to obtain nuclear materials and components. While it is unlikely that terrorist organizations have the capacity to develop full-fledged programs in the near term, terrorist development and acquisition of nuclear weapons remains a long-term threat that requires international action.

  15. The Global Nuclear Futures Model: A Dynamic Simulation Tool for Energy Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixler, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Futures Model (GNFM) is a dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of nuclear energy, nuclear materials storage and disposition, global nuclear materials management, and nuclear proliferation risk. It links nuclear energy and other energy shares dynamically to greenhouse gas emissions and twelve other measures of environmental impact. It presents historical data from 1990 to 2000 and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. More specifically, it contains separate modules for energy, the nuclear fuel cycle front end, the nuclear fuel cycle back end, defense nuclear materials, environmental impacts, and measures of the potential for nuclear proliferation. It is globally integrated but also breaks out five regions of the world so that environmental impacts and nuclear proliferation concerns can be evaluated on a regional basis. The five regions are the United States of America (USA), The Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the OECD nations excluding the USA, and the rest of the world (ROW). (author)

  16. A global nuclear safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses three components characterizing the infrastructure of a global nuclear safety culture, each one satisfying special needs. These are: (a) legally binding international agreements, which were drawn up at an accelerated pace in the 1980s following the Chernobyl accident, with its transboundary implications; (b) non-binding common safety standards, which were developed rapidly during the 1960s and 1970s, a period which saw a desire for harmonized safety approaches as nuclear power and the use of radiation and radioactive materials expanded globally; and (c) review and advisory services, which are provided by international experts, the need for which was underscored by the accident at Chernobyl. 5 refs, 1 fig

  17. Global initiatives to prevent nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The fight against nuclear and radiological terrorism - someone to blow up a nuclear weapon or spread radioactive material as a 'dirty bomb' that act of terrorism - is one of the most serious threats to international security. The Global Initiative to prevent nuclear terrorism is a Norwegian-sponsored initiative that is aimed directly at combating terrorism by non-state actors. NRPA follow up Norwegian measures, including in Kazakhstan, and verifies that they are implemented and functioning as intended. (AG)

  18. Recognition of people with an opinion that nuclear power generation causes global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukue, Chiyokazu

    2004-01-01

    Almost a half of the people are thinking that nuclear power generation causes global warming. We conducted a survey in order to explore the recognition and background for the thinking of people. Consequently, the existence of the right knowledge ''nuclear power generation does not discharge carbon dioxide at the time of power generation'' influenced most the idea which nuclear power generation prevents global warming. On the other hand, the misunderstanding as ''the radioactive material produced from a nuclear power plant advances global warming'' has influenced the idea considered as a cause, and it is though that this misunderstanding depend on the negative image to nuclear power generation. Moreover, many people do not recognize the mechanism of global warming, and it is thought that they confuse global warming with the other global environment problems, such as acid rain or ozone layer destruction. Therefore, it is required to spread the knowledge that nuclear power generation does not discharge carbon dioxide, and to promote the understanding that a radioactive material is not related to global warming. Furthermore, it is required to distinguish global warming from the other global environment problems, and to explain them intelligibly. (author)

  19. Proceedings of GLOBAL 2007 conference on advanced nuclear fuel cycles and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In keeping with the 12-year history of this conference, GLOBAL 2007 focuses on future nuclear energy systems and fuel cycles. With the increasing public acceptance and political endorsement of nuclear energy, it is a pivotal time for nuclear energy research. Significant advances have been made in development of advanced nuclear fuels and materials, reactor designs, partitioning, transmutation and reprocessing technologies, and waste management strategies. In concert with the technological advances, it is more important than ever to develop sensible nuclear proliferation policies, to promote sustainability, and to continue to increase international collaboration. To further these aims, GLOBAL 2007 highlights recent developments in the following areas: advanced integrated fuel cycle concepts, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, advanced reprocessing technology, advanced fuels and materials, advanced waste management technology, novel concepts for waste disposal and repository development, advanced reactors, partitioning and transmutation, developments in nuclear non-proliferation technology, policy, and implementation, sustainability and expanded global utilization of nuclear energy, and international collaboration on nuclear energy

  20. U.S.-origin nuclear material removal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messick, C.E.; Galan, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) U.S.-Origin Nuclear Material Removal program, also known as the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program (FRR SNF AP), was established by the U.S. Department of Energy in May 1996. The program's mission provides a disposition pathway for certain U.S. origin spent nuclear fuel and other weapons-grade nuclear material. The program will continue until May 2016 with an additional three year window for fuel cooldown and transportation. This paper provides an update on recent program accomplishments, current program initiatives and future activities.

  1. Structural materials for innovative nuclear systems (SMINS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Structural materials research is a field of growing relevance in the nuclear sector, especially for the different innovative reactor systems being developed within the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), for critical and subcritical transmutation systems, and of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) the Workshop on Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems (SMINS) was organised in collaboration with the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in Germany. The objectives of the workshop were to exchange information on structural materials research issues and to discuss ongoing programmes, both experimental and in the field of advanced modelling. These proceedings include the papers and the poster session materials presented at the workshop, representing the international state of the art in this domain. (author)

  2. Global architecture of innovative nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva-Andrievskaya, L.N.; Kagramanyan, V.S.; Usanov, V.I.; )

    2011-01-01

    The study Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Based on Thermal and Fast Reactors including a Closed Fuel Cycle (GAINS), aimed at harmonization of tools used to assess various options for innovative development of nuclear energy, modeling of jointly defined scenarios and analysis of obtained results is presented in the paper. Objectives and methods of the study, issues of spent fuel and fissile materials management are discussed. Investment risks and economic indicators are also described [ru

  3. A review on nuclear forensic methodology for analysis of nuclear material of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, A.V.; Raghav, N.K.; Fatangare, N.M.; Jagtap, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    With the growing use of nuclear power and threat from illegal nuclear smuggling nuclear forensic provides an aid to the law enforcement to trace back modus operandi of such threats. Extensive nuclear proliferation, race among countries to acquire nuclear capability and global terrorism scenario has mandated Nuclear Forensic Science technology to tackle nuclear threats. Gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are employed for characterization and relative isotopic composition determinant of Nuclear material and techniques like SEM transmission electron TEM, FT-IR, GC-MS, Electrophoretic technique are used to characterize the contaminated materials in order to deceive investigative agencies. The present paper provide systematic forensic methodology for nuclear and radioactive materials encountered at any crime scene due to any accidental discharges or military activities. (author)

  4. U.S.-origin nuclear material removal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messick, C.E.; Galan, J.J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). U.S.-Origin Nuclear Material Removal Program

    2014-12-15

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) U.S.-Origin Nuclear Material Removal program, also known as the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program (FRR SNF AP), was established by the U.S. Department of Energy in May 1996. The program's mission provides a disposition pathway for certain U.S. origin spent nuclear fuel and other weapons-grade nuclear material. The program will continue until May 2016 with an additional three year window for fuel cooldown and transportation. This paper provides an update on recent program accomplishments, current program initiatives and future activities.

  5. Regional and global significance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    Measures to combat poverty and improve the standard of living in countries of the Third World will inevitably boost global demand for energy, and energy conservation measures will not be able to offset this increase. Nuclear energy will regain significance in the framework of approaches adopted to resolve the energy problem, which primarily is an ecologic problem created by an extremely large flow of materials. The extraordinarily high energy density of nuclear fuels can contribute to markedly reduce the flow of materials; and at that, electric energy is an efficient substitute for primary energy forms. Thus nuclear electricity generation is of double benefit to the ecology. Engineering goals in nuclear technology thus gain a service aspect, with progress in power plant engineering and design aiming not only at enhanced engineered safety, but also at regaining public acceptance of and confidence in nuclear power plant technology. (orig./UA) [de

  6. Nuclear energy development in the 21st century: Global scenarios and regional trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was launched in 2000, on the basis of a resolution of the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21). INPRO helps ensure that sustainable nuclear energy is available in the twenty-first century and seeks to bring together all interested Member States - both technology holders and technology users - to consider joint actions to achieve desired innovations. As of July 2010, 30 countries and the European Commission are members of INPRO. Programme Area B of INPRO, Global Vision - Scenarios and Pathways to Sustainable Nuclear Power Development, is aimed at providing a better understanding of the role of nuclear energy in the context of long term sustainable development. Its objective is to develop global and regional nuclear energy scenarios on the basis of a scientific-technical pathway analysis that lead to a global vision on sustainable nuclear energy development in the twenty-first century, and to support Member States in working towards that vision. This report presents the results of a study undertaken under Programme Area B in INPRO on Nuclear Energy Development in the Twenty-first Century: Global Scenarios and Regional Trends Studies on Nuclear Capacity Growth and Material Flow between Regions. The report does not develop a global vision for nuclear deployment per se, but presents a limited set of technical scenarios of nuclear deployment and considers their implications. It considers a global energy supply system composed of several reactor and fuel cycle types available today and of fast reactors that may be developed in the future to illustrate a possible modelling approach to identify the potential role of interregional transfer of nuclear fuel resources in supporting the global growth of nuclear energy. The study was performed with the participation of sixteen experts from nine INPRO Member States and included a dynamic simulation of material flows in nuclear energy systems using

  7. Fissile material ban: global and non-discriminatory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datt, Savita

    1995-01-01

    With the indefinite and unconditional extension of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) now out of the way, the next issue on the non-proliferation agenda is that of the existing stocks and further production of plutonium and weapons grade uranium. More than the existing stocks and the surplus fissile materials made available through arms control and disarmament measures, it is the further production of such materials which is sought to be tackled urgently. Of prime concern are the nuclear programmes of threshold countries like India, Pakistan and Israel (countries out of the NPT fold) which need to be capped at all costs. The best method of achieving this, it is believed can be through a global ban on the production of fissile materials. 15 refs

  8. Why do they think nuclear power is origin of global warming effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukae, Chiyokazu

    2005-01-01

    A questionnaire on nuclear power was conducted on 1500 adults in Kansai area, Japan, from October 9 to November 9, 2003. The recovery ratio was 71.0%. The results showed that 34% of them thought the nuclear power was protection of the global warming effect and 35% it was origin of the effect. It was analyzed by the logistic regression analysis method on whether the nuclear power was protection of global warming effect or not. About 43% of them recognized the nuclear power contributed to control carbon dioxide emission, and the mechanism of global warming effect. However, 35% of them did not recognize the mechanism and thought radioactive materials emission gave bad effects on the global environment. To make recognize the nuclear power is a good power source for protection of the global warming effect, the amount of reduction of carbon dioxide emission by nuclear power had to be shown. It is the shortest way for solution of the global warming problem to prove worthy of nuclear power's trust by safety and stable operation. (S.Y.)

  9. Nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1998, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) performed 38 inspections, 25 of them were performed in co-operation with IAEA inspectors. There is no fresh nuclear fuel at Bohunice A-1 NPP at present. Fresh fuel of Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs is inspected in the fresh fuel storage.There are 327 fresh fuel assemblies in Mochovce NPP fresh fuel storage. In addition to that, are also 71 small users of nuclear materials in Slovakia. In most cases they use: covers made of depleted uranium for non-destructive works, detection of level in production plants, covers for therapeutical sources at medical facilities. In. 1995, NRA SR issued 4 new licences for nuclear material withdrawal. In the next part manipulation with nuclear materials, spent fuel stores and illegal trafficking in nuclear materials are reported

  10. Study of nuclear environment and material strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    There is a concern about the environmental hazard caused by radioactive materials coming with the expansion of nuclear power and even by renewable energies, which are used as countermeasures against global warming to construct a sustainable society. A concept to internalize the pollution caused by radioactive materials, which are directly or indirectly related to nuclear power, to economical activities by adopting externality is proposed. Energy and industrial productions are strongly related to the supply of material. Therefore material flow is also part of this internalization concept. The concept is named 'NEMS (Nuclear Environment and Material Strategy)'. Fission products and transuranic isotopes from nuclear power such as plutonium are considered in this concept. Thorium, which comes from the material flow of rare-earth production to support the elaboration of renewable energies including electric vehicles on the consumer side, is considered as an externality of the non-nuclear power field. Fission products contain some rare-earth materials. Thus, these rare-earth materials, which are extracted by the advanced ORIENT (Optimization by Recycling Instructive Elements) cycle, are internalized as rare-earth supplier in economy. However, the supply quantity is limited. Therefore rare-earth production itself is still needed. The externality of rare-earth production is thorium and is internalized by using it as nuclear fuel. In this case, the demand of thorium is still small within these few decades compared to the production of thorium as byproduct of the rare-earth production. A thorium energy bank (The Bank) is advanced to regulate the storage of the excess amount of thorium inside of an international framework in order to prevent environmental hazard resulting from the illegal disposal of thorium. In this paper, the material flows of thorium and rare-earth are outlined. Their material balance are demonstrated based on the prediction of rare-earth mining and an

  11. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E 3 (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E 3 model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E 3 model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues

  12. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology and Safety Assessment Div.

    1997-09-24

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E{sup 3} (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E{sup 3} model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E{sup 3} model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues.

  13. Global security and the impacts in nuclear matter control: Nuclear Security Summit 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Martonio Mont’Alverne Barreto; Barreto, Midred Cavalcante

    2017-01-01

    Due to the current international security instability, especially resulting from traffic and nuclear terrorism threat proliferation, the Nuclear Security Summits were conceived with the objective of increasing the cooperation between States, institutions and international organisms, as well as conducting a global community in following the guidelines and action plans which have produced curious results such as the reduction and the removal of enriched uranium in some countries, the reinforcement of safeguard installations that store radioactive materials and the establishment of Excellence Centers, qualification, training and technological development in the fight against nuclear weaponry traffic. (author)

  14. Global security and the impacts in nuclear matter control: Nuclear Security Summit 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Martonio Mont’Alverne Barreto; Barreto, Midred Cavalcante, E-mail: barreto@unifor.br, E-mail: midredcb@hotmail.com [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Due to the current international security instability, especially resulting from traffic and nuclear terrorism threat proliferation, the Nuclear Security Summits were conceived with the objective of increasing the cooperation between States, institutions and international organisms, as well as conducting a global community in following the guidelines and action plans which have produced curious results such as the reduction and the removal of enriched uranium in some countries, the reinforcement of safeguard installations that store radioactive materials and the establishment of Excellence Centers, qualification, training and technological development in the fight against nuclear weaponry traffic. (author)

  15. Nuclear security recommendations on nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to States in strengthening their nuclear security regimes, and thereby contributing to an effective global nuclear security framework, by providing: - Recommendations to States and their competent authorities on the establishment or improvement of the capabilities of their nuclear security regimes, for carrying out effective strategies to deter, detect and respond to a criminal act, or an unauthorized act, with nuclear security implications, involving nuclear or other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control; - Recommendations to States in support of international cooperation aimed at ensuring that any nuclear or other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control, whether originating from within the State or from outside that State, is placed under regulatory control and the alleged offenders are, as appropriate, prosecuted or extradited

  16. Comprehensive nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Todd; Stoller, Roger; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Nuclear Materials encapsulates a panorama of fundamental information on the vast variety of materials employed in the broad field of nuclear technology. The work addresses, in five volumes, 3,400 pages and over 120 chapter-length articles, the full panorama of historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. It synthesizes the most pertinent research to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  17. New challenges in nuclear material detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, W.; Sale, K.; Dougan, A.; Luke, J.; Suski, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Even before the attacks of September 11, 2001 the International Safeguards community recognized the magnitude of the threat posed by illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and the need for enhanced physical protection. For the first time, separate sessions on illicit trafficking and physical protection of nuclear materials were included in the IAEA Safeguards Symposium. In the aftermath of September 11, it is clear that the magnitude of the problem and the urgency with which it must be addressed will be a significant driver for advanced nuclear materials detection technologies for years to come. Trafficking in nuclear material and other radioactive sources is a global concern. According to the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database Program, there have been confirmed cases in more than 40 countries and the number of cases per year have nearly doubled since 1996. The challenge of combating nuclear terrorism also brings with it many opportunities for the development of new tools and new approaches. In addition to the traditional gamma-ray imaging, spectrometry and neutron interrogation, there is a need for smaller, smarter, more energy-efficient sensors and sensor systems for detecting and tracking threats. These systems go by many names - correlated sensor networks, wide-area tracking systems, sensor or network fabrics - but the concept behind them is the same. Take a number of wireless sensors and tie them together with a communications network, develop a scheme for fusing the data and make the system easy to deploy. This paper will present a brief survey of nuclear materials detection capability, and discuss some advances in research and development that are particularly suited for illicit trafficking, detection of shielded highly enriched uranium, and border security. (author)

  18. Nuclear energy and materials in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Davidson, J.W.; Bathke, C.G.; Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is examining a range of long- term nuclear energy futures as well as exploring and assessing optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies. An established global energy, economics, environmental (E 3 ) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed, where future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term (∼2100) demographic, economic, policy, and technological drivers. A spectrum of futures is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. The results reported examine departures from a ''basis scenario'' and are presented in the following order of increasing specificity: a) definition and parametric variations the basis scenario; b) comparison of the basis scenario with other recent studies; c) parametric studies that vary upper-level hierarchical scenario attributes (external drivers); and d) variations of the lower-level scenario attributes (internal drivers). Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes that characterize particular nuclear energy scenarios. Special attention is given to the role of nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy, the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors, and proliferation risk. (author)

  19. Nuclear energy and materials in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Davidson, J.W.; Bathke, C.G.

    1997-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is examining a range of long-term nuclear energy futures as well as exploring and assessing optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies. An established global energy, economics, environmental (E 3 ) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed, where future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term (∼2100) demographic, economic, policy, and technological drivers. A spectrum of futures is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. The result reported examine departures from a basis scenario and are presented in the following order of increasing specificity: (a) definition and parametric variations of the basis scenario; (b) comparison of the basis scenario with other recent studies; (c) parametric studies that vary upper-level hierarchical scenario attributes (external drivers); and (d) variations of the lower-level scenario attributes (internal drivers). Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel-cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes that characterize particular nuclear energy scenarios. Special attention is given to the role of nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy, the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors, and proliferation risk

  20. Global nuclear safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    As stated in the Nuclear Safety Review 1996, three components characterize the global nuclear safety culture infrastructure: (i) legally binding international agreements; (ii) non-binding common safety standards; and (iii) the application of safety standards. The IAEA has continued to foster the global nuclear safety culture by supporting intergovernmental collaborative efforts; it has facilitated extensive information exchange, promoted the drafting of international legal agreements and the development of common safety standards, and provided for the application of safety standards by organizing a wide variety of expert services

  1. The nuclear safeguards system and the process of global governance accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles, E-mail: xavier@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Planejamento e Avaliacao

    2011-07-01

    Due to rising energy costs and climate concerns, nuclear energy is again being seriously considered as an energy source for several countries. Along with the resurgence of nuclear energy comes the concern of the world if these countries will develop their programs for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. If on one hand the growth potential of nuclear energy should not be stifled, on the other hand it is imperative that a climate of mutual trust is developed, respecting the right of each country to develop its nuclear program without taking a climate of mistrust to a possible 'intention' behind the pursuit of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate mechanisms of accountability of global governance are institutionalized at the institutional architecture of the international process of nuclear safeguards, more specifically to the nuclear fuel cycle, so that abuses of power in this sphere does not happen, both by countries that aspire to develop projects nuclear, and by the suppliers of technology. In this context, the case study of Brazil and Argentina gained importance, because these two countries have a single binational organization of nuclear safeguards in the world: Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC. In the theoretical question, the paper tries to understand what happens with the process of legitimacy and authority of the organizations of global governance by analyzing the degree of publicness and constrictiveness. This work intends to focus on the role of ABACC as an interstate institution of accountability, which has a key role to control the nation States of Brazil and Argentina regarding the appropriate use of nuclear material used in their programs, and analyze how this Agency behaves within of tension legitimacy-authority, taking into account existing studies on accountability in global governance. (author)

  2. The nuclear safeguards system and the process of global governance accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles

    2011-01-01

    Due to rising energy costs and climate concerns, nuclear energy is again being seriously considered as an energy source for several countries. Along with the resurgence of nuclear energy comes the concern of the world if these countries will develop their programs for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. If on one hand the growth potential of nuclear energy should not be stifled, on the other hand it is imperative that a climate of mutual trust is developed, respecting the right of each country to develop its nuclear program without taking a climate of mistrust to a possible 'intention' behind the pursuit of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate mechanisms of accountability of global governance are institutionalized at the institutional architecture of the international process of nuclear safeguards, more specifically to the nuclear fuel cycle, so that abuses of power in this sphere does not happen, both by countries that aspire to develop projects nuclear, and by the suppliers of technology. In this context, the case study of Brazil and Argentina gained importance, because these two countries have a single binational organization of nuclear safeguards in the world: Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC. In the theoretical question, the paper tries to understand what happens with the process of legitimacy and authority of the organizations of global governance by analyzing the degree of publicness and constrictiveness. This work intends to focus on the role of ABACC as an interstate institution of accountability, which has a key role to control the nation States of Brazil and Argentina regarding the appropriate use of nuclear material used in their programs, and analyze how this Agency behaves within of tension legitimacy-authority, taking into account existing studies on accountability in global governance. (author)

  3. Nuclear Security Systems and Measures for the Detection of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism and the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material threaten the security of all States. There are large quantities of diverse radioactive material in existence, which are used in areas such as health, the environment, agriculture and industry. The possibility that nuclear and other radioactive material may be used for terrorist acts cannot be ruled out in the current global situation. States have responded to this risk by engaging in a collective commitment to strengthen the protection and control of such material, and to establish capabilities for detection and response to nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. Through its nuclear security programme, the IAEA supports States to establish, maintain and sustain an effective nuclear security regime. The IAEA has adopted a comprehensive approach to nuclear security. This approach recognizes that an effective national nuclear security regime builds on: the implementation of relevant international legal instruments; information protection; physical protection; material accounting and control; detection of and response to trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material; national response plans; and contingency measures. Within its nuclear security programme, the IAEA aims to assist States in implementing and sustaining such a regime in a coherent and integrated manner. Each State carries the full responsibility for nuclear security, specifically: to provide for the security of nuclear and other radioactive material and associated facilities and activities; to ensure the security of such material in use, storage or in transport; to combat illicit trafficking; and to detect and respond to nuclear security events. This is an Implementing Guide on nuclear security systems and measures for the detection of nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. The objective of the publication is to provide guidance to Member States for the

  4. Protecting nuclear material and facilities: Is a new approach needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhausler, F.; Bunn, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The main reason why national physical protection (PP) systems for nuclear and other radioactive material need to be strengthened further is that, after the attacks on the US on 11 September 2001, the threat of dangerous, suicidal radiological and nuclear terrorism can no longer be excluded as a possibility. Existing PP systems were not designed to deal with the threat of suicidal terrorists having the numbers, skills, training, and resources available to the commandos attacking on 11 September. Moreover, there are no mandatory international standards for domestic PP systems for nuclear or radioactive material, and this has produced great variation in protection provided from country to country. IAEA recommended standards, while useful, were not designed with the new terrorist threat in mind. Moreover, they are often not followed in practice. The result is inadequate protection against the new form of terrorism in most countries. The Director General of the IAEA expressed a similar view after 11 September, but achieving a consensus to amend the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) to require specific standards of protection for different amounts and kinds of nuclear material used or stored domestically (not in international transport) has been impossible in the year since 11 September. In the case of radiological materials, a new effort to provide required international standards for protection against the new form of terrorism has not begun. In the summer of 2001, leaders of the G-8 countries agreed to a Global Partnership to prevent the new terrorists from acquiring nuclear and radiological as well as other materials related to weapons of mass destruction. Perhaps in part because of the failure to date to achieve agreement on an effective amendment to the CPPNM, the first principle of this partnership is to strengthen 'multilateral treaties and other instruments whose aim is to prevent the proliferation or illicit

  5. Prevent, Counter, and Respond - A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2016-FY2020)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s second core mission is reducing global nuclear dangers by preventing the acquisition of nuclear weapons or weapons-usable materials, countering efforts to acquire such weapons or materials, and responding to nuclear or radiological incidents. In 2015, NNSA reorganized its nonproliferation activities based on core competencies and realigned its counterterrorism and counterproliferation functions to more efficiently address both current and emerging threats and challenges. The reorganization accompanied the March 2015 release of the first ever Prevent, Counter, and Respond – A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats. This report, which NNSA will update annually, highlights key nuclear threat trends and describes NNSA’s integrated threat reduction strategy.

  6. Implications of nuclear industry globalization for chinese nuclear industry: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhifeng; Ding Qihua; Wang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, globalization of the world nuclear industry has developed into a new phase. Chinese nuclear industry will be inevitably integrated into this trend. Globalization will bring both positive and adverse effects on Chinese nuclear industry. Facing the fierce competition, Chinese companies must rise to many challenges to enter the global nuclear market. And China need to make scientific decisions and take effective measures in various fields of nuclear industry to realized the goal of global development. (authors)

  7. Recent Activities on Global Nuclear Safety Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kun-Woo; Park, Jeong-Seop; Kim, Do-Hyoung

    2006-01-01

    Recently, rapid progress on the globalization of the nuclear safety issues is being made in IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and its member states. With the globalization, the need for international cooperation among international bodies and member states continues to grow for resolving these universal nuclear safety issues. Furthermore, the importance of strengthening the global nuclear safety regime is emphasized through various means, such as efforts in application of IAEA safety standards to all nuclear installations in the world and in strengthening the code of conduct and the convention on nuclear safety. In this regards, it is important for us to keep up with the activities related with the global nuclear safety regime as an IAEA member state and a leading country in nuclear safety regulation

  8. Economic Globalization and a Nuclear Renaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas W; Johnson, Wayne L; Parker, Brian M

    2001-10-22

    The phenomenon of globalization has become increasingly well recognized, documented, and analyzed in the last several years. Globalization, the integration of markets and intra-firm competition on a worldwide basis, involves complex behavioral and mindset changes within a firm that facilitate global competition. The changes revolve around efficient information flow and rapid deployment of technology. The objective of this report is to examine the probable characteristics of a global nuclear renaissance and its broad implications for industry structure and export control relative to nuclear technology. The question of how a modern renaissance would affect the trend toward globalization of the nuclear industry is addressed.

  9. Economic Globalization and a Nuclear Renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Parker, Brian M.

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenon of globalization has become increasingly well recognized, documented, and analyzed in the last several years. Globalization, the integration of markets and intra-firm competition on a worldwide basis, involves complex behavioral and mindset changes within a firm that facilitate global competition. The changes revolve around efficient information flow and rapid deployment of technology. The objective of this report is to examine the probable characteristics of a global nuclear renaissance and its broad implications for industry structure and export control relative to nuclear technology. The question of how a modern renaissance would affect the trend toward globalization of the nuclear industry is addressed

  10. Device for separating, purifying and recovering nuclear fuel material, impurities and materials from impurity-containing nuclear fuel materials or nuclear fuel containing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Ryuichi; Kamei, Yoshinobu; Watanabe, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Shigeru.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To separate, purify and recover nuclear fuel materials, impurities and materials with no formation of liquid wastes. Constitution: Oxidizing atmosphere gases are introduced from both ends of a heating furnace. Vessels containing impurity-containing nuclear fuel substances or nuclear fuel substance-containing material are continuously disposed movably from one end to the other of the heating furnace. Then, impurity oxides or material oxides selectively evaporated from the impurity-containing nuclear fuel substances or nuclear fuel substance-containing materials are entrained in the oxidizing atmosphere gas and the gases are led out externally from a discharge port opened at the intermediate portion of the heating furnace, filters are disposed to the exit to solidify and capture the nuclear fuel substances and traps are disposed behind the filters to solidify and capture the oxides by spontaneous air cooling or water cooling. (Sekiya, K.)

  11. Global nuclear-structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to ε 2 and ε 4 used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and Β-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential

  12. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear...

  13. Nuclear winter: Global consequences of multiple nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turco, R.P.; Toon, O.B.; Ackerman, T.P.; Pollack, J.B.; Sagan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Concern has been raised over the short- and long-term consequences of the dust, smoke, radioactivity, and toxic vapors that would be generated by a nuclear war. The discovery that dense clouds of soil particles may have played a major role in past mass extinctions of life on Earth has encouraged the reconsideration of nuclear war effects. These developments have led the authors to calculate, using new data and improved models, the potential global environmental effects of dust and smoke clouds (henceforth referred to as nuclear dust and smoke) generated in a nuclear war. They neglect the short-term effects of blast, fire, and radiation. Most of the world's population could probably survive the initial nuclear exchange and would inherit the postwar environment. Accordingly, the longer-term and global-scale aftereffects of nuclear war might prove to be as important as the immediate consequences of the war

  14. Towards a global nuclear safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of the global nuclear safety culture and the role in which the IAEA has played in encouraging its development. There is also a look ahead to what the future challenges of the world-wide nuclear industry might be and to the need for a continued and improved global nuclear safety culture to meet these changing needs. (Author)

  15. An Overview of Global Nuclear Security Regime and Its Introduction into the Nigerian Educational System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear security is the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities. The responsibility for creating and sustaining a nuclear security regime for the protection of nuclear and other radiological material clearly belongs to the respective country. Within a State the nuclear security regime resembles layers of an onion with equipment and personnel securing the borders and ports representing the outer layer. Nuclear power, research reactor and nuclear medicine facilities constitute the various inner layers down to the actual target materials. Components of any nuclear security regime include not only technological systems, but the human resources needed to manage, operate, administer and maintain equipment, hardware and software. Nigeria is a non-nuclear weapons state and without a large-scale nuclear industry, but have a major role to play in preventing nuclear terrorism globally. It is pertinent to know that as the Fukushima accident and other nuclear accidents have demonstrated, nuclear crises do not respect borders. Therefore, nuclear threats must be addressed by all nations. Furthermore, to set the groundwork for the safe, peaceful and stable use of nuclear energy in Nigeria and all over the world, efforts must be made to enhance nuclear safety and security. This paper discusses the present international nuclear security regime and possibility of integrating it into the Nigerian educational system in view of current global perspectives and nuclear renaissance.

  16. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two

  17. Safeguards for special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.L.

    1979-12-01

    Safeguards, accountability, and nuclear materials are defined. The accuracy of measuring nuclear materials is discussed. The use of computers in nuclear materials accounting is described. Measures taken to physically protect nuclear materials are described

  18. Thermodynamics of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: The science of chemical thermodynamics has substantially contributed to the understanding of the many problems encountered in nuclear and reactor technology. These problems include reaction of materials with their surroundings and chemical and physical changes of fuels. Modern reactor technology, by its very nature, has offered new fields of investigations for the scientists and engineers concerned with the design of nuclear fuel elements. Moreover, thermodynamics has been vital in predicting the behaviour of new materials for fission as well as fusion reactors. In this regard, the Symposium was organized to provide a mechanism for review and discussion of recent thermodynamic investigations of nuclear materials. The Symposium was held in the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre, at the invitation of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. The International Atomic Energy Agency has given much attention to the thermodynamics of nuclear materials, as is evidenced by its sponsorship of four international symposia in 1962, 1965, 1967, and 1974. The first three meetings were primarily concerned with the fundamental thermodynamics of nuclear materials; as with the 1974 meeting, this last Symposium was primarily aimed at the thermodynamic behaviour of nuclear materials in actual practice, i.e., applied thermodynamics. Many advances have been made since the 1974 meeting, both in fundamental and applied thermodynamics of nuclear materials, and this meeting provided opportunities for an exchange of new information on this topic. The Symposium dealt in part with the thermodynamic analysis of nuclear materials under conditions of high temperatures and a severe radiation environment. Several sessions were devoted to the thermodynamic studies of nuclear fuels and fission and fusion reactor materials under adverse conditions. These papers and ensuing discussions provided a better understanding of the chemical behaviour of fuels and materials under these

  19. Securing nuclear warheads and materials: seven steps for immediate action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in improving security and accounting for nuclear weapons and weapons-usable nuclear material worldwide, both by states' own domestic actions and through international cooperation. Thousands of nuclear warheads and hundreds of tons of nuclear material are demonstrably more secure than they were before, and through programs such as the U.S.-Russian Highly Enriched Uranium (He) Purchase Agreement, enough potentially vulnerable bomb material for thousands of nuclear weapons has been verifiably destroyed. Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, the international community has attempted to expand and accelerate these efforts. But much more remains to be done. This paper summarizes a recent report from Harvard University, which recommended seven further steps for immediate action in U.S.-Russian and international cooperation. It covers two recommendations that may be of particular interest to this audience in detail. The first is a proposed program to remove nuclear material entirely from many of the most vulnerable sites around the world (by offering incentives targeted to the needs of each facility to give up the material at that site). The second is a suggestion that participants in the global partnership against the spread of weapons and materials of mass destruction announced at the June 2002 Group of Eight summit make a political commitment to meet stringent security standards for nuclear materials on their territories, and urge (and assist) other states to do likewise. (author)

  20. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are provided for under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning refining business in the enforcement order for the law. The basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: exposure dose, accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area and employee. Refining facilities listed in the application for designation shall be classified into clushing and leaching, thickning, refining facilities, storage facilities of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, disposal facilities of contaminated substances and building for refining, etc. Business program attached to the application shall include expected time of beginning of refining, estimated production amount of nuclear source materials or nuclear fuel materials for the first three years and funds necessary for construction, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods on delivery and storage of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, control of radiation, maintenance and accidents of refining facilities. Safety securing, application of internationally regulated substances and measures in dangerous situations are stipulated respectively. Exposure dose of employees and other specified matters shall be reported by the refiner yearly to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  1. NECSA'S Need to Establish a Nuclear Forensics Specific NDA Facility for On-Site Categorization of Seized Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshielo, P.; Mogafe, R.

    2015-01-01

    The increase of nuclear material that are out of regulatory control is becoming a serious concern and threat and thereby continuously seeking urgent interventions and counteractions from the international community aspiring effective control over all nuclear material and peaceful uses of nuclear technologies globally. In South Africa the nuclear forensics initiative approach and its execution have been adopted, established and managed by the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA) to support the country's nuclear safeguards system and nuclear security investigations plan to fight against the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials. On this nuclear forensics initiative approach adopted by Necsa, the development and later execution of a Non-Destructive Analyses (NDA) facility capability for quick categorization of any seized nuclear material by law-enforcement agencies is currently envisaged as a critical initiative to comprehend nuclear forensics Laboratory analytical or characterization techniques. The main objective for this NDA facility is planned to be used for performing nuclear material screening process for material categorization purposes to generate information and results which will be open to law enforcement agencies for prosecution processes and also for the safeguards reporting to the IAEA (ITDB). The NDA technique is therefore found to be a critical tool needed at NECSA as an Early-Checking-Point or first-line material check point for all seized nuclear materials in determining some characteristics of the materials and collection of data without having to destroy or changing the morphology of the material. (author)

  2. Nuclear material control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Paragraph 70.51(c) of 10 CFR Part 70 requires each licensee who is authorized to possess at any one time special nuclear material in a quantity exceeding one effective kilogram to establish, maintain, and follow written material control and accounting procedures that are sufficient to enable the licensee to account for the special nuclear material in his possession under license. While other paragraphs and sections of Part 70 provide specific requirements for nuclear material control systems for fuel cycle plants, such detailed requirements are not included for nuclear power reactors. This guide identifies elements acceptable to the NRC staff for a nuclear material control system for nuclear power reactors. (U.S.)

  3. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions concerning refining business in the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law, and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as: exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding monitoring area and worker. The application for the designation for refining business under the law shall be classified into the facilities for crushing and leaching-filtration, thikening, and refining, the storage facilities for nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials, and the disposal facilities for radioactive wastes, etc. To the application, shall be attached business plans, the explanations concerning the technical abilities of applicants and the prevention of hazards by nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials regarding refining facilities, etc. Records shall be made on the accept, delivery and stock of each kind of nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials, radiation control, the maintenance of and accidents in refining facilities, and kept for specified periods, respectively. Security regulations shall be enacted for each works or enterprise on the functions and organizations of persons engaged in the control of refining facilities, the operation of the apparatuses which must be controlled for the prevention of accidents, and the establishment of control area and surrounding monitoring area, etc. The report on the usage of internationally regulated goods and the measures taken at the time of danger are defined particularly. (Okada, K.)

  4. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material...

  5. Safeguarding nuclear materials in the former Soviet Republics through computerized materials protection, control and accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumiantsev, A.N.; Ostroumov, Y.A.; Whiteson, R.; Seitz, S.L.; Landry, R.P.; Martinez, B.J.; Boor, M.G.; Anderson, L.K.; Gary, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The threat of nuclear weapons proliferation is a problem of global concern. International efforts at nonproliferation focus on preventing acquisition of weapons-grade nuclear materials by unauthorized states, organizations, or individuals. Nonproliferation can best be accomplished through international cooperation in the application of advanced science and technology to the management and control of nuclear materials. Computerized systems for nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) are a vital component of integrated nuclear safeguards programs. This paper describes the progress of scientists in the United States and former Soviet Republics in creating customized, computerized MPC and A systems. The authors discuss implementation of the Core Material Accountability System (CoreMAS), which was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory by the US Department of Energy and incorporates, in condensed and integrated form, the most valuable experience gained by US nuclear enterprises in accounting for and controlling nuclear materials. The CoreMAS approach and corresponding software package have been made available to sites internationally. CoreMAS provides methods to evaluate their existing systems and to examine advantages and disadvantages of customizing CoreMAS or improving their own existing systems. The sites can also address crucial issues of software assurance, data security, and system performance; compare operational experiences at sites with functioning computerized systems; and reasonably evaluate future efforts. The goal of the CoreMAS project is to introduce facilities at sites all over the world to modern international MPC and A practices and to help them implement effective, modern, computerized MPC and A systems to account for their nuclear materials, and thus reduce the likelihood of theft or diversion. Sites are assisted with MPC and A concepts and the implementation of an effective computerized MPC and A system

  6. Auditing nuclear materials statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1973-01-01

    A standard that may be used as a guide for persons making independent examinations of nuclear materials statements or reports regarding inventory quantities on hand, receipts, production, shipment, losses, etc. is presented. The objective of the examination of nuclear materials statements by the independent auditor is the expression of an opinion on the fairness with which the statements present the nuclear materials position of a nuclear materials facility and the movement of such inventory materials for the period under review. The opinion is based upon an examination made in accordance with auditing criteria, including an evaluation of internal control, a test of recorded transactions, and a review of measured discards and materials unaccounted for (MUF). The standard draws heavily upon financial auditing standards and procedures published by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

  7. Protection and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalouneix, J.; Winter, D.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the French regulation on nuclear materials possession, the first liability is the one of operators who have to know at any time the quantity, quality and localization of any nuclear material in their possession. This requires an organization of the follow up and of the inventory of these materials together with an efficient protection against theft or sabotage. The French organization foresees a control of the implementation of this regulation at nuclear facilities and during the transport of nuclear materials by the minister of industry with the sustain of the institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN). This article presents this organization: 1 - protection against malevolence; 2 - national protection and control of nuclear materials: goals, administrative organization, legal and regulatory content (authorization, control, sanctions), nuclear materials protection inside facilities (physical protection, follow up and inventory, security studies), protection of nuclear material transports (physical protection, follow up), control of nuclear materials (inspection at facilities, control of nuclear material measurements, inspection of nuclear materials during transport); 3 - international commitments of France: non-proliferation treaty, EURATOM regulation, international convention on the physical protection of nuclear materials, enforcement in France. (J.S.)

  8. A Single Global Small-User Nuclear Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conca, J.L.; Wright, J.

    2009-01-01

    Global energy partnerships in nuclear power, proposed by France, Russia, U.S. and England, seek to address the proliferation issue by controlling fuel production and nuclear materials, removing the need for each country to develop enrichment, fabrication, recycling or disposal capabilities. Several of the large generator countries such as France, the U.S., Japan, S. Korea, Russia, the U.K., China and India, all have plans for deep geologic repositories because they anticipate sufficient waste over the next century to justify the expense of a repository. However, countries having, or planning, less than five reactors, such as Egypt, Iran, Indonesia, Brazil and about 30 other countries, will not have sufficient waste generation, or a favorable geologic site, to justify the economic and environmental issues of developing their own repository. The Salado salt formation in New Mexico, set aside for nuclear waste disposal within the 16 square-mile area by the Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, is the most optimal geologic formation for the permanent disposal of any nuclear waste and is easily able to host all of the commercial nuclear waste that will be generated in the next thousand years. The U.S. commercial nuclear waste needs presently surpass all others, and will for the foreseeable future. Hosting the relatively small amount of waste from these small-user nations will add little to U.S. waste stream while the cost/benefit analysis from the standpoint of operations, safety, geology, cost and proliferation is overwhelmingly positive for developing such a global repository. Oceanic and overland transportation, high-level disposal logistics and costs from several programs, including WIPP, have demonstrated that the operation would pay for itself from international user fees with no U.S. taxpayer dollars required and still save the world about $400 billion over 100 years. The ethical considerations alone are compelling. (authors)

  9. The nuclear materials contraband

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.; Woessner, P.

    1996-01-01

    Several seizures of nuclear materials carried by contraband have been achieved. Some countries or criminal organizations could manufacture atomic bombs and use them. This alarming situation is described into details. Only 40% of drugs are seized by the American police and probably less in western Europe. The nuclear materials market is smaller than the drugs'one but the customs has also less experience to intercept the uranium dispatch for instance more especially as the peddlers are well organized. A severe control of the international transports would certainly allow to seize a large part of nuclear contraband materials but some dangerous isotopes as uranium 235 or plutonium 239 are little radioactive and which prevents their detection by the Geiger-Mueller counters. In France, some regulations allow to control the materials used to manufacture the nuclear weapons, and diminish thus the risk of a nuclear materials contraband. (O.L.). 4 refs., 2 figs

  10. Feeding the nuclear pipeline: Enabling a global nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear energy, which exhibits a unique combination of environmental and sustainable attributes, appears strongly positioned to play a much larger and more pivotal role in the mix of future global energy supplies than it has played in the past. Unfortunately, enrolment patterns in nuclear engineering programmes have seriously eroded over the past decade - causing alarmingly low enrolment levels in many countries by the turn of the century and a sobering concern that the nuclear manpower pipeline cannot keep up with the emerging needs of the nuclear industry. On the positive side, enrolment patterns within the United States are now generally on the rise, at least at the undergraduate level. A few of the particularly successful efforts initiated by various sectors of the U.S. nuclear infrastructure to stimulate this rebound are shared in this paper with the hope that some of them might be beneficially employed in other global settings. (author)

  11. Nuclear energy and global governance to 2030 : an action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frechette, L.; Findlay, T.; Brem, M.; Hanson, J.; Bunch, M.; McCausland, T.

    2010-01-01

    This document presented the key findings of the Nuclear Energy Futures project that was initiated in May 2006 to consider global governance of nuclear energy. The five-point action plan presented in this document included: (1) nuclear safety whereby all nuclear states are committed to and capable of implementing the highest nuclear safety standards, (2) nuclear security whereby all nuclear material and facilities are secure from unauthorized access or terrorist seizure or attack, (3) nuclear nonproliferation whereby a nuclear revival does not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons, (4) the re-enforcement of the International Atomic Energy Agency's centrality through increased funding, modernization and reform, and (5) stakeholder involvement whereby all partners, especially industry, participate in judiciously managing a nuclear revival. This document suggested that despite some powerful drivers, the revival of nuclear energy faces too many barriers compared to other means of electricity production. These barriers include high costs; fewer subsidies; too slow for meeting the threat of climate change; inadequate power grids; unresolved nuclear waste issue; and fears about safety, security and nuclear weapons.

  12. Nuclear energy and global governance to 2030 : an action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frechette, L.; Findlay, T. (comps.); Brem, M.; Hanson, J.; Bunch, M.; McCausland, T. (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    This document presented the key findings of the Nuclear Energy Futures project that was initiated in May 2006 to consider global governance of nuclear energy. The five-point action plan presented in this document included: (1) nuclear safety whereby all nuclear states are committed to and capable of implementing the highest nuclear safety standards, (2) nuclear security whereby all nuclear material and facilities are secure from unauthorized access or terrorist seizure or attack, (3) nuclear nonproliferation whereby a nuclear revival does not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons, (4) the re-enforcement of the International Atomic Energy Agency's centrality through increased funding, modernization and reform, and (5) stakeholder involvement whereby all partners, especially industry, participate in judiciously managing a nuclear revival. This document suggested that despite some powerful drivers, the revival of nuclear energy faces too many barriers compared to other means of electricity production. These barriers include high costs; fewer subsidies; too slow for meeting the threat of climate change; inadequate power grids; unresolved nuclear waste issue; and fears about safety, security and nuclear weapons.

  13. Control of Nuclear Materials and Special Equipment (Nuclear Safety Regulations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizmek, A.; Prah, M.; Medakovic, S.; Ilijas, B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on Nuclear Safety Act (OG 173/03) the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) in 2008 adopted beside Ordinance on performing nuclear activities (OG 74/06) and Ordinance on special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety (OG 74/06) the new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment (OG 15/08). Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment lays down the list of nuclear materials and special equipment as well as of nuclear activities covered by the system of control of production of special equipment and non-nuclear material, the procedure for notifying the intention to and filing the application for a license to carry out nuclear activities, and the format and contents of the forms for doing so. This Ordinance also lays down the manner in which nuclear material records have to be kept, the procedure for notifying the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety by the nuclear material user, and the keeping of registers of nuclear activities, nuclear material and special equipment by the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety, as well as the form and content of official nuclear safety inspector identification card and badge.(author)

  14. Nuclear stockpiles globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouffray, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    For technological reasons, but more importantly political ones, the spread of nuclear weapons is foreseen as inevitable especially with the multiplication of so-called 'threshold states'. On the one hand, technological barriers will gradually disappear with globalization and information sharing in our societies. Furthermore, becoming a threshold power appears today as key to get freedom of action, a tool of counter-deterrence or blackmail according to the camp you belong to, like in the Iranian and north Korean cases. For proliferant countries, it will now consist in an enforcement of an embryonic, even though rather deterrent or even threatening, nuclear program thanks to new technologies, reducing completion times and even allowing to skip the final nuclear test

  15. Illicit diversion of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bett, F.L.

    1975-08-01

    This paper discusses the means of preventing illegal use of nuclear material by terrorists or other sub-national groups and by governments. With respect to sub-national groups, it concludes that the preventive measures of national safeguards systems, when taken together with the practical difficulties of using nuclear material, would make the diversion and illegal use of nuclear material unattractive in comparison with other avenues open to these groups to attain their ends. It notes that there are only certain areas in the nuclear fuel cycle, e.g. production of some types of nuclear fuel embodying highly enriched uranium and shipment of strategically significant nuclear material, which contain material potentially useful to these groups. It also discusses the difficult practical problems, e.g. coping with radiation, which would face the groups in making use of the materials for terrorist purposes. Concerning illegal use by Governments, the paper describes the role of international safeguards, as applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the real deterrent effect of these safeguards which is achieved through the requirements to maintain comprehensive operating records of the use of nuclear material and by regular inspections to verify these records. The paper makes the point that Australia would not consider supplying nuclear material unless it were subject to international safeguards. (author)

  16. Physics and technology of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, I.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled; elements of nuclear reactor physics; structure and properties of materials (including radiation effects); fuel materials (uranium, plutonium, thorium); structural materials (including - aluminium, zirconium, stainless steels, ferritic steels, magnesium alloys, neutron irradiation induced changes in the mechanical properties of structural materials); moderator materials (including - nuclear graphite, natural (light) water, heavy water, beryllium, metal hydrides); materials for reactor reactivity control; coolant materials; shielding materials; nuclear fuel elements; nuclear material recovery from irradiated fuel and recycling; quality control of nuclear materials; materials for fusion reactors (thermonuclear fusion reaction, physical processes in fusion reactors, fuel materials, materials for blanket and cooling system, structural materials, materials for magnetic devices, specific problems of material irradiation). (U.K.)

  17. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Regulations specified here cover application for designation of undertakings of refining (spallation and eaching filtration facilities, thickening facilities, refining facilities, nuclear material substances or nuclear fuel substances storage facilities, waste disposal facilities, etc.), application for permission for alteration (business management plan, procurement plan, fund raising plan, etc.), application for approval of merger (procedure, conditions, reason and date of merger, etc.), submission of report on alteration (location, structure, arrangements processes and construction plan for refining facilities, etc.), revocation of designation, rules for records, rules for safety (personnel, organization, safety training for employees, handling of important apparatus and tools, monitoring and removal of comtaminants, management of radioactivity measuring devices, inspection and testing, acceptance, transport and storage of nuclear material and fuel, etc.), measures for emergency, submission of report on abolition of an undertaking, submission of report on disorganization, measures required in the wake of revocation of designation, submission of information report (exposure to radioactive rays, stolen or missing nuclear material or nuclear fuel, unusual leak of nuclear fuel or material contaminated with nuclear fuel), etc. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts. Summary of an International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts was organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna on 1-5 July 2013. The conference was organized in cooperation with the following organizations and initiatives: the European Union; the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT); the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL); the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM); the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI); the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE); the Partnership for Global Security; the Police Community of the Americas (AMERIPOL); the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI); the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC); the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS); the World Nuclear Association (WNA); and the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI). A total of 34 ministers participated in the ministerial session of the conference. Altogether, the conference attracted more than 1300 registered participants from 125 IAEA Member States and 21 organizations. The aim of the conference was to review the international community's experience and achievements to date in strengthening nuclear security, to enhance the understanding of current approaches to nuclear security worldwide and identify trends, and to provide a global forum for ministers, policymakers and senior officials to formulate views on future directions and priorities for nuclear security. This book contains the President's Summary of the conference and a summary of the ministerial session, the full text of the ministerial declaration adopted by the conference and summaries of the main conference sessions. The attached CD-ROM contains the full conference programme, the list of conference participants, the national statements from the ministerial session and a selection of papers

  20. Physics and technology of nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ursu, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Physics and Technology of Nuclear Materials presents basic information regarding the structure, properties, processing methods, and response to irradiation of the key materials that fission and fusion nuclear reactors have to rely upon. Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with selectively several fundamentals of nuclear physics. Subsequent chapters focus on the nuclear materials science; nuclear fuel; structural materials; moderator materials employed to """"slow down"""" fission neutrons; and neutron highly absorbent materials that serve in reactor's power control. Other chapters exp

  1. Global initiatives to prevent nuclear terrorism; Globalt initiativ for aa hindre nukleaer terrorisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The fight against nuclear and radiological terrorism - someone to blow up a nuclear weapon or spread radioactive material as a 'dirty bomb' that act of terrorism - is one of the most serious threats to international security. The Global Initiative to prevent nuclear terrorism is a Norwegian-sponsored initiative that is aimed directly at combating terrorism by non-state actors. NRPA follow up Norwegian measures, including in Kazakhstan, and verifies that they are implemented and functioning as intended. (AG)

  2. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John

    2008-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  3. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John [Idaho National laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  4. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  5. Determination of internationally controlled materials according to provisions of the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The internationally controlled materials determined according to the law for nuclear source materials, etc. are the following: nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials, moderating materials, facilities including reactors, etc. sold, transferred, etc. to Japan according to the agreements for peaceful uses of atomic energy between Japan, and the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and France by the respective governments and those organs under them; nuclear fuel materials resulting from usage of the above sold and transferred materials, facilities; nuclear fuel materials sold to Japan according to agreements set by the International Atomic Energy Agency; nuclear fuel materials involved with the safeguards in nuclear weapons non-proliferation treaty with IAEA. (Mori, K.)

  6. Professional Nuclear Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcella, A.A.; O'Leary, W.J.

    1966-01-01

    This paper describes the scope of nuclear materials management for a typical power reactor in the United States of America. Since this power reactor is financed by private capital, one of the principal obligations of the reactor operator is to ensure that the investment is protected and will furnish an adequate financial return. Because of the high intrinsic value of nuclear materials, appropriate security and accountability must be continually exercised to minimize losses beyond security and accountability for the nuclear materials. Intelligent forethought and planning must be employed to ensure that additional capital is not lost as avoidable additional costs or loss of revenue in a number of areas. The nuclear materials manager must therefore provide in advance against the following contingencies and maintain constant control or liaison against deviations from planning during (a) pre-reactor acquisition of fuel and fuel elements, (b) in-reactor utilization of the fuel elements, and (c) post-reactor recovery of fuel values. During pre-reactor planning and operations, it is important that the fuel element be designed for economy in manufacture, handling, shipping, and replaceability. The time schedule for manufacturing operations must minimize losses of revenue from unproductive dead storage of high cost materials. For in-reactor operations, the maximum achievable burn-up of the fissionable material must be obtained by means of appropriate fuel rearrangement schemes. Concurrently the unproductive down-time of the reactor for fuel rearrangement, inspections, and the like must be minimized. In the post-reactor period, when the fuel has reached a predetermined depletion of fissionable material, the nuclear materials manager must provide for the most economical reprocessing and recovery of fissionable values and by-products. Nuclear materials management is consequently an essential factor in achieving competitive fuel cycle and unit energy costs with power reactors

  7. Global economics/energy/environmental (E3) modeling of long-term nuclear energy futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Davidson, J.W.; Bathke, C.G.; Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A global energy, economics, environment (E 3 ) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Using this model, consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed. A spectrum of future is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel-cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes. An emphasis is placed on nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy and the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors

  8. Definition of Nuclear Material in Aspects of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Ji Hye; Lee, Chan Suh

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear safety accidents directly affect human health but nuclear security incidents indirectly influence human, which demonstrates the reason why security receives less attention. However, it is acknowledged that nuclear terrorism is indeed one of the most dreadful threat humanity faces. As part of strengthening nuclear security as well as nonproliferation to response to the threat, we need a better understanding of the nuclear material which needs to be safe under the objective of nuclear security. In reality, practitioners implement safeguards and physical protection in compliance with the regulation text in domestic legislation. Thus, it is important to specify nuclear material clearly in law for effective implementation. Therefore, the definition of terminology related to nuclear material is explored herein, within the highest-level legislation on the safeguards and physical protection. First the definition in Korean legislation is analyzed. Then, so as to suggest some improvements, other international efforts are examined and some case studies are conducted on other states which have similar level of nuclear technology and industry to Korea. Finally, a draft of definition on nuclear material in perspective of nuclear nonproliferation and security is suggested based on the analysis below. The recommendation showed the draft nuclear material definition in nuclear control. The text will facilitate the understanding of nuclear material in the context of nuclear nonproliferation and security. It might provide appropriate provision for future legislation related to nuclear nonproliferation and security. For effective safeguards and physical protection measures, nuclear material should be presented with in a consistent manner as shown in the case of United Kingdom. It will be much more helpful if further material engineering studies on each nuclear material are produced. Multi-dimensional approach is required for the studies on the degree of efforts to divert

  9. Definition of Nuclear Material in Aspects of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Ji Hye; Lee, Chan Suh [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Nuclear safety accidents directly affect human health but nuclear security incidents indirectly influence human, which demonstrates the reason why security receives less attention. However, it is acknowledged that nuclear terrorism is indeed one of the most dreadful threat humanity faces. As part of strengthening nuclear security as well as nonproliferation to response to the threat, we need a better understanding of the nuclear material which needs to be safe under the objective of nuclear security. In reality, practitioners implement safeguards and physical protection in compliance with the regulation text in domestic legislation. Thus, it is important to specify nuclear material clearly in law for effective implementation. Therefore, the definition of terminology related to nuclear material is explored herein, within the highest-level legislation on the safeguards and physical protection. First the definition in Korean legislation is analyzed. Then, so as to suggest some improvements, other international efforts are examined and some case studies are conducted on other states which have similar level of nuclear technology and industry to Korea. Finally, a draft of definition on nuclear material in perspective of nuclear nonproliferation and security is suggested based on the analysis below. The recommendation showed the draft nuclear material definition in nuclear control. The text will facilitate the understanding of nuclear material in the context of nuclear nonproliferation and security. It might provide appropriate provision for future legislation related to nuclear nonproliferation and security. For effective safeguards and physical protection measures, nuclear material should be presented with in a consistent manner as shown in the case of United Kingdom. It will be much more helpful if further material engineering studies on each nuclear material are produced. Multi-dimensional approach is required for the studies on the degree of efforts to divert

  10. Nuclear materials management storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.W. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs' Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites

  11. Nuclear material operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  12. Nuclear material operations manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1979-06-01

    This manual is intended to provide a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  13. Selection of nuclear reactor coolant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lisheng; Wang Bairong

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear material is nuclear material or materials used in nuclear industry, the general term, it is the material basis for the construction of nuclear power, but also a leader in nuclear energy development, the two interdependent and mutually reinforcing. At the same time, nuclear materials research, development and application of the depth and breadth of science and technology reflects a nation and the level of the nuclear power industry. Coolant also known as heat-carrier agent, is an important part of the heart nuclear reactor, its role is to secure as much as possible to the economic output in the form fission energy to heat the reactor to be used: the same time cooling the core, is controlled by the various structural components allowable temperature. This paper described the definition of nuclear reactor coolant and characteristics, and then addressed the requirements of the coolant material, and finally were introduced several useful properties of the coolant and chemical control. (authors)

  14. Nuclear material accounting handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The handbook documents existing best practices and methods used to account for nuclear material and to prepare the required nuclear material accounting reports for submission to the IAEA. It provides a description of the processes and steps necessary for the establishment, implementation and maintenance of nuclear material accounting and control at the material balance area, facility and State levels, and defines the relevant terms. This handbook serves the needs of State personnel at various levels, including State authorities, facility operators and participants in training programmes. It can assist in developing and maintaining accounting systems which will support a State's ability to account for its nuclear material such that the IAEA can verify State declarations, and at the same time support the State's ability to ensure its nuclear security. In addition, the handbook is useful for IAEA staff, who is closely involved with nuclear material accounting. The handbook includes the steps and procedures a State needs to set up and maintain to provide assurance that it can account for its nuclear material and submit the prescribed nuclear material accounting reports defined in Section 1 and described in Sections 3 and 4 in terms of the relevant agreement(s), thereby enabling the IAEA to discharge its verification function as defined in Section 1 and described in Sections 3 and 4. The contents of the handbook are based on the model safeguards agreement and, where applicable, there will also be reference to the model additional protocol. As a State using The handbook consists of five sections. In Section 1, definitions or descriptions of terms used are provided in relation to where the IAEA applies safeguards or, for that matter, accounting for and control of nuclear material in a State. The IAEA's approach in applying safeguards in a State is also defined and briefly described, with special emphasis on verification. In Section 2, the obligations of the State

  15. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Concerning refining, fabrication and reprocessing operations of such materials as well as the installation and operation of reactors, necessary regulations are carried out. Namely, in case of establishing the business of refining, fabricating and reprocessing nuclear materials as well as installing nuclear reactors, applications for the permission of the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry should be filed. Change of such operations should be permitted after filing applications. These permissions are retractable. As regards the reactors installed aboard foreign ships, it must be reported to enter Japanese waters and the permission by the Prime Minister must be obtained. In case of nuclear fuel fabricators, a chief technician of nuclear fuel materials (qualified) must be appointed per each fabricator. In case of installing nuclear reactors, the design and methods of construction should be permitted by the Prime Minister. The standard for such permission is specified, and a chief engineer for operating reactors (qualified) must be appointed. Successors inherit the positions of ones who have operated nuclear material refining, fabrication and reprocessing businesses or operated nuclear reactors. (Rikitake, Y.)

  16. Global nuclear material monitoring with NDA and C/S data through integrated facility monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Argo, P.; Goulding, C.; Klosterbuer, S.; Halbig, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on a flexible, integrated demonstration of a monitoring approach for nuclear material monitoring. This includes aspects of item signature identification, perimeter portal monitoring, advanced data analysis, and communication as a part of an unattended continuous monitoring system in an operating nuclear facility. Advanced analysis is applied to the integrated nondestructive assay and containment and surveillance data that are synchronized in time. End result will be the foundation for a cost-effective monitoring system that could provide the necessary transparency even in areas that are denied to foreign nationals of both US and Russia should these processes and materials come under full-scope safeguards or bilateral agreements. Monitoring systems of this kind have the potential to provide additional benefits including improved nuclear facility security and safeguards and lower personnel radiation exposures. Demonstration facilities in this paper include VTRAP-prototype, Los Alamos Critical Assemblies Facility, Kazakhstan BM-350 Reactor monitor, DUPIC radiation monitoring, and JOYO and MONJU radiation monitoring

  17. Nuclear material management: challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieu, J.; Besnainou, J.; Leboucher, I.; Chiguer, M.; Capus, G.; Greneche, D.; Durret, L.F.; Carbonnier, J.L.; Delpech, M.; Loaec, Ch.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Granger, S.; Devid, S.; Bidaud, A.; Jalouneix, J.; Toubon, H.; Pochon, E.; Bariteau, J.P.; Bernard, P.; Krellmann, J.; Sicard, B.

    2008-01-01

    The articles in this dossier were derived from the papers of the yearly S.F.E.N. convention, which took place in Paris, 12-13 March 2008. They deal with the new challenges and prospects in the field of nuclear material management, throughout the nuclear whole fuel cycle, namely: the institutional frame of nuclear materials management, the recycling, the uranium market, the enrichment market, the different scenarios for the management of civil nuclear materials, the technical possibilities of spent fuels utilization, the option of thorium, the convention on the physical protection of nuclear materials and installations, the characterisation of nuclear materials by nondestructive nuclear measurements, the proliferation from civil installations, the use of plutonium ( from military origin) and the international agreements. (N.C.)

  18. Nuclear material operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.P.; Gassman, L.D.

    1978-04-01

    This manual is intended to provide a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations--management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of ''play-scripts'' in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  19. Nuclear measurements and reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the JRC programs on nuclear data, nuclear metrology, nuclear reference materials and non-nuclear reference materials. Budget restrictions and personnel difficulties were encountered during 1987. Fission properties of 235 U as a function of neutron energy and of the resonances can be successfully described on the basis of a three exit channel fission model. Double differential neutron emission cross-sections were accomplished on 7 Li and were started for the tritium production cross-section of 9 Be. Reference materials of uranium minerals and ores were prepared. Special nuclear targets were prepared. A batch of 250 g of Pu0 2 was characterized in view of certification as reference material for the elemental assay of plutonium

  20. Nuclear materials management procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veevers, K.; Silver, J.M.; Quealy, K.J.; Steege, E. van der.

    1987-10-01

    This manual describes the procedures for the management of nuclear materials and associated materials at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The procedures are designed to comply with Australia's nuclear non-proliferation obligations to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), bilateral agreements with other countries and ANSTO's responsibilities under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act, 1987. The manual replaces those issued by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission in 1959, 1960 and 1969

  1. Material input of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, S.; Tarjanne, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Material Input (MI) of nuclear fuel, expressed in terms of the total amount of natural material needed for manufacturing a product, is examined. The suitability of the MI method for assessing the environmental impacts of fuels is also discussed. Material input is expressed as a Material Input Coefficient (MIC), equalling to the total mass of natural material divided by the mass of the completed product. The material input coefficient is, however, only an intermediate result, which should not be used as such for the comparison of different fuels, because the energy contents of nuclear fuel is about 100 000-fold compared to the energy contents of fossil fuels. As a final result, the material input is expressed in proportion to the amount of generated electricity, which is called MIPS (Material Input Per Service unit). Material input is a simplified and commensurable indicator for the use of natural material, but because it does not take into account the harmfulness of materials or the way how the residual material is processed, it does not alone express the amount of environmental impacts. The examination of the mere amount does not differentiate between for example coal, natural gas or waste rock containing usually just sand. Natural gas is, however, substantially more harmful for the ecosystem than sand. Therefore, other methods should also be used to consider the environmental load of a product. The material input coefficient of nuclear fuel is calculated using data from different types of mines. The calculations are made among other things by using the data of an open pit mine (Key Lake, Canada), an underground mine (McArthur River, Canada) and a by-product mine (Olympic Dam, Australia). Furthermore, the coefficient is calculated for nuclear fuel corresponding to the nuclear fuel supply of Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) company in 2001. Because there is some uncertainty in the initial data, the inaccuracy of the final results can be even 20-50 per cent. The value

  2. Study of Nuclear Environment and Material Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Progress of global warming requires us to establish a low-carbon society. Carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) is emitted from two major sectors in the world. The largest CO 2 emitting sector is power sector having 46 % of the world share. Nuclear power has an important role because it does not emit CO 2 while it produces electricity. The second largest sector is transportation and has about 23 % of the world share. 73 % of transportation is land-transportation, that is to say automobile. Therefore, lots of motor-car companies are expressing their vision to supply electric vehicle (EV) or hybrid vehicle (HV) in these few years. In order to manufacture EV and HV, rare-earth materials such as neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy) are necessary. EV and HV are driven by an electric motor using permanent magnet. Nd is used to improve torque of permanent magnet. Dy is used as supplement for the case of HV in order to enhance thermal resistance because electric motor is exposed to high temperature circumference with combustion engine. 97 % of world supply of rare-earth production is shared by China. The reduction of exportation amount of rare-earth from China to Japan have brought a significant impact on Japan's industries especially for motor-car companies, which are going to supply EV and HV. Japan is going to develop new rare-earth mines outside of China such as in Vietnam. The most important problem relating to rare-earth mining is 'thorium'. The popular minerals containing rare-earth are monazite, bastnasite and so on. Thorium is mostly included in the same minerals. Therefore, thorium is separated whenever rare-earth is refined. Thorium separated in China can be stored for future usage as nuclear fuel. Though thorium began to be considered also in a working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan since 2010, it is not clear when thorium starts to be used and how much amount of thorium will be consumed. It is estimated that consumption of thorium will be smaller than the production

  3. Introduction of nuclear power plant for mitigating the impact of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida Nuryatin Finahari

    2008-01-01

    Energy utilization for power plants in Indonesia is still highly depending on the burning of fossil fuel like coal, oil, and gas. From the combustion of fossil fuel, greenhouse gases such as CO 2 and N 2 O are produced. An increase of CO 2 gas emission to the atmosphere can block the heat loss from the earth surface and will increase the greenhouse effect that results in the temperature increase of the earth surface (global warming). Global warming can cause a very extreme climate change on earth. One of the solutions to reduce CO 2 gas emission produced by fossil fuel power plants is to utilize the plants with flue gas treatment facility. At such facility, CO 2 gas is reacted with certain mineral based substances thus can be used as base material in food-, pharmaceutical-, construction-, and cosmetic industry. Another alternative to reduce CO 2 gas emission is by replacing fossil fuel power plants with nuclear power plants. Considering the environmental and economic aspects, the nuclear power plant does not emit CO 2 gas, so that the use of nuclear power plant can mitigate the impact of global warming. Based on the operational experience of nuclear power plants in advanced countries, the cost of generating electricity from nuclear power plants is more competitive than that of fossil fuel power plant. (author)

  4. Statistical methods for nuclear material management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.M.; Bennett, C.A.

    1988-12-01

    This book is intended as a reference manual of statistical methodology for nuclear material management practitioners. It describes statistical methods currently or potentially important in nuclear material management, explains the choice of methods for specific applications, and provides examples of practical applications to nuclear material management problems. Together with the accompanying training manual, which contains fully worked out problems keyed to each chapter, this book can also be used as a textbook for courses in statistical methods for nuclear material management. It should provide increased understanding and guidance to help improve the application of statistical methods to nuclear material management problems

  5. Statistical methods for nuclear material management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen W.M.; Bennett, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-12-01

    This book is intended as a reference manual of statistical methodology for nuclear material management practitioners. It describes statistical methods currently or potentially important in nuclear material management, explains the choice of methods for specific applications, and provides examples of practical applications to nuclear material management problems. Together with the accompanying training manual, which contains fully worked out problems keyed to each chapter, this book can also be used as a textbook for courses in statistical methods for nuclear material management. It should provide increased understanding and guidance to help improve the application of statistical methods to nuclear material management problems.

  6. Innovative global architecture for sustainable nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, John; Kagramanyan, Vladimir; Poplavskaya, Elena; Edwards, Geoffrey; Dixon, Brent; Usanov, Vladimir; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Beatty, Randall

    2011-01-01

    The INPRO collaborative project 'Global architecture of innovative nuclear energy systems based on thermal and fast reactors with the inclusion of a closed nuclear fuel cycle (GAINS)' was one of several scenario studies implemented in the IAEA in recent years. The objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems (NESs) taking into account sustainable development, and to validate the results through sample analyses. Belgium, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, France, India, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Slovakia, Ukraine, USA, the European Commission and Argentina as an observer participated in the project. The results received are discussed in the paper, including: development of a heterogeneous multi-group model of a global NES, estimation of nuclear energy demand, identification of a representative set of reactors and fuel cycles, evaluation capability of available analytical and modelling tools, and quantitative analysis of the different options of the global architecture. It was shown that the approach used contributes to development of a coherent vision of driving forces for nuclear energy system development and deployment. (author)

  7. Considerations for sampling nuclear materials for SNM accounting measurements. Special nuclear material accountability report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Upson, U.L.

    1978-05-01

    This report presents principles and guidelines for sampling nuclear materials to measure chemical and isotopic content of the material. Development of sampling plans and procedures that maintain the random and systematic errors of sampling within acceptable limits for SNM(Special Nuclear Materials) accounting purposes are emphasized

  8. Nuclear Materials Management. Proceedings of the Symposium on Nuclear Materials Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-02-15

    An increasing number of countries are using nuclear materials which, because of their high value and the potential hazards involved, require special methods of handling. To discuss these and to provide a forum at which different systems for achieving the necessary economy and safety could be compared, the International Atomic Energy Agency held a Symposium at Vienna on Nuclear Materials Management from 30 August to 3 September, 1965. It was attended by 115 participants from 19 Member States and two international organizations. Nuclear materials are already being used on an industrial scale and their high cost demands close and continuous control to ensure that they are delivered precisely on time and that they are used to the fullest possible extent before they are withdrawn from service. Routine industrial methods of material control and verification are widely used to ensure safe and economical operation and handling in nuclear power stations, in fuel-element fabrication and reprocessing plants, and in storage facilities. In addition special refinements are needed to take account of the value and the degree of purity required of nuclear materials. Quality as well as quantity has to be checked thoroughly and the utmost economy in processing is necessary. The radioactivity of the material poses special problems of handling and storage and creates a potential hazard to health. A further problem is that of criticality. These dangers and the means of averting them are well understood, as is evidenced by the outstandingly good safety record of the atomic energy industry. But besides accommodating all these special problems, day-to-day procedures must be simple enough to fit in with industrial conditions. Many of the 58 papers presented at the Symposium emphasized that records, checks, measurements and handling precautions, if suitably devised, provide the control vital to efficient operation, serve as checks against loss or waste of valuable materials and help meet the

  9. Determination of internationally controlled materials according to provisions of the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors, and the former notification No. 26, 1961, is hereby abolished. Internationally regulated goods under the law are as follows: nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and moderator materials transferred by sale or other means from the governments of the U.S., U.K., Canada, Australia and France or the persons under their jurisdictions according to the agreements concluded between the governments of Japan and these countries, respectively, the nuclear fuel materials recovered from these materials or produced by their usage, nuclear reactors, the facilities and heavy water transferred by sale or other means from these governments or the persons under their jurisdictions, the nuclear fuel materials produced by the usage of such reactors, facilities and heavy water, the nuclear fuel materials sold by the International Atomic Energy Agency under the contract between the Japanese government and the IAEA, the nuclear fuel materials recovered from these materials or produced by their usage, the heavy water produced by the facilities themselves transferred from the Canadian government, Canadian governmental enterprises or the persons under the jurisdiction of the Canadian government or produced by the usage of these facilities, etc. (Okada, K.)

  10. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  11. Treaties against nuclear terrorism. The global legal framework can make a difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    Two international treaties, one being drafted and the other already on the books, specifically address nuclear terrorism. The first Treaty known as the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was adopted in 1980 under auspices of the IAEA. The second Treaty for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is being drafted as part of the UN global campaign against terrorism. Both could require that specific measures be taken worldwide to protect and secure nuclear facilities from terrorist attack and sabotage. But neither one does. Efforts to include such requirements, before the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, have not borne fruit. Now, in the wake of lessons learned, is the time to revive and support them

  12. Illicit trafficking of radiological and nuclear materials: modeling and analysis of trafficking trends and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, David L.; Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Concerns over the illicit trafficking of radiological and nuclear materials were focused originally on the lack of security and accountability of such material throughout the former Soviet states. This is primarily attributed to the frequency of events that have occurred involving the theft and trafficking of critical material components that could be used to construct a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or even a rudimentary nuclear device. However, with the continued expansion of nuclear technology and the deployment of a global nuclear fuel cycle these materials have become increasingly prevalent, affording a more diverse inventory of dangerous materials and dual-use items. To further complicate the matter, the list of nuclear consumers has grown to include: (1) Nation-states that have gone beyond the IAEA agreed framework and additional protocols concerning multiple nuclear fuel cycles and processes that reuse the fuel through reprocessing to exploit technologies previously confined to the more industrialized world; (2) Terrorist organizations seeking to acquire nuclear and radiological material due to the potential devastation and psychological effect of their use; (3) Organized crime, which has discovered a lucrative market in trafficking of illicit material to international actors and/or countries; and (4) Amateur smugglers trying to feed their families in a post-Soviet era. An initial look at trafficking trends of this type seems scattered and erratic, localized primarily to a select group of countries. This is not necessarily the case. The success with which other contraband has been smuggled throughout the world suggests that nuclear trafficking may be carried out with relative ease along the same routes by the same criminals or criminal organizations. Because of the inordinately high threat posed by terrorist or extremist groups acquiring the ingredients for unconventional weapons, it is necessary that illicit trafficking of these materials be better

  13. Evaluating the attractiveness of nuclear material for proliferation-resistance and nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Ikegame, Kou; Kuno, Yusuke

    2011-01-01

    The attractiveness of nuclear material, defined as a function of the isotopic composition of the nuclear material in formulas expressing the material's intrinsic properties, is of considerably debate in recent developments of proliferation-resistance measures of a nuclear energy system. A reason for such debate arises from the fact that the concept of nuclear material attractiveness can be confusing because the desirability of a material for nuclear explosive use depends on many tangible and intangible factors including the intent and capability of the adversary. In addition, a material that is unattractive to an advanced nation (in the case of proliferation) may be very attractive to a terrorist (in the case of physical protection and nuclear security). Hence, the concept of 'Nuclear Material Attractiveness' for different nuclear materials must be considered in the context of safeguards and security. The development of a ranking scheme on the attractiveness of nuclear materials could be a useful concept to start-off the strategies for safeguards and security on a new footing (i.e., why and how nuclear material is attractive, and what are the quantifiable basis). Japan may benefit from such concept regarding the attractiveness of nuclear materials when recovering nuclear materials from the damaged cores in Fukushima because safety, security, and safeguards (3S) would be a prominent consideration for the recovery operation, and it would be the first time such operation is performed in a non-nuclear weapons state. (author)

  14. Global economics/energy/environmental (E{sup 3}) modeling of long-term nuclear energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Davidson, J.W.; Bathke, C.G.; Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    A global energy, economics, environment (E{sup 3}) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Using this model, consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed. A spectrum of future is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel-cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes. An emphasis is placed on nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy and the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors.

  15. Automated nuclear material recovery and decontamination of large steel dynamic experiment containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, D.K.; Gallant, D.A.; Nelson, D.C.; Stovall, L.A.; Wedman, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    A key mission of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to reduce the global nuclear danger through stockpile stewardship efforts that ensure the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons. In support of this mission LANL performs dynamic experiments on special nuclear materials (SNM) within large steel containers. Once these experiments are complete, these containers must be processed to recover residual SNM and to decontaminate the containers to below low level waste (LLW) disposal limits which are much less restrictive for disposal purposes than transuranic (TRU) waste limits. The purpose of this paper is to describe automation efforts being developed by LANL for improving the efficiency, increasing worker safety, and reducing worker exposure during the material cleanout and recovery activities performed on these containers

  16. Some global aspects regarding nuclear spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru; Postoaca, Marius Marcel

    2002-01-01

    The globalization means the worldwide extension of certain aspects of social or economic processes, structural or environmental changes, or concerning working methodologies, technical activity, industrial production, etc. At present the emergence of global aspects is more frequently observed, being determined by the rapid development of computerized systems and of transfer of information, by the development of big transnational companies and due to the increasing international co-operation. Some of the manifested global aspects could be beneficial for the development of the human society, other could be not. It is necessary to perform an adequate analysis from this view point and to promote appropriate measures to enhance the positive global aspects and to mitigate the negative global aspects. These measures can have a good efficiency only if they are pursued at global level, but for this it is necessary to build an adequate international coordinating body, having the corresponding instruments for action. The global aspects identified in the field of nuclear power may be divided into two categories, namely: - related to the main features of nuclear power; - regarding the specific features of some subdivisions of the field, as for example, spent fuel management. In the paper both categories are discussed. The influence of the global aspects on the development of nuclear power and particularly on the back end activities of the fuel cycle, is also presented. At the same time, some possible actions for enhancing nuclear power development are proposed

  17. The world's nuclear future - built on material success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Sue

    2010-07-01

    In our energy hungry world of the twenty-first century, the future of electricity generation must meet the twin challenges of security of supply and reduced carbon emissions. The expectations for nuclear power programmes to play a part in delivering success on both counts, grows ever higher. The nuclear industry is poised on a renaissance likely to dwarf the heady days of the 1960s and early 1970s. Global supply chain and project management challenges abound, now just as then. The science and engineering of materials will be key to the successful deployment and operation of a new generation of reactor systems and their associated fuel cycles. Understanding and predicting materials performance will be key to achieving life extension of existing assets and underpinning waste disposal options, as well as giving confidence to the designers, their financial backers and governments across the globe, that the next generation of reactors will deliver their full potential.

  18. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international co-operation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  19. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international co-operation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers [es

  20. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international co-operation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  1. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahle, Larry

    2007-10-01

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R&D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  2. Smuggling special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe

    1999-01-01

    Ever since the collapse of the former Soviet Union reports have circulated with increasing frequency concerning attempts to smuggle materials from that country's civil and military nuclear programs. Such an increase obviously raises a number of concerns (outlined in the author's introduction), chief among which is the possibility that these materials might eventually fall into the hands of proliferant states or terrorist groups. The following issues are presented: significance of materials being smuggled; sources and smuggling routes; potential customers; international efforts to reduce nuclear smuggling; long-term disposition of fissile materials. (author)

  3. Nuclear battery materials and application of nuclear batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Shaochang; Lu Zhenming; Fu Xiaoming; Liang Tongxiang

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear battery has lots of advantages such as small volume, longevity, environal stability and so on, therefore, it was widely used in aerospace, deep-sea, polar region, heart pacemaker, micro-electromotor and other fields etc. The application of nuclear battery and the development of its materials promote each other. In this paper the development and the latest research progress of nuclear battery materials has been introduced from the view of radioisotope, electric energy conversion and encapsulation. And the current and potential applications of the nuclear battery are also summarized. (authors)

  4. Nuclear materials stewardship: Our enduring mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have handled a remarkably wide variety of nuclear materials over the past 50 yr. Two fundamental changes have occurred that shape the current landscape regarding nuclear materials. If one recognizes the implications and opportunities, one sees that the stewardship of nuclear materials will be a fundamental and important job of the DOE for the foreseeable future. The first change--the breakup of the Soviet Union and the resulting end to the nuclear arms race--altered US objectives. Previously, the focus was on materials production, weapon design, nuclear testing, and stockpile enhancements. Now the attention is on dismantlement of weapons, excess special nuclear material inventories, accompanying increased concern over the protection afforded to such materials; new arms control measures; and importantly, maintenance of the safety and reliability of the remaining arsenal without testing. The second change was the raised consciousness and sense of responsibility for dealing with the environmental legacies of past nuclear arms programs. Recognition of the need to clean up radioactive contamination, manage the wastes, conduct current operations responsibly, and restore the environment have led to the establishment of what is now the largest program in the DOE. Two additional features add to the challenge and drive the need for recognition of nuclear materials stewardship as a fundamental, enduring, and compelling mission of the DOE. The first is the extraordinary time frames. No matter what the future of nuclear weapons and no matter what the future of nuclear power, the DOE will be responsible for most of the country's nuclear materials and wastes for generations. Even if the Yucca Mountain program is successful and on schedule, it will last more than 100 yr. Second, the use, management, and disposition of nuclear materials and wastes affect a variety of nationally important and diverse objectives, from national

  5. Global perspectives on future nuclear energy utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is presented as an overview of the nuclear sector from a global perspective. The aim is to show that nuclear power does have a future but that this will only be fully realised when the industry is able to demonstrate that it is part of the solution to the world's energy and environmental difficulties rather than part of the problem. The paper looks at the projected world energy demand as the population increases and countries develop, showing that nuclear power is required to meet this demand. In presenting nuclear power as a solution, the paper addresses the challenges facing us such as public confidence, environmental opposition, political issues and finance. It addresses the debate over reprocessing and direct disposal of irradiated nuclear fuel and looks at the competition from other fuels. The paper suggests how the industry might approach these issues such that nuclear power is indeed regarded globally as a solution to some of the worlds most pressing problems. (author)

  6. Determination of internationally controlled materials according to provisions of the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    According to the provisions of The Law, those stipulated as internationally controlled materials are nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials, moderating materials, reactors and facilities, transferred from such as the U.S.A., the U.K. and Canada on the agreements of peaceful uses of atomic energy, and nuclear fuel materials accruing therefrom. (Mori, K.)

  7. Chapter No.5. Nuclear materials and physical protection of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) is based on requirements resulting from the Safeguards Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the IAEA. UJD performs this activity according to the 'Atomic Act' and relevant decree. The purpose of the SSAC is also to prevent unauthorised use of nuclear materials, to detect loses of nuclear materials and provide information that could lead to the recovery of missing material. The main part of nuclear materials under jurisdiction of the Slovak Republic is located at NPP Jaslovske Bohunice, NPP Mochovce and at interim storage in Jaslovske Bohunice. Even though that there are located more then 99% of nuclear materials in these nuclear facilities, there are not any significant problems with their accountancy and control due to very simply identification of accountancy units - fuel assemblies, and due to stability of legal subjects responsible for operation and for keeping of information continuity, which is necessary for fulfilling requirements of the Agreement. The nuclear material located outside nuclear facilities is a special category. There are 81 such subjects of different types and orientations on the territory of the Slovak Republic. These subjects use mainly depleted uranium as a shielding and small quantity of natural uranium, low enrichment uranium and thorium for experimental purposes and education. Frequent changes of these subjects, their transformations into the other subjects, extinction and very high fluctuation of employees causes loss of information about nuclear materials and creates problems with fulfilling requirements resulting from the Agreement. In 2001, the UJD carried out 51 inspections of nuclear materials, of which 31 inspections were performed at nuclear installations in co-operation with the IAEA inspectors. No discrepancies concerning the management of nuclear materials were found out during inspections and safeguards goals in year 2001 were

  8. Thermodynamics of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, M.H.

    1975-01-01

    A report is presented of the Fourth International Symposium on Thermodynamics of Nuclear Materials held in Vienna, 21-25 October 1974. The technological theme of the Symposium was the application of thermodynamics to the understanding of the chemistry of irradiated nuclear fuels and to safety assessments for hypothetical accident conditions in reactors. The first four sessions were devoted to these topics and they were followed by four more sessions on the more basic thermodynamics, phase diagrams and the thermodynamic properties of a wide range of nuclear materials. Sixty-seven papers were presented

  9. Techniques and methods in nuclear materials traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The nonproliferation community is currently addressing concerns that the access to special nuclear materials may increase the illicit trafficking in weapons-usable materials from civil and/or weapons material stores and/or fuel cycles systems. Illicit nuclear traffic usually involves reduced quantities of nuclear materials perhaps as samplings of a potential protracted diversionary flow from sources to users. To counter illicit nuclear transactions requires the development of techniques and methods in nuclear material traceability as an important phase of a broad forensic analysis capability. This report discusses how isotopic signatures and correlation methods were applied to determine the origins of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Plutonium samples reported as illicit trafficking in nuclear materials

  10. Feeding the nuclear pipeline: Enabling a global nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, Alan E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: There is nothing more vital to the advancement of human civilization than the abundance of usable and affordable energy. It underpins national security, economic prosperity, and global stability. Nuclear energy, which exhibits a unique combination of environmental and sustainable attributes, appears strongly positioned to play a much larger and more pivotal role in the mix of future global energy supplies than it has played in the past. Unfortunately, after a fairly rapid growth period within the industrialized nations in the 1960 to 1980 time frame, a variety of factors led to a substantial reduction in commercial nuclear power plant construction (with the possible exception of several Pacific Rim countries). This, in turn, led to a serious erosion in the enrollment patterns of nuclear engineering programs - causing alarmingly low enrollment levels in many counties by the turn of the century. Numerous studies conducted over the past five years have soberly come to the consistent conclusion that the nuclear pipeline cannot keep up with the needs of the nuclear industry. In fact, when combining the aging work force with low matriculation rates in most nuclear engineering academic programs, a huge (and unacceptable) mismatch between needs and supply is strikingly evident. This is further exasperated by the lack of meaningful efforts to capture the knowledge of the 'first nuclear era' professionals in a form that can be effectively transferred to the upcoming generation. Methods must be found to better capture the enormous body of experience already accumulated and both document it and then mentor the new nuclear engineers that do enter the work force to enable them to build upon this experience, rather than having to re-create it. On the positive side, enrollment patterns in the majority of nuclear engineering programs still in existence within the United States are now generally on the rise, at least at the undergraduate level. Some programs have

  11. Estimation of global inventories of radioactive waste and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    A variety of nuclear activities have been carried out in the second part of the twentieth century for different purposes. Initially the emphasis was on military applications, but with the passage of time the main focus of nuclear activities has shifted to peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to the use of radioactive material in industry, medicine and research. Regardless of the objectives, the nuclear activities generate radioactive waste. It was considered worthwhile to produce a set of worldwide data that could be assessed to evaluate the legacy of the nuclear activities performed up to the transition between the twentieth and the twenty first century. The assessment tries to cover the inventory of all the human produced radioactive material that can be considered to result from both military and civilian applications. This has caused remarkable difficulties since much of the data, particularly relating to military programmes, are not readily available. Consequently the data on the inventory of radioactive material should be considered as order-of-magnitude approximations. This report as a whole should be considered as a first iteration in a continuing process of updating and upgrading. The accumulations of radioactive materials can be considered a burden for human society, both at present and in the future, since they require continuing monitoring and control. Knowing the amounts and types of such radioactive inventories can help in the assessment of the relative burdens. Knowledge of the national or regional radioactive waste inventory is necessary for planning management operations, including the sizing and design of conditioning, storage and disposal facilities. A global inventory, either of radioactive waste or of other environmental accumulations of radioactive material, could be used to provide a perspective on the requirements and burdens associated with their management, by means of comparisons with the burdens caused by other types of waste or other

  12. Development of measures to deal with illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schandorf, C.; Amoako, J.K.; Asiamah, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The world has now become a global village as such no country can isolate itself from global trends. Reported cases of illicit trafficking in nuclear materials have focused international attention on ways to combat an emerging phenomenon of the 1990's. Of the 324 confirmed cases of illicit trafficking nearly 130 involved individuals trying to illegally sell radioactive materials used in medicine or industry whose unauthorized use or movement poses a danger to public health. Some other cases have involved samples of weapons-grade materials confiscated from individuals. These incidents have raised public and governmental concerns. This has prompted stronger efforts to prevent illicit nuclear trafficking by state authorities, including collaboration and co-operation with international organizational such as the IAEA. The IAEA has established the Illicit Trafficking Database Programme and is encouraging all Member States to participate and to report all incidents of illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive materials and other radioactive sources that come to their notice. From the data available from the Regulatory Authority Information System (RAIS), Ghana, there are 344 highly enriched uranium fuel elements (998.2g) in use in the 30kW Research Reactor, (GHARR-1) and 80 radioactive materials in use in medicine, history, research and teaching. The reactor has been subjected to safeguards inspections by IAEA on regular basis. Additionally there have been on the average about nine authorized imports of radioactive into the country in the past seven years. Unlawful use of nuclear materials, through criminal or terrorist activities, may pose a proliferation treat, while unlawful use of radiation poses risks to the public. Ghana has therefore decided to established an effective counter measure against illicit trafficking in nuclear and other materials which might pose both proliferation threat as well as radiological risk to the public and

  13. Global study of nuclear modifications on parton distribution functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A global analysis of nuclear medium modifications of parton distributions is presented using deeply inelastic scattering data of various nuclear targets. Two obtained data sets are provided for quark and gluon nuclear modification factors, referred as nIMParton16. One is from the global fit only to the experimental data of isospin-scalar nuclei (Set A, and the other is from the fit to all the measured nuclear data (Set B. The scale-dependence is described by DGLAP equations with nonlinear corrections in this work. The Fermi motion and off-shell effect, nucleon swelling, and parton–parton recombination are taken into account together for modeling the complicated x-dependence of nuclear modification. The nuclear gluon shadowing in this paper is dynamically generated by the QCD evolution of parton splitting and recombination processes with zero gluon density at the input scale. Sophisticated nuclear dependence of nuclear medium effects is studied with only two free parameters. With the obtained free parameters from the global analysis, the nuclear modifications of parton distribution functions of unmeasured nuclei can be predicted in our model. Nuclear modification of deuteron is also predicted and shown with recent measurement at JLab.

  14. International dimension of illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, L.; Bunn, G.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    2002-01-01

    of nuclear material and radiation sources have been reported in many other countries. For example, uranium enriched to 19.9 percent was stolen from the Kinshasa research reactor in the Congo in mid-1990's. Part of the material was seized from an Italian smuggling network in 1998 and the rest remains missing. Uranium concentrate stolen from Indian uranium mines was seized in India on several occasions, some of it destined for Pakistan: Multiple thefts of ionizing radiation sources have been recorded in the United States. Another problem facing many countries is the illegal transport of contaminated scrap metal or radioactive waste. Russian customs official have been complaining about multiple illegal shipments of radioactive waste from China stopped at the Russian border. This paper will provide results of the analysis of the DSTO database and recommendations for strengthening international cooperation aimed at preventing illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material an a global scale. (author)

  15. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahle, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R and D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities

  16. A new Brazilian regulation for the security of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Renato L.A.; Filho, Josélio S.M.; Torres, Luiz F.B.; Lima, Alexandre R., E-mail: renato.tavares@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: joselio@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: ltorres@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: alexandre.lima@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioproteção e Segurança Nuclear; Lima, Fabiano P.C., E-mail: fabianopetruceli@outlook.com [Presidência da República, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Gabinete de Segurança Institucional

    2017-07-01

    The present paper aims to outline the challenges related to the elaboration and concepts involved in a regulatory transition from a purely prescriptive approach to a combined approach that mixes performance-based concepts and evaluation metrics based on statistical data of equipment and personnel. This methodology might represent an improvement compared to a purely prescriptive approach, in which the regulatory authority defines the measures to be taken by operators of nuclear facilities to prevent theft, sabotage events, and mitigate their consequences. The prescriptive approach, despite having the advantages of clarity in the definition of requirements, simplicity in regulatory terms (inspections to verify compliance), and homogeneity in relation to various facilities, does not allow a clear and effective performance measurement, may provide insufficient or excessive security measures (with excessive expenditure of material and human resources), and the possibility of providing a false sense of security. It is known that, in many countries, the state-sponsored nuclear security regime mixes elements of the two mentioned approaches, prescriptive and based on performance, which is not Brazilian practice nowadays. Such methodological developments happened globally due to the increase of threat level for nuclear facilities and materials. The currently regulation in force is CNEN-NE 2.01, which provides a set of measures intended to implement Physical Protection Systems in Nuclear, Radiological Facilities as well as Transport Operations, and all documents related to security of such issues. The new regulation, named CNEN-NN 2.01, will focus only on Nuclear Material and Facilities (two other regulations specific for Security of Radioactive Sources and Transport Operations are under elaboration process). CNEN NN 2.01 is intended to provide further adherence to new international recommendations, e.g, IAEA INFCIRC 225 Rev.5 (NSS 13), which is currently regarded as the

  17. A new Brazilian regulation for the security of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Renato L.A.; Filho, Josélio S.M.; Torres, Luiz F.B.; Lima, Alexandre R.; Lima, Fabiano P.C.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper aims to outline the challenges related to the elaboration and concepts involved in a regulatory transition from a purely prescriptive approach to a combined approach that mixes performance-based concepts and evaluation metrics based on statistical data of equipment and personnel. This methodology might represent an improvement compared to a purely prescriptive approach, in which the regulatory authority defines the measures to be taken by operators of nuclear facilities to prevent theft, sabotage events, and mitigate their consequences. The prescriptive approach, despite having the advantages of clarity in the definition of requirements, simplicity in regulatory terms (inspections to verify compliance), and homogeneity in relation to various facilities, does not allow a clear and effective performance measurement, may provide insufficient or excessive security measures (with excessive expenditure of material and human resources), and the possibility of providing a false sense of security. It is known that, in many countries, the state-sponsored nuclear security regime mixes elements of the two mentioned approaches, prescriptive and based on performance, which is not Brazilian practice nowadays. Such methodological developments happened globally due to the increase of threat level for nuclear facilities and materials. The currently regulation in force is CNEN-NE 2.01, which provides a set of measures intended to implement Physical Protection Systems in Nuclear, Radiological Facilities as well as Transport Operations, and all documents related to security of such issues. The new regulation, named CNEN-NN 2.01, will focus only on Nuclear Material and Facilities (two other regulations specific for Security of Radioactive Sources and Transport Operations are under elaboration process). CNEN NN 2.01 is intended to provide further adherence to new international recommendations, e.g, IAEA INFCIRC 225 Rev.5 (NSS 13), which is currently regarded as the

  18. A study on the globalization of nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hwan Sam; Kim, Hyun Jun

    1996-05-01

    Nuclear power technology in Korea has been reached at about 95 % level to self-reliance, which has developed energetically since mid of 1980s. Nowadays, it is required to set up globalization of nuclear policy to ensure the introduction of more advanced technologies and to enlarge the use of their developed technologies. In this study, prospects of nuclear power and wastes management, international safeguards, and international co-operation were analyzed focusing on the International Atomic Energy Agency to support timely the introduction of advanced technologies and assure international nuclear communities of Korean nuclear transparency in order to enhance the national policy for self-reliance on their future technology development. This study can be applied to the efficient implementation of Korean nuclear development policy and globalization policy as well. 3 tabs., 1 fig., 13 refs. (Author)

  19. A study on the globalization of nuclear development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hwan Sam; Kim, Hyun Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-05-01

    Nuclear power technology in Korea has been reached at about 95 % level to self-reliance, which has developed energetically since mid of 1980s. Nowadays, it is required to set up globalization of nuclear policy to ensure the introduction of more advanced technologies and to enlarge the use of their developed technologies. In this study, prospects of nuclear power and wastes management, international safeguards, and international co-operation were analyzed focusing on the International Atomic Energy Agency to support timely the introduction of advanced technologies and assure international nuclear communities of Korean nuclear transparency in order to enhance the national policy for self-reliance on their future technology development. This study can be applied to the efficient implementation of Korean nuclear development policy and globalization policy as well. 3 tabs., 1 fig., 13 refs. (Author).

  20. The system of nuclear material control of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeligbayeva, G.Zh.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The State system for nuclear material control consists of three integral components. The efficiency of each is to guarantee the non-proliferation regime in Kazakhstan. The components are the following: accounting, export and import control and physical protection of nuclear materials. First, the implementation of the goals of accounting and control bring into force, by the organization of the system for accounting and measurement of nuclear materials to determine present quantity. Organizing the accounting for nuclear material at facilities will ensure the efficiency of accountancy and reporting information. This defines the effectiveness of the state system for the accounting for the Kazakhstan's nuclear materials. Currently, Kazakhstan's nuclear material is fully safeguarded in designated secure locations. Kazakhstan has a nuclear power plant, 4 research reactors and a fuel fabrication plant. The governmental information system for nuclear materials control consist of two level: Governmental level - KAEA collects reports from facilities and prepares the reports for International Atomic Energy Agency, keeping of supporting documents and other necessary information, a data base of export and import, a data base of nuclear material inventory. Facility level - registration and processing information from key measurement points, formation the facility's nuclear materials accounting database. All facilities have computerized systems. Currently, all facilities are safeguarded under IAEA safeguarding standards, through IAEA inspections. Annually, IAEA verifies all nuclear materials at all Kazakhstan nuclear facilities. The government reporting system discloses the existence of all nuclear material and its transfer intended for interaction through the export control system and the nuclear control accounting system. Nuclear material export is regulated by the regulations of the Nuclear Export Control Law. The standard operating procedure is the primary means for

  1. Control of nuclear material specified equipment and specified material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The goal and application field of NE 2.02 regulatory guide of CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear), are described. This regulatory guide is about nuclear material management, specified equipment and specified material. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Full text: An Advisory Group met to consider the up-dating and extension of the Recommendations for the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, produced in 1972. Twenty-seven experts from 11 countries and EURATOM were present. Growing concern has been expressed in many countries that nuclear material may one day be used for acts of sabotage or terrorism. Serious attention is therefore being given to the need for States to develop national systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials during use, storage and transport throughout the nuclear fuel cycle which should minimize risks of sabotage or theft. The revised Recommendations formulated by the Advisory Group include new definitions of the objectives of national systems of physical protection and proposals for minimizing possibilities of unauthorized removal and sabotage to nuclear facilities. The Recommendations also describe administrative or organizational steps to be taken for this purpose and the essential technical requirements of physical protection for various types and locations of nuclear material, e.g., the setting up of protected areas, the use of physical barriers and alarms, the need for security survey, and the need of advance arrangements between the States concerned in case of international transportation, among others. (author)

  3. Proceedings of the GLOBAL 2009 congress - The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Sustainable Options and Industrial Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    GLOBAL 2009 is the ninth bi-annual scientific world meeting on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) that started in 1993 in Seattle. This meeting has established itself as a dedicated international forum for experts, to provide an overall review of the status and new trends of research applications and policies related to the fuel cycle. The international nuclear community is actively developing advanced processes and innovative technologies that enhance economic competitiveness of nuclear energy and ensure its sustainability, through optimized utilization of natural resources, minimization of nuclear wastes, resistance to proliferation and compliance with safety requirements. In this context, and under the profound evolutions concerning energy supply, GLOBAL 2009 is a great opportunity for sharing ideas and visions on the NFC. Special emphasis are placed on the results of the international studies for developing next generation systems. GLOBAL 2009 highlights the technical challenges and successes involved in closing the NFC and recycling long lived nuclear waste. It is also an excellent occasion to review and discuss social and regulatory aspects as well as national plans and international policies and decision affecting the future of nuclear energy. This meeting provides a forum for the exchange of the newest ideas and developments related to the initiatives at of establishing an acceptable, reliable and universal international non proliferation regime. The congress, organized by the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), under the aegis of the IAEA, NEA of the OECD and the UE Commission with the basic sponsorships of ANS, ENS and AESJ, combines plenary sessions, general panel sessions, parallel sessions and technical visits. The program has full length technical papers, which are peer reviewed and published in conference proceedings. A large industrial exhibition takes place to complement the congress. The GLOBAL 2009 congress is organized in coordination with the 2009

  4. Proceedings of the GLOBAL 2009 congress - The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Sustainable Options and Industrial Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    GLOBAL 2009 is the ninth bi-annual scientific world meeting on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) that started in 1993 in Seattle. This meeting has established itself as a dedicated international forum for experts, to provide an overall review of the status and new trends of research applications and policies related to the fuel cycle. The international nuclear community is actively developing advanced processes and innovative technologies that enhance economic competitiveness of nuclear energy and ensure its sustainability, through optimized utilization of natural resources, minimization of nuclear wastes, resistance to proliferation and compliance with safety requirements. In this context, and under the profound evolutions concerning energy supply, GLOBAL 2009 is a great opportunity for sharing ideas and visions on the NFC. Special emphasis are placed on the results of the international studies for developing next generation systems. GLOBAL 2009 highlights the technical challenges and successes involved in closing the NFC and recycling long lived nuclear waste. It is also an excellent occasion to review and discuss social and regulatory aspects as well as national plans and international policies and decision affecting the future of nuclear energy. This meeting provides a forum for the exchange of the newest ideas and developments related to the initiatives at of establishing an acceptable, reliable and universal international non proliferation regime. The congress, organized by the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), under the aegis of the IAEA, NEA of the OECD and the UE Commission with the basic sponsorships of ANS, ENS and AESJ, combines plenary sessions, general panel sessions, parallel sessions and technical visits. The program has full length technical papers, which are peer reviewed and published in conference proceedings. A large industrial exhibition takes place to complement the congress. The GLOBAL 2009 congress is organized in coordination with the 2009

  5. Nuclear science in the 20th century. Nuclear technology applications in material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Junchen; Xu Furong; Zheng Chunkai

    2003-01-01

    The application of nuclear technology to material science has led to a new cross subject, nuclear material science (also named nuclear solid physics) which covers material analysis, material modification and new material synthesis. This paper reviews the development of nuclear technical applications in material science and the basic physics involved

  6. Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes - Romanian experience: Master - Nuclear Materials and Technologies Educational Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.; Valeca, M.

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of the Master Nuclear Materials and Technologies Educational Plan are: 1. To deliver higher education and training in the following specific domains, such as: Powders Technology and Ceramic Materials, Techniques of Structural Analysis, Composite Materials, Semiconductor Materials and Components, Metals and Metallic Alloys, Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, Nuclear Materials, The Engineering of Special Nuclear Materials, 2. To train managers of the Nuclear Waste Products and Nuclear Safety, 3. To qualify in ICT Systems for Nuclear Process Guidance, 4. To qualify in Environmental Protection System at the Level of Nuclear Power Stations, 5. To train managers for Quality Assurance of Nuclear Energetic Processes, 6. To deliver higher education and training regarding the International Treatises, Conventions and Settlements in force in the field of nuclear related activities. (author)

  7. United States Department of Energy Nuclear Materials Stewardship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy launched the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative in January 2000 to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of the Department's nuclear materials, with the principal focus on excess materials. Management of nuclear materials is a fundamental and enduring responsibility that is essential to meeting the Department's national security, nonproliferation, energy, science, and environmental missions into the distant future. The effective management of nuclear materials is important for a set of reasons: (1) some materials are vital to our national defense; (2) the materials pose physical and security risks; (3) managing them is costly; and (4) costs are likely to extend well into the future. The Department currently manages nuclear materials under eight programs, with offices in 36 different locations. Through the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative, progress was during calendar year 20 00 in achieving better coordination and integration of nuclear materials management responsibilities and in evaluating opportunities to further coordinate and integrate cross-program responsibilities for the treatment, storage, and disposition of excess nuclear materials. During CY 2001 the Departmental approach to nuclear materials stewardship changed consistent with the business processes followed by the new administration. This paper reports on the progress of the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative in evaluating and implementing these opportunities, and the remaining challenges in integrating the long-term management of nuclear materials

  8. Can global warming save nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear powered electricity generation in the United Kingdom has an uncertain future. The relative costs of generating electricity by nuclear fission compared to other means and the need for a desirable mixture or ''portfolio'' of energy sources in the electricity industry are identified as the key to this uncertainty. The author argues that Government commitments to reducing Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions, and hence global warming, may strengthen arguments in favour of a firm commitment to nuclear power, as even modern fossil-fuelled power plants emit nearly 90 times as much CO as nuclear plants. (UK)

  9. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The law intends under the principles of the atomic energy act to regulate the refining, processing and reprocessing businesses of nuclear raw and fuel metarials and the installation and operation of reactors for the peaceful and systematic utilization of such materials and reactors and for securing public safety by preventing disasters, as well as to control internationally regulated things for effecting the international agreements on the research, development and utilization of atomic energy. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear raw material; nuclear reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing; internationally regulated thing. Any person who is going to engage in refining businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade Industry. Any person who is going to engage in processing businesses shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister. Any person who is going to establish reactors shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister, The Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transportation according to the kinds of specified reactors, respectively. Any person who is going to engage in reprocessing businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister. The employment of nuclear fuel materials and internationally regulated things is defined in detail. (Okada, K.)

  10. IAEA Activities on Application of Nuclear Techniques in Development and Characterization of Materials for Hydrogen Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salame, P.; Zeman, A.; Mulhauser, F.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells can greatly contribute to a more sustainable less carbon-dependent global energy system. An effective and safe method for storage of hydrogen in solid materials is one of the greatest technologically challenging barriers of widespread introduction of hydrogen in global energy systems. However, aspects related to the development of effective materials for hydrogen storage and fuel cells are facing considerable technological challenges. To reach these goals, research efforts using a combination of advanced modeling, synthesis methods and characterization tools are required. Nuclear methods can play an effective role in the development and characterization of materials for hydrogen storage. Therefore, the IAEA initiated a coordinated research project to promote the application of nuclear techniques for investigation and characterization of new/improved materials relevant to hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. This paper gives an overview of the IAEA activities in this subject. (author)

  11. The physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    A Technical Committee on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material met in April-May 1989 to advise on the need to update the recommendations contained in document INFCIRC/225/Rev.1 and on any changes considered to be necessary. The Technical Committee indicated a number of such changes, reflecting mainly: the international consensus established in respect of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; the experience gained since 1977; and a wish to give equal treatment to protection against the theft of nuclear material and protection against the sabotage of nuclear facilities. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. 1 tab

  12. Approaches to characterization of nuclear material for establishment of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Hiro; Sumi, Mika; Sato, Mitsuhiro; Kayano, Masashi; Kageyama, Tomio; Shinohara, Nobuo; Martinez, Patrick; Xu, Ning; Thomas, Mariam; Porterfield, Donivan; Colletti, Lisa; Schwartz, Dan; Tandon, Lav

    2014-01-01

    The Plutonium Fuel Development Center (PFDC) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been analyzing isotopic compositions and contents of plutonium and uranium as well as trace impurities and physics in the nuclear fuel from MOX fuel fabrication process for accountancy and process control purpose. These analytical techniques are also effective for nuclear forensics to identify such as source, history, and route of the material by determining a composition and characterization of nuclear material. Therefore, PFDC cooperates with Los Alamos National Laboratory which has broad experience and established measurement skill for nuclear forensics, and evaluates the each method, procedure and analytical data toward R and D of characterizing a nuclear material for forensic purposes. This paper describes the approaches to develop characterization techniques of nuclear material for nuclear forensics purposes at PFDC. (author)

  13. Global Status of Nuclear Power: Prospects and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayobeka, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    Global energy requirements and the share of electricity in total energy consumption are increasing rapidly, and the contribution of nuclear power is projected to increase significantly. Out of the 29 countries currently using nuclear power for electricity generation, 22 intend to allow new plants to be built, and, of those, the majority are actively supporting the increased use of nuclear power, some by providing incentives. Most of these countries are expected to build reactors with a generating capacity of over 1000 MW(e). Only three countries continue to have a policy to phase out the use of nuclear energy in the future by not replacing existing operating nuclear power plants and with no consideration of the option of new nuclear plants.In addition, a growing number of countries are expressing interest in introducing nuclear power. Of the more than 60 countries that have expressed such an interest in recent years, over 20 are actively considering nuclear power programmes to meet their energy needs and the others have expressed interest in understanding the issues associated with the introduction of nuclear power.The drivers for rising expectations for nuclear power include: growing energy demand, concern over national energy supply security, the increasingly volatile price of fossil fuels and global environmental concerns. The drivers appear to be the same for countries expanding existing nuclear programmes and those seeking to introduce programmes. The projections made by different international organizations indicate a significant growth in the use of nuclear power. The IAEA projections indicate a world total for nuclear electrical generating capacity of between 445 and 543 GW(e) by 2020 and between 511 and 807 GW(e) by 2030. This paper takes a detailed look into the global status of nuclear power, highlighting challenges and prospects of the technology going into the next century.(author).

  14. Global warming and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The problems of pollution, global warming and renewable energy sources are not going to go away. Governments need to act with urgency if they are to produce a long-term energy policy. This paper looks at the current energy situation, and how this would project into the future without the instigation of radical changes. It concludes that nuclear is the best option available for averting a growing energy, pollution and global warming crisis. (author)

  15. Supplier responsibility for nuclear material quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, P.S.; Dohna, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear materials must be delivered by either the manufacturer or the distributor with objective, documented evidence that the material was manufactured, inspected, and tested by proven techniques performed by qualified personnel working to documented procedures. Measurement devices used for acceptance must be of proven accuracy. The material and all records must be identified for positive traceability as part of the quality history of the nuclear components, system, or structure in which the material was used. In conclusion, the nuclear material supplier must join the fabricator, the installer, and the user in effective implementation of the total systems approach to the application of quality assurance principles to all phases of procurement, fabrication, installation, and use of the safety-related components, systems, and structures in a nuclear power plant

  16. Calculating the new global nuclear terrorism threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Experts from around the world are meeting at the IAEA on 29 October to 2 November at an international symposium on nuclear safeguards, verification, and security. A special session on 2 November focuses on the issue of combating nuclear terrorism. Although terrorists have never used a nuclear weapon, reports that some terrorist groups, particularly al-Qaeda, have attempted to acquire nuclear material is a cause of great concern. According to the IAEA, since 1993, there have been 175 cases of trafficking in nuclear material and 201 cases of trafficking in other radioactive sources (medical, industrial). However, only 18 of these cases have actually involved small amounts of highly enriched uranium or plutonium, the material needed to produce a nuclear bomb. IAEA experts judge the quantities involved to be insufficient to construct a nuclear explosive device. The IAEA experts have evaluated the risks for nuclear terrorism in these three categories: Nuclear facilities; Nuclear Material; Radioactive Sources. The IAEA is proposing a number of new initiatives, including strengthening border monitoring, helping States search for and dispose of orphan sources and strengthening the capabilities of the IAEA Emergency Response Centre to react to radiological emergencies following a terrorist attack. In the short term, the IAEA estimates that at least $30-$50 million annually will be needed to strengthen and expand its programs to meet this terrorist threat

  17. Global outlook for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, F.H.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' The global nuclear power forecast, the North American outlook and the effect of nuclear power growth on greenhouse gas emissions in North America will be discussed. The construction of Generation III reactors will replace aging power plants and, further, add capacity that is environmentally sustainable. The outlook for Generation IV reactors also may significantly improve the environmental balance after 2030, both in electrical markets, waste reduction, and in non-traditional markets such as process heat. (author)

  18. Study on interface between nuclear material accounting system and national nuclear forensic library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yonhong; Han, Jae-Jun; Chang, Sunyoung; Shim, Hye-Won; Ahn, Seungho

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of nuclear forensics requires physical, chemical and radiological characteristics with transport history to unravel properties of seized nuclear materials. For timely assessment provided in the ITWG guideline, development of national response system (e.g., national nuclear forensic library) is strongly recommended. Nuclear material accounting is essential to obtain basic data in the nuclear forensic implementation phase from the perspective of nuclear non-proliferation related to the IAEA Safeguards and nuclear security. In this study, the nuclear material accounting reports were chosen due to its well-established procedure, and reviewed how to efficiently utilize the existing material accounting system to the nuclear forensic implementation phase In conclusion, limits and improvements in implementing the nuclear forensics were discussed. This study reviewed how to utilize the existing material accounting system for implementing nuclear forensics. Concerning item counting facility, nuclear material properties can be obtained based on nuclear material accounting information. Nuclear fuel assembly data being reported for the IAEA Safeguards can be utilized as unique identifier within the back-end fuel cycle. Depending upon the compulsory accountability report period, there exist time gaps. If national capabilities ensure that history information within the front-end nuclear fuel cycle is traceable particularly for the bulk handling facility, the entire cycle of national nuclear fuel would be managed in the framework of developing a national nuclear forensic library

  19. Study on interface between nuclear material accounting system and national nuclear forensic library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yonhong; Han, Jae-Jun; Chang, Sunyoung; Shim, Hye-Won; Ahn, Seungho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The implementation of nuclear forensics requires physical, chemical and radiological characteristics with transport history to unravel properties of seized nuclear materials. For timely assessment provided in the ITWG guideline, development of national response system (e.g., national nuclear forensic library) is strongly recommended. Nuclear material accounting is essential to obtain basic data in the nuclear forensic implementation phase from the perspective of nuclear non-proliferation related to the IAEA Safeguards and nuclear security. In this study, the nuclear material accounting reports were chosen due to its well-established procedure, and reviewed how to efficiently utilize the existing material accounting system to the nuclear forensic implementation phase In conclusion, limits and improvements in implementing the nuclear forensics were discussed. This study reviewed how to utilize the existing material accounting system for implementing nuclear forensics. Concerning item counting facility, nuclear material properties can be obtained based on nuclear material accounting information. Nuclear fuel assembly data being reported for the IAEA Safeguards can be utilized as unique identifier within the back-end fuel cycle. Depending upon the compulsory accountability report period, there exist time gaps. If national capabilities ensure that history information within the front-end nuclear fuel cycle is traceable particularly for the bulk handling facility, the entire cycle of national nuclear fuel would be managed in the framework of developing a national nuclear forensic library.

  20. Study of nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, H.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of deliberate diversion of nuclear materials on materials accounting, the validity of the MUF concept to establish assurance concerning the possible diversion of special nuclear materials, and an economic analysis to permit cost comparison of varying the inventory frequency are being studied. An inventory cost model, the statistical hypothesis testing approach, the game theoretic approach, and analysis of generic plants are considered

  1. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velilla, A.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.) [pt

  2. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes `IAEA Handbook`, which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author).

  3. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes 'IAEA Handbook', which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author)

  4. Automated nuclear materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacak, P.; Moravec, J.

    1982-01-01

    An automated state system of accounting for nuclear materials data was established in Czechoslovakia in 1979. A file was compiled of 12 programs in the PL/1 language. The file is divided into four groups according to logical associations, namely programs for data input and checking, programs for handling the basic data file, programs for report outputs in the form of worksheets and magnetic tape records, and programs for book inventory listing, document inventory handling and materials balance listing. A similar automated system of nuclear fuel inventory for a light water reactor was introduced for internal purposes in the Institute of Nuclear Research (UJV). (H.S.)

  5. Development of nuclear material accountancy control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, Naonori; Kashima, Sadamitsu; Akiba, Mitsunori

    1992-01-01

    PNC is developing a wide area of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, much nuclear material with a various form exists at each facility in the Works, and the controls of the inventory changes and the physical inventories of nuclear material are important. Nuclear material accountancy is a basic measure in safeguards system based on Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In the light of such importance of material accountancy, the data base of nuclear material control and the material accountancy report system for all facilities has been developed by using the computer. By this system, accountancy report to STA is being presented certainly and timely. Property management and rapid corresponding to various inquiries can be carried out by the data base system which has free item searching procedure. (author)

  6. The recent activities of nuclear power globalization. Our provision against global warming by global deployment of our own technologies as integrated nuclear power plant supply company'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Shigemitsu

    2008-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) is striving to expand and spread nuclear power plants as an 'Integrated Nuclear Power Plant Supply Company' based on its engineering, manufacturing, and technological support capabilities. The company also has ample experience in the export of major components. MHI is accelerating its global deployment through the market introduction of large-sized strategic reactor US-APWR, the joint development of a mid-sized strategic reactor ATMEA1 with AREVA, and a small strategic reactor PBMR. The company also plans to internationally deploy technologies for the nuclear fuel cycle. We present here the leading-edge trends in the global deployment of these nuclear businesses, all of which help to solve the energy and environmental issues in the world. (author)

  7. New materials in nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Shuichi

    1988-01-01

    In the autumn of 1987, the critical condition was attained in the JET in Europe and Japanese JT-60, thus the first subject in the physical verification of nuclear fusion reactors was resolved, and the challenge to the next attainment of self ignition condition started. As the development process of nuclear fusion reactors, there are the steps of engineering, economical and social verifications after this physical verification, and in respective steps, there are the critical problems related to materials, therefore the development of new materials must be advanced. The condition of using nuclear fusion reactors is characterized by high fluence, high thermal flux and strong magnetic field, and under such extreme condition, the microscopic structures of materials change, and they behave much differently from usual case. The subjects of material development for nuclear fusion reactors, the material data base being built up, the materials for facing plasma and high thermal flux, first walls, blanket structures, electric insulators and others are described. The serious effect of irradiation and the rate of defect inducement must be taken in consideration in the structural materials for nuclear fusion reactors. (Kako, I.)

  8. The physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The latest review (1993) of this document was of limited scope and resulted in changes to the text of INFCIRC/225/Rev.2 designed to make the categorization table in that document consistent with the categorization table contained in the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Consequently, a comprehensive review of INFCIRC/225 has not been conducted since 1989. Consequently, a meeting of national experts was convened from 2-5 June 1998 and from 27-29 October 1998 for a thorough review of INFCIRC/225/Rev.3. The revised document reflects the recommendations of the national experts to improve the structure and clarity of the document and to take account of improved technology and current international and national practices. In particular, a chapter has been added which provides specific recommendations related to sabotage of nuclear facilities and nuclear material. As a result of this addition, the title has been changed to 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities'. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. It is hoped that they will provide helpful guidance for Member States.

  9. The physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The latest review (1993) of this document was of limited scope and resulted in changes to the text of INFCIRC/225/Rev.2 designed to make the categorization table in that document consistent with the categorization table contained in the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Consequently, a comprehensive review of INFCIRC/225 has not been conducted since 1989. Consequently, a meeting of national experts was convened from 2-5 June 1998 and from 27-29 October 1998 for a thorough review of INFCIRC/225/Rev.3. The revised document reflects the recommendations of the national experts to improve the structure and clarity of the document and to take account of improved technology and current international and national practices. In particular, a chapter has been added which provides specific recommendations related to sabotage of nuclear facilities and nuclear material. As a result of this addition, the title has been changed to 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities'. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. It is hoped that they will provide helpful guidance for Member States

  10. Advanced Ceramic Materials For Next-Generation Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.

    2010-01-01

    Rising global energy demands coupled with increased environmental concerns point to one solution; they must reduce their dependence on fossil fuels that emit greenhouse gases. As the global community faces the challenge of maintaining sovereign nation security, reducing greenhouse gases, and addressing climate change nuclear power will play a significant and likely growing role. In the US, nuclear energy already provides approximately one-fifth of the electricity used to power factories, offices, homes, and schools with 104 operating nuclear power plants, located at 65 sites in 31 states. Additionally, 19 utilities have applied to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for construction and operating licenses for 26 new reactors at 17 sites. This planned growth of nuclear power is occurring worldwide and has been termed the 'nuclear renaissance.' As major industrial nations craft their energy future, there are several important factors that must be considered about nuclear energy: (1) it has been proven over the last 40 years to be safe, reliable and affordable (good for Economic Security); (2) its technology and fuel can be domestically produced or obtained from allied nations (good for Energy Security); and (3) it is nearly free of greenhouse gas emissions (good for Environmental Security). Already an important part of worldwide energy security via electricity generation, nuclear energy can also potentially play an important role in industrial processes and supporting the nation's transportation sector. Coal-to-liquid processes, the generation of hydrogen and supporting the growing potential for a greatly increased electric transportation system (i.e. cars and trains) mean that nuclear energy could see dramatic growth in the near future as we seek to meet our growing demand for energy in cleaner, more secure ways. In order to address some of the prominent issues associated with nuclear power generation (i.e., high capital costs, waste management, and

  11. The global nuclear safety regime and its impact in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the Global Nuclear Safety Regime that was established worldwide after the accident at the Tchernobyl nuclear power plant. This regime is composed of biding international safety conventions, globally accepted safety standard, and a voluntary peer review system. The impact of this Global Regime in Brazil is also discussed. (Author)

  12. Graphite materials for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tatsuo

    1991-01-01

    Graphite materials have been used in the nuclear fission reactors from the beginning of the reactor development for the speed reduction and reflection of neutron. Graphite materials are used both as a moderator and as a reflector in the core of high temperature gas-cooled reactors, and both as a radiation shielding material and as a reflector in the surrounding of the core for the fast breeder reactor. On the other hand, graphite materials are being positively used as a first wall of plasma as it is known that low Z materials are useful for holding high temperature plasma in the nuclear fusion devices. In this paper the present status of the application of graphite materials to the nuclear fission reactors and fusion devices (reactors) is presented. In addition, a part of results on the related properties to the structural design and safety evaluation and results examined on the subjects that should be done in the future are also described. (author)

  13. Asymmetrical sabotage tactics, nuclear facilities/materials, and vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The emerging paradigm of a global community wherein post-modern political violence is a fact of life that must be dealt with by safety and security planners is discussed. This paradigm shift in the philosophy of terrorism is documented by analysis of the emerging pattern of asymmetrical tactics being employed by terrorists. Such philosophical developments in violent political movements suggest a shift in the risks that security and safety personnel must account for in their planning for physical protection of fixed site nuclear source facilities like power generation stations and the eventual storage and transportation of the by-products of these facilities like spent nuclear fuel and other high level wastes. This paper presents a framework for identifying these new political realities and related threat profiles, suggests ways in which security planners and administrators can design physical protection practices to meet these emerging threats, and argues for global adoption of standards for the protection of nuclear facilities that could be used as a source site from which terrorists could inflict a mass contamination event and for standards related to the protection of the waste materials that can be used in the production of radiological weapons of mass victimization. (author)

  14. LECI Department of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The LECI is a 'hot' laboratory dedicated mostly to the characterization of irradiated materials. It has, however, limited activities on fuel, as a back up to the LECA STAR in Cadarache. The LECI belongs to the Section of Research on Irradiated Materials (Department of Nuclear Materials). The Department for Nuclear Materials (DMN) has for its missions: - to contribute, through theoretical and experimental investigations, to the development of knowledge in materials science in order to be able to predict the evolution of the material physical and mechanical properties under service conditions (irradiation, thermomechanical solicitations, influence of the environment,..); - to characterize the properties of the materials used in the nuclear industry in order to determine their performance and to be able to predict their life expectancy, in particular via modelling. These materials can be irradiated or not, and originate from surveillance programs, experimental neutron irradiations or simulated irradiations with charged particles; - to establish, maintain and make use of the databases generated by these data; - to propose new or optimized materials, satisfying future service conditions and extend the life or the competitiveness of the associated systems; - to establish constitutive laws and models for the materials in service, incidental, accidental and storage conditions, and contribute to the development of the associated design codes in order to support the safety argumentation of utilities and vendors; - to provide expertise on industrial components, in particular to investigate strain or rupture mechanisms and to offer leads for improvement. This document presents, first, the purpose of the LECI (Historical data, Strategy, I and K shielded cell lines (building 605), M shielded cell line (building 625), Authorized materials). Then, it presents the microscopy and irradiation damage studies laboratory of the Saclay centre (Building 605) Which belongs to the Nuclear

  15. The convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage (CSC). A cornerstone of a global nuclear liability regime?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    International discussions on compensation of nuclear damage seem to be governed by the magic word ''global nuclear liability regime''. It is said that only such regime promises to guarantee full and timely compensation at conditions acceptable and favourable for both the victims and the operator liable and at the same time promotes nuclear industry. Surely, nuclear incidents may have worldwide implications, and a globally unified legal framework appears to be desirable or is even necessitated. But until today we have not yet achieved a global regime. There are international nuclear liability conventions some of which may be qualified to form such regime. But which of them is best qualified and which one could be accepted by all States? Mainly the USA opt for, and strongly support, the 1997 ''Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage'' (CSC) to be the only international instrument which is apt to form a global regime. This paper will deal with the question whether this assertion is convincing. It will also be asked whether we need a global regime.

  16. The convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage (CSC). A cornerstone of a global nuclear liability regime?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, Norbert

    2015-06-15

    International discussions on compensation of nuclear damage seem to be governed by the magic word ''global nuclear liability regime''. It is said that only such regime promises to guarantee full and timely compensation at conditions acceptable and favourable for both the victims and the operator liable and at the same time promotes nuclear industry. Surely, nuclear incidents may have worldwide implications, and a globally unified legal framework appears to be desirable or is even necessitated. But until today we have not yet achieved a global regime. There are international nuclear liability conventions some of which may be qualified to form such regime. But which of them is best qualified and which one could be accepted by all States? Mainly the USA opt for, and strongly support, the 1997 ''Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage'' (CSC) to be the only international instrument which is apt to form a global regime. This paper will deal with the question whether this assertion is convincing. It will also be asked whether we need a global regime.

  17. The future of nuclear power worldwide and the role of the global nuclear energy partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurgeon, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation is entitled, 'The Future of Nuclear Power Worldwide and the Role of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership', and the core message in one sentence is: When we look at the challenges of meeting our growing energy demands, providing for energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, we must conclude that nuclear power has to play a significant and growing role in meeting these challenges. Similarly, the mission of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership is to foster the safe and secure worldwide expansion of nuclear energy. GNEP comes at a crucial time in the burgeoning expansion of nuclear power. It is the only comprehensive proposal to close the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States, and engage the international community to minimize proliferation risks as well as provide and benefit from cooperation in policy formation, technical support, and technology and infrastructure development. Nuclear power's poised renaissance is encouraging, but it will require public support, expanded R and D activities and facilities, and increases in human capital needed for wide-scale construction and operation of new nuclear plants. Despite recent political currents, Germany can, too, become a part of this renaissance and become a full partner in the global partnership that shares a common vision for nuclear power's expansion. (orig.)

  18. Combating illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material. Reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This publication is intended for individuals and organizations that may be called upon to deal with the detection of and response to criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear or other radioactive material. It will also be useful for legislators, law enforcement agencies, government officials, technical experts, lawyers, diplomats and users of nuclear technology. This manual emphasizes the international initiatives for improving the security of nuclear and other radioactive material. However, it is recognized that effective measures for controlling the transfer of equipment, non-nuclear material, technology or information that may assist in the development of nuclear explosive devices, improvised nuclear devices (INDs) or other radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) are important elements of an effective nuclear security system. In addition, issues of personal integrity, inspection and investigative procedures are not discussed in this manual, all of which are essential elements for an effective overall security system. The manual considers a variety of elements that are recognized as being essential for dealing with incidents of criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material. Depending on conditions in a specific State, including its legal and governmental infrastructure, some of the measures discussed will need to be adapted to suit that State's circumstances. However, much of the material can be applied directly in the context of other national programmes. This manual is divided into four main parts. Section 2 discusses the threat posed by criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as the policy and legal bases underlying the international effort to restrain such activities. Sections 3 and 4 summarize the major international undertakings in the field. Sections 5-8 provide some basic technical information on radiation, radioactive material, the health consequences of radiation

  19. Material degradation - a nuclear utility's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spekkens, P.

    2007-01-01

    Degradation of nuclear plant materials has been responsible for major costs and unit outage time. As such, nuclear utilities are important end users of the information produced by R and D on material degradation. This plenary describes the significance of material degradation for the nuclear utilities, and how utilities use information about material degradation in their short, medium and long term planning activities. Utilities invest in R and D programs to assist them in their business objective of operating safely, reliably and cost competitively. Material degradation impacts all three of these business drivers. Utilities make decisions on life cycle planning, unit refurbishment and 'new build' projects on the basis of their understanding of the behaviour of a variety of materials in a broad range of environments. The R and D being carried out today will determine the future business success of the nuclear utilities. The R and D program needs to be broadly based to include a range of materials, environments and time-frames, particularly any new materials proposed for use in new units. The R and D community needs to help the utility managers make choices that will result in an optimized materials R and D program

  20. Control of Nuclear Material in Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizmek, A.; Medakovic, S.; Prah, M.; Novosel, N.

    2008-01-01

    State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is established based on 'Nuclear Safety Act' (Official Gazette No. 173/2003) as an independent state organization responsible for all questions in connection with safe use of nuclear energy and technology, for expert matters of preparedness in the case of nuclear emergency, as well as for international co-operation in these fields (regulatory body). In the second half of year 2006, stationary detection systems for nuclear and other radioactive materials were installed on Border Crossing Bregana, Croatia. Yantar 2U, which is the commercial name of the system, is integrated automatic system capable of detection of nuclear and other radioactive materials prepared for fixed-site customs applications (Russian origin). Installed system contains portal monitors, camera, communication lines and communication boxes and server. Two fully functional separate systems has been installed on BC Bregana, one on truck entrance and another one on car entrance. In this article the operational experience of installed system is presented. This includes statistical analysis of recorded alarms, evaluation of procedures for operational stuff and maintenance and typical malfunction experience, as well as some of the recommendation for future use of detection systems. Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment (Official Gazette No. 15/08) lays down the list of nuclear materials and special equipment as well as the list of other activities related to the production of special equipment and non-nuclear materials; the contents of the declaration of intent form for export/import of goods, the form for notifying export/import of goods, the form for notifying transport of nuclear material, the form for notifying the activity related to producing of special equipment and non-nuclear material, as well as of the form of the report on nuclear material balance in the user's material balance area. This Ordinance lays down the method of

  1. Climate change and the role of nuclear power - contributions to a global solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The threat of global climate change is a challenge to those who decide on energy policy. If we are complacent and the worst case scenario materializes, our descendants could be faced with unprecedented problems that would impose massive costs. On the other hand, it is our generation which would suffer if substantial resources were devoted to addressing a problem that did not turn out to be serious. Fortunately, the choice is not a stark as this. There are options such as increased energy efficiency and clean fuels that are economically justified before their environmental benefits are considered. These options are the first priority for addressing climate change. What will be the contribution of nuclear energy? In developing countries it is likely to be small. In the industrialized world, where the cost of capital is lower, the role of nuclear will depend on construction and operating performance of the industry, and the level of public confidence. New nuclear technologies that are inherently safe and small modular designs could transform the nuclear option if costs are competitive with other energy sources. The nuclear option is one that should be kept alive in case a global environmental crisis is forced upon us. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.A.S.; Iskin, M.C.L.; Palhares, L.C.; Almeida, S.G. de.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.; Wang, Lumin; Hess, Nancy J.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials

  4. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials

  5. Nuclear materials transport worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellpflug, J.

    1987-01-01

    This Greenpeace report shows: nuclear materials transport is an extremely hazardous business. There is no safe protection against accidents, kidnapping, or sabotage. Any moment of a day, at any place, a nuclear transport accident may bring the world to disaster, releasing plutonium or radioactive fission products to the environment. Such an event is not less probable than the MCA at Chernobyl. The author of the book in hand follows the secret track of radioactive materials around the world, from uranium mines to the nuclear power plants, from reprocessing facilities to the waste repositories. He explores the routes of transport and the risks involved, he gives the names of transport firms and discloses incidents and carelessness, tells about damaged waste drums and plutonium that 'disappeared'. He also tells about worldwide, organised resistance to such nuclear transports, explaining the Greenpeace missions on the open sea, or the 'day X' operation at the Gorleben site, informing the reader about protests and actions for a world freed from the threat of nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S. (comp.)

    1989-04-01

    Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  7. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  8. Introduction to nuclear material safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroi, Hideo

    1986-01-01

    This article is aimed at outlining the nuclear material safeguards. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established in 1957 and safeguards inspection was started in 1962. It is stressed that any damage resulting from nuclear proliferation would be triggered by a human intentional act. Various measures have been taken by international societies and nations, of which the safeguards are the only means which relay mainly on technical procedures. There are two modes of diversing nuclear materials to military purposes. One would be done by national intension while the other by indivisulas or expert groups, i.e., sub-national intention. IAEA is responsible for the prevention of diversification by nations, for which the international safeguards are being used. Measures against the latter mode of diversification are called nuclear protection, for which each nation is responsible. The aim of the safeguards under the Nonproliferation Treaty is to detect the diversification of a significant amount of nuclear materials from non-military purposes to production of nuclear explosion devices such as atomic weapons or to unidentified uses. Major technical methods used for the safeguards include various destructive and non-destructive tests as well as containment and monitoring techniques. System techniques are to be employed for automatic containment and monitoring procedures. Appropriate nuclear protection system techniques should also be developed. (Nogami, K.)

  9. The century of nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Lou; Was, Gary S.; Zinkle, Steve; Petti, David; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2018-03-01

    In the spring of 1959 the well-read metallurgist would have noticed the first issue of an infant Journal, one dedicated to a unique and fast growing field of materials issues associated with nuclear energy systems. The periodical, Journal of Nuclear Materials (JNM), is now the leading publication in the field from which it takes its name, thriving beyond the rosiest expectations of its founders. The discipline is well into the second half-century. During that time much has been achieved in nuclear materials; the Journal provides the authoritative record of virtually all those accomplishments. These pages introduce the 500th volume, a significant measure in the world of publishing. The Editors reflect on the progress in the field and the role of this journal.

  10. Safeguards on nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisar, V.; Keselica, M.; Bezak, S.

    2001-01-01

    The article describes the implementation of IAEA safeguards for nuclear materials in the Czech and Slovak Republics, the establishment and development of the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) at the levels of the state regulatory body and of the operator, particularly at the Dukovany nuclear power plant. A brief overview of the historical development is given. Attention is concentrated on the basic concepts and legal regulation accepted by the Czech and Slovak Republics in accordance with the new approach to create a complete legislative package in the area of nuclear energy uses. The basic intention is to demonstrate the functions of the entire system, including safeguards information processing and technical support of the system. Perspectives of the Integrated Safeguards System are highlighted. The possible ways for approximation of the two national systems to the Safeguards System within the EU (EURATOM) are outlined, and the necessary regulatory and operators' roles in this process are described. (author)

  11. Study on a program for support of women nuclear experts exchange and mutual utilization between WANO Korea and WANO Global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Haecho; No, Inyoung; Min, Byungju

    2010-12-01

    - Nuclear energy, unlike other international human and material essential to mutual understanding, exchange of information and technology-intensive industries as required by an active technical cooperation and information exchange between countries is very important - WiN-Global Women's Domestic Nuclear specialists and professionals between countries belonging to the network for women through nuclear technology and nuclear power expansion opportunities to exchange information to secure a variety of communication

  12. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers [es

  13. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers [fr

  14. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  15. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  16. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  17. Nuclear materials facility safety initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peddicord, K.L.; Nelson, P.; Roundhill, M.; Jardine, L.J.; Lazarev, L.; Moshkov, M.; Khromov, V.V.; Kruchkov, E.; Bolyatko, V.; Kazanskij, Yu.; Vorobeva, I.; Lash, T.R.; Newton, D.; Harris, B.

    2000-01-01

    Safety in any facility in the nuclear fuel cycle is a fundamental goal. However, it is recognized that, for example, should an accident occur in either the U.S. or Russia, the results could seriously delay joint activities to store and disposition weapons fissile materials in both countries. To address this, plans are underway jointly to develop a nuclear materials facility safety initiative. The focus of the initiative would be to share expertise which would lead in improvements in safety and safe practices in the nuclear fuel cycle.The program has two components. The first is a lab-to-lab initiative. The second involves university-to-university collaboration.The lab-to-lab and university-to-university programs will contribute to increased safety in facilities dealing with nuclear materials and related processes. These programs will support important bilateral initiatives, develop the next generation of scientists and engineers which will deal with these challenges, and foster the development of a safety culture

  18. Modernizing computerized nuclear material accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.H.; Claborn, J.

    1995-01-01

    DOE Orders and draft orders for nuclear material control and accountability address a complete material control and accountability (MC and A) program for all DOE contractors processing, using, or storing nuclear materials. A critical element of an MC and A program is the accounting system used to track and record all inventories of nuclear material and movements of materials in those inventories. Most DOE facilities use computerized accounting systems to facilitate the task of accounting for all their inventory of nuclear materials. Many facilities still use a mixture of a manual paper system with a computerized system. Also, facilities may use multiple systems to support information needed for MC and A. For real-time accounting it is desirable to implement a single integrated data base management system for a variety of users. In addition to accountability needs, waste management, material management, and production operations must be supported. Information in these systems can also support criticality safety and other safety issues. Modern networked microcomputers provide extensive processing and reporting capabilities that single mainframe computer systems struggle with. This paper describes an approach being developed at Los Alamos to address these problems

  19. Reducing nuclear danger through intergovernmental technical exchanges on nuclear materials safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Peddicord, K.L.; Witmer, F.E.; Krumpe, P.F.; Lazarev, L.; Moshkov, M.

    1997-01-01

    The United States and Russia are dismantling nuclear weapons and generating hundreds of tons of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium fissile nuclear materials that require disposition. The U.S. Department of Energy and Russian Minatom organizations.are planning and implementing safe, secure storage and disposition operations for these materials in numerous facilities. This provides a new opportunity for technical exchanges between Russian and Western scientists that can establish an improved and sustained common safety culture for handling these materials. An initiative that develops and uses personal relationships and joint projects among Russian and Western participants involved in fissile nuclear materials safety management contributes to improving nuclear materials nonproliferation and to making a safer world. Technical exchanges and workshops are being used to systematically identify opportunities in the nuclear fissile materials facilities to improve and ensure the safety of workers, the public, and the environment

  20. The necessity of nuclear power: a global human and environmental imperative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritch, J.

    2008-01-01

    Humankind cannot conceivably achieve a global clean-energy revolution without a huge expansion of nuclear power to generate electricity; to produce battery power and possibly hydrogen for tomorrow's vehicles; to desalinate seawater in response to the worlds rapidly emerging fresh-water crisis. Factors for accelerating the nuclear renaissance are: comprehensive post-Kyoto agreement all major nations, with appropriate obligations, strong political and economic incentives and goal to achieve 60% cut in global emissions by 2050; harness UN system to one clean-energy vision nuclear power at centre of global strategy; national incentive policies not for subsidy but for acceleration; education policies public's better understanding of nuclear energy new generation of nuclear professionals

  1. Regulation on control of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kaname

    1976-01-01

    Some comment is made on the present laws and the future course of consolidating the regulation of nuclear fuel materials. The first part gives the definitions of the nuclear fuel materials in the laws. The second part deals with the classification and regulation in material handling. Refinement undertaking, fabrication undertaking, reprocessing undertaking, the permission of the government to use the materials, the permission of the government to use the materials under international control, the restriction of transfer and receipt, the reporting, and the safeguard measures are commented. The third part deals with the strengthening of regulation. The nuclear fuel safety deliberation special committee will be established at some opportunity of revising the ordinance. The nuclear material safeguard special committee has been established in the Atomic Energy Commission. The last part deals with the future course of legal consolidation. The safety control will be strengthened. The early investigation of waste handling is necessary, because low level solid wastes are accumulating at each establishment. The law for transporting nuclear materials must be consolidated as early as possible to correspond to foreign transportation laws. Physical protection is awaiting the conclusions of the nuclear fuel safeguard special committee. The control and information systems for the safeguard measures must be consolidated in the laws. (Iwakiri, K.)

  2. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-01-01

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling

  3. Tracer techniques in estimating nuclear materials holdup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1987-01-01

    Residual inventory of nuclear materials remaining in processing facilities (holdup) is recognized as an insidious problem for safety of plant operations and safeguarding of special nuclear materials (SNM). This paper reports on an experimental study where a well-known method of radioanalytical chemistry, namely tracer technique, was successfully used to improve nondestructive measurements of holdup of nuclear materials in a variety of plant equipment. Such controlled measurements can improve the sensitivity of measurements of residual inventories of nuclear materials in process equipment by several orders of magnitude and the good quality data obtained lend themselves to developing mathematical models of holdup of SNM during stable plant operations

  4. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A. (University Texas Medical Branch); Neerathilingam, Muniasamy (University Texas Medical Branch); Ansari, S. (University Texas Medical Branch); Volk, David (University Texas Medical Branch); Sarkar, S. (University Texas Medical Branch); Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  5. Security of material: Preventing criminal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    2001-01-01

    The report emphasizes the need for national regulatory authorities to include in the regulatory systems, measures to control and protect nuclear materials from being used in illegal activities, as well as aspects of relevance for detecting and responding to illegal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The report will give an overview of the international treaties and agreements that underpin the establishment of a regulatory structure necessary for States to meet their non-proliferation policy and undertakings. Ongoing work to strengthen the protection of nuclear material and to detect and respond to illegal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive material will be included. The focus of the paper is on the need for standards and national regulation in the nuclear security area. (author)

  6. Role of nuclear material accounting and control on nuclear security. Countermeasure against insider threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Possibility on unauthorized removal (theft) of nuclear material by a facility insider is a recognized as a serious threat. An insider could take advantage or knowledge of control system and access to nuclear material to intercept facility's system designed to protect theft of nuclear material by an insider. This paper will address how the facility level Nuclear Material Accounting and Control (NMAC) System should be designed and implemented to enhance deterring and detect theft of nuclear material by a facility insider. (author)

  7. Problems on shipping high-enriched nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzha, V.V.; Demko, N.A.; Deryavko, I.I.; Zelenski, D.I.; Kolbaenkov, A.N.; Pivovarov, O.S.; Storozhenko, A.N.; Chernyad'ev, V.V.; Yakovlev, V.V.; Gorin, N.V.; Prokhod'ko, A.I.; Sherbina, A.N.; Barsanov, V.I.; Dyakov, E.K.; Tishenko, M.F.; Khlystov, A.I.; Vasil'ev, A.P.; Smetannikov, V.P.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996-1998 all Russian nuclear materials were taken out of the Institute of Atomic Energy of Kazakhstan National Nuclear Centre (IAE NNC RK). In this report there are basic tasks related to the performance of this work. They are: 1) Preparation of Russian nuclear materials (NM) kept at IAE NNC RK for transportation; 2) accounting and control of Russian nuclear materials kept at IAE NNC RK; 3) arrangement of permit papers for NM transportation; 4) NM transportation from IAE NNC RK to the enterprises of Russian MINATOM; 5) provision of nuclear and radiation safety in the course of operations with NM; 6) provision of physical protection for Russian NM

  8. Nuclear power in the context of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodansky, D.

    1989-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which nuclear power could help ameliorate the greenhouse problem. Topics discussed include: (1) How serious is the environmental threat posed by the greenhouse effect? (2) How large a part do fossil fuels play in producing greenhouse gases? (3) Is it possible to prevent or abate the anticipated global warming? (4) Can nuclear power play a significant role? (5) What overall approached might best reduce greenhouse emissions? Global cooperativeness in addressing the problem will be essential. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  9. Passive nondestructive assay of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, D.; Ensslin, N.; Smith, H. Jr.; Kreiner, S.

    1991-03-01

    The term nondestructive assay (NDA) is applied to a series of measurement techniques for nuclear fuel materials. The techniques measure radiation induced or emitted spontaneously from the nuclear material; the measurements are nondestructive in that they do not alter the physical or chemical state of the nuclear material. NDA techniques are characterized as passive or active depending on whether they measure radiation from the spontaneous decay of the nuclear material or radiation induced by an external source. This book emphasizes passive NDA techniques, although certain active techniques like gamma-ray absorption densitometry and x-ray fluorescence are discussed here because of their intimate relation to passive assay techniques. The principal NDA techniques are classified as gamma-ray assay, neutron assay, and calorimetry. Gamma-ray assay techniques are treated in Chapters 1--10. Neutron assay techniques are the subject of Chapters 11--17. Chapters 11--13 cover the origin of neutrons, neutron interactions, and neutron detectors. Chapters 14--17 cover the theory and applications of total and coincidence neutron counting. Chapter 18 deals with the assay of irradiated nuclear fuel, which uses both gamma-ray and neutron assay techniques. Chapter 19 covers perimeter monitoring, which uses gamma-ray and neutron detectors of high sensitivity to check that no unauthorized nuclear material crosses a facility boundary. The subject of Chapter 20 is attribute and semiquantitative measurements. The goal of these measurements is a rapid verification of the contents of nuclear material containers to assist physical inventory verifications. Waste and holdup measurements are also treated in this chapter. Chapters 21 and 22 cover calorimetry theory and application, and Chapter 23 is a brief application guide to illustrate which techniques can be used to solve certain measurement problems

  10. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  11. Accelerating the global nuclear renaissance: the central challenge of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritch, J.

    2006-01-01

    The rebirth of nuclear energy has become an unmistakable reality that is gathering speed and momentum on the full world stage. All around the world, old-school anti-nuclear environmentalism is being eclipsed by a new realism that recognises nuclear energy's essential virtue: its capacity to deliver cleanly generated power safely, reliably, and on a massive scale. For serious environmentalists, the real challenge is that nuclear energy is not yet growing fast enough to play its needed role in the clean-energy revolution our world so desperately needs. A fair assessment shows that not one of the commonly cited ''public concerns'' poses a reasonable obstacle to a global expansion of nuclear power: Proliferation, Operational Safety, Cost Reduction, Waste Management. In three areas, governments must take decisive action to grow the nuclear industry: (1) Construct a comprehensive global regime to curtail greenhouse emissions; (2) Elevate nuclear investment to a national and international policy priority; and (3) Support educational development of the nuclear profession for an expanded global role. The global nuclear industry will be indispensable if humanity is to preserve the environment that enabled civilisation to evolve. Governments must emerge from postures of timidity and equivocation to act decisively in support of that industry. Our world is in dire peril, and we have no time to lose

  12. Concepts of IAEA nuclear materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakberg, John A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes nuclear material accounting from the standpoint of IAEA Safeguards and how this accounting is applied by the Agency. The basic concepts of nuclear material accounting are defined and the way these apply to States with INFCIRC/153-type safeguards agreements is presented. (author)

  13. THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR SAFETY REGIME IN BRAZIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.

    2004-01-01

    A turning point of the world nuclear industry with respect to safety occurred due to the accident at Chernobyl, in 1986. A side from the tragic personal losses and the enormous financial damage, the Chernobyl accident has literally demonstrated that ''a nuclear accident anywhere is an accident everywhere''. The impact was felt immediately by the nuclear industry, with plant cancellations (e.g. Austria), elimination of national programs (e.g. Italy) and general construction delays. However, the reaction of the nuclear industry was equally immediate, which led to the proposal and establishment of a Global Nuclear Safety Regime. This regime is composed of biding international safety conventions, globally accepted safety standard, and a voluntary peer review system. In a previous work, the author has presented in detail the components of this Regime, and briefly discussed its impact in the Brazilian nuclear power organizations, including the Regulatory Body. This work, on the opposite, briefly reviews the Global Nuclear Safety Regime, and concentrates in detail in the discussion of its impact in Brazil, showing how it has produced some changes, and where the peer pressure regime has failed to produce real results

  14. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material: The 'net' security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, L.; Steinhausler, F.

    2006-01-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material, which could be used for building a nuclear weapon or a radiological dispersal device, has been a subject of concern for more than a decade. A major obstacle to assessing the actual security threat due to nuclear trafficking is the inclusion in the analysis of incidents that do not represent a security threat, in the sense of being a possible pre-stage to a clandestine nuclear weapons programme or a terrorist operation involving a crude nuclear device or a radiological dispersal device. International transport of contaminated scrap metal, or discovery of lost or abandoned radioactive sources are examples of such incidents, which have little or no security relevance. This paper analyses the global data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSO) using special filters to discriminate between incidents that are of security relevance and those that are not. (author)

  15. Locating sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material smuggling: a spatial information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Jay; Taylor, Jeffrey; Zhou, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM) smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  16. Locating Sensors for Detecting Source-to-Target Patterns of Special Nuclear Material Smuggling: A Spatial Information Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  17. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1988-09-28

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the ''non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225/Revision 5): Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication, Revision 5 of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225), is intended to provide guidance to States and their competent authorities on how to develop or enhance, implement and maintain a physical protection regime for nuclear material and nuclear facilities, through the establishment or improvement of their capabilities to implement legislative and regulatory programmes. The recommendations presented in this publication reflect a broad consensus among IAEA Member States on the requirements which should be met for the physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities.

  20. Abstracts of 3. congress of global anti-nuclear alliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The 3 congress of global anti-nuclear alliance was held on 18-20 May, 2000 in Astana. There were 55 reports on different aspects of nuclear disarmament; nuclear safeguards; safe operation of nuclear power plants; rehabilitation of population and lands, damaged from many-years tests in Semipalatinsk site; radiobiological monitoring of ecosystems and others presented at the congress

  1. Heterogeneous world model and collaborative scenarios of transition to globally sustainable nuclear energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO is to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting global energy needs of the 21st century in a sustainable manner. The INPRO task titled “Global scenarios” is to develop global and regional nuclear energy scenarios that lead to a global vision of sustainable nuclear energy in the 21st century. Results of multiple studies show that the criteria for developing sustainable nuclear energy cannot be met without innovations in reactor and nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Combining different reactor types and associated fuel chains creates a multiplicity of nuclear energy system arrangements potentially contributing to global sustainability of nuclear energy. In this, cooperation among countries having different policy regarding fuel cycle back end would be essential to bring sustainability benefits from innovations in technology to all interested users. INPRO has developed heterogeneous global model to capture countries’ different policies regarding the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in regional and global scenarios of nuclear energy evolution and applied in a number of studies performed by participants of the project. This paper will highlight the model and major conclusions obtained in the studies.

  2. Global Vigilence. Strengthening Nuclear Security Worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism is a continuing threat. Progress has been made in recent years in ensuring that nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as associated facilities, are properly protected everywhere in the world. But much remains to be done

  3. L'energia nuclear: pot resoldre el problema de l'escalfament global?

    OpenAIRE

    Puig, Josep

    2006-01-01

    Sovint es diu que l'energia nuclear pot ser la solució pel problema de l'escalfament global: l'article presenta dades i raonaments per concloure que, si tota l'electricitat mundial fos d'origen nuclear, l'escalfament global es reduiria tan sols en un 12%. També s'analitzen els subproductes militars de la indústria de l'energia nuclear "civil" i la problemàtica dels residus radioactius de l'energia nuclear de fissió. També s'analitza l'alt grau de dificultats que presenta l'energia nuclear de ...

  4. Inseparable twins: nuclear bomb fuel and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, T.; University of Melbourne, Melbourne

    2006-01-01

    The spread of nuclear power increases the number of nations and organisations with opportunities to make nuclear weapons or buy or steal the materials to make them. Global warming demands real solutions, not nuclear diversions and dangers.

  5. Nuclear Materials Management for the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse C. Schreiber

    2007-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has transitioned from its historical role of weapons testing to a broader role that is focused on being a solution to multiple National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) challenges and opportunities with nuclear materials for the nation. NTS is supporting other NNSA sites challenged with safe nuclear materials storage and disposition. NNSA, with site involvement, is currently transforming the nuclear stockpile and supporting infrastructure to meet the 2030 vision. Efforts are under way to make the production complex smaller, more consolidated, and more modern. With respect to the nuclear material stockpile, the NNSA sites are currently reducing the complex nuclear material inventory through dispositioning and consolidating nuclear material. This includes moving material from other sites to NTS. State-of-the-art nuclear material management and control practices at NTS are essential for NTS to ensure that these new activities are accomplished in a safe, secure, efficient, and environmentally responsible manner. NTS is aggressively addressing this challenge

  6. U.S. national nuclear material control and accounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S; Terentiev, V G

    1998-01-01

    Issues related to nuclear material control and accounting and illegal dealing in these materials were discussed at the April 19--20, 1996 Moscow summit meeting (G7 + Russia). The declaration from this meeting reaffirmed that governments are responsible for the safety of all nuclear materials in their possession and for the effectiveness of the national control and accounting system for these materials. The Russian delegation at this meeting stated that ''the creation of a nuclear materials accounting, control, and physical protection system has become a government priority''. Therefore, in order to create a government nuclear material control and accounting system for the Russian Federation, it is critical to study the structure, operating principles, and regulations supporting the control and accounting of nuclear materials in the national systems of nuclear powers. In particular, Russian specialists have a definite interest in learning about the National Nuclear Material Control and Accounting System of the US, which has been operating successfully as an automated system since 1968

  7. Management review of nuclear material control and accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Section 70.58, ''Fundamental Nuclear Material Controls,'' of 10 CFR Part 70, ''Special Nuclear Materials,'' requires, in paragraph 70.58(c), that certain licensees authorized to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material establish a management system to provide for the development, revision, implementation, and enforcement of nuclear material control and accounting procedures. Such a system must provide for a review of the nuclear material control system at least every 12 months. This guide describes the purpose and scope, personnel qualifications, depth of detail, and procedures that are acceptable to the NRC staff for the management review of nuclear material control systems required under paragraph 70.58(c) of 10 CFR Part 70. (U.S.)

  8. Base isolation for nuclear power and nuclear material facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidinger, J.M.; Kircher, C.A.; Vaidya, N.; Constantinou, M.; Kelly, J.M.; Seidensticker, R.; Tajirian, F.F.; Ovadia, D.

    1989-01-01

    This report serves to document the status of the practice for the use of base isolation systems in the design and construction of nuclear power and nuclear material facilities. The report first describes past and current (1989) applications of base isolation in nuclear facilities. The report then provides a brief discussion of non-nuclear applications. Finally, the report summarizes the status of known base-isolation codes and standards

  9. Status, progress and plans for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Global Threat Reduction Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniawski, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This presentation discusses the efforts under the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, also known as GTRI. On May 26, 2004, then Secretary of Energy Abraham established GTRI. GTRI is a cooperative program to provide international support for countries' national programs to identify, secure, recover or facilitate the disposition of vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials around the world that pose a potential threat to the international community. The formation of GTRI consolidated a number of nonproliferation programs you may be familiar with that work together to minimize and, to the extent possible, eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civil nuclear applications worldwide. In particular, the Office of Global Threat Reduction, which was set up to implement GTRI, has oversight of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program, the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance program, and the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return program. This consolidation allows these three programs to work in concert to bring about the elimination of research reactor materials as a source of proliferation concern. This speech is highlighting the work that these programs have undertaken in cooperation with the global research reactor community and the importance placed on fuel development under the RERTR program It contains an update on the work done to support the US - Russian Presidential Bratislava Summit Statement

  10. Problem free nuclear power and global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth's atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO 2 emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage

  11. Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingquan

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the Regulatory Network are: - to contribute to the effectiveness of nuclear regulatory systems; - to contribute to continuous enhancements, and - to achieve and promote radiation and nuclear safety and security by: • Enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of international cooperation in the regulation of nuclear and radiation safety of facilities and activities; • Enabling adequate access by regulators to relevant safety and security information; • Promoting dissemination of information on safety and security issues as well as information of good practices for addressing and resolving these issues; • Enabling synergies among different web based networks with a view to strengthening and enhancing the global nuclear safety framework and serving the specific needs of regulators and international organizations; • Providing additional information to the public on international regulatory cooperation in safety and security matters

  12. Order for execution of the law concerning regulation of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The designations according to Item 1, Article 3 and Item 1, Article 13 of the Law must be obtained for each factory or business place where refining and fabrication of nuclear material are to be performed. One who wants to obtain such designation should file an application attached with a business plan and other documents via the director of a regional bureau of international trade and industry having jurisdiction over such factory or business place. When nuclear material refiners and nuclear material fabricators wish to obtain the approval for change stipulated in Item 1, Article 6 and Item 1, Article 16 of the Law, they must file applications to the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry via said directors. Chief handlers of nuclear fuel materials shall be approved among those meeting the strict requirements. One who wishes to install reactors must obtain the approval for each factory or business place where the reactors are to be installed. The permission must be obtained for each nuclear ship entering Japanese waters. The reactors proper and several facilities are subject to periodic inspection. (Rikitake, Y.)

  13. Nuclear physics methods in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Baumann, H.; Jex, H.; Rauch, F.

    1980-01-01

    Proceedings of the seventh divisional conference of the Nuclear Physics Division held at Darmstadt, Germany, from 23rd through 26th of September, 1980. The scope of this conference was defined as follows: i) to inform solid state physicists and materials scientists about the application of nuclear physics methods; ii) to show to nuclear physicists open questions and problems in solid state physics and materials science to which their methods can be applied. According to the intentions of the conference, the various nuclear physics methods utilized in solid state physics and materials science and especially new developments were reviewed by invited speakers. Detailed aspects of the methods and typical examples extending over a wide range of applications were presented as contributions in poster sessions. The Proceedings contain all the invited papers and about 90% of the contributed papers. (orig./RW)

  14. Gamma spectrometric discrimination of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.; Mattila, A.; Ramebaeck, H.; Aage, H.K.; Palsson, S.E.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the interception of material potentially containing special nuclear materials. A range of scenarios were developed involving sources that may or may not contain special nuclear materials. Gamma spectral data was provided to participants as well as ancillary data and participants were asked, under time constraint, to determine whether or not the data was indicative of circumstances involving special nuclear materials. The situations varied such that different approaches were required in order to obtain the correct result in each context. In the majority of cases participants were able to correctly ascertain whether or not the situations involved special nuclear material. Although fulfilling the primary goal of the exercise, some participants were not in a position to correctly identify with certainty the material involved, Situations in which the smuggled material was being masked by another source proved to be the most challenging for participants. (Author)

  15. Gamma spectrometric discrimination of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Mattila, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Ramebaeck, H. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Aage, H.K. [Danish Emergency Management Agency, Birkeroed (Denmark); Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2012-12-15

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the interception of material potentially containing special nuclear materials. A range of scenarios were developed involving sources that may or may not contain special nuclear materials. Gamma spectral data was provided to participants as well as ancillary data and participants were asked, under time constraint, to determine whether or not the data was indicative of circumstances involving special nuclear materials. The situations varied such that different approaches were required in order to obtain the correct result in each context. In the majority of cases participants were able to correctly ascertain whether or not the situations involved special nuclear material. Although fulfilling the primary goal of the exercise, some participants were not in a position to correctly identify with certainty the material involved, Situations in which the smuggled material was being masked by another source proved to be the most challenging for participants. (Author)

  16. Materials for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Kamath, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The improved performance of present generation nuclear reactors and the realization of advanced reactor concepts, both, require development of better materials. Physical metallurgy/materials science principles which have been exploited in meeting the exacting requirements of nuclear reactor materials (fuels and structural materials), are outlined citing a few specific examples. While the incentive for improvement of traditional fuels (e.g., UO 2 fuel) is primarily for increasing the average core burn up, the development of advanced fuels (e.g., MOX, mixed carbide, nitride, silicide and dispersion fuels) are directed towards better utilization of fissile and fertile inventories through adaptation of innovative fuel cycles. As the burn up of UO 2 fuel reaches higher levels, a more detailed and quantitative understanding of the phenomena such as fission gas release, fuel restructuring induced by radiation and thermal gradients and pellet-clad interaction is being achieved. Development of zirconium based alloys for both cladding and pressure tube applications is discussed with reference to their physical metallurgy, fabrication techniques and in-reactor degradation mechanisms. The issue of radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is covered drawing a comparison between the western and eastern specifications of RPV steels. The search for new materials which can stand higher rates of atomic displacement due to radiation has led to the development of swelling resistant austenitic and ferritic stainless steels for fast reactor applications as exemplified by the development of the D-9 steel for Indian fast breeder reactor. The presentation will conclude by listing various materials related phenomena, which have a strong bearing on the successful development of future nuclear energy systems. (author)

  17. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law aims to perform regulations on enterprises of refining, processing and reprocessing of nuclear source and fuel materials and on establishment and operation of reactors to realize the peaceful and deliberate utilization of atomic energy according to the principle of the atomic energy basic law. Regulations of use of internationally regulated substances are also envisaged to observe international agreements. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear source material; reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing and internationally regulated substance. Any person besides the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Material Developing Corporation who undertakes refining shall be designated by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. An application shall be filed to the ministers concerned, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the refining works, equipment and method of refining, etc. The permission of the Prime Minister is necessary for any person who engages in processing. An application shall be filed to the Prime Minister, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the processing works and equipment and method of processing, etc. Permission of the Prime Minister, the Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transport is necessary for any person who sets up reactors. An application shall be filed to the minister concerned, listing name and address of the person, purpose of operation, style, thermal output of reactor and number of units, etc. (Okada, K.)

  18. Automated processing of nuclear materials accounting data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straka, J.; Pacak, P.; Moravec, J.

    1980-01-01

    An automated system was developed of nuclear materials accounting in Czechoslovakia. The system allows automating data processing including data storage. It comprises keeping records of inventories and material balance. In designing the system, the aim of the IAEA was taken into consideration, ie., building a unified information system interconnected with state-run systems of accounting and checking nuclear materials in the signatory countries of the non-proliferation treaty. The nuclear materials accounting programs were written in PL-1 and were tested at an EC 1040 computer at UJV Rez where also the routine data processing takes place. (B.S.)

  19. On nuclear power, population and sustainable global civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    Humanity is facing a multitude of difficult problems that threaten not only human development but the very continuity of civilization. The fundamental cause is the size of the human population but at present the subject is not discussed in international fora. It is not clear if it is wishfully avoided or if it is not recognized as the fundamental problem. Without limiting fertility and population globally, there will be no future for civilization as we know it and there will be no need for nuclear power as a source of energy. Instead, nuclear power will be the principal agent of the end. The nuclear community is in a position to point out the problem and propose a solution. Principles of sustainability and a path to a sustainable global civilization are shown. (author)

  20. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance... Guide (RG) 5.29, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants... material control and accounting. This guide applies to all nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  1. Management of technical knowledge in strengthening the global nuclear safety regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.-S.

    2006-01-01

    The management of technical knowledge is becoming one of the key issues and challenges in strengthening global nuclear safety. The success of the industry depends on how to optimize knowledge acquisition, transfer and deployment. In this presentation, joint conduct of large-scale R and D work, assurance of free flow of safety-related knowledge from developed to developing nations, and potential imposition of a trade agreement between nuclear exporting and importing nations are discussed. The introduction of a 'Global Nuclear Safety Treaty' could be an excellent mechanism for achieving effective knowledge management and eventually enforcing a global safety regime. (author)

  2. Nuclear technology and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Current and expected problems in the materials of nuclear technology are reviewed. In the fuel elements of LWRs, cladding waterside corrosion, secondary hydriding and pellet-cladding interaction may be significant impediments to extended burnup. In the fuel, fission gas release remains a key issue. Materials issues in the structural alloys of the primary system include stress-corrosion cracking of steel, corrosion of steam generator tubing and pressurized thermal shock of the reactor vessel. Prediction of core behavior in severe accidents requires basic data and models for fuel liquefaction, aerosol formation, fission product transport and core-concrete interaction. Materials questions in nuclear waste management and fusion technology are briefly reviewed. (author)

  3. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-28

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  4. Strengthening global norms for protecting nuclear materials - feedback on little countries radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelidze, L.; Kakushadze, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Georgia is the part of New Great Silk Road, connecting Europe and Asia. Along this rout will be laid oil and gas pipelines, transport and telecommunication lines. Unfortunately, besides economical communication, the rout can be used for illegal transit of nuclear materials. There is special concern regarding uncontrolled territories of conflict zones. Taking into consideration recent terrible terrorist acts we feel great responsibility for ensuring safety of this rout, which is a precondition of economical development and political stability of the whole Caucasian region A potentially hazardous radiological situation developed in Georgia with orphan radiation sources in the late 1990s and 2001: discovery of high-activity strong Radiation sources of (Strontium-90 from thermo-generators) in Tsalenjikha district. Eight such generators were brought to Georgia in 1984, and four of them have been found in Svanety mountainous region in addition to the two found in the Tsalenjikha, but remaining two are not yet found. During the last years several incidents of illicit trafficking were reported. The radiation problems greatly relate to the withdrawal of the Russian military bases. The radiological accident took place in Lilo, Georgia, when sealed radiation sources had been abandoned by a previous owner at a site. Taking into account the geopolitical location of Georgia it is quite important to strengthen the physical protection infrastructure in country with has serious territorial problems. The first step was to provide an appropriate legal framework for the safety management in the country and clearly identify regulatory body. The ministry implements state control in the nuclear and radiation safety field for protection of environment and natural resources of Georgia (hereinafter referred to as the Ministry). The Ministry is obliged to supervise the physical protection systems. The Ministry shall co-ordinate the state system of physical protection of the use

  5. Welcome from INMM (Institute of Nuclear Materials Management)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satkowiak, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) is the premier professional society focused on safe and secure use of Nuclear Materials and the related nuclear scientific technology and knowledge. Its international membership includes government, academia, non-governmental organizations and industry, spanning the full spectrum all the way from policy to technology. The Institute's primary role include the promotion of research, the establishment of standards and the development of best practices, all centered around nuclear materials. It then disseminates this information through meetings, professional contacts, reports, papers, discussions, and publications. The formal structure of the INMM includes six technical divisions: Facility Operation; Materials Control and Accountability; Nonproliferation and Arms Control; Nuclear Security and Physical Protection; Packaging, Transportation and Disposition

  6. Detecting Illicit Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2005-01-01

    The threat that weapons of mass destruction might enter the United States has led to a number of efforts for the detection and interdiction of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons at our borders. There have been multiple deployments of instrumentation to detect radiation signatures to interdict radiological material, including weapons and weapons material worldwide

  7. Resources of nuclear fuels and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, K [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Kamiyama, Teiji; Hayashi, S; Hida, Noboru; Okano, T

    1974-11-01

    In this explanatory article, data on the world resources of nuclear fuels and materials, their production, and the present state of utilization are presented by specialists in varied fields. Main materials taken up are uranium, thorium, beryllium, zirconium, niobium, rare earth elements, graphite, and materials for nuclear fusion (heavy hydrogen and tritium). World reserves and annual production of these materials listed in a number of tables are cited from statistics of the period 1970-1973 or given by estimation. These data may be used as valuable numerical data for various projects and problems of atomic power industries.

  8. Nuclear material accounting software for Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, M.; Ewing, T.; Lindley, R.; McWilliams, C.; Roche, C.; Sakunov, I.; Walters, G.

    1999-01-01

    Among the needs identified during initial surveys of nuclear facilities in Ukraine was improved accounting software for reporting material inventories to the regulatory body. AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application written in Microsoft Access that was jointly designed by an US/Ukraine development team. The design is highly flexible and configurable, and supports a wide range of computing infrastructure needs and facility requirements including situations where networks are not available or reliable. AIMAS has both English and Russian-language options for displays and reports, and it operates under Windows 3.1, 95, or NT 4.0trademark. AIMAS functions include basic physical inventory tracking, transaction histories, reporting, and system administration functions (system configuration, security, data backup and recovery). Security measures include multilevel password access control, all transactions logged with the user identification, and system administration control. Interfaces to external modules provide nuclear fuel burn-up adjustment and barcode scanning capabilities for physical inventory taking. AIMAS has been installed at Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR), South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP), Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry (SINEI), and the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety/Nuclear Regulatory Administration (MEPNS/NRA). Facility specialists are being trained to use the application to track material movement and report to the national regulatory authority

  9. The national nuclear material tracking system. A Korea's countermeasure against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Joo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Since nuclear terrorism has been identified as a real threat, the Korean government has earnestly developed elementary technologies and sub-systems for establishing an integrated defensive system against nuclear terrorism, which is based on the concept of defense-in-depth. This paper introduces the gist and implications of the studies that have been conducted in building the national nuclear material tracking system for preventing and intercepting the illicit trafficking and transporting of nuclear material in Korea. (orig.)

  10. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Under the above mentioned law this order prescribes the procedures of controls given to the persons who wish to conduct refining and fabricating businesses, to construct and operate reactors, and to use nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and internationally controlled materials. The common controlling principle prescribed is that the permission or authorization necessary for above listed businesses should be applied for at each factory or each place of business. Based on the principle, the order prescribes: the procedures to apply for the authorization of the refining business, the permission of the change thereof, and the permission of the fabricating business and the change, thereof (the 1st chapter); the procedures to apply for the permission of the construction of reactors and of the change of the construction, as well as the procedure to do periodic inspections of reactor facilities (the 2nd chapter); the procedures to apply for the permission to use nuclear fuel materials and to change the use thereof, the submission of the report to use nuclear source materials, as well as the procedure to apply for the permission to use internationally controlled materials. In the 4th chapter the order lists up the items on which the competent Ministers may require reports from the person who carries on the relevant business. (Matsushima, A.)

  11. The future role of nuclear power in the global energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, B.A.; Guthrie, D.; Tatsuta, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A sound judgement on the role of nuclear power in the global energy balance within the time span of the next 30 years should logically be based on the consideration of at least a number of factors such as global trends in energy and electricity demand, practically available or estimated sources of supply, major requirements that these energy sources should meet, nuclear power's own potential, a realistic assessment of nuclear power's present status, and problems related to nuclear power. The conclusion of such an analysis is that nuclear power will retain, and may even enhance, its position as an important element in the world's energy supply mix

  12. The regulations concerning the uses of nuclear source materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law, and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding monitoring area, worker and radioactive waste. Nuclear raw materials shall be used at the facilities for using them, and control areas and surrounding monitoring areas shall be set up. Cumulative dose and exposure radiation dose of workers shall not exceed the permissible quantities defined by the General Director of the Science and Technology Agency. Records shall be made in each works or enterprise on the accept, delivery and stock of each kind of nuclear raw materials, radiation control and the accidents in the facilities of using nuclear raw materials, and kept for specified periods, respectively. The users of nuclear raw materials shall present reports in each works or enterprise on the stock of these materials on July 30 and December 31, every year. They shall submit reports immediately to the Director General on the particular accidents concerning nuclear raw materials and their facilities and on the circumstances and the measures taken against such accidents within ten days. These reports shall be presented on internationally regulated raw materials too. (Okada, K.)

  13. Nuclear material statistical accountancy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentest, F.; Casilli, T.; Franklin, M.

    1979-01-01

    The statistical accountancy system developed at JRC Ispra is refered as 'NUMSAS', ie Nuclear Material Statistical Accountancy System. The principal feature of NUMSAS is that in addition to an ordinary material balance calcultation, NUMSAS can calculate an estimate of the standard deviation of the measurement error accumulated in the material balance calculation. The purpose of the report is to describe in detail, the statistical model on wich the standard deviation calculation is based; the computational formula which is used by NUMSAS in calculating the standard deviation and the information about nuclear material measurements and the plant measurement system which are required as data for NUMSAS. The material balance records require processing and interpretation before the material balance calculation is begun. The material balance calculation is the last of four phases of data processing undertaken by NUMSAS. Each of these phases is implemented by a different computer program. The activities which are carried out in each phase can be summarised as follows; the pre-processing phase; the selection and up-date phase; the transformation phase, and the computation phase

  14. Heterogeneous world model and collaborative scenarios of transition to globally sustainable nuclear energy systems - 15483

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.; Fesenko, G.

    2015-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting global energy needs of the 21. century in a sustainable manner. The INPRO task titled 'Global scenarios' is to develop global and regional nuclear energy scenarios that lead to a global vision of sustainable nuclear energy in the 21. century. Results of multiple studies show that the criteria for developing sustainable nuclear energy cannot be met without innovations in reactor and nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Combining different reactor types and associated fuel chains creates a multiplicity of nuclear energy system arrangements potentially contributing to global sustainability of nuclear energy. In this, cooperation among countries having different policy regarding fuel cycle back end would be essential to bring sustainability benefits from innovations in technology to all interested users. INPRO has developed heterogeneous global model to capture countries' different policies regarding the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in regional and global scenarios of nuclear energy evolution and applied in a number of studies performed by participants of the project. This paper will highlight the model and major conclusions obtained in the studies. (authors)

  15. The U.S. national nuclear forensics library, nuclear materials information program, and data dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamont, Stephen Philip; Brisson, Marcia; Curry, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear forensics assessments to determine material process history requires careful comparison of sample data to both measured and modeled nuclear material characteristics. Developing centralized databases, or nuclear forensics libraries, to house this information is an important step to ensure all relevant data will be available for comparison during a nuclear forensics analysis and help expedite the assessment of material history. The approach most widely accepted by the international community at this time is the implementation of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, which would be developed and maintained by individual nations. This is an attractive alternative toan international database since it provides an understanding that each country has data on materials produced and stored within their borders, but eliminates the need to reveal any proprietary or sensitive information to other nations. To support the concept of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, the United States Department of Energy has developed a model library, based on a data dictionary, or set of parameters designed to capture all nuclear forensic relevant information about a nuclear material. Specifically, information includes material identification, collection background and current location, analytical laboratories where measurements were made, material packaging and container descriptions, physical characteristics including mass and dimensions, chemical and isotopic characteristics, particle morphology or metallurgical properties, process history including facilities, and measurement quality assurance information. While not necessarily required, it may also be valuable to store modeled data sets including reactor burn-up or enrichment cascade data for comparison. It is fully expected that only a subset of this information is available or relevant to many materials, and much of the data populating a National Nuclear Forensics library would be process analytical or material accountability

  16. Nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakov, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Various methods of nuclear materials transportation at different stages of the fuel cycle (U 3 O 8 , UF 6 production enrichment, fuel element manufacturing, storage) are considered. The advantages and drawbacks of railway, automobile, maritime and air transport are analyzed. Some types of containers are characterized

  17. Evaluation of Terminated Nuclear Material Licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, K.M.; Zeighami, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of a six-year project that reviewed material licenses that had been terminated during the period from inception of licensing until approximately late-1994. The material licenses covered in the review project were Part 30, byproduct material licenses; Part 40, source material licenses; and Part 70, special nuclear material licenses. This report describes the methodology developed for the project, summarizes the findings of the license file inventory process, and describes the findings of the reviews or evaluations of the license files. The evaluation identified nuclear material use sites that need review of the licensing material or more direct follow-up of some type. The review process also identified licenses authorized to possess sealed sources for which there was incomplete or missing documentation of the fate of the sources

  18. Materials. The Argentine nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, H.

    1982-01-01

    Part A of the volume contains a literature search on proliferation and the Third World and on the nuclear technology of Argentina. The materials in part B are divided in: 1. Nonproliferation discussion and the Third World. 2. Development and state of nuclear technology in Argentina. 3. Argentina's international contacts in the field of nuclear energy 1. Federal Republic of Germany, 2. Soviet Union, 3. Brazil. (orig./HP) [de

  19. The establishment of computer system for nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Lee, Byung Doo; Park, Ho Joon

    1988-01-01

    Computer based nuclear material accountancy system will not only increase the credibility of KOREA-IAEA safeguards agreement and bilateral agreements but also decrease the man-power needed to carry out the inspection activity at state level and at facility level. Computer software for nuclear material accounting for and control has been materialized the application to both item and bulk facilities and software for database at state level has been also established to maintain up -to-date status of nation-wide nuclear material inventory. Computer recordings and reporting have been realized to fulfill the national and international commitments to nuclear material accounting for and control. The exchange of information related to nuclear material accounting for has become possible by PC diskettes. (Author)

  20. A future vision of nuclear material information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suski, N.; Wimple, C.

    1999-01-01

    To address the current and future needs for nuclear materials management and safeguards information, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory envisions an integrated nuclear information system that will support several functions. The vision is to link distributed information systems via a common communications infrastructure designed to address the information interdependencies between two major elements: Domestic, with information about specific nuclear materials and their properties, and International, with information pertaining to foreign nuclear materials, facility design and operations. The communication infrastructure will enable data consistency, validation and reconciliation, as well as provide a common access point and user interface for a broad range of nuclear materials information. Information may be transmitted to, from, and within the system by a variety of linkage mechanisms, including the Internet. Strict access control will be employed as well as data encryption and user authentication to provide the necessary information assurance. The system can provide a mechanism not only for data storage and retrieval, but will eventually provide the analytical tools necessary to support the U.S. government's nuclear materials management needs and non-proliferation policy goals

  1. Strengthening the Global Nuclear Safety Regime. INSAG-21. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Safety Regime is the framework for achieving the worldwide implementation of a high level of safety at nuclear installations. Its core is the activities undertaken by each country to ensure the safety and security of the nuclear installations within its jurisdiction. But national efforts are and should be augmented by the activities of a variety of international enterprises that facilitate nuclear safety - intergovernmental organizations, multinational networks among operators, multinational networks among regulators, the international nuclear industry, multinational networks among scientists, international standards setting organizations and other stakeholders such as the public, news media and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that are engaged in nuclear safety. All of these efforts should be harnessed to enhance the achievement of safety. The existing Global Nuclear Safety Regime is functioning at an effective level today. But its impact on improving safety could be enhanced by pursuing some measured change. This report recommends action in the following areas: - Enhanced use of the review meetings of the Convention on Nuclear Safety as a vehicle for open and critical peer review and a source for learning about the best safety practices of others; - Enhanced utilization of IAEA Safety Standards for the harmonization of national safety regulations, to the extent feasible; - Enhanced exchange of operating experience for improving operating and regulatory practices; and - Multinational cooperation in the safety review of new nuclear power plant designs. These actions, which are described more fully in this report, should serve to enhance the effectiveness of the Global Nuclear Safety Regime

  2. Nuclear power generation and global heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, Horacio

    1999-01-01

    The Professionals Association and Nuclear Activity of National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) are following with great interest the worldwide discussions on global heating and the role that nuclear power is going to play. The Association has an active presence, as part of the WONUC (recognized by the United Nations as a Non-Governmental Organization) in the COP4, which was held in Buenos Aires in November 1998. The environmental problems are closely related to human development, the way of power production, the techniques for industrial production and exploitation fields. CO 2 is the most important gas with hothouse effects, responsible of progressive climatic changes, as floods, desertification, increase of average global temperature, thermal expansion in seas and even polar casks melting and ice falls. The consequences that global heating will have on the life and economy of human society cannot be sufficiently emphasized, great economical impact, destruction of ecosystems, loss of great coast areas and complete disappearance of islands owing to water level rise. The increase of power retained in the atmosphere generates more violent hurricanes and storms. In this work, the topics presented in the former AATN Meeting is analyzed in detail and different technological options and perspectives to mitigate CO 2 emission, as well as economical-financial aspects, are explored. (author)

  3. Nuclear Power Learning and Deployment Rates; Disruption and Global Benefits Forgone

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Lang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of the disruption of a transition from fossil fuels to nuclear power, and finds the benefits forgone as a consequence are substantial. Learning rates are presented for nuclear power in seven countries, comprising 58% of all power reactors ever built globally. Learning rates and deployment rates changed in the late-1960s and 1970s from rapidly falling costs and accelerating deployment to rapidly rising costs and stalled deployment. Historical nuclear global capacit...

  4. Tungsten - Yttrium Based Nuclear Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Chessa, Jack; Martinenz, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    The challenging problem currently facing the nuclear science community in this 21st century is design and development of novel structural materials, which will have an impact on the next-generation nuclear reactors. The materials available at present include reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, dispersion strengthened reduced activation ferritic steels, and vanadium- or tungsten-based alloys. These materials exhibit one or more specific problems, which are either intrinsic or caused by reactors. This work is focussed towards tungsten-yttrium (W-Y) based alloys and oxide ceramics, which can be utilized in nuclear applications. The goal is to derive a fundamental scientific understanding of W-Y-based materials. In collaboration with University of Califonia -- Davis, the project is designated to demonstrate the W-Y based alloys, ceramics and composites with enhanced physical, mechanical, thermo-chemical properties and higher radiation resistance. Efforts are focussed on understanding the microstructure, manipulating materials behavior under charged-particle and neutron irradiation, and create a knowledge database of defects, elemental diffusion/segregation, and defect trapping along grain boundaries and interfaces. Preliminary results will be discussed.

  5. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This ordinance is stipulated under the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The designation for refining and processing businesses under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise where these operations are to be practiced. Persons who intend to accept the designation shall file applications attaching business plans and the other documents specified by the ordinances of the Prime Minister's Office and other ministry orders. The permission for the installation of nuclear reactors under the law shall be received for each works or enterprise where reactors are to be set up. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file applications attaching the financing plans required for the installation of reactors and the other documents designated by the orders of the competent ministry. The permission concerning the reactors installed on foreign ships shall be obtained for each ship which is going to enter into the Japanese waters. Persons who ask for the permission shall file applications attaching the documents which explain the safety of reactor facilities and the other documents defined by the orders of the Ministry of Transportation. The designation for reprocessing business and the application for it are provided for, respectively. The usage of nuclear fuel materials, nuclear raw materials and internationally regulated goods is ruled in detail. (Kubozone, M.)

  6. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This ordinance is stipulated under the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The designation for refining and processing businesses under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise where these operations are to be practiced. Persons who intend to accept the designation shall file applications attaching business plans and the other documents specified by the ordinances of the Prime Minister's Office and other ministry orders. The permission for the installation of nuclear reactors under the law shall be received for each works or enterprise where reactors are to be set up. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file applications attaching the financing plans required for the installation of reactors and the other documents designated by the orders of the competent ministry. The permission concerning the reactors installed on foreign ships shall be obtained for each ship which is going to enter into the Japanese waters. Persons who ask for the permission shall file applications attaching the documents which explain the safety of reactor facilities and the other documents defined by the orders of the Ministry of Transportation. The designation for reprocessing business and the application for it are provided for, respectively. The usage of nuclear fuel materials, nuclear raw materials and internationally regulated goods is ruled in detail.(Okada, K.)

  7. RADIATION EFFECTS IN NUCLEAR WASTE MATERIALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop fundamental understanding and predictive models of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels, as well as an understanding of the effects of these radiation-induced solid-state changes on dissolution kinetics (i.e., radionuclide release). The research performed during the duration of this project has addressed many of the scientific issues identified in the reports of two DOE panels [1,2], particularly those related to radiation effects on the structure of glasses and ceramics. The research approach taken by this project integrated experimental studies and computer simulations to develop comprehensive fundamental understanding and capabilities for predictive modeling of radiation effects and dissolution kinetics in both glasses and ceramics designed for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste (HLW), plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, other actinides, and other highly radioactive waste streams. Such fundamental understanding is necessary in the development of predictive models because all experimental irradiation studies on nuclear waste materials are ''accelerated tests'' that add a great deal of uncertainty to predicted behavior because the damage rates are orders of magnitude higher than the actual damage rates expected in nuclear waste materials. Degradation and dissolution processes will change with damage rate and temperature. Only a fundamental understanding of the kinetics of all the physical and chemical processes induced or affected by radiation will lead to truly predictive models of long-term behavior and performance for nuclear waste materials. Predictive models of performance of nuclear waste materials must be scientifically based and address both radiation effects on structure (i.e., solid-state effects) and the effects of these solid-state structural changes on dissolution kinetics. The ultimate goal of this

  8. Croatian National System of Nuclear Materials Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscan, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the process of economic and technological development of Croatia by using or introducing nuclear power or in the case of international co-operation in the field of peaceful nuclear activities, including international exchange of nuclear material, Croatia should establish and implement National System of Nuclear Materials Control. Croatian National System of accounting for and control of all nuclear material will be subjected to safeguards under requirements of Agreement and Additional Protocol between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The decision by NPT parties at the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference to endorse the Fullscope IAEA Safeguards Standard (FSS) as a necessary precondition of nuclear supply means that states are obliged to ensure that the recipient country has a FSS agreement in place before any nuclear transfer can take place (Ref. 1). The FSS standard of nuclear supply is a central element of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Guidelines which the NSG adopted in 1992 and should be applied to members and non-members of the NSG. The FSS standard of nuclear supply in general allows for NPT parties or countries which have undertaken the same obligations through other treaty arrangements, to receive favourable treatment in nuclear supply arrangements. However, the Iraqi experience demonstrate that trade in nuclear and dual-use items, if not properly monitored, can contribute to a nuclear weapons program in countries acting contrary to their non-proliferation obligation. Multilateral nuclear export control mechanisms, including the FSS supply standard, provide the basis for co-ordination and standardisation of export control measures. (author)

  9. Software development for managing nuclear material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondin, Julio Benedito Marin

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, the nuclear material control is one of the most important activities. The Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), when inspecting routinely, regards the data provided as a major safety factor. Having a control system of nuclear material that allows the amount and location of the various items to be inspected, at any time, is a key factor today. The objective of this work was to enhance the existing system using a more friendly platform of development, through the VisualBasic programming language (Microsoft Corporation), to facilitate the operation team of the reactor IEA-R1 Reactor tasks, providing data that enable a better and prompter control of the IEA-R1 nuclear material. These data have allowed the development of papers presented at national and international conferences and the development of master's dissertations and doctorate theses. The software object of this study was designed to meet the requirements of the CNEN and the IAEA safeguard rules, but its functions may be expanded in accordance with future needs. The program developed can be used in other reactors to be built in the country, since it is very practical and allows an effective control of the nuclear material in the facilities. (author)

  10. Nuclear Materials Stewardship Within the DOE Environmental Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyeu, J. D.; Kiess, T. E.; Gates, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program has made significant progress in planning disposition of its excess nuclear materials and has recently completed several noteworthy studies. Since establishment in 1997, the EM Nuclear Material Stewardship Program has developed disposition plans for excess nuclear materials to support facility deactivation. All nuclear materials have been removed from the Miamisburg Environmental Management Project (Mound), and disposition planning is nearing completion for the Fernald Environmental Management Project and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Only a few issues remain for materials at the Hanford and Idaho sites. Recent trade studies include the Savannah River Site Canyons Nuclear Materials Identification Study, a Cesium/Strontium Management Alternatives Trade Study, a Liquid Technical Standards Trade Study, an Irradiated Beryllium Reflectors with Tritium study, a Special Performance Assessment Required Trade Study, a Neutron Source Trade Study, and development of discard criteria for uranium. A Small Sites Workshop was also held. Potential and planned future activities include updating the Plutonium-239 storage study, developing additional packaging standards, developing a Nuclear Material Disposition Handbook, determining how to recover or dispose of Pu-244 and U-233, and working with additional sites to define disposition plans for their nuclear materials

  11. Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material is composed of the text of 23 articles, annex 1 showing the levels of physical protection and annex 2 which is the categorization list of nuclear material. The text consists of definitions (article 1), the scope of applications (2), liability of protecting nuclear material during international transport (3 and 4), duty of mutual cooperation (5 and 6), responsibility for criminal punishment (7 to 13), and final provisions (14 to 23). It is to be noted that the nuclear material for military purposes and domestic nuclear facilities are excluded in the connection. After the brief description of the course leading to the establishment of the convention, individual articles and annexes and the respective Japanese version, and the explanation based on the intergovernmental meeting discussion on the draft convention are described. (J.P.N.)

  12. Nuclear energy - a green energy solution to global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    The manner in which the world has conducted itself in exploiting energy resources so far particularly in the post industrial revolution period, is now looming as one of the greatest challenges to the sustainability of development or even sustainability of life. Global climate change is no more a perceived threat, it is now a reality and we are not in a position to engage ourselves to debate on the issue. It is in fact a little late in taking the right corrective action if we have any concern for our future generations. The efforts of the scientists and engineers are to gradually replace the energy from burning of carbonaceous material to clean and intense source of energy i.e. nuclear fission and fusion

  13. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Regulation is revised on the basis of ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Provisions concerning the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials'' in the Enforcement Ordinance for the Law, to enforce such provisions. This is the complete revision of the regulation of the same name in 1957. Terms are explained, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding inspection area, persons engaged in works, radioactive wastes, area for incoming and outgoing of materials, fluctuation of stocks, batch, real stocks, effective value and main measuring points. For the applications for the permission of the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials, the location of an enterprise, the construction of buildings and the construction of and the equipments for facilities of chemical processing, forming, coating, assembling, storage of nuclear fuel materials, disposal of radioactive wastes and radiation control must be written. Records shall be made and maintained for the periods specified on the inspection of processing facilities, nuclear fuel materials, radiation control, operation, maintainance, accidents of processing facilities and weather. Limit to entrance into the control area, measures for exposure radiation dose, patrol and inspection, operation of processing facilities, transport of materials, disposal of radioactive wastes, safety regulations are provided for. Reports to be filed by the persons engaging in the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials are prescribed. (Okada, K.)

  14. ANCRE alliance: Road-map for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, F.; Carre, F.

    2013-01-01

    Created in 2009 by the Higher Education and Research ministry and by the Ecology ministry, ANCRE, the National Alliance for Energy Research Coordination aims at enhancing the efficiency of French research in the field of energy by promoting partnerships and synergies between public and private sectors (research organizations, universities and companies). ANCRE aims to propose a coordinated strategy for research and innovation projects. Beyond its four founding members, CEA, CNRS, IFPEN and CPU, ANCRE brings together all the French public research organizations concerned with energy issues, and has strong links with the industrial sector. Among the 10 programmatic groups of ANCRE, one is specifically dedicated to Nuclear Energies (fission and fusion). This group has proposed road-maps in five scientific fields, considered as strategic for R and D, in relation to industrial objectives and scientific bottlenecks: nuclear materials, nuclear chemistry, reactor physics, instrumentation and fusion. For twenty to thirty years, R and D on nuclear materials has evolved from the heavy metallurgy of the first generation of power reactors to the nano-materials science under extreme conditions for present and future needs. Nuclear systems are characterized by extreme operating conditions: high temperatures, mechanical stresses, radiations, corrosive environment, and long durations. In order to deal with these extreme conditions, it is necessary to have a sound knowledge of the materials, to the finest scale. R and D development was made possible by advances in materials science, in relation to more efficient observation means (now reaching the atom scale) and deeper control of the microstructure. Development of simulation methods at the atomic level (ab initio, classical molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo, etc.) have also allowed a better understanding of phenomena at their most fundamental level. Material performance issues, however, remain significant, as the performance

  15. Nuclear data of the major actinide fuel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenitz, W.P.; Saussure, G. De

    1984-01-01

    The effect of nuclear data of the major actinide fuel materials on the design accuracy, economics and safety of nuclear power systems is discussed. Since most of the data are measured relative to measurement standards, in particular the fission cross-section of /sup 235/U, data must be examined to ensure that absolute measurements and relative measurements are correctly handled. Nuclear data of fissile materials, fertile materials and minor plutonium isotopes are discussed.

  16. National and international nuclear material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    The status of nuclear materials in both the U.S. and Former Soviet Union is changing based upon the execution of agreements relative to weapons materials production and weapon dismantlement. The result of these activities is that a considerably different emphasis is being placed on how nuclear materials are viewed and utilized. Even though much effort is being expended on the final disposition of these materials, the interim need for storage and security of the material is increasing. Both safety and security requirements exist to govern activities when these materials are placed in storage. These requirements are intended to provide confidence that the material is not being misused and that the storage operations are conducted safely. Both of these goals can be significantly enhanced if technological monitoring of the material is performed. This paper will briefly discuss the traditional manual methods of U.S. and international material monitoring and then present approaches and technology that are available to achieve the same goals under the evolving environment

  17. Fissile material proliferation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The proliferation risk of a facility depends on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. To effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of nuclear related sites and facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for fissile material (plutonium and highly enriched uranium)

  18. Protecting the source. Securing nuclear material and strong radiation sources. New threats of terrorism are prompting the need for swift action to better secure nuclear material and strong radiation sources. Are measures already in place enough? The Stanford-Salzburg initiative suggests not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhausler, F.; Bunn, G.

    2003-01-01

    At a time of growing concern over threats of terrorism, the security of nuclear and radioactive material is an urgent and serious issue. Working with a range of partners, the IAEA has put into place a multi-faceted Action Plan to help countries upgrade their capabilities. But more needs to be done to counter new types of threats. One particular area that needs to be strengthened is the physical protection of nuclear and radioactive material. The attacks of 11 September 2001 opened our eyes to i he urgent need to strengthen national physical protection (PP) practices for nuclear and other radioactive material. The principle that highly radioactive material will protect itself does not apply to the newest generation of terrorists. Existing PP systems were not designed to deal with the threat of suicidal terrorists commanding the numbers, skills, training, and resources available to those who carried out the attacks in the US. Moreover, because there are no mandatory international standards for domestic PP systems for nuclear or radioactive material, protection measures vary greatly from country to country. The IAEA recommended standards (Inference/225/Rev. 4) were not designed with the new terrorist threats in mind and national practices often fall short of even these recommendations. The result is inadequate protection against the new form of terrorism. Few argue the point that national physical protection practices for nuclear and other radioactive material need to be strengthened. This article summarizes a Stanford-Salzburg plan developed by experts from Stanford University's Center for International Security and Cooperation, (USA) and revised at the EU-Physical Protection NUMAT Conference in September 2002 in Salzburg, Austria. It includes six recommended elements to consider in addition to what the IAEA is now doing to improve PP practices around the world: Establish a global list of physical protection priorities; Create a multilateral security cooperation

  19. Responsible stewardship of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to tap the massive energy potential of nuclear fission was first developed as a weapon to end a terrible world war. Nuclear fission is also a virtually inexhaustible energy resource, and is the only energy supply in certain areas in Russia, Kazakhstan and elsewhere. The potential link between civilian and military applications has been and continues to be a source of concern. With the end of the Cold War, this issue has taken a dramatic turn. The U.S. and Russia have agreed to reduce their nuclear weapons stockpiles by as much as two-thirds. This will make some 100 tonnes of separated plutonium and 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium available, in a form that is obviously directly usable for weapons. The total world inventory of plutonium is now around 1000 tonnes and is increasing at 60-70 tonnes per year. There is even more highly enriched uranium. Fortunately the correct answer to what to do with excess weapons material is also the most attractive. It should be used and reused as fuel for fast reactors. Material in use (particularly nuclear material) is very easy to monitor and control, and is quite unattractive for diversion. Active management of fissile materials not only makes a major contribution to economic stability and well-being, but also simplifies accountability, inspection and other safeguards processes; provides a revenue stream to pay for the necessary safeguards; and, most importantly, limits the prospective world inventory of plutonium to only that which is used and useful

  20. Risk Prevention for Nuclear Materials and Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper investigates the parameters which may have effects on the safety of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources used in peaceful applications of atomic energy. The emergency response planning in such situations are also indicated. In synergy with nuclear safety measures, an approach is developed in this study for risk prevention. It takes into consideration the collective implementation of measures of nuclear material accounting and control, physical protection and monitoring of such strategic and dangerous materials in an integrated and coordinated real-time mode at a nuclear or radiation facility and in any time

  1. Does nuclear energy save global environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Since the ecological footprint analysis in 1970s suggested changing consumption patterns and overpopulation concerns, energy policy such as energy conservation and use of renewable energy has become of prime importance. Several results of the long-term energy demand and supply analysis in 2050 or 2100 to reduce drastically carbon dioxide emission as a measure against global warming, showed the necessity of nuclear power deployment as well as maximum efforts to save energy, exploitation of the separation and disposal of carbon dioxide, and shifting energy sources to fuels that emit less greenhouse gases or non-fossil fuels. As a promising means to contribute to long-term energy supply, nuclear power generation is expected with improving safety, economic efficiency, environmental adaptability, and nuclear proliferation resistance of the technologies. (T.Tanaka)

  2. Legal aspects of transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, Mans.

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention are briefly discussed and other conventions in the field of civil liability for nuclear damage are mentioned: the Vienna Convention, the Nuclear Ships Convention and the 1971 Convention relating to civil liability in the field of maritime carriage of nuclear material. Legislation on civil liability in the Nordic countries, which is based on the Paris Convention and the Supplementary Convention is discussed, notably the principle of channelling of liability and exceptions from that principle due to rules of liability in older transport conventions and certain problems due to the limited geographical scope of the Paris Convention and the Supplementary Convention. Insurance problems arising in connection with transport of nuclear materials are surveyed and an outline is given of the administrative provisions concerning transport (based on the IAEA transport regulations) which govern transport of radioactive materials by different means: road, rail, sea and air. Finally, the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is discussed. (NEA) [fr

  3. Global nuclear markets in the context of climate change and sustainable development. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article (Chapter Two) focuses on the global nuclear markets in the context of policies regarding climate change and sustainable development. The global market realities and the export potential of the canadian nuclear industry are becoming crucial features of the nuclear political economy. The article examines the role of exports in the evolution of nuclear policy in Canada, and looks more closely at nuclear power and CANDU projects in the specific context of global competitive markets. It examines the trends in electricity and nuclear energy in the market for nuclear reactors. Finally, this article locates these changes in the context of the issues that are inherent in climate change and sustainable development

  4. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams

  5. The convention on the physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    This document contains the full text of a convention to facilitate the safe transfer of nuclear material, and to insure the physical protection of nuclear material in domestic use, storage, and transport. Two annexes are included, which establish categories of nuclear materials and levels of physical protection to be applied in international transport

  6. The use of modern databases in managing nuclear material inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The need for a useful nuclear materials database to assist in the management of nuclear materials within the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex is becoming significantly more important as the mission of the DOE Complex changes and both international safeguards and storage issues become drivers in determining how these materials are managed. A well designed nuclear material inventory database can provide the Nuclear Materials Manager with an essential cost effective tool for timely analysis and reporting of inventories. This paper discusses the use of databases as a management tool to meet increasing requirements for accurate and timely information on nuclear material inventories and related information. From the end user perspective, this paper discusses the rationale, philosophy, and technical requirements for an integrated database to meet the needs for a variety of users such as those working in the areas of Safeguards, Materials Control and Accountability (MC ampersand A), Nuclear Materials Management, Waste Management, materials processing, packaging and inspection, and interim/long term storage

  7. Nuclear material measurement system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, S.G. de.

    1988-01-01

    The description of the activities developed at the Safeguards Laboratory of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission is done. The methods and techniques used for measuring and evaluating nuclear materials and facilities are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  8. Materials aspects of nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide an overview of the nuclear waste repository performance requirements and the roles which we expect materials to play in meeting these requirements. The objective of the U.S. Dept. of Energy's (DOE) program is to provide for the safe, permanent isolation of high-level radioactive wastes from the public. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (the Act) provides the mandate to accomplish this objective by establishing a program timetable, a schedule of procedures to be followed, and program funding (1 mil/kwhr for all nuclear generated electricity). The centerpiece of this plan is the design and operation of a mined geologic repository system for the permanent isolation of radioactive wastes. A nuclear waste repository contains several thousand acres of tunnels and drifts into which the nuclear waste will be emplaced, and several hundred acres for the facilities on the surface in which the waste is received, handled, and prepared for movement underground. With the exception of the nuclear material-related facilities, a repository is similar to a standard mining operation. The difference comes in what a repository is supposed to do - to contain an isolate nuclear waste from man and the environment

  9. International nuclear material safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Azmi Syed Ali

    1985-01-01

    History can be a very dull subject if it relates to events which have long since lost their relevance. The factors which led to the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), however, are as important and relevant today as they were when the Agency was first created. Without understanding these factors it is impossible to realise how important the Agency is in the present world or to understand some of the controversies surrounding its future. Central to these controversies is the question of how best to promote the international transfer of nuclear technology without contributing further to the problem of proliferating nuclear explosives or explosive capabilities. One effective means is to subject nuclear materials (see accompanying article in box), which forms the basic link between the manufacture of nuclear explosives and nuclear power generation, to international safeguards. This was realized very early in the development of nuclear power and was given greater emphasis following the deployment of the first two atomic bombs towards the end of World War II. (author)

  10. Global warming---The role for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E. Jr.; Fulkerson, W.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power is currently making an important contribution to our energy requirements. It provides 17% of the world's electricity today --- almost 20% in the US. Reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide over the next 30 to 50 years sufficiently to address the issue of global warming can only be accomplished by a combination of much improved energy efficiency, substantial growth in use of nuclear power, and substantial growth in use of renewable energy. This paper discusses new initiatives in the major nuclear technologies (LWR, HTGR, LMR) which are emerging from a fundamental reexamination of nuclear power in response to the challenges and opportunities in the 21st century. To fulfill its role, nuclear power must gain worldwide acceptance as a viable energy option. The use of modern technology and ''passive'' safety features in next-generation nuclear power plants offers the potential to simplify their design and operation, enhance their safety, and reduce the cost of electricity. With such improvements, we believe nuclear power can regain public confidence and make a significant contribution to our energy future. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Materials research in the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleykamp, H.

    1990-03-01

    This report gives a survey of the research work done at the Institute for Material and Solids Research at Karlsruhe. The following subjects are dealt with: Instrumental analysis; producing thin films; corrosion; failure mechanism and damage analysis; fuel elements, ceramic nuclear fuels and can and structure materials for fast breeder reactors; material problems and ceramic breeding materials for nuclear fusion plants; glass materials for the treatment of radioactive waste; super-conducting materials; amorphous metals, new high alloyed steels; ceramic high performance materials; hard materials; compound materials and polymers. (MM) [de

  12. Special course for global nuclear human resource development in cooperation with Hitachi-GE nuclear energy in Tokyo institute of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Futami, T.; Saito, M.; Murata, F.; Shimizu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Many Asian countries are willing to learn Japanese nuclear power plants experiences, and are interested in introducing nuclear power generation to meet their future energy demand. Special course for Global Nuclear Human Resource Development was established in April, 2011 in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at Graduate School of Tokyo Institute of Technology in cooperation with Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy. Purpose of the special course is to develop global nuclear engineers and researchers not only in the Tokyo Institute of Technology but also in the educational institutes of Southeast Asian countries

  13. The regulations concerning the uses of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Regulations are established on the basis of ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Provisions concerning the usage of nuclear fuel materials'' in the Enforcement Ordinance of the Law, to enforce such provisions. Terms are explained, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding inspection area, persons engaging in works, area for incoming and outgoing of materials, batch, real stocks, effective value and main measuring points. In the applications for the permission to use nuclear fuel materials, the expected period and quantity of usage of each kind of such materials and the other party and the method of selling, lending and returning spent fuel or the process of disposal of such fuel must be written. Explanations concerning the technical ability required for the usage of nuclear fuel materials shall be attached to the applications. Applications shall be filed for the inspection of facilities for use, in which the name and the address of the applicant, the name and the address of the factory or the establishment, the range of the facilities for use, the maximum quantity of nuclear fuel materials to be used or stocked, and the date, the place and the kind of the expected inspection are written. Prescriptions cover the records to be held, safety regulations, the technical standards for usage, the disposal, transport and storage of nuclear fuel materials and the reports to be filed. (Okada, K.)

  14. Radiation damage in nuclear waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jencic, I.

    2000-01-01

    Final disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste is usually envisioned in some sort of ceramic material. The physical and chemical properties of host materials for nuclear waste can be altered by internal radiation and consequently their structural integrity can be jeopardized. Assessment of long-term performance of these ceramic materials is therefore vital for a safe and successful disposal. This paper presents an overview of studies on several possible candidate materials for immobilization of fission products and actinides, such as spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ), perovskite (CaTiO 3 ), zircon (ZrSiO 4 ), and pyrochlore (Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 and Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 ). The basic microscopic picture of radiation damage in ceramics consists of atomic displacements and ionization. In many cases these processes result in amorphization (metaminctization) of irradiated material. The evolution of microscopic structure during irradiation leads to various macroscopic radiation effects. The connection between microscopic and macroscopic picture is in most cases at least qualitatively known and studies of radiation induced microscopic changes are therefore an essential step in the design of a reliable nuclear waste host material. The relevance of these technologically important results on our general understanding of radiation damage processes and on current research efforts in Slovenia is also addressed. (author)

  15. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited

  16. Global Sustainable Development: The Role of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, Stanley R.

    1990-01-01

    The inevitable growth in the world's population and the need for a reasonable standard of living for all nations will drive the demand for energy to much higher levels than the world has yet experienced. A radical improvement in energy efficiency and conservation could limit the global annual demand to 100 GJ per person. consumption of North America. With the developing nations achieving a standard of living commensurate with this level, the global energy demand would increase by a factor of 2.5 to 1000 EJ per year. Concern over the impact of CO 2 emissions on global warming will likely lead to an international consensus on some reduction in the use of fossil fuels. To maintain environmental sustainability, all nations of the world would need to limit their fossil fuel consumption, particularly those in North America and Europe. Other energy sources will play an important role in all regions. However, the main burden is likely to fall upon nuclear energy as an essential element of the total energy supply. The danger eliminated while sustaining global development if the governments of the world commit to the use of nuclear power on a global scale. The industrial intrastucture can be put in place for such a major international program. A more difficult question is the availability of the necessary financing. On a global scale the financial requirement is within the range of current military expenditures. However, it is clear that not all the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be able to finance their own needs. A new international cooperative program will be necessary. The needed change in energy patterns is dramatic and will take time to implement. The change should be underway by the beginning of the next century. Otherwise the world faces the prospect of environmental disaster and social disruption as the nations struggle to improve their living standards through the increased use of fossil fuels. The role of nuclear power in providing the energy for

  17. Nuclear reactor structural material forming less radioactive corrosion product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Hiroshi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide nuclear reactor structural materials forming less radioactive corrosion products. Constitution: Ni-based alloys such as inconel alloy 718, 600 or inconel alloy 750 and 690 having excellent corrosion resistance and mechanical property even in coolants at high temperature and high pressure have generally been used as nuclear reactor structural materials. However, even such materials yield corrosion products being attacked by coolants circulating in the nuclear reactor, which produce by neutron irradiation radioactive corrosion products, that are deposited in primary circuit pipeways to constitute exposure sources. The present invention dissolves dissolves this problems by providing less activating nuclear reactor structural materials. That is, taking notice on the fact that Ni-58 contained generally by 68 % in Ni changes into Co-58 under irradiation of neutron thereby causing activation, the surface of nuclear reactor structural materials is applied with Ni plating by using Ni with a reduced content of Ni-58 isotopes. Accordingly, increase in the radiation level of the nuclear reactor structural materials can be inhibited. (K.M.)

  18. Progress towards a global nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    During its April 2014 meeting, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy held a policy debate on 'Progress towards a Global Nuclear Liability Regime'. The Steering Committee heard presentations from several experts on nuclear liability issues. To prepare the delegates to the Steering Committee for the policy debate, the NEA Secretariat prepared a background note on the status of the nuclear liability regimes, as well as on current issues and challenges in implementing the regimes. This article is based on the background note and is intended to provide basic information on the relevant international conventions and an overview of recent developments to enhance the understanding of the legal framework in which policy-makers and practitioners are engaging to respond to the call for broader adherence to the international liability instruments. (authors)

  19. Better materials for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.

    2005-01-01

    The improved performance of present generation nuclear reactors and the realization of advanced reactor concepts, both, require development of better materials. Physical metallurgy /materials science principles which have been exploited in meeting the exacting requirements of nuclear systems comprising fuels, structural materials, moderators and coolants are outlined citing a few specific examples. While the incentive for improvement of traditional fuels (e.g., UO 2 fuel) is primarily for increasing the average core burn up, the development of advanced fuels (e.g., MOX, mixed carbide, nitride, silicide and dispersion fuels) are directed towards better utilization of fissile and fertile inventories through adaptation of innovative fuel cycles. As the burn up of UO 2 fuel reaches higher levels, a more detailed and quantitative understanding of the phenomena such as fission gas release, fuel restructuring - induced by radiation and thermal gradients and pellet-clad interaction is being achieved. Development of zirconium based alloys for both cladding and pressure tube applications is discussed with reference to their physical metallurgy, fabrication techniques, in-reactor degradation mechanisms, and in-service inspection. The issue of radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is covered drawing a comparison between the western and eastern specifications of RPV steels. The search for new materials which can stand higher rates of atomic displacement due to radiation has led to the development of swelling resistant austenitic and ferritic stainless steels for fast reactor applications as exemplified by the development of the D-9 steel for Indian fast breeder reactor. New challenges are thrown to material scientists for the development of materials suitable for high temperature reactors, which have a potential for providing primary heat for thermo chemical dissociation of water. Development of several ceramic materials, carbon based materials, dissimilar

  20. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this SBIR Phase 1 feasibility effort was to demonstrate the usefulness of Quantex electron-trapping (ET) materials for spatial detection of nuclear particles over large areas. This demonstration entailed evaluating the prompt visible scintillation as nuclear particles impinged on films of ET materials, and subsequently detecting the nuclear particle impingement information pattern stored in the ET material, by means of the visible-wavelength luminescence produced by near-infrared interrogation. Readily useful levels of scintillation and luminescence outputs are demonstrated

  1. Attributes identification of nuclear material by non-destructive radiation measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Lin

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear materials should be controlled under the regulation of National Safeguard System. The non-destructive analysis method, which is simple and quick, provide a effective process in determining the nuclear materials, nuclear scraps and wastes. The method play a very important role in the fields of nuclear material control and physical protection against the illegal removal and smuggling of nuclear material. The application of non-destructive analysis in attributes identification of nuclear material is briefly described in this paper. The attributes determined by radioactive detection technique are useful tolls to identify the characterization of special nuclear material (isotopic composition, enrichment etc.). (author)

  2. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications

  3. Introduction of the Recycling program for Nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Beom; Shin, Byung Woo; Park, Jae Whan; Park, Soo Jin

    2009-01-01

    The LOF is the abbreviation of Location outside Facilities using in safeguards. IAEA want to control the location using the small nuclear material over the world. The depleted uranium used in Industrial field should be controlled by the Government according to the agreement between the IAEA and the ROK. From 2006, The ROK is managing the locations in the LOF. The detail article governing the locations is on the Location attachment agreed between two bodies. As of end of 2007, The LOF was consisting of 64 locations. Now, A number of Locations are increasing up to 75. The KINAC(Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control) is controlling the data about the amount of nuclear material in LOF. The KINAC is trying to upgrade the efficiency and accuracy about the data. The KINAC will make a storage house at the underground of head office from 2009. The purpose of the storage system in KINAC is gathering the nuclear material, which is difficult to control by the industries, especially the nuclear material involved in LOF. The final goal for gathering the nuclear materials are recycling to new another machine. I would like to introduce the handling case of the Depleted uranium in their countries. On this paper, I will show 4 countries case briefly

  4. Characteristics of X-ray fluorescence of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seunghoon; Kwak, Sung-Woo; Shin, Jung-Ki; Park, Uk-Rayng; Jung, Heejun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    LED is a technique of determination of uranium concentration as a continuous X-ray energy beams transmit a uranium liquid sample for safeguards. Compared to K-edge densitometer, due to relatively lower energy (L-edge energy is 17.17 keV) of Uranium L series energy than K-series energy, L-edge densitometer does not require high purity germanium detector with liquid nitride cooling. Therefore, the Ledge densitometer is appropriate for portable equipment for on-site nuclear material inspection and safeguards at facility sites. XRF combined with LED is a technique of finding of nuclear materials from reflected characteristic X-ray photons. In this study, characteristics of XRF of nuclear materials are simulated Monte Carlo method (Geant4) for feasibility of the system for determination of concentration of nuclear species. The analysis method of uranium concentration or minor actinides is applied using combination of linear extrapolation from jump of L-edge of sample and ratio between uranium and minor actinide from XRF measurement. In this study, The XRF ch aracteristics was simulated from Monte Carlo method. The peaks were obtained from nuclear material mixture. The estimated nuclear material concentration is low due to the volume effect of the sample. The correction factor or minimization of the effect is required.

  5. Radiation damage studies of nuclear structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, P.

    2012-01-01

    Maximum utilization of fuel in nuclear reactors is one of the important aspects for operating them economically. The main hindrance to achieve this higher burnups of nuclear fuel for the nuclear reactors is the possibility of the failure of the metallic core components during their operation. Thus, the study of the cause of the possibility of failure of these metallic structural materials of nuclear reactors during full power operation due to radiation damage, suffered inside the reactor core, is an important field of studies bearing the basic to industrial scientific views.The variation of the microstructure of the metallic core components of the nuclear reactors due to radiation damage causes enormous variation in the structure and mechanical properties. A firm understanding of this variation of the mechanical properties with the variation of microstructure will serve as a guide for creating new, more radiation-tolerant materials. In our centre we have irradiated structural materials of Indian nuclear reactors by charged particles from accelerator to generate radiation damage and studied the some aspects of the variation of microstructure by X-ray diffraction studies. Results achieved in this regards, will be presented. (author)

  6. The application of a figure of merit for nuclear explosive utility as a metric for material attractiveness in a nuclear material theft scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Wayne E.; Bradley, Keith; Jones, Edwin D.; Kramer, Kevin J.; Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Robel, Martin; Sleaford, Brad W.

    2010-01-01

    Effective integration of nonproliferation management into the design process is key to the broad deployment of advanced nuclear energy systems, and is an explicit goal of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The nuclear explosives utility of a nuclear material to a state (proliferator) or sub-state (terrorist) is a critical factor to be assessed and is one aspect of material attractiveness. In this work, we approached nuclear explosives utility through the calculation of a 'figure of merit' (FOM) that has recently been developed to capture the relative viability and difficulty of constructing nuclear explosives starting from various nuclear material forms and compositions. We discuss the integration of the figure of merit into an assessment of a nuclear material theft scenario and its use in the assessment. This paper demonstrates that material attractiveness is a multidimensional concept that embodies more than the FOM. It also seeks to propose that other attributes may be able to be quantified through analogous FOMs (e.g., transformation) and that, with quantification, aggregation may be possible using concepts from the risk community.

  7. Passport of global nuclear business. ASME code certificate acquirement and inspection practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Hiroyuki; Terajima, Makoto; Anami, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    There are possibilities of Japanese nuclear industries to participate in global business such as new and additional construction of nuclear power plants in US and also Asian and other developing countries in the world. It is requisite to acquire ASME code certificate for global business participation, just as passport. This article consists of five papers on present status of ASME code certificate acquirement and inspection practices of nuclear components vendors in the area of Japanese nuclear business. Activities of JSME Committee on Power Generation Facility Codes to make JSME codes corresponded to ASME nuclear codes and standards for their international deployment are also described. (T. Tanaka)

  8. In-field analysis and assessment of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, R.E.; Myers, W.S.; Olivares, J.A.; Phillips, J.R.; York, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has actively developed and implemented a number of instruments to monitor, detect, and analyze nuclear materials in the field. Many of these technologies, developed under existing US Department of Energy programs, can also be used to effectively interdict nuclear materials smuggled across or within national borders. In particular, two instruments are suitable for immediate implementation: the NAVI-2, a hand-held gamma-ray and neutron system for the detection and rapid identification of radioactive materials, and the portable mass spectrometer for the rapid analysis of minute quantities of radioactive materials. Both instruments provide not only critical information about the characteristics of the nuclear material for law-enforcement agencies and national authorities but also supply health and safety information for personnel handling the suspect materials

  9. Global NDE Best Practice for Technology Improvement, Outage Management, Foreign Material Exclusion and Dose Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, S. W.; Mohr, F.

    2010-01-01

    Non Destructive Examination (NDE) is a critical element of both Boiling Water and Pressurized Water Reactor outages. Frequently this includes critical path activity so both the utility and the inspection vendor are under intense pressure to perform the work quickly. Concurrent with AREVA's new global organization of NDE resources, AREVA NDE SOLUTIONS, efforts have intensified for global application of lessons learned and best practices. These best practices include new developments as well as continuous improvements to well established tools and NDE techniques. Advancements range from steam generator robots, advanced steam generator deposit characterization sensors and method, new phased array approaches for PWR and BWR reactor vessel examination, new sensors and approaches for RPV head examinations, plus advanced internals examination robots and methods. In addition to specialized tools and techniques, best practice includes numerous management innovations. AREVA's multi-disciplined integrated nuclear worker strategy helps to minimize the total number of personnel deployed to multi-task outages. Specific design and on-site practice has been implemented to minimize or eliminate foreign material from the reactor system and vigorous pursuit of dose management practices keeps our nuclear worker dose as low as reasonably achievable. The industry is moving to much more conservative nuclear worker dose limits. While this is proving to be an issue with many vendors, AREVA has had an internal policy of <2R since 2006. Globalizing the organization also helps AREVA manage peaks and unplanned emergency inspections from an enlarged pool of globally qualified inspection personnel and tools. (Author)

  10. Reliability of structural materials in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard Legry, G.

    1996-01-01

    The reliability of nuclear installations is a fundamental point for the exploitation of nuclear energy. It requires an extensive knowledge of the behaviour of materials in the operating conditions and during the expected service life of the installations. In nuclear power plants multiple risks of failure can exist and are expressed by corrosion and deformation phenomena or by modification in the mechanical characteristics of materials. The knowledge of the evolution with time of a given material requires to take into account the data relative to the material itself, to its environment and to the physical conditions of this environment. The study of materials aging needs a more precise knowledge of the kinetics of phenomena at any scale and of their interactions, and a micro- or macro-modeling of their behaviour during long periods of time. This paper gives an overview of the aging phenomena that occur in the structural materials involved in PWR and fast neutron reactors: thermal aging, generalized corrosion, corrosion under constraint, intergranular corrosion, crack growth under loading, wear, irradiation etc.. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear data information system for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Noda, Tetsuji; Utsumi, Misako

    1996-01-01

    The conceptual system for nuclear material design is considered and some trials on WWW server with functions of the easily accessible simulation of nuclear reactions are introduced. Moreover, as an example of the simulation on the system using nuclear data, transmutation calculation was made for candidate first wall materials such as 9Cr-2W steel, V-5Cr-5Ti and SiC in SUS316/Li 2 O/H 2 O(SUS), 9Cr-2W/Li 2 O/H 2 O(RAF), V alloy/Li/Be(V), and SiC/Li 2 ZrO 3 /He(SiC) blanket/shield systems based on ITER design model. Neutron spectrum varies with different blanket/shield compositions. The flux of low energy neutrons decreases in order of V< SiC< RAF< SUS blanket/shield systems. Fair amounts of W depletion in 9Cr-2W steel and the increase of Cr content in V-5Cr-5Ti were predicted in SUS or RAF systems. Concentration change in W and Cr is estimated to be suppressed if Li coolant is used in place of water. Helium and hydrogen production are not strongly affected by the different blanket/shield compositions. (author)

  12. Topical understandings of nuclear material measurement · accountancy and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Muraoka, Susumu; Osabe, Takeshi; Terada, Hiromi; Shimizu, Kenichi; Ohtani, Tetsuo; Fujimaki, Kazunori; Ishikawa, Tadatsugu; Shinohara, Yoshinori

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear material measurement is an important measure to determine the amount of nuclear material of each stage such as receipt, shipment, inventory and hold-up. The material accountancy based on the material balance among the measurements is a measure to control of nuclear material. The material accountancy, from the technical aspect, can be used as promising measures for purposes from operator's level to state's level such as the nuclear safety, property control and environmental preservation other than safeguards measures only to conclude no diversion of nuclear material. This paper discusses various purposes of nuclear material measurements and clarifies the certain function such as quality assurance to be expected at each purpose. Based on the discussion, critical points for the quality assurance of each stage are studied. (author)

  13. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P B; Erickson, A S; Mayer, M; Nattress, J; Jovanovic, I

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as "searching for a needle in a haystack" because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material's areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  14. Security of nuclear materials using fusion multi sensor wavelett

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko Hari Nugroho

    2010-01-01

    Security of a nuclear material in an installation is determined by how far the installation is to assure that nuclear material remains at a predetermined location. This paper observed a preliminary design on nuclear material tracking system in the installation for decision making support based on multi sensor fusion that is reliable and accurate to ensure that the nuclear material remains inside the control area. Capability on decision making in the Management Information System is represented by an understanding of perception in the third level of abstraction. The second level will be achieved with the support of image analysis and organizing data. The first level of abstraction is constructed by merger between several CCD camera sensors distributed in a building in a data fusion representation. Data fusion is processed based on Wavelett approach. Simulation utilizing Matlab programming shows that Wavelett fuses multi information from sensors as well. Hope that when the nuclear material out of control regions which have been predetermined before, there will arise a warning alarm and a message in the Management Information System display. Thus the nuclear material movement time event can be obtained and tracked as well. (author)

  15. Nuclear power from a long term global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The global problem with energy, now and into the longer term, is the same as the global problem with food. There is no absolute shortage of either and nor is there likely to be. But the pattern of availability is such that large numbers of people have inadequate supplies of one or the other, or of both. Thus, in considering global energy futures the problems are more about energy distribution than about its absolute availability: it is important that in arguing its case for expansion the nuclear industry bears that fact in mind. (Author)

  16. Regulation on control of nuclear materials of the 31 Oct 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The new regulation on accounting for and control of nuclear materials was issued on 31 October 1986 and put into force on 1 February 1987. The following provisions are included: aim and scope, responsibility for nuclear material accounting and control, rights and obligations of the nuclear material control officer, licensing, facility's instructions for nuclear material control, accounting, records, reporting, unusual events, inspections, nuclear material transfers, exemptions and termination of IAEA safeguards, final provisions, and definitions of terms

  17. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  18. Aims and methods of nuclear materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leven, D.; Schier, H.

    1979-05-01

    Whilst international safeguarding of fissile materials against abuse has been the subject of extensive debate, little public attention has so far been devoted to the internal security of these materials. All countries using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes have laid down appropriate regulations. In the Federal Republic of Germany safeguards are required, for instance, by the Atomic Energy Act, and are therefore a prerequisite for licensing. The aims and methods of national nuclear materials management are contrasted with viewpoints on international safeguards

  19. Overview moderator material for nuclear reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mairing Manutu Pongtuluran; Hendra Prihatnadi

    2009-01-01

    In order for a reactor design is considered acceptable absolute technical requirement is fulfilled because the most important part of a reactor design. Safety considerations emphasis on the handling of radioactive substances emitted during the operation of a reactor and radioactive waste handling. Moderator material is a layer that interacts directly with neutrons split the nuclear fuel that will lead to changes in physical properties, nuclear properties, mechanical properties and chemical properties. Reviews moderator of this time is of the types of moderator is often used to meet the requirements as nuclear material. (author)

  20. New technologies for monitoring nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes new technologies for monitoring the continued presence of nuclear materials that are being evaluated in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to reduce the effort, cost, and employee exposures associated with conducting nuclear material inventories. These technologies also show promise for the international safeguarding of process systems and nuclear materials in storage, including spent fuels. The identified systems are based on innovative technologies that were not developed for safeguards applications. These advanced technologies include passive and active sensor systems based on optical materials, inexpensive solid-state radiation detectors, dimensional surface characterization, and digital color imagery. The passive sensor systems use specialized scintillator materials coupled to optical-fiber technologies that not only are capable of measuring radioactive emissions but also are capable of measuring or monitoring pressure, weight, temperature, and source location. Small, durable solid-state gamma-ray detection devices, whose components are estimated to cost less than $25 per unit, can be implemented in a variety of configurations and can be adapted to enhance existing monitoring systems. Variations in detector design have produced significantly different system capabilities. Dimensional surface characterization and digital color imaging are applications of developed technologies that are capable of motion detection, item surveillance, and unique identification of items

  1. Illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmazer, A.; Yuecel, A.; Yavuz, U.

    2001-01-01

    As it is known, for the fact that the illicit trafficking and trading of nuclear materials are being increased over the past few years because of the huge demand of third world states. Nuclear materials like uranium, plutonium, and thorium are used in nuclear explosives that have very attractive features for crime groups, terrorist groups and, the states that are willing to have this power. Crime groups that make illegal trade of nuclear material are also trying to market strategic radioactive sources like red mercury and Osmium. This kind of illegal trade threats public safety, human health, environment also it brings significant threat on world peace and world public health. For these reasons, both states and international organizations should take a role in dealing with illicit trafficking. An important precondition for preventing this kind of incidents is the existence of a strengthened national system for control of all nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. Further, Governments are responsible for law enforcement within their borders for prevention of illegal trading and trafficking of nuclear materials and radiation sources

  2. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; Proteccion Fisica Delos Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-15

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers [French] La proteccion fisica contra el robo o la desviacion no autorizada de materiales nucleares y contra el sabotaje de las instalaciones nucleares por parte de individuos o de grupos ha sido durante largo tiempo motivo de preocupacion nacional e internacional. Aunque la obligacion de crear y hacer funcionar un sistema completo de proteccion fisica para las instalaciones y materiales nucleares en el territorio de un Estado determinado incumbe enteramente al Gobierno de dicho Estado, el que esa obligacion se cumpla o no, y si se cumple, en que medida o hasta que punto, es cosa que no deja indiferentes a los demas Estados. De aqui que la proteccion fisica se haya convertido en motivo de interes y cooperacion internacional. La necesidad de cooperacion internacional se hace evidente en los casos en que la eficacia de la proteccion fisica en el territorio de un Estado depende de que otros Estados tomen tambien medidas apropiadas para evitar o hacer fracasar los actos hostiles dirigidos contra instalaciones y

  3. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and maintain a measurement system which assures that all quantities in the material accounting records...) In each inventory period, control total material control and accounting measurement uncertainty so... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special...

  4. Inter-relations between regional and global approaches to nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.

    1995-01-01

    It is now becoming evident that the end of the East-West conflict has had a significant effect upon both global and regional security structures. From a situation where regional arrangements were, in the main, determined and driven by pressures arising from the bipolar division which permeated all aspects of the global political system, they increasingly have an independent existence. This has enabled such arrangements to be tailored to local circumstances in a manner which is not possible with global agreements. In particular, it has become apparent that enhanced constraints on peaceful nuclear activities and much more intrusive inspection and monitoring procedures, can more easily be negotiated on a regional basis than a global one. It also appears that nuclear weapon states are prepared to make unconditional commitments about nuclear weapon use on a regional basis, whereas they may not be prepared to do so on a global one. In short, regional approaches enable fine-tuning of the international non-proliferation regime to occur, and for measures to be taken on a regional level that would be politically unacceptable on the global level, due to their discriminatory nature. In the years ahead additional Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ) agreements may be negotiated, covering more of the land area of the globe. In parallel, regional nuclear cooperation and safeguarding agreements might also be expected to develop along the lines of EURATOM and ABACC. This in turn may move the states which remain outside of the NPT to a similar position to Argentina and Brazil at the moment: to an acceptance that whatever their opposition in principle to the NPT and the system of supplier export guidelines, the commitments they have already accepted on a regional level are more intrusive and constraining than those they would incur if they were to have acceded to the Treaty. In these circumstances, accession to the NPT becomes a distinct possibility, and thus the regional approach to non

  5. An innovative nuclear reactor as a solution to global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Robson Silva da; Sefidvash, Farhang

    2007-01-01

    The problem of global warming is no longer a philosophical discussion, but it is a fact seriously threatening the future of humanity. In this paper a practical solution to the problem of global warming resulting from the fossil fuelled energy suppliers is presented. The energy conservation and alternative forms of energy such as solar, wind, and bio even though having important roles, do not satisfy the energy demand generated by an increasing world population that desires to increase its standard of living. The fission process in the nuclear reactors does not produce greenhouse gases that cause global warming. The new paradigm in nuclear energy is the future innovative reactors that meet the new standards set by the INPRO Program of the IAEA. One such a reactor is presented in this paper, namely the Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) that is supported by the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) in its program of Small Reactors Without On-Site Refuelling (SRWOSR), being one of the four water cooled reactors in this program. The other three reactor concepts are PFPWR50 of Japan, BWRPB of Russia and AFPR-100 of USA. It is shown that the nuclear energy of the future is totally different than what is today in respect to safety, economics, environmental impact and proliferation. In this manner, the public perception of nuclear energy will change and its acceptability is promoted. (author)

  6. Nuclear Materials Diversion Safety and the Long-term Future of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2002-01-01

    Primarily due to irresponsible cold war politics of nuclear weapon countries nuclear proliferation situation is little short of getting out of control. In addition to five nominal nuclear weapon countries there are at present at least three more nuclear weapon countries and several countries with nuclear weapon potential. Non-proliferation treaty (NPT), signed in 1970, has been recognized by most non-nuclear weapon countries as unjust and ineffective. After the initial, deliberate, nuclear weapon developments of five nominal nuclear weapon countries, subsequent paths to nuclear weapons have been preceded by nominal peaceful use of nuclear energy. Uranium enrichment installations as well as reprocessing installations in non-nuclear weapon countries are the weakest spots of fuel cycle for diversion of nuclear materials either by governments or by illicit groups. An energy scenario, which would, by the end of century, replace the large part of fossil fuels use through extension of present nuclear practices, would mean very large increase in a number of such installations, with corresponding increase of the probability of diversion of nuclear materials. Such future is not acceptable from the point of view of proliferation safety. Recent events make it clear, that it cannot be accepted from the requirements of nuclear terrorism safety either. Nuclear community should put it clearly to their respective governments that the time has come to put general interest before the supposed national interest, by placing all enrichment and reprocessing installations under full international control. Such internationalization has a chance to be accepted by non-nuclear weapon countries, only in case should it apply to nuclear weapon countries as well, without exception. Recent terrorist acts, however horrible they were, are child,s play compared with possible acts of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear energy can be made proliferation safe and diversion of nuclear materials safe, and provide

  7. The application of a figure of merit for nuclear explosive utility as a metric for material attractiveness in a nuclear material theft scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Wayne E., E-mail: weking@llnl.go [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bradley, Keith [Global Security Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Jones, Edwin D. [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Kramer, Kevin J.; Latkowski, Jeffery F. [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Robel, Martin [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Sleaford, Brad W. [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Effective integration of nonproliferation management into the design process is key to the broad deployment of advanced nuclear energy systems, and is an explicit goal of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The nuclear explosives utility of a nuclear material to a state (proliferator) or sub-state (terrorist) is a critical factor to be assessed and is one aspect of material attractiveness. In this work, we approached nuclear explosives utility through the calculation of a 'figure of merit' (FOM) that has recently been developed to capture the relative viability and difficulty of constructing nuclear explosives starting from various nuclear material forms and compositions. We discuss the integration of the figure of merit into an assessment of a nuclear material theft scenario and its use in the assessment. This paper demonstrates that material attractiveness is a multidimensional concept that embodies more than the FOM. It also seeks to propose that other attributes may be able to be quantified through analogous FOMs (e.g., transformation) and that, with quantification, aggregation may be possible using concepts from the risk community.

  8. Regulations on nuclear materials control of the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present 'Regulations on Nuclear Materials Control of the People's Republic of China' were promulgated by the State Council on June 15, 1987, which are enacted to ensure safe and lawful use of nuclear materials, to prevent theft, sabotage, lose, unlawful diversion and unlawful use, to protect the security of the State and the Public and to facilitate the development of nuclear undertakings. The nuclear materials controlled are: 1. Uranium-235 (materials and products); 2. Uranium-233 (material and products); 3. Plutonium-239 (materials and products); 4. tritium (materials and products); 5. lithium-6 (materials and products); 6. Other nuclear materials requiring control. The present regulations are not applicable to the control of uranium ore and its primary products. The control measures for nuclear products transferred to the armed forces shall be laid down by the national defence department

  9. Global mainpower requirements for projected nuclear programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, S.B.; Lane, J.A.; Rogov, A.; Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1976-01-01

    The scarcity of trained engineers and technicians may be an important bottleneck to the continued growth of nuclear power, particularly in developing countries, if steps are not taken at an early date to insure against such a limitation. This paper presents a quantitative indication of both regional and global needs for trained manpower in all sectors of the nuclear power industry and compares these with estimates of the corresponding output of engineers. Studies of a few selected countries are also presented to illustrate potential problems on a national scale. (orig./UA) [de

  10. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, David Andrew

    2016-01-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • Evaluation and modeling of light water reactor accident tolerant fuel concepts • Status and results of recent TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiations, post-irradiation examinations, high-temperature safety testing to demonstrate the accident performance of this fuel system, and advanced microscopy to improve the understanding of fission product transport in this fuel system. • Improvements in and applications of meso and engineering scale modeling of light water reactor fuel behavior under a range of operating conditions and postulated accidents (e.g., power ramping, loss of coolant accident, and reactivity initiated accidents) using the MARMOT and BISON codes. • Novel measurements of the properties of nuclear (actinide) materials under extreme conditions, (e.g. high pressure, low/high temperatures, high magnetic field) to improve the scientific understanding of these materials. • Modeling reactor pressure vessel behavior using the GRIZZLY code. • New methods using sound to sense temperature inside a reactor core. • Improved experimental capabilities to study the response of fusion reactor materials to a tritium plasma. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at Idaho National Laboratory, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  11. Control of nuclear materials and materials in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbor G, A.; Fernandes M, S.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Argentina is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreement signed by Argentina are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Hungarian national nuclear material control and accounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendvai, O.

    1985-01-01

    The Hungarian system for nuclear materials control and accounting is briefly described. Sections include a historical overview, a description of nuclear activities and an outline of the organizational structure of the materials management system. Subsequent sections discuss accounting, verification and international relations

  13. Use of Nuclear Material Accounting and Control for Nuclear Security Purposes at Facilities. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear material accounting and control (NMAC) works in a complementary fashion with the international safeguards programme and physical protection systems to help prevent, deter or detect the unauthorized acquisition and use of nuclear materials. These three methodologies are employed by Member States to defend against external threats, internal threats and both state actors and non-state actors. This publication offers guidance for implementing NMAC measures for nuclear security at the nuclear facility level. It focuses on measures to mitigate the risk posed by insider threats and describes elements of a programme that can be implemented at a nuclear facility in coordination with the physical protection system for the purpose of deterring and detecting unauthorized removal of nuclear material

  14. Current Trends in the Nuclear Power Global Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Mikhailovna Osetskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The review of the nuclear energy technologies market, namely the main processes of the initial and final stages of the nuclear fuel cycle (NTC was shown. The authors reveal key players in the markets of natural uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fabrication of nuclear fuel, direct disposal, and reprocessing as well as determine their market shares. The article shows the fundamental factors influencing the development trends of the global nuclear power market such as: units’ commissioning in China, India, the Republic of Korea and other countries, the restart of the Japanese nuclear power plants, growth of uranium supplies long-term contracting planned for the period up to 2025, volatility of world prices of the NFC initial and final stages, political, economic and environmental reasons for the nuclear power generation choice. The article presents the results of analyses of Russian and world prices on the NFC initial and final stages main processes’ allowing to draw a conclusion about the current competitiveness of Russian nuclear energy technologies

  15. Nuclear power and the logic of globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizsaecker, C.C. von

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses effects and results of globalization for nuclear power and other options of electricity generation. According to the present state of knowledge, it will not be possible to meet the growing worldwide energy requirement with fossil and renewable energy sources only - also because of the CO 2 problem. Consequently, nuclear power will remain an important alternative. On an international scale, this applies in particular to large countries, such as China and India, as large national economies particularly benefit from the economies of scale offered by nuclear power. This could well make Chinese nuclear technology a product for the world market. Thinking along these lines has not really gained ground in Germany, as nuclear power, being a technology requiring considerably capital outlay, is considered unsuitable for southern countries. It is an illusion to believe that Germany's opting out of the use of nuclear power could be a model to others. Instead, we are faced by the ethical question of how we can help to minimize the accident risks of nuclear facilities worldwide. We can do so only by maintaining the use of nuclear power and exporting our level of safety, for the risks will not become any smaller merely as a result of our opting out. (orig.) [de

  16. The nuclear, an efficient tool against global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Proposing and commenting some extracts of a book by Francis Sorin (Le nucleaire et la planete), this document aims at showing that nuclear energy production is a tool to struggle against global warming because of its low carbon emission. Some assessments of this characteristic are given and discussed, as well as figures on carbon emissions in different western countries. This document also criticises the statements made by ecologists against nuclear energy. The author put nuclear energy at the same level as energy savings and renewable energies, as means to reach the desirable CO 2 saving level

  17. Material control and accounting at Exxon Nuclear, I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear material control and accounting system at Exxon Nuclear will be described in detail. Subjects discussed will include: the basis of the MC and A system, the nuclear materials accounting systems (NMRS and NICS), physical inventory taking, IAEA inspection experience, safeguards organization, measurements and measurement control, MUF evaluation, accounting forms and reports and use of tamper-indicating seals. The general requirements for material accounting and control in this type of a bulk-handling facility are described. The way those requirements are met for the subject areas shown above is illustrated using a reference (Model Plant) version of the Exxon Nuclear plant The difference between the item-accounting procedures used at reactor facilities and the bulk-accounting procedures used at fuel fabrication facilities is discussed in detail

  18. Nuclear Materials Characterization in the Materials and Fuels Complex Analytical Hot Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriquez, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As energy prices skyrocket and interest in alternative, clean energy sources builds, interest in nuclear energy has increased. This increased interest in nuclear energy has been termed the 'Nuclear Renaissance'. The performance of nuclear fuels, fuels and reactor materials and waste products are becoming a more important issue as the potential for designing new nuclear reactors is more immediate. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Analytical Laboratory Hot Cells (ALHC) are rising to the challenge of characterizing new reactor materials, byproducts and performance. The ALHC is a facility located near Idaho Falls, Idaho at the INL Site. It was built in 1958 as part of the former Argonne National Laboratory West Complex to support the operation of the second Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). It is part of a larger analytical laboratory structure that includes wet chemistry, instrumentation and radiochemistry laboratories. The purpose of the ALHC is to perform analytical chemistry work on highly radioactive materials. The primary work in the ALHC has traditionally been dissolution of nuclear materials so that less radioactive subsamples (aliquots) could be transferred to other sections of the laboratory for analysis. Over the last 50 years though, the capabilities within the ALHC have also become independent of other laboratory sections in a number of ways. While dissolution, digestion and subdividing samples are still a vitally important role, the ALHC has stand alone capabilities in the area of immersion density, gamma scanning and combustion gas analysis. Recent use of the ALHC for immersion density shows that extremely fine and delicate operations can be performed with the master-slave manipulators by qualified operators. Twenty milligram samples were tested for immersion density to determine the expansion of uranium dioxide after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. The data collected confirmed modeling analysis with very tight

  19. Nuclear energy role and potential for global sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Matsui, K.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term energy supply simulation that optimizes the energy system cost until 2100 for the world is being performed, by using the energy module of GRAPE model, where energy demand under the C02 emission constraint etc. is assumed. The model has been taken up for the trial calculation in I PCC the third report . Role and potential of nuclear energy system in the energy options is discussed here from the viewpoint of sustainable development with protecting from global warming. Taking the effort for energy conservation as major premise, carbon-sequestration for fossil fuel, renewable energy and nuclear energy should be altogether developed under the C02 constraint. Especially, fast breeder reactor will be attached importance to, as the 22nd century is approaching, due to its carbon free and resource limitless features when the nuclear generation cost is cheap as a current light water reactor level. It takes time around 30 years in order for breeding of Pu, a fast breeder reactor will begin to be introduced from around 2030. If the period for the technology establish of nuclear fuel cycle is assumed to be 30 years, it is necessary to start technical development right now. If the Kyoto Protocol, the emission constraint on only the developed countries, is extended in 21st century, it will promote the growth of nuclear power in the developed countries in the first half of the century. After 2050, the developing countries will face the shortage of uranium and plutonium. Carbon emission constraint should be covered all countries in the World not only for the developed countries but also for the developing countries. Therefore, it is important that the developing countries will use nuclear power effectively from the viewpoint of harmonization of energy growth and global environment. The policy that nuclear power is considered as Clean Development Mechanism would mitigate such global warming problems

  20. Historical construction costs of global nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovering, Jessica R.; Yip, Arthur; Nordhaus, Ted

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature on the construction costs of nuclear power reactors has focused almost exclusively on trends in construction costs in only two countries, the United States and France, and during two decades, the 1970s and 1980s. These analyses, Koomey and Hultman (2007); Grubler (2010), and Escobar-Rangel and Lévêque (2015), study only 26% of reactors built globally between 1960 and 2010, providing an incomplete picture of the economic evolution of nuclear power construction. This study curates historical reactor-specific overnight construction cost (OCC) data that broaden the scope of study substantially, covering the full cost history for 349 reactors in the US, France, Canada, West Germany, Japan, India, and South Korea, encompassing 58% of all reactors built globally. We find that trends in costs have varied significantly in magnitude and in structure by era, country, and experience. In contrast to the rapid cost escalation that characterized nuclear construction in the United States, we find evidence of much milder cost escalation in many countries, including absolute cost declines in some countries and specific eras. Our new findings suggest that there is no inherent cost escalation trend associated with nuclear technology. - Highlights: •Comprehensive analysis of nuclear power construction cost experience. •Coverage for early and recent reactors in seven countries. •International comparisons and re-evaluation of learning. •Cost trends vary by country and era; some experience cost stability or decline.

  1. Education and training in nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon, S.; Marco, M.

    2014-01-01

    CIEMAT participates in the European project Matisse (Materials Innovations for a Safe and Sustainable nuclear in Europe) belonging to FP7, whose main objective is to promote the link between the respective national research programs through networking and integration of activities for innovation in materials for advanced nuclear systems, sharing among partners best practices and implementation of training tools and efficient communication. The draft four years, from 2013 to 2017, includes aspects such as the interaction between infrastructure, R and D programs and postgraduate education and training. (Author)

  2. Outline of a computerized nuclear material accounting system applicable to nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handshuh, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A computerized nuclear material accounting system is described which enables a utility to account for its material throughout the entire fuel cycle. From input of transactions, the system records and reports inventories and transactions by accounts which the user may establish for discrete locations, item control areas, further subdivisions, and material types. Account numbers are designed so that accounts and records are automatically sorted in the order desired. The system also generates the Material Status Reports for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  3. The national nuclear material tracking system. A Korea's countermeasure against nuclear terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Since nuclear terrorism has been identified as a real threat, the Korean government has earnestly developed elementary technologies and sub-systems for establishing an integrated defensive system against nuclear terrorism, which is based on the concept of defense-in-depth. This paper introduces the gist and implications of the studies that have been conducted in building the national nuclear material tracking system for preventing and intercepting the illicit trafficking and transporting of nuclear material in Korea. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear materials control and accountability criteria for upgrades measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.H.; Hatcher, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of major political and societal changes in the past several years, methods of nuclear material control may no longer be as effective as in the past in Russia, the Newly Independent States (NIS), and the Baltic States (BS). The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program (MPC and A) is to reduce the threat of nuclear proliferation by collaborating with Russia, NIS, and BS governments to promote western-style MPC and A. This cooperation will improve the MPC and A on all weapons useable nuclear materials and will establish a sustainable infrastructure to provide future support and maintenance for these technology-based improvements. Nuclear materials of proliferation concern include materials of the types and quantities that can be most easily and directly used in a nuclear weapon. Sabotage of nuclear material is an event of great concern and potentially disastrous consequences to both the US and the host country. However, sabotage is currently beyond the scope of program direction and cannot be used to justify US-funded MPC and A upgrades. Judicious MPC and A upgrades designed to protect against insider and outsider theft scenarios would also provide addition, although not comprehensive, protection against saboteurs. This paper provides some suggestions to establish consistency in prioritizing system-enhancement efforts at nuclear material facilities. The suggestions in this paper are consistent with DOE policy and directions and should be used as a supplement to any policy directives issued by NN-40, DOE Russia/NIS Task Force

  5. Nuclear materials control and accountability criteria for upgrades measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkila, B.H.; Hatcher, C.R.

    1998-11-01

    As a result of major political and societal changes in the past several years, methods of nuclear material control may no longer be as effective as in the past in Russia, the Newly Independent States (NIS), and the Baltic States (BS). The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program (MPC and A) is to reduce the threat of nuclear proliferation by collaborating with Russia, NIS, and BS governments to promote western-style MPC and A. This cooperation will improve the MPC and A on all weapons useable nuclear materials and will establish a sustainable infrastructure to provide future support and maintenance for these technology-based improvements. Nuclear materials of proliferation concern include materials of the types and quantities that can be most easily and directly used in a nuclear weapon. Sabotage of nuclear material is an event of great concern and potentially disastrous consequences to both the US and the host country. However, sabotage is currently beyond the scope of program direction and cannot be used to justify US-funded MPC and A upgrades. Judicious MPC and A upgrades designed to protect against insider and outsider theft scenarios would also provide addition, although not comprehensive, protection against saboteurs. This paper provides some suggestions to establish consistency in prioritizing system-enhancement efforts at nuclear material facilities. The suggestions in this paper are consistent with DOE policy and directions and should be used as a supplement to any policy directives issued by NN-40, DOE Russia/NIS Task Force.

  6. Nuclear denotation: a topic for global public health concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-01-01

    In mid of March 2011, a big Tsunami attacked Japan and caused serious destruction. In addition to the destroyed infrastructure, disruption of the nuclear plants occurred and this is the origin of the big problem of nuclear denotation which is of present concern. Nuclear denotation is an actually interesting new problem that affects a large group of world population. This situation is new and requires our attention in a global level. In this article, the author summarizes and discusses this important topic

  7. US develops neutron to sniff out nuclear material

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The USA has developed a tiny portable neutron device that can detect hidden nuclear materials. The device is undergoing trials in the Argonne National Laboratory to see if it could be used to stop smuggling and unauthorised use of nuclear weapons and materials (1/2 page).

  8. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    General provisions specify the purpose of the Law and definitions of terms used in it. Provisions relating to control of business management for refining cover designation of business operation, requirements for designation, permission and report of alteration, report of commencement of business operation, revocation of designation, recording, and measures for wastes. Provisions relating to control of business management for processing cover permission of operation, requirements for permission, approval of design and construction plan, inspection of facilities, report of commencement of business management, measures for maintenance, suspension of use of facilities, responsible personnel for handling nuclear fuel, and permit, obligations, etc. of responsible personnel for handing nuclear fuel. Provisions relating to control of construction and operation of nuclear reactor cover permission of construction, permission concerning nuclear reactor mounted on foreign nuclear powered ships, requirements for permission, etc. Other articles stipulate provisions relating to control of business management for reprocessing, use of nuclear fuel substances, use of materials and substances covered by international regulations, designation of inspection organizations, and other rules. (Nogami, K.)

  9. Induced-Fission Imaging of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausladen, Paul; Blackston, Matthew A.; Mullens, James Allen; McConchie, Seth M.; Mihalczo, John T.; Bingham, Philip R.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents initial results from development of the induced-fission imaging technique, which can be used for the purpose of measuring or verifying the distribution of fissionable material in an unopened container. The technique is based on stimulating fissions in nuclear material with 14 MeV neutrons from an associated-particle deuterium-tritium (D-T) generator and counting the subsequent induced fast fission neutrons with an array of fast organic scintillation detectors. For each source neutron incident on the container, the neutron creation time and initial trajectory are known from detection of the associated alpha particle of the d + t → α + n reaction. Many induced fissions will lie along (or near) the interrogating neutron path, allowing an image of the spatial distribution of prompt induced fissions, and thereby fissionable material, to be constructed. A variety of induced-fission imaging measurements have been performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with a portable, low-dose D-T generator, including single-view radiographic measurements and three-dimensional tomographic measurements. Results from these measurements will be presented along with the neutron transmission images that have been performed simultaneously. This new capability may have applications to a number of areas in which there may be a need to confirm the presence or configuration of nuclear materials, such as nuclear material control and accountability, quality assurance, treaty confirmation, or homeland security applications.

  10. Computerized nuclear material database management system for power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Binghao; Zhu Rongbao; Liu Daming; Cao Bin; Liu Ling; Tan Yajun; Jiang Jincai

    1994-01-01

    The software packages for nuclear material database management for power reactors are described. The database structure, data flow and model for management of the database are analysed. Also mentioned are the main functions and characterizations of the software packages, which are successfully installed and used at both the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant for the purposed of handling nuclear material database automatically

  11. Software development for managing nuclear material database; Desenvolvimento de um programa computacional para gerenciamento de banco de dados de material nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondin, Julio Benedito Marin

    2011-07-01

    In nuclear facilities, the nuclear material control is one of the most important activities. The Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), when inspecting routinely, regards the data provided as a major safety factor. Having a control system of nuclear material that allows the amount and location of the various items to be inspected, at any time, is a key factor today. The objective of this work was to enhance the existing system using a more friendly platform of development, through the VisualBasic programming language (Microsoft Corporation), to facilitate the operation team of the reactor IEA-R1 Reactor tasks, providing data that enable a better and prompter control of the IEA-R1 nuclear material. These data have allowed the development of papers presented at national and international conferences and the development of master's dissertations and doctorate theses. The software object of this study was designed to meet the requirements of the CNEN and the IAEA safeguard rules, but its functions may be expanded in accordance with future needs. The program developed can be used in other reactors to be built in the country, since it is very practical and allows an effective control of the nuclear material in the facilities. (author)

  12. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • Evaluation and modeling of light water reactor accident tolerant fuel concepts • Status and results of recent TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiations, post-irradiation examinations, high-temperature safety testing to demonstrate the accident performance of this fuel system, and advanced microscopy to improve the understanding of fission product transport in this fuel system. • Improvements in and applications of meso and engineering scale modeling of light water reactor fuel behavior under a range of operating conditions and postulated accidents (e.g., power ramping, loss of coolant accident, and reactivity initiated accidents) using the MARMOT and BISON codes. • Novel measurements of the properties of nuclear (actinide) materials under extreme conditions, (e.g. high pressure, low/high temperatures, high magnetic field) to improve the scientific understanding of these materials. • Modeling reactor pressure vessel behavior using the GRIZZLY code. • New methods using sound to sense temperature inside a reactor core. • Improved experimental capabilities to study the response of fusion reactor materials to a tritium plasma. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at Idaho National Laboratory, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  13. Measures for prevention illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the early 1990ies the number of illicit trafficking cases with nuclear material and radioactive sources began to appear in the press more often than before. This fact became of great concern among international organizations and different states that the nuclear material subjected to trafficking might become in possession of rogue states and be implicated in weapons production or that stolen radioactive sources may cause health and safety effects to the population or to the environment. The creation and proposition of a model scheme procedure for the developing countries is important for starting the initial process of preventing and combating the illicit traffic of nuclear materials. Particular efforts have been directed for the protection of fissile materials. The reported incidents for diversion of nuclear materials have raised the problem of potential nuclear terrorism and also for countries of proliferation to take a short cut to the bomb. There is a need of rapid implementation of comprehensive, mutually reinforcing strategy to control the existing stockpiles of fissile material and to lower the future production and use of such materials. The illicit traffic of nuclear materials is a new threat, which requires new efforts, new approaches and coordination of services and institutions and even new legislation. The propositions of a model-procedure will allow better and quicker upgrade of developing countries capabilities for combating illicit nuclear trafficking. (author)

  14. Global threat reduction initiative (GTRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, Travis

    2009-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is a vital part of the global efforts to combat nuclear terrorism. GTRI's unique mission to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites both in the United States and abroad directly addresses recommendations of the bipartisan 9/11 Commission. GTRI efforts are focused on the first line of defense, namely securing or removing vulnerable nuclear and radiological material at the source. The international community has promulgated guidance on the best practice on the technical and administrative aspects of radiological source security, and the GTRI seeks to provide technical assistance to national bodies and individual facilities to adopt this best practice. This presentation will discuss security concepts that are implemented by the GTRI in cooperation with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization's Regional Security of Radioactive Sources Project. (author)

  15. Selection of materials in nuclear fuel: present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Reja, C.; Fuentes, L.; Garcia de la Infanta, J. M.; Munoz Sicilia, A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main aspects of the nuclear fuel is the selection of materials for the components. The operating conditions of the fuel elements impose a major challenge to materials: high temperature, corrosive aqueous environment, high mechanical properties, long periods of time under these extreme conditions and what is the differentiating factor; the effect of irradiation. The materials are selected to fulfill these severe requirements and also to be able to control and to predict its behavior in the working conditions. Their development, in terms of composition and processing, is based on the continuous follow-up of the operation behavior. Many of these materials are specific of the nuclear industry, such as the uranium dioxide and the zirconium alloys. This article presents the selection and development of the nuclear fuel materials as a function of the services requirements. It also includes a view of the new nuclear fuels materials that are being raised after Fukushima accident. (Author)

  16. Estimation methods for special nuclear materials holdup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Picard, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    The potential value of statistical models for the estimation of residual inventories of special nuclear materials was examined using holdup data from processing facilities and through controlled experiments. Although the measurement of hidden inventories of special nuclear materials in large facilities is a challenging task, reliable estimates of these inventories can be developed through a combination of good measurements and the use of statistical models. 7 references, 5 figures

  17. Nuclear and hazardous material perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, Gary M.; Kunze, Jay F.; Rogers, Vern C.

    2007-01-01

    The reemerging nuclear enterprise in the 21. century empowering the power industry and nuclear technology is still viewed with fear and concern by many of the public and many political leaders. Nuclear phobia is also exhibited by many nuclear professionals. The fears and concerns of these groups are complex and varied, but focus primarily on (1) management and disposal of radioactive waste [especially spent nuclear fuel and low level radioactive waste], (2) radiation exposures at any level, and (3) the threat nuclear terrorism. The root cause of all these concerns is the exaggerated risk perceived to human health from radiation exposure. These risks from radiation exposure are compounded by the universal threat of nuclear weapons and the disastrous consequences if these weapons or materials become available to terrorists or rogue nations. This paper addresses the bases and rationality for these fears and considers methods and options for mitigating these fears. Scientific evidence and actual data are provided. Radiation risks are compared to similar risks from common chemicals and familiar human activities that are routinely accepted. (authors)

  18. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  19. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  20. The Application of materials attractiveness in a graded approach to nuclear materials security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebbinghaus, B.; Bathke, C.; Dalton, D.; Murphy, J.

    2013-01-01

    The threat from terrorist groups has recently received greater attention. In this paper, material quantity and material attractiveness are addressed through the lens of a minimum security strategy needed to prevent the construction of a nuclear explosive device (NED) by an adversary. Nuclear materials are placed into specific security categories (3 or 4 categories) , which define a number of security requirements to protect the material. Materials attractiveness can be divided into four attractiveness levels, High, Medium, Low, and Very Low that correspond to the utility of the material to the adversary and to a minimum security strategy that is necessary to adequately protect the nuclear material. We propose a graded approach to materials attractiveness that recognizes for instance substantial differences in attractiveness between pure reactor-grade Pu oxide (High attractiveness) and fresh MOX fuel (Low attractiveness). In either case, an adversary's acquisition of a Category I quantity of plutonium would be a major incident, but the acquisition of Pu oxide by the adversary would be substantially worse than the acquisition of fresh MOX fuel because of the substantial differences in the time and complexity required of the adversary to process the material and fashion it into a NED

  1. Application of Nuclear Forensics in Combating Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    As a scientific discipline, nuclear forensics poses formidable scientific challenges with regard to extracting information on the history, origin, movement and processing of nuclear and other radioactive material found to be out of regulatory control. Research into optimized techniques is being pursued by leading nuclear forensic research groups around the world. This research encompasses areas including evidence collection, analytical measurements for rapid and reliable categorization and characterization of nuclear and radioactive material, and interpretation using diverse data characteristics or the 'science of signatures' from throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. In this regard, the IAEA recently concluded the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled Application of Nuclear Forensics in Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material. The CRP seeks to improve the ability of Member States to provide robust categorization and characterization of seized material, reliable techniques for the collection and preservation of nuclear forensic evidence, and the ability to interpret the results for law enforcement and other purposes. In accordance with broader IAEA objectives, the CRP provides a technical forum for participating institutes from Member States to exchange technical information to benefit national confidence building as well as to advance the international discipline of nuclear forensics. This CRP was initially planned in 2006, commenced in 2008 and was completed in 2012. Three research coordination meetings (RCM) were convened at the IAEA in Vienna to review progress. The leadership of the chairpersons was essential to establishing the technical viability of nuclear forensics at the IAEA and with the Member States

  2. Peculiarities of physical protection assurance of the nuclear materials at nuclear installation decommissioning stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinchuk, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    On December 15, 2000 Unit 3 of Chernobyl NPP, which is the last one in Ukraine having RBMK-type reactor, was permanently shutdown before the end of its lifetime. A number of projects related to establishing infrastructure for the plant decommissioning are being implemented in compliance with the Ukraine's commitments. Decommissioning stage includes activities on fuel unloading from the cores of Unit I and Unit 3, fuel cooling in the ponds followed by the fuel transportation to the spent fuel dry storage facility (currently under construction) for its safe long-term storage. Special facilities are being created for liquid and solid radioactive waste treatment. Besides, it is planned to implement a number of projects to convert Shelter Object in environmentally safe structure. Physical protection work being an essential part of the nuclear material management is organized in line with the recommendations of the IAEA, and the Laws of Ukraine 'On Nuclear Energy Utilization and Radiation Safety', 'On Physical Protection of Nuclear Installations and Materials', 'Regulations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Installations', other codes and standards. While organizing physical protection on ChNPP decommissioning stage we have to deal with some specific features, namely: Significant amount of fuel assemblies, which are continuously transferred between various storage and operation facilities; Big amount of odd nuclear material at Shelter Object; 'Theft of new fuel fragments from the central hall of the Shelter Object in 1995 with the intention of their further sale. The thieves were detained and sentenced. The stolen material was withdrawn, that prevented its possible proliferation and illicit trafficking. At present physical protection of ChNPP does not fully satisfy the needs of the decommissioning stage and Ukraine's commitments on non-admission of illicit trafficking. Work is carried out, aimed to improve nuclear material physical protection, whose main

  3. Is nuclear power part of Australia's global warming solutions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, I.

    2007-01-01

    Forty years ago, I was preparing for my final exams. Having studied electrical engineering and science part-time for seven years at the University of New South Wales, I did well enough to spend the following year doing honours in physics. I then went to the United Kingdom for doctoral studies at the University of York, supported by the UK Atomic Energy Authority. At the time, like most young physicists, I saw nuclear power as the clean energy source of the future. Here, I want to tell you why my professional experience has led me to reject that view. There is no serious doubt that climate change is real, it is happening now and its effects are accelerating. It is already causing serious economic impacts: reduced agricultural production, increased costs of severe events like fires and storms, and the need to consider radical, energy-intensive and costly water supply measures such as desalination plants. The alarming consequences of climate change have driven distinguished scientists like James Lovelock to conclude that the situation is desperate enough to reconsider our attitude to nuclear power. I agree with Lovelock about the urgency of the situation, but not about the response. The science is very clear. We need to reduce global greenhouse pollution by about 60%, ideally by 2050. To achieve that global target, allowing for the legitimate material expectations of poorer countries, Australia's quota will need to be at least as strong as the UK's goal of 60% by 2050 and preferably stronger. Our eventual goal will probably be to reduce our greenhouse pollution by 80-90%. How can we reach this ambitious target?

  4. Special nuclear material simulation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, John H.; DeMint, Amy; Gooch, Jack; Hawk, Todd; Pickett, Chris A.; Blessinger, Chris; York, Robbie L.

    2014-08-12

    An apparatus for simulating special nuclear material is provided. The apparatus typically contains a small quantity of special nuclear material (SNM) in a configuration that simulates a much larger quantity of SNM. Generally the apparatus includes a spherical shell that is formed from an alloy containing a small quantity of highly enriched uranium. Also typically provided is a core of depleted uranium. A spacer, typically aluminum, may be used to separate the depleted uranium from the shell of uranium alloy. A cladding, typically made of titanium, is provided to seal the source. Methods are provided to simulate SNM for testing radiation monitoring portals. Typically the methods use at least one primary SNM spectral line and exclude at least one secondary SNM spectral line.

  5. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Chapeter 1 specifies regulations concerning business management for refining and processing, which cover application for designation of refining operation, application for permission for processing operation, and approval of personnel responsible for handling nuclear fuel. Chapter 2 specifies regulations concerning construction and operation of nuclear reactors, which cover application for construction of nuclear reactors, reactors in a research and development stage, application for permission concerning nuclear reactors mounted on foreign nuclear powered ships, application for permission for alteration concerning construction of nuclear reactors, application for permission for alteration concerning nuclear reactors mounted on foreign nuclear powered ships, nuclear reactor facilities to be subjected to regular inspection, nuclear reactor for which submission of operation plan is not required, and application for permission for transfer of nuclear reactor. Chapter 2 also specifies regulations concerning business management for reprocessing and waste disposal. Chapter 3 stipulates regulations concerning use of nuclear fuel substances, nuclear material substances and other substances covered by international regulations, which include rules for application for permission for use of nuclear fuel substances, etc. Supplementary provisions are provided in Chapter 4. (Nogami, K.)

  6. Thermodynamics of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    The first session of the symposium discussed in general the thermodynamic properties of actinides, including thorium, uranium and Plutonium which provide reactor fuel. The second session was devoted to applications of thermodynamic theory to the study of nuclear materials, while the experimental techniques for the determination of thermodynamic data were examined at the next session. The thermodynamic properties of alloys were considered at a separate session, and another session was concerned with solids other than alloys. Vaporization processes, which are of special interest in the development of high-temperature reactors, were discussed at a separate session. The discussions on the methods of developing the data and ascertaining their accuracy were especially useful in highlighting the importance of determining whether any given data are reliable before they can be put to practical application. Many alloys and refractory materials (i. e. materials which evaporate only at very high temperatures) are of great importance in nuclear technology, and some of these substances are extremely complex in their chemical composition. For example, until recently the phase composition of the oxides of thorium, uranium and plutonium had been only very imperfectly understood, and the same was true of the carbides of these elements. Recent developments in experimental techniques have made it possible to investigate the phase composition of these complex materials as well as the chemical species of these materials in the gaseous phase. Recent developments in measuring techniques, such as fluorine bomb calorimetry and Knudsen effusion technique, have greatly increased the accuracy of thermodynamic data

  7. Global partnering related to nuclear materials safeguards and security - A pragmatic approach to international safeguards work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents issues Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. has addressed in the performance of international work to safeguards and security work. It begins with a description of the package we put together for a sample proposal for the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, for which we were ranked number one for technical approach and cost, and concludes with a discussion of approaches that we have taken to performing this work, including issues related to performing the work as part of a team. The primary focus is on communication, workforce, equipment, and coordination issues. Finally, the paper documents the rules that we use to assure the work is performed safely and successfully. (author)

  8. Atomistic Simulations of Small-scale Materials Tests of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Chan Sun; Jin, Hyung Ha; Kwon, Jun Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Degradation of materials properties under neutron irradiation is one of the key issues affecting the lifetime of nuclear reactors. Evaluating the property changes of materials due to irradiations and understanding the role of microstructural changes on mechanical properties are required for ensuring reliable and safe operation of a nuclear reactor. However, high dose of neuron irradiation capabilities are rather limited and it is difficult to discriminate various factors affecting the property changes of materials. Ion beam irradiation can be used to investigate radiation damage to materials in a controlled way, but has the main limitation of small penetration depth in the length scale of micro meters. Over the past decade, the interest in the investigations of size-dependent mechanical properties has promoted the development of various small-scale materials tests, e.g. nanoindentation and micro/nano-pillar compression tests. Small-scale materials tests can address the issue of the limitation of small penetration depth of ion irradiation. In this paper, we present small-scale materials tests (experiments and simulation) which are applied to study the size and irradiation effects on mechanical properties. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of nanoindentation and nanopillar compression tests. These atomistic simulations are expected to significantly contribute to the investigation of the fundamental deformation mechanism of small scale irradiated materials

  9. Materials for Nuclear Plants From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The clamor for non-carbon dioxide emitting energy production has directly  impacted on the development of nuclear energy. As new nuclear plants are built, plans and designs are continually being developed to manage the range of challenging requirement and problems that nuclear plants face especially when managing the greatly increased operating temperatures, irradiation doses and extended design life spans. Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments  provides a comprehensive treatment of the structural materials for nuclear power plants with emphasis on advanced design concepts.   Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments approaches structural materials with a systemic approach. Important components and materials currently in use as well as those which can be considered in future designs are detailed, whilst the damage mechanisms responsible for plant ageing are discussed and explained. Methodologies for materials characterization, material...

  10. Analytical chemistry of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed an enormous development in chemical analysis. The rapid progress of nuclear energy, of solid-state physics and of other fields of modern industry has extended the concept of purity to limits previously unthought of, and to reach the new dimensions of these extreme demands, entirely new techniques have been invented and applied and old ones have been refined. Recognizing these facts, the International Atomic Energy Agency convened a Panel on Analytical Chemistry of Nuclear Materials to discuss the general problems facing the analytical chemist engaged in nuclear energy development, particularly in newly developing centre and countries, to analyse the represent situation and to advise as to the directions in which research and development appear to be most necessary. The Panel also discussed the analytical programme of the Agency's laboratory at Seibersdorf, where the Agency has already started a programme of international comparison of analytical methods which may lead to the establishment of international standards for many materials of interest. Refs and tabs

  11. Nuclear Materials Management U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse Schreiber

    2008-01-01

    In light of the changing Defense Complex mission, the high cost to storing and protecting nuclear materials, and in consideration of scarcity of resources, it is imperative that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned nuclear materials are managed effectively. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Action Plan outlines the strategy for continuing to meet America's nuclear security goals, meeting the overall mission challenges of DOE and NNSA as well as giving focus to local missions. The mission of the NNSA/NSO Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) Program is to ensure that nuclear material inventories are accurately assessed and reported, future material needs are adequately planned, and that existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) inventories are efficiently utilized, staged, or dispositioned. The NNSA/NSO understands that the NTS has unique characteristics to serve and benefit the nation with innovative solutions to the complex problems involving Special Nuclear Materials, hazardous materials, and multi-agency, integrated operations. The NNSA/NSO is defining infrastructure requirements for known future missions, developing footprint consolidation strategic action plans, and continuing in the path of facility modernization and improvements. The NNSA/NSO is striving for the NTS to be acknowledged as an ideal location towards mission expansion and growth. The NTS has the capability of providing isolated, large scale construction and development locations for nuclear power or alternate energy source facilities, expanded nuclear material storage sites, and for new development in 'green' technology

  12. Evaluation and development of advanced nuclear materials: IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inozemtsev, V.; Basak, U.; Killeen, J.; Dyck, G.; Zeman, A.; )

    2011-01-01

    Economical, environmental and non-proliferation issues associated with sustainable development of nuclear power bring about a need for optimization of fuel cycles and implementation of advanced nuclear systems. While a number of physical and design concepts are available for innovative reactors, the absence of reliable materials able to sustain new challenging irradiation conditions represents the real bottle-neck for practical implementation of these promising ideas. Materials performance and integrity are key issues for the safety and competitiveness of future nuclear installations being developed for sustainable nuclear energy production incorporating fuel recycling and waste transmutation systems. These systems will feature high thermal operational efficiency, improved utilization of resources (both fissile and fertile materials) and reduced production of nuclear waste. They will require development, qualification and deployment of new and advanced fuel and structural materials with improved mechanical and chemical properties combined with high radiation and corrosion resistance. The extensive, diverse, and expensive efforts toward the development of these materials can be more effectively organized within international collaborative programmes with wide participation of research, design and engineering communities. IAEA carries out a number of international projects supporting interested Member States with the use of available IAEA program implementation tools (Coordinated Research Projects, Technical Meetings, Expert Reviews, etc). The presentation summarizes the activities targeting material developments for advanced nuclear systems, with particular emphasis on fast reactors, which are the focal topics of IAEA Coordinated Research Projects 'Accelerator Simulation and Theoretical Modelling of Radiation Effects' (on-going), 'Benchmarking of Structural Materials Pre-Selected for Advanced Nuclear Reactors', 'Examination of advanced fast reactor fuel and core

  13. Global zero-carbon energy pathways using viable mixes of nuclear and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A proper mix of nuclear power and renewables achieves sustainable energy future. • A high nuclear share provides cost and land effectiveness compared to nuclear-free. • Only-renewable mix will increase negative economic and environmental impacts. • A deployment of advanced reactor technologies is essential to overcome limitations. - Abstract: What are the most viable global pathways for a major expansion of zero-carbon emissions electricity sources given the diversity of regional technical, socio-political and economic constraints? We modelled a range of zero-emissions energy scenarios across nations that were designed to meet projected final energy demand in 2060, and optimised to derive the best globally aggregated results in terms of minimising costs and land use (a surrogate for environmental impacts). We found that a delayed energy transition to a zero-emissions pathway will decrease investment costs (−$3,431 billion), but increase cumulative CO 2 emissions (additional 696 Gt). A renewable-only scenario would convert >7.4% of the global land area to energy production, whereas a maximum nuclear scenario would affect <0.4% of land area, including mining, spent-fuel storage, and buffer zones. Moreover, a nuclear-free pathway would involve up to a 50% greater cumulative capital investment compared to a high nuclear penetration scenario ($73.7 trillion). However, for some nations with a high current share of renewables and a low projected future energy demand (e.g., Norway), pursuit of a higher nuclear share is suboptimal. In terms of the time frame for replacement of fossil fuels, achieving a global nuclear share of about 50% by 2060 would be a technically and economically plausible target if progressing at a pace of the average historical growth of nuclear power penetration in France from 1970 to 1986 (0.28 MWh person −1 year -1 ). For effective climate-change mitigation, a high penetration of nuclear in association with a nationally

  14. Multidecadal global cooling and unprecedented ozone loss following a regional nuclear conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael J.; Toon, Owen B.; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Robock, Alan

    2014-04-01

    We present the first study of the global impacts of a regional nuclear war with an Earth system model including atmospheric chemistry, ocean dynamics, and interactive sea ice and land components. A limited, regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan in which each side detonates 50 15 kt weapons could produce about 5 Tg of black carbon (BC). This would self-loft to the stratosphere, where it would spread globally, producing a sudden drop in surface temperatures and intense heating of the stratosphere. Using the Community Earth System Model with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, we calculate an e-folding time of 8.7 years for stratospheric BC compared to 4-6.5 years for previous studies. Our calculations show that global ozone losses of 20%-50% over populated areas, levels unprecedented in human history, would accompany the coldest average surface temperatures in the last 1000 years. We calculate summer enhancements in UV indices of 30%-80% over midlatitudes, suggesting widespread damage to human health, agriculture, and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Killing frosts would reduce growing seasons by 10-40 days per year for 5 years. Surface temperatures would be reduced for more than 25 years due to thermal inertia and albedo effects in the ocean and expanded sea ice. The combined cooling and enhanced UV would put significant pressures on global food supplies and could trigger a global nuclear famine. Knowledge of the impacts of 100 small nuclear weapons should motivate the elimination of more than 17,000 nuclear weapons that exist today.

  15. Nuclear material control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.; Waddoups, I.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions

  16. System to detect nuclear materials by active neutron method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroev, M.; Korolev, Yu.; Lopatin, Yu.; Filonov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The report presents the results of the development of the system to detect nuclear materials by active neutron method measuring delayed neutrons. As the neutron source the neutron generator was used. The neutron generator was controlled by the system. The detectors were developed on the base of the helium-3 counters. Each detector consist of 6 counters. Using a number of such detectors it is possible to verify materials stored in different geometry. There is an spectrometric scintillator detector in the system which gives an additional functional ability to the system. The system could be used to estimate the nuclear materials in waste, to detect the unauthorized transfer of the nuclear materials, to estimate the material in tubes [ru

  17. Measurement control program for nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Merrill, J.A.; Brown, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurments of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities, equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality

  18. Consequences of Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear or Other Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Explosion of a nuclear yield device is probably the worst consequence of Illicit Trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials.The nuclear yield device might be a stolen nuclear weapon, or an improvised nuclear device. An improvised nuclear device requires nuclear material design, and construction ability. Use of a radioactive dispersal device probably would not result in large numbers of casualties.However economic losses can be enormous. Non-Technical effects of nuclear trafficking (e.g. public panic, work disruption, etc.) and political and psychological consequences can far exceed technical consequences

  19. Ordinance concerning the filing of transport of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The ordinance is defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and the order for execution of the law. Any person who reports the transport of nuclear fuel materials shall file four copies of a notification according to the form attached to the public safety commission of the prefecture in charge of the dispatching place. When the transportation extends over the area in charge of another public safety commission, the commission which has received the notice shall report without delay date and route of the transport, kind and quantity of nuclear fuel materials and other necessary matters to the commission concerned and hear from the latter opinions on the items informed. The designation by the ordinance includes speed of the vehicle loaded with nuclear fuel materials, disposition of an accompanying car, arrangement of the line of the loaded vehicle and accompanying and other escorting cars, location of the parking, place of unloading and temporary storage, etc. Reports concerning troubles and measures taken shall be filed in ten days to the public safety commission which has received the notification, when accidents occur on the way, such as: theft or loss of nuclear fuel materials; traffic accident; irregular leaking of nuclear fuel materials and personal trouble by the transport. (Okada, K.)

  20. The changing role of nuclear materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear materials accounting and accounting systems at what have been DOE Production sites are evolving into management decision support tools. As the sites are moving into the mode of making decisions on how to disposition complex and varied nuclear material holdings, the need for complete and many times different information has never been greater. The artificial boundaries that have historically been established between what belongs in the classic material control and accountability (MC and A) records versus what goes into the financial, radiological control, waste, or decommissioning and decontamination records are being challenged. In addition, the tools historically used to put material into different categories such as scrap codes, composition codes, etc. have been found to be inadequate for the information needs of today. In order to be cost effective and even, more importantly to effectively manage -our inventories, the new information systems the authors design have to have the flexibility to serve many needs. In addition, those tasked with the responsibility of managing the inventories must also expand beyond the same artificial boundaries. This paper addresses some of the things occurring at the Savannah River Site to support the changing role of nuclear materials accounting

  1. Analysis of difficulties accounting and evaluating nuclear material of PWR fuel plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Min; Jue Ji; Liu Tianshu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nuclear materials accountancy must be developed for nuclear facilities, which is required by regulatory in China. Currently, there are some unresolved problems for nuclear materials accountancy of bulk nuclear facilities. Purpose: The retention values and measurement errors are analyzed in nuclear materials accountancy of Power Water Reactor (PWR) fuel plant to meet the regulatory requirements. Methods: On the basis of nuclear material accounting and evaluation data of PWR fuel plant, a deep analysis research including ratio among random error variance, long-term systematic error variance, short-term systematic error variance and total error involving Material Unaccounted For (MUF) evaluation is developed by the retention value measure in equipment and pipeline. Results: In the equipment pipeline, the holdup estimation error and its total proportion are not more than 5% and 1.5%, respectively. And the holdup estimation can be regraded as a constant in the PWR nuclear material accountancy. Random error variance, long-term systematic error variance, short-term systematic error variance of overall measurement, and analytical and sampling methods are also obtained. A valuable reference is provided for nuclear material accountancy. Conclusion: In nuclear material accountancy, the retention value can be considered as a constant. The long-term systematic error is a main factor in all errors, especially in overall measurement error and sampling error: The long-term systematic errors of overall measurement and sampling are considered important in the PWR nuclear material accountancy. The proposals and measures are applied to the nuclear materials accountancy of PWR fuel plant, and the capacity of nuclear materials accountancy is improved. (authors)

  2. Nuclear English: Language skills for a globalizing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear English is a new course designed for English language learners working in the nuclear industry and in other fields of nuclear science and technology. The textbook is composed of 12 units, each covering a different aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle or a relevant topic such as non-proliferation, safety and the use of radioisotopes in medicine. Nuclear English offers a flexible approach, allowing learners to: Study the units in any order according to professional need or interest; Focus on listening, grammar and pronunciation tasks, which are clearly signposted; Work independently or with other students in a classroom. The other main features of the course are: A audio CD containing authentic interviews with industry specialists. The course covers various accents, including British, American, Australian, South African and Indian; Transcripts of the listening materials; A language orientation test, which learners can take at the start of the course to identify their grammar weaknesses; Teacher-led exercises for working in pairs or groups; A glossary of key terms; An answer key; a downloadable teacher's guide to help teachers maximize the learning potential of the materials (available at: www.world-nuclear-university.org)

  3. Nuclear English: Language skills for a globalizing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlin, S

    2005-07-01

    Nuclear English is a new course designed for English language learners working in the nuclear industry and in other fields of nuclear science and technology. The textbook is composed of 12 units, each covering a different aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle or a relevant topic such as non-proliferation, safety and the use of radioisotopes in medicine. Nuclear English offers a flexible approach, allowing learners to: Study the units in any order according to professional need or interest; Focus on listening, grammar and pronunciation tasks, which are clearly signposted; Work independently or with other students in a classroom. The other main features of the course are: A audio CD containing authentic interviews with industry specialists. The course covers various accents, including British, American, Australian, South African and Indian; Transcripts of the listening materials; A language orientation test, which learners can take at the start of the course to identify their grammar weaknesses; Teacher-led exercises for working in pairs or groups; A glossary of key terms; An answer key; a downloadable teacher's guide to help teachers maximize the learning potential of the materials (available at: www.world-nuclear-university.org)

  4. Test and evaluation of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In accordance with the definition of a Material Balance Area (MBA) as a well-defined geographical area involving an Integral operation, the building housing the BFS-1 and BFS-1 critical facilities is considered to consist of one MBA. The BFS materials are in the form of small disks clad in stainless steel and each disk with nuclear material has its own serial number. Fissile material disks in the BFS MBA can be located at three key monitoring points: BFS-1 facility, BFS-2 facility and main storage of BFS fissile materials (storage 1). When used in the BFS-1 or BFS-2 critical facilities, the fissile material disks are loaded in tubes (fuel rods) forming critical assembly cores. The following specific features of the BFS MBA should be taken into account for the purpose of computerized accounting of nuclear material: (1) very large number of nuclear material items (about 70,000 fissile material items); and (2) periodically very intensive shuffling of nuclear material items. Requirements for the computerized system are determined by basic objectives of nuclear material accounting: (1) providing accurate information on the identity and location of all items in the BFS material balance area; (2) providing accurate information on location and identity of tamper-indicating devices; (3) tracking nuclear material inventories; (4) issuing periodic reports; (5) assisting with the detection of material gains or losses; (6) providing a history of nuclear material transactions; (7) preventing unauthorized access to the system and data falsification. In August 1995, the prototype computerized accounting system was installed on the BFS facility for trial operation. Information on two nuclear material types was entered into the data base: weapon-grade plutonium metal and 36% enriched uranium dioxide. The total number of the weapon-grade plutonium disks is 12,690 and the total number of the uranium dioxide disks is 1,700

  5. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard [ENS High Scientific Council, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  6. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  7. Evaluating the Aspect of Nuclear Material in Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Shunsuke; Pickett, Susan; Oda, Takuji; Choi, Jor-Shan; Kuno, Yusuke; Takana, Satoru [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8685 (Japan); Nagasaki, Shinya [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The increasing number of countries that wish to introduce nuclear power plants raises attention to proliferation resistance in nuclear power plants, and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. In order to achieve adequate proliferation resistance, it is important to evaluate it and to construct effective international institutional frameworks as well as technologies involving high level of proliferation resistance. Although some methods have been proposed for evaluation of the proliferation resistance, their validities have not been investigated in detail. In the present paper, therefore, we compare some of the proposed methodologies. It is essential to detect the abuse or diversion of nuclear material before the nuclear explosive device can be manufactured in order to prevent proliferation. The time needed for the detection of material primary depends on the safeguards that the country applies, and the time needed for fabrication mainly depends on the attributes of the nuclear material. Hence, we divided the proliferation resistance into two parts: the level of safeguards and the material. For examination of evaluation methods such as the one proposed by Charlton [1] or the figure of merit (FOM) [2], sensitivity analysis was performed on weighting factors and scenarios. The validity and characteristics of each method were discussed, focusing on the applicability of each method to the assessment of multi-national approaches such as GNEP. [1] W. S. Charlton, R. L. LeBouf, C. Gariazzo, D. G. Ford, C. Beard, S. Landeberger, M. Whitaker, 'Proliferation resistance assessment methodology for nuclear fuel cycles', Nuclear Technology, 157, 1 (2007). [2] C.G. Bathke et al, 'An assessment of the proliferation resistance of materials in advanced nuclear fuel cycles', 8. International Conference on Facility Operations (2008). (authors)

  8. Nuclear transportation: The global vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, D.; Blowers, A.

    1996-01-01

    The movement of nuclear materials - spent fuel, plutonium and uranium and radioactive wastes - has become an issue of international political significance. It has generated considerable attention from a developing network of NGOs focussing on movements between France and Japan. The paper discusses the conflicts and their implications for six basic principles of radioactive waste management

  9. Control and Management of Small Quantity Nuclear Material (SQNM) on Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hwan; Shin, Byung Woo; Park, Jae Beom

    2009-01-01

    Small Quantity Nuclear Material (SQNM) is defined as the nuclear material that is below the amount approved in atomic energy act. SQNM generally lists depleted uranium (DU) used as a catalyst or shielding material in exposure devices in industries. The SQNM users have a duty to report information on possessing and using SQNM regularly to the government. All nuclear materials must be included in IAEA reporting lists according to safeguards agreement and additional protocol regardless of amount. However, it is difficult to investigate the status of nuclear material possessed in industries because SQNM is excepted regulation item list in atomic energy act. Most SQNM user industries are small companies so they have some problems like the loss of nuclear material after bankruptcy. Even though the damage of radiation leakage is very low, loss or careless management of nuclear material causes confusion. Thus, developing a control and management system for SQNM is essential. This paper discusses the present condition and prospect of control and management SQNM in Korea

  10. Some issues on the Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors Amendment after JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki

    2001-01-01

    As the Amendment of the Law for the Regulation of Nuclear Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors on an opportunity of the JCO criticality accident can be almost evaluated at a viewpoint of upgrading on effectiveness of safety regulation, it is thought to remain a large problem to rely on only enforcement of regulation due to amendment of the Law at future accident. In future, it can be also said to be important subjects to further expand a philosophy on the regulation (material regulation) focussed to hazards of nuclear material itself, not only to secure effectiveness on the multi-complementary safety regulation due to the administrative agency and the Nuclear Safety Commission but also to prepare a mechanism reflexible of a new information to the safety regulation, and to prepare a mechanism to assist adequate business execution and so forth of enterprises. (G.K.)

  11. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  12. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metri, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  13. Fission nuclear power prospects and its role in meeting global energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power currently makes an important contribution to world's energy requirements providing 17% of its electricity. But as global warming becomes of greater concern, many ask whether nuclear power can and should contribute more. The author, who is involved in the nuclear power enterprise for 35 years, tries to answer this question affirmative. He holds the view that: a) nuclear fission power is essential to meeting world's energy needs without unduly impairing the global environment; b) by possessing the required attributes discussed in this paper, nuclear fission power can be made societally acceptable; c) the industrialized world should accelerate LMFR deployment while fostering more convenient energy alternatives for the developing world; and d) the HTGR is unique in its ability to augment non-electricity energy needs and could become the technology choice of developing countries for nuclear electricity production. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Nuclear reactions and self-shielding effects of gamma-ray database for nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Noda, Tetsuji [National Research Institute for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    A database for transmutation and radioactivity of nuclear materials is required for selection and design of materials used in various nuclear reactors. The database based on the FENDL/A-2.0 on the Internet and the additional data collected from several references has been developed in NRIM site of 'Data-Free-Way' on the Internet. Recently, the function predicted self-shielding effect of materials for {gamma}-ray was added to this database. The user interface for this database has been constructed for retrieval of necessary data and for graphical presentation of the relation between the energy spectrum of neutron and neutron capture cross section. It is demonstrated that the possibility of chemical compositional change and radioactivity in a material caused by nuclear reactions can be easily retrieved using a browser such as Netscape or Explorer. (author)

  15. Nuclear reactions and self-shielding effects of gamma-ray database for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Noda, Tetsuji

    2001-01-01

    A database for transmutation and radioactivity of nuclear materials is required for selection and design of materials used in various nuclear reactors. The database based on the FENDL/A-2.0 on the Internet and the additional data collected from several references has been developed in NRIM site of 'Data-Free-Way' on the Internet. Recently, the function predicted self-shielding effect of materials for γ-ray was added to this database. The user interface for this database has been constructed for retrieval of necessary data and for graphical presentation of the relation between the energy spectrum of neutron and neutron capture cross section. It is demonstrated that the possibility of chemical compositional change and radioactivity in a material caused by nuclear reactions can be easily retrieved using a browser such as Netscape or Explorer. (author)

  16. The nuclear materials control system: Safeguards - circa 1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.C. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In the late 1950s, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation undertook a nuclear materials control study for the Division of International Affairs of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The objective of the study was to develop a Nuclear Materials Control System (NMCS) that could be used under the US bilateral agreements or by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Phase I was a system study to determine the requirements for an NMCS for an assumed nuclear fuel complex. This paper summarizes aspects of Phase I studies addressing facility types, measurement points, and instrumentation needs and Phase II studies covering chemistry/chemical engineering, nuclear, special devices, and security devices and techniques. 1 fig

  17. Nuclear security. IAEA: Working to build a global response to a global threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    The IAEA helps to ensure that measures are taken to control and protect nuclear and radioactive materials from falling into the wrong hands. The IAEA delivers training, technical assistance, and equipment to States, and provides international guidance on improving nuclear security. IAEA nuclear security activities include: · Risk reduction (such as repatriating research reactor fuel and strengthening border monitoring) · International legal instruments and supporting their implementation · Internationally accepted guidance and benchmarks for nuclear security · Information exchange · Human Resource Development programmes · Research and development

  18. Central eastern Europe approach to the security over nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents an overview of the national approaches to physical protection of nuclear materials in Central Eastern Europe (CEE), with an emphasis on Poland. Soviet influence in the past led to inadequate safety culture in nuclear activities and insufficient security of nuclear materials and facilities in the region. In the centralized economies all aspects of nuclear activities, including ownership of the nuclear facilities, were the responsibility of the state with no clear separation between regulating and promoting functions. During the last decade a significant progress has been made in the region to clean up the legacy of the past and to improve practices in physical protection of nuclear materials. The countries of Central Eastern Europe have had many similar deficiencies in nuclear field and problems to overcome, but cannot be viewed as a uniform block. There are local variations within the region in a size of nuclear activities, formulated respective regulations and adopted measures to secure nuclear materials and facilities. Nevertheless, all twelve nations, with nuclear reactors and without nuclear facilities, have joined the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material and most of them declare that they have followed the IAEA recommendations INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 to elaborate and implement their physical protection systems of nuclear materials and facilities. The largest request for an international advisory mission (IPPAS) to review states' physical protection systems and to address needs for improvement was received from the countries of Central Eastern Europe. Poland belongs to the beneficiaries where the IPPAS mission and later follow-up consultations resulted in physical protection upgrade of the research reactor under the IAEA/US/UK technical assistance project. A powerful incentive to the progress made in a number of CEE countries was the goal of accession to the European Union. The physical protection of nuclear

  19. The Application of materials attractiveness in a graded approach to nuclear materials security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bathke, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Dalton, D.; Murphy, J. [National Nuclear Security Administration, US Department of Energy, 1000 Independent Ave., S. W. Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The threat from terrorist groups has recently received greater attention. In this paper, material quantity and material attractiveness are addressed through the lens of a minimum security strategy needed to prevent the construction of a nuclear explosive device (NED) by an adversary. Nuclear materials are placed into specific security categories (3 or 4 categories) , which define a number of security requirements to protect the material. Materials attractiveness can be divided into four attractiveness levels, High, Medium, Low, and Very Low that correspond to the utility of the material to the adversary and to a minimum security strategy that is necessary to adequately protect the nuclear material. We propose a graded approach to materials attractiveness that recognizes for instance substantial differences in attractiveness between pure reactor-grade Pu oxide (High attractiveness) and fresh MOX fuel (Low attractiveness). In either case, an adversary's acquisition of a Category I quantity of plutonium would be a major incident, but the acquisition of Pu oxide by the adversary would be substantially worse than the acquisition of fresh MOX fuel because of the substantial differences in the time and complexity required of the adversary to process the material and fashion it into a NED.

  20. Risk ranking of LANL nuclear material storage containers for repackaging prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H; Jordan, Hans; Hoffman, Jenifer A; Eller, P Gary; Balkey, Simon

    2007-05-01

    Safe handling and storage of nuclear material at U.S. Department of Energy facilities relies on the use of robust containers to prevent container breaches and subsequent worker contamination and uptake. The U.S. Department of Energy has no uniform requirements for packaging and storage of nuclear materials other than those declared excess and packaged to DOE-STD-3013-2000. This report describes a methodology for prioritizing a large inventory of nuclear material containers so that the highest risk containers are repackaged first. The methodology utilizes expert judgment to assign respirable fractions and reactivity factors to accountable levels of nuclear material at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A relative risk factor is assigned to each nuclear material container based on a calculated dose to a worker due to a failed container barrier and a calculated probability of container failure based on material reactivity and container age. This risk-based methodology is being applied at LANL to repackage the highest risk materials first and, thus, accelerate the reduction of risk to nuclear material handlers.

  1. Development of stainless steels for nuclear power plant - Advanced nuclear materials development -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Ryu, Woo Seog; Chi, Se Hwan; Lee, Bong Sang; Oh, Yong Jun; Byun, Thak Sang; Oh, Jong Myung

    1994-07-01

    This report reviews the status of R and D and the material specifications of nuclear components in order to develop the stainless steels for nuclear applications, and the technology of computer-assisted alloy design is developed to establish the thermodynamic data of Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Si-C-N system which is the basic stainless steel systems. High strength and corrosion resistant stainless steels, 316LN and super clean 347, are developed, and the manufacturing processes and heat treatment conditions are determined. In addition, a martensitic steel is produced as a model alloy for turbine blade, and characterized. The material properties showed a good performance for nuclear applications. (Author)

  2. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: investigating the spins of nuclear related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, Th.

    2007-10-01

    The author reviews his successive research works: his research thesis work on the Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) which is a quadric-polar nucleus multi-quanta correlation spectroscopy method, the modelling of NMR spectra of disordered materials, the application to materials of interest for the nuclear industry (notably the glasses used for nuclear waste containment). He presents the various research projects in which he is involved: storing glasses, nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetism, solid hydrogen storing matrices, methodological and instrument developments in high magnetic field and high resolution solid NMR, long range distance measurement by solid state Tritium NMR (observing the structure and dynamics of biological complex systems at work)

  3. Multi-Decadal Global Cooling and Unprecedented Ozone Loss Following a Regional Nuclear Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M. J.; Toon, O. B.; Lee-Taylor, J. M.; Robock, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present the first study of the global impacts of a regional nuclear war with an Earth system model including atmospheric chemistry, ocean dynamics, and interactive sea-ice and land models (Mills et al., 2014). A limited, regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan in which each side detonates 50 15-kt weapons could produce about 5 Tg of black carbon. This would self-loft to the stratosphere, where it would spread globally, producing a sudden drop in surface temperatures and intense heating of the stratosphere. Using the Community Earth System Model with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM1(WACCM)), we calculate an e-folding time of 8.7 years for stratospheric black carbon, compared to 4-6.5 years for previous studies (figure panel a). Our calculations show that global ozone losses of 20-50% over populated areas, levels unprecedented in human history, would accompany the coldest average surface temperatures in the last 1000 years (figure panel c). We calculate summer enhancements in UV indices of 30-80% over Mid-Latitudes, suggesting widespread damage to human health, agriculture, and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Killing frosts would reduce growing seasons by 10-40 days per year for 5 years. Surface temperatures would be reduced for more than 25 years, due to thermal inertia and albedo effects in the ocean and expanded sea ice. The combined cooling and enhanced UV would put significant pressures on global food supplies and could trigger a global nuclear famine. Knowledge of the impacts of 100 small nuclear weapons should motivate the elimination of the more than 17,000 nuclear weapons that exist today. Mills, M. J., O. B. Toon, J. Lee-Taylor, and A. Robock (2014), Multidecadal global cooling and unprecedented ozone loss following a regional nuclear conflict, Earth's Future, 2(4), 161-176, doi:10.1002/2013EF000205.

  4. Preliminary assessment on the differences of nuclear terrorism convention from the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material and amendment to the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midiana Ariethia; Muhamad Ilman A A; Mas Pungky Hendrawijaya

    2011-01-01

    The threat of acts of nuclear terrorism in all its forms and manifestations create the urgent need to enhance international cooperation between countries in designing and following practical and effective measures for the prevention of acts of terrorism and to counter and punish its offenders. Several United Nations Security Council Resolutions, such as UNSCR Number 1373 (2001), and UNSCR Number 1540 (2005), and the result of Nuclear Security Summit in 2010 that encourage the member countries of IAEA to ratify nuclear conventions as soon as possible, are the reasons that the Indonesian Government planning on ratifying The International Convention for The Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (Nuclear Terrorism Convention). Nuclear Terrorism Convention is one of the 16 (sixteen) international instruments that must be ratified by the member countries of IAEA. Of the 16 (sixteen) international instruments, 3 (three) conventions are related to nuclear; Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, dan Nuclear Terrorism Convention. This paper presents the preliminary assessment on the differences of Nuclear Terrorism Convention to The Convention on The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Amendment to The Convention on The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. This assessment is important due to the plan of the Indonesian Government to ratify the Nuclear Terrorism Convention. The result of this assessment could be used by BAPETEN in the ratification process of the Nuclear Terrorism Convention. The method used in this assessment is references assessment. (author)

  5. Accounting for and control of nuclear material at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research, Rossendorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidel, S.; Rossbander, W.; Helming, M.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is given of the system of accounting for and control of nuclear material at the Central Institute for Nuclear Research, Rossendorf. It includes 3 material balance areas. Control is implemented at both the institute and the MBA levels on the basis of concepts which are coordinated with the national control authority of the IAEA. The system applied enables national and international nuclear material control to be carried out effectively and economically at a minimum of interference with operational procedures. (author)

  6. New materials options for nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Garner, F.A.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gelles, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Development of new materials for nuclear reactor systems is continuing to produce options for improved reactor designs. Materials with reduced environment-induced crack growth is a key materials issue for the light water reactor (LWR) industry while the development of low activation ferritic, austenitic and vanadium alloys has been an active area for materials development for fusion reactor structural applications. Development of advanced materials such as metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites for reactor systems have received a limited amount of attention. (author)

  7. Some technical aspects of the nuclear material accounting and control at nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, O.A.; Babaev, N.S.; Gryazev, V.M.; Gadzhiev, G.I.; Gabeskiriya, V.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    The possibilities of nuclear material accounting and control are discussed at nuclear facilities of fuel cycle (WWER-type reactor, fuel fabrication plant, reprocessing plant and uranium enrichment facility) and zero energy fast reactor facility. It is shown that for nuclear material control the main method is the accounting with the application isotopic correlations at the reprocessing plant and enrichment facility. Possibilities and limitations of the application of destructive and non-destructive methods are discussed for nuclear material determinations at fuel facilities and their role in the accounting and safeguards systems as well as possibilities of the application of neutron method at a zero energy fast reactor facility [ru

  8. Basic research for nuclear energy. y Study on the nuclear materials technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk, I H; Lee, H S; Jeong, Y H; Sung, K W; Han, J H; Lee, J T; Lee, H K; Kim, S J; Kang, H S; An, D H; Kim, K R; Park, S D; Han, C H; Jung, M K; Oh, Y J; Kim, K H; Kim, S H; Back, J H; Kim, C H; Lim, K S; Kim, Y Y; Na, J W; Ku, J H; Lee, D H

    1996-12-01

    A study on the nuclear materials technologies which are necessary to establish the base for alloy development was performed. - The feasibility study on the application of Zircaloy scrap waste for hydrogen storage - The development of metal hydride battery for energy storage system - The establishment of transmission electron microscopy database for nuclear materials - The basic technology for the development of cladding materials for high burnup - The water chemistry technology for secondary system pH control and the photocatalysis technology for decomposition and removal of organics. - Improvement of primary component integrity of PWR by Zinc injection. (author). 175 refs., 58 tabs., 262 figs.

  9. Basic research for nuclear energy. y Study on the nuclear materials technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, I. H.; Lee, H. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Sung, K. W.; Han, J. H.; Lee, J. T.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, S. J.; Kang, H. S.; An, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. D.; Han, C. H.; Jung, M. K.; Oh, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. H.; Back, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lim, K. S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Na, J. W.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    A study on the nuclear materials technologies which are necessary to establish the base for alloy development was performed. - The feasibility study on the application of Zircaloy scrap waste for hydrogen storage - The development of metal hydride battery for energy storage system - The establishment of transmission electron microscopy database for nuclear materials - The basic technology for the development of cladding materials for high burnup - The water chemistry technology for secondary system pH control and the photocatalysis technology for decomposition and removal of organics. - Improvement of primary component integrity of PWR by Zinc injection. (author). 175 refs., 58 tabs., 262 figs

  10. Safeguarding nuclear weapon: Usable materials in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, T.

    1998-01-01

    Both the United States and Russia are retaining as strategic reserves more plutonium and HEU for potential reuse as weapons, than is legitimately needed. Both have engaged in discussions and have programs in various stages of development to dispose of excess plutonium and HEU. These fissile material disposition programs will take decades to complete. In the interim there will be, as there is now, hundreds of tons of separated weapon-usable fissile material stored in tens of thousands of transportable canisters, each containing from a few to several tons of kgs of weapon-usable fissile material. This material must be secured against theft and unauthorized use. To have high confidence that the material is secure, one must establish criteria against which the adequacy of the protective systems can be judged. For example, one finds such criteria in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations for the protection of special nuclear materials

  11. Control and accountancy of nuclear materials in a uranium enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, N.H.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear material control and accountancy system has been developed by Goodyear Atomic Corporation to meet safeguards and security requirements. It comprises three major elements: physical security, nuclear material control, and nuclear material accounting. This safeguards system is called Dynamic Material Control and Accountancy System (DYMCAS). The system approaches real-time computer control on a transaction-by-transaction basis

  12. Accounting systems for special nuclear material control. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korstad, P.A.

    1980-05-01

    Nuclear material accounting systems were examined and compared to financial double-entry accounting systems. Effective nuclear material accounting systems have been designed using the principles of double-entry financial accounting. The modified double-entry systems presently employed are acceptable if they provide adequate control over the recording and summarizing of transactions. Strong internal controls, based on principles of financial accounting, can help protect nuclear materials and produce accurate, reliable accounting data. An electronic data processing system can more accurately maintain large volumes of data and provide management with more current, reliable information

  13. An accountancy system for nuclear materials control in research centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttler, R.; Bueker, H.; Vallee, J.

    1979-01-01

    The Nuclear Accountancy and Control System (NACS) was developed at KFA Juelich in accordance with the requirements of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The main features are (1) recording of nuclear material in inventory items. These are combined to form batches wherever suitable; (2) extrapolation of accounting data as a replacement for detailed measurement of inventory items data. Recording and control of nuclear material are carried out on two levels with access to a common data bank. The lower level deals with nuclear materials handling plus internal management while on the upper level there is a central control point which is responsible for nuclear safeguarding within the entire research centre. By keeping the organizational and technical infrastructure it was possible to develop a system which is both economical and operator-oriented. In this system the emphasis of nuclear safeguarding is placed on the acquisition of the nuclear material inventory. As much consideration has been given to the interests of the various operational levels and organizational units as to internal and national regulations. Since it is part of the safeguarding and control system, access to the NACS must be restricted to a limited number of users only. Furthermore, it must include facilities for manual control in the form of records. Authorization for access must correspond with the various tasks of different user groups. All necessary data are acquired decentrally in the organizational units and entered via a terminal. It is available to the user groups on both levels through a central data bank. To meet all requirements, the NACS has been designed as an integrated, computer-assisted information system for the automated processing of extensive and multi-level nuclear materials data. As part of the preventive measures entailed with nuclear safeguarding, the accountancy system enables the operator of a nuclear plant to furnish proof of non-diversion of nuclear material. (author)

  14. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  15. Concerning enactment of regulations on burying of waste of nuclear fuel material or waste contaminated with nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Atomic Safety Commission of Japan, after examining a report submitted by the Science and Technology Agency concerning the enactment of regulations on burying of waste of nuclear fuel material or waste contaminated with nuclear fuel material, has approved the plan given in the report. Thus, laws and regulations concerning procedures for application for waste burying business, technical standards for implementation of waste burying operation, and measures to be taken for security should be established to ensure the following. Matters to be described in the application for the approval of such business and materials to be attached to the application should be stipulated. Technical standards concerning inspection of waste burying operation should be stipulated. Measures to be taken for the security of waste burying facilities and security concerning the transportation and disposal of nuclear fuel material should be stipulated. Matters to be specified in the security rules should be stipulated. Matters to be recorded by waste burying business operators, measures to be taken to overcome dangers and matters to be reported to the Science and Technology Agency should be stipulated. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President's Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle - in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository - to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  17. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Wigeland

    2008-10-01

    Abstract: The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President’s Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle—in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository—to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  18. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  19. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the ? field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  20. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  1. Fugitive binder for nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallivan, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    A process for fabricating a body of a nuclear fuel material has the steps of admixing the nuclear fuel material in powder form wih a binder of a compound or its hydration products containing ammonium cations and anions selected from the group consisting of carbonate anions, bicarbonate anions, carbamate anions and mixtures of such anions, forming the resulting mixture into a green body such as by die pressing, heating the green body to decompose substantially all of the binder into gases, further heating the body to produce a sintered body, and cooling the sintered body in a controlled atmosphere. Preferred binders used in the practice of this invention include ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate carbamate, ammonium sesquicarbonate, ammonium carbamate and mixtures thereof. This invention includes a composition of matter in the form of a compacted structure suitable for sintering comprising a mixture of a nuclear fuel material and a binder of a compound or its hydration products containing ammonium cations and anions selected from the group consisting of carbonate anions, bicarbonate anions, carbamate anions and mixtures of such anions. 9 claims, 4 figures

  2. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear disaster on global public acceptance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghwan; Kim, Minki; Kim, Wonjoon

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster has significantly changed public attitudes toward nuclear energy. It is important to understand how this change has occurred in different countries before the global community revises existing nuclear policies. This study examines the effect of the Fukushima disaster on public acceptance of nuclear energy in 42 countries. We find that the operational experience of nuclear power generation which has significantly affected positive public opinion about nuclear energy became considerably negative after the disaster, suggesting fundamental changes in public acceptance regardless of the level of acceptance before the disaster. In addition, contrary to our expectation, the proportion of nuclear power generation is positively and significantly related to public acceptance of nuclear energy after the Fukushima accident and government pressure on media content led to a greater decrease in the level of public acceptance after the accident. Nuclear energy policymakers should consider the varied factors affecting public acceptance of nuclear energy in each country depending on its historical, environmental, and geographical circumstances before they revise nuclear policy in response to the Fukushima accident. - Highlights: • Fukushima accident has negatively changed public attitudes toward nuclear energy. • Effect of operational experience became considerably negative after the accident. • Effect of proportion of nuclear power generation is positive after the accident. • Effect of government pressure on media content became negative after the accident. • Country specific policy responses on nuclear public acceptance are required

  3. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaslee, A.T. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors

  4. The Fukushima nuclear accident and its effect on global energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masatsugu; Hughes, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The March 2011 nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station affected both short- and long-term energy-security in Japan, resulting in crisis-driven, ad hoc energy policy and, because of the decision to shutter all nuclear reactors, increased the country’s demand for fossil fuels, primarily natural gas. However, the effects of the accident on energy security were not restricted to Japan; for example, the worldwide availability and affordability of liquefied natural gas were affected by Japan’s increased demand; while the accident itself resulted in the loss of public acceptability of nuclear power and led countries, such as Germany and Italy, to immediately shut down some of the nuclear reactors or abandon plans to build new ones. This paper examines some of the short-term effects on global energy security following the accident at Fukushima, focusing on the main replacement fuel, liquefied natural gas. It shows, amongst other things, that the accident increased investment in liquefied natural gas projects around the world. The paper shows that despite Fukushima contributing to nuclear power’s loss of acceptability in most developed countries, it is still seen as an essential way of improving energy security in many countries and, despite what its critics may say, will probably continue to be used as a significant source of low-carbon electricity. - Highlights: ► Japan’s demands for fossil fuels raised the price of LNG and low-sulfur crudes. ► The accident affected the global price of uranium and producer share prices. ► The accident accelerated foreign-direct investment in LNG projects worldwide. ► The change in public perception toward nuclear power was relatively limited. ► A radical shift in global nuclear policy seems to be unrealistic after Fukushima

  5. Experience of air transport of nuclear fuel material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, T.; Toguri, D.; Kawasaki, M.

    2004-01-01

    Certified Reference Materials (hereafter called as to CRMs), which are indispensable for Quality Assurance and Material Accountability in nuclear fuel plants, are being provided by overseas suppliers to Japanese nuclear entities as Type A package (non-fissile) through air transport. However, after the criticality accident at JCO in Japan, special law defining nuclear disaster countermeasures (hereafter called as to the LAW) has been newly enforced in June 2000. Thereafter, nuclear fuel materials must meet not only to the existing transport regulations but also to the LAW for its transport

  6. Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radle, James E.; Archer, Daniel E.; Carter, Robert J.; Mullens, James Allen; Mihalczo, John T.; Britton, Charles L. Jr.; Lind, Randall F.; Wright, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System (FNMIS), funded by the NA-241 Office of Dismantlement and Transparency, provides information to determine the material attributes and identity of heavily shielded nuclear objects. This information will provide future treaty participants with verifiable information required by the treaty regime. The neutron interrogation technology uses a combination of information from induced fission neutron radiation and transmitted neutron imaging information to provide high confidence that the shielded item is consistent with the host's declaration. The combination of material identification information and the shape and configuration of the item are very difficult to spoof. When used at various points in the warhead dismantlement sequence, the information complimented by tags and seals can be used to track subassembly and piece part information as the disassembly occurs. The neutron transmission imaging has been developed during the last seven years and the signature analysis over the last several decades. The FNMIS is the culmination of the effort to put the technology in a usable configuration for potential treaty verification purposes.

  7. Towards an International Approach to Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomihiro Taniguchi

    2006-01-01

    This document presents in a series of transparencies the different activities of the IAEA: Introduction of International Atomic Energy Agency, Changing world, Changing Technology, Changing Global Security, Developing Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems, Global Nuclear Safety Regime, IAEA Safety Standards: Hierarchy - Global Reference for Striving for Excellence, IAEA Safety Reviews and Services: Integrated Safety Approach, Global Knowledge Network - Asian Nuclear Safety Network, Safety Issues and Challenges, Synergy between Safety and Security, Recent Developments: Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), Incident and Emergency Preparedness and Response, Holistic Approach for Safety and Security, Sustainable Development. (J.S.)

  8. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials.

  9. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials

  10. Transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brobst, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty years of almost accident-free transport of nuclear materials is pointed to as evidence of a fundamentally correct approach to the problems involved. The increased volume and new technical problems in the future will require extension of these good practices in both regulations and packaging. The general principles of safety in the transport of radioactive materials are discussed first, followed by the transport of spent fuel and of radioactive waste. The security and physical protection of nuclear shipments is then treated. In discussing future problems, the question of public understanding and acceptance is taken first, thereafter transport safeguards and the technical bases for the safety regulations. There is also said to be a need for a new technology for spent fuel casks, while a re-examination of the IAEA transport standards for radiation doses is recommended. The IAEA regulations regarding quality assurance are said to be incomplete, and more information is required on correlations between engineering analysis, scale model testing and full scale crash testing. Transport stresses on contents need to be considered while administrative controls have been neglected. (JIW)

  11. Nuclear materials teaching and research at the University of California, Berkeley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.; Roberts, J.T.A.

    1985-01-01

    In academic nuclear engineering departments, research and teaching in the specialized subdiscipline of nuclear materials is usually a one-person or at best a two-person operation. These subcritical sizes invariably result in inadequate overall representation of the many topics in nuclear materials in the research program of the department, although broader coverage of the field is possible in course offerings. Even in course-work, the full range of materials problems important in nuclear technology cannot be dealt with in detail because the small number of faculty involved restricts staffing to as little as a single summary course and generally no more than three courses in this specialty. The contents of the two nuclear materials courses taught at the University of California at Berkeley are listed. Materials research in most US nuclear engineering departments focuses on irradiation effects on metals, but at UC Berkeley, the principal interest is in the high-temperature materials chemistry of UO 2 fuel and Zircaloy cladding

  12. Fourth Collaborative Materials Exercise of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, J.M.; Reilly, D.; Marsden, O.

    2018-01-01

    The Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group is a community of nuclear forensic practitioners who respond to incidents involving nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. The Group is dedicated to advancing nuclear forensic science in part through periodic participation in materials exercises. The Group completed its fourth Collaborative Materials Exercise in 2015 in which laboratories from 15 countries and one multinational organization analyzed three samples of special nuclear material in support of a mock nuclear forensic investigation. This special section of the Journal for Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry is devoted to summarizing highlights from this exercise. (author)

  13. Strengthening the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Nuclear Facilities Regime: A Path Forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts-Kiefer, S.; Nalabandian, M.

    2017-01-01

    With entry into force of the 2005 Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) on May 8, 2016, and the culmination of the Nuclear Security Summits (NSS), the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Nuclear Facilities (CPP), as the amended convention is now known, can play an increasingly important role in efforts to strengthen the international nuclear security architecture. The CPP significantly enhances the international legal framework for nuclear security by expanding the scope of physical protection requirements and providing a direct linkage to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nuclear security guidance through incorporation of the Fundamental Principles.The CPP’s entry into force requires states parties to submit reports to the IAEA under Article 14 informing the IAEA of its laws and regulations giving effect to the convention—states parties were required to do so under the original CPPNM, but the scope of the reports will need to expand to reflect the expanded scope of the convention. Reporting builds confidence in the effectiveness of states’ security. In addition, entry into force of the CPP requires the IAEA, under Article 16, to convene a review conference in five years to assess the implementation and adequacy of the convention “in light of the then prevailing situation.” The review conference will provide an opportunity for states parties to assess the status of nuclear security progress and will provide a forum for dialogue on how to strengthen the global architecture and address remaining gaps in the system. Article 16 also provides for additional review conferences at periods of at least five years if requested by a majority of states parties. Regular review conferences would be an important mechanism for sustaining attention on nuclear security and ensuring continued nuclear security progress. For the CPP to fulfill its potential to play an important role in

  14. Nuclear Renaissance? Think Globally, Act Locally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    There is wide-scale belief in the nuclear industry that we are on the verge of a revival of nuclear power because of the projected large increase in the demand for non-carbon emitting electrical generating capacity. Energy consumption will at least double over the next 50 years as a result of population increase and the very real need to improve the standard of living particularly in developing countries. Growing acceptance of the need to reduce carbon emissions is positioning nuclear energy as a likely candidate to meet this increased demand provided valid concerns about economics, safety, proliferation and waste can be adequately resolved. While economics, safety, and proliferation resistance all can benefit from incremental improvement, a permanent waste disposal solution either exists or it doesn't. If a country cannot identify where it will dispose of its spent fuel or high-level nuclear waste, its further use of nuclear energy can be blocked. A number of countries today have generated significant quantities of spent fuel or high-level waste without firm plans or suitable geology for disposal of this material

  15. Materials characterization center workshop on compositional and microstructural analysis of nuclear waste materials. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.L.; Strachan, D.M.; Shade, J.W.; Thomas, M.T.

    1981-06-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on Compositional and Microstructural Analysis of Nuclear Waste Materials, conducted November 11 and 12, 1980, was to critically examine and evaluate the various methods currently used to study non-radioactive, simulated, nuclear waste-form performance. Workshop participants recognized that most of the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) test data for inclusion in the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook will result from application of appropriate analytical procedures to waste-package materials or to the products of performance tests. Therefore, the analytical methods must be reliable and of known accuracy and precision, and results must be directly comparable with those from other laboratories and from other nuclear waste materials. The 41 participants representing 18 laboratories in the United States and Canada were organized into three working groups: Analysis of Liquids and Solutions, Quantitative Analysis of Solids, and Phase and Microstructure Analysis. Each group identified the analytical methods favored by their respective laboratories, discussed areas needing attention, listed standards and reference materials currently used, and recommended means of verifying interlaboratory comparability of data. The major conclusions from this workshop are presented

  16. Termination of Safeguards for Accountable Nuclear Materials at the Idaho National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzemer, Michael; Carvo, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Termination of safeguards ends requirements of Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) and thereby removes the safeguards basis for applying physical protection requirements for theft and diversion of nuclear material, providing termination requirements are met as described. Department of Energy (DOE) M 470.4 6 (Nuclear Material Control and Accountability [8/26/05]) stipulates: 1. Section A, Chapter I (1)( q) (1): Safeguards can be terminated on nuclear materials provided the following conditions are met: (a) 'If the material is special nuclear material (SNM) or protected as SNM, it must be attractiveness level E and have a measured value.' (b) 'The material has been determined by DOE line management to be of no programmatic value to DOE.' (c) 'The material is transferred to the control of a waste management organization where the material is accounted for and protected in accordance with waste management regulations. The material must not be collocated with other accountable nuclear materials.' Requirements for safeguards termination depend on the safeguards attractiveness levels of the material. For attractiveness level E, approval has been granted from the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) to Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) Safeguards and Security (S and S). In some cases, it may be necessary to dispose of nuclear materials of attractiveness level D or higher. Termination of safeguards for such materials must be approved by the Departmental Element (this is the DOE Headquarters Office of Nuclear Energy) after consultation with the Office of Security.

  17. Non destructive assay techniques applied to nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.

    2001-01-01

    Nondestructive assay is a suite of techniques that has matured and become precise, easily implementable, and remotely usable. These techniques provide elaborate safeguards of nuclear material by providing the necessary information for materials accounting. NDA techniques are ubiquitous, reliable, essentially tamper proof, and simple to use. They make the world a safer place to live in, and they make nuclear energy viable. (author)

  18. Holdup-related issues in safeguarding of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1988-03-01

    Residual inventories of special nuclear materials (SNM) remaining in processing facilities (holdup) are recognized as an insidious problem for both safety and safeguards. This paper identifies some of the issues that are of concern to the safeguards community at-large that are related to holdup of SNM in large-scale process equipment. These issues range from basic technologies of SNM production to changing regulatory requirements to meet the needs of safeguarding nuclear materials. Although there are no magic formulas to resolve these issues, there are several initiatives that could be taken in areas of facility design, plant operation, personnel training, SNM monitoring, and regulatory guidelines to minimize the problems of holdup and thereby improve both safety and safeguards at nuclear material processing plants. 8 refs

  19. Efficacy of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Reshmi

    2011-01-01

    In a strange turn of history, the threat of global nuclear war has gone down, but the risk of a nuclear attack has gone up. The danger of nuclear terrorism and ways to thwart it, tackle it and manage it in the event of an attack is increasingly gaining the attention of nuclear analysts all over the world. There is rising awareness among nuclear experts to develop mechanisms to prevent, deter and deal with the threat of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear specialists are seeking to develop and improve the science of nuclear forensics so as to provide faster analysis during a crisis. Nuclear forensics can play an important role in detecting illicit nuclear materials to counter trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. An effective nuclear forensic and attribution strategy can enable policy makers, decision makers and technical managers to respond to situations involving interception of special nuclear materials

  20. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At this time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable, however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  1. Methodology for categorization of nuclear material in pyroprocessing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chanki; Choi, Sungyeol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Min Su; Jeong, Yon Hong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    For the pyroprocessing facility to be commercialized in future, current regulations should be evaluated and developed in advance, based on the new types of nuclear materials in the facility. Physical protection system, especially, requires reasonable and reliable categorization of nuclear materials, to prevent from the theft of nuclear materials. In this paper, therefore, current categorization methods of nuclear material are investigated and applied to the pyroprocessing facility. After inconsistencies and gaps are found among methods, they are compared and discussed based on eight considering points (i.e, degrees of attractiveness, levels of category, discount factor, physical barriers, chemical barriers, isotopic barriers, radiological barriers, and capabilities of adversaries), to roughly suggest a new method for categorization. Current categorization methods of nuclear material, including IAEA's INFCIRC/225, U.S. DOE's method, newly expected U.S. NRC's method, FOM, and Bunn's approach, are different and can bring inconsistencies of physical protection requirements. The gap among methods will be significant if advanced fuel cycles are applied to them for the future. For example, the categorization results of 5 target materials in pyroprocessing facility show clear inconsistencies, while TRU ingot is considered the most attractive material. To resolve inconsistencies, it is necessary to determine new method suitable to pyroproessing facility, by considering the effects of eight points (i.e, degrees of attractiveness, levels of category, discount factor, physical barriers, chemical barriers, isotopic barriers, radiological barriers, and capabilities of adversaries)

  2. Methodology for categorization of nuclear material in pyroprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chanki; Choi, Sungyeol; Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Min Su; Jeong, Yon Hong

    2016-01-01

    For the pyroprocessing facility to be commercialized in future, current regulations should be evaluated and developed in advance, based on the new types of nuclear materials in the facility. Physical protection system, especially, requires reasonable and reliable categorization of nuclear materials, to prevent from the theft of nuclear materials. In this paper, therefore, current categorization methods of nuclear material are investigated and applied to the pyroprocessing facility. After inconsistencies and gaps are found among methods, they are compared and discussed based on eight considering points (i.e, degrees of attractiveness, levels of category, discount factor, physical barriers, chemical barriers, isotopic barriers, radiological barriers, and capabilities of adversaries), to roughly suggest a new method for categorization. Current categorization methods of nuclear material, including IAEA's INFCIRC/225, U.S. DOE's method, newly expected U.S. NRC's method, FOM, and Bunn's approach, are different and can bring inconsistencies of physical protection requirements. The gap among methods will be significant if advanced fuel cycles are applied to them for the future. For example, the categorization results of 5 target materials in pyroprocessing facility show clear inconsistencies, while TRU ingot is considered the most attractive material. To resolve inconsistencies, it is necessary to determine new method suitable to pyroproessing facility, by considering the effects of eight points (i.e, degrees of attractiveness, levels of category, discount factor, physical barriers, chemical barriers, isotopic barriers, radiological barriers, and capabilities of adversaries)

  3. German Democratic Republic State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehnsch, W.; Gegusch, M.

    1976-01-01

    The system of accountancy for and control of nuclear material in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) with its legal bases and components is embedded in the overall State system of protection in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. As the competent State authority, the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board of the GDR is also responsible for meeting the GDR's national and international tasks in the control of nuclear material. At enterprise level, the observance of all safety regulations for nuclear material, including the regulations for the control, is within the responsibility of managers of establishments, which are in any way concerned with the handling of nuclear material. To support managers and to function as internal control authorities, nuclear material officers have been appointed in these establishments. Design information, operating data, physical inventory of nuclear material and the respective enterprise records and reports are subject to State control by the Nuclear Material Inspectorate of the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board. This Inspectorate keeps the central records on nuclear material, forwards reports and information to, and maintains the necessary contacts with, the IAEA. For the nuclear material in the GDR four material balance areas have been established for control purposes. To rationalize central recording and reporting, electronic data processing is increasingly made use of. In a year-long national and international control of nuclear material, the State control system has stood the test and successfully co-operates with the IAEA. (author)

  4. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik

    2005-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material

  5. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik [National Nuclear Management and Control Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material.

  6. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In the Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors, the regulations have all been revised on the fabrication business of nuclear fuel materials. The revised regulations are given : application for permission of the fabrication business, application for permission of the alteration, application for approval of the design and the construction methods, application for approval of the alteration, application for the facilities inspection, facilities inspection, recordings, entry limitations etc. for controlled areas, measures concerning exposure radiation doses etc., operation of the fabrication facilities, transport within the site of the business, storage, disposal within the site of the business, security regulations, designation etc. of the licensed engineer of nuclear fuels, collection of reports, etc. (Mori, K.)

  7. Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials: News for the Reactor Materials Crosscut, May 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science in Radiation and Dynamics Extremes

    2016-09-26

    In this newsletter for Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials, pages 1-3 cover highlights from the DOE-NE (Nuclear Energy) programs, pages 4-6 cover determining the stress-strain response of ion-irradiated metallic materials via spherical nanoindentation, and pages 7-8 cover theoretical approaches to understanding long-term materials behavior in light water reactors.

  8. Transportation of nuclear materials: the nuclear focus of the 80's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, S.; Hardin, E.C. Jr.; Jefferson, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material has been carried out since the inception of the nuclear age (over 30 years) with an unparralled safety record. Despite these achievements, there is a need to strive for improvements, to develop safer and more efficient transportation systems, moreover to perform these tasks in a highly visible manner so that public concern can be allayed. But, in the same vein that the past record is not of itself sufficient, neither is public participation the solution to all the issues surrounding the transportation of radioactive materials. The solutions to the problems facing the nuclear transport industry involve many disciplines, much of which rest on a foundation of sound technology. This conference is built around a core of papers on the developing technology of nuclear transportation: on systems, their design and development, their manufacturing processes, their operation and the methodologies of quality assurance in each of these activities. The role of IAEA in the collecting of data to compile information on the flow of radioactive materials, the mode of transport and the corresponding accident/incident experience, as well as its role in initiating a program to develop a worldwide uniform methodology to address the risks of transporting radioactive materials are covered in this symposium

  9. Fissile material disposition and proliferation risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). NIS Div.

    1996-05-01

    The proliferation risk of a facility is dependent on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear material proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. In order to effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of disposition options/facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for plutonium.

  10. Fissile material disposition and proliferation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The proliferation risk of a facility is dependent on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear material proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. In order to effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of disposition options/facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for plutonium

  11. Estimating current and future global urban domestic material consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Timothy Malcolm; Kaviti Musango, Josephine

    2018-06-01

    Urban material resource requirements are significant at the global level and these are expected to expand with future urban population growth. However, there are no global scale studies on the future material consumption of urban areas. This paper provides estimates of global urban domestic material consumption (DMC) in 2050 using three approaches based on: current gross statistics; a regression model; and a transition theoretic logistic model. All methods use UN urban population projections and assume a simple ‘business-as-usual’ scenario wherein historical aggregate trends in income and material flow continue into the future. A collation of data for 152 cities provided a year 2000 world average DMC/capita estimate, 12 tons/person/year (±22%), which we combined with UN population projections to produce a first-order estimation of urban DMC at 2050 of ~73 billion tons/year (±22%). Urban DMC/capita was found to be significantly correlated (R 2 > 0.9) to urban GDP/capita and area per person through a power law relation used to obtain a second estimate of 106 billion tons (±33%) in 2050. The inelastic exponent of the power law indicates a global tendency for relative decoupling of direct urban material consumption with increasing income. These estimates are global and influenced by the current proportion of developed-world cities in the global population of cities (and in our sample data). A third method employed a logistic model of transitions in urban DMC/capita with regional resolution. This method estimated global urban DMC to rise from approximately 40 billion tons/year in 2010 to ~90 billion tons/year in 2050 (modelled range: 66–111 billion tons/year). DMC/capita across different regions was estimated to converge from a range of 5–27 tons/person/year in the year 2000 to around 8–17 tons/person/year in 2050. The urban population does not increase proportionally during this period and thus the global average DMC/capita increases from ~12 to ~14 tons

  12. Global Energy Challenges of the 21. Century and Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinskiy, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    The paper considers the world energy demand till the middle of the century, as well as possible forecasting solution for this challenge. On the base of the mathematical model developed in the Kurchatov Institute in 2003- 2006, the vision of the global nuclear energy system and its potential contribution in the energy mix was analyzed. The rate of rapprochement between specific energy consumptions in different countries of the world is a key parameter determining the energy market strain. It was shown that a continuation of the current world trends of this rapprochement would result in an energy resource deficit already in the nearest future. The energy mix picture would contain an 'unsatisfied demand' area of about 10 000 Mtoe of total energy to be consumed by the mid-century Supposing that the mankind has to meet the 'unsatisfied demand' by nuclear energy, the global energy challenges of the 21. century energy do not impose any upper limit on nuclear energy development, the scale of which would be determined by development opportunities. Russia, as one of the pioneers of the First Nuclear Era, possesses great experience of solving the key issues of nuclear energy of the 20. century, and is capable to play an important role in dealing with the challenges faced by nuclear in the 21. century. (authors)

  13. Global nuclear survey: Public support for new power plants remains tentative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    14 of the 18 countries - and pluralities in the remaining four countries - believes that the risk of terrorist acts involving radioactive materials and nuclear facilities is high because of insufficient protection. A majority of 54 percent across all countries surveyed believe the risk of nuclear terrorism to be high, while three in ten (28%) say that the risk is low; 3) People appreciate the value of nuclear technology. When asked to consider the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, people in all but three countries are most supportive, by far, of medical applications, followed by electricity generation. Across the 18 countries surveyed, respondents are most likely to choose the use of nuclear technology to treat human diseases as their preferred application (39%). This is followed by electricity generation (26%); 4) Stressing the climate benefits of nuclear energy positively influences one in ten people to be more supportive of expanding the role of nuclear power in the world, but there is still a general reluctance to build more nuclear plants; 5) Awareness of the IAEA among the general population is generally low. However, one in four citizens across the 18 countries surveyed say that they have heard or read 'a lot' or 'some' about the agency, with higher awareness in Asia and the Middle East. The full report, Global Public Opinion on Nuclear Issues and the IAEA - Final Report from 18 Countries, is being released today by the IAEA in Vienna. The countries surveyed included: Argentina, Australia, Cameroon, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Mexico, Morocco, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and the United States. (IAEA)

  14. Development of data base system for nuclear material accountancy data at PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, N.; Akiba, Mitsunori; Nakagima, Kiyoshi; Usui, Shinichi; Tosa, Kiyofumi; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki.

    1993-01-01

    PNC is developing a wide area of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, much nuclear material with a various form exists at each facility in the Works, and the controls of the inventory changes and the physical inventories of nuclear material are important. Nuclear material accountancy is a basic measure in safeguards system based on Non-Proliferation Treaty(NPT). In the light of such importance of material accountancy, the data base of nuclear material control and the material accountancy report system for all facilities has been developed by using the computer. By this system, accountancy report to STA is being presented certainly and timely. Property management and rapid corresponding to inquiries from STA can be carried out by the data base system which has free item searching procedure. The present paper introduces 'Development of Data Base System for Nuclear Material Accountancy Data at PNC'. (author)

  15. Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness Tool (MSET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.; Roche, Charles T.; Campbell, Billy J.; Hammond, Glenn A.; Meppen, Bruce W.; Brown, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) has been developed in the United States for use in evaluating material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) systems in nuclear facilities. The project was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation. MSET was developed by personnel with experience spanning more than six decades in both the U.S. and international nuclear programs and with experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the nuclear power industry. MSET offers significant potential benefits for improving nuclear safeguards and security in any nation with a nuclear program. MSET provides a design basis for developing an MC and A system at a nuclear facility that functions to protect against insider theft or diversion of nuclear materials. MSET analyzes the system and identifies several risk importance factors that show where sustainability is essential for optimal performance and where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. MSET contains five major components: (1) A functional model that shows how to design, build, implement, and operate a robust nuclear MC and A system (2) A fault tree of the operating MC and A system that adapts PRA methodology to analyze system effectiveness and give a relative risk of failure assessment of the system (3) A questionnaire used to document the facility's current MPC and A system (provides data to evaluate the quality of the system and the level of performance of each basic task performed throughout the material balance area (MBA)) (4) A formal process of applying expert judgment to convert the facility questionnaire data into numeric values representing the performance level of each basic event for use in the fault tree risk assessment calculations (5) PRA software that performs the fault tree risk assessment calculations and produces risk importance

  16. Materials science for nuclear detection

    OpenAIRE

    Peurrung, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The increasing importance of nuclear detection technology has led to a variety of research efforts that seek to accelerate the discovery and development of useful new radiation detection materials. These efforts aim to improve our understanding of how these materials perform, develop formalized discovery tools, and enable rapid and effective performance characterization. We provide an overview of these efforts along with an introduction to the history, physics, and taxonomy of radiation detec...

  17. The status and prospects of the debate upon the global warming and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Possible climate change caused by global warming becomes one of the most serious challenges that mankind shall tackle in 21 st century. Nuclear power, which doesn't emit any greenhouse gas during the generation of electricity, is a promising solution to mitigate the global warming. However, there are still debates about the role of nuclear power related to the subjects such as safety, radioactive waste management and nuclear proliferation risk in the international climate change talks. This paper introduces on-going negotiation focused on the nuclear power and then, gives some prospects on the future negotiations. Finally the brief analysis of their impacts on domestic nuclear industry is carried out

  18. Integrating the stabilization of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, H.F. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In response to Recommendation 94-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, the Department of Energy committed to stabilizing specific nuclear materials within 3 and 8 years. These efforts are underway. The Department has already repackaged the plutonium at Rocky Flats and metal turnings at Savannah River that had been in contact with plastic. As this effort proceeds, we begin to look at activities beyond stabilization and prepare for the final disposition of these materials. To describe the plutonium materials being stabilize, Figure 1 illustrates the quantities of plutonium in various forms that will be stabilized. Plutonium as metal comprises 8.5 metric tons. Plutonium oxide contains 5.5 metric tons of plutonium. Plutonium residues and solutions, together, contain 7 metric tons of plutonium. Figure 2 shows the quantity of plutonium-bearing material in these four categories. In this depiction, 200 metric tons of plutonium residues and 400 metric tons of solutions containing plutonium constitute most of the material in the stabilization program. So, it is not surprising that much of the work in stabilization is directed toward the residues and solutions, even though they contain less of the plutonium.

  19. 10 CFR Appendix M to Part 110 - Categorization of Nuclear Material d

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categorization of Nuclear Material d M Appendix M to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. M Appendix M to Part 110—Categorization of Nuclear Material d [From IAEA INFCIRC/225...

  20. Safeguards against use of nuclear material for weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.; Rometsch, R.

    1975-01-01

    The history of safeguards is traced from the first session of the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission in 1946, through the various stages of the IAEA safeguard system for nuclear materials and to the initiation of the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1968. The role of the IAEA under the treaty is discussed. The structure and content of safeguards agreements in connection with the treaty were laid down and the objective of safeguards clearly defined. The methods of verification by the IAEA of the facility operator's material accountancy through inspection and statistical analysis and evaluation of 'material unaccounted for' are explained. The extent to which the IAEA may make use of the State's system of accounting and control of nuclear materials is considered. Reference is also made to the question of protection against theft and sabotage. Finally the scope of safeguards work for the next 15 years is forecast. (U.K.)

  1. Evaluation of excess nuclear materials suitability for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.W.; White, W.C.; Davis, R.M.; Cherry, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    President Clinton announced in March 1995 the permanent withdrawal of 200 tons of fissile material from the US nuclear stockpile. This action was made possible by the dramatic reduction in nuclear weapons stockpile size and a desire to demonstrate the US'' commitment to nonproliferation goals. To provide further assurance of that commitment, the US is addressing placement of these materials under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. An initial step of this overall assessment was evaluation of the nuclear materials'' suitability for international safeguards. US Department of Energy (DOE) field organizations reviewed a detailed listing of all candidate materials with respect to characterization status, security classification, and acceptability for international safeguards compared to specified criteria. These criteria included form, location, environment and safety considerations, measurability, and stability. The evaluation resulted in broad categorizations of all materials with respect to preparing and placing materials under IAEA safeguards and provided essential information for decisions on the timing for offering materials as a function of materials attributes. A plan is being prepared to determine the availability of these materials for IAEA safeguards considering important factors such as costs, processes and facilities required to prepare materials, and impacts on other programs

  2. Application of ceramic and glass materials in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamnabard, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic and glass are high temperature materials that can be used in many fields of application in nuclear industries. First, it is known that nuclear fuel UO 2 is a ceramic material. Also, ability to absorb neutrons without forming long lived radio-nuclides make the non-oxide ceramics attractive as an absorbent for neutron radiation arising in nuclear power plants. Glass-ceramic materials are a new type of ceramic that produced by the controlled nucleation and crystallization of glass, and have several advantages such as very low or null porosity, uniformity of microstructure, high chemical resistance etc. over conventional powder processed ceramics. These ceramic materials are synthesized in different systems based on their properties and applications. In nuclear industries, those are resistant to leaching and radiation damage for thousands of years, Such as glass-ceramics designed for radioactive waste immobilization and machinable glass-ceramics are used. This article introduces requirements of different glass and ceramic materials used in nuclear power plants and have been focused on developments in properties and application of them

  3. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 25: Radioactive Material Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  4. Prevention of nuclear fuel cladding materials corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K.R.; Yang, J.C.; Lee, I.C.; Kang, H.D.; Cho, S.W.; Whang, C.K.

    1983-01-01

    The only way which could be performed by the operator of nuclear power plant to minimizing the degradation of nuclear fuel cladding material is to control the water quality of primary coolant as specified standard conditions which dose not attack the cladding material. If the water quality of reactor coolant does not meet far from the specification, the failure will occure not only cladding material itself but construction material of primary system which contact with the coolant. The corrosion product of system material are circulate through the whole primary system with the coolant and activated by the neutron near the reactor core. The activated corrosion products and fission products which released from fuel rod to the coolant, so called crud, will repeate deposition and redeposition continuously on the fuel rod and construction material surface. As a result we should consider heat transfer problem. In this study following activities were performed; 1. The crud sample was taken from the spent fuel rod surface of Kori unit one and analized for radioactive element and non radioactive chemical species. 2. The failure mode of nuclear fuel cladding material was estimated by the investigation of releasing type of fission products from the fuel rod to the reactor coolant using the iodine isotopes concentration of reactor coolants. 3. A study was carried out on the sipping test results of spent fuel and a discussion was made on the water quality control records through the past three cycle operation period of Kori unit one plant. (Author)

  5. Measures Against-Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear Materials and Other Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M.B.; Nassef, M.H.; El Mongy, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the early nineties, illicit trafficking (IT) of nuclear materials and radioactive sources appeared as a new trend which raised the concern of the international community due to the grave consequences that would merge if these materials or radioactive sources fell into the hands of terrorist groups. However, by the end of the last century illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources lost its considerable salience, in spite of seizure of considerable amounts of 2 '3'5U (76% enrichment) in Bulgaria (May 1999) and also 235 U (30% enrichment) in Georgia (April 2000). Nevertheless, IT should be always considered as a continued and viable threat to the international community. Awareness of the problem should be developed and maintained among concerned circles as the first step towards combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials needs serious consideration and proper attention by the governmental law enforcement authorities. Measures to combat with IT of nuclear material or radioactive sources should be effective in recovery, of stolen, removed or lost nuclear materials or radioactive sources due to the failure of the physical protection system or the State System Accounting and Control (SSAC) system which are normally applied for protecting these materials against illegal actions. Measures such as use of modern and efficient radiation monitoring equipment at the borders inspection points, is an important step in preventing the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials across the borders. Also providing radiological training to specific personnel and workers in this field will minimize the consequences of a radiological attack in case of its occurrence. There is a real need to start to enter into cooperative agreements to strengthen borders security under the umbrella of IAEA to faster as an international cooperation in the illicit trafficking

  6. Physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities in CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Gratia, M.-H.; Jorda, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), as nuclear operator, is responsible for the control and protection of their nuclear materials. Inside CEA, DCS (Central Security Division) is in charge of the security matters, DCS defines the CEA strategy in this field, especially in physical protection. The paper will present the physical protection strategy of CEA. DCS defines the rules and methods; the operators have to apply in order to fulfill the security objectives of CEA. CEA has to provide the regulatory authority with documents proving that it is in accordance with the requirements of the 25th July 1980 law and 12th May 1981 decree. It has to implement all the necessary means in order to achieve the results requested by the regulatory authority. All these arrangements are described in the 'license and control file'. This file should specify the facility safeguards and physical protection system. Accounting measures are also described. In this file, the petitioner has to justify its capacity for holding nuclear materials and for exercising authorized activities on them. So the organization and the installed means have to be described in this authorization file. For physical protection, containment, surveillance and physical protection measures are presented: Containment measures must prevent the unauthorized or unjustified movements of nuclear material in the framework of the authorized activities; Surveillance measures must guarantee the integrity of the containment, check that no material is exiting by an abnormal channel; Physical protection measures for the materials, the premises and the facilities are intended to protect them against malevolent actions by means of security systems. The Central Security Division has established guidelines to provide guidance to the nuclear materials holders in writing such files. Each holding unit has to establish a 'license and control file' and each CEA site establishes a 'site license and control file

  7. Introduction to Special Edition (of the Journal of Nuclear Materials Management) on Reducing the Threat from Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2007-01-01

    Introductory article for special edition of the JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT outlining the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technical Division. In particular the International Nuclear and Radiological Security Standing Committee and its initial focus covering four topical areas--Radiological Threat Reduction, Nuclear Smuggling and Illicit Trafficking, Countering Nuclear Terrorism, and Radiological Terrorism Consequence Management

  8. International nuclear safety center database on material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    International nuclear safety center database on the following material properties is described: fuel, cladding,absorbers, moderators, structural materials, coolants, concretes, liquid mixtures, uranium dioxide

  9. Dealing with the regional challenge of physical protection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The problem of protecting sensitive fissile and fissionable nuclear materials of misuses by governments has been the subject of the convention on physical protection of nuclear material (CPPNM), which entered into force on February 8, 1987. However, in May 2001 the final report of the expert meeting had already recognized 'a clear need to strengthen the international physical protection regime'. The board of governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) decided then to convene a group, which would meet in Vienna from 3 to 7 December 2001, to draft on amendment to the CPPNM. The tragic occurrences of September 11, 2001, however, changed the then generally accepted view on the problem of physical protection, because nuclear materials had to be protected from falling into the hands of terrorists rather than of governments thirst of nuclear sensitive materials. Moreover, crude explosive devices could be made by terrorists, or hired scientists, using readily available radioactive materials, like 226 Ra or 137 Cs to inflict damage to civilians. Thus physical protection of those and other radioactive materials became an instant challenge for national and international authorities to prevent the use of such materials in terrorist actions. The prevention of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials is now in the priority list of these authorities. Fortunately; an international conference on 'Measures to Detect, Intercept and Respond to the Illicit Uses of Nuclear Materials and Radioactive Sources' was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in May 2001. An IAEA document - GOV/2001/37-GC(45)/20 - recommended in its plan of activities a series of projects to be implemented between 2002 and 2005, which included developing and providing assistance for the application of: (i) standards for physical protection of nuclear materials and