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Sample records for global motivation parenthood

  1. Parenthood motives in IVF-mothers.

    Colpin, H; De Munter, A; Vandemeulebroecke, L

    1998-03-01

    This is an exploratory study to answer two questions: (1) does in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-mothers' motivation for parenthood differ from the naturally conceiving mothers' motivation for parenthood? and (2) are IVF-mothers' parenthood motives correlated with their adjustment to parenthood (in the same way as they are for naturally conceiving mothers)? The study sample consisted of 31 mothers with a 24-30 month old, single-born child conceived by homologous IVF and a comparison group of 31 mothers with a naturally conceived child. Self-rating questionnaires were used. Overall, the parenthood motivation pattern was quite similar for IVF-mothers and mothers by natural conception. However, 'identity', 'motherhood' and 'social control' were significantly more important motives for IVF-mothers than for the naturally conceiving mothers. The two former motives remained more important for IVF-mothers when findings were adjusted for the influence of the mothers' age and educational level. Possible explanations for these findings refer to the infertility history. Overall, few correlations between parenthood motives and the adjustment to parenthood were significant, both for the IVF-mothers and for the mothers by natural conception. Further (hypothesis-testing) research is needed to support these findings.

  2. Why Parenthood, and Why Now? Gay Men's Motivations for Pursuing Parenthood

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.

    2012-01-01

    The current qualitative study of 35 preadoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to…

  3. Why Parenthood, and Why Now?: Gay Men's Motivations for Pursuing Parenthood.

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Downing, Jordan B; Moyer, April M

    2012-02-01

    The current qualitative study of 35 pre-adoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically-oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to teach a child tolerance) may have been uniquely shaped by their sexual minority status, and others (e.g., desire to give a child a good home) in part reflect their adoptive status. Men named age, finances, and relationship factors, as well as unique contextual factors such as the need to find and move to gay-friendly neighborhoods, as influencing their readiness to pursue parenthood at the current time. Gay men's motivations to parent echo normative life course decision-making processes, but also reflect concerns that are uniquely informed by their sexual minority status.

  4. Why Parenthood, and Why Now?: Gay Men’s Motivations for Pursuing Parenthood

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.

    2012-01-01

    The current qualitative study of 35 pre-adoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men’s motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically-oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to teach a child tolerance) may have been uniquely shaped by their sexual minority status, and others (e.g., desire to give a child a good home) in pa...

  5. Gay fathers' motivations for and feelings about surrogacy as a path to parenthood.

    Blake, L; Carone, N; Raffanello, E; Slutsky, Jenna; Ehrhardt, A A; Golombok, S

    2017-04-01

    Why do gay men choose to start their families through surrogacy? Most fathers chose surrogacy because they considered adoption to be a less desirable and/or accessible path to parenthood. Little is known of gay fathers' motivations to use surrogacy as a path to parenthood over and above other forms of family building, such as adoption, and no studies have examined fathers' satisfaction with the surrogacy process. This study used a cross-sectional design as part of a larger investigation of parent-child relationships and child adjustment in 40 gay father surrogacy families. Multiple strategies (e.g. surrogacy agencies, social events and snowballing) were used to recruit as diverse a sample as possible. Data were obtained from 74 fathers (in 6 families only 1 father was available for interview). Semi-structured interviews, lasting ~1 h, were conducted in the family home (65%) or over Skype (35%) with 74 gay fathers (35 genetic fathers, 32 non-genetic fathers and 7 fathers who did not know or did not disclose who the genetic father was), when the children were 3-9 years old. Genetic and non-genetic fathers were just as likely to want to become parents and had similar motivations for choosing surrogacy as a path to parenthood. Most fathers (N = 55, 74%) were satisfied with surrogacy and were satisfied (N = 31. 42%) or had neutral feelings (N = 21, 28%) about their choice of who would be the genetic father. Most fathers received supportive reactions to their decision to use surrogacy from both families of origin (e.g. parents, siblings) (N = 47, 64%) and from friends (N = 63, 85%). Although diverse recruitment strategies were used, data were obtained from a volunteer sample. Therefore, the possibility that fathers who had a positive surrogacy experience may have been more likely to participate in the study, and therefore introduce bias, cannot be ruled out. Due to the high average annual income of the fathers in the study, findings may not generalize to gay fathers with

  6. Gay fathers’ motivations for and feelings about surrogacy as a path to parenthood

    Carone, N.; Raffanello, E.; Slutsky, Jenna; Ehrhardt, A. A.; Golombok, S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract STUDY QUESTION Why do gay men choose to start their families through surrogacy? SUMMARY ANSWER Most fathers chose surrogacy because they considered adoption to be a less desirable and/or accessible path to parenthood. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Little is known of gay fathers’ motivations to use surrogacy as a path to parenthood over and above other forms of family building, such as adoption, and no studies have examined fathers’ satisfaction with the surrogacy process. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This study used a cross-sectional design as part of a larger investigation of parent–child relationships and child adjustment in 40 gay father surrogacy families. Multiple strategies (e.g. surrogacy agencies, social events and snowballing) were used to recruit as diverse a sample as possible. Data were obtained from 74 fathers (in 6 families only 1 father was available for interview). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD Semi-structured interviews, lasting ~1 h, were conducted in the family home (65%) or over Skype (35%) with 74 gay fathers (35 genetic fathers, 32 non-genetic fathers and 7 fathers who did not know or did not disclose who the genetic father was), when the children were 3–9 years old. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Genetic and non-genetic fathers were just as likely to want to become parents and had similar motivations for choosing surrogacy as a path to parenthood. Most fathers (N = 55, 74%) were satisfied with surrogacy and were satisfied (N = 31. 42%) or had neutral feelings (N = 21, 28%) about their choice of who would be the genetic father. Most fathers received supportive reactions to their decision to use surrogacy from both families of origin (e.g. parents, siblings) (N = 47, 64%) and from friends (N = 63, 85%). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Although diverse recruitment strategies were used, data were obtained from a volunteer sample. Therefore, the possibility that fathers who had a positive surrogacy experience may have been

  7. What's your motivation to be pregnant? Relations between motives for parenthood and women's prenatal functioning.

    Brenning, Katrijn; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal psychological adjustment is a critical predictor of postnatal maternal adjustment, which, in turn, relates to a child's psychological development. As such, it is important to examine possible correlates of women's psychological functioning during pregnancy. Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the present research investigated the link between women's motives for having a child and prenatal maternal psychological adjustment. Specifically, in a sample of 208 pregnant women, we examined the relation between women's intensity (i.e., quantity) and quality of motivation for having a child and both women's social adjustment (i.e., relationship satisfaction) and personal well-being (i.e., vitality and depressive symptoms). Further, we examined psychological need satisfaction as an explanatory mechanism underlying these associations. Results showed that both intensity and quality of motivation related, either directly or indirectly via psychological need satisfaction, to women's personal well-being and relationship satisfaction during pregnancy. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Oh baby! Motivation for healthy eating during parenthood transitions: a longitudinal examination with a theory of planned behavior perspective

    2013-01-01

    Background Transitioning to parenthood is a major life event that may impact parents’ personal lifestyles, yet there is an absence of theory-based research examining the impact of parenthood on motives for dietary behaviour. As a result, we are unaware of the social cognitive variables that predict eating behaviour among those transitioning to parenthood. The purpose of the study was to examine eating behaviour motives across 12 months within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and compare these across groups of new parents, non-parents, and established parents. Methods Non-parents (n = 92), new parents (n = 135), and established parents (n = 71) completed TPB questionnaires assessing attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intentions and three day food records at baseline, and 6- and 12-months post-delivery (for parents) and 6- and 12-months post-baseline (for non-parents). Results Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that among men, new- and established-parents had greater intentions to eat healthy compared to non-parents, F(2) = 3.59, p = .03. Among women, established parents had greater intentions than new- and non-parents, F(2) = 5.33, p = .01. Among both men and women during the first 6-months post-delivery, new-parents experienced decreased PBC, whereas established parents experienced increased PBC. Overall, affective attitudes were the strongest predictor of intentions for men (β = 0.55, p < .001) and women (β = 0.38, p < .01). PBC predicted changes in fruit and vegetable consumption for men (β = 0.45, p = .02), and changes in fat consumption for men (β = −0.25, p = .03) and women (β = −.24, p < .05), regardless of parent status. Conclusion The transition to parenthood for new and established parents may impact motivation for healthy eating, especially PBC within the framework of TPB. However, regardless of parental status, affective

  9. Oh baby! Motivation for healthy eating during parenthood transitions: a longitudinal examination with a theory of planned behavior perspective.

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Benoit, Cecilia; Warburton, Darren E R; Blanchard, Chris M; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2013-07-06

    Transitioning to parenthood is a major life event that may impact parents' personal lifestyles, yet there is an absence of theory-based research examining the impact of parenthood on motives for dietary behaviour. As a result, we are unaware of the social cognitive variables that predict eating behaviour among those transitioning to parenthood. The purpose of the study was to examine eating behaviour motives across 12 months within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and compare these across groups of new parents, non-parents, and established parents. Non-parents (n = 92), new parents (n = 135), and established parents (n = 71) completed TPB questionnaires assessing attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intentions and three day food records at baseline, and 6- and 12-months post-delivery (for parents) and 6- and 12-months post-baseline (for non-parents). Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that among men, new- and established-parents had greater intentions to eat healthy compared to non-parents, F(2) = 3.59, p = .03. Among women, established parents had greater intentions than new- and non-parents, F(2) = 5.33, p = .01. Among both men and women during the first 6-months post-delivery, new-parents experienced decreased PBC, whereas established parents experienced increased PBC. Overall, affective attitudes were the strongest predictor of intentions for men (β = 0.55, p changes in fruit and vegetable consumption for men (β = 0.45, p = .02), and changes in fat consumption for men (β = -0.25, p = .03) and women (β = -.24, p motivation for healthy eating, especially PBC within the framework of TPB. However, regardless of parental status, affective attitudes and PBC are critical antecedents of intentions and eating behaviour. Interventions should target affective attitudes and PBC to motivate healthy eating and may need to be intensified during parenthood.

  10. Implicit and explicit prosocial motivation as antecedents of volunteering : The moderating role of parenthood

    Aydinli, A.; Bender, M.; Chasiotis, A.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Cemalcilar, Z.

    2015-01-01

    We test a model proposing that having children influences motivational pathways of volunteering in the same way across two different cultures. The model posits that parents’ engagement in volunteering is driven by implicit, whereas non-parents’ engagement in volunteering is related to explicit

  11. Doing Good Parenthood

    This edited collection shows that good parenthood is neither fixed nor stable. The contributors show how parenthood is equally done by men, women and children, in and through practices involving different normative guidelines. The book explores how normative layers of parenthood are constituted...... by notions such as good childhood, family ideals, national public health and educational strategies. The authors illustrate how different versions of parenthood coexist and how complex sets of actions are demanded to fulfil today’s expectations of parenthood in Western societies. This interdisciplinary book...

  12. Top management motivation in global corporations

    Dmytro Lukianenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores economic localization, socialization and development intellectualization processes. The research is focused on the relevant problem implying formation and development of human resources at organizations as a key factor of their competitiveness. Based on generalizing modern theoretical motivational models a comprehensive analysis of the motivation system for top management of corporations within the paradigm of global management has been carried out. Special attention is paid to the phenomenon of global business personification and virtualization, as well as to the formation of new financial and nonfinancial incentives for top managers. Practices of effective incentives for the contemporary key corporate management actors have been studied. A comprehensive country-based comparative analysis of key tools for financial and non-financial corporate incentives for top managers within the system of long-term, short-term and regulatory criteria and parameters has been performed. Based on summarizing academic studies and empirical evidence of the leading multinational corporations a motivational model for top management of corporations has been grounded and suggested for practical implementation in Ukraine with the said model accounting for the corporations' basic needs, financial status and interests as well as for countryspecific and regional features.

  13. Course-Specific Intrinsic Motivation: Effects of Instructor Support and Global Academic Motivation

    Zook, J. M.; Herman, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of instructor support and students' global academic motivation on students' course-specific intrinsic motivation. The authors hypothesized, based on self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), that instructor support for students' psychological needs would enhance intrinsic motivation. Students reported their…

  14. DETERMINANTS OF GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN MOTIVATION

    ŢÂMPU DIANA LARISA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world were manner of use of information is crucial in determining the level of performance. Each country around the globe uses a proper way of spreading information and communication. Studies present the Information and Communication Technology (ICT indicator the proper tool to provide an objective evaluation of the countries performance. The question that this research wants to answer is what are the main ways of motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic in countries where ICT Development Index reaches the highest values in the last 2 years. In this way, we want to verify if ICT has different predictors and different possible consequence that depend on human motivation. Thus relying on calculations made by the International Telecommunication Union for ICT and key factors of motivation this paper will present if there is any relationship between citizens motivation and ICT. This hypothesized model will be illustrated with data from thirty developed countries.

  15. Parenthood and Well-Being

    Roeters, Anne; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to our knowledge on the association between parenthood and psychological well-being by examining whether pre-parenthood lifestyles (leisure and paid work) moderate the transition to parenthood. We expected that people with less active lifestyles would find it easier to

  16. Parenthood by design.

    Sleep, J

    1986-02-01

    Parenthood by design involves realistic preparation for practical aspects of parenting as well as the romantic illusions fostered by relatives, social pressure, and the media. The ideals do not mention the physical discomfort, exhaustion, jealousy, anger and frustration encountered in a normal puerperium. Many women have not returned to normal sexual activity, work and sports even by 6 weeks after delivery. Perineal discomfort is still experienced by 70% after 10 days, especially in cases of assisted vaginal delivery. Urinary incontinence is present in 20% up to 3 months after normal vaginal delivery. Many women report fatigue as the reason for not resuming sexual intercourse. Family interactions are stressed by the newcomer: rivalry on the part of the husband or siblings is common. Modern education in the attempt to train people for vocational competence has left out parenting. In England, midwives teach classes of 20 women for 5 contact hours in late pregnancy, and are expected to cover all aspects of pregnancy, labor, delivery, baby care, postnatal adjustment and support services. The schools have sex education, fostering freedom in life styles for young people, but little emphasis on responsibility. There are some community organizations such as the La Leche League, the National Childbirth Trust and the Meet-A-Mum Association that offer support during and after pregnancy. Accidental pregnancy with education as crisis intervention is inadequate for the future; parenthood by design would permit couples to experience parenthood as a period of growth based on a fuller understanding of practical reality.

  17. Global Governance for Health: how to motivate political change?

    McNeill, D; Ottersen, O P

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we address a central theme that was discussed at the Durham Health Summit: how can politics be brought back into global health governance and figure much more prominently in discussions around policy? We begin by briefly summarizing the report of the Lancet - University of Oslo Commission on Global Governance for Health: 'The Political Origins of Health Inequity' Ottersen et al. In order to provide compelling evidence of the central argument, the Commission selected seven case studies relating to, inter alia, economic and fiscal policy, food security, and foreign trade and investment agreements. Based on an analysis of these studies, the report concludes that the problems identified are often due to political choices: an unwillingness to change the global system of governance. This raises the question: what is the most effective way that a report of this kind can be used to motivate policy-makers, and the public at large, to demand change? What kind of moral or rational argument is most likely to lead to action? In this paper we assess the merits of various alternative perspectives: health as an investment; health as a global public good; health and human security; health and human development; health as a human right; health and global justice. We conclude that what is required in order to motivate change is a more explicitly political and moral perspective - favouring the later rather than the earlier alternatives just listed. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Intellectual Disability and Parenthood

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenthood in persons with intellectual disability (ID is an issue of concern for the family, guardians, and professionals as there are many sentiments and problems involved: financial, technical, medical, legal, and above all moral. People with intellectual, developmental, or other disabilities have feelings, want relationships, and are able to have children also. The attitude of society has changed through time from the early eugenic concern with heredity and fertility, to a focus on the risk to the children due to parental neglect or abuse, to acceptance and a search for solutions to parental training and support. This change can be seen as a result of a shift from institutional care to community care and normalization. This paper reviews available research, prevalence, service issues, experience from around the world, and relates to the situation in Israel. Jewish Law has been very progressive regarding the possibility of marriage between persons with ID (in contrast to American Law where historically this right has been denied, until recently. Recent research has shown that, in the case of such a union resulting in children, although they require some supervision, family, friends, and social welfare agencies have scrutinized these families so much they are in constant fear of their child being taken away. There is little information on the number of such cases and an overall dearth of information on the effects on the children, although one recent study from the U.K. has shown a varied picture of resilience and a close, warm relationship later on with the family and especially the mother.

  19. Migration and first-time parenthood: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan

    Gunnar Andersson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the reproductive behavior of young women and men in the post-Soviet Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan, focusing on the link between migration and fertility. We employ event-history techniques to retrospective data from the 'Marriage, Fertility, and Migration' survey conducted in Northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to study patterns in first-time parenthood. We demonstrate the extent to which internal migration is related to family formation and to the patterns of becoming a parent after resettlement. We gain deeper insights into demographic behavior by considering information on factors such as the geographical destination of migration and retrospectively stated motives for reported moves. In addition, our study reveals clear ethno-cultural differences in the timing of entry into parenthood in Kyrgyzstan.

  20. Doing good parenthood as we-ness

    Westerling, Allan; Sparrman, Anna

    This paper reflects on how good parenthood is done through ‘we-ness’. We draw on empirical work published by Danish and Swedish researchers to argue that we-ness constitutes an ideal in contemporary family life. In our recent edited volume Doing good parenthood, we argue that the term parenthood...... and family life. With this paper, we explore and discuss the concepts of we-ness, childhood and parenthood further, foremost by analyzing how ideals of equality are translated into the everyday practices of doing we-ness and family life. How and by whom is we-ness established and are there intensive...... and light versions of we-ness? How can we understand the relation between we-ness and goodness in parenthood?...

  1. MOTIVATION

    1994-01-01

    Introduction What is the difference between instrumental and integrative motivation? What kind of motivations do students have? How can our knowledge of motivation help the language learning process? Motivation can be very important in language teaching. Students can do very well when they are motivated. Teachers, with their knowledge of motivation, can make their classes more efficient and successful. Middle school teachers, in addition to learning about the English language itself, and about teaching methods, should also learn more about motivation and how this affects our students. "When we consider language teaching, motivation can be classified as either integrative or instrumental motivation" (Luxon)

  2. Language Learning Motivation, Global English and Study Modes: A Comparative Study

    Lanvers, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Exploring the popular explanation that the global spread of English may demotivate students with English as their first language to learn other languages, this study investigates relations between student motivation and perception of Global English and tests for differences between traditional "campus" and distance university students…

  3. "Planned Parenthood v. Clark County School District": First Amendment Rights in Public Schools Continue to Erode.

    Walden, John C.

    1990-01-01

    The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals decision in "Planned Parenthood" supported school officials who refused to publish certain advertisements in school-sponsored newspapers. Contends that school officials' desire to avoid any possible controversy was the underlying motive for the decision to not publish the advertisement. (MLF)

  4. Long-term Consequences of Early Parenthood

    Johansen, Eva Rye; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Verner, Mette

    (and to lesser extent employment), as fathers appear to support the family, especially when early parenthood is combined with cohabitation with the mother and the child. Heterogeneous effects reveal that individuals with a more favorable socioeconomic background are affected more severely than......Having children at an early age is known to be associated with unfavorable economic outcomes, such as lower education, employment and earnings. In this paper, we study the long-term consequences of early parenthood for mothers and fathers. Our study is based on rich register-based data that......, importantly, merges all childbirths to the children’s mothers and fathers, allowing us to study the consequences of early parenthood for both parents. We perform a sibling fixed effects analysis in order to account for unobserved family attributes that are possibly correlated with early parenthood...

  5. Motivation.

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  6. Motives of enterprises’ expansion abroad during the global financial and economic crisis

    Joanna Bednarz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for facing up the competitors and the wish to build the competitive advantage on the market contribute to enterprises’ expansion on foreign markets. Motives lying behind the enterprise management decision when starting expansion abroad vary and they depend on an individual market situation of the enterprise. They can also evolve in time. The decision about enterprise expansion may be dictated by the will to make advantage of chances which appear on the market. Nevertheless, it also happens that adverse conditions of the enterprise external environment force its internationalization. Motives of foreign expansion can be classified in many ways. This article describes four main groups of motives: market, costs-related, supplies and strategic ones. The second part of this paper analyses changes in enterprises’ motives of expansion during the global financial and economic crisis.

  7. The Relationship between Global Competence and Language Learning Motivation: An Empirical Study in Critical Language Classrooms

    Semaan, Gaby; Yamazaki, Kasumi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between global competence and second language learning motivation in critical language classrooms. Data were collected from 137 participants who were studying critical languages (Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Persian) at two universities on the East and West Coasts of the United States, using a 30-item…

  8. Learning English as an L2 in the Global Context: Changing English, Changing Motivation

    Sung, Chit Cheung Matthew

    2013-01-01

    As the English language has become a global lingua franca today, it is not surprising that changes in attitudes and perceptions towards learning English in the international context have taken place at the same time. In this paper, I critically examine the notion of "integrative motivation" in the literature of second language (L2)…

  9. Global biosurveillance: enabling science and technology. Workshop background and motivation: international scientific engagement for global security

    Cui, Helen H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-18

    Through discussion the conference aims to: (1) Identify core components of a comprehensive global biosurveillance capability; (2) Determine the scientific and technical bases to support such a program; (3) Explore the improvement in biosurveillance to enhance regional and global disease outbreak prediction; (4) Recommend an engagement approach to establishing an effective international community and regional or global network; (5) Propose implementation strategies and the measures of effectiveness; and (6) Identify the challenges that must be overcome in the next 3-5 years in order to establish an initial global biosurveillance capability that will have significant positive impact on BioNP as well as public health and/or agriculture. There is also a look back at the First Biothreat Nonproliferation Conference from December 2007. Whereas the first conference was an opportunity for problem solving to enhance and identify new paradigms for biothreat nonproliferation, this conference is moving towards integrated comprehensive global biosurveillance. Main reasons for global biosurveillance are: (1) Rapid assessment of unusual disease outbreak; (2) Early warning of emerging, re-emerging and engineered biothreat enabling reduced morbidity and mortality; (3) Enhanced crop and livestock management; (4) Increase understanding of host-pathogen interactions and epidemiology; (5) Enhanced international transparency for infectious disease research supporting BWC goals; and (6) Greater sharing of technology and knowledge to improve global health.

  10. Lesbian Couples' Relationship Quality across the Transition to Parenthood

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Sayer, Aline

    2006-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is a time of stress for many couples. Most research on the transition to parenthood has been conducted with middle-class, heterosexual couples. The current study uses multilevel modeling to examine predictors of change in relationship quality (love and conflict) during the transition to parenthood in 29 lesbian…

  11. Standpoints of the young people in Serbia on parenthood in the period of social changes - end of eighties till end of nineties

    Kuburović Ankica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Standpoints on parenthood represent the central subject of sociological approach in analyzing social determination of low reproductive norms. The goal of comparative analysis (first research carried out at the end of the eighties, and the second at the end of the nineties in different political and socio-economic surroundings is to record changed arguments and to point out to possible consequences which could be manifested through changes of the prevailing type of parenthood, namely the future reproductive behavior of subpopulation of the young (secondary-school pupils and students. Argument change of parenthood motivation basis on the general level is manifested by the weakening of its instrumental foundation, due to the prevailing altruistic motive "children - the meaning of life". As regards birth control, the young are more willing to accept contemporary contraceptive methods. A stabilization of the average values of desired and expected number of children is noted, but this discord is still an indicator of the defeat of complete realization of the need for parenthood. The insisting on everyday life quality is still perceived as an inhabitation factor when bringing decision on the number of children. Changes in the standpoints concerning the relation between marriage and parenthood did not seriously shake up the traditional system of values, which points out to their mutual significant influence and connection. Changes in the standpoints resulted in slowing down the individualization of parenthood which is manifested through the decrease of stratum differences (towns and sex.

  12. Parenting and Parenthood as Research Domains

    Polivanova K.N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of a number of publications which concern the modern socio-cultural situation and its consequences on contemporary parenthood. The constructs "parenthood" and "parenting" are presented:. the first one refers to a social role of an adult with a child in relation to other social roles and the latter with the process of child rearing. The major social trends are presented: Contemporary parenthood is analyzed and problematized due to the nature of modern challenges faced by educated parents. The following trends are discussed: erosion of understandable, clearly presented stereotypes and patterns of child rearing in the family, increase of variability of practices of child-parent interaction, growth of supply on the market of goods and services. All these major social trends bring to the sunset of "natural" parenthood and the decision to have a child turns to be a consciously planned strategy. The article shows that the appeal to expert knowledge in child rearing which is characteristic of postmodern era leads to new uncertainties due to the variety of inconsistent advice and expertise. Discussion of the transformations experienced by the family shows the transition from child-centered to adult-centered pattern. Thus, the conclusion is that contemporary parenting takes place against many (conscious and unconscious contradictions, particularly between the growing importance of the values of self-realization and commitment and the value of parenthood. This contradiction brings to stress and anxiety which in turn damages the perception of oneself as a parent. The growth of interest in the study of parental identity and self-efficacy is considered to be a promising direction of research

  13. Social influence and the timing of parenthood

    Disa Bergnéhr

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a general trend of postponing entry into parenthood in Europe, Scandinavia being no exception. Previous research has suggested a range of reasons for this pattern to emerge, but comparatively little attention has been given the possible impact of the social network on the decision to try for a child. This paper explicates ways in which young Swedish adults in focus group discussions reason about the impact of friends and family in their reproductive decision-making. The analysis is based on a discourse analytical approach and inspired by social influence theory. The result of the focus group data indicates that the desire to maintain belonging and rootedness to friends as well as to kin is influential in procreative decision-making. Friends and family are recurrently referred to in the participants’ reasoning about when parenthood is preferably entered.

  14. Pregnancy and Parenthood During Medical School.

    Bye, Emma M; Brisk, Brody W; Reuter, Suzanne D; Hansen, Keith A; Nettleman, Mary D

    2017-12-01

    The stress of pregnancy and parenthood during the intense educational experience of medical school could increase the risk of student burnout. Because 9.2 percent of U.S. medical students are parents by graduation, it would seem prudent to include this topic in wellness programs and policies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of pregnancy and parenthood on medical students. This was a cross-sectional, internet survey distributed to all four classes of medical students at the University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine during the 2016-2017 academic year. The survey determined self-reported pregnancy and parenthood information, knowledge of a medical school pregnancy policy, and policy recommendations. More than 85 percent of the 194 respondents recommended that the following elements be included in an institutional policy: process for arranging parental leave, how leave time might affect graduation, how missed requirements could be made up, and how to request special accommodation or leave. Twenty-nine of the respondents (15 percent) were parents or currently pregnant. Eight pregnancies during medical school were associated with complications, including three miscarriages. Of the 18 students who reported maternity or paternity leave, 13 (72 percent) and 10 (56 percent) would have extended their leave time if it did not delay graduation or only reduced their number of elective rotations, respectively. No student would choose to extend leave if it would delay graduation. This survey is the first of its kind investigating pregnancy and parenthood in medical students attending a U.S. medical school. Students want schools to provide clear, well-defined guidelines, scheduling flexibility and administrators who are approachable and understanding of their individual circumstances.

  15. Parenthood and life satisfaction in Germany

    Pollmann-Schult, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    "This article examines the association between parenthood and life satisfaction. It focuses on the question to which extent parental life satisfaction is influenced by individual and familial context. The empirical study is based on the data from the first wave of the German Family Panel (pairfam). All in all, the analyses show that although parents are less satisfied with their leisure time, their social contacts and their relationship, they are nonetheless more satisfied with their life in ...

  16. Parenthood and life satisfaction. Russia in comparative perspective

    Mikucka, Malgorzata; The 4th LCSR International Annual Research Conference: 'Cultural and Economic changes under cross-national perspective'

    2014-01-01

    The literature on life satisfaction trajectories during parenthood rests so far mainly on data from Western countries. This paper fills this gap by estimating the dynamics of life satisfaction associated with parenthood in Russia, a country which is different not only in terms of economic and historical factors, but also has a peculiar pattern of fertility and parenthood. We use the data of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE and fixed effects regression for panel data to estimat...

  17. Unable to Conform, Unwilling to Rebel? Youth, Culture and Motivation in Globalizing Japan

    Tuukka eToivonen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of globalization on Japanese young adults from sociological and psychological perspectives. While Japan’s socio-economic institutions have shown mainly resistant (or hot reactions to globalization, individual-level adaptations remain oriented towards conformity to dominant life expectations, which remain largely unchanged, despite decreasing rewards. However, a socially withdrawn sub-group (the so-called hikikomori appears to be unable to conform yet is also unwilling to rebel. The experimental evidence we review suggests such youth deviate from typical Japanese motivational patterns but have not necessarily become more Western. This poses serious problems in an interdependence-oriented culture, but the paralysis of this group seems to be an outcome of labor market change rather than a psychopathology. Finally, we also identify a contrasting group – whom we call the quiet mavericks – that adapts in creative and integrative (or "cool" ways by negotiating conformist pressures tactfully. Our account sheds light on just how complex and painful the psychological and sociological effects of globalization can be for young people in conformist societies, with implications to policy and social sustainability.

  18. Understanding Parents, Understanding Parenthood: An Education for Parenthood Course Piloted at Monifeith High School, Angus.

    Cutting, Elizabeth; Tammi, Lynne

    This report is the result of an evaluation of the delivery of a pilot parenthood education program at Monifeith High School in Angus, Scotland. The program was developed as part of Save the Children, Scotland's 3-year Positive Parenting Project. The report is targeted at those responsible for the delivery of personal and social education to…

  19. Parenthood, child-rearing and fertility in England, 1850-1914.

    Pooley, Siân

    2013-03-01

    Fertility declines across Europe and the Anglo-world have been explained as the result of reversals of intergenerational flows of wealth. According to this theory, the child was transformed from an economically-useful household asset to an emotionally-valued parental burden. This article is based on a comparative study of changing understandings of parenthood in three provincial English localities between 1850 and 1914. It works from the premise that in order to make sense of reproductive behaviour, it is essential to examine the meanings that men and women attached to childlessness, child-rearing and parenthood. It is argued that there was not a universal shift that made children into burdens. New understandings of the duties of parenthood did develop, but these were founded on class-, gender- and place-specific interpretations. These encouraged a minority of fathers and mothers to believe that together they had the capacity to improve the lives of their sons and daughters in pioneering ways. Given that husbands and wives had distinct motives for avoiding rearing many children and that the discussion of reproduction was shrouded in silence, the dissemination and use of new ideals of family was crucial in enabling birth control to be thought about respectably within marriage.

  20. Single Parenthood Impact on Street Children in Ibadan Metropolis ...

    FIRST LADY

    An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal , Ethiopia. Vol. 4 (2) April ... free and compulsory education to children without family support and help the less ... Key words: Single Parenthood, Street Children, Anti-Social Behaviour,. Aggression ... foregoing, this study therefore sought to look at the impact of single parenthood on ...

  1. Equal Opportunity for Children (A Proposal for Licensed Parenthood).

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Hicks, Mary W.

    A theoretical proposal for a government-sponsored system of licensed parenthood is suggested, based on the premise that overpopulation, child abuse, and emotional, intellectual, and physical handicaps in children could be controlled through legislation. The three-part legislative proposal for licensed parenthood outlined would include: (1)…

  2. [Haikou issues circular on planned parenthood].

    1981-02-03

    The Organization Department of the Haikou Municipal CCP Committee, the municipal grain, finance, commerce, education bureau, personnel, public security, labor, civil affairs, public health, and housing bureaus, supply and marketing cooperative, and planned parenthood office recently issued a joint circular on implementing the provincial planned parenthood regulations. The circular demanded that the marriage registration and census system be seriously implemented. When people are registering for marriage, we must teach them to have only 1 child. We must give priority in housing and employment to an only child and his parents. When commercial, supply, and marketing departments are distributing coupons for fuel, and nonstaple food, they should supply a double amount to the only child. We must carry out serious health care for an only child and give them regular physical check-ups. When they are ill, hospitals should give them priority in registration, treatment, reservation of beds and medicines. The circular reiterated: We must seriously implement the stipulations on rewards and punishments contained in the provincial planned parenthood regulations. Cadres, staff, or workers who apply to have only 1 child must be given lump sums in addition to enjoying the relevant rewards stipulated by the regulations. Cadres, staff, workers, inhabitants, and commune workers who depend on state grain who violate the regulations must be punished according to the regulation. As for those who have 3 or more than 3 children, a 2nd child without planning, or an illegitimate child, the child's grain ration will be sold at negotiated price up to the age of 14. The grain department will distribute to them a supply ticket for negotiated price grain to buy grain in assigned grain shops. full text

  3. THE MOTIVATION OF MAN TO WORK: IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS STUDY

    Felipe Carvalho F. Nars

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this research is to identify significant differences in the levels of ‘Satisfactionand Motivation’ among employees of the Best Companies to Work For in Brazil, elected by Guia VocêS/A-Exame, between 2007 and 2009. The specific objectives seek to: (1 verify if the result of the category‘Satisfaction and Motivation’ in 2009 differs significantly from 2007 and 2008, (2 assess the variations inthe indices that composes the result of this category in 2009 and relate them to the theory of motivation,and (3 identify elements in the speech of employees that demonstrate the actions taken by companiesbefore the global economic crisis in 2009 to keep them motivated and relate them to the theory of managementin the era of economic turbulence. The theoretical framework addresses three main issues: (1organizational climate - its relationship to the organizational system and motivation, the importance ofits measurement through organizational climate surveys structured by categories and actions of seniormanagement due to its results. (2 Motivation - a conceptual overview and the recent discussion aboutthe meaning assigned to work as a source of motivation. (3 The management in the era of economicturbulence - the role of leadership dealing with new challenges of management in the chaos, clarity andeffectiveness communication due to maintain team morale in times of crisis. In order to find the answersto the proposed problem, we performed a descriptive analysis with focus on quantitative and qualitativedata. The survey sample was comprised of 66 companies that figured in the Guides for 2007, 2008 and2009. The Statistical analysis was given by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS test, additionally theGeneral Linear Model (GLM and the selection method of Wilks Lambda. The quantitative results obtainedby applying hypothesis and comparison tests between means showed a drop in the levels of ‘Satisfactionand Motivation’ in 2009

  4. Planned Parenthood works with Korean government.

    Yang, J M

    1968-01-01

    In early 1961 special representatives of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) organized the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK). The leaders, mostly young university professors, physicians, and government officials well recognized in the fields of public health gynecology/obstetrics, pediatrics, nursing, sociology, social work, and economics, shared an interest in improving the national economy, the national welfare, countermeasures against the population crisis, and the urgent need for family planning services in Korea. The leadership of General Park Chung-hee led to adoption of a national policy in support of family planning at an early stage in November 1961. Since 1961, the government budget for family planning has doubled every year. The PPFK was asked to play a major role in planning, administration, training, information, and education of the national program until the government established the new section of Maternal and Child Health in the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs in 1963. The role of the PPFK has never diminished. The training of family planning personnel at various levels is still carried out entirely by the PPFK. The PPFK operates mobile vans to provide educational activities, IUD insertions, and male sterilization services to people in villages without doctors. The PPFK operates pilot projects to test new methods either in clinics or in the field. The PPFK exists to supplement and cooperate with the government in family planning. With its flexibility, the PPFK team of experts stands ready to provide quick and positive services without red tape.

  5. Parenthood and Life Satisfaction in Germany

    Matthias Pollmann-Schult

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the association between parenthood and life satisfaction. It focuses on the question to which extent parental life satisfaction is influenced by individual and familial context. The empirical study is based on the data from the first wave of the German Family Panel (pairfam. All in all, the analyses show that although parents are less satisfied with their leisure time, their social contacts and their relationship, they are nonetheless more satisfied with their life in general than their childless peers. Increased life satisfaction is observed in particular in the first years following the birth of a child. The satisfaction of parents is, however, dependent upon different contextual factors. Parents in the medium and higher income ranges report a comparatively high degree of life satisfaction, whereas only a weak association is observed between parenthood and life satisfaction among low-income persons. Moreover, the life satisfaction of mothers, but not of fathers, varies with their employment status. For instance, only non-employed and part-time employed mothers report a greater life satisfaction than childless women. Finally, fathers whose family formation was presumably unplanned record no higher level of satisfaction than men without children.

  6. Configurations of actual and perceived motor competence among children: Associations with motivation for sports and global self-worth.

    Bardid, Farid; De Meester, An; Tallir, Isabel; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu; Haerens, Leen

    2016-12-01

    The present study used a person-centred approach to examine whether different profiles based on actual and perceived motor competence exist in elementary school children. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to explore how children with different motor competence-based profiles might differ in their autonomous motivation for sports and global self-worth. Validated questionnaires were administered to 161 children (40% boys; age=8.82±0.66years) to assess their perceived motor competence, global self-worth, and motivation for sports. Actual motor competence was measured with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Cluster analyses identified four motor competence-based profiles: two groups were characterized by corresponding levels of actual and perceived motor competence (i.e., low-low and high-high) and two groups were characterized by divergent levels of actual and perceived motor competence (i.e., high-low and low-high). Children in the low-low and high-low group displayed significantly lower levels of autonomous motivation for sports and lower levels of global self-worth than children in the low-high and high-high group. These findings emphasize that fostering children's perceived motor competence might be crucial to improve their motivation for sports and their global self-worth. Teachers and instructors involved in physical education and youth sports should thus focus on both actual and perceived motor competence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts v. Bellotti.

    1989-02-07

    The Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts instituted a class action suit challenging the constitutionality of a statute requiring minors seeking an abortion to obtain parental consent or to persuade a judge of their maturity to give informed consent or that abortion would be in their best interest. In order to invoke judicial review, the plaintiffs moved their suit to federal court. The District Court dismissed the case on grounds that federal review power would interfere with state administration. On appeal, the First Circuit Court of Appeals decided that the plaintiffs could proceed with their action. The Circuit Court found that federal adjudication would not unduly interfere with state administration and remanded the case for further proceedings. Although it affirmed the statute's validity, the circuit court ruled that the plaintiffs must be allowed the opportunity to demonstrate the statute's unconstitutionality.

  8. Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey.

    1990-08-24

    Pennsylvania amended its abortion statute to include a mandatory 24-hour waiting period, parental consent, spousal notification, physician-only disclosure requirements, and various other reporting provisions. Planned Parenthood filed suit, alleging infringement of a woman's right to choose an abortion. The federal district court held the amendments to be unconstitutional. First, the 24-hour waiting period arbitrarily increased cost and risk of delay by requiring two trips to the abortion clinic, without furthering the state's interest in maternal health. Secondly, the amendment's requirement that only the physician, and not an agent, may disclose information relevant to informed consent unreasonably insisted that only a physician is competent to provide the information. The parental consent and spousal notification requirements imposed unconstitutional burdens on the woman's decision.

  9. Results of the 2005 Pregnancy and Parenthood Survey

    Uriell, Zannette A; Burress, Landrus

    2007-01-01

    Navy leadership has maintained an interest in factors that may impact readiness. Family-related issues such as parenthood and pregnancy may impact Navy readiness, so data about these issues are important...

  10. A comparative study of child marriage and parenthood in Ethiopia ...

    A comparative study of child marriage and parenthood in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Zambia ... By taking an approach that emphasizes life course poverty and gender ... Goal #5, Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.

  11. Act relating to surrogate parenthood contracts, 10 February 1988.

    1988-01-01

    This Nebraska Act provides that surrogate parenthood contracts are void and unenforceable and that the "biological father of a child born pursuant to such a contract shall have all the rights and obligations imposed by law with respect to the child." A surrogate parenthood contract is defined as "a contract by which a woman is to be compensated for bearing a child of a man who is not her husband." full text

  12. Global and local concerns: what attitudes and beliefs motivate farmers to mitigate and adapt to climate change?

    Haden, Van R; Niles, Meredith T; Lubell, Mark; Perlman, Joshua; Jackson, Louise E

    2012-01-01

    In response to agriculture's vulnerability and contribution to climate change, many governments are developing initiatives that promote the adoption of mitigation and adaptation practices among farmers. Since most climate policies affecting agriculture rely on voluntary efforts by individual farmers, success requires a sound understanding of the factors that motivate farmers to change practices. Recent evidence suggests that past experience with the effects of climate change and the psychological distance associated with people's concern for global and local impacts can influence environmental behavior. Here we surveyed farmers in a representative rural county in California's Central Valley to examine how their intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation practices is influenced by previous climate experiences and their global and local concerns about climate change. Perceived changes in water availability had significant effects on farmers' intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation strategies, which were mediated through global and local concerns respectively. This suggests that mitigation is largely motivated by psychologically distant concerns and beliefs about climate change, while adaptation is driven by psychologically proximate concerns for local impacts. This match between attitudes and behaviors according to the psychological distance at which they are cognitively construed indicates that policy and outreach initiatives may benefit by framing climate impacts and behavioral goals concordantly; either in a global context for mitigation or a local context for adaptation.

  13. Gay men seeking surrogacy to achieve parenthood.

    Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Attentional states influence early neural responses associated with motivational processes: local vs. global attentional scope and N1 amplitude to appetitive stimuli.

    Gable, Philip A; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2011-05-01

    Positive affects vary in the degree with which they are associated with approach motivation, the drive to approach an object or a goal. High approach-motivated positive affects cause a narrowing of attention, whereas low approach-motivated positive affects causes a broadening of attention. The current study was designed to extend this work by examining whether the relationship between motivation and attentional bias was bi-directional. Specifically, the experiment investigated whether a manipulated local attentional scope would cause greater approach motivational processing than a global attentional scope as measured by neural processes as early as 100 ms. As compared to a global attentional scope, a local attentional scope caused greater neural processing associated with approach motivation as measured by the N1 to appetitive pictures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. No Fun Anymore: Leisure and Marital Quality across the Transition to Parenthood

    Claxton, Amy; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    This study examines changes in leisure patterns across the transition to parenthood for dual-earner, working-class couples, as well as the relationship between leisure and marital quality. To this end, 147 heterosexual couples were interviewed across the transition to parenthood. Findings indicate that during the transition to parenthood, husbands…

  16. Parenthood and Well-Being : The Moderating Role of Leisure and Paid Work

    Roeters, Anne; Mandemakers, Jornt; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to our knowledge on the association between parenthood and psychological well-being by examining whether pre-parenthood lifestyles (leisure and paid work) moderate the transition to parenthood. We expected that people with less active lifestyles would find it easier to adapt

  17. Motivation and self-efficacy in the context of moderated drinking: global self-report and ecological momentary assessment.

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Armeli, Stephen; Muench, Frederick; Morgenstern, Jon

    2013-12-01

    Despite ample research demonstrating the role of motivation and self-efficacy in predicting drinking in the context of abstinence, little research explicitly explores their role in the context of moderation, and none have utilized daily diary methods. The purpose of this study was to (a) explore the concordance between global self-report and daily diary composite measures of motivation and self-efficacy and (b) compare the ability of each in predicting drinking outcomes in the context of a study of brief AUD treatments focused on controlled drinking. Problem drinkers (N = 89) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, and randomly assigned to one of three conditions: two brief AUD treatments or a third group asked to change on their own. Global self-report (GSR) measures were administered at baseline and Week 8 (end of treatment). Daily diary composites (DDC) were created from data collected via an Interactive Voice Recording system during the week prior to baseline and the week prior to Week 8. Findings revealed some concordance between GSR and DDC at both baseline and Week 8, indicating the two methods capture some of the same construct; however, their respective relationships to drinking differed. DDC for both baseline and Week 8 significantly predicted Week 8 drinking outcomes, whereas only change in GSR significantly predicted drinking outcomes. Findings suggest that motivation and self-efficacy are important to moderated drinking, and that both GSR and daily diary methods are useful in understanding mechanisms of change in the context of moderation. Daily diary methods may provide significant advantages. Limitations and arenas for future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Accounting for the money-made parenthood of transnational surrogacy.

    Stuvøy, Ingvill

    2018-06-21

    In the last decade, transnational surrogacy has attracted world-wide attention for making babies and pregnancies exchangeable with money. Involuntarily childless couples and individuals travel abroad and pay to have the desired child and to become parents. Acknowledging the importance of asking into the consequences of this monetization of reproduction, the author takes issue with universalistic assumptions about money and markets, and their presumed universal effects on social relations. Instead, it is argued that we need to explore how money works, and, by extension, how transnational surrogacy works out and becomes viable to people as a way to become parents. Putting together insights from economic sociology, and the assisted reproductive technology and parenting culture literature, the author employs the notion of accounting to grasp how people make sense of the money involved in making them parents. Based on a study involving 21 interviews with Norwegian gay and straight couples and single men and women seeking surrogacy abroad, the author explores how money is accounted for in three cases, set in three different countries; India, the United States and Canada. The analysis shows how money is accounted for in particular ways to confirm parenthood. These ways differ depending on the local context and transnational relations; ultimately making differentiated monetized parenthood. This is of significance when we try to conceptualize contemporary parenthood and how money seemingly sustains parenthood in ever more radical ways.

  19. Divorce, Single Parenthood and Stepfamilies: Structural Implications of These Transactions.

    Schulman, Gerda L.

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on change in the family structure during divorce as well as stages of single parenthood and the reconstituted family. Special characteristics of these families and tasks to be undertaken to enable the new unit to function are discussed. Suggests family therapy is helpful during the crisis stage. (Author)

  20. Risk and Teenage Parenthood: An Early Sexual Health Intervention

    Robinson, Sally; Robinson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of a resource designed to support practitioners, who are not sexual health specialists, but who work with young people who may be at risk of teenage pregnancy or parenthood. Its aim was to enable practitioners to carry out an assessment using a screening tool, and to use educational…

  1. Parents' experiences of their teenage children's parenthood: An interview study.

    Sriyasak, Atcharawadee; Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we described and analyzed parents' experiences of teenage parenthood and the provision of support to their teenage children who had recently have become parents. A qualitative method was used. In-depth interviews with 24 participants were conducted, all parents of teenage parents. Data were analyzed using content analysis; four themes and 11 subthemes were identified. The results show that parents' norms and values were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. The participants had mixed emotions and reactions to their teenage children's parenthood. Also participants were sources of support to the teenage parents and assisted them in their transition to parenthood. However, the participants also expressed the importance that their teenage children continue their education and avoid repeated pregnancies. This study highlights how emotional, instrumental, and informational support provided by parents to their teenagers can assist the latter in their transition to parenthood. In their work with teenage parents, healthcare providers can benefit from teenage parent's own parents involvement and experiences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Television for Effective Parenthood; Literature Search and Existing Materials Assessment.

    Appalachia Educational Lab., Charleston, WV.

    Materials concerning parenthood education were assessed and classified as published research, audiovisual materials, and pamphlets and booklets. Eighty-nine items of related research were reviewed and listed in a bibliography. Content and technical quality of audiovisual materials from a national search were reviewed and evaluated based on…

  3. New Parents' Facebook Use at the Transition to Parenthood

    Bartholomew, Mitchell K.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Glassman, Michael; Dush, Claire M. Kamp; Sullivan, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    New parents' Facebook use was examined from a social capital perspective. Surveys regarding Facebook use and parenting satisfaction, parenting self-efficacy, and parenting stress were completed by 154 mothers and 150 fathers as part of a larger study of dual-earner, Midwestern U.S. couples making the transition to parenthood. Results indicated…

  4. Conflict Frequency and Relationship Quality across the Transition to Parenthood

    Kluwer, Esther S.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 293 Dutch couples were used to examine the association between conflict frequency and relationship quality across the transition to parenthood, which is known as one of the most challenging events in the early stages of marriage. More frequent conflict during pregnancy was related to lower levels of relationship quality…

  5. The Relationship between Early Maltreatment and Teenage Parenthood.

    Herrenkohl, Ellen C.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Egolf, Brenda P.; Russo, M. Jean

    1998-01-01

    In a longitudinal study of the effects of early childhood maltreatment, 92 adolescent parents were studied. Variables of preschool and school-age physical abuse, neglect, low self-esteem, sexual abuse, high school dropout, assaultive behavior, and drug use were examined in relationship to teenage parenthood. Implications of findings are discussed.…

  6. Shift Work, Role Overload, and the Transition to Parenthood

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Pierce, Courtney P.; Sayer, Aline G.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how the work hours, work schedules, and role overload of working-class couples are related to depressive symptoms and relationship conflict across the transition to parenthood. Data are from 132 dual-earner couples interviewed 5 times across the transition. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that working evening or night…

  7. [Homosexual parenthood and child development: present data].

    Fond, G; Franc, N; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of existing studies on gay and lesbian parenthood and child development. Although 200,000 to 300,000 children could be concerned in 2010 in France, there is a lack of research on this issue in our country. Research among children raised by homosexual parents involves methodological issues, such as defining homosexual families, sampling cases and controls, and choosing structured or semi-structured evaluations. The fact that homosexual marriage, adoption and insemination are not presently legal in France could explain that only one study has been conducted in France in 2000 among 58 children raided by homosexual parents. This study concluded that these children did not show an increased rate of behavior or anxiety disorders. Concerns about lesbian parenting have focused on the absence of a father, the homosexual orientation of the mother, and their negative consequences on the development of the children. Research on parenting and child rearing has repeatedly compared lesbian and heterosexual families, and in the last 30 years a growing body of studies on lesbian parents and the development of their children has been published. Studies about child development, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender role behavior, emotional/behavioral development, social relationships and cognitive functioning showed no difference between children of lesbian mothers and those of heterosexual parents. Likewise, parental functioning, the mothers' psychological health and maternal skills were not significantly different among lesbian mothers than among heterosexual mothers. In studies concerning gay fathers, findings generally indicate no differences in sexual orientation, socialization, or psychological outcomes in children of gay fathers compared to children of heterosexual fathers. However, the first study on the adult attachment style dimensions of adult women who had gay or bisexual fathers suggested that they were

  8. In the process of drinking to cope among college students: An examination of specific vs. global coping motives for depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R

    2017-10-01

    The present study sought to address an issue in the drinking to cope (DTC) motives literature, namely the inconsistent application of treating DTC motives as a single construct and splitting it into DTC-depression and DTC-anxiety motives. Specifically, we aimed to determine if the effects of anxiety and depression on alcohol-related problems are best explained via their associations with DTC with specific affects or via their associations with a more global measure of DTC by testing four distinct models: the effects of anxiety/depression on alcohol-related problems mediated by DTC-anxiety only (Model 1), these effects mediated by DTC-depression only (Model 2), these effects mediated by a combined, global DTC factor (Model 3), and these effects mediated by both DTC-anxiety and DTC-depression (Model 4). Using path analysis/structural equation modeling across two independent samples, we found that there was a significant total indirect effect of both anxiety and depressive symptoms on alcohol-related problems in every model. However, there was a slightly larger indirect effect in all models using the global DTC motives factor compared to even the model that included the two distinct DTC motives. Our results provide some preliminary evidence that at least at the between-subjects level, a global DTC motives factor may have more predictive validity than separate DTC motives. Additional research is needed to examine how to best operationalize DTC motives at different levels of analysis (e.g., within-subjects vs. between subjects) and in different populations (e.g., college students vs. individuals with alcohol use disorder). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Demographic and medical consequences of the postponement of parenthood

    Schmidt, Lone; Sobotka, Tomas; Bentzen, Janne Gasseholm

    2012-01-01

    pronounced effects >35 years, whereas the increasing risk of preterm births and stillbirths starts at around 35 years with a more pronounced effect >40 years. Advanced male age has an important but less pronounced effect on infertility and adverse outcomes. MAR treatment cannot overcome the age...... databases were searched for publications on relevant subjects such as delayed parenthood, female and male age, fertility, infertility, time to pregnancy (TTP), fetal death, outcome of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) and mental well-being. RESULTS Postponement of parenthood is linked to a higher rate...... of involuntary childlessness and smaller families than desired due to increased infertility and fetal death with higher female and male age. For women, the increased risk of prolonged TTP, infertility, spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies and trisomy 21 starts at around 30 years of age with a more...

  10. Parenthood decisions and the transformation of the family structure

    Gobbi, Paula Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    The study of demographic subjects among economists has flourished after the work of the Nobel Prize winner Gary Becker. This thesis contributes to this literature by looking at aspects of parenthood decisions that have already been studied by demographers and sociologists but much less by economists. The first two chapters study childlessness and its determinants. The last chapter studies how childcare is related to the education of parents. The first chapter is the first study in the ec...

  11. MARITAL RELATIONSHIP AND EXPECTATIONS ABOUT PARENTHOOD IN GAY COUPLES

    Meletti, Alexandre Trevisani; Scorsolini-Comin, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the processes of construction of the marital relationship and expectations about parenthood in same-sex couples. It has been interviewed four gay couples (four men and four women) who have been living together for four years, on average. Semi-structured interviews have been used and the technique of the life history has been also performed in an individual appliance. They have also been audio taped, fully and literally transcribed. The content analysis ...

  12. Lesbians' experiences and attitudes towards parenthood in Greece.

    Voultsos, Polychronis; Zymvragou, Christina-Erato; Raikos, Nikolaos; Spiliopoulou, Chaido Chara

    2018-03-28

    Same-sex parenthood is controversial subject. In this paper, we provide insights into the attitudes and experiences of self-reported lesbians regarding parenthood or the prospect of becoming a parent in the current Greek social and cultural context. In Greece, lesbians are not allowed access to in vitro fertilisation (IVF), while a solitary ('single') woman is allowed access for medical reasons. Fifty-nine (59) semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with women. What emerged from our data was a clear trend for participants to wish to have their own biological children based mostly on the belief that pregnancy would lead to a sense of self-completeness and/or fulfilment. Women also reported the negative impact of prejudice and social oppression on their reproductive autonomy. Interviewees reported that their reproductive choices were negatively influenced by their family and the wider socio-cultural environment. Even within a semi-permissive legal framework, impaired social acceptance of lesbian parenthood prohibits lesbians from becoming mothers. A major reason responsible for the positive attitude of most participants to shared biological motherhood was an altruistic attitude towards their partners.

  13. Avoiding a crisis of motivation for ocean management under global environmental change.

    Mumby, Peter J; Sanchirico, James N; Broad, Kenneth; Beck, Michael W; Tyedmers, Peter; Morikawa, Megan; Okey, Thomas A; Crowder, Larry B; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Kelso, Denny; Kleypas, Joanie A; Munch, Stephan B; Glynn, Polita; Matthews, Kathryn; Lubchenco, Jane

    2017-11-01

    Climate change and ocean acidification are altering marine ecosystems and, from a human perspective, creating both winners and losers. Human responses to these changes are complex, but may result in reduced government investments in regulation, resource management, monitoring and enforcement. Moreover, a lack of peoples' experience of climate change may drive some towards attributing the symptoms of climate change to more familiar causes such as management failure. Taken together, we anticipate that management could become weaker and less effective as climate change continues. Using diverse case studies, including the decline of coral reefs, coastal defences from flooding, shifting fish stocks and the emergence of new shipping opportunities in the Arctic, we argue that human interests are better served by increased investments in resource management. But greater government investment in management does not simply mean more of "business-as-usual." Management needs to become more flexible, better at anticipating and responding to surprise, and able to facilitate change where it is desirable. A range of technological, economic, communication and governance solutions exists to help transform management. While not all have been tested, judicious application of the most appropriate solutions should help humanity adapt to novel circumstances and seek opportunity where possible. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Global Crisis as Enterprise Software Motivator: from Lifecycle Optimization to Efficient Implementation Series

    Sergey V. Zykov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is generally known that software system development lifecycle (SSDL should be managed adequately. The global economy crisis and subsequent depression have taught us certain lessons on the subject, which is so vital for enterprises. The paper presents the adaptive methodology of enterprise SSDL, which allows to avoid "local crises" while producing large-scale software. The methodology is based on extracting common ERP module level patterns and applying them to series of heterogeneous implementations. The approach includes a lifecycle model, which extends conventional spiral model by formal data representation/management models and DSL-based "low-level" CASE tools supporting the formalisms. The methodology has been successfully implemented as a series of portal-based ERP systems in ITERA oil-and-gas corporation, and in a number of trading/banking enterprise applications for other enterprises. Semantic network-based airline dispatch system, and a 6D-model-driven nuclear power plant construction support system are currently in progress. Combining various SSDL models is discussed. Terms-and-cost reduction factors are examined. Correcting SSDL according to project size and scope is overviewed. The so-called “human factor errors” resulting from non-systematic SSDL approach, and their influencing crisis and depression, are analyzed. The ways to systematic and efficient SSDL are outlined. Troubleshooting advises are given for the problems concerned.

  15. On Motivation and Motivation

    Mircea UDRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Economic motivations were a big influence on consumer behavior motivation. In this context, it is considered that the general motives which give motivation to purchase content can be structured into rational and emotional motives, the motives innate and acquired motives, all gaining an individual or group event. The study of consumer behavior, with general motivations, attention increasingly larger granted special incentives, consisting of assertiveness feeling (emerging desire for a product)...

  16. Giving offspring a healthy start: parents' experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood

    Edvardsson Kristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are good opportunities in Sweden for health promotion targeting expectant parents and parents of young children, as almost all are reached by antenatal and child health care. In 2005, a multisectoral child health promotion programme (the Salut Programme was launched to further strengthen such efforts. Methods Between June and December 2010 twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted separately with first-time mothers and fathers when their child had reached 18 months of age. The aim was to explore their experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. Qualitative manifest and latent content analysis was applied. Results Parents reported undertaking lifestyle changes to secure the health of the fetus during pregnancy, and in early parenthood to create a health-promoting environment for the child. Both women and men portrayed themselves as highly receptive to health messages regarding the effect of their lifestyle on fetal health, and they frequently mentioned risks related to tobacco and alcohol, as well as toxins and infectious agents in specific foods. However, health promotion strategies in pregnancy and early parenthood did not seem to influence parents to make lifestyle change primarily to promote their own health; a healthy lifestyle was simply perceived as 'common knowledge'. Although trust in health care was generally high, both women and men described some resistance to what they saw as preaching, or very directive counselling about healthy living and the lack of a holistic approach from health care providers. They also reported insufficient engagement with fathers in antenatal care and child health care. Conclusion Perceptions about risks to the offspring's health appear to be the primary driving force for lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. However, as parents' motivation to prioritise their own health per se seems to be low during this period

  17. The Influence of Parenthood on the Work Effort of Married Men and Women.

    Kaufman, Gayle; Uhlenberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Data from the 1992-93 National Survey of Families and Households were used to examine the effect of parenthood on married men's and women's employment and work hours. Parenthood decreased women's work effort as expected. Findings for men support two competing models--"good provider" and "involved father"--reflecting traditional…

  18. Parenthood in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: An EORTC-GELA general population case-control study

    M.A.E. van der Kaaij (Marleen A.); N. Heutte (Natacha); P. Meijnders (Paul); E. Abeilard-Lemoisson (Edwige); M. Spina (Michele); L.C. Moser (Lotte); A. Allgeier (Anouk); B. Meulemans (Bart); B. Dubois (Brice); A.H.M. Simons; P.J. Lugtenburg (Pieternella); B.M.P. Aleman (Berthe); E.M. Noordijk (Evert); C. Fermé (Christophe); J. Thomas (Jose); A. Stamatoullas (Aspasia); C. Fruchart (Christophe); P. Brice (Pauline); I. Gaillard (Isabelle); J.K. Doorduijn (Jeanette); C. Sebban (Catherine); W.G. Smit (Wilma); S. Bologna (Serge); J.M. Roesink (Judith); F. Ong (Francisca); J.-L. André (Jean-Luc); J. Raemaekers (John); M. Henry-Amar (Michel); J.C. Kluin-Nelemans (Hanneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We investigated the impact of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) on parenthood, including factors influencing parenthood probability, by comparing long-term HL survivors with matched general population controls. Patients and Methods: A Life Situation Questionnaire was sent to 3,604 survivors

  19. Parenthood in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: an EORTC-GELA general population case-control study.

    Kaaij, M.A. van der; Heutte, N.; Meijnders, P.; Abeilard-Lemoisson, E.; Spina, M.; Moser, L.C.; Allgeier, A.; Meulemans, B.; Dubois, B.; Simons, A.H.; Lugtenburg, P.J.; Aleman, B.M.; Noordijk, E.M.; Ferme, C.; Thomas, J.; Stamatoullas, A.; Fruchart, C.; Brice, P.; Gaillard, I.; Doorduijn, J.K.; Sebban, C.; Smit, W.G.; Bologna, S.; Roesink, J.M.; Ong, F.; Andre, M.P.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.; Henry-Amar, M.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the impact of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) on parenthood, including factors influencing parenthood probability, by comparing long-term HL survivors with matched general population controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A Life Situation Questionnaire was sent to 3,604 survivors treated

  20. Does Parenthood Strengthen a Traditional Household Division of Labor? Evidence from Sweden

    Dribe, Martin; Stanfors, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Parenthood is often considered a major factor behind gender differences in time allocation, especially between paid work and housework. This article investigates the impact of parenthood on men's and women's daily time use in Sweden and how it changed over the 1990s. The analysis is made using time diary data from the Multinational Time Use Survey…

  1. Parenthood and Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Leisure and Paid Work.

    Roeters, Anne; Mandemakers, Jornt J; Voorpostel, Marieke

    This study contributes to our knowledge on the association between parenthood and psychological well-being by examining whether pre-parenthood lifestyles (leisure and paid work) moderate the transition to parenthood. We expected that people with less active lifestyles would find it easier to adapt to the demands of parenthood. Using eleven waves of the Swiss Household Panel ( N  = 1332 men and 1272 women; 1999-2008, 2010), fixed effects models are estimated for men and women separately. Results show that-on average-parenthood was not associated with well-being for men, whereas it increased well-being for women. As expected, the well-being premium/cost to parenthood was contingent upon individuals' lifestyle before the transition to parenthood. For men, parenthood reduced well-being, but only if they frequently participated in leisure before the birth of the child. For women, motherhood had a beneficial effect on well-being but this effect was weaker for women who combined leisure with working long hours before motherhood.

  2. "Unthinkable" parenthoods: homosexual, transvestite, and transsexual mothers and fathers

    Elizabeth Zambrano

    Full Text Available The growing number of families formed by homosexual, transvestite, and transsexual fathers/mothers has not only become a social, but also socio-anthropological fact, requiring traditional convictions to be rethought. This paper aims at demonstrating how a traditional model of family - that is, a "normal" family - has been able to influence the construction of parenthoods considered, until recently, unthinkable, whether social or legally. I therefore believe that it is time to face new demands and deconstruct former certainties of Anthropology, Psychology and Psychoanalysis, and Law, so that these new families may find their place in society.

  3. [Secondary benefits of cognitive rehabilitation for a chronic ethylic patient: effects on disorder consciousness, motivation, and global therapeutic cooperation].

    Siccardi, L; Vautel-Pons, D; dos Santos, M Teixera; Camus, N; Louchart de la Chapelle, S

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism causes psychological, behavioral and cognitive symptoms that need to be addressed together. The neuropsychological alterations among alcohol-dependent people are considered to make the therapeutic work complex and longer. A cognitive rehabilitation program is sometimes difficult to achieve with these patients. Functional results are often difficult to anticipate. However, the consequences of this therapeutic approach are multiple and there are many interactions between psycho-affective, behavioral and cognitive components. A neuropsychological approach can be used like a tool to improve metacognition. A bad contribution to treatment programs is often secondary to the illusion of a satisfying intellectual functioning. Patients' motivation for the therapeutic work is very changeable. A complete consciousness of impairments can help them to stay involved. The following case shows the cognitive effects and secondary benefits associated with a neuropsychological work, which was carried out by a chronic ethylic patient with severe physical and cognitive symptoms. The patient aged 50, with a good qualification level (scientific section in the final year of secondary school, with no diploma, then attended a training program to become a croupier) was suffering from chronic alcoholism since his adolescence. He arrived in the closed unit after many hospitalizations in psychiatric and hepato-gastroenterology units. He had been showing mental confusion. He presented a frontal and subcortical profile of alcohol-related dementia according to Oslin's criteria. MRI revealed global cerebral atrophy, more pronounced on the fronto-parietal cortex with cerebellar leukoencephalopathy, but no pontine central myelinolysis. The neurocognitive program had two main lines: reducing attentional, executive and graphical deficits with training exercises (individual and group sessions) and compensating memory, and executive disorders with an external aid. The cognitive program had been

  4. Less approach, more avoidance: Response inhibition has motivational consequences for sexual stimuli that reflect changes in affective value not a lingering global brake on behavior.

    Driscoll, Rachel L; de Launay, Keelia Quinn; Fenske, Mark J

    2018-02-01

    Response inhibition negatively impacts subsequent hedonic evaluations of motivationally relevant stimuli and reduces the behavioral incentive to seek and obtain such items. Here we expand the investigation of the motivational consequences of inhibition by presenting sexually appealing and nonappealing images in a go/no-go task and a subsequent image-viewing task. Each initially obscured image in the viewing task could either be made more visible or less visible by repeatedly pressing different keys. Fewer key presses were made to obtain better views of preferred-sex images when such images had previously been inhibited as no-go items than when previously encountered as noninhibited go items. This finding replicates prior results and is consistent with the possibility that motor-response suppression has lingering effects that include global reductions in all behavioral expression. However, for nonpreferred images, prior inhibition resulted in more key presses to obscure their visibility than when such images had not been inhibited. This novel finding suggests that the motivational consequences of response inhibition are not due to a global brake on action but are instead linked to negative changes in stimulus value that induce corresponding increases in avoidance and decreases in approach.

  5. New Parents' Facebook Use at the Transition to Parenthood.

    Bartholomew, Mitchell K; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Glassman, Michael; Kamp Dush, Claire M; Sullivan, Jason M

    2012-07-01

    New parents' Facebook use was examined from a social capital perspective. Surveys regarding Facebook use and parenting satisfaction, parenting self-efficacy, and parenting stress were completed by 154 mothers and 150 fathers as part of a larger study of dual-earner, Mid-western U.S. couples making the transition to parenthood. Results indicated that mothers used Facebook more than fathers, and that mothers perceived an increase in use over the transition. When more of mothers' Facebook friends were family members or relatives, and when fathers reported connecting with more of their Facebook friends outside of Facebook, they reported better parental adjustment. For mothers, however, more frequent visits to Facebook accounts and more frequent content management were each associated with higher levels of parenting stress.

  6. New Parents’ Facebook Use at the Transition to Parenthood

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Glassman, Michael; Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Sullivan, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    New parents’ Facebook use was examined from a social capital perspective. Surveys regarding Facebook use and parenting satisfaction, parenting self-efficacy, and parenting stress were completed by 154 mothers and 150 fathers as part of a larger study of dual-earner, Mid-western U.S. couples making the transition to parenthood. Results indicated that mothers used Facebook more than fathers, and that mothers perceived an increase in use over the transition. When more of mothers’ Facebook friends were family members or relatives, and when fathers reported connecting with more of their Facebook friends outside of Facebook, they reported better parental adjustment. For mothers, however, more frequent visits to Facebook accounts and more frequent content management were each associated with higher levels of parenting stress. PMID:23671354

  7. Social policies related to parenthood and capabilities of Slovenian parents.

    Mrčela, Aleksandra Kanjuo; Sadar, Nevenka Černigoj

    2011-01-01

    We apply Sen's capability approach to evaluate the capabilities of Slovenian parents to reconcile paid work and family in the context of the transition to a market economy. We examine how different levels of capabilities together affect the work–life balance (WLB) of employed parents. We combine both quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches. The results of our quantitative and qualitative research show that increased precariousness of employment and intensification of work create gaps between the legal and normative possibilities for successful reconciliation strategies and actual use of such arrangements in Slovenia. The existing social policies and the acceptance of gender equality in the sphere of paid work enhance capabilities for reconciliation of paid work and parenthood, whereas the intensification of working lives, the dominance of paid work over other parts of life, and the acceptance of gender inequalities in parental and household responsibilities limit parents’ capabilities to achieve WLB.

  8. Predicting adaptation to parenthood: The role of responsiveness, gratitude, and trust

    Kuile, H. ter; Kluwer, E.S.; Finkenauer, C.; Lippe, A.G. van der

    2017-01-01

    The influence of positive relationship processes, specifically perceived responsiveness, felt gratitude, and felt trust, on perceived adaptation to parenthood was investigated. It was hypothesized that both higher initial levels prior to pregnancy as well as increases over time in perceived

  9. Stigma, Social Context, and Mental Health: Lesbian and Gay Couples Across the Transition to Adoptive Parenthood

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplac...

  10. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  11. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  12. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  13. Redefining parenthood: surviving the death of a child.

    Nuss, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    Although dying children are often aware of their impending death, parents are reluctant to communicate with their dying child about death. The objective of this study was to examine how parents of children in the advanced stage of a life-threatening disease trajectory communicated about death. Using grounded theory methods, data were collected via interviews with 18 parents of children who had died of an advanced life-threatening disease. Ways in which parents communicated with their dying child were impacted by the degree of threat to the parental role. From the onset of their child's life-threatening illness, the sense of parental self was threatened, resulting in "Parental Vulnerability." To endure parental vulnerability, parents confronted a process of "Redefining Parenthood." Before the child's death, parents experienced (1) Protecting From Fears, (2) Protecting Normalcy, (3) Protecting Faith, (4) Experiencing Protection From Their Child, and (5) Bookmarking Memories. After the child's death, parents experienced (1) Telling the Story, (2) Making Meaning, (3) Protecting the Child's Memory, (4) Defining a New Normal, and (5) Learning to Live With Regret. Results provide new information about the experiences of parents of dying children as they communicated with their child during the dying process and as they found ways to go on with life after their child's death. Findings can be used by healthcare professionals to help support families of dying children. The field of pediatric oncology nursing would benefit from exploration of the dying child's perspective.

  14. Adolescents' sensitivity to children's supernatural thinking: A preparation for parenthood?

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Bjorklund, David F

    2018-05-01

    Young children often use magical explanations to account for ordinary phenomena (e.g., "The sun's not out today because it is mad"). We labeled these explanations supernatural thinking. Previous research reports that supernatural thinking attributed to preschool-age children evokes both positive affect and perceptions of helplessness from both adults and older (14-17 years old) but not younger (10-13 years old) adolescents. In this study, we asked if cues of cognitive immaturity are more influential in affecting adolescents' judgments of children than physical cues (faces). 245 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 rated pairs of children who physically and/or cognitively resembled either a 4- to 7-year-old or an 8- to 10-year-old child in three between-subject conditions (Consistent, Inconsistent, Faces-Only) for 14 traits classified into four trait dimensions (Positive Affect, Negative Affect, Intelligence, Helplessness). For both younger and older adolescents, cognitive cues had a greater influence on judgments than facial cues. However, only the older adolescents demonstrated a positive bias for children expressing immature supernatural thinking. Adopting an evolutionary developmental perspective, we interpreted this outcome in late (but not early) adolescence as preparation for potential parenthood.

  15. Original article The other side of the mirror – the role of partner’s empathy in transition to parenthood

    Maria Kaźmierczak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The general objective of the project was to verify the role the partner’s empathy plays in the perceived adjustment to parenthood. Couple empathy and especially partner’s perspective-taking have been linked to better adaptation to parenthood, through increasing the quality of communication between parents or through reducing problems experienced during transition to parenthood. Empathy has been promoted among couples preparing for parenthood, for example during antenatal classes. Participants and procedure Two studies were conducted. The first study included 121 young mothers of children in their first year of life. They completed measures of adjustment to parenthood, postpartum depression, satisfaction with romantic relationship, and partner’s perceived empathy. In addition, women assessed factors associated with labour and midwife care. The second study involved 112 couples during transition to parenthood. Those couples were randomly assigned to experimental conditions using instructions in which they were asked to imagine a one’s own or b the partner’s situation after the child’s birth, and completed the questionnaire measuring expected adjustment to parenthood. Results Male perceived empathy, relational satisfaction and postpartum depression were predictors of adjustment to motherhood in Study 1. In addition, the more empathy females perceived in their partners, the lower was the level of postpartum depression they declared. Couples empathizing with the partner in Study 2 perceived the challenges of parenthood in a similar way. Future mothers perceived more parenthood problems only when assuming their own perspective. Conclusions The results of the studies indicate that empathy plays an important role in shaping adjustment to parenthood, especially motherhood. Low-dosage interventions might help couples to become aware of their mutual problems concerning transition to parenthood, when conducting longer programmes is

  16. Parenthood characteristics in Serbia at the end of the 20th century, relevant for reproductive behavior

    Kuburović Ankica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of insufficient childbearing is a demographic and social problem of contemporary society. In order to resolve the determination of low fertility in Serbia at the end of the 20th century, empirical research of the effects of reproductive behavior had been intensified. The purpose of this paper is to point out to the characteristics of parenthood relevant for bringing the decision on giving birth to children on the basis of this empirical material. A comparative approach, based on illuminating the compatibility of practice and models of responsible parenthood, enables the recognition of limiting factors of childbearing not only of those who are already parents but of young people who still do not have this experience. The complexity and responsibility of the parent role are stressed as part of the experience as well as the basic characteristic of the parenthood model. An adequate and efficient rehabilitation of the role of parenthood, as a necessity of the pro-natal policy must take into consideration the gender asymmetry of parenthood into consideration as well.

  17. The Role of Spirituality in Transition to Parenthood: Qualitative Research Using Transformative Learning Theory.

    Klobučar, Nataša Rijavec

    2016-08-01

    This article presents results of a qualitative study of 12 adult couples making transition to parenthood. The aim of the study was to research the meaning of transition to parenthood through the lens of transformative learning theory. Transformative learning theory explains learning through meaning-making of that life experience. In this paper, the spiritual dimension of learning is emphasized. An important part of research methodology included biographical method, using semi-structured interviews before and after the birth of the first child. The research showed that transformative learning occurs in different spheres of life during transition to parenthood. This paper discusses the spiritual dimension of learning, meaning-making and presents results of the research.

  18. Parenthood and Happiness: Effects of Work-Family Reconciliation Policies in 22 OECD Countries.

    Glass, Jennifer; Simon, Robin W; Andersson, Matthew A

    2016-11-01

    The recent proliferation of studies examining cross-national variation in the association between parenthood and happiness reveal accumulating evidence of lower levels of happiness among parents than nonparents in most advanced industrialized societies. Conceptualizing parenting as a stressor buffered by institutional support, we hypothesize that parental status differences in happiness are smaller in countries providing more resources and support to families. Our analyses of the European Social Surveys (ESS) and International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) reveal considerable variation in the parenthood gap in happiness across countries, with the U.S. showing the largest disadvantage of parenthood. We also find that more generous family policies, particularly paid time off and childcare subsidies, are associated with smaller disparities in happiness between parents and non-parents. Moreover, the policies that augment parental happiness do not reduce the happiness of nonparents. Our results shed light on macro-level causes of emotional processes, with important implications for public policy.

  19. The Homosexual Parenthood: An Exposition of the Psychoanalytical Debate in the Contemporary French Scenario

    Simone Perelson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available After situating homoparenthood within the context of the new social and medical practices concerning parenthood and reproduction, the article presents a scenario of the contemporary French debate on this issue. The thinking of five psychoanalysts on this matter will be broached : Joël Dor and his theory about the role of the function of the father and about the anatomic difference between sexes in the structure process of the subject; Pierre Legendre and his articulation between the fields of law and the psych in the involvement of the human being in the order of parenthood; Michel Tort and his criticism of the theories of that author; and Genevieve Delaisi de Parseval and her proposal of a broader definition of the family. And, finally, Sabine Prokhoris, and her distinction between “sexuation” and “difference of the sexes”. This presentation intends to dismantle the opposite arguments and demonstrates the legitimacy of the reasoning favorable to homosexual parenthood.

  20. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  1. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  2. Fathers' Involvement in Child Care and Perceptions of Parenting Skill over the Transition to Parenthood

    Barry, Amy A.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Deutsch, Francine M.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study explored first-time fathers' perceived child care skill over the transition to parenthood, based on face-to-face interviews of 152 working-class, dual-earner couples. Analyses examined the associations among fathers' perceived skill and prenatal perception of skill, child care involvement, mothers' breastfeeding, maternal gatekeeping,…

  3. Parent-Infant Psychotherapy, the Transition to Parenthood and Parental Narcissism: Implications for Treatment

    Espasa, Francisco Palacio

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author discusses some of the indications for short- or long-term parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions in terms of what he defines as "problems of parenthood" and "problems of parental narcissism". Brief parent-infant psychotherapeutic interventions are most frequently indicated in the case of the former: more neurotic…

  4. Parental Leave and Work Adaptation at the Transition to Parenthood: Individual, Marital, and Social Correlates

    Feldman, Ruth; Sussman, Amy L.; Zigler, Edward

    2004-01-01

    This study examined individual, marital, and social--contextual factors associated with the length of maternity and paternity leave and the parents' work adaptation at the transition to parenthood. Ninety-eight dual-earner parents of 3- to 5-month-old infants were surveyed following the mother's return to work. A shorter maternity leave (less than…

  5. Parenthood, Gender and Work-Family Time in the United States, Australia, Italy, France, and Denmark

    Craig, Lyn; Mullan, Killian

    2010-01-01

    Research has associated parenthood with greater daily time commitments for fathers and mothers than for childless men and women, and with deeper gendered division of labor in households. How do these outcomes vary across countries with different average employment hours, family and social policies, and cultural attitudes to family care provision?…

  6. The division of labor across the transition to parenthood : A justice perspective

    Kluwer, E.S; Heesink, J.A.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2002-01-01

    In a three-wave longitudinal survey among 293 couples, we studied the determinants of husbands' and wives' fairness judgments regarding the division of labor across the transition to parenthood. We tested predictions derived from the distributive justice framework that perceptions of fairness

  7. Gender-Role Attitudes and Behavior across the Transition to Parenthood

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Priess, Heather A.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of social structural theory and identity theory, the current study examined changes in gender-role attitudes and behavior across the first-time transition to parenthood and following the birth of a second child for experienced mothers and fathers. Data were analyzed from the ongoing longitudinal Wisconsin Study of Families and Work.…

  8. Structural and Supportive Changes in Couples' Family and Friendship Networks across the Transition to Parenthood.

    Bost, Kelly K.; Cox, Martha J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Payne, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Examines patterns of change in family and friend network with parenthood in 137 couples surveyed before the birth of their first child. Husbands and wives who reported larger network sizes and support prior to their first child's birth were more likely to report larger networks after birth. Changes in parents' social systems were related to…

  9. Stigma, Social Context, and Mental Health: Lesbian and Gay Couples across the Transition to Adoptive Parenthood

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental…

  10. Transition to Parenthood and Conjugal Life: Comparisons between Planned and Unplanned Pregnancies

    Bouchard, Genevieve; Boudreau, Jolene; Hebert, Renee

    2006-01-01

    One of the variables that could explain the considerable variety of ways that adult couples handle the transition to parenthood is whether the pregnancy was planned or not. However, very little is known about the impact of pregnancy intendedness on the conjugal life of couples during this transition. The aim of this study was to address this gap…

  11. Assessment in Action : Assessing and Displaying Suitability for Adoptive Parenthood through Text and Talk

    Noordegraaf, M.

    2008-01-01

    'Assessment in action' is an ethnographical conversation analysis of how suitability for adoptive parenthood is assessed in institutional interaction. It is about talking with clients and transforming this talk into documents. Conversations and texts are submitted to a sentence by sentence analysis

  12. Good parenthood and the constitution of we-ness in everyday life

    Westerling, Allan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the practice and meaning of good parenthood in contemporary family life. It focusing on the so-°©‐called reconstituted families, parenting post divorce. The paper explores practices and narratives of sharing parental responsibility in everyday life among parents who do not live...

  13. Balancing Parenthood and Academia: Work/Family Stress as Influenced by Gender and Tenure Status

    O'Laughlin, Elizabeth M.; Bischoff, Lisa G.

    2005-01-01

    The present research investigated the influence of gender and tenure status in academicians' experiences of balancing parenthood and an academic career. Men (n = 85) and women (n = 179) employed full-time in tenure-track academic positions with at least one child younger than the age of 16 responded via the Internet to a 36-item questionnaire…

  14. Parenthood and separation in couples 6 years after their first infertility consultation.

    Ferreira, Magali; Sanchez, Emeline Teillet; Gatimel, Nicolas; Fajau, Carole; Lesourd, Florence; Bujan, Louis; Mieusset, Roger; Parinaud, Jean; Leandri, Roger

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the percentage of couples achieving parenthood and the rate of separation 6 years after their first consultation for infertility. Epidemiological study in the reproductive medicine department of a French university hospital. All first consulting couples (FCC) who had their first infertility consultation in the department in 2007 were contacted by phone and asked to respond to a questionnaire concerning their infertility treatments, parenthood and marital status 6 years after their first consultation. Of the 685 FCC, 94 could not be contacted, 34 refused to respond and 557 (86%) answered the questionnaire. Of 557 FCC who have responded, 361 (65%) have achieved parenthood: 166 (46%) after treatment, 98 (27%) after spontaneous conception, 38 (11%) after both spontaneous and treatment-induced conception and 59 (16%) through adoption. Parenthood was not influenced either by the causes or duration of infertility. Separation occurred in 53 (9.5%) of FCC, mainly in those without any children (28% vs 4% in FCC with at least one child; P<.0001). Six years after their primary consultation, 25% of couples remained childless and 28% of them were separated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intentions and attitudes towards parenthood and fertility awareness among Chinese university students in Hong Kong: a comparison with Western samples.

    Chan, C H Y; Chan, T H Y; Peterson, B D; Lampic, C; Tam, M Y J

    2015-02-01

    What are the levels of awareness regarding female fertility and the intentions and attitudes towards parenthood among Chinese university students in Hong Kong compared with their counterparts in the West? Chinese university students in Hong Kong were similarly over-optimistic about the age-related fertility decline, although they were less inclined to have children and undergo fertility treatment compared with their Western counterparts. Past studies of highly educated young adults in Europe and the USA have found that they are not sufficiently aware of the age-related decline in female fertility, and falsely believe that advanced reproductive treatments such as IVF will overcome fertility problems associated with age. Little is known about the perceptions of Chinese students in Hong Kong, a modernized Chinese city where the fertility rate is among the lowest in the world. An online cross-sectional survey of Chinese university students in Hong Kong was conducted in 2013. Results were compared with two similar studies in Sweden and the USA. A total of 367 university students in Hong Kong (275 female, 92 male; mean age 23) responded to an e-mail invitation to participate in an online survey. Intentions and attitudes towards parenthood and awareness regarding female fertility were assessed using the Swedish Fertility Awareness Questionnaire. Like their Western counterparts, a large proportion of Chinese university students underestimated the age-related fertility decline (92%) and overestimated the fertility treatment success rate (66%). However, they were less inclined to have children, were more aware of and less concerned with infertility and were less motivated to seek solutions in the event of a fertility problem. These comparisons were significant at P International comparisons warrant caution because the Hong Kong sample was older than the US sample (mean age 20), but not older than the Sweden sample (mean age 24). While this study was consistent with past

  16. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  17. Transition to Parenthood and Susceptibility to Divorce: qualitative research of divorced young parents in Slovenia

    Nataša Rijavec Klobučar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transition to parenthood is a vulnerable period for spouses and can consequently lead to the disintegration of their relationship. The purpose of this research was to examine the experience of this transition, circumstances and risk factors for divorce from the perspective of divorcees in Slovenia who divorced in the first year of their child’s life. On the basis of semi -structured interviews with 15 divorcees, the findings of studies examining changes after the birth of a child were confirmed. The results pointed to risk factors for marriage, such as uncertain relationship between spouses prior to the childbirth, permeable boundaries in relations with families of origin, lack of practical and emotional support, and unreal expectations. The child’s arrival accentuates unsolved issues from the past and brings additional vulnerability to the relationship. The findings of this research are a contribution to the development of preventive, educative and therapeutic programmes for couples in transition to parenthood.

  18. The impact of the transition to parenthood in health and well-being

    Martins, Cristina Araújo; Abreu, Wilson Jorge Correia Pinto de; Figueiredo, Maria do Céu Aguiar Barbieri de

    2016-01-01

    Background: Even though it is common, normative, predictable and usually desired, parenthood is one of the most dramatic developmental transitions in the family life cycle, likely to cause imbalance and vulnerability. Objective: This study aimed to explore the influences on the health and well-being of parents during the first 6 months of transition to the exercise of the parental role. Methods: Grounded Theory. Data collection from semi-structured interviews (total of 60 interviews). Use of ...

  19. Stigma, Social Context, and Mental Health: Lesbian and Gay Couples Across the Transition to Adoptive Parenthood

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplace support, family support, and relationship quality were related to lower depressive and anxious symptoms at the time of the adoption, and higher perceived friend support was related to lower anxiety symptoms. Lower internalized homophobia and higher perceived neighborhood gay-friendliness were related to lower depressive symptoms. Finally, individuals with high internalized homophobia who lived in states with unfavorable legal climates regarding gay adoption experienced the steepest increases in depressive and anxious symptoms. Findings have important implications for counselors working with sexual minorities, especially those experiencing the transition to parenthood. PMID:21171740

  20. Stigma, social context, and mental health: lesbian and gay couples across the transition to adoptive parenthood.

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplace support, family support, and relationship quality were related to lower depressive and anxious symptoms at the time of the adoption, and higher perceived friend support was related to lower anxiety symptoms. Lower internalized homophobia and higher perceived neighborhood gay-friendliness were related to lower depressive symptoms. Finally, individuals with high internalized homophobia who lived in states with unfavorable legal climates regarding gay adoption experienced the steepest increases in depressive and anxious symptoms. Findings have important implications for counselors working with sexual minorities, especially those experiencing the transition to parenthood.

  1. The influence of family unions and parenthood transitions on self-development.

    Chen, Eva Yi-Ju; Enright, Robert D; Tung, Eli Yi-Liang

    2016-04-01

    The present study discusses the impact of union and parenthood transitions on individuals' self-esteem and sense of mastery development from midadolescence to young adulthood by using multilevel analyses with longitudinal data of 7,339 individuals between ages 15 and 38. The results show that, first, individuals in marital unions show significantly greater rates of growth in self-esteem and sense of mastery, compared with singles. Therefore, entering into marriage provides greater protections to individuals' self-esteem and sense of mastery. Second, the transition to parenthood brings significant decreases in levels and increases in rates of change in self-esteem and sense of mastery among new parents. The degree of the aforementioned changes differs by new parents' gender, union status, and living arrangement with the child at childbirth. Women are influenced more negatively than men. Living with the child at childbirth reduces the degree of decreases in self-esteem and sense of mastery, especially for mothers. In sum, from midadolescence to young adulthood, the development of individuals' self-esteem and sense of mastery is shaped by their union and parenthood transitions. Moreover, the context where these transitions take place, including the type of union and the living arrangement, moderates the degree of the impact. Our findings have important implications for research and practice in promoting the family transition experience. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Fertility awareness and attitudes towards parenthood among Danish university college students.

    Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Marcussen, Signe; Backhausen, Mette Grønbæk; Juhl, Mette; Schmidt, Lone; Tydén, Tanja; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine

    2016-12-13

    Postponing parenthood has steadily increased during the past decades in Western countries. This trend has affected the size of families in the direction of fewer children born per couple. In addition, higher maternal age is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy-related complications such as prematurity and foetal death, while higher paternal age increases the risk of miscarriage and affects time-to-pregnancy. Hence, understanding the circumstances and reflections that influence the decision is greatly needed and little is known about potential gender difference influencing the choice. The aim was to investigate attitudes towards parenthood, intentions for childbirth and knowledge about fertility issues among men and women. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a validated 49-item questionnaire among students, who attended selected mandatory lectures at a Danish university college in February to April 2016. The participation rate was 99%, and 517 completed the questionnaire. Though the majority of all participants wished to have children in the future (>86%), there was significant difference between the genders (p = 0.002). Women rated having children to be more important than men did (p fertility issues was similar between genders including poor knowledge about the age-related decline in female fertility. While women found it more important to have children before being 'too old' (p = 0.04), still more than 40% of all respondents intended to have their last child after the age of 35 years. For both genders the most important prerequisite for parenthood was having a partner to share responsibility with. Perceived or experienced life changes related to parenthood were generally positive such as personal development. The majority of respondents wished to have children, but many desired to have these after the biological decline in female fertility. The moderate knowledge level among both genders uncovered in this study is of concern. Future

  3. Lone mothers and their network support: Sociodemographic research of nonmarital parenthood in Serbia

    Stanković Biljana

    2014-01-01

    third of the children have no contact with their father, and as many fathers do not make any financial contribution. Actually, insufficient presence and participation of the father, in the lives of children and in daily performing parental responsibilities of their mothers, is one of the most important aspects that deserve the attention of researchers and policy-makers when it comes to lone mothers with unmarital children. The realization of children's rights in relation to financing and visitation the fathers after parental separation, is far more difficult than in divorced or widowed single-parent families. Some considerations about measures of state and local community support can be based on the selected research results presented in this paper. Support measures are possible in multiple domains, social policy (financial support and assistance in employment, institutions of preschool education, as well as in health, education, pre-school and social system counseling services. Greater involvement of men in family life and parenthood stands out as a very important objective, as well as motivation of fathers to involve in raising their nonresident children, including financial support. Three-quarters of the total number of respondents expect the state support to lone unmarried mothers. Three-quarters of lone mothers and one third of cohabited mothers expressed the need for state assistance in solving their own most important existential issues.

  4. HealthyDads.ca: What Do Men Want in a Website Designed to Promote Emotional Wellness and Healthy Behaviors During the Transition to Parenthood?

    Da Costa, Deborah; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Letourneau, Nicole; Howlett, Andrew; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Russell, Brian; Grover, Steven; Lowensteyn, Ilka; Chan, Peter; Khalifé, Samir

    2017-10-11

    stress (98/174, 56.3%). Perceiving the website as personally relevant (151/174, 86.8%), credible (141/174, 81.0%), effective (140/145, 80.5%), and having an easy navigation structure (141/174, 81.0%) were identified as important factors related to a first website visit. Providing useful (134/174, 77.0%) and easy to understand (158/174, 90.8%) information, which was also free of charge (156/174, 89.7%), were considered important for deciding to prolong a website visit. Providing the possibility to post questions to a health professional (133/174, 76.4%), adding new content regularly (119/174, 68.4%), and personal motivation (111/174, 63.8%) were factors identified that would encourage a revisit. Our findings demonstrate that there is substantial interest among expectant and new fathers for using Internet-delivered strategies to prepare for the transition to parenthood and support their mental health. Specific user and website features were identified to optimize the use of father-focused websites. ©Deborah Da Costa, Phyllis Zelkowitz, Nicole Letourneau, Andrew Howlett, Cindy-Lee Dennis, Brian Russell, Steven Grover, Ilka Lowensteyn, Peter Chan, Samir Khalifé. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.10.2017.

  5. HealthyDads.ca: What Do Men Want in a Website Designed to Promote Emotional Wellness and Healthy Behaviors During the Transition to Parenthood?

    Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Letourneau, Nicole; Howlett, Andrew; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Russell, Brian; Grover, Steven; Lowensteyn, Ilka; Chan, Peter; Khalifé, Samir

    2017-01-01

    sleep (100/174, 57.5%), and managing stress (98/174, 56.3%). Perceiving the website as personally relevant (151/174, 86.8%), credible (141/174, 81.0%), effective (140/145, 80.5%), and having an easy navigation structure (141/174, 81.0%) were identified as important factors related to a first website visit. Providing useful (134/174, 77.0%) and easy to understand (158/174, 90.8%) information, which was also free of charge (156/174, 89.7%), were considered important for deciding to prolong a website visit. Providing the possibility to post questions to a health professional (133/174, 76.4%), adding new content regularly (119/174, 68.4%), and personal motivation (111/174, 63.8%) were factors identified that would encourage a revisit. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that there is substantial interest among expectant and new fathers for using Internet-delivered strategies to prepare for the transition to parenthood and support their mental health. Specific user and website features were identified to optimize the use of father-focused websites. PMID:29021126

  6. Tethered lives: A couple-based perspective on the consequences of parenthood for time use, occupation, and wages.

    Killewald, Alexandra; García-Manglano, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Prior research on parenthood effects has typically used single-sex models and estimated average effects. By contrast, we estimate population-level variability in partners' changes in housework hours, paid work hours, occupation traits, and wages after becoming parents, and we explore whether one partner's adjustment offsets or supplements the other's. We find tradeoffs between spouses on paid work adjustments to parenthood, but complementarity in adjustments to housework hours, occupation traits, and wages. The effect of parenthood on wives' behaviors is larger and more variable than on husbands' behaviors in every domain. The modest variation between husbands in work responses to parenthood explains little of the variation in the motherhood penalty, while variation in wives' own behaviors plays a larger role. We refer to this pattern as tethered autonomy: variation across American couples in work responses to parenthood is shaped primarily by variation in wives' adjustments, while husbands' work acts largely as a fixed point. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Die Bedeutung Subjektiver Elternschaftskonzepte fur Erziehungsverhalten und elterliche Partnerschaft. Ein Uberblick uber neuere Forschungsergebnisse (The Significance of Subjective Concepts of Parenthood for Educational Behavior and Parental Partnership).

    Kalicki, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the subjective concept of parenthood as the personal interpretation of parental responsibility, distinguishing it from related theoretical concepts. Discusses, against the background of theoretical models and empirical findings, the relationship of the parenthood concept with the parents' actual educational behavior. Suggests ways to…

  8. The transition into adoptive parenthood: Adoption as a process of continued unsafe uncertainty when family scripts collide.

    Tasker, Fiona; Wood, Sally

    2016-10-01

    Our prospective study investigated couples' expectations of adoptive parenthood and explored how these changed with their actual experience of parenthood. Six heterosexual couples were interviewed just before placement began and 6 months after the children had arrived. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse both sets of interview data. Expectations of adoptive parenthood mostly transformed smoothly into adoption experience for couples, but challenges were experienced when family scripts collided and a continued feeling of unsafe uncertainty then prevailed within these newly formed family systems. Family script collision seemed a particular problem for couples adopting sibling pairs. To further professional practice in working with families over the transition to adoptive parenting, we suggest that professionals keep in mind a framework that includes the following: Internal and external world influences on family members, Intergenerational issues, Family scripts and the Structural challenges of adoption (IIFS). © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Women's experiences after Planned Parenthood's exclusion from a family planning program in Texas.

    Woo, C Junda; Alamgir, Hasanat; Potter, Joseph E

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the impact on depot medroxyprogesterone continuation when a large care provider was banned from a state-funded family planning program. We used three methods to assess the effect of the ban: (a) In a records review, we compared how many state program participants returned to two Planned Parenthood affiliates for a scheduled dose of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) immediately after the ban; (b) We conducted phone interviews with 224 former Planned Parenthood patients about DMPA use and access to contraception immediately after the ban; (c) We compared current contraceptive method of our interviewees to that of comparable DMPA users in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006-2010 (NSFG). (a) Fewer program clients returned for DMPA at a large urban Planned Parenthood, compared to a remotely located affiliate (14.4%, vs. 64.8%), reflecting different levels of access to alternative providers in the two cities. (b) Among program participants who went elsewhere for the injection, only 56.8% obtained it at no cost and on time. More than one in five women missed a dose because of barriers, most commonly due to difficulty finding a provider. (c) Compared to NSFG participants, our interviewees used less effective methods of contraception, even more than a year after the ban went into effect. Injectable contraception use was disrupted during the rollout of the state-funded family planning program. Women living in a remote area of Texas encountered more barriers. Requiring low-income family planning patients to switch healthcare providers has adverse consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fertility awareness and attitudes towards parenthood among Danish university college students

    Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Marcussen, Signe; Backhausen, Mette Grønbæk

    2016-01-01

    . Perceived or experienced life changes related to parenthood were generally positive such as personal development. CONCLUSION: The majority of respondents wished to have children, but many desired to have these after the biological decline in female fertility. The moderate knowledge level among both genders......-related complications such as prematurity and foetal death, while higher paternal age increases the risk of miscarriage and affects time-to-pregnancy. Hence, understanding the circumstances and reflections that influence the decision is greatly needed and little is known about potential gender difference influencing...

  11. Surrogate Parenthood Act 1988 (No. 65 of 1988), 6 October 1988.

    1988-01-01

    This document contains provisions of the 1988 Queensland Australia Act prohibiting surrogate parenthood contracts. The Act defines "surrogate parent" and "prescribed contract" and prohibits the publication of any type of document which intends to induce a person to act as a surrogate parent, to seek such a person, or to state willingness to act as a surrogate. Offering to enter into a prescribed contract holds a penalty of 100 penalty units or three years' imprisonment or both. This Act applies if the offense occurs in Queensland or if the offender is normally a resident of Queensland, irrespective of where the offense occurs.

  12. Motivated Explanation

    Richard ePatterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.

  13. Drinking motives

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  14. Drinking Motives

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    . This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  15. Intrinsic Motivation.

    Deci, Edward L.

    The paper draws together a wide variety of research which relates to the topic of intrinsic motivation; intrinsically motivated activities are defined as those which a person does for no apparent reward except the activity itself or the feelings which result from the activity. Most of this research was not originally reported within the framework…

  16. Gerontechnology motivation

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Gerontechnology’s framework has been formulated in a functional way, with little attention paid to motivation. Abraham H. Maslow’s theory of human motivation (1943) can fill this gap with his hierarchy of needs to be fulfilled in the following order: physiological, safety related, social, esteem and

  17. Love and Family: Discussions Between Swedish Men and Women Concerning the Transition to Parenthood

    Disa Bergnéhr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an exploration of how young Swedish adults talk about intimate relationships and the transition to parenthood. It is suggested that people carefully reflect over their relationship with their partner before deciding to embark on parenthood, and it is shown that reproductive decision making is imbued with contradictory ideals that may cause stress and anxiety. To have and to raise a child in a nuclear family arrangement is one prominent ideal that is illuminated by this study, but parallel with this is the notion of intimate relationships breaking down, dwindling. These two discourses are contradictory and create dilemmas in the process of family formation. Some individuals find the risk of relationship dissolution especially stressful, drawing on their own childhood experiences of growing up with separated parents. This is a study based on focus group interviews containing men and women, ranging from 24 to 39 years old, with different educational, occupational and geographical backgrounds; some are parents and some are not. The data are analysed using a discourse analytical approach, and much of the discussion is based on Anthony GIDDENS', Zygmunt BAUMAN's and Ulrich BECK and Elisabeth BECK-GERNSHEIM's reasoning about love and intimacy in the contemporary Western world. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701239

  18. Paternal and maternal transition to parenthood: the risk of postpartum depression and parenting stress

    Maria Stella Epifanio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development.

  19. Effects of single parenthood on educational aspiration and student disengagement in Korea

    Hyunjoon Park

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent rapid increase in divorce, along with its distinctive cultural and welfare environments for single-parent families, makes Korea an interesting case for examining effects of single parenthood on children's education. Using data from Korean 9th and 12th graders, I compare the levels of educational aspiration and student disengagement between students with two parents and those with a single parent, distinguishing divorced single fathers, widowed single fathers, divorced single mothers, and widowed single mothers. Logistic regression analyses show that students with a divorced single parent, regardless of gender of the parent, are much less likely to aspire to four-year university education and more likely to be disengaged than their counterparts with two parents. The effects of widowhood disappear once control variables are held constant. Lower household income among single-parent families explains in part the poorer educational outcomes of their children. Parent-child interaction is another important mediating factor for the effect of single fatherhood but not for single motherhood. The relevance of the extended family system and distinctive features of post-divorce living arrangements in Korea is discussed to understand the effects of single parenthood.

  20. Gender, Parenthood and Wage Differences: The Importance of Time-Consuming Job Characteristics.

    Magnusson, Charlotta; Nermo, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (2000, 2010), we investigate how the gender wage gap varies with occupational prestige and family status and also examine the extent to which this gap is explained by time-consuming working conditions. In addition, we investigate whether there is an association between parenthood, job characteristics and wage (as differentiated by gender). The analyses indicate that there are gender differences regarding prestige-based pay-offs among parents that are partly explained by fathers' greater access to employment characterized by time-consuming conditions. Separate analyses for men and women demonstrate the presence of a marriage wage premium for both genders, although only men have a parenthood wage premium. This fatherhood premium is however only present in high-prestigious occupations. Compared with childless men, fathers are also more advantaged in terms of access to jobs with time-consuming working conditions, but the wage gap between fathers and childless men is not explained by differences in access to such working conditions.

  1. Predictors of Parenting Stress in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents During Early Parenthood

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2014-01-01

    Little work has examined parenting stress in adoptive parents, particularly lesbian and gay adoptive parents. The current longitudinal study examined parent-reported child characteristics (measured post-placement) and parent and family characteristics (measured pre-placement) as predictors of post-placement parenting stress and change in parenting stress across three time points during the first 2 years of adoptive parenthood, among 148 couples (50 lesbian, 40 gay, and 58 heterosexual) who were first-time parents. Children in the sample were, on average, 5.61 months (SD = 10.26) when placed, and 2.49 years (SD = .85) at the 2 year post-placement follow-up. Findings revealed that parents who had been placed with older children, and parents who perceived severe emotional/behavioral problems in their children, reported more post-placement stress. In addition, parents who reported fewer depressive symptoms, more love for their partners, and more family and friend support during the pre-placement period, had less post-placement stress. Parenting stress decreased for parents who perceived severe emotional/behavioral problems in their children, while it increased somewhat for those who reported developmental problems in their children. Findings highlight vulnerabilities and resources that may shape adoptive parents’ experiences of stress in early parenthood, and have implications for both researchers and professionals who wish to support adoptive family adjustment. PMID:24611690

  2. Gender-role attitudes and behavior across the transition to parenthood.

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Priess, Heather A; Hyde, Janet S

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of social structural theory and identity theory, the current study examined changes in gender-role attitudes and behavior across the first-time transition to parenthood and following the birth of a second child for experienced mothers and fathers. Data were analyzed from the ongoing longitudinal Wisconsin Study of Families and Work. Gender-role attitudes, work and family identity salience, and division of household labor were measured for 205 first-time and 198 experienced mothers and fathers across 4 time points from 5 months pregnant to 12 months postpartum. Multilevel latent growth curve analysis was used to analyze the data. In general, parents became more traditional in their gender-role attitudes and behavior following the birth of a child, women changed more than men, and first-time parents changed more than experienced parents. Findings suggest that changes in gender-role attitudes and behavior following the birth of a child may be attributed to both the process of transitioning to parenthood for the first time and that of negotiating the demands of having a new baby in the family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Motivational interviewing

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...

  4. A case study comparing children???s motivation using a virtual world,video and print material to learn global citizenship.

    O'Tuathail, Padraic

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed The last decade has seen an enormous surge in the use of virtual worlds by both adults and children. Educators are keen to discover how this technology can be transferred to the classroom to facilitate effective learning. The aim of this study was to compare children???s motivation with three media components: a virtual world, video and print materials. The intervention involved 27 children in first class in a primary school using components of the Panwapa website over...

  5. The Effect of Parenthood Education on Self- Efficacy and Parent Effectiveness in an Alternative High School Student Population

    Meyer, Becky Weller; Jain, Sachin; Canfield-Davis, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents defined as at-risk typically lack healthy models of parenting and receive no parenthood education prior to assuming the parenting role. Unless a proactive approach is implemented, the cyclic pattern of dysfunctional parenting-- including higher rates of teen pregnancy, increased childhood abuse, low educational attainment,…

  6. The transition to parenthood and well-being: The impact of partner status and work hour transitions

    R. Keizer (Renske); P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); A-R. Poortman (Anne-Rigt)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Using data from the first two waves of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study for 338 women and 262 men, we examine the consequences of making the transition to parenthood for life satisfaction, loneliness, positive affect, negative affect, and partnership satisfaction. We extend

  7. Parental Divorce and Couples' Adjustment during the Transition to Parenthood: The Role of Parent-Adult Child Relationships

    Bouchard, Genevieve; Doucet, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the associations between parental divorce, quality of relationships with parents, and dyadic adjustment during transition of 114 couples to parenthood. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 9 months postpartum. As predicted, the authors found that women from divorced families…

  8. A Narrative Engagement Framework to Understand HPV Vaccination among Latina and Vietnamese Women in a Planned Parenthood Setting

    Hopfer, Suellen; Garcia, Samantha; Duong, Huong T.; Russo, Jennefer A.; Tanjasiri, Sora P.

    2017-01-01

    Disparities in cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination persist among Vietnamese and Latina women. Through a partnership with Planned Parenthood of Orange and San Bernardino Counties (PPOSBC) in Southern California, we conducted in-depth interviews with young adult Latina (n = 24) and Vietnamese (n = 24) women, and PPOSBC staff…

  9. Reflections on fertility and postponed parenthood-interviews with highly educated women and men without children in Sweden.

    Eriksson, Carola; Larsson, Margareta; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Tydén, Tanja

    2013-05-01

    Different reasons influence the current low birth-rate and the postponement of the birth of the first child throughout Europe. The aim of this study was to explore how highly educated women and men in Sweden reflect on fertility and postponed parenthood. We interviewed women (n = 22) and men (n = 18) who had started their professional careers and still had no children. Data were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Fertility was perceived as an unconsidered capacity, sometimes unpredictable, and different for women and men, but nevertheless taken for granted. The participants were of the opinion that fertility could be restored by assisted reproductive technologies or replaced by alternatives to a biological child. Postponed parenthood was described as an adaptation to societal changes and current discourses about parenthood as well as a consequence of a contemporary lifestyle with many competing priorities. Highly educated young women and men in contemporary Sweden have competing priorities when planning and setting goals for their lives, and having children is one of them. They describe fertility as an imperceptible and retrievable capacity and postponed parenthood as a rational adaptation to changes in society. These findings suggest that increased information about the limitations of human reproduction is needed, but also that societal support for younger parents is of utmost importance.

  10. Motivating pharmacists.

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  11. Designing motivation

    How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...... are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research...

  12. Does infertility history affect the emotional adjustment of couples undergoing assisted reproduction? the mediating role of the importance of parenthood.

    Moura-Ramos, Mariana; Gameiro, Sofia; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Soares, Isabel; Almeida-Santos, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    The emotional adjustment of couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments has been widely studied; however, it remains unclear whether infertility history contributes to couples' adjustment. This study examined the impact of infertility history (duration of infertility and number of previous ART treatment cycles) on the emotional adjustment of couples undergoing an ART cycle and the mediating effect of importance of parenthood on that association. In this cross-sectional study, 70 infertile couples (70 women and 70 men) completed self-report questionnaires assessing emotional adjustment and infertility stress during the hormonal stimulation phase of an ART cycle. Path models accounting for the dyadic nature of the data examined the direct and indirect effects (by affecting representations about parenthood and childlessness) of infertility history on emotional adjustment. The number of previous cycles affected men's, but not women's, emotional adjustment by affecting the representations on the importance of parenthood and of childlessness. Duration of infertility had the opposite effect, as couples with longer infertility reported heightened importance of parenthood, which negatively affected their emotional adjustment. Infertility history was associated with emotional adjustment in men and women, although these associations were complex. The results suggest that progression through treatment is harder for those men and women who attribute higher importance to being parents, which is aggravated by longer infertility. What is already known about the subject? Infertility is an unexpected and stressful life event Assisted reproductive treatments (ART) are emotionally demanding What does this study add? The influence of infertility history on adjustment is mediated by the importance of parenthood Men and women are affected by their past history of infertility differently. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Health Psychology published by John

  13. Individual or group antenatal education for childbirth or parenthood, or both.

    Gagnon, A J; Sandall, J

    2007-07-18

    Structured antenatal education programs for childbirth or parenthood, or both, are commonly recommended for pregnant women and their partners by healthcare professionals in many parts of the world. Such programs are usually offered to groups but may be offered to individuals. To assess the effects of this education on knowledge acquisition, anxiety, sense of control, pain, labour and birth support, breastfeeding, infant-care abilities, and psychological and social adjustment. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (April 2006), CINAHL (1982 to April 2006), ERIC (1984 to April 2006), EMBASE (1980 to April 2006) and PsycINFO (1988 to April 2006). We handsearched the Journal of Psychosomatic Research from 1956 to April 2006 and reviewed the reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomized controlled trials of any structured educational program provided during pregnancy by an educator to either parent that included information related to pregnancy, birth or parenthood. The educational interventions could have been provided on an individual or group basis. Educational interventions directed exclusively to either increasing breastfeeding success, knowledge of and coping skills concerning postpartum depression, improving maternal psycho-social health including anxiety, depression and self-esteem or reducing smoking were excluded. Both authors assessed trial quality and extracted data from published reports. Nine trials, involving 2284 women, were included. Thirty-seven studies were excluded. Educational interventions were the focus of eight of the studies (combined n = 1009). Details of the randomization procedure, allocation concealment, and/or participant accrual or loss for these trials were not reported. No consistent results were found. Sample sizes were very small to moderate, ranging from 10 to 318. No data were reported concerning anxiety, breastfeeding success, or general social support. Knowledge acquisition, sense of control

  14. Personality, communication, and depressive symptoms across the transition to parenthood: A dyadic longitudinal investigation.

    Marshall, Emma M; Simpson, Jeffry A; Rholes, W Steven

    2015-03-01

    This study adopted a person (actor) by partner perspective to examine how actor personality traits, partner personality traits, and specific actor by partner personality trait interactions predict actor's depressive symptoms across the first two years of the transition to parenthood. Data were collected from a large sample of new parents (both partners in each couple) 6 weeks before the birth of their first child, and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. The results revealed that higher actor neuroticism and lower partner agreeableness predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms in actors. Moreover, the specific combination of high actor neuroticism and low partner agreeableness was a particularly problematic combination, which was intensified when prepartum dysfunctional problem-solving communication and aggression existed in the relationship. These results demonstrate the importance of considering certain actor by partner disposition pairings to better understand actors' emotional well-being during major life transitions.

  15. Brave and angry--the creation and development of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF).

    Claeys, Vicky

    2010-12-01

    This paper looks back on the developments in thinking from birth control, through voluntary family planning, to a comprehensive approach to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), and celebrates some of the key players in this evolution. It tells the story of the creation of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in 1952, and scrutinises how important this organisation was then and is now. It gives an idea of the efforts it took to reassemble initiatives around the world into one body, strong enough to foster the cause to the benefit of all. While IPPF was and still is a unique association, it has increased its partnerships and works together with a multitude of organisations active in the field of SRHR. In the current political context joint efforts are still needed to protect the universally recognised human right of people to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children, and their access to adequate education and information.

  16. Changes in marital satisfaction across the transition to parenthood: the role of adult attachment orientations.

    Kohn, Jamie L; Rholes, Steven W; Simpson, Jeffry A; Martin, A McLeish; Tran, SiSi; Wilson, Carol L

    2012-11-01

    This longitudinal study investigated marital satisfaction trajectories across the first 2 years of parenthood. Data were collected from new parents (couples) 6 weeks before the birth of their first child, and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. Growth curve models revealed two key findings. First, for highly anxious individuals, satisfaction was lower or declined when they perceived their partners as less supportive and as behaving more negatively toward them. Second, for highly avoidant individuals, satisfaction was lower or declined when they perceived more work-family conflict and greater demands from their families. The findings suggest that attachment insecurities predict dissatisfaction in new parents primarily when stressors block the pursuit of important attachment goals.

  17. The Production of Inequality: The Gender Division of Labor Across the Transition to Parenthood.

    Yavorsky, Jill E; Dush, Claire M Kamp; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J

    2015-06-01

    Using longitudinal time diary and survey data from a community sample of dual-earner couples across the transition to parenthood, the authors examined change in divisions of paid and unpaid work and assessed the accuracy of survey data for time use measurement. Mothers, according to the time diaries, shouldered the majority of child care and did not decrease their paid work hours. Furthermore, the gender gap was not present prebirth but emerged postbirth with women doing more than 2 hours of additional work per day compared to an additional 40 minutes for men. Moreover, the birth of a child magnified parents' overestimations of work in the survey data, and had the authors relied only on survey data, gender work inequalities would not have been apparent. The findings have important implications for (a) the state of the gender revolution among couples well positioned to obtained balanced workloads and (b) the utility of survey data to measure parents' division of labor.

  18. Marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms among Korean mothers transitioning to parenthood.

    Choi, Eunsil

    2016-06-01

    Although many empirical findings support associations between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms, gaps remain in our understanding of the magnitude and direction of the associations between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms as well as the associations in a collectivistic culture. The present study examined autoregressive cross-lagged associations between marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms across a 3-year investigation in a sample of Korean mothers transitioning to parenthood. The sample consisted of 2,078 mothers in the Panel Study of Korean Children. The mothers reported marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms annually for 3 years. The results of an autoregressive cross-lagged model revealed bidirectional associations between marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms. The findings provide evidence of an interactional model of depression in a sample of Korean mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Duration and Timing of Exposure to Neighborhood Poverty and the Risk of Adolescent Parenthood

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that the impact of neighborhood poverty depends on both the duration and timing of exposure. Previous research, however, does not properly analyze the sequence of neighborhoods to which children are exposed throughout the early life course. This study investigates the effects of different longitudinal patterns of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods on the risk of adolescent parenthood. It follows a cohort of children in the PSID from age 4 to 19 and uses novel methods for time-varying exposures that overcome critical limitations of conventional regression when selection processes are dynamic. Results indicate that sustained exposure to poor neighborhoods substantially increases the risk of becoming a teen parent and that exposure to neighborhood poverty during adolescence may be more consequential than exposure earlier during childhood. PMID:23720166

  20. Nature, Nurture, and Attachment: Implications in Light of Expanding Definitions of Parenthood.

    Junewicz, Alexandra; Billick, Stephen Bates

    2018-01-02

    Recent expansion of the legal definition of parenthood in New York State raises the question of whether the presence of a genetic relationship between a parent and child trumps environmental and interpersonal factors in the formation of a strong, secure attachment bond. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize that attachment between a child and secure attachment figure is inherently biological, and that such biological attachment supersedes the existence of a genetic parent-child relationship. First, the paper provides an overview of attachment and its biological basis. It then discusses the impact on attachment of environmental and interpersonal influences, which current research suggests have the power to alter brain biology. There is no clear evidence that a genetic relationship confers a significant advantage in terms of attachment. This paper proposes that the term "biological parent" be redefined to include anyone with whom a child shares a strong attachment bond.

  1. Predicting Substance Use Patterns Among Rural Adults: The Roles of Mothers, Fathers, and Parenthood.

    Wong, Jessie J; Cucciare, Michael A; Booth, Brenda M; Timko, Christine

    2018-04-16

    This study examined the role of parenthood and parental influences on substance use patterns for 710 stimulant users age 18-61 living in the rural Midwest and Mid-south U.S. Longitudinal growth analyses showed that a maternal history of drug use was associated with increased baseline drug use severity, lesser declines in severity, and greater plateau of drug use severity over time. Parental conflict was associated with lesser declines in drug use severity, and drug use severity declined more steeply for participants who were themselves parents. Participants with two parents having a history of alcohol use had a greater baseline severity of alcohol use, with paternal history of drug use associated with lower baseline alcohol use severity. These findings demonstrate the importance of identifying parental influences in evaluating adult substance use, and point to the inclusion of parents in efforts to prevent and treat substance use disorders. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  2. The Production of Inequality: The Gender Division of Labor Across the Transition to Parenthood

    Yavorsky, Jill E.; Dush, Claire M. Kamp; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Using longitudinal time diary and survey data from a community sample of dual-earner couples across the transition to parenthood, the authors examined change in divisions of paid and unpaid work and assessed the accuracy of survey data for time use measurement. Mothers, according to the time diaries, shouldered the majority of child care and did not decrease their paid work hours. Furthermore, the gender gap was not present prebirth but emerged postbirth with women doing more than 2 hours of additional work per day compared to an additional 40 minutes for men. Moreover, the birth of a child magnified parents’ overestimations of work in the survey data, and had the authors relied only on survey data, gender work inequalities would not have been apparent. The findings have important implications for (a) the state of the gender revolution among couples well positioned to obtained balanced workloads and (b) the utility of survey data to measure parents’ division of labor. PMID:26430282

  3. Associations of Partner Age Gap at Sexual Debut with Teenage Parenthood and Lifetime Number of Partners.

    Masho, Saba W; Chambers, Gregory J; Wallenborn, Jordyn T; Ferrance, Jacquelyn L

    2017-06-01

    Age at sexual debut and age gap between partners at debut are modifiable characteristics that may be related to risky sexual behaviors. Understanding any such relationships is a necessary first step toward strengthening risk interventions. Age at sexual debut and partner age gap were examined for 3,154 female and 2,713 male respondents to the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth who first had intercourse before age 18. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between these measures and teenage parenthood and reporting a high lifetime number of partners (i.e., a number above the sample median). Females' odds of teenage parenthood were elevated if sexual debut occurred at ages 15-17 and involved a partner age gap of 3-4 years (odds ratio, 1.8) or more (2.0); they were reduced if debut occurred before age 15 and the gap was 3-4 years (0.8). Females' likelihood of reporting a high lifetime number of partners was negatively associated with age gap (0.4-0.7, depending on age at debut and length of age gap). Males' likelihood of reporting a large number of partners was positively associated with age gap if sexual debut was before age 15 and the gap was five or more years (1.7) or if debut was at ages 15-17 and involved a 3-4-year gap (2.0). Identifying the mechanisms underlying these associations could inform program design and implementation. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  4. IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Rights. International Planned Parenthood Federation.

    Newman, K; Helzner, J F

    1999-05-01

    For most of human existence and in most societies, women have been considered to be property and subject to men. Throughout history, with such notable exceptions as Queen Boadicea, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Elizabeth I of England, and Catherine the Great of Russia, women had little or no power until early in the 20th century when the women's suffrage movement was successful in the United States and in some European countries. As women have gained political rights, groups of women have sought sexual and reproductive rights, as exemplified by the feminist movement of the past few decades in the United States. Although marked strides toward achievement of reproductive choice have been taken in high-income countries, there remain major strictures to reproductive freedom for women in low-income countries. This area, which is replete with ethical and moral issues, has been addressed by the International Planned Parenthood Foundation (IPPF), which has worked to improve the sexual and reproductive health of women throughout the world. The IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Rights is a paradigm for both women's rights and human rights. Karen Newman is policy adviser with the IPPF and has codrafted the IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Rights together with two lawyers. She has held several positions within the IPPF, including medical researcher, press officer, and programme adviser in Europe, where she had responsibility for working with new family planning associations (FPAs) in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. At present, she is working to increase the capacity of IPPF member FPAs to undertake human rights-based advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights. Judith F. Helzner is director of Sexual and Reproductive Health at International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region, Inc., where she has worked since 1987. She holds M.A. degrees from the University of Pennsylvania in International Relations and Demography. Her previous employment

  5. Tweeting PP: an analysis of the 2015-2016 Planned Parenthood controversy on Twitter.

    Han, Leo; Han, Lisa; Darney, Blair; Rodriguez, Maria I

    2017-12-01

    We analyzed Twitter tweets and Twitter-provided user data to give geographical, temporal and content insight into the use of social media in the Planned Parenthood video controversy. We randomly sampled the full Twitter repository (also known as the Firehose) (n=30,000) for tweets containing the phrase "planned parenthood" as well as group-defining hashtags "#defundpp" and "#standwithpp." We used demographic content provided by the user and word analysis to generate charts, maps and timeline visualizations. Chi-square and t tests were used to compare differences in content, statistical references and dissemination strategies. From July 14, 2015, to January 30, 2016, 1,364,131 and 795,791 tweets contained "#defundpp" and "#standwithpp," respectively. Geographically, #defundpp and #standwithpp were disproportionally distributed to the US South and West, respectively. Word analysis found that early tweets predominantly used "sensational" words and that the proportion of "political" and "call to action" words increased over time. Scatterplots revealed that #standwithpp tweets were clustered and episodic compared to #defundpp. #standwithpp users were more likely to be female [odds ratio (OR) 2.2, confidence interval (CI) 2.0-2.4] and have fewer followers (median 544 vs. 1578, panalysis can be used to characterize and understand the content, tempo and location of abortion-related messages in today's public spheres. Further research may inform proabortion efforts in terms of how information can be more effectively conveyed to the public. This study has implications for how the medical community interfaces with the public with regards to abortion. It highlights how social media are actively exploited instruments for information and message dissemination. Researchers, providers and advocates should be monitoring social media and addressing the public through these modern channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevention of Risky Sexual Behaviour through the Formation of Psychological Readiness to Parenthood

    Krysko A.A.,

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the world there are tendencies of early entering into sexual relations and simultaneous withdrawal of the age of marriage, an increase in the number of early pregnancies and abortions among minors. Existing programs for the prevention of risky sexual behavior are ineffective, since they are one-time, narrowly focused. The author presents the results of an experiment on the prevention of risky sexual behavior in adolescents based on the formation of their ideas of parenting and child-parent relations, and through the prism of this topic, allowing to build an image of reproductive behavior in the present and future. The program is designed taking into account the psychology of modern adolescents, in accordance with the principles of awareness and responsibility, is based on a restorative approach and resource approach to the formation of psychological readiness for parenthood M.E. Lantsburg. The program for the development of psychological preparedness for parenting in adolescents has two targets: the nearest: preventing adolescent pregnancy and reducing its negative consequences in the event of an early pregnancy, and strategic - preparing for the planning and birth of the coveted child in the future. The results prove that the adolescents' views about the family depend both on the experiences they experienced in their own childhood and on the trends in the social and political space discussed in this topic. The study showed that adolescents' views on sexual relations, family and parenthood can be purposefully influenced through a program based on the knowledge of age-related psychology, resource and recovery approaches and using interactive methods of teaching relevant to this age group.

  7. Identity Transformation During the Transition to Parenthood Among Same-Sex Couples: An Ecological, Stress-Strategy-Adaptation Perspective

    Cao, Hongjian; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Wood, Claire; Fine, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the current research on the potential stressors associated with identity transformation experienced by same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood and the coping strategies they employ. By integrating disparate findings into an ecological, stress-strategy-adaptation framework, we demonstrate that the identity transformation experiences among same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood (a) involve various adaptive processes of navigating different stressors via their human agency within multiple nested contexts; (b) are products of the intersections of individual characteristics, relational dynamics, LGBT community culture, and heterosexual sociostructural norms; and (c) are complicated by social contextual factors such as social class, race/ethnicity, family structure, and the sociocultural environment associated with geographic location. Last, several avenues for future inquiry are suggested. PMID:27458482

  8. Identity Transformation During the Transition to Parenthood Among Same-Sex Couples: An Ecological, Stress-Strategy-Adaptation Perspective.

    Cao, Hongjian; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Wood, Claire; Fine, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews the current research on the potential stressors associated with identity transformation experienced by same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood and the coping strategies they employ. By integrating disparate findings into an ecological, stress-strategy-adaptation framework, we demonstrate that the identity transformation experiences among same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood (a) involve various adaptive processes of navigating different stressors via their human agency within multiple nested contexts; (b) are products of the intersections of individual characteristics, relational dynamics, LGBT community culture, and heterosexual sociostructural norms; and (c) are complicated by social contextual factors such as social class, race/ethnicity, family structure, and the sociocultural environment associated with geographic location. Last, several avenues for future inquiry are suggested.

  9. The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers--professional and personal situation seven years after graduation

    Buddeberg-Fischer, B; Stamm, M; Buddeberg, C; Bauer, G; Hämmig, O; Knecht, Michaela; Klaghofer, R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The profile of the medical profession is changing in regard to feminization, attitudes towards the profession, and the lifestyle aspirations of young physicians. The issues addressed in this study are the careers of female and male physicians seven years after graduation and the impact of parenthood on career development. Methods Data reported originates from the fifth assessment (T5) of the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, beginning in 2001 (T1). At T5 in 2009, 579 resid...

  10. Transition to parenthood and quality of parenting among gay, lesbian and heterosexual couples who conceived through assisted reproduction

    Rubio, B; Vecho, O; Gross, M; Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L; Bos, H; Ellis-Davies, K; Winstanley, A; Golombok, S; Lamb, ME

    2017-01-01

    Little research has focused on the emotions felt during pregnancy and early parenthood as well as the initial quality of parenting displayed by first-time parents who conceived using assisted reproduction technologies (surrogacy, donor insemination, and in vitro fertilization). Research on primary and secondary caregivers in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual families is especially sparse. The current study examined 35 gay-father families, 58 lesbian-mother families and 41 heterosexual-parent fam...

  11. How decision reversibility affects motivation.

    Bullens, Lottie; van Harreveld, Frenk; Förster, Jens; Higgins, Tory E

    2014-04-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making, strengthening prevention-related motivation relatively more than promotion-related motivation. If so, then decision reversibility should have effects associated with the relative differences between prevention and promotion motivation. In 5 studies, we manipulated the reversibility of a decision and used different indicators of regulatory focus motivation to test these predictions. Specifically, Study 1 tested for differences in participants' preference for approach versus avoidance strategies toward a desired end state. In Study 2, we used speed and accuracy performance as indicators of participants' regulatory motivation, and in Study 3, we measured global versus local reaction time performance. In Study 4, we approached the research question in a different way, making use of the value-from-fit hypothesis (Higgins, 2000, 2002). We tested whether a fit between chronic regulatory focus and focus induced by the reversibility of the decision increased participants' subjective positive feelings about the decision outcome. Finally, in Study 5, we tested whether regulatory motivation, induced by decision reversibility, also influenced participants' preference in specific product features. The results generally support our hypothesis showing that, compared to irreversible decisions, reversible decisions strengthen a prevention focus more than a promotion focus. Implications for research on decision making are discussed.

  12. Students' perception of marriage, family and parenthood in the light of religious identity and religious tolerance: A comparative perspective

    Petrović Jasmina S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative perspective, the paper shows students' attitudes towards family, marriage and parenthood obtained in an empirical study entitled 'Cultural orientation of actors/students, interethnic relations, national identity and the culture of peace in the Balkans' on the samples from the University of Bitola, Veliko Tarnovo and Niš. It analyzes findings from the three subsamples, and tests the hypothesis that students' religiousness and the firmness of their religious beliefs predicate their attitudes towards fami­ly, marriage and parenthood, irrespective of the country where they study. It is expected that the student youth in all subsamples shows preference for the individualistic model of partnership, symmetrical parenting, egalitarian partner and family relationships, but also that the choice of some attitudes clearly indicates the presence of traditional value patterns. At the same time, it is assumed that respondents who identify themselves as firm believ­ers, and those who express a lower level of religious tolerance towards other religions, largely follow traditional patterns in the notion of marriage, fami­ly and parenthood.

  13. The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers - professional and personal situation seven years after graduation

    Knecht Michaela

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The profile of the medical profession is changing in regard to feminization, attitudes towards the profession, and the lifestyle aspirations of young physicians. The issues addressed in this study are the careers of female and male physicians seven years after graduation and the impact of parenthood on career development. Methods Data reported originates from the fifth assessment (T5 of the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, beginning in 2001 (T1. At T5 in 2009, 579 residents (81.4% of the initial sample at T1 participated in the questionnaire survey. They were asked about occupational factors, career-related factors including specialty choice and workplace, work-life balance and life satisfaction. The impact of gender and parenthood on the continuous variables was investigated by means of multivariate and univariate analyses of variance; categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square tests. Results Female physicians, especially those with children, have lower rates of employment and show lower values in terms of career success and career support experiences than male physicians. In addition, parenthood has a negative impact on these career factors. In terms of work-life balance aspired to, female doctors are less career-oriented and are more inclined to consider part-time work or to continue their professional career following a break to bring up a family. Parenthood means less career-orientation and more part-time orientation. As regards life satisfaction, females show higher levels of satisfaction overall, especially where friends, leisure activities, and income are concerned. Compared to their male colleagues, female physicians are less advanced in their specialty qualification, are less prone to choosing prestigious surgical fields, have a mentor less often, more often work at small hospitals or in private practice, aspire less often to senior hospital or academic positions and consider part-time work more often

  14. The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers--professional and personal situation seven years after graduation.

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Bauer, Georg; Häemmig, Oliver; Knecht, Michaela; Klaghofer, Richard

    2010-02-18

    The profile of the medical profession is changing in regard to feminization, attitudes towards the profession, and the lifestyle aspirations of young physicians. The issues addressed in this study are the careers of female and male physicians seven years after graduation and the impact of parenthood on career development. Data reported originates from the fifth assessment (T5) of the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, beginning in 2001 (T1). At T5 in 2009, 579 residents (81.4% of the initial sample at T1) participated in the questionnaire survey. They were asked about occupational factors, career-related factors including specialty choice and workplace, work-life balance and life satisfaction. The impact of gender and parenthood on the continuous variables was investigated by means of multivariate and univariate analyses of variance; categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square tests. Female physicians, especially those with children, have lower rates of employment and show lower values in terms of career success and career support experiences than male physicians. In addition, parenthood has a negative impact on these career factors. In terms of work-life balance aspired to, female doctors are less career-oriented and are more inclined to consider part-time work or to continue their professional career following a break to bring up a family. Parenthood means less career-orientation and more part-time orientation. As regards life satisfaction, females show higher levels of satisfaction overall, especially where friends, leisure activities, and income are concerned. Compared to their male colleagues, female physicians are less advanced in their specialty qualification, are less prone to choosing prestigious surgical fields, have a mentor less often, more often work at small hospitals or in private practice, aspire less often to senior hospital or academic positions and consider part-time work more often. Any negative impact on career path and advancement is

  15. The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers - professional and personal situation seven years after graduation

    2010-01-01

    Background The profile of the medical profession is changing in regard to feminization, attitudes towards the profession, and the lifestyle aspirations of young physicians. The issues addressed in this study are the careers of female and male physicians seven years after graduation and the impact of parenthood on career development. Methods Data reported originates from the fifth assessment (T5) of the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, beginning in 2001 (T1). At T5 in 2009, 579 residents (81.4% of the initial sample at T1) participated in the questionnaire survey. They were asked about occupational factors, career-related factors including specialty choice and workplace, work-life balance and life satisfaction. The impact of gender and parenthood on the continuous variables was investigated by means of multivariate and univariate analyses of variance; categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square tests. Results Female physicians, especially those with children, have lower rates of employment and show lower values in terms of career success and career support experiences than male physicians. In addition, parenthood has a negative impact on these career factors. In terms of work-life balance aspired to, female doctors are less career-oriented and are more inclined to consider part-time work or to continue their professional career following a break to bring up a family. Parenthood means less career-orientation and more part-time orientation. As regards life satisfaction, females show higher levels of satisfaction overall, especially where friends, leisure activities, and income are concerned. Compared to their male colleagues, female physicians are less advanced in their specialty qualification, are less prone to choosing prestigious surgical fields, have a mentor less often, more often work at small hospitals or in private practice, aspire less often to senior hospital or academic positions and consider part-time work more often. Any negative impact on

  16. Regulation of Motivation: Students' Motivation Management in Online Collaborative Groupwork

    Xu, Jianzhong; Du, Jianxia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Online learning is becoming a global phenomenon and has a steadily growing influence on how learning is delivered at universities worldwide. Motivation of students, however, has become one of the most serious problems in one important aspect of online learning--online collaborative groupwork or online group homework. It is surprising…

  17. Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood.

    Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding.

  18. Science as a production device of parenthood: analysis of Brazilian scientific production

    Márcio Barra Valente

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding science as a device for producing ways of being and truth regimes, this literature review aimed to develop a critical reading of the Brazilian scientific production about parenthood, inspired by the post-constructionist approach to social psychology. The survey was conducted from the Bank of theses and dissertations for the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES, from parenting descriptor, comprising the period 1987-2009. The analysis reveals that the paternity of this literature appears linked to the sex-gender dichotomy, and its rupture associated with crises and changes which reiterate gender norms and sexuality. The paternity produces scientific knowledge; outlines strategies and hidden knowledge-power that produce the subject man-father-universal ways of being a father and agreementco-penis-rationality- heterosexuality procreation, enables the visualization of the limits of (in effectiveness of such inscriptions, making room for production of cracks and changes.

  19. Parenthood and Domestic Division of Labour in Spain, 2002-2010

    Xavier Coller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the division of domestic work has revealed the influence of the life cycle on family organization. Concretely, the arrival of children seems to have a signifi cant impact on the division of domestic tasks. This article looks at the effect of parenthood in the Spanish case, examining whether couples with children have a more traditional division of work than couples without children, and if so, in what way, and whether there have been changes in this trend over time. For this purpose, we follow the the empirical strategy of Dribe and Stanfors (2009 for the Swedish case, analyzing the time devoted to different activities using data from time use surveys from 2002-2003 and 2009-2010. The results show that couples with children have a more traditional division of labor than couples without children, and that it is also affected by the age of the children. In addition, our fi ndings show this trend was less pronounced in 2009-10.

  20. Sexual orientation and future parenthood in a 2011-2013 nationally representative United States sample.

    Riskind, Rachel G; Tornello, Samantha L

    2017-09-01

    Previous researchers have found evidence for differences in parenting goals between lesbian and gay people and their heterosexual peers. However, no previous research has quantified the parenting goals of bisexual people or evaluated parenting goals as a function of sexual partner gender. In addition, political and social climates for sexual minority people had improved rapidly since the last representative data on lesbian and gay peoples' plans for parenthood were collected. We analyzed data from 3,941 childless lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual participants from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG; United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, 2014), a nationally representative sample of United States residents aged 15 to 44 years. We found that statistically significant, within-gender sexual orientation differences in parenting plans persist, despite social and legal changes. Consistent with hypotheses, bisexual men's parenting desires and intentions were similar to those of their heterosexual male peers and different from those of their gay male peers, while bisexual women's reports were more mixed. Also consistent with hypotheses, the gender of the most recent sexual partner was a strong predictor of parenting goals. We discuss implications for mental and reproductive health-care providers, attorneys, social workers, and others who interact with sexual minority adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Mothering Experiences: How Single Parenthood and Employment Structure the Emotional Valence of Parenting.

    Meier, Ann; Musick, Kelly; Flood, Sarah; Dunifon, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    Research studies and popular accounts of parenting have documented the joys and strains of raising children. Much of the literature comparing parents with those without children indicates a happiness advantage for those without children, although recent studies have unpacked this general advantage to reveal differences by the dimension of well-being considered and important features in parents' lives and parenting experiences. We use unique data from the 2010, 2012, and 2013 American Time Use Survey to understand emotions in mothering experiences and how these vary by key demographic factors: employment and partnership status. Assessing mothers' emotions in a broad set of parenting activities while controlling for a rich set of person- and activity-level factors, we find that mothering experiences are generally associated with high levels of emotional well-being, although single parenthood is associated with differences in the emotional valence. Single mothers report less happiness and more sadness, stress, and fatigue in parenting than partnered mothers, and these reports are concentrated among those single mothers who are not employed. Employed single mothers are happier and less sad and stressed when parenting than single mothers who are not employed. Contrary to common assumptions about maternal employment, we find overall few negative associations between employment and mothers' feelings regarding time with children, with the exception that employed mothers report more fatigue in parenting than those who are not employed.

  2. The impact of parenthood on environmental attitudes and behaviour: a longitudinal investigation of the legacy hypothesis.

    Thomas, Gregory O; Fisher, Rose; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Milfont, Taciano L; Poortinga, Wouter

    2018-01-01

    Willingness to engage in sustainable actions may be limited by the psychological distance of climate change. In this study, we test the legacy hypothesis , which holds that having children leads parents to consider the legacy left to offspring in respect of environmental quality. Using the Understanding Society dataset, a longitudinal survey representative of the UK population ( n  = 18,176), we assess how having children may change people's individual environmental attitudes and behaviour. Results indicate that having a new child is associated with a small decrease in the frequency of a few environmental behaviours. Only parents with already high environmental concern show a small increase in the desire to act more sustainably after the birth of their first child. Overall, the results do not provide evidence in support of the legacy hypothesis in terms of individual-level environmental attitudes and behaviours. We argue that the transition to parenthood is a time where concern is prioritised on the immediate wellbeing of the child and not on the future environmental threats.

  3. Mental illness and parenthood: being a parent in secure psychiatric care.

    Parrott, Fiona R; Macinnes, Douglas L; Parrott, Janet

    2015-12-10

    Research into parenting and mental illness seldom includes forensic mental health service users, despite its relevance to therapeutic, family work and risk management. This study aimed to understand the experiences of parents and the variety of parenting roles maintained during admission to a secure forensic hospital. Narrative interviews with 18 parents (eight mothers and 10 fathers) at an English medium security hospital were analysed thematically, using the framework approach. The proportion of patients who are parents and their contact patterns with their children were estimated from records. About a quarter of men and 38% of women were parents. Parenthood was of central importance to their emotional life, spanning experiences of loss, shame and failed expectations, joy, responsibility and hope. Fewer fathers maintained contact with their children than mothers yet fatherhood remained a vital aspect of men's identities, with impact on their self-esteem. Parenting during lengthy admissions--while constrained and dependent on professional support and surveillance--ranged from sending gifts and money to visits and phone calls. Offending was seen as a particularly shameful aspect of admission, contributing to distancing from the children and difficulty explaining detention to them. Such complex experiences call for multidisciplinary knowledge and skills. Provision of focused therapy, as well as appropriate visiting spaces, creative approaches to contact time and support for patients in explaining their mental illness and detention to their children are recommended. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Job Mobility and the Great Recession: Wage Consequences by Gender and Parenthood

    Youngjoo Cha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how inter-organizational mobility affects earnings inequality based on gender and parenthood under different macroeconomic conditions. Fixed effects regression analysis of Survey of Income and Program Participation data from 2004 to 2012 shows that earnings growth after quitting jobs for work-related reasons (e.g., to improve one’s job situation is greater for women than for men pre-recession, but the trend is driven by childless women, and mothers of children under six benefit the least among all groups of workers. However, this motherhood wage penalty disappears in the 2008 recession, as a result of the decline of wage returns to mobility for childless women. The analysis also shows that across economic conditions, the rate of layoffs or displacement is higher among men than women, but once laid off, women experience greater earnings losses than men. No motherhood penalty is found for this mobility type. These findings help us understand the longitudinal process by which the motherhood wage penalty is generated, and conditions under which a motherhood-based or gender-based wage gap becomes more pronounced.

  5. The impact of marriage and parenthood on male body mass index: Static and dynamic effects.

    Syrda, Joanna

    2017-08-01

    Numerous cross-sectional studies investigated the link between marital status and BMI in the context of competing social science theories (marriage market, marriage selection, marriage protection and social obligation), frequently offering conflicting theoretical predictions and conflicting empirical findings. This study analysed the effects of marriage, divorce, pregnancy, and parenthood on male BMI in a longitudinal setting, avoiding the estimation bias of cross-sectional studies and allowing for an analysis of BMI fluctuation over time and the dynamic effects of these events. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics 1999-2013 dataset (N = 8729), this study was the first to employ a dynamic panel-data estimation to examine the static and dynamic effects of marriage, divorce, and fatherhood on male BMI. The study showed that married men have higher BMI, but marital status changes largely drove this static effect, namely, an increase in BMI in the period following marriage, and a decrease in BMI preceding and following divorce. Thus, this study found marked evidence in support of the marriage market and social obligation theories' predictions about male BMI, and supports neither marriage protection theory nor marriage selection theory. Wives' pregnancies had no significant effect on BMI; instead, men tend to have higher BMI in the periods following childbirth. Finally, analyses showed marked contemporaneous correlations between husband and wife BMI over the course of marriage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term health, well-being, life satisfaction, and attitudes toward parenthood in men diagnosed as infertile: challenges to gender stereotypes and implications for practice.

    Fisher, Jane R W; Baker, Gordon H W; Hammarberg, Karin

    2010-07-01

    To investigate attitudes toward parenthood, long-term life satisfaction, and health and well-being in men diagnosed as infertile. A cross-sectional survey of a cohort of men 5 years after diagnosis of infertility. The andrology clinic at the Royal Women's Hospital Reproductive Services, Melbourne Australia. All men diagnosed at this center as infertile in 2001 and 2002. None. Attitudes to parenthood (Meaning of Parenthood), quality of intimate relationship (Intimate Bonds Measure), personality characteristics (Vulnerable Personality Style Questionnaire), life satisfaction (Satisfaction with Life Scale), and self-rated physical health (Physical Component Summary of SF-12 [PCS-12]) and relationship with mental health (Mental Component Summary of SF12 [MCS-12]). A total of 112 (41%) of 276 men completed the survey. Of these, 96% had pursued infertility treatment and 87% had become fathers. Only 10% thought that fertility confirmed by fatherhood reflected masculinity, and 84% desired parenthood as much as their partners did. When all other factors were controlled for, men who had not become fathers had poorer mental health (MCS-12 score = 43.9 +/- 9.9) than those who were fathers (MCS-12 score = 49.25 +/- 8.7). Clinical practice should not presume that infertile men conflate fertility and masculinity, are less distressed than women about the potential loss of parenthood, or adjust more readily to childlessness, which appear to be inaccurate but widespread stereotypes. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevention of postnatal distress or depression: an evaluation of an intervention at preparation for parenthood classes.

    Matthey, Stephen; Kavanagh, David J; Howie, Pauline; Barnett, Bryanne; Charles, Margaret

    2004-04-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a psychosocial intervention, provided to expectant couples in routine antenatal classes, on the postpartum psychosocial adjustment of women and men. A 3*3 between subjects randomised control design was utilised. The two factors were condition and self-esteem. Preparation for Parenthood programs were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: usual service ('control'), experimental ('empathy'), or non-specific control ('baby-play'). The latter condition controlled for the non-specific effects of the intervention, these being: the provision of an extra class; asking couples to consider the early postpartum weeks; and receiving booster information after the antenatal class, and again shortly after the birth. Women and men were categorised into three levels of self-esteem, as measured antenatally: low, medium and high. 268 participants were recruited antenatally. Interview data and self-report information was collected from 202 of these women at 6 weeks postpartum, and 180 women at 6 months postpartum. The intervention consisted of a session focusing on psychosocial issues related to becoming first-time parents. Participants discussed possible postpartum concerns in separate gender groups for part of the session, and then discussed these issues with their partners. Hypothetical scenarios depicting stressful situations in the early postpartum weeks for women and men were discussed, with solutions that parents have found useful given to the participants. In the non-specific control condition, the session focused on the importance of play with a baby, with videotapes and discussion around how parents can play with infants. At 6 weeks postpartum there was a significant interaction effect between condition and self-esteem on maternal adjustment. Women with low self-esteem, who had received the intervention, were significantly better adjusted on measures of mood and sense of competence than low-self-esteem women in either of the two

  8. The impact of adolescent females' assessments of parenthood and employment on plans for the future.

    Leslie, L A

    1986-02-01

    This study explores adolescent females' assessments of the rewards and costs of employment and parenthood, and the impact of these assessments on their plans for organizing their adult lives. 549 young women enrolled in the 11th and 12 grades at public schools in New York City completed questionnaires addressing their future work and fertility plans, characteristics of their present family life, and their assessments of how rewarding and costly the roles of employee and parent would be to them. Results suggest that daughters of homemakers and daughters of employed women differ in their assessment of each role, and take different factors into consideration when making these assessments. In evaluating work, daughters whose mothers are employed were likely to depend on their mothers' experiences for guidance. On the other hand, daughters whose mothers are homemakers have to go through a more elaborate process of deduction. They appear to assess whether their mothers are happy where they are now and then project whether another role would be more satisfying. These young women also tend to incorporate the opinion of the father more than do daughters of employed mothers. In evaluating the impact of children, the young woman's relation with her own mother is a critical factor affecting both group' assessments of the costs of children as well as the employed group's assessments of the rewards of children. Finally, the limitations of the sample should be kept in mind when discussing the results. Though the sample was large numerically, the overall response rate was low. In addition, the sample consisted of a large number of Catholic respondents.

  9. Tweeting PP: an analysis of the 2015–2016 Planned Parenthood controversy on Twitter

    Han, Leo; Han, Lisa; Darney, Blair; Rodriguez, Maria I.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives We analyzed Twitter tweets and Twitter-provided user data to give geographical, temporal and content insight into the use of social media in the Planned Parenthood video controversy. Methodology We randomly sampled the full Twitter repository (also known as the Firehose) (n=30,000) for tweets containing the phrase “planned parenthood” as well as group-defining hashtags “#defundpp” and “#standwithpp.” We used demographic content provided by the user and word analysis to generate charts, maps and timeline visualizations. Chi-square and t tests were used to compare differences in content, statistical references and dissemination strategies. Results From July 14, 2015, to January 30, 2016, 1,364,131 and 795,791 tweets contained “#defundpp” and “#standwithpp,” respectively. Geographically, #defundpp and #standwithpp were disproportionally distributed to the US South and West, respectively. Word analysis found that early tweets predominantly used “sensational” words and that the proportion of “political” and “call to action” words increased over time. Scatterplots revealed that #standwithpp tweets were clustered and episodic compared to #defundpp. #standwithpp users were more likely to be female [odds ratio (OR) 2.2, confidence interval (CI) 2.0–2.4] and have fewer followers (median 544 vs. 1578, pSocial media analysis can be used to characterize and understand the content, tempo and location of abortion-related messages in today’s public spheres. Further research may inform proabortion efforts in terms of how information can be more effectively conveyed to the public. Implications This study has implications for how the medical community interfaces with the public with regards to abortion. It highlights how social media are actively exploited instruments for information and message dissemination. Researchers, providers and advocates should be monitoring social media and addressing the public through these modern channels

  10. Parental stress and dyadic consensus in early parenthood among mothers and fathers in Sweden.

    Widarsson, Margareta; Engström, Gabriella; Berglund, Anders; Tydén, Tanja; Lundberg, Pranee

    2014-12-01

    Parental stress can negatively affect the parent-child relationship and reduce the well-being of the whole family. Family disagreement is associated with parental divorce and with psychological problems in children. The aim was to examine perceived parental stress and draw comparisons among mothers and among fathers, in relation to educational level, parental experience, existence of a parental role model and sense of coherence. The aim was also to examine perceived dyadic consensus and its association with perceived parental stress within couples. Questionnaires were completed by 320 mothers and 315 fathers at 1 week and 18 months post-partum. The Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherence Scale and the Dyadic Consensus Subscale were used. Low education, lack of a role model and poor sense of coherence promoted stress in mothers in the subareas social isolation and spouse relationship problems, while lack of a role model and poor sense of coherence promoted stress in fathers in the subarea social isolation. Furthermore, parental experiences promoted stress among mothers in the subarea incompetence while this was not seen among fathers. Mothers perceived a higher level of dyadic consensus than fathers in the items recreational activities, friends, aims and life goals, time spent together, and decisions regarding career and personal development. Household tasks was the only item where fathers perceived a higher level of dyadic consensus than mothers. Additionally, there were associations between perceived parental stress and dyadic consensus in several items and in the total score. To promote parents' health and family stability, health professionals should consider factors affecting stress and stress reactions, and take gender roles into account. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. Mothers’ Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms Across Mexican-Origin Adolescent Daughters’ Transition to Parenthood

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Harvey-Mendoza, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    This study draws from a life-course perspective in examining trajectories of mothers’ depressive symptoms across their adolescent daughters’ adjustment to parenthood in 204 Mexican-origin families using latent class growth analysis. Four distinct trajectories were identified based on mothers’ depressive symptoms prior to the birth and 10 and 24 months postpartum. Two trajectories were characterized by stable levels of depressive symptoms but were differentiated in their levels of symptoms (i.e., High/Stable and Low/Stable). The remaining two trajectories were characterized by changes from pre- to post-birth, with one group exhibiting increases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Increase) and the other group characterized by decreases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Decrease). Consistent with a risk and resilience perspective, mothers with more disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances and fewer intrapersonal resources (i.e., self-esteem, ethnic identity affirmation) were more likely to be members of the High/Stable group. In addition, daughters of mothers in the High/Stable group were more likely to have lower self-esteem as compared to daughters in the other three groups. Collectively, these findings suggested that the High/Stable group was at risk for adjustment difficulties from the third trimester to two years postpartum. In contrast, membership in the Low/Post-Birth Decrease trajectory group was associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem for mothers and daughters. Findings point to the need to identify mothers who are at risk for depressive symptoms during their adolescent daughters’ pregnancy and offer prevention and intervention programs that reduce risks and enhance protective factors. PMID:23750520

  12. What explains violated expectations of parent-child relationship in transition to parenthood?

    Flykt, Marjo; Palosaari, Esa; Lindblom, Jallu; Vänskä, Mervi; Poikkeus, Piia; Repokari, Leena; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2014-04-01

    Parent-child relationship is created already in prenatal fantasies and expectations of the child-to-be. Negative violation of these expectations after the child is born is known to be harmful for the parent-child relationship. Yet, research is scarce about the medical and psychological factors contributing to violated expectations (VE). This study models the role of parent-, delivery- and infant-related underlying mechanisms for VE. It further compares parents with assisted reproductive treatment (ART) and spontaneous conception (SC), and primi- and multiparous couples. The couples (n = 743) separately filled in questionnaires concerning their prenatal expectations (T1) and 2 months postnatal representations (T2) of intimacy and autonomy in the relationship with their child, measured with Subjective Family Picture Test. A negative or positive discrepancy indicated violated expectations. The parent-related (mental health and marital quality), delivery-related (maternal and paternal birth experience, unplanned Caesarean, and amount of analgesia) and infant-related (infant health problems, difficult infant characteristics, and parental worry) factors were assessed at T2. Results show that among mothers, the associations were mostly indirect and mediated via mental health problems. Among fathers, the associations were direct, marital problems most crucially predicting VE. ART fathers were less susceptible to VE resulting from infant-related problems than SC fathers, but more susceptible to VE resulting from delivery problems. Delivery- and infant-related factors also predicted VE differently among primi- and multiparous mothers. Considering factors that contribute to VE is important when working with couples in transition to parenthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants and the experience of parenthood: a synthesis of the qualitative literature.

    Merry, Lisa; Pelaez, Sandra; Edwards, Nancy C

    2017-09-19

    To synthesize the recent qualitative literature and identify the integrative themes describing the parenthood experiences of refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants. We searched seven online databases for the period January 2006 to February 2017. We included English and French published peer-reviewed articles and graduate-level dissertations, which qualitatively examined the parenthood experiences of refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants. We summarized study characteristics and performed a thematic analysis across the studies. One hundred thirty eight studies met inclusion criteria. All but three were conducted in high-income countries, mainly in the US. Migrants studied were mostly undocumented from Latin America and refugees from Sub-Saharan Africa. Almost all studies (93%) included mothers; about half (47%) included fathers; very few (5%) included extended family members. We identified three integrative themes: 1) experiencing hardship and/or loss in the context of precarious migration and past traumas; 2) building resilience and strength by bridging language, norms and expectations; and 3) living transnationally: obligations, challenges and resources. Each theme contributed to shaping the parenthood experience; the transnationalism theme intersected with the themes on hardship and loss and resilience and strength. More research is needed with fathers, extended family members, asylum-seekers and in the LMIC context. A transnational lens needs to be applied to programs, policies and future research for refugee, asylum-seeker and undocumented migrant parents. Addressing transnational concerns (family separation and reunification), acknowledging transnational resources, fostering a transnational family identity and conducting transnational and longitudinal studies are potentially pivotal approaches for this sub-population of parents.

  14. The impact of parenthood on Canadians' objectively measured physical activity: an examination of cross-sectional population-based data.

    Gaston, Anca; Edwards, Sarah A; Doelman, Amy; Tober, Jo Ann

    2014-11-03

    Parenthood has been associated with declines in leisure-time exercise and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), but less is known about its impact on sedentary time and light-intensity activity. Although the health benefits of MVPA are well established, a growing body of research has been showing that even after controlling for MVPA levels, a detrimental dose-response association exists between sedentary time and adverse health outcomes and a beneficial dose-response association exists for light-intensity activity. This study examined the impact of parenthood, the number of children in the home, and the age of the youngest child on objectively measured physical activity (i.e., accelerometer derived daily minutes of sedentary, light, and MVPA) among a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 2234 men and women who participated in the 2009-2011 Canadian Health Measures Survey. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, ANCOVAs indicated that parents engaged in more light activity but less MVPA than non-parents and women whose youngest child was aged 12-15 years were more sedentary than women without children. Among both men and women, having a child activity and lowest MVPA. Modest differences emerged between the physical activity level of parents and non-parents for both genders and across intensity levels. In general, parenthood was associated with less MVPA and more light-intensity activity, and more differences emerged among women compared to men. More research is needed before conclusions can be drawn regarding the health consequences of these differences.

  15. 代孕亲子关系认定规则研究%The Study of Surrogate parenthood rules

    周青莹

    2016-01-01

    代孕是当今众多国家所面临的一个难题,而与代孕息息相关的代孕亲子关系如何认定是亟待解决的一个问题。在代孕亲子关系认定中主要存在着血统说、子宫分娩说、契约说和子女最佳利益说四种学说。境外对于代孕问题所采取的态度大相径庭,有完全认可代孕、全面禁止代孕和有限认可代孕三种态度。我国目前对于代孕的全面禁止并不完全适应当今社会的发展,代孕在我国有合法化的必要性,但同时也不能完全放开,必须满足有限适用、非商业化和主体资格这几个条件才可适用。代孕亲子关系认定应当坚持血统说优先,兼顾子女最佳利益说这一规则。%Surrogacy has become a problem that many countries have to face. what is closely related to surroga-cy is surrogate parenthood rules that has become a problem have to solve. There are four viewpoints in surrogate parenthood rules, including the blood relationship theory, the uterus childbirth theory, contract doctrine and the theory of best interests for children. The attitudes to the surrogate parenthood rules vary from country to country. There are three kinds of attitudes including fully accredited surrogate attitude, completely prohibit surrogate and limited recognition. At present, the comprehensive prohibition of the surrogacy in our country is not fully adapted to the development of modern society. Surrogacy is necessary for legitimacy in china, but it can’ t be fully liberalized. It is possible to apply if it meets the conditions of finite application, subject qualification and non-commercializa-tion. Surrogate parenthood rules should keep to the blood relationship theory priority, both keep to the theory of best interests for children.

  16. Commodity team motivation and performance

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between...

  17. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between...

  18. Motivating the Knowledge Worker

    2010-01-01

    Herzberg . The Two - factor Theory asserts that motivators and de-motivators are mutually exclusive sets of factors . This research supports...various theories of motivation and the data collected from this effort, the author developed a two -dimensional model of the factors that motivate... Theory X/ Theory Y Two - factor Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Operant Conditioning Protection Motivation Theory

  19. Global warming

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  20. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...

  1. Global solidarity, migration and global health inequity.

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa

    2012-09-01

    The grounds for global solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a global concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to global inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of global solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of global solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: global solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address global health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Parenthood and factors that influence outdoor recreational physical activity from a gender perspective

    Hansson Eva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A physically active life promotes both physical and mental health, increasing well-being and quality of life. Physical activity (PA performed outdoors has been found to be particularly good for promoting well-being. However, participation in PA can change during the course of a lifetime. Parenthood has been found to be a life event associated with decreased PA, especially among women, although studies in the field are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate participation in outdoor recreational PA, and factors influencing participation among parents-to-be, with and without previous children, from a gender perspective. Methods This study included baseline data from parents-to-be, 224 women and 208 men, from the municipality of Karlskrona in south-east Sweden. Data collection was carried out during 2008-2009. We measured the self-reported amount of outdoor recreational PA undertaken during the last year and analysed the probability of participating in this PA using 25 variables covering individual and socioeconomic factors. Results Seventy-six per cent of the women and 65% of the men had participated in outdoor recreational PA, varying from several times per month to every day, over a 12-month period prior to one month before pregnancy. Participation in PA indoors and owning a dog or a horse emerged as the most important factors associated with the probability of participation in outdoor recreational PA. Men were affected by a greater number of factors than women, for example men who had a family situation that permitted outdoor recreational PA participated in activities to a greater extent than men without such a family situation. The physical aspect, i.e. improved physical condition, staying power and vigour, also played a significant role with regard to participation among men. Conclusions Becoming a parent is a life-changing event that affects participation in PA. By offering family-oriented PA choices that involve

  3. Improving Outcomes for Teenage Pregnancy and Early Parenthood for Young People in Out-of-Home Care: A Review of the Literature

    Mendes, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Young people leaving out-of-home care are overrepresented among teenage parents. This paper examines the research literature and identifies key factors that contribute to early pregnancy and parenthood for care leavers, the challenges of early parenting and the positive effects of early parenting. The implications for out-of-home care policy and…

  4. Discrimination in relation to parenthood reported by community psychiatric service users in the UK: a framework analysis.

    Jeffery, Debra; Clement, Sarah; Corker, Elizabeth; Howard, Louise M; Murray, Joanna; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-04-20

    Experienced discrimination refers to an individual's perception that they have been treated unfairly due to an attribute and is an important recent focus within stigma research. A significant proportion of mental health service users report experiencing mental illness-based discrimination in relation to parenthood. Existing studies in this area have not gone beyond prevalence, therefore little is known about the nature of experienced discrimination in relation to parenthood, and how is it constituted. This study aims to generate a typology of community psychiatric service users' reports of mental illness-based discrimination in relation to becoming or being a parent. A secondary aim is to assess the prevalence of these types of experienced discrimination. In a telephone survey 2026 community psychiatric service users in ten UK Mental Health service provider organisations (Trusts) were asked about discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC). The sample were asked if, due to their mental health problem, they had been treated unfairly in starting a family, or in their role as a parent, and gave examples of this. Prevalence is reported and the examples of experienced discrimination in relation to parenthood were analysed using the framework method of qualitative analysis. Three hundred and four participants (73% female) reported experienced discrimination, with prevalences of 22.5% and 28.3% for starting a family and for the parenting role respectively. Participants gave 89 examples of discrimination about starting a family and 228 about parenting, and these occurred in social and professional contexts. Ten themes were identified. These related to being seen as an unfit parent; people not being understanding; being stopped from having children; not being allowed to see their children; not getting the support needed; children being affected; children avoiding their parents; children's difficulties being blamed

  5. Motivation programmes of organizations

    Pízová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...

  6. ‘Hail, reverend Structure!’ Questioning Patriarchal Parenthood in the Aquatic Imagery of Grottoes in Court Masques

    Caterina Guardini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jonson’s Neptune’s Triumph for the Return of Albion (1624, Daniel’s Tethy’s Festival (1610, and Jonson’s Love’s Triumph through Callipolis (1631 explore the representation of royal private and political patriarchy within the Stuart courts of James I and Charles I. By questioning the representation of gender and parenthood, this paper aims at conjecturing the conflictual variety of audience-responses to the aquatic imagery of Mannerist garden grottoes at work in these shows in order to investigate whether the motherly agency of Queen Anna is really erased by James I’s imagery of aquatic patriarchy or if it survives in Charles’s mnemonic reception during his later performances on the masquing stage.

  7. Father involvement and marital relationship during transition to parenthood: differences between dual and single-earner families.

    Menéndez, Susana; Hidalgo, M Victoria; Jiménez, Lucía; Moreno, M Carmen

    2011-11-01

    Research into the process of becoming mother or father shows very conclusively that this important life transition is accompanied by both a decrease in marital quality and a more traditional division of labour. In this paper these changes are analyzed with special emphasis on the relationships between them and exploring the role played in this process by the mother's work status. Results showed a significant link between the development of marital quality and violated expectations regarding father involvement on childrearing. Dual-earner families were characterized by a specific pattern of changes, with greater stability than single-earner families in marital and parental roles during transition to parenthood and a significant role played by spouse support as a partner, but not as a parent.

  8. The Decoupling of Marriage and Parenthood? Trends in the Timing of Marital First Births, 1945–2002

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Smock, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Family formation changed dramatically over the twentieth century in the United States. The impact of these changes on childbearing has primarily been studied in terms of nonmarital fertility. However, changes in family formation behavior also have implications for fertility within marriage. We use data from ten fertility surveys to describe changes in the timing of marital childbearing from the 1940s through the 21st century for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women. Based on harmonized data from the Integrated Fertility Survey Series, our results suggest increasing divergence in fertility timing for white women. A growing proportion of marriages begin with a premarital conception; at the same time, an increasing proportion of white women are postponing fertility within marriage. For black women, marital fertility is increasingly postponed beyond the early years of marriage. Evaluating the sequencing of marriage and parenthood over time is critical to understanding the changing meaning of marriage. PMID:24791019

  9. Command and motivation

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....

  10. Gamification from the Viewpoint of Motivational Theory

    Kianoosh Karimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gamification is defined as the use of game elements and game design techniques in non-game contexts. It is expected that global gamification market will grow to USD $5.5 Billion by 2018. This tremendous market growth relies on basic human instinct to get enticed by both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. This study aims to provide insights into gamification approach from motivation perspective. For this purpose, conceptual foundations of gamification described, including the structure and Benefits of Gamification, and then related motivation theories reviewed.

  11. Pregnancy and Parenthood among Surgery Residents: Results of the First Nationwide Survey of General Surgery Residency Program Directors.

    Sandler, Britt J; Tackett, John J; Longo, Walter E; Yoo, Peter S

    2016-06-01

    Although family and lifestyle are known to be important factors for medical students choosing a specialty, there is a lack of research about general surgery residency program policies regarding pregnancy and parenthood. Similarly, little is known about program director attitudes about these issues. We performed a cross-sectional survey of United States (US) general surgery residency program directors. Sixty-six respondents completed the survey: 70% male, 59% from university-based programs, and 76% between 40 and 59 years of age. Two-thirds (67%) reported having a maternity leave policy. Less than half (48%) reported having a leave policy for the non-childbearing parent (paternity leave). Leave duration was most frequently reported as 6 weeks for maternity leave (58%) and 1 week for paternity leave (45%). Thirty-eight percent of general surgery residency program directors (PDs) reported availability of on-site childcare, 58% reported availability of lactation facilities. Forty-six percent of university PDs said that the research years are the best time to have a child during residency; 52% of independent PDs said that no particular time during residency is best. Sixty-one percent of PDs reported that becoming a parent negatively affects female trainees' work, including placing an increased burden on fellow residents (33%). Respondents perceived children as decreasing female trainees' well-being more often than male trainees' (32% vs 9%, p leave, length of leave, as well as inconsistency in access to childcare and availability of spaces to express and store breast milk. Program directors perceived parenthood to affect the training and well-being of female residents more adversely than that of male residents. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  12. The transition to parenthood and well-being: the impact of partner status and work hour transitions.

    Keizer, Renske; Dykstra, Pearl A; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2010-08-01

    Using data from the first two waves of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study for 338 women and 262 men, we examine the consequences of making the transition to parenthood for life satisfaction, loneliness, positive affect, negative affect, and partnership satisfaction. We extend previous work by taking transitions in partner status and work hours into account. Results show a moderate impact of becoming a parent on well-being. In so far as effects of making the transition to parenthood emerge, they are attributable to changes in partner status and work hours. First, the decrease in negative affect upon making the transition to motherhood is attributable to the group of women who increase their working hours. Second, the detrimental impact of making the transition to motherhood on partnership satisfaction is attributable to the group of new mothers who quit their job. Third, the detrimental impact of making the transition to fatherhood on loneliness is attributable to the group of new fathers who become married. There is one exception to this pattern of partner status and work hours as mechanisms for changes in well-being. Men who become fathers remain less satisfied with their partnership, even when transitions in partner status and work hours have been taken into account. In the discussion-section, we consider the possible underestimation of negative effects because of the focus on the continuously partnered. We also reflect on our results in the light of the high incidence of part-time work in the Netherlands and Dutch policies aimed at supporting new parents.

  13. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  14. Motivation in medical education.

    Pelaccia, Thierry; Viau, Rolland

    2017-02-01

    Motivation is a concept which has fascinated researchers for many decades. The field of medical education has become interested in motivation recently, having always assumed that medical students must be motivated because of their commitment to highly specific training, leading to a very specific profession. However, motivation is a major determinant of the quality of learning and success, the lack of which may well explain why teachers sometimes observe medical students who are discouraged, have lost interest or abandon their studies, with a feeling of powerlessness or resignation. After describing the importance of motivation for learning in medicine, this Guide will define the concept of motivation, setting it within the context of a social cognitive approach. In the second part of this Guide, recommendations are made, based upon the so-called "motivational dynamic model", which provides a multitude of various strategies with positive effects on students' motivation to learn.

  15. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  16. Strong intrinsic motivation

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  17. Motivation in medical students

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate medical students’ motivation, particularly the importance of quality of motivation, factors influencing and outcomes and to explore how these can be applied to ...

  18. Motivation and career development

    Flemr, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this diploma thesis is to outline various theories of work motivation, career growth and their practical application in sales team management within a sales organization. In the theoretical part the paper deals with the definition of essential terms including but not limited to motivation, work motivation, career and work career. Moreover, it focuses on selected motivational theories, basic criteria and current principles of managing the work career, career growth and de...

  19. Motivering van spoorbaaninstandhoudingstoesighouers

    2015-01-01

    M.Com. (Business Management) Personnel motivation is one of management's most important tasks, but due to a lack of understanding of the nature of motivation, it is also frequently neglected resulting in losses to the organisation. The purpose of this document was to perform a motivation study on the supervisory staff of a railway maintenance depot. With the results of this study the cause of the low level of motivation was determined, followed by recommendations to management in order to ...

  20. Unges motivation i udskolingen

    Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi; Hjort-Madsen, Peder

    Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen......Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen...

  1. Learner Motivation and Interest

    Daskalovska, Nina; Gudeva, Liljana Koleva; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...

  2. Understanding Student Motivation

    Seifert, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…

  3. Theme: Motivating Students.

    Gartin, Stacy A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "How Do I Turn Your Crank to Get You Going?" (Gartin); "How Do You Say 'I Don't Know' and Not Feel Guilty?" (Dickson); "Basics of Motivation" (Rankin); "Challenge to Lead Motivates Students" (D'Haem, Krueger); "Don't Just Tell Me, Teach Me!" (Custer, Leugers); "The 'I' in Motivation" (Woody); and "Student Self Discipline Scale" (Coffman).…

  4. Motivation, Management, and Performance.

    Olmstead, Joseph A.

    There is an increasing interest today in the ways in which human motivation contributes to the productivity and performance of personnel. This early study of motivation management emphasizes that the organizational environment is a principal determinant of the quality of employee motivation. Concrete considerations in the management of motivation…

  5. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  6. Personlighed og motivation

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    2017-01-01

    ses som forskelle i deres personlighed og i deres motivation. Kapitlet er opbygget således, at ganske kort præciseres først de to begreber, personlighed og motivation, hvorefter udvalgte teoretiske perspektiver på personlighed og motivation tages op. Til sammen vil disse bidrage til at besvare...

  7. Researching Student Motivation

    Alkaabi, Sultan Ali R.; Alkaabi, Warda; Vyver, Glen

    2017-01-01

    Motivation has been studied by different scientists in different fields of knowledge such as biology, psychology, and education for a long period, which has cultivated a wealth of knowledge in these disciplines. The richness in motivation theories poses complexity in motivation research. Due to these complexities, many researchers focus on using a…

  8. Motivator-manager.

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2009-01-01

    The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs.

  9. Do Employers Prefer Fathers? Evidence from a Field Experiment Testing the Gender by Parenthood Interaction Effect on Callbacks to Job Applications

    Bygren, Magnus; Erlandsson, Anni; Gahler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In research on fatherhood premiums and motherhood penalties in career-related outcomes, employers discriminatory behaviours are often argued to constitute a possible explanation for observed gender gaps. However, there is as yet no conclusive evidence of such discrimination. Utilizing a field experiment design, we test (i) whether job applicants are subject to recruitment discrimination on the basis of their gender and parenthood status, and (ii) whether discrimination by gender and parenthoo...

  10. BULGARIAN TEACHERS’ CAREER MOTIVATORS

    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of several studies of teachers’ career motivation since Bulgarian Renaissance till nowadays is presented in this paper. 203 Bulgarian teachers in public schools were studied by means of a questionnaire created by Slavchov & Stoyanova (2007 measuring career motivational types, according to Moses’ typology (2003. The career motivational type of Authenticity seekers was the most preferred by the studied Bulgarian teachers, followed by Personal developers and Stability seekers. Career builders as a career motivational type was minor career motivator, the least preferred one by Bulgarian teachers. A lot of significant positive correlations existed between teachers’ career motivational types. Some social-demographic factors (such as gender, specialty, work experience, and age differentiated teachers’ career motivators. The type of Autonomy seekers was more preferred career motivator by male teachers than by female teachers in correspondence to the traditional stereotypes for men. Longer teachers’ work experience and teachers’ advance in age were related to more frequency of Stability seekers, but less frequency of Novelty seekers career motivator. Preschool and elementary school teachers preferred more strongly Authenticity seekers as a career motivator than teachers in natural sciences and mathematics. Establishing major career motivators for teachers may be related to opportunities for improvement of performance and work satisfaction.

  11. Motivation from control.

    Eitam, Baruch; Kennedy, Patrick M; Tory Higgins, E

    2013-09-01

    Human motivation is sensitive to value-to the outcomes of actions. People invest mental and physical resources for obtaining desired results or for stopping and reversing undesired ones. Accordingly, people's motivation is sensitive to information about their standing in relation to outcome attainment ('outcome feedback'). In this paper, we argue and present the first evidence for the existence of another motivational sensitivity in humans-a sensitivity to our degree of control on the environment and hence to information about that control ('control feedback'). We show that when actions have even trivial and constant perceptual effects, participants' motivation to perform is enhanced. We then show that increased motivation is not because more information about task performance is available and that motivation is increased only in conditions in which control over the effects can be firmly established by the mind. We speculate on the implications for understanding motivation, and potentially, physical and mental health.

  12. Public Service Motivation

    Raluca-Marilena Mihalcioiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.

  13. Occupational safety motivation

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...

  14. (Mis)managing employee motivation?

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Motivated employees are crucial to all organizations, but some management initiatives may actually decrease motivation. Motivation crowding theory thus expects that command and incentives – if they are perceived as controlling - crowd out intrinsic motivation. The perception is thus expected...

  15. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2007-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing the motivation and performance of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Several challenges are related to the classical dilemma of matrix organization, but with particular implications in this specific context of purchasing. We report on a reward...... system which was intended to support collective team effort, yet enhanced conflicts of interest in the matrix structure, discuss leadership, goal alignment and career tracks, and debate when and whether a team structure is appropriate in the pursuit of corporate purchasing synergies. The article is based...

  16. How Can Entrepreneurs Motivate Crowdsourcing Participants?

    Asrar Alshaikh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing is a way to access a global crowd of talented people and to channel their talent and creative effort towards some useful endeavour. Technology entrepreneurs who may have limited resources, especially during the start-up phase of the business, will be attracted to crowdsourcing as a means to access funding, knowledge, subject matter experts, and resources on a global scale. In this article, we review the published research on crowdsourcing as it relates to motivation, and distil the insights from that research that will be useful to technology entrepreneurs. First, we organize the published research into three streams according to crowd type: i task-based public crowd, ii information-exchange public crowd, and iii employee-based crowd. Next, we identify the motivational drivers common to all streams as well as the motivational drivers that are unique to each stream. Finally, we offer five recommendations for technology entrepreneurs seeking to apply crowdsourcing.

  17. Mothers' accounts of the impact on emotional wellbeing of organised peer support in pregnancy and early parenthood: a qualitative study.

    McLeish, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-01-13

    The transition to parenthood is a potentially vulnerable time for mothers' mental health and approximately 9-21% of women experience depression and/or anxiety at this time. Many more experience sub-clinical symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as stress, low self-esteem and a loss of confidence. Women's emotional wellbeing is more at risk if they have little social support, a low income, are single parents or have a poor relationship with their partner. Peer support can comprise emotional, affirmational, informational and practical support; evidence of its impact on emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and afterwards is mixed. This was a descriptive qualitative study, informed by phenomenological social psychology, exploring women's experiences of the impact of organised peer support on their emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and in early parenthood. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were undertaken with women who had received peer support provided by ten projects in different parts of England, including both projects offering 'mental health' peer support and others offering more broadly-based peer support. The majority of participants were disadvantaged Black and ethnic minority women, including recent migrants. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. 47 mothers were interviewed. Two key themes emerged: (1) 'mothers' self-identified emotional needs', containing the subthemes 'emotional distress', 'stressful circumstances', 'lack of social support', and 'unwilling to be open with professionals'; and (2) 'how peer support affects mothers', containing the subthemes 'social connection', 'being heard', 'building confidence', 'empowerment', 'feeling valued', 'reducing stress through practical support' and 'the significance of "mental health" peer experiences'. Women described how peer support contributed to reducing their low mood and anxiety by overcoming feelings of isolation, disempowerment and

  18. How do Epistemological Beliefs Affect Training Motivation?

    Ingrid Molan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that human resources development through workplace training is one of the major investments in the workforce in today’s globalized and challenging market. As training motivation influences employees’ preparation for the workplace training, their respond to the programme, their learning outcome, their performance levels, and use of acquired knowledge and skills in their workplace it seems logical to investigate and determine antecedents of training motivation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the concepts of epistemological beliefs, training motivation and the actual participation in the workplace training. We predicted that epistemological beliefs would have an effect on training motivation and actual participation on the workplace training and that there would be a positive relationship between the concepts, meaning that the more sophisticated epistemological beliefs would lead to higher motivation and participation. To test the epistemological beliefs, the Epistemic Belief Inventory (Schraw, Bendixen & Dunkle, 2002 was used and adjusted to the workplace setting. Then the results were compared to employees’ training motivation, which was measured with a questionnaire made by authors of the present study, and employees’ actual number of training hours annually. The results confirmed the relationship between the concepts as well as a significant predicting value of epistemological beliefs on motivation and actual participation. Epistemic Belief Inventory did not yield expected results reported by the authors of the instrument therefore the limitations, possible other interpretations and suggested further exploration are discussed.

  19. How to Motivate Employees?

    Andreja Kušar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to motivate employees and keep them motivated? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what motivates employees and what motivates employees for work. Method: The results of the questionnaire are graphically presented and described. Random sampling was utilized that included participants from various professional areas and demographic characteristics. The results showed a relationship between individual motivational factors related to education, age and type of employment. All of the questions were closed - type questions except for the last question, which was an open question, in which the respondents answered in their own words. Questions were analyzed using frequency analysis of individual responses. Pearson's Chi - squared test, Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher’s Exact test was made using R Commander. Results: The research findings showed which motivational factors motivate employees the most. These are especially non - material motivational factors, such as good relationships, jobs with challenges, advancement opportunities, clear instructions, good work conditions, company reputation, etc. Organization: The study will help managers understand their role in motivating employees as well as the types of motivational factors. Society: The research shows how individuals are motivated. Originality: Certain motivators in the study are ranked differently than was found in previous literature. Most probably the reason is that the respondents in this study favored intangible motivators (good relations with leadership and their colleagues, good working conditions, etc.. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was that the sample included employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. To enhance the study and to find similar results as in previous literature, more questions should have been asked as well as increasing the sample size.

  20. Hospital nurses' work motivation.

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p extrinsic motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Language Learning Motivation, Self and Identity: Current Theoretical Perspectives

    Ushioda, Ema

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the impact of globalization and the dominant status of English have provoked critical discussion in the L2 motivation field. Traditional concepts such as integrative motivation lose their explanatory power when English is becoming a "must-have" basic educational skill and when there is no clearly defined target language community. In…

  2. The Neuroscience of Growth Mindset and Intrinsic Motivation.

    Ng, Betsy

    2018-01-26

    Our actions can be triggered by intentions, incentives or intrinsic values. Recent neuroscientific research has yielded some results about the growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. With the advances in neuroscience and motivational studies, there is a global need to utilize this information to inform educational practice and research. Yet, little is known about the neuroscientific interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. This paper attempts to draw on the theories of growth mindset and intrinsic motivation, together with contemporary ideas in neuroscience, outline the potential for neuroscientific research in education. It aims to shed light on the relationship between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation in terms of supporting a growth mindset to facilitate intrinsic motivation through neural responses. Recent empirical research from the educational neuroscience perspective that provides insights into the interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation will also be discussed.

  3. The Neuroscience of Growth Mindset and Intrinsic Motivation

    Betsy Ng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our actions can be triggered by intentions, incentives or intrinsic values. Recent neuroscientific research has yielded some results about the growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. With the advances in neuroscience and motivational studies, there is a global need to utilize this information to inform educational practice and research. Yet, little is known about the neuroscientific interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. This paper attempts to draw on the theories of growth mindset and intrinsic motivation, together with contemporary ideas in neuroscience, outline the potential for neuroscientific research in education. It aims to shed light on the relationship between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation in terms of supporting a growth mindset to facilitate intrinsic motivation through neural responses. Recent empirical research from the educational neuroscience perspective that provides insights into the interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation will also be discussed.

  4. Second Language Learning Motivation

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of ESP learning motivation. The meaning of motivation and three main approaches to motivational psychology: expectancy-value theory, goal-directed theory and the self-determination theory are presented, two distinct orientations for learning a language: integrative and instrumental are described in the paper. The importance of needs analysis to ESP learning is stressed and the main conditions (interest in the topic and activity; relevance to the students’ lives; expectancy of success and feelings of being in control and satisfaction in the outcome for motivation are described. The skills that ESP learners need to develop are specified. The description of approaches to motivational psychology is proposed, as motivation is of great significance in foreign language learning.

  5. Motivation and remuneration

    SOUKUP, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor work is analysis of remuneration and motivation in travel agencies and companies, where is established performance pay system for self-employed. Work consists of literature review and practical part. Literature review contains information about motivation and remuneration. Practical part includes information about analyzed companies, analysis remuneration and motivation, evaluation analyzed companies and conceiving performance pay system, in which are participants sel...

  6. Motivation in Experiential Education

    Porada, Petr

    2007-01-01

    This project is dedicated to study of motivation in experiential courses. More exactly it tries to describe motivation means suitable for teenage trainees to make them cooperate willingly and actively on course asset. And not just that. It also describes factors which have influence on quality and quantity of aplicated effort, manners how to enforce trainees to carry on working when some problem appears and also how the motivation is affected by the instructor's and peers' admittance. The pro...

  7. Employee motivation and benefits

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  8. Jack Michael's Motivation

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of motivating operation (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of drive. Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on how to study motivation by shifting its origins from the organism to the environment. Michael's account also served to stimulate applied research and to better understand behavioral functio...

  9. Adaptive Motivation Theory.

    1982-02-01

    concept of motivation at all. Nuttin (1973) placed -5- Landy: ONR Annual Report certain hedonistic overtones on White’s principle of effectance motivation...deficiencies of motivation theories become particularly apparent in dealing with the issue of boredom . Tn terms of objective reality, it would seem...with expcsure to a c nstant stimulus set, we might justifiably conclude that there is a regular sequence which characterizes the appearance of boredom

  10. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  11. The Motivated Project Team

    2009-12-01

    Financial incentives that match level of achievement • Regular, constructive feedback. Hierarchy of Needs ( Abraham H. Maslow ) Team members can be...Much has been written regarding motivational Defense AT&L: November-December 2009 58 theory . To further complicate mat- ters, some motivational... theories clearly contradict others, and a manager’s ability to motivate is, to no small degree, related to his or her leadership approach and inter

  12. Childbearing across borders: Fertility and parenthood attitudes and decisions among breast cancer survivors in USA and Portugal.

    Gonçalves, Vânia; Hudson, Janella; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Morris, Julie; Lee, M Catherine; Donovan, Kristine A; Sutton, Steven K; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2018-04-16

    To compare fertility and childbearing attitudes and decisions of Portuguese and American female reproductive aged breast cancer survivors. This was a cross-sectional study of 102 young breast cancer survivors (59 from Portugal and 43 from USA). Demographic, clinical and reproductive information were collected. Fertility and parenthood attitudes and decisions were assessed through a self-report questionnaire devised specifically for the study. Fertility issues became very important after the diagnosis for most of the women (51%). Few differences existed between USA and Portuguese participants. USA participants were more likely to undergo FP (23% USA vs Portugal 5%, p = 0.01). Portuguese women were more dissatisfied with their physician's explanations about fertility (Portugal: 23% vs USA: 3%; p = 0.01). Overall, women relied on their oncologist for fertility information (70%); only Portuguese women discussed fertility with their family medicine physician (11%). Overall, women showed positive attitudes towards motherhood. Portuguese women were more likely to report their partners placed more value on the family after their illness (Portuguese agree: 55% vs USA agree: 14%; p USA and Portuguese samples were found on fertility and childbearing attitudes and decisions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fathers’ experiences of being in change during pregnancy and early parenthood in a context of intimate partner violence

    Kristin Håland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a large public health problem with far-reaching consequences for those involved. The aim of this study was to explore fathers’ experiences of change during pregnancy and early parenthood in the context of IPV. Methods: The methodological approach in this interview study was hermeneutics, based on a lifeworld perspective. Ten men, who had subjected their partners to violence during the childbearing period, and had become fathers within the previous 6 years, participated. Results: The analysis revealed four themes: beginning to acknowledge that you are inflicting violence, receiving confirmation that you are more than just a perpetrator of violence, becoming aware of the child, and the desire to receive support in the process of learning how to become a father. Levinas’ concept “the face of the other” is used to interpret the findings. Conclusion: This study contributes to a more nuanced and expanded picture of IPV. It shows that men who inflict violence want to be and learn how to be fathers. We need more knowledge about how to stop violent acts and support these men in the process of fatherhood.

  14. Costs to implement an effective transition-to-parenthood program for couples: Analysis of the Family Foundations program

    Jones, Damon E.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Hostetler, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The transition to parenthood involves many stressors that can have implications for the couple relationship as well as the developmental environment of the child. Scholars and policymakers have recognized the potential for interventions that can help couples navigate these stressors to improve parenting and coparenting strategies. Such evidence-based programs are scarcely available, however, and little is known about the resources necessary to carry out these programs. This study examines the costs and resources necessary to implement Family Foundations, a program that addresses the multifaceted issues facing first-time parents through a series of pre- and post-natal classes. Costs were determined using a 6-step analytic process and are based on the first implementation of the program carried out through a five-year demonstration project. This assessment demonstrates how overall costs change across years as new cohorts of families are introduced, and how cost breakdowns differ by category as needs shift from training group leaders to sustaining program services. Information from this cost analysis helps clarify how the program could be made more efficient in subsequent implementations. We also consider how results may be used in future research examining economic benefits of participation in the program. PMID:24603052

  15. Perceptions and experiences of parenthood and maternal health care among Latin American women living in Spain: a qualitative study.

    Barona-Vilar, Carmen; Más-Pons, Rosa; Fullana-Montoro, Ana; Giner-Monfort, Jordi; Grau-Muñoz, Arantxa; Bisbal-Sanz, Josep

    2013-04-01

    to explore the experiences and perceptions of parenthood and maternal health care among Latin American women living in Spain. an exploratory qualitative research using focus groups and thematic analysis of the discussion. three focus groups with 26 women from Bolivia and Ecuador and three focus groups with 24 midwives were performed in three towns in the Valencian Community receiving a large influx of immigrants. the women interpreted motherhood as the role through which they achieve fulfilment and assumed that they were the ones who could best take care of their children. They perceived that men usually make decisions about sex and pregnancy and recognised a poor or inadequate use of contraceptive methods in planning their pregnancies. Women reported that it was not necessary to go as soon and as frequently for health examinations during pregnancy as the midwives suggested. The main barriers identified to health-care services were linked to insecure or illegal employment status, inflexible appointment timetables for prenatal checkups and sometimes to ignorance about how public services worked. empowering immigrant women is essential to having a long-term positive effect on their reproductive health. Antenatal care providers should be trained to build maternity care that is culturally sensitive and responds better to the health needs of different pregnant women and their newborns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Costs to implement an effective transition-to-parenthood program for couples: analysis of the Family Foundations program.

    Jones, Damon E; Feinberg, Mark E; Hostetler, Michelle L

    2014-06-01

    The transition to parenthood involves many stressors that can have implications for the couple relationship as well as the developmental environment of the child. Scholars and policymakers have recognized the potential for interventions that can help couples navigate these stressors to improve parenting and coparenting strategies. Such evidence-based programs are scarcely available, however, and little is known about the resources necessary to carry out these programs. This study examines the costs and resources necessary to implement Family Foundations, a program that addresses the multifaceted issues facing first-time parents through a series of pre- and post-natal classes. Costs were determined using a 6-step analytic process and are based on the first implementation of the program carried out through a five-year demonstration project. This assessment demonstrates how overall costs change across years as new cohorts of families are introduced, and how cost breakdowns differ by category as needs shift from training group leaders to sustaining program services. Information from this cost analysis helps clarify how the program could be made more efficient in subsequent implementations. We also consider how results may be used in future research examining economic benefits of participation in the program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Motives and decisions for and against having children among nonheterosexuals and the impact of experiences of discrimination, internalized stigma, and social acceptance.

    Kleinert, Evelyn; Martin, Olaf; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve

    2015-01-01

    Same-sex parents are increasingly a topic of public discourse. A growing number of homosexuals openly speak about their desire to have children or are already living together in different family constellations. The current study examined the decisions for or against having children and the motivations behind those decisions among nonheterosexuals living in Germany. A sample of 1,283 nonheterosexuals participated by means of an online survey. As some nonheterosexual individuals do not identify themselves with a male or female gender identity, a third category, "gender different," was generated. Motives for (not) having children, perceptions of social acceptance, experiences of discrimination in relation to one's sexual orientation, and levels of internalized stigma were taken into account regarding their influence on the decision about parenthood. Most respondents (80%) reported that they did not have children. However, among this group, 43% stated that they had decided to have children later in their lives, 24% were undecided, and 11% had already decided against having children. The most important influences on the decision of whether to have children were respondents' age and their desire for emotional stabilization. Negative experiences as a result of sexual orientation and internalized stigma had no impact on the decisions regarding parenthood.

  18. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  19. Guided Reading and Motivation

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  20. Motives for Social Comparison.

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Mickelson, Kristin D.

    1995-01-01

    A set of motive statements for social comparison was elicited from one group of subjects and then rated in terms of usefulness by a second group of subjects. Analysis of these statements revealed six motives in response to two different hypothetical scenarios: self-evaluation, common bond, self-improvement, self-enhancement, altruism, and…

  1. Motivating University Researchers

    Hendriks, P.H.J.; Alves de Sousa, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation into how universities approach the need and means for motivating university researchers through their management practices. The role of work motivation for this group deserves attention because pressures from outside and within the universities are said

  2. Motivating Tomorrow's Biologists

    Musante, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The story of biology is far more complex and fascinating than straightforward facts or neatly labeled diagrams of structures and systems. Although exams can motivate students, the key to using these extrinsic motivators to increase student understanding lies in the way the assessments are designed and what they measure. Those involved in…

  3. What is this Motivation?

    Waters, T. R.

    1971-01-01

    Maslow's Hierarchial Theory, Mcgregor's X & Y Theory, and Hertsberg's Hygiene Theory all based on motivation, are examined as to their effectiveness to increase worker production. The author feels management should not concentrate on motivation and offers his own theory, Spiral Web Theory, to help increase employee productiveness. (RB)

  4. Emotion, Motivation, and Learning.

    Boekaerts, Monique, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Nine papers on the interrelationship between emotion, motivation, and learning are presented. Articles focusing on motivation were presented at the Second Conference of the European Association of Learning and Instruction in Tubingin, West Germany. Three other papers focus on anxiety, optimism-pessimism, stress, coping, and social support. (TJH)

  5. Motivation techniques for supervision

    Gray, N. D.

    1974-01-01

    Guide has been published which deals with various aspects of employee motivation. Training methods are designed to improve communication between supervisors and subordinates, to create feeling of achievement and recognition for every employee, and to retain personnel confidence in spite of some negative motivators. End result of training is reduction or prevention of errors.

  6. From motivation to acceptability

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well...

  7. Motivation in medical students

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis

  8. Mange unge mangler motivation

    Hutters, Camilla; Katznelson, Noemi

    2012-01-01

    Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring.......Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring....

  9. Motives for SMS Use

    Peters, O.; Almekinders, Johan; van Buren, Ruud; Snippers, Roy; Wessels, Jacqueline

    This study was designed to identify, from a uses-and-gratifications point of view, the motives that young people in the age of 12 to 25 have for using SMS. The study also aimed to assess whether these SMS motives are related to age, gender, current education, mobile phone experience, SMS experience

  10. Measuring Adolescent Science Motivation

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ("Gymnasium") completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one…

  11. Students' Motivation in Class.

    Cretu, Daniela

    2003-01-01

    Presents an approach that teachers can use to promote and investigate students' motivation to learn in the classroom. Notes that the strategies used are from Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking courses. Explains the following motivational devices: dual-entry diary; clusters; know/want to know/learned; think/pair/share; discussion web;…

  12. Periods and Nori motives

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  13. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...

  14. Neural Correlates of Attentional Flexibility during Approach and Avoidance Motivation

    Calcott, Rebecca D.; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic, momentary approach or avoidance motivational states have downstream effects on eventual goal success and overall well being, but there is still uncertainty about how those states affect the proximal neurocognitive processes (e.g., attention) that mediate the longer-term effects. Attentional flexibility, or the ability to switch between different attentional foci, is one such neurocognitive process that influences outcomes in the long run. The present study examined how approach and avoidance motivational states affect the neural processes involved in attentional flexibility using fMRI with the aim of determining whether flexibility operates via different neural mechanisms under these different states. Attentional flexibility was operationalized as subjects’ ability to switch between global and local stimulus features. In addition to subjects’ motivational state, the task context was manipulated by varying the ratio of global to local trials in a block in light of recent findings about the moderating role of context on motivation-related differences in attentional flexibility. The neural processes involved in attentional flexibility differ under approach versus avoidance states. First, differences in the preparatory activity in key brain regions suggested that subjects’ preparedness to switch was influenced by motivational state (anterior insula) and the interaction between motivation and context (superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule). Additionally, we observed motivation-related differences the anterior cingulate cortex during switching. These results provide initial evidence that motivation-induced behavioral changes may arise via different mechanisms in approach versus avoidance motivational states. PMID:26000735

  15. The Relative Importance of Motives for International Self-Initiated Mobility

    Thorn, Kaye

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the relative importance of the motives and sub-motives which influence a highly educated individual's decision to move across global boundaries. Design/methodology/approach: The approach takes a multi-dimensional perspective of mobility, resulting in the development of a range of motives for self-initiated…

  16. Running out of time: exploring women's motivations for social egg freezing.

    Baldwin, Kylie; Culley, Lorraine; Hudson, Nicky; Mitchell, Helene

    2018-04-12

    Few qualitative studies have explored women's use of social egg freezing. Derived from an interview study of 31 participants, this article explores the motivations of women using this technology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 users of social egg freezing resident in UK (n = 23), USA (n = 7) and Norway (n = 1). Interviews were face to face (n = 16), through Skype and Facetime (n = 9) or by telephone (n = 6). Data were analyzed using interpretive thematic analysis. Women's use of egg freezing was shaped by fears of running out of time to form a conventional family, difficulties in finding a partner and concerns about "panic partnering", together with a desire to avoid future regrets and blame. For some women, use of egg freezing was influenced by recent fertility or health diagnoses as well as critical life events. A fifth of the participants also disclosed an underlying fertility or health issue as affecting their decision. The study provides new insights in to the complex motivations women have for banking eggs. It identifies how women's use of egg freezing was an attempt to "preserve fertility" in the absence of the particular set of "life conditions" they regarded as crucial for pursuing parenthood. It also demonstrates that few women were motivated by a desire to enhance their career and that the boundaries between egg freezing for medical and for social reasons may be more porous than first anticipated.

  17. Motivation and learning physics

    Fischer, Hans Ernst; Horstendahl, Michaela

    1997-09-01

    Being involved in science education we cannot avoid confronting the problem of students' waning interest in physics. Therefore, we want to focus on arguments developed by new theoretical work in the field of motivation. Especially, we are attracted by the theory of motivation featured by Deci and Ryan, because it is related to an assumptions of human development similar to our own approach. Beneath elements of cognitive development, motivation is seen as a basic concept to describe students' learning in a physics classroom. German students at lower and upper secondary level regard physics as very difficult to learn, very abstract and dominated by male students. As a result physics at school continuously loses importance and acceptance although a lot of work has been done to modernise and develop the related physics courses. We assume that knowing about the influence of motivation on learning physics may lead to new insights in the design of classroom settings. Referring to Deci and Ryan, we use a model of motivation to describe the influence of two different teaching strategies (teacher and discourse oriented) on learning. Electrostatics was taught in year 8. The outcomes of a questionnaire which is able to evaluate defined, motivational states are compared with the interpretation of the same student's interaction in the related situation of the physics classroom. The scales of the questionnaire and the categories of analysis of the video-recording are derived from the same model of motivation.

  18. HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Stigma as a Multidimensional Barrier to Uptake Among Women Who Attend Planned Parenthood.

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Dovidio, John F; Tekeste, Mehrit; Taggart, Tamara; Galvao, Rachel W; Safon, Cara B; Willie, Tiara C; Caldwell, Abigail; Kaplan, Clair; Kershaw, Trace S

    2018-05-22

    PrEP uptake has lagged among US women. PrEP stigma is a recognized barrier to uptake among MSM but remains largely unexplored among women. This study examined the pervasiveness of PrEP stigma among US women and its implications for uptake. Setting/Methods: In a 2017 online survey of Planned Parenthood patients drawn from the three cities with the highest numbers of new HIV infections in Connecticut, 597 heterosexually-active, HIV-negative, PrEP-inexperienced women reported background characteristics, two dimensions of anticipated PrEP stigma (PrEP-user stereotypes and PrEP disapproval by others), and three indicators of potential PrEP uptake (interest in learning more about PrEP, intention to use PrEP, and comfort discussing PrEP with a provider). Participants commonly perceived PrEP-user stereotypes, with many believing that others would regard them as promiscuous (37%), HIV-positive (32%), bad (14%), or gay (11%) if they used PrEP. Thirty percent would feel ashamed to disclose PrEP use. Many participants expected disapproval by family (36%), sex partners (34%), and friends (25%). In adjusted analyses, perception of PrEP-user stereotypes was uniquely associated with lower comfort discussing PrEP with a provider. Expected PrEP disapproval by others was uniquely associated with less PrEP interest, less intention to use PrEP, and less comfort discussing PrEP with a provider. Exploratory moderation analyses suggested intention to use PrEP was greatest when participants anticipated low levels of both PrEP-user stereotypes and PrEP disapproval by others. Findings highlight the need for positive messaging targeting potential PrEP users and their social networks to increase PrEP acceptance and uptake.

  19. Global action networks: agents for collective action

    Glasbergen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Global action networks (GANs) are civil society initiated multi-stakeholder arrangements that aim to fulfill a leadership role for systemic change in global governance for sustainable development. The paper develops a network approach to study some of these GANs as motivators of global collective

  20. Motivation to change in the eating disorders: a systematic review.

    Clausen, Loa; Lübeck, Marlene; Jones, Allan

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to review the eating disorder literature in order to examine the effect of pretreatment autonomous/level of motivation to change on treatment outcome as measured by change in eating disorder pathology. Relevant databases were systematically searched for studies in which motivation to change prior to treatment was examined in relation to treatment outcome. Pretreatment autonomous/level of motivation were associated with change in restrictive eating behaviors, bingeing behaviors, and cognitive/affective measures of eating disorder pathology. There was mixed support for the effect of motivation to change on global measures of eating disorder symptoms and virtually no support for the effect of motivation to change on purging behavior. The level of pretreatment motivation the person exhibits prior to commencement of treatment appears to be helpful in predicting treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: A registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers

    Backhans Mona

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. Methods The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120. A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978–1979 and full-time work for mothers (1980. The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981–2001. Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. Results The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. Conclusion A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood.

  2. The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: A registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers

    Månsdotter, Anna; Backhans, Mona; Hallqvist, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Background In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. Methods The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120). A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978–1979) and full-time work for mothers (1980). The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981–2001). Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. Results The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. Conclusion A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood. PMID:18793385

  3. The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: a registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers.

    Månsdotter, Anna; Backhans, Mona; Hallqvist, Johan

    2008-09-15

    In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120). A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978-1979) and full-time work for mothers (1980). The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981-2001). Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood.

  4. The First-Time Fathers Study: a prospective study of the mental health and wellbeing of men during the transition to parenthood.

    Condon, John T; Boyce, Philip; Corkindale, Carolyn J

    2004-01-01

    In comparison to its female counterpart, the transition of men to parenthood has been relatively neglected in previous research. The present paper argues that men may have gender-specific risk factors for perinatal psychological distress and may manifest distress in ways different from women. The prime objective of this research was to document changes in psychological, relationship and lifestyle parameters in a cohort of first time fathers from pregnancy to the end of the first postnatal year. The present paper reports on these changes. Three hundred and twelve men were assessed at 23 weeks of pregnancy and followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months postnatally, using a battery of self-report questionnaires covering psychological symptom levels, lifestyle variables and relationship/sexual functioning. Two hundred and four men completed all four assessments. The men exhibited highest symptom levels in pregnancy with general, through small, improvement at 3 months and little change thereafter. Lifestyle variables showed small changes over the first postnatal year. Sexual functioning appeared to deteriorate markedly from pre-pregnancy levels with only minimal recovery by the end of the first year. The results highlight that the majority of men anticipated return of sexual activity to pre-pregnancy levels; however, this failed to eventuate. Pregnancy, rather than the postnatal period, would appear to be the most stressful period for men undergoing the transition to parenthood. The results suggest that the most important changes occur relatively early in pregnancy. Thereafter, lack of change (rather than change) is the most noteworthy feature. These men appeared to be ill-prepared for the impact of parenthood on their lives, especially in terms of the sexual relationship. Further research to determine the timing and trigger of stress in pregnancy is recommended.

  5. Couple-Focused Prevention at the Transition to Parenthood, a Randomized Trial: Effects on Coparenting, Parenting, Family Violence, and Parent and Child Adjustment.

    Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Hostetler, Michelle L; Roettger, Michael E; Paul, Ian M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B

    2016-08-01

    The transition to parenthood is a stressful period for most parents as individuals and as couples, with variability in parent mental health and couple relationship functioning linked to children's long-term emotional, mental health, and academic outcomes. Few couple-focused prevention programs targeting this period have been shown to be effective. The purpose of this study was to test the short-term efficacy of a brief, universal, transition-to-parenthood intervention (Family Foundations) and report the results of this randomized trial at 10 months postpartum. This was a randomized controlled trial; 399 couples expecting their first child were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions after pretest. Intervention couples received a manualized nine-session (five prenatal and four postnatal classes) psychoeducational program delivered in small groups. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that intervention couples demonstrated better posttest levels than control couples on more than two thirds of measures of coparenting, parent mental health, parenting, child adjustment, and family violence. Program effects on family violence were particularly large. Of eight outcome variables that did not demonstrate main effects, seven showed moderated intervention impact; such that, intervention couples at higher levels of risk during pregnancy showed better outcomes than control couples at similar levels of risk. These findings replicate a prior smaller study of Family Foundations, indicating that the Family Foundations approach to supporting couples making the transition to parenthood can have broad impact for parents, family relationships, and children's adjustment. Program effects are consistent and benefit all families, with particularly notable effects for families at elevated prenatal risk.

  6. Motivation and will

    Stella Maris Vásquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the relationship between motivation and volitional processes as described by current motivation theories. The root of the separation between both moments of behavioris traced back to Tetens and Kant’s threefold view of the mind. Sensory perception is reduced to feeling and the will to energy without a proper object. The history of this conception isoutlined. Nuttin’s motivation theory is presented as an alternative to the limitations of other contemporary theories. Some educational consequences are sketched out.

  7. Simulating motivated cognition

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.

  8. Delegation and Motivation

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Angst, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study the determinants of decision rights transfer and its effects on the motivation of an agent. The study is based on a laboratory experiment conducted on 130 subjects playing an innovative principal-agent game. Interestingly, the results show that agents do not favour...... a delegation and a decision is considered rather burdensome. Although the experiment could not give support for the behavioural hypothesis of higher effort provided by participants who receive choice subsequently, the survey illuminates the interaction between delegation motives, effort motivators, goals...

  9. The dual impact of gender and the influence of timing of parenthood on men’s and women’s career development: Longitudinal findings

    Abele, Andrea E.; Spurk, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of gender, the gender-related self-concept (agency and communion), and the timing of parenthood on objective career success of 1,015 highly educated professionals. Hypotheses derived from a dual-impact model of gender and career-related processes were tested in a 5-wave longitudinal study over a time span of 10 years starting with participants’ career entry. In line with our hypotheses we found that the communal component of the gender self-concept had an im...

  10. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive......, monetary incentives are found to cause different crowding effects for these different types of intrinsic motivation. The results call for more theoretical work on the drivers of motivation crowding effects and for practitioners to pay more attention to what type of intrinsic motivation is at stake, when...

  11. Children's theories of motivation.

    Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C

    2011-09-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotion, Motivation und Volition

    Ulich, Dieter

    1996-01-01

    Emotion, Motivation und Volition / D. Ulich ; V. Brandstätter ; P. M. Gollwitzer. - In: Psychologie / hrsg. von Dietrich Dörner ... - 2., überarb. und erw. Aufl. - Stuttgart u.a. : Kohlhammer, 1996. - S. 115-135

  13. Measuring adolescent science motivation

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-02-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ('Gymnasium') completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one criterion, extracted a loading pattern, which in principle, followed the SMQ-II frame. Two items were dropped due to inappropriate loadings. The remaining SMQ-II seems to provide a consistent scale matching the findings in literature. Nevertheless, also possible shortcomings of the scale are discussed. Data showed a higher perceived self-determination in girls which seems compensated by their lower self-efficacy beliefs leading to equality of females and males in overall science motivation scores. Additionally, the Big Five personality traits and science motivation components show little relationship.

  14. INTEREST AND READING MOTIVATION

    Alhamdu Alhamdu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interest and reading motivation based on literature review. The concept of the interest portrayed as a psychological state that occurs during interaction between individual and specific topic, object or activity including process of willingness, increased attention, concentration and positive feeling to the topic, object or activity. Meanwhile reading motivation emphasized to mental readiness, willingness and refers to beliefs and perception of individual to engage in reading activity. Some researchers were identified factors that influenced reading motivation such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors, self-concept and value of reading, and interest. In general, the literature review described that have positive relationship between interest and reading motivation.

  15. Management styles and motivation.

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.

  16. Motivation in Distance Leaming

    Daniela Brečko

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of partici­pants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and parti­cipants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.

  17. Automated Motivic Analysis

    Lartillot, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Motivic analysis provides very detailed understanding of musical composi- tions, but is also particularly difficult to formalize and systematize. A computational automation of the discovery of motivic patterns cannot be reduced to a mere extraction of all possible sequences of descriptions...... for lossless compression. The structural complexity resulting from successive repetitions of patterns can be controlled through a simple modelling of cycles. Generally, motivic patterns cannot always be defined solely as sequences of descriptions in a fixed set of dimensions: throughout the descriptions...... of the successive notes and intervals, various sets of musical parameters may be invoked. In this chapter, a method is presented that allows for these heterogeneous patterns to be discovered. Motivic repetition with local ornamentation is detected by reconstructing, on top of “surface-level” monodic voices, longer...

  18. Motivation and reward systems

    van Eerde, W.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reward systems are identified as one of the human resource management (HRM) practices that may impact motivation. Reward systems may consist of several components, including financial and nonfinancial rewards, in fixed and variable amounts. Reinforcement, expectancy, and equity principles are

  19. Motivation and Adult Education.

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

  20. Motivation and library management

    Tatjana Likar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.

  1. Learning Motivation and Achievements

    冯泽野

    2016-01-01

    It is known to all that motivation is one of the most important elements in EFL learning.This study analyzes the type of English learning motivations and learning achievements within non-English majors’ students (Bilingual program in Highway School and Architecture) in Chang’an University, who has been considered English as the foreign language. This thesis intends to put forward certain strategies in promoting foreign language teaching.

  2. Environmental Morale and Motivation

    Frey, Bruno S; Stutzer, Alois

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of environmental morale and environmental motivation in individual behavior from the point of view of economics and psychology. It deals with the fundamental public good problem, and presents empirical (laboratory and field) evidence on how the cooperation problem can be overcome. Four different theoretical approaches are distinguished according to how individuals� underlying environmental motivation is modeled. Specifically, we look at the interaction betwee...

  3. Feedback og motivation

    Bjerresgaard, Helle

    2016-01-01

    sættes læring i forbindelse med begrebet motivation. I blandt andet Banduras teori, understreges vigtigheden af en tæt forbindelse mellem elevens mestring og lærerens passende målsætning. Med afsæt i (fx) Vygotsky’s ’Zonen for nærmeste udvikling’ belyser artiklen hvordan elevernes motivation kan blive...

  4. Student teacher training: participant motivation.

    Burgess, Annette; van Diggele, Christie; Mellis, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Teaching, assessment and feedback skills are documented globally as required graduate attributes for medical students. By integrating teacher training into curricula, the importance of teaching and educational scholarship is highlighted. In this study, we used self-determination theory (SDT) to consider medical students' motivation to voluntarily participate in a short teacher training programme. Thirty-eight senior medical students were invited to attend a teacher training programme at a major tertiary teaching hospital. Participating students were asked to respond to one question: 'Why did you volunteer to take part in the teacher training course?' Self-determination theory was used as a conceptual framework to identify and code recurrent themes in the data. In total, 23/38 (61%) of invited students chose to participate in the programme, and 21/23 (91%) of the students responded to the survey. Students' motivation to participate in the teacher training programme were related to: (1) autonomy - their enjoyment of their current voluntary involvement in teaching; (2) competence - a recognition of the need for formal training and certification in teaching, and as an essential part of their future career in medicine; (3) relatedness - the joint recognition of the importance of quality in teaching, as emphasised by their own learning experiences in the medical programme. Students reported being motivated to take part in teacher training because of their enjoyment of teaching, their desire to increase the quality of teaching within medical education, their desire for formal recognition of teaching as a learned skill, plus their recognition of teaching as a requirement within the medical profession. By integrating teacher training into curricula, the importance of teaching and educational scholarship is highlighted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Effect of Motivational Practices on Volunteer Motivation to ...

    The study assesses whether organizations' motivational practices affect volunteer motivation and levels of performance. This study was guided by the following two research questions: first, what motivation practices exist in Volunteer Involving Organizations and whether such affect volunteers' motivation to volunteer again?

  6. Motivational deficits and cognitive test performance in schizophrenia.

    Fervaha, Gagan; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Foussias, George; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2014-09-01

    Motivational and cognitive deficits are core features of schizophrenia, both closely linked with functional outcomes. Although poor effort and decreased motivation are known to affect performance on cognitive tests, the extent of this relationship is unclear in patients with schizophrenia. To evaluate the association between intrinsic motivation and cognitive test performance in patients with schizophrenia. Cross-sectional and 6-month prospective follow-up study performed at 57 sites in the United States, including academic and community medical treatment centers, participating in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study. The primary sample included 431 stable patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia currently receiving a stable medication regimen. Cognitive performance and intrinsic motivation were evaluated using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and a derived measure from the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale, respectively. Symptom severity and functional status were also assessed. The primary outcome variable was global neurocognition. Individual domains of cognition were also evaluated for their association with motivation. Level of intrinsic motivation was significantly and positively correlated with global cognitive test performance, a relationship that held for each domain of cognition evaluated (correlation range, 0.20-0.34; P motivation and cognitive performance also remained significant after controlling for antipsychotic dose (P motivation during the 6-month follow-up was also found to be significantly related to improvement in global cognitive performance (P motivation and cognitive performance and suggest that test performance is not purely a measure of ability. Future studies assessing cognition in patients with schizophrenia should consider potential moderating variables such as effort and motivation. Implications for the assessment and interpretation of cognitive impairment based on

  7. Foreign Students’ Motivation for Studying In Malaysia

    Muh. Amin; Sugiyanto; Keppi Sukesi; Ismadi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – With the recognition of the importance of education in economy different countries are responding with changes within their education systems. Education is recognized as a foundation to the continued growth of a country but with the globalization of business, is education becoming a commodity?Objective - This paper examines international students’ motivation for studying in Malaysia. The second objective is to analyze educational policies and their implementation within Malaysia.Des...

  8. The measurement of childbearing motivation in couples considering the use of assisted reproductive technology.

    Miller, Warren B; Millstein, Susan G; Pasta, David J

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the motivational antecedents to the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). In this paper we measure the fertility motivations of infertile couples who are considering the use of ART, using an established instrument, the Childbearing Questionnaire (CBQ). Our sample consists of 214 men and 216 women who were interviewed at home after an initial screening for ART but before making a final decision. We conducted two sets of analyses with the obtained data. In one set, we compared the scores on scales and subscales of the CBQ for the males and females in our sample with the scores for males and females from a comparable normative sample. For these analyses we first examined sample and gender differences with a four-group analysis of variance. We then conducted a series of linear models that included background characteristics as covariates and interactions between sample, gender, and age and between those three variables and the background characteristics. The results showed the expected higher positive and lower negative motivations in the ART sample and a significant effect on positive motivations of the interaction between sample and age. In the second set of analyses, we developed several new subscales relevant to facets of the desire for a child that appear to be important in ART decision-making. These facets include the desire to be genetically related to the child and the desire to experience pregnancy and childbirth. A third facet, the desire for parenthood, is already well covered by the existing subscales. The results showed the new subscales to have satisfactory reliability and validity. The results also showed that the original and new subscales predicted the three facets of the desire for a child in a multivariate context. We conclude with a general discussion of the way our findings relate both to ART decision-making and to further research on the motivations that drive it.

  9. Situational Context of Insurance in Globalization

    S V Martynenko

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how globalization resolves problems, which are motivated in a new way by modern situational context of social-insurance, how the 'insurance cocoon' of civilization leads to narrowing of conflict space in the world politics.

  10. It 'did what it said on the tin' - participant's views of the content and process of donor conception parenthood preparation workshops.

    Crawshaw, Marilyn; Montuschi, Olivia

    2014-03-01

    Using donor conception treatment for family building brings challenges as well as rewards. As social model approaches to managing genetic difference within families gradually replace earlier medical models, parents are encouraged to be open with their children about their origins amidst greater social acceptance. Little is known about effective interventions to help prospective parents prepare for such family life. A survey was sent to participants in 16 Preparation for Parenthood workshops run in England by Donor Conception Network, a peer support organisation, between 2008 and 2010. The 79 respondents (32.4% response) included heterosexual couples, lesbian couples and single women considering sperm, egg or double donation. In 86% couples, both partners responded. The use of a range of techniques, a family lifespan approach, facilitators with personal as well as professional experience, medical and psychosocial specialists, and access to peer support were well received. Results suggest the value of attending cognitive and affective processes, acknowledging the impact of stigma and discussing how the donor's biography/presence can be conjoined with that of the new family. Findings suggest workshop approaches to donor conception parenthood preparation can be useful for prospective lesbian/single women/heterosexual-headed families considering donor conception. Such interventions have not previously been reported.

  11. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: Is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  12. Complicating the dominant morality discourse: mothers and fathers' constructions of substance use during pregnancy and early parenthood.

    Benoit, Cecilia; Magnus, Samantha; Phillips, Rachel; Marcellus, Lenora; Charbonneau, Sinéad

    2015-08-25

    Consumption of substances is a highly controversial behaviour, with those who do so commonly viewed as deviants, even criminals, or else as out of control addicts. In other work we showed that the use of substances by women who are pregnant or have recently become parents was mainly viewed by health and social care providers as morally wrong. Problematic substance use was framed through the narrow lens of gendered responsibilisation, resulting in women being seen primarily as foetal incubators and primary caregivers of infants. In this follow-up paper we examine descriptive and qualitative data from a convenience sample of biological mothers and fathers (N = 34) recruited as part of a larger mixed methods study of the development and early implementation of an integrated primary maternity care program. We present a description of the participants' backgrounds, family circumstances, health status, and perception of drug-related stigma. This is succeeded by a thematic analysis of their personal views on substance use during both pregnancy and the transition to parenthood. Our results show that while many mothers and fathers hold abstinence as the ideal during pregnancy and early parenting, they simultaneously recognize the autonomy of women to judge substance use risk for themselves. Participants also call attention to social structural factors that increase/decrease harms associated with such substance use, and present an embodied knowledge of substance use based on their tacit knowledge of wellness and what causes harm. While these two main discourses brought forward by parents concerning the ideal of abstinence and the autonomy of women are not always reconcilable and are partially a reflection of the dissonance between dominant moral codes regarding motherhood and the lived experiences of people who use substances, service providers who are attuned to these competing discourses are likely to be more effective in their delivery of health and social services

  13. (Re)Defining Salesperson Motivation

    Khusainova, Rushana; de Jong, Ad; Lee, Nick

    2018-01-01

    The construct of motivation is one of the central themes in selling and sales management research. Yet, to-date no review article exists that surveys the construct (both from an extrinsic and intrinsic motivation context), critically evaluates its current status, examines various key challenges...... apparent from the extant research, and suggests new research opportunities based on a thorough review of past work. The authors explore how motivation is defined, major theories underpinning motivation, how motivation has historically been measured, and key methodologies used over time. In addition......, attention is given to principal drivers and outcomes of salesperson motivation. A summarizing appendix of key articles in salesperson motivation is provided....

  14. Motivation in rehabilitation and acquired brain injury: can theory help us understand it?

    Kusec, Andrea; Velikonja, Diana; DeMatteo, Carol; Harris, Jocelyn E

    2018-04-25

    In acquired brain injury (ABI) populations, low motivation to engage in rehabilitation is associated with poor rehabilitation outcomes. Motivation in ABI is thought to be influenced by internal and external factors. This is consistent with Self-determination Theory, which posits that motivation is intrinsic and extrinsic. This paper discusses the benefit of using Self-determination Theory to guide measurement of motivation in ABI. Using a narrative review of the Self-determination Theory literature and clinical rehabilitation research, this paper discusses the unique role intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has in healthcare settings and the importance of understanding both when providing rehabilitation in ABI. Based on the extant literature, it is possible that two independently developed measures of motivation for ABI populations, the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust Motivation Questionnaire-Self and the Motivation for Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire, may assess intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, respectively. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in ABI may be two equally important but independent factors that could provide a comprehensive understanding of motivation in individuals with ABI. This increased understanding could help facilitate behavioural approaches in rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Conceptualization of motivation in ABI would benefit from drawing upon Self-determination Theory. External factors of motivation such as the therapeutic environment or social support should be carefully considered in rehabilitation in order to increase engagement. Assessing motivation as a dual rather than a global construct may provide more precise information about the extent to which a patient is motivated.

  15. Employees' motivation and emloyees' benefits

    Nedzelská, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is analysing methods how to stimulate and motivate employees. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the concept of motivation, concepts close to motivation and selected existing theories of motivation. It also deals with employee benefits, function, division and benefits which are frequently offered to employees. The practical part of the thesis, mainly based on written and online questionnaires, concentrates on motivation of employees at Nedcon Boh...

  16. Neuroscientific Model of Motivational Process

    Kim, Sung-il

    2013-01-01

    Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three sub processes, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous sub processes, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision-making, and goal-directed control. Rewa...

  17. Motivation: Kept Alive Through Unschooling

    Magda LEVIN-GUTIERREZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is a process, which can be fostered or killed in the name of education. In this paper, the author explores two theories of motivation-Expectancy-Value and Three Elements of Intrinsic Motivation-within the context of unschooling and within a school system. Based on the concepts presented through these theories, the author concludes that unschoolers hold on to their intrinsic motivation while schooled childrens motivation may be killed by attending school.

  18. Public Service Motivation and Monetary Incentives: Substitutes or Motivation Crowding?

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2011-01-01

    Motivation is probably one of the most important determinants for organizational performance, because it stimulates effort and effective behaviors among people in the organization. But what type of motivation should public managers rely on? The PSM literature has argued that public service...... motivation is the most important type of motivation in the delivery of public service, because it substitutes for egoistic motivation. Organizations whose members have high levels of PSM are therefore expected to be less dependent on utilitarian motivators such as monetary incentives. Motivation crowding...... theory, on the other hand, argues that the relationship is opposite, so it is the degree of incentives that affects motivation. Both arguments lead to expectations of an association between public service motivation and monetary incentives, but so far this complex relationship has not been entangled...

  19. Motivation for risk sports

    Hlava, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Title: Motivation for risk sports Objectives: The aim of our thesis is to find out primary and secondary motives of athletes for the operation of high-risk sports and coming back to it. We also want to find out what is the starter for doing risk sports. Other questions are why athletes keep doing it and how perceive the potential risk. Methods: In our study, we chose qualitative investigation method and semistructured interview with eight respondents. For the interview, we drew up a list of q...

  20. Motive Criminal Procedure Evidence

    В. В. Вапнярчук

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the need for such a level of mental regulation of behavior of proving motivation. The latter refers to internal motivation conscious entity Criminal Procedure proof, due to specific needs, interests and goals that cause a person to act rishymist. Detailed attention is given to the first two determinants, namely the nature of needs and interests. In particular, analyzes highlighted in the literature variety of needs (physiological, ekzistentsionalni, social, prestige, cognitive, aesthetic and spiritual and the manifestation of some of them in the criminal procedural proof.

  1. Validation of the Physician Teaching Motivation Questionnaire (PTMQ).

    Dybowski, Christoph; Harendza, Sigrid

    2015-10-02

    Physicians play a major role as teachers in undergraduate medical education. Studies indicate that different forms and degrees of motivation can influence work performance in general and that teachers' motivation to teach can influence students' academic achievements in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and to validate an instrument measuring teaching motivations in hospital-based physicians. We chose self-determination theory as a theoretical framework for item and scale development. It distinguishes between different dimensions of motivation depending on the amount of self-regulation and autonomy involved and its empirical evidence has been demonstrated in other areas of research. To validate the new instrument (PTMQ = Physician Teaching Motivation Questionnaire), we used data from a sample of 247 physicians from internal medicine and surgery at six German medical faculties. Structural equation modelling was conducted to confirm the factorial structure, correlation analyses and linear regressions were performed to examine concurrent and incremental validity. Structural equation modelling confirmed a good global fit for the factorial structure of the final instrument (RMSEA = .050, TLI = .957, SRMR = .055, CFI = .966). Cronbach's alphas indicated good internal consistencies for all scales (α = .75 - .89) except for the identified teaching motivation subscale with an acceptable internal consistency (α = .65). Tests of concurrent validity with global work motivation, perceived teaching competence, perceived teaching involvement and voluntariness of lesson allocation delivered theory-consistent results with slight deviations for some scales. Incremental validity over global work motivation in predicting perceived teaching involvement was also confirmed. Our results indicate that the PTMQ is a reliable, valid and therefore suitable instrument for assessing physicians' teaching motivation.

  2. [A motivational approach of cognitive efficiency in nursing home residents].

    Clément, Evelyne; Vivicorsi, Bruno; Altintas, Emin; Guerrien, Alain

    2014-06-01

    Despite a widespread concern with self-determined motivation (behavior is engaged in "out of pleasure" or "out of choice and valued as being important") and psychological adjustment in later life (well-being, satisfaction in life, meaning of life, or self-esteem), very little is known about the existence and nature of the links between self-determined motivation and cognitive efficiency. The aim of the present study was to investigate theses links in nursing home residents in the framework of the Self-determination theory (SDT) (Deci & Ryan, 2002), in which motivational profile of a person is determined by the combination of different kinds of motivation. We hypothesized that self-determined motivation would lead to higher cognitive efficiency. Participants. 39 (32 women and 7 men) elderly nursing home residents (m= 83.6 ± 9.3 year old) without any neurological or psychiatric disorders (DSM IV) or depression or anxiety (Hamilton depression rating scales) were included in the study. Methods. Cognitive efficiency was evaluated by two brief neuropsychological tests, the Mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the Frontal assessment battery (FAB). The motivational profile was assessed by the Elderly motivation scale (Vallerand & 0'Connor, 1991) which includes four subscales assessing self- and non-self determined motivation to engage oneself in different domains of daily life activity. Results. The neuropsychological scores were positively and significantly correlated to self-determined extrinsic motivation (behavior is engaged in "out of choice" and valued as being important), and the global self-determination index (self-determined motivational profile) was the best predictor of the cognitive efficiency. Conclusion. The results support the SDT interest for a qualitative assessment of the motivation of the elderly people and suggest that a motivational approach of cognitive efficiency could help to interpret cognitive performances exhibited during neuropsychological

  3. Music and Combat Motivation

    2015-04-01

    and hence, motivating them more strongly to continue. Thoughts of protecting their home, lives and local ideals were subconsciously aroused by the...perspective. There was a clear bias , but they aimed not to broadcast lies. The BBC broadcast in 45 languages with 107 news transmissions daily

  4. Motivational Orientations in Work

    Murtonen, Mari; Olkinuora, Erkki; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai; Lehtinen, Erno

    2008-01-01

    The rapid development in working life during recent decades has changed the structures of work organisations and expectations of employees' work. Differing forms of professional employment and different types of organisational environments likely promote different types of motivational patterns in workers. The aim of this study was to apply a…

  5. Assessment of Teacher Motivation

    Gokce, Feyyat

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the achievement of educational goals by determining teachers' levels of motivation. With this aim in mind, the opinions of 386 teachers employed in primary schools in Tokat province were sought. According to the findings of the study, the teachers stated that their needs were not fulfilled according to…

  6. Hunters' motivations and values:

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal value...

  7. Moral motivation within groups

    Lee, Romy van der

    2013-01-01

    Morality is of particular importance to people: People want to be considered moral and want to belong to moral groups. Consequently, morality judgments have the potential to motivate individuals to behave in ways that are considered to be ‘good’. In the current dissertation, I examined the impact of

  8. Developing a Motivational Strategy.

    Janson, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Describes the use of job enrichment techniques as tools for increased productivity and organizational change. The author's motivational work design model changes not only the job design but also structural elements such as physical layout, workflow, and organizational relationships. Behavior change is more important than job enrichment. (MF)

  9. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the…

  10. Impulsive action and motivation

    Frijda, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the way in which emotions are causal determinants of action. It argues that emotional events, as appraised by the individual, elicit changes in motive states (called states of action readiness), which in turn may (or may not) cause action. Actions can be elicited automatically,

  11. Keeping Plateaued Performers Motivated.

    DeLon, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the problem of keeping library staff motivated when promotions are not available. Topics addressed include the importance of management training that emphasizes communication skills; alternative ways to help employees grow, including staff development programs, lateral transfers, job rotation, and short-term projects; and helpful…

  12. Gamification and Student Motivation

    Buckley, Patrick; Doyle, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The literature suggests that gamified learning interventions may increase student engagement and enhance learning. We empirically investigate this by exploring the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on the participation and performance of over 100 undergraduate students in an online gamified learning intervention. The paper makes a…

  13. Motivation og handlingskapacitet

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2012-01-01

    Der har i flere år være en interesse for at undersøge motivationen hos producenterne af offentlige ydelser, mens der i mindre grad findes empiriske analyser af brugernes handlingskapacitet. Artiklen råder bod på dette ved at analysere forskelle i motivation og handlingskapacitet på fire serviceom......Der har i flere år være en interesse for at undersøge motivationen hos producenterne af offentlige ydelser, mens der i mindre grad findes empiriske analyser af brugernes handlingskapacitet. Artiklen råder bod på dette ved at analysere forskelle i motivation og handlingskapacitet på fire...... serviceområder (skoler, dagpasning, hospitaler og videregående uddannelser). Der anvendes henholdsvis et veletableret mål for public service motivation (n=377 producenter) og et nyudviklet mål for handlingskapacitet (n=1056 brugere). Resultaterne viser, at der er relativt højest handlingskapacitet og public...... service motivation på daginstitutionsområdet efterfulgt af skoleområdet, mens de videregående uddannelser placerer sig relativt lavest på begge variable. Hospitalsbrugerne har næsten lige så lav handlingskapacitet som brugerne af de videregående uddannelser, mens de hospitalsansattes public service...

  14. Entrepreneurship and Student Motivation

    Vorholt, Julie; Harris, Erica

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a three-week project-based unit on entrepreneurship conducted with students in communications classes in an Academic English context. A detailed road map of the project is given, starting with an introduction and ending with final presentations and poster sessions. Students were motivated by their own interests in business…

  15. Geoblocking and global video culture.

    Lobato, Ramon; Meese, James; Rasch, Mirjam

    How do global audiences use streaming platforms like YouTube, Netflix and iPlayer? How does the experience of digital video change according to location? What strategies do people use to access out-of-region content? What are the commercial and governmental motivations behind geoblocking?

  16. Geoblocking and global video culture

    Lobato, Ramon; Meese, James; Rasch, Mirjam

    How do global audiences use streaming platforms like YouTube, Netflix and iPlayer? How does the experience of digital video change according to location? What strategies do people use to access out-of-region content? What are the commercial and governmental motivations behind geoblocking?

  17. Do Pregnancy and Parenthood Affect the Course of PCO Syndrome? Initial Results from the LIPCOS Study (Lifestyle Intervention for Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome [PCOS]).

    Stassek, J; Ohnolz, F; Hanusch, Y; Schmidmayr, M; Berg, D; Kiechle, M; Seifert-Klauss, V R

    2015-11-01

    Introduction: The impact of pregnancy and parenthood on the long-term course of PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome is still not known. The LIPCOS study (Lifestyle Intervention for Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome [PCOS] - using the example of pregnancy and parenthood) systematically investigates long-term changes in PCOS symptoms. Method and Patients: The LIPCOS pilot study sent out a questionnaire to 403 patients who had presented with oligomenorrhea between 1991 and 2002. The prospective LIPCOS main study systematically investigated 64 women using structured interviews about lifestyle changes in the last 10 years, created a detailed hormone profile of these women and carried out vaginal ultrasound to calculate ovarian score. Results: Ovarian volume and ovarian score were not significantly lower for women with children (n = 25) compared to women with PCOS who had not had children (n = 39; p = 0.226). More women with children than women who did not have children currently reported a regular daily lifestyle, and the difference was statistically significant (92 % [n = 23/25] vs. 61.5 % [n = 24/39]; p = 0.009). Ten years ago or before the birth of their first child, respectively, no such difference was found between both groups (52 vs. 51.3 %). Over the last 10 years, women with children were more likely to have shorter cycles compared to women without children (p = 0.441). 88 % of women with children compared to 69.2 % of women without children reported that currently they had a "healthy diet" (p = 0.130). Serum testosterone levels were slightly lower for women with children (67.6 % of the upper limits of normal ranges) compared to women without children (80 % of the upper limits of normal ranges), but because of the small subgroup sizes the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.106). Conclusion: The LIPCOS study shows for the first time that pregnancy and parenthood may have an impact on the long

  18. Surrogacy: Pathway to Parenthood.

    Joseph, Rachel A; Rafanello, Alexandria M; Morris, Cassidy J; Fleming, Kerry F

    2018-01-01

    Assistive reproductive technology has progressed significantly over the past few decades. In spite of the advances, people may still resort to a surrogate for bearing and birthing a baby. Surrogacy, though an altruistic act, has been commercialized in the past few years, leading to emergence of several ethico-legal concerns. Nurses care for the surrogates, the infants, and the intended parents through their journey with sensitivity, advocacy, compassion, and confidentiality. This article intends to explore the implications of surrogacy to individuals, families, nations, and health care.

  19. Business Planning for Parenthood.

    Spruell, Geraldine

    1986-01-01

    With more mothers than ever in the labor force, companies are realizing they must help workers deal with multiple roles. Employer-sponsored programs include day care centers, vouchers, and referrals; flextime; job sharing; extended leave, flexible benefits, and work-at-home plans; and support groups. (CH)

  20. Passport to Parenthood

    Willum Adrian, Stine; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    During the past few years, Denmark has become a growing destination for single women, lesbians, and heterosexual couples wanting donated sperm. At the moment women from Sweden, Norway, Germany, Italy and the UK travel to Denmark. Simultaneously, long waiting lists on donated eggs and age...... the following questions: What happens to kinship when not only donated gametes are taken in to use, but the need of sperm and eggs encourage infertile women and men to cross borders and bend legislative restrictions to obtain them? How are nationality, ethnicity, and relatedness narrated in these transnational...... crossings? And how do women and men conceptualize their need to travel in order to buy gametes or the fertility treatment in question? Methodologically, we center interviews with infertile individuals and couples travelling to and from Denmark in combination with ethnographic observations carried out...

  1. Welcome to Parenthood

    2008-08-06

    This short video podcast offers a lighter look at the trials of being a new parent.  Created: 8/6/2008 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/2/2008.

  2. Motivational processes in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: results from the Motivational Reserve in Alzheimer's (MoReA) study.

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas

    2015-11-17

    Brain reserve, i.e., the ability of the brain to tolerate age- and disease-related changes in a way that cognitive function is still maintained, is assumed to be based on the lifelong training of various abilities. The Motivational Reserve in Alzheimer's (MoReA) is a longitudinal study that aims to examine motivational processes as a protective factor in mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This paper presents the results of motivational variables, frequency of diagnoses, and prediction of global cognition as well as depression in a one-year longitudinal study. The sample consists of 64 subjects with MCI and 47 subjects with mild AD at baseline. At baseline, the physical/neurological examinations, standard clinical assessment, neuropsychological testing, and assessment of motivational variables were performed. At follow-up (FU) one year later, neuropsychological testing including cognition, functional abilities, behavioral and affective symptoms, and global clinical assessments of severity have been repeated. AD cases have lower motivational capacities as measured with a midlife motivation-related occupational score and informant-reported present motivational processes, but do not differ with regard to delay of gratification (DoG) and self-reported motivational processes. DoG and delay discounting (DD) were relatively stable during the measurement interval. However, 20 % of the MCI cases converted to mild AD at FU, and 17 % of the mild AD cases converted to moderate AD. The rate of depression of Alzheimer's disease was 9 at baseline and 21 % at FU, and the rate of apathy was 7 and 14 %, respectively. Global cognition at FU was mainly predicted by baseline global cognition but also by one of the motivational variables (scenario test). Depression at FU was predicted mainly by two motivational variables (self-reported and informant-reported motivational processes). This research might inform motivation-related strategies for

  3. Global warning, global warming

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  4. MOTIVATION AND MOTIVES - DRIVER AND REASON OF CONSUMER'S BUYING BEHAVIOR

    TICHINDELEAN Mihai; VINEREAN Simona

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to understand and measure consumer's motives as part of the complex mental structure which has as result a certain buying behavior. To achieve this goal, the authors structured the paper in two parts: the first part contains a literature review regarding the concepts of motivation and motives, while the second part tries to measure and explain several dimensions of buying motives by using a statistical analysis tool - exploratory factor analysis.

  5. Reading Motivation: 10 Elements for Success. Motivational Strategies That Work!

    Gerbig, Kori M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivational processes are the foundation for coordinating cognitive goals and strategies in reading. Becoming an excellent, active reader involves attunement of motivational processes with cognitive and language processes in reading. This article presents K-12 strategies for motivating reading success. It describes 10 instructional elements that…

  6. Motivation and Ways to Motivate Students of Middle School

    朱洪琼

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is critical in English learning of middle school,thus,how to effectively motivate students in English learning is an important problem.This study intends to find ways to motivate students of middle school.Self-report data were collected from 45 students in The Experiment Middle School Attached to Yunnan Normal University by using a close-ended questionnaire.

  7. Using Managerial Role Motivation Training to Overcome Motivational Deficiencies.

    Miner, John B.

    Research on motivation to manage can be summarized in five points: (1) motivation to manage is a major factor for success; (2) motivation to manage declined in students from the 1960's to the 1970's; (3) this decline is evident in the relevant age groups; (4) differences between United States students and foreign students place the United States…

  8. Social motivation in Qatari schools and their relation to school achievement.

    Nasser, Ramzi

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the relation between school-social motivation and student academic achievement. A factor analysis was performed on a set of school-social items selected a priori from three measures of school motivation: the Inventory of School Motivation, the General Achievement Goals Orientation Scale, and the Facilitating Conditions Scale. Three factors with fewer items represented Global Motivation, Peer Help, and Social Power. Hierarchical regression analysis showed social motivation measures were weak predictors of achievement scores in the various content areas. Findings are discussed in the context of Qatari education and culture.

  9. Against Globalization

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  10. Male-Partnered Bisexual Women's Perceptions of Disclosing Sexual Orientation to Family Across the Transition to Parenthood: Intensifying Heteronormativity or Queering Family?

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R; Ellawala, Themal; Ross, Lori E

    2018-01-01

    Drawing from queer and communication privacy management frameworks, this study examines the narratives of 22 bisexual, male-partnered women who were interviewed during the perinatal period and one year postnatally about their disclosures of sexual identity to family of origin. Most women rarely discussed their sexual identity with family; participants who had disclosed described such disclosures as provoking discomfort. Some women stated that their parental status seemed to invalidate the need to talk about their sexual history or identity with family, due its declining salience and increased concerns about judgment. This study reveals how partnership and parenthood statuses contribute to the intensification of heteronormative pressures in relation to family. Therapists should attend to the role of heteronormative values regarding partnering, family-building, and parenting. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  11. Globalization: Nature, Catalysts, Consequences and Obstacles ...

    The concept of globalization has several dimensions. A misunderstanding of this nature of the term has promoted much confusion which this paper aims to clear. The clarification proceeds from an exposition of the assumptions of the idea of globalization as well as the presuppositions and motives of its proponents.

  12. Motivation and evaluation of empolyees

    Sinkulová, Anna

    2015-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is focused on motivation and assessment of employees in the company. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the influence of team building and benefits on employees' motivation. Literature based theoretical part of my thesis describes and investigates the real meaning and purpose of motivation and basic motivational concepts. Furthermore, I outlined the basics behind employee benefits, team building and also stated the current given trends in these areas. The practical pa...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF MOTIVATION BY ENTROPY

    Tadeusz G³owacki

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is inseparable from human work. It is also one of the five most important elements of the management process. The ability to determine the level of motivation would therefore be very useful in the work of every manager. This paper is an attempt to quantify motivation and evaluate its size, using the concept of entropy. The main reason to try defining a method of measuring the amount of motivation is to improve the management techniques of companies.

  14. Intergenerational transmission of family meal patterns from adolescence to parenthood: longitudinal associations with parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being.

    Berge, Jerica M; Miller, Jonathan; Watts, Allison; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-02-01

    The present study examined longitudinal associations between four family meal patterns (i.e. never had regular family meals, started having regular family meals, stopped having regular family meals, maintained having regular family meals) and young adult parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being. In addition, family meal patterns of parents were compared with those of non-parents. Analysis of data from the longitudinal Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults) study. Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between family meal patterns and parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being. School and in-home settings. At baseline (1998; EAT-I), adolescents (n 4746) from socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse households completed a survey and anthropometric measurements at school. At follow-up (2015; EAT-IV), participants who were parents (n 726) and who were non-parents with significant others (n 618) completed an online survey. Young adult parents who reported having regular family meals as an adolescent and as a parent ('maintainers'), or who started having regular family meals with their own families ('starters'), reported more healthful dietary, weight-related and psychosocial outcomes compared with young adults who never reported having regular family meals ('nevers'; Pfamily meal starters than non-parents. Results suggest that mental and physical health benefits of having regular family meals may be realized as a parent whether the routine of regular family meals is carried forward from adolescence into parenthood, or if the routine is started in parenthood.

  15. An Exploratory Study of Transgender New Yorkers' Use of Sexual Health Services and Interest in Receiving Services at Planned Parenthood of New York City.

    Porsch, Lauren M; Dayananda, Ila; Dean, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Transgender individuals experience barriers to healthcare, including discrimination in care provision and lack of knowledge about transgender health. We assessed New York City (NYC) transgender and gender nonconforming individuals' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs, access to services, and interest in receiving services from Planned Parenthood of NYC (PPNYC). Methods: We conducted an anonymous Internet-based survey of transgender individuals residing in NYC from September to December 2014 by using snowball sampling. Results: Data were analyzed from 113 surveys. Although 74% (71/96) of respondents avoided or delayed healthcare in the past year, most respondents adhered to medically indicated SRH screenings. In the past year, 64% (45/70) and 67% (46/69) of respondents were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, respectively. In the past 3 years, 80% (39/49) of respondents received clinical breast/chest examinations and 83% (35/42) of eligible individuals received Pap tests. Respondents most often received care at LGBT specialty clinics (35% [37/105]) or at private doctors' offices (31% [32/105]). Eighteen percent (19/107) had ever been to a Planned Parenthood health center. On a four-point scale, respondents rated the following factors as most influential on whether they would seek care at PPNYC: assurance that staff received transsensitivity training (mean 3.8), the existence of gender identity nondiscrimination policies (mean 3.7), and the availability of transgender-specific services, such as hormone therapy (mean 3.7). Conclusions: Although the majority of transgender individuals in our sample received recommended SRH screenings, respondents reported barriers to accessing needed medical care. Healthcare organizations interested in better serving the transgender community should ensure a high level of training around transsensitivity and explore the provision of transgender-specific services.

  16. Motives of terrorist acts

    Krstić Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a relatively new phenomenon, and data on terrorist motivations and psychological profiles of terrorists are fairly scarce and limited. In theory, there is a large number of quantitative analyses of collective violence, murder, and crime, however, none of these can be identified with terrorism. Most current studies do not consider a great heterogeneity of terrorists, and numerous practical, conceptual, and psychological barriers slow down the science of learning about terrorism. Psychology, as a science of behavior, certainly makes a great contribution to the study of terrorism as a very complex phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to analyze and synthesize social and psychological determinants which contribute to the development of terrorist motives, and to elaborate on those facts which have been discussed in scientific and professional literature so far.

  17. Motivations Behind Sustainable Purchasing

    Vörösmarty, Gyöngyi; Dobos, Imre; Tátrai, Tünde

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability issues in purchasing are receiving greater attention. Literature is rapidly growing, with several research programs being initiated to investigate the topic. This study presents the results of a research project which aims to reveal and structure the motivating forces leading companies to make efforts in sustainability purchasing and the means used to attain achievements in some fields of sustainability. Results presented in the literature are scattered in terms of ...

  18. Veganism: Motivations and Difficulties

    Beck, Mathilde Therese Claudine; Harvey, John Carr; Trauth, Christina

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of people are adopting a vegan lifestyle, which means to stop consuming products, that are made from or based on animals, like meat, dairy or eggs. However, the number of research concerning veganism is limited. As the existing research is mainly concentrating on the process of adopting a vegan lifestyle and the view of vegans, these findings shall be examined further with the question, What are the motivation and difficulties about adopting a plant based vegan diet in We...

  19. Clustering Teachers' Motivations for Teaching

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to teach is a powerful, yet neglected, force in teaching at institutes of higher education. A better understanding of academics' motivations for teaching is necessary. The aim of this mixed-method study was to identify groups with distinctively different motivations for teaching. Six clusters were identified: expertise, duty,…

  20. Motivating Staff, Parents, and Children.

    Jones, Cynthia Cavenaugh

    Two motivational theories considered particularly useful in administering early childhood programs are discussed, and guidelines for motivating staff, parents, and children are provided. First, the two-factor theory of motivation within organizations, as outlined by Herzberg (1959), is described. Offered in this section are a list of motivators…

  1. Work Motivation: Theory and Practice.

    Katzell, Raymond A.; Thompson, Donna E.

    1990-01-01

    Presents theories of motivation classified as those dealing either with exogenous causes or with endogenous processes. The following strategies for improving work motivation are discussed: (1) personal motives; (2) incentives and rewards; (3) reinforcement; (4) goal-setting techniques; (5) personal and material resources; (6) social and group…

  2. Motives for corporate social responsibility

    Graafland, J.J.; Mazereeuw V/d Duijn Schouten, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we analyze the motives of executives to take responsibility for the labor, environmental and social aspects of their business. We distinguish three motives: one extrinsic (financial) and two intrinsic (ethical and altruistic) motives and empirically investigate the influences of

  3. Motivated to do well: an examination of the relationships between motivation, effort, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia.

    Foussias, G; Siddiqui, I; Fervaha, G; Mann, S; McDonald, K; Agid, O; Zakzanis, K K; Remington, G

    2015-08-01

    The uncertain relationship between negative symptoms, and specifically motivational deficits, with cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is in need of further elucidation as it pertains to the interpretation of cognitive test results. Findings to date have suggested a possible mediating role of motivational deficits on cognitive test measures, although findings from formal examinations of effort using performance validity measures have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between motivation, effort exerted during cognitive testing, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Sixty-nine outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were evaluated for psychopathology, severity of motivational deficits, effort exerted during cognitive testing, and cognitive performance. Motivation and degree of effort exerted during cognitive testing were significantly related to cognitive performance, specifically verbal fluency, verbal and working memory, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. Further, effort accounted for 15% of the variance in cognitive performance, and partially mediated the relationship between motivation and cognitive performance. Examining cognitive performance profiles for individuals exerting normal or reduced effort revealed significant differences in global cognition, as well as attention/processing speed and reasoning and problem solving. These findings suggest that cognitive domains may be differentially affected by impairments in motivation and effort, and highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between motivation and cognitive performance deficits, which may guide the appropriate selection of symptom targets for promoting recovery in patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Motivated reasoning during recruitment.

    Kappes, Heather Barry; Balcetis, Emily; De Cremer, David

    2018-03-01

    This research shows how job postings can lead job candidates to see themselves as particularly deserving of hiring and high salary. We propose that these entitlement beliefs entail both personal motivations to see oneself as deserving and the ability to justify those motivated judgments. Accordingly, we predict that people feel more deserving when qualifications for a job are vague and thus amenable to motivated reasoning, whereby people use information selectively to reach a desired conclusion. We tested this hypothesis with a 2-phase experiment (N = 892) using materials drawn from real online job postings. In the first phase of the experiment, participants believed themselves to be more deserving of hiring and deserving of higher pay after reading postings composed of vaguer types of qualifications. In the second phase, yoked observers believed that participants were less entitled overall, but did not selectively discount endorsement of vaguer qualifications, suggesting they were unaware of this effect. A follow-up preregistered experiment (N = 905) using postings with mixed qualification types replicated the effect of including more vague qualifications on participants' entitlement beliefs. Entitlement beliefs are widely seen as problematic for recruitment and retention, and these results suggest that reducing the inclusion of vague qualifications in job postings would dampen the emergence of these beliefs in applicants, albeit at the cost of decreasing application rates and lowering applicants' confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The Effectiveness of Motivation Training for Increasing Students’ Motivation

    Fatwa Tentama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Students’ low level of motivation becomes a matter of concern to be addressed immediately. Students' motivation needs to be improved as it is a factor that will affect their lives in the future. This study aims to observe or examine the effectiveness of motivation training in increasing students' motivation.The research method used was the pre-experiment with one group pre-test post-test design. The subjects of this study were 15 boy and girl students of Grade X of SMK who had a low level of motivation. The measuring instruments were the motivation scales given during the pre-test and post-test. The quantitative data were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon test with non-parametric measurements to determine the significance of difference in the motivation level before and after the training. The data were tested using SPSS 17.0 for Windows.The result of Wilcoxon analysis to test the hypothesis whether there is a difference between the pre-test and post-test of students' motivation showed that the p = 0.025 (p < 0.05. This means that there was a significant difference between the motivation before the treatment (pre-test and after the treatment (post-test, which indicated that the students' motivation increased after a treatment in the form of motivation training.

  6. Motivational Profiles and Motivation for Lifelong Learning of Medical Specialists.

    van der Burgt, Stéphanie M E; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Wilschut, Janneke A; Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; Croiset, Gerda; Peerdeman, Saskia M

    2018-05-22

    Medical specialists face the challenge of maintaining their knowledge and skills and continuing professional development, that is, lifelong learning. Motivation may play an integral role in many of the challenges facing the physician workforce today including maintenance of a high performance. The aim of this study was to determine whether medical specialists show different motivational profiles and if these profiles predict differences in motivation for lifelong learning. An online questionnaire was sent to every medical specialist working in five hospitals in the Netherlands. The questionnaire included the validated Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning together with background questions like age, gender, and type of hospital. Respondents were grouped into different motivational profiles by using a two-step clustering approach. Four motivational profiles were identified: (1) HAMC profile (for High Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (2) MAMC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (3) MALC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation), and (4) HALC profile (for High Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation). Most of the female specialists that work in an academic hospital and specialists with a surgical specialty were represented in the HALC profile. Four motivational profiles were found among medical specialists, differing in gender, experience and type of specialization. The profiles are based on the combination of autonomous motivation (AM) and controlled motivation (CM) in the specialists. The profiles that have a high score on autonomous motivation have a positive association with lifelong learning.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work

  7. Global Strategy

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  8. A Preliminary Study of Classroom Motivators and De-Motivators from a Motivation-Hygiene Perspective

    Katt, James A.; Condly, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to begin answering two simple questions: "What motivates our students?" and its corollary, "What prevents our students from being motivated?" The motivation-hygiene theory (F. Herzberg, "Work and the nature of man," World Publishing, Cleveland, OH, 1966), a well-tested theory from organizational…

  9. Multiple motives and persuasive communication : Creative elaboration as a result of impression motivation and accuracy motivation

    Nienhuis, AE; Manstead, ASR; Spears, R

    The authors examined the influence of impression motivation (Experiments 1 and 2) and the combined effects of accuracy motivation and impression motivation (Experiment 3) on the elaboration of persuasive messages as reflected in attitude change and cognitive responses. Intermediate levels of

  10. Global Europa

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    at the mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  11. The Role of Motivation in Language Learning

    Rahman, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    The mastery of English learning is influenced by some variables, one of them is motivation. Motivation in learning second language is classified as integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. Some experts of language teaching also categorized motivation into two types namely intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. This paper discusses about kinds of motivation and how it takes a role in influencing students mastery in learning language. It was literature study that focused to f...

  12. Motivations of parametric studies

    Birac, C.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the motivations of parametric studies in connection with the Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components PISC II. The objective of the PISC II exercise is to evaluate the effectiveness of current and advanced NDT techniques for inspection of reactor pressure vessel components. The parametric studies were initiated to determine the influence of some parameters on defect detection and dimensioning, and to increase the technical bases of the Round Robin Tests. A description is given of the content of the parametric studies including:- the effect of the defects' characteristics, the effect of equipment characteristics, the effect of cladding, and possible use of electromagnetic techniques. (U.K.)

  13. Motives for barter

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2011-01-01

    Barter is not something that was present only before invention of money. Even Fortune 500 companies are involved in barter. The most common bartered goods and services are media and travel. As the amount of barter increases even in the U.S., it is worth investigating the reasons why organizations...... use barter. The paper provides a literature review of barter motives digested from academic journal articles covered in the Web of Science and EBSCO databases. The review includes also drivers that are specific for developing countries....

  14. Successful innovation by motivation

    Petra Koudelková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is one of the most important factors for business growth. Human capital plays a significant role in the successful process of innovation. This article deals with employee motivation in the innovation process and the main scientific aim of this study is to present results of research that was undertaken in the Czech Republic at the beginning of 2013. Questionnaires were used for the survey and statistical analyses such as Chi square test or Hierarchical cluster analysis were used for data processing. This study also provides a theoretical and practical overview of business innovation in the Czech Republic.

  15. Personal Development is Motivating

    Hjort, Katrin

    2018-01-01

    The education system is increasingly being managed with the help of competence goals that are so clear-cut that we are hindering the students from making decisions and working things out for themselves. Therefore, they are not adequately prepared for the society of the future. Although we do...... not know what the future will bring, we do know that they must continue to learn and be creative. Professor Katrin Hjort, therefore, is fighting for an education system that stimulates students’ personal development, which is also crucial for their motivation....

  16. Integrative Perspectives of Academic Motivation

    Chittum, Jessica Rebecca

    My overall objective in this dissertation was to develop more integrative perspectives of several aspects of academic motivation. Rarely have researchers and theorists examined a more comprehensive model of academic motivation that pools multiple constructs that interact in a complex and dynamic fashion (Kaplan, Katz, & Flum, 2012; Turner, Christensen, Kackar-Cam, Trucano, & Fulmer, 2014). The more common trend in motivation research and theory has been to identify and explain only a few motivation constructs and their linear relationships rather than examine complex relationships involving "continuously emerging systems of dynamically interrelated components" (Kaplan et al., 2014, para. 4). In this dissertation, my co-author and I focused on a more integrative perspective of academic motivation by first reviewing varying characterizations of one motivation construct (Manuscript 1) and then empirically testing dynamic interactions among multiple motivation constructs using a person-centered methodological approach (Manuscript 2). Within the first manuscript (Chapter 2), a theoretical review paper, we summarized multiple perspectives of the need for autonomy and similar constructs in academic motivation, primarily autonomy in self-determination theory, autonomy supports, and choice. We provided an integrative review and extrapolated practical teaching implications. We concluded with recommendations for researchers and instructors, including a call for more integrated perspectives of academic motivation and autonomy that focus on complex and dynamic patterns in individuals' motivational beliefs. Within the second manuscript (Chapter 3), we empirically investigated students' motivation in science class as a complex, dynamic, and context-bound phenomenon that incorporates multiple motivation constructs. Following a person-centered approach, we completed cluster analyses of students' perceptions of 5 well-known motivation constructs (autonomy, utility value, expectancy

  17. A Brief Analysis of L2 Motivation

    武曼

    2017-01-01

    Learning motivation is the motility to urge the student to be engaged in the studies activity. This thesis has introduced types of L2 learning motivation. Through the contrast and analysis about the positive motivation and negative motivation in prac?tical applications, this paper has indicated the unique of positive motivation and the defects of negative motivation, and make rea?sonable suggestions.

  18. Global usability

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  19. The motivation to express prejudice

    Forscher, Patrick S.; Cox, William T. L.; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001; 2009) suggest that some expressions of prejudice are intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the motivation to express prejudice (MP) scale to measure this motivation. In seven studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP scale has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally non-independent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to broaden the range of samples, target groups, and phenomena that they study, and more generally to consider the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior. PMID:26479365

  20. Neuroscientific Model of Motivational Process

    Kim, Sung-il

    2013-01-01

    Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three sub processes, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous sub processes, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision-making, and goal-directed control. Reward-driven approach is the process in which motivation is generated by reward anticipation and selective approach behaviors toward reward. This process recruits the ventral striatum (reward area) in which basic stimulus-action association is formed, and is classified as an automatic motivation to which relatively less attention is assigned. By contrast, value-based decision-making is the process of evaluating various outcomes of actions, learning through positive prediction error, and calculating the value continuously. The striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex (valuation area) play crucial roles in sustaining motivation. Lastly, the goal-directed control is the process of regulating motivation through cognitive control to achieve goals. This consciously controlled motivation is associated with higher-level cognitive functions such as planning, retaining the goal, monitoring the performance, and regulating action. The anterior cingulate cortex (attention area) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (cognitive control area) are the main neural circuits related to regulation of motivation. These three sub processes interact with each other by sending reward prediction error signals through dopaminergic pathway from the striatum and to the prefrontal cortex. The neuroscientific model of motivational process suggests several educational implications with regard to the generation, maintenance, and regulation of motivation to learn in the learning environment. PMID:23459598

  1. Neuroscientific model of motivational process.

    Kim, Sung-Il

    2013-01-01

    Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three sub processes, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous sub processes, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision-making, and goal-directed control. Reward-driven approach is the process in which motivation is generated by reward anticipation and selective approach behaviors toward reward. This process recruits the ventral striatum (reward area) in which basic stimulus-action association is formed, and is classified as an automatic motivation to which relatively less attention is assigned. By contrast, value-based decision-making is the process of evaluating various outcomes of actions, learning through positive prediction error, and calculating the value continuously. The striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex (valuation area) play crucial roles in sustaining motivation. Lastly, the goal-directed control is the process of regulating motivation through cognitive control to achieve goals. This consciously controlled motivation is associated with higher-level cognitive functions such as planning, retaining the goal, monitoring the performance, and regulating action. The anterior cingulate cortex (attention area) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (cognitive control area) are the main neural circuits related to regulation of motivation. These three sub processes interact with each other by sending reward prediction error signals through dopaminergic pathway from the striatum and to the prefrontal cortex. The neuroscientific model of motivational process suggests several educational implications with regard to the generation, maintenance, and regulation of motivation to learn in the learning environment.

  2. Neuroscientific Model of Motivational Process

    Sung-Il eKim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three subprocesses, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous subprocesses, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision making, and goal-directed control. Reward-driven approach is the process in which motivation is generated by reward anticipation and selective approach behaviors toward reward. This process recruits the ventral striatum (reward area in which basic stimulus-action association is formed, and is classified as an automatic motivation to which relatively less attention is assigned. By contrast, value-based decision making is the process of evaluating various outcomes of actions, learning through positive prediction error, and calculating the value continuously. The striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex (valuation area play crucial roles in sustaining motivation. Lastly, the goal-directed control is the process of regulating motivation through cognitive control to achieve goals. This consciously controlled motivation is associated with higher-level cognitive functions such as planning, retaining the goal, monitoring the performance, and regulating action. The anterior cingulate cortex (attention area and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (cognitive control area are the main neural circuits related to regulation of motivation. These three subprocesses interact with each other by sending reward prediction error signals through dopaminergic pathway from the striatum and to the prefrontal cortex. The neuroscientific model of motivational process suggests several educational implications with regard to the generation, maintenance, and regulation of motivation to learn in the learning environment.

  3. Proactive Personality and Training Motivation among Older Workers: A Mediational Model of Goal Orientation

    Setti, Ilaria; Dordoni, Paola; Piccoli, Beatrice; Bellotto, Massimo; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at examining the relationship between proactive personality and training motivation among older workers (aged over 55 years) in a context characterized by the growing ageing of the global population. First, the authors hypothesized that proactive personality predicts the motivation to learn among older workers and that…

  4. Incentivizing around the Globe: Educating for the Challenge of Developing Culturally Considerate Work Motivation Strategies

    Mills, Maura J.

    2017-01-01

    Work motivation has long been considered a driving force behind optimal employee management. However, as the workscape continues its path toward increased globalization, today's managers must consider cultural influences on employee motivation to implement the most appropriate human capital management strategies within any given context. The…

  5. Motivational intensity modulates attentional scope: evidence from behavioral and ERP studies.

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Guangnan; Zhou, Renlai; Wang, Zuowei

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have found that affective states with high motivational intensity narrow attentional scope, whereas affective states with low motivational intensity broaden attentional scope. This conclusion, however, is based on fragmented evidence based on several separate studies. The present study tests this conclusion within a single study using both behavioral (Experiment 1) and neurophysiological (Experiment 2) measures. Experiment 1 showed that individuals had the global precedence effect in the neutral affective state. However, the global precedence effect was reduced for affective states with high motivational intensity, whereas the global precedence effect was not significantly enhanced for those with low motivational intensity. Experiment 2 replicated these results with event-related potential (ERP) recording. ERP results showed that affective states with high motivational intensity induced smaller N2 and greater late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes than low motivational intensity and neutral affective states. However, no differences were found between the low motivational intensity and neutral affective states. Furthermore, smaller LPP predicted the tendency a global attentional focus in the frontal and central areas and larger LPP predicted a narrowed focus in the frontal area. The findings suggested that high motivational intensity of affective states can affect attentional scope.

  6. Relationship among practice change, motivation, and self-efficacy.

    Williams, Betsy W; Kessler, Harold A; Williams, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between an individual's sense of self-efficacy, motivation to change, and the implementation of improvement programs has been reported. This research reports the relationship among self-efficacy, motivation to change, and intent to implement continuing medical education (CME) activity learnings. The measure of individual sense of self-efficacy was a 4-item scale. The measure of motivation was a 4-item scale following on the work of Johnson, et al. The self-efficacy scale has been confirmed for structure, and together the 2 scales provide indicators of 3 underlying variables-2 self-efficacy constructs and a motivation variable. In addition, a global intent to implement measure was collected. Preliminary analysis demonstrates a significant relationship between a self-efficacy construct, the motivation to change construct, and global intent to change. Specifically, the sense of efficacy in effecting change in the practice environment is predictive of a high level of motivation to change, which, in turn, is predictive of formation of an intent to change practice patterns. Further inspection of the motivation to change construct suggests that it mediates the self-efficacy constructs' effect on intent. This is consistent with an earlier report on the relationship among self-efficacy, barriers to change, and stated intent. This new finding suggests that the proximal construct motivation completely masks an important underlying causal relationship that appears to contribute to practice change following CME: self-efficacy. A focus on the participants' sense of self-agency may provide a path to practice change. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  7. The Motivational Climate and Intrinsic Motivation in the Rehabilitation Setting.

    Brinkman-Majewski, Rachel E; Weiss, Windee M

    2018-02-06

    The motivational climate created by the athletic trainer in rehabilitation may be critical in influencing athletes' intrinsic motivation and other psychosocial outcomes in the rehabilitation and the recovery process. The purpose of this study was to examine intercollegiate athletes' perceptions of the motivational climate in the rehabilitation setting. Specifically, examining if perceptions of the motivational climate can predict athletes' levels of intrinsic motivation with rehabilitation as well as the relationship between perceptions of the motivational climate and athlete demographics (gender, starter status, athletic trainer gender, etc). Cross-sectional, descriptive research. College sport team and athletic training center. NCAA Division II intercollegiate athletes from one institution (n = 187; 125 male, 62 female). Paper-based survey measuring: mastery and performance perceptions of the motivational climate in rehabilitation, athletes' goal orientation in sport, athletes' levels of motivation in rehabilitation. Perceptions of a performance climate was positively related to intrinsic motivation effort-improvement (effect size=25.34%). Perceptions of a mastery climate were positively related to interest-enjoyment and perceived competence and negatively related to tension-pressure (effect size=39.03%). In general, female athletes, as well as athletes with a female athletic trainer, had significantly higher perceptions of mastery motivational climate effort-improvement compared to male athletes and athletes with male athletic trainers. While male athletes and athletes with male athletic trainers had higher perceptions of intra-team member rivalry in rehabilitation. The athlete's gender and goal orientation, as well as the gender of the athletic trainer creating the motivational climate, can influence whether the environment is perceived as more mastery or performance. The recovering athletes' perceptions of the climate in rehabilitation can, in turn, affect

  8. Directed Motivational Currents: Using vision to create effective motivational pathways

    Christine Muir; Zoltán Dörnyei

    2013-01-01

    Vision, that is, the mental representation of the sensory experience of a future goal state (involving imagination and imagery), is currently at the forefront of motivational innovation, and in recent years it has been seen increasingly more often in the motivational tool kit of practicing language teachers. Theories such as Dörnyei’s L2 motivational self system have explored the power that creating effective visions can harness (see, e.g., Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014) and when viewed in conju...

  9. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  10. Evaluating arguments during instigations of defence motivation and accuracy motivation.

    Liu, Cheng-Hong

    2017-05-01

    When people evaluate the strength of an argument, their motivations are likely to influence the evaluation. However, few studies have specifically investigated the influences of motivational factors on argument evaluation. This study examined the effects of defence and accuracy motivations on argument evaluation. According to the compatibility between the advocated positions of arguments and participants' prior beliefs and the objective strength of arguments, participants evaluated four types of arguments: compatible-strong, compatible-weak, incompatible-strong, and incompatible-weak arguments. Experiment 1 revealed that participants possessing a high defence motivation rated compatible-weak arguments as stronger and incompatible-strong ones as weaker than participants possessing a low defence motivation. However, the strength ratings between the high and low defence groups regarding both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar. Experiment 2 revealed that when participants possessed a high accuracy motivation, they rated compatible-weak arguments as weaker and incompatible-strong ones as stronger than when they possessed a low accuracy motivation. However, participants' ratings on both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar when comparing high and low accuracy conditions. The results suggest that defence and accuracy motivations are two major motives influencing argument evaluation. However, they primarily influence the evaluation results for compatible-weak and incompatible-strong arguments, but not for compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Directed Motivational Currents: Using vision to create effective motivational pathways

    Christine Muir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vision, that is, the mental representation of the sensory experience of a future goal state (involving imagination and imagery, is currently at the forefront of motivational innovation, and in recent years it has been seen increasingly more often in the motivational tool kit of practicing language teachers. Theories such as Dörnyei’s L2 motivational self system have explored the power that creating effective visions can harness (see, e.g., Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014 and when viewed in conjunction with other current research avenues, such as future time perspective and dynamic systems theory, vision offers exciting potential. A Directed Motivational Current is a new motivational construct that we suggest is capable of integrating many current theoretical strands with vision: It can be described as a motivational drive which energises long-term, sustained behaviour (such as language learning, and through placing vision and goals as critical central components within this construct, it offers real and practical motivational potential. In this conceptual paper, we first discuss current understandings of vision and of Directed Motivational Currents, and then analyse how they may be optimally integrated and employed to create effective motivational pathways in language learning environments.

  12. Do Motivational Interviewing Behaviors Predict Reductions in Partner Aggression for Men and Women?

    Woodin, Erica M.; Sotskova, Alina; O’Leary, K. Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Motivational interviewing is a directive, non-confrontational intervention to promote behavior change. The current study examined therapist behaviors during a successful brief motivational interviewing intervention for physically aggressive college dating couples (Woodin & O’Leary, 2010). Forty-five minute motivational interviews with each partner were videotaped and coded using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity scale (MITI; Moyers, Martin, Manuel, & Miller, 2003). Hierarchical modeling analyses demonstrated that therapist behaviors consistent with motivational interviewing competency predicted significantly greater reductions in physical aggression perpetration following the intervention. Specifically, greater reflection to question ratios by the therapists predicted reductions in aggression for both men and women, greater percentages of open versus closed questions predicted aggression reductions for women, and there was a trend for greater levels of global therapist empathy to predict aggression reductions for women. These findings provide evidence that motivational interviewing seems to have an effect on behavior change through therapist behaviors consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of motivational interviewing. PMID:22119133

  13. Motivation of Czech Employees by the Balanced Scorecard of the Multinational Company – an Empirical Study

    Janasová, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review if the implemented balanced scorecard is an efficient way to motivate people and increase their work effort. The empirical research had been conducted in one of the big multinational companies. Balanced scorecards for such companies are mainly driven by global, strategic measures. It is questionable, if employees of the Czech local branch are interested and motivated by the global results. Perhaps, it would make more sense to put emphasis on the individual p...

  14. Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.

    Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Wigfield, Allan

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.

  15. Contemporary Parenthood. The Meaning of Mother and Father in the Child’s Life [Współczesne rodzicielstwo. Znaczenie matki i ojca w życiu dziecka

    Maja PIOTROWSKA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of both parents is essential in the proper development of the child’s personality. Closeness, warmth, directness and the intimacy of parents-children relationship, enable the proper formation of the child’s personality; an individual who is able to love and make warm and permanent contacts with other people. The family is the cradle of personality development of each child born to this world. It is on the basis of family that enables the child to form speech, language, emotions and attitudes towards the people closest to it and to the surrounding world. The family introduces the child to the world of culture and prepares him for participation in social life. Parenthood is of more importance in today's consciousness. Children are perceived not as “a gift from God”, but rather as “planned or expected children”. Responsible parenthood means acquiring the skills for the reorienting of the parents’ life, and the effort of self-control and to be on the alert in accompanying the child in his growing up. Active parental presence at every stage of the child’s development enables it to complete the required tasks and gain the upper level of maturity. Parents are obliged to do a lot more than just to welcome the child to this world. Mature parenthood demands patience, engagement and attention but most importantly immense love and devotion which are missing when it comes to contemporary parents “embedded” in “Fast culture”.

  16. Motivation of medical students: selection by motivation or motivation by selection.

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2016-01-29

    Medical schools try to implement selection procedures that will allow them to select the most motivated students for their programs. Though there is a general feeling that selection stimulates student motivation, conclusive evidence for this is lacking. The current study aims to use the perspective of Self-determination Theory (SDT) of motivation as a lens to examine how medical students' motivation differs in relation to different selection procedures. The hypotheses were that 1) selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students, and 2) recently selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students and students who were selected longer ago. First- (Y1) and fourth-year (Y4) medical students in the six-year regular programme and first-year students in the four-year graduate entry programme (GE) completed questionnaires measuring motivation strength and type (autonomous-AM, controlled-CM). Scores were compared between students admitted based on selection, lottery or top pre-university GPA (top GPA) using ANCOVAs. Selected students' answers on open-ended questions were analysed using inductive thematic analysis to identify reasons for changes in motivation. The response rate was 61.4 % (n = 357). Selected students (Y1, Y4 and GE) reported a significantly higher strength of motivation than non-selected students (Y1 and Y4 lottery and top GPA) (p motivation as they felt autonomous, competent and that they belonged to a special group. These reported reasons are in alignment with the basic psychological needs described by Self-Determination Theory as important in enhancing autonomous motivation. A comprehensive selection procedure, compared to less demanding admission procedures, does not seem to yield a student population which stands out in terms of autonomous motivation. The current findings indicate that selection might temporarily enhance students' motivation. The mechanism

  17. Computing Educator Attitudes about Motivation

    Settle, Amber; Sedlak, Brian

    2016-01-01

    While motivation is of great interest to computing educators, relatively little work has been done on understanding faculty attitudes toward student motivation. Two previous qualitative studies of instructor attitudes found results identical to those from other disciplines, but neither study considered whether instructors perceive student motivation to be more important in certain computing classes. In this work we present quantitative results about the perceived importance of student motivat...

  18. Employee motivation and employee benefits

    Limburská, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to get acquainted with the issue of employee motivation from a theoretical perspective, and then analyze the incentive system in a selected company - Sellier & Bellot. In conclusion, I would like to evaluate the lessons learned and propose some changes and recommendations for improving motivation in the analyzed company. The work is divided into four parts. The first three are rather theoretical. The first part deals with the explanation of the concept of motivation...

  19. The employee motivation and benefits

    Fuhrmannová, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor's study is to describe and analyze the employee motivation and benefits in the payroll system and human recources field. Theoretical part attends to general terms as the employee motivation, the theory of the motivation,the types of the employee benefits, the influence of benefits to the employee's working performance. The practial part focuses on Elanor company, includes introduction of the company, it's history and the present, the offer of the employee benefits. Ne...

  20. Biopsychosocial correlates of work motivation

    Liesienė, Justina; Endriulaitienė, Auksė

    2008-01-01

    Work motivation is a potential predictor of employee turnover, job satisfaction, commitment, job performance and psychological wellbeing. Researchers argue that motivated employees work more effectively. The purpose of the current study was to identify biological (gender, age and health), psychological (personality traits) and social (marital status, children, work sector and position) factors related to employees’ work motivation. It was also predicted that subjectively perceived job effecti...

  1. Employee Motivation at IKEA Espoo

    Thapa, Kumar; Adhikari, Devendra

    2013-01-01

    How to motivate employees and the factors affecting motivation have been subjects of concern for many researchers and practitioners for decades. Until recently employees were primarily regarded as a factor of production (i.e. labor), and not, as in the current view, as an integral part of all businesses. Therefore, motivating employees has become essential in order to achieve the strategic goals of any company. However, due to the current state of competition in the job markets it has increas...

  2. Global Health Solidarity.

    West-Oram, Peter G N; Buyx, Alena

    2017-07-01

    For much of the 20th century, vulnerability to deprivations of health has often been defined by geographical and economic factors. Those in wealthy, usually 'Northern' and 'Western', parts of the world have benefited from infrastructures, and accidents of geography and climate, which insulate them from many serious threats to health. Conversely, poorer people are typically exposed to more threats to health, and have lesser access to the infrastructures needed to safeguard them against the worst consequences of such exposure. However, in recent years the increasingly globalized nature of the world's economy, society and culture, combined with anthropogenic climate change and the evolution of antibiotic resistance, has begun to shift the boundaries that previously defined the categories of person threatened by many exogenous threats to health. In doing so, these factors expose both new and forgotten similarities between persons, and highlight the need for global cooperative responses to the existential threats posed by climate change and the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. In this article, we argue that these emerging health threats, in demonstrating the similarities that exist between even distant persons, provides a catalyst for global solidarity, which justifies, and provides motivation for, the establishment of solidaristic, cooperative global health infrastructures.

  3. Impulsive action and motivation.

    Frijda, Nico H

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores the way in which emotions are causal determinants of action. It argues that emotional events, as appraised by the individual, elicit changes in motive states (called states of action readiness), which in turn may (or may not) cause action. Actions can be elicited automatically, without prior intention (called impulsive actions), or intentionally. Impulsive actions reflect the simplest and biologically most general form in which emotions can cause action, since they require no reflection, no foresight, and no planning. Impulsive actions are determined conjointly by the nature of action readiness, the affordances perceived in the eliciting event as appraised, and the individual's action repertoire. Those actions from one's repertoire are performed that both match the perceived affordances and the aim of the state of action readiness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pregnancy and Parenthood in Radiation Oncology, Views and Experiences Survey (PROVES): Results of a Blinded Prospective Trainee Parenting and Career Development Assessment

    Holliday, Emma B.; Ahmed, Awad A.; Jagsi, Reshma; Stentz, Natalie Clark; Woodward, Wendy A.; Fuller, Clifton D.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Medical training spans nearly a decade, during which many physicians traditionally begin families. Although childrearing responsibilities are shared by men and women in the modern era, differences in time allocated to child care by sex and its potential impact on residency experience merit discussion. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, voluntary, 102-item survey was distributed to 540 current radiation oncology residents and 2014 graduates that asked about marital and parental status, pregnancy during residency, publication productivity, career aspirations, and experiences working with pregnant co-residents. Respondents with children were asked about childcare arrangements, and women who were pregnant during residency were asked about radiation safety, maternity leave, and breastfeeding experiences. Results: A total of 190 respondents completed the survey, 107 men (56.3%) and 84 women (43.7%). Ninety-seven respondents (51.1%) were parents, and 84 (44.2%) reported a pregnancy during residency. Respondents with children more often were male (65% vs 47.3%; P=.014), in a higher level of training (79.3% vs 54.8% were PGY4 or higher; P=.001), were older (median age of 32, interquartile range [IQR]:31-35] vs age 30 [IQR: 29-33]; P<.001), had a PhD (33% vs 19.3%, respectively; P=.033), were married (99% vs 43%, respectively; P<.001), and had a partner who did not work (24.7% vs 1.9%, respectively; <.001). There were no differences in the number of manuscripts published or the number of residents who expressed likelihood of pursing an academic career by parental status. Among parents, men more frequently had partners who did not work (38.1% vs 0%, respectively; P<.001) and reported that their partner performed a greater percentage of childcare duties (70% [IQR: 60%-80%] vs 35% [IQR: 20%-50%], respectively; P<.001). Conclusions: Pregnancy and parenthood are common during residency. Female residents are frequently responsible for more childcare duties than males

  5. Pregnancy and Parenthood in Radiation Oncology, Views and Experiences Survey (PROVES): Results of a Blinded Prospective Trainee Parenting and Career Development Assessment

    Holliday, Emma B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ahmed, Awad A. [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Stentz, Natalie Clark [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Woodward, Wendy A.; Fuller, Clifton D. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Charles R., E-mail: thomasch@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Medical training spans nearly a decade, during which many physicians traditionally begin families. Although childrearing responsibilities are shared by men and women in the modern era, differences in time allocated to child care by sex and its potential impact on residency experience merit discussion. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, voluntary, 102-item survey was distributed to 540 current radiation oncology residents and 2014 graduates that asked about marital and parental status, pregnancy during residency, publication productivity, career aspirations, and experiences working with pregnant co-residents. Respondents with children were asked about childcare arrangements, and women who were pregnant during residency were asked about radiation safety, maternity leave, and breastfeeding experiences. Results: A total of 190 respondents completed the survey, 107 men (56.3%) and 84 women (43.7%). Ninety-seven respondents (51.1%) were parents, and 84 (44.2%) reported a pregnancy during residency. Respondents with children more often were male (65% vs 47.3%; P=.014), in a higher level of training (79.3% vs 54.8% were PGY4 or higher; P=.001), were older (median age of 32, interquartile range [IQR]:31-35] vs age 30 [IQR: 29-33]; P<.001), had a PhD (33% vs 19.3%, respectively; P=.033), were married (99% vs 43%, respectively; P<.001), and had a partner who did not work (24.7% vs 1.9%, respectively; <.001). There were no differences in the number of manuscripts published or the number of residents who expressed likelihood of pursing an academic career by parental status. Among parents, men more frequently had partners who did not work (38.1% vs 0%, respectively; P<.001) and reported that their partner performed a greater percentage of childcare duties (70% [IQR: 60%-80%] vs 35% [IQR: 20%-50%], respectively; P<.001). Conclusions: Pregnancy and parenthood are common during residency. Female residents are frequently responsible for more childcare duties than males

  6. What Motivates the Motivators? An Examination of Sports Coaches

    McLean, Kristy N.; Mallett, Clifford J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Motivation is central to successful performance. In the case of sports coaches, drive is a prerequisite to sustained successful engagement in a complex, dynamic, and turbulent work environment. What fuels these coaches' drive to pursue this vocational activity? Coach motivation has been underrepresented in previous research which has…

  7. Motivation and Creativity: Effects of Motivational Orientation on Creative Writers.

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    This study directly tested the hypothesis that intrinsic motivation is conducive to creativity and extrinsic motivation is detrimental. Chosen because they identified themselves as actively involved in creative writing, 72 young adults participated in individual laboratory sessions where they were asked to write two brief poems. Before writing the…

  8. Motivational systems or motivational states : Behavioural and physiological evidence

    Koolhaas, J.M.; de Boer, S.F.; Bohus, B.G J

    This paper will critically discuss the available behavioural and neurobiological evidence for the existence of motivational systems and motivational states on the basis of our studies on aggressive behaviour in male rats and mice. Three types of evidence will be discussed. First, some behavioural

  9. Directed Motivational Currents: Using Vision to Create Effective Motivational Pathways

    Muir, Christine; Dörnyei, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    Vision, that is, the mental representation of the sensory experience of a future goal state (involving imagination and imagery), is currently at the forefront of motivational innovation, and in recent years it has been seen increasingly more often in the motivational tool kit of practicing language teachers. Theories such as Dörnyei's L2…

  10. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Ru...

  11. Global Mindset

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Global Mindset (GM) – the way to think about the global reality – is on the agenda of multinational companies concomitant with the increase in global complexity, uncertainty and diversity. In spite of a number of studies, the concept is still fluid and far from a managerial.......e. the capability to sense (quickly), reflect (constructively) and act purposefully (for mutual benefit). A case on an MNC is used at the end to show the organizational manifestations of a GM....

  12. Client Motivation for Therapy Scale: a measure of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation for therapy.

    Pelletier, L G; Tuson, K M; Haddad, N K

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure of client motivation for therapy, the Client Motivation for Therapy Scale. This scale is designed to measure client's Intrinsic Motivation, four forms of regulation for Extrinsic Motivation (integrated, identified, introjected, and external regulation), and Amotivation for therapy. These subscales correspond to different forms of motivation identified by Deci and Ryan (1985) and fall along a self-determination continuum. An experimental version of the scale, along with related scales, was distributed to a total sample of 138 clients involved in therapy. The results supported the factor structure of the scale and revealed a satisfactory level of internal consistency. Correlations among the subscales revealed a simplex pattern that, in general, provides support for the self-determination continuum and the construct validity of the scale. Implications for research on client motivation for therapy are discussed.

  13. [Team motivation and motivational strategies adopted by nurses].

    Bezerra, Felipa Daiana; Andrade, Marta Francisca da Conceição; Andrade, Joseilze Santos de; Vieira, Maria Jésia; Pimentel, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative study held in an emergency hospital in Aracaju-SE, which aimed to know the perception of nurses about what is a motivated nursing team, to identify possible motivational policies used by them and if they are consistent with the policies proposed by Frederick Herzberg in his theory. Of the 20 nurses participants, the most understood the motivation as a set of techniques possible to shape the behavior of the individual at work, linking it to extrinsic factors and 60% did not consider his team motivated. The types of motivational policies that usually apply realized that these correspond to intrinsic factors aimed at self recovery and self realization of individuals in the tasks running.

  14. Motivating Students to Do Homework

    Kontur, Frederick J.; Terry, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    How do you motivate students to do their homework? Some instructors make students' homework scores a significant percentage of the final course grade. In that case, how much course credit is required? Some instructors do not grade homework at all, instead relying on students' intrinsic motivation to learn the course material. Will this actually…

  15. In reality, I motivate myself!

    Mariager-Anderson, Kristina; Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2016-01-01

    lifelong learners constituting the latter as a ‘problem’. The EU call is to make people active, with an underlying assumption of people not being motivated. This article explores how one such ‘inactive’ group, low-skilled workers, narrates motivation for learning, work and other activities through a work...

  16. Innovation Motivation and Artistic Creativity

    Joy, Stephen P.

    2005-01-01

    Innovation motivation is a social learning model of originality comprising two variables: the need to be different and innovation expectancy. This study examined their contribution to artistic creativity in a sample of undergraduates. Participants completed measures of both innovation motivation variables as well as intelligence, adjustment, and…

  17. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  18. Motivation in Collaborative Knowledge Creation

    Hendriks, P.H.J.; Sousa, C.A.A.; Schwartz, D.; Te'eni, D.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of motivation in knowledge management (KM) debates is now generally acknowledged. Motivation affects the overall quality of knowledge used and produced in the work situation, the willingness to contribute to KM systems, the willing engagement in knowledge sharing and many other

  19. Motivational Issues in Knowledge Work

    Anca BOGDAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the place of emotions in modern theories of motivation, and the influence of the knowledge-oriented paradigm on redefining motivation and rethinking ways of rendering work, knowledge work, in particular, more efficient, in a society in which human participation and deployment of intellectual capital become key factors of success, replacing traditional, tangible-focused, factors of production.

  20. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  1. Home Education: The Social Motivation

    Beck, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Data from a Norwegian survey show correlation between a student's socially related problems at school and the parent's social motivation for home education. I argue that more time spent at school by a student could result in more socially related problems at school, which can explain an increase in social motivation for home education.

  2. Motivation and Second Language Learning

    郭建业

    2007-01-01

    Motivation, which is one of the individual differences, contributes a lot to the success and failure in second language learning. This essay focus on the discussion of the definition, types, effect and implications of motivation in second language learning with the aim of promoting learners' learning proficiency.

  3. Logistical Factors in Teachers' Motivation

    Daniels, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Research in education and psychology contributes to an understanding of how educators create contexts for learning that encourage intrinsic motivation and increase academic achievement. In this article, the researcher investigated how teachers themselves define effectiveness and identified what factors influence their motivation, both positively…

  4. How decision reversibility affects motivation

    Bullens, L.; van Harreveld, F.; Förster, J.; Higgins, T.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making,

  5. Gendering Globalization

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  6. Developing Globalization

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is the first qualitative micro case study of one aspect of globalization: personal networks as a concrete outcome of development assistance spending. The empirical findings related in this paper present circumstantial evidence that Japanese foreign aid has contributed to globalization...

  7. Global Uddannelse

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    Antologien handler om "demokratiproblemer i den globale sammenhæng" (del I) og "demokratiproblemer i uddannelse og for de offentligt ansatte" (del II), bundet sammen af et mellemstykke, der rækker ud mod begge poler både det globale og det lokale ved at knytte det til forholdet mellem marked...

  8. Retailers’ competitiveness on global markets

    Grażyna Śmigielska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the chapter is to show that now retail trade is a global sector but because of its specificity new strategies are necessary if global retailers want to sustain their advantage. The  concept of globalization is discussed and then referenced to the retail sector.  The process of retail internationalization which resulted in the globalization of retail sector is analyzed.  It is assumed that the retailers were motivated by the goal of sustaining their competitive advantage. So some ideas of the main theoretical views of developing sustainable competitive advantage (SCA: Environmental View and Resource Based View, referring to the process of internationalization as well as Yip’s description of globalization process are presented. On the examples of some companies, leading the process of retail fast internationalization in XX century, like Ikea, Benetton, Carrefour, Wal-Mart, it is shown how the resources they developed and external environment contributed to their globalization process. It is found out that there were two stages of the globalization of retail sector: first, in which non food companies develop on international market and second, when the mass merchandisers offering food and other Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG were involved. The fact that after fast internationalization representatives of both groups face problems leads to the conclusion that to be successful in the contemporary global retail market new capabilities should be developed.

  9. Job satisfaction and factors affecting motivation at Posti Oyj

    Shah, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    The business trends and life style of humans are changing rapidly due to globalization and it visibly affects the work environment and employee’s attitude towards the work as the needs and desires of human being are changing too. In such circumstance, it is essential to have motivated team to survive in the market is vital agenda for the firms, where Posti Oyj is not an exception. It has become a challenge for HR officials to study about job satisfaction and motivation including factors affec...

  10. Global Mindsets

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... in a global context, and that they are dynamic and undergo change and action. Part of the mindset(s) may depend upon place, situation and context where individuals and organizations operate. The book will examine the notion of "mindset" is situational and dynamic, especially in a global setting, why...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the thinking...

  11. Global warming

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  12. Drinking-to-cope motivation and negative mood-drinking contingencies in a daily diary study of college students.

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2014-07-01

    This study examined whether global drinking-to-cope (DTC) motivation moderates negative mood-drinking contingencies and negative mood-motivation contingencies at the daily level of analysis. Data came from a daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 1,636; 53% female; Mage = 19.2 years). Fixed-interval models tested whether global DTC motivation moderated relations between daily negative mood and that evening's drinking and episodic DTC. Time-to-drink models examined whether global DTC motivation moderated the effects of weekly negative mood on the immediacy of drinking and DTC in the weekly cycle. More evening drinking occurred on days characterized by relatively higher anxiety or anger, and students were more likely to report DTC on days when they experienced greater sadness. However, only the daily Anxiety × Global DTC Motivation interaction for number of drinks consumed was consistent with hypotheses. Moreover, students reported drinking, heavy drinking, and DTC earlier in weeks characterized by relatively higher anxiety or anger, but no hypothesized interactions with global DTC motivation were found. RESULTS indicate that negative mood is associated with increased levels of drinking and drinking for coping reasons among college students but that the strength of these relations does not differ by global levels of DTC motivation. These findings raise the possibility that global DTC measures are insufficient for examining within-person DTC processes. Further implications of these results are discussed, including future directions that may determine the circumstances under which, and for whom, DTC occurs.

  13. Philanthropic behaviour and motives

    Vladimír Hyánek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though philanthropy tends to be considered a sociological theme rather than an economic one, it poses a number of questions that challenge economists as well. We chose to address the following: How can economists contribute to the theories related to philanthropy? We examine some terms that are used in public economics theory and use them to explore the issues of philanthropy like Samaritan’s Dilemma, the Prisoner’s Dilemma, and the Free-Rider Problem, which we consider to be interesting and inspiring (Stone, 2008. We have to find and identify the social values of donors and volunteers rather than their economic values, because economists are not fully able to explain empathy, altruism, and helpful behaviour using traditional economic principles (Rutherford, 2008. The theoretical frame is supported by relevant empirical data. Before starting a large-scale survey, we decided to conduct smaller pre-research probes into people’s attitudes towards altruism, philanthropy, and giving. Even though our sample was not fully representative, the responses that we collected generated interesting findings about people’s views and attitudes. The first wave of data was collected between February and April 2009; the second wave between February and April 2010.Because of this pilot research mission and because of the budget restriction too, the non-representative sample of 823 respondents has been used; students of our Public Economics study programme were used as interviewers. They have also obtained a proper training of the professional sociologist. Students utilized the face to face interviewing method; non-standardized questions were immediately recorded into the reply form. Questions were divided into three groups with typical characteristics. The first one focuses on personal (individual motives for financial donating (only financial gifts for non-profit organizations. Second part examines the attitudes of individual towards the non

  14. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

    Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2009-09-01

    Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Pregnancy and Parenthood in Radiation Oncology, Views and Experiences Survey (PROVES): Results of a Blinded Prospective Trainee Parenting and Career Development Assessment.

    Holliday, Emma B; Ahmed, Awad A; Jagsi, Reshma; Stentz, Natalie Clark; Woodward, Wendy A; Fuller, Clifton D; Thomas, Charles R

    2015-07-01

    Medical training spans nearly a decade, during which many physicians traditionally begin families. Although childrearing responsibilities are shared by men and women in the modern era, differences in time allocated to child care by sex and its potential impact on residency experience merit discussion. An anonymous, voluntary, 102-item survey was distributed to 540 current radiation oncology residents and 2014 graduates that asked about marital and parental status, pregnancy during residency, publication productivity, career aspirations, and experiences working with pregnant co-residents. Respondents with children were asked about childcare arrangements, and women who were pregnant during residency were asked about radiation safety, maternity leave, and breastfeeding experiences. A total of 190 respondents completed the survey, 107 men (56.3%) and 84 women (43.7%). Ninety-seven respondents (51.1%) were parents, and 84 (44.2%) reported a pregnancy during residency. Respondents with children more often were male (65% vs 47.3%; P=.014), in a higher level of training (79.3% vs 54.8% were PGY4 or higher; P=.001), were older (median age of 32, interquartile range [IQR]:31-35] vs age 30 [IQR: 29-33]; Pstatus. Among parents, men more frequently had partners who did not work (38.1% vs 0%, respectively; Pproductivity and career aspirations. Further investigation is critical to elucidate gender disparities in parenthood and career development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Delinquency in incarcerated male adolescents is associated with single parenthood, exposure to more violence at home and in the community, and poorer self-image.

    Erdelja, Stanislava; Vokal, Petra; Bolfan, Marija; Erdelja, Sergej Augustin; Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan

    2013-10-28

    To assess the relationships between delinquency and demographic and family variables, academic performance, war stressors, home/community, school, and media violence exposure, self-image, and psychopathology. This cross-sectional study included 100 delinquent, incarcerated male adolescents and 100 matched schoolchildren from Croatia. It lasted from January 2008 to June 2009, and used socio-demographic questionnaire, questionnaire on children's stressful and traumatic war experiences, exposure to violence scale, the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Youth Self-Report Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis showed that delinquency in incarcerated adolescents was more likely related to having parents who did not live together (odds ratio [OR] 2.40; confidence interval [CI] 1.18-4.90, P=0.015), being more exposed to violence at home/community (OR 3.84; CI 1.58-9.34, P=0.003), and having poorer self-image (OR 1.09; CI=1.03-1.16, P>0.002). Preventive and therapeutic interventions in incarcerated delinquents should be specifically targeted toward single parenthood, family factors, trauma oriented interventions, and focused on multiple dimensions of self-concept of adolescents.

  17. Parental self-efficacy and stress-related growth in the transition to parenthood: a comparison between parents of pre- and full-term babies.

    Spielman, Varda; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this article was to examine how the unique circumstances of the birth of a premature baby affect the perception of parental self-efficacy and stress-related growth--which is the experience of positive change in one's life following stressful circumstances--among first-time parents and to examine the contribution of the parents' personal resources of self-esteem and attachment style, and their infant's temperament and medical condition, to their self-efficacy and stress-related growth. Forty-nine sets of parents of preterm babies and 50 sets of parents of full-term babies completed questionnaires about one month after the birth of their child. Parents of premature infants reported a higher level of stress-related growth than those of full-term infants, but no difference was found between them on parental self-efficacy In addition, gender differences in the dependent variables, as well as significant contributions of attachment style and self-esteem, were found. Professional guidance during pregnancy, aimed at expanding parents' knowledge and understanding of the changes they can expect to undergo, may serve to enhance the positive experience of growth in the transition to parenthood.

  18. Theory and Algorithms for Global/Local Design Optimization

    Watson, Layne T; Guerdal, Zafer; Haftka, Raphael T

    2005-01-01

    The motivating application for this research is the global/local optimal design of composite aircraft structures such as wings and fuselages, but the theory and algorithms are more widely applicable...

  19. The motivation to express prejudice.

    Forscher, Patrick S; Cox, William T L; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G

    2015-11-01

    Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act in a manner inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001, 2009) suggest that some prejudice is intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the Motivation to Express Prejudice Scale (MP) to measure this motivation. In 7 studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally nonindependent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and to vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to give greater consideration to the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior and to broaden the range of phenomena, target groups, and samples that they study. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian; Hansen, Elin

    2014-01-01

    -established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame...

  1. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  2. Shadow Globalization

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  3. The influence of extrinsic motivation on competition-based selection.

    Sänger, Jessica; Wascher, Edmund

    2011-10-10

    The biased competition approach to visuo-spatial attention proposes that the selection of competing information is effected by the saliency of the stimulus as well as by an intention-based bias of attention towards behavioural goals. Wascher and Beste (2010) [32] showed that the detection of relevant information depends on its relative saliency compared to irrelevant conflicting stimuli. Furthermore the N1pc, N2pc and N2 of the EEG varied with the strength of the conflict. However, this system could also be modulated by rather global mechanisms like attentional effort. The present study investigates such modulations by testing the influence of extrinsic motivation on the selection of competing stimuli. Participants had to detect a luminance change in various conditions among others against an irrelevant orientation change. Half of the participants were motivated to maximize their performance by the announcement of a monetary reward for correct responses. Participants who were motivated had lower error rates than participants who were not motivated. The event-related lateralizations of the EEG showed no motivation-related effect on the N1pc, which reflects the initial saliency driven orientation of attention towards the more salient stimulus. The subsequent N2pc was enhanced in the motivation condition. Extrinsic motivation was also accompanied by enhanced fronto-central negativities. Thus, the data provide evidence that the improvement of selection performance when participants were extrinsically motivated by announcing a reward was not due to changes in the initial saliency based processing of information but was foremost mediated by improved higher-level mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Global Rome

    Is 21st-century Rome a global city? Is it part of Europe's core or periphery? This volume examines the “real city” beyond Rome's historical center, exploring the diversity and challenges of life in neighborhoods affected by immigration, neoliberalism, formal urban planning, and grassroots social...... movements. The contributors engage with themes of contemporary urban studies–the global city, the self-made city, alternative modernities, capital cities and nations, urban change from below, and sustainability. Global Rome serves as a provocative introduction to the Eternal City and makes an original...

  5. Motivations for Extradyadic Infidelity Revisited.

    Selterman, Dylan; Garcia, Justin R; Tsapelas, Irene

    2017-12-15

    Relationship infidelities are motivated by many distinct factors, with previous research indicating motivations of dissatisfaction, neglect, anger, and sexual desire (Barta & Kiene, 2005). We expand on this by demonstrating additional, empirically distinct motivations for infidelity. Using an Internet-based questionnaire, participants (N = 495), most of whom were young adults, self-reported their infidelities. In addition to evidence for previously studied motivations, our data demonstrate additional factors, including lack of love ("I had 'fallen out of love with' my primary partner"), low commitment ("I was not very committed to my primary partner"), esteem ("I wanted to enhance my popularity"), gaining sexual variety ("I wanted a greater variety of sexual partners"), and situational factors ("I was drunk and not thinking clearly"). Our results also show personality correlates with infidelity motivations. Consistent with predictions, attachment insecurity was associated with motivations of anger, lack of love, neglect, low commitment, and esteem, while unrestricted sociosexual orientation was associated with sexual variety. Implicit beliefs (e.g., growth, destiny, romanticism) were differentially associated with sexual desire, low commitment, lack of love, and neglect. These findings highlight multifaceted motivations underlying infidelity, moving beyond relationship deficit models of infidelity, with implications for research and psychotherapy involving people's romantic and sexual relationships.

  6. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect

    Charlotte eRussell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralised and non-lateralised impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  7. [Health behavior change: motivational interviewing].

    Pócs, Dávid; Hamvai, Csaba; Kelemen, Oguz

    2017-08-01

    Public health data show that early mortality in Hungary could be prevented by smoking cessation, reduced alcohol consumption, regular exercise, healthy diet and increased adherence. Doctor-patient encounters often highlight these aspects of health behavior. There is evidence that health behavior change is driven by internal motivation rather than external influence. This finding has led to the concept of motivational interview, which is a person-centered, goal-oriented approach to counselling. The doctor asks targeted questions to elicit the patient's motivations, strengths, internal resources, and to focus the interview around these. The quality and quantity of the patient's change talk is related to better outcomes. In addition, the interview allows the patient to express ambivalent feelings and doubts about the change. The doctor should use various communication strategies to resolve this ambivalence. Furthermore, establishing a good doctor-patient relationship is the cornerstone of the motivational interview. An optimal relationship can evoke change talk and reduce the patient's resistance, which can also result in a better outcome. The goal of the motivational interview is to focus on the 'why' to change health behavior rather than the 'how', and to utilize internal motivation instead of persuasion. This is the reason why motivational interview has become a widely-accepted evidence based approach. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(34): 1331-1337.

  8. A Study on Job Satisfaction as a Determinant of Job Motivation

    Azman Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant increase of interest in job motivation among the global organizations, the role of an administrator is still unclear. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction (i.e., intrinsic satisfaction and extrinsic satisfaction and job motivation. A survey method was used to collect self-report survey of employees in Malaysian Fire and Rescue Department. The SmartPLS path model analysis revealed three key findings: first, job satisfaction is significantly correlated with job motivation. Second, intrinsic satisfaction is significantly correlated with job motivation. Third, extrinsic satisfaction is significantly correlated with job motivation. These findings demonstrate that the ability of administrators to provide adequate intrinsic satisfaction and extrinsic satisfaction may lead to greater employees‟ job motivation. In addition, discussion, implications and conclusion are also presented.

  9. Students’ Motivation in Speaking English

    Mas Darul Ihsan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the English teacher in the classroom, there will be some problems or conditions need to be accomplished. Teacher will see some of the students are very motivated, motivated or even feeling ignored in studying English. The learners who have contacted with English will find that some features are quite easy and extremely difficult. One of the more complicated problems of second or foreign languages learning and  teaching has been to define and apply the construct of motivation in the classroom. Motivation is a concept without physical reality, we cannot see motivation; we see effort, interest, attitude and desire. For speaking, it is important first to give competence and then performance. Competence is more likely to the extent a communicator is motivated to be so. Motivation is the extent to which a communicator is drawn towards or pushed away from communicating competently in a given context then performed. This is a descriptive  quantitative research. The data obtained from the questionnaire distributed and analyzed to get the result.  The date taken from the students of Muhammadiyah 1 Senior High School Gresik in Easy-Speaking course. The researcher wanted to know the students’ motivation in practicing speaking English in Easy-Speaking course. The results show that 1 the learners effort in practicing speaking English is 56.1 %. 2 The learners’ interest in practicing speaking English is 49.7 %. 3 The learners’ attitude towards practicing speaking English is 59.9 %. 4 The learners’ desire in practicing speaking English is 71.43 %. Then, some suggestions are made: 1 Using media is very important both to increase the learners’ motivation and to give a big opportunity to learners to explore their idea. 2 Giving more variations techniques in teaching and learning process in order do not monotonous. 3 Giving prizes, encouraging and giving extra points for learners who can express their idea by speaking English well. 4 Creating

  10. The Effect of Motivational Practices on Volunteer Motivation

    snyambegera

    Kreitner and Kinicki (2007) have defined motivation as those ... It has been argued that volunteers are the most important group of customers for a voluntary ... Fisher (2003) asserts that the search for the links between job satisfaction and job.

  11. Modeling motive activation in the Operant Motives Test

    Runge, J. Malte; Lang, Jonas W. B.; Engeser, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The Operant Motive Test (OMT) is a picture-based procedure that asks respondents to generate imaginative verbal behavior that is later coded for the presence of affiliation, power, and achievement-related motive content by trained coders. The OMT uses a larger number of pictures and asks...... on the dynamic model were .52, .62, and .73 for the affiliation, achievement, and power motive in the OMT, respectively. The second contribution of this article is a tutorial and R code that allows researchers to directly apply the dynamic Thurstonian IRT model to their data. The future use of the OMT...... respondents to provide more brief answers than earlier and more traditional picture-based implicit motive measures and has therefore become a frequently used measurement instrument in both research and practice. This article focuses on the psychometric response mechanism in the OMT and builds on recent...

  12. How Do We Motivate Reading Comprehension?

    Shanahan, Timothy

    1982-01-01

    Considers the nature of motivation and its place in the development of reading comprehension. Uses A. Maslow's hierarchy of motivation as a heuristic for examining the motivational quality of several teaching methods commonly proposed for comprehension instruction. (FL)

  13. Measuring Academic Motivation of Matriculating College Freshmen.

    Baker, Robert W.; Siryk, Bohdan

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Academic Motivation Scale to three successive classes of college freshmen (N=944). Results indicated the Academic Motivation Scale's reliability was more than adequate for research use and significantly related to validity criteria reflecting motivation for academic work. (JAC)

  14. THE GLOBAL ZERO MOVEMENT: A ROAD TO NOWHERE

    2016-02-08

    persistence.”1 The underlying foundations of the Global Zero movement date back to the 1980s under the Reagan era as noted on the Global Zero website...and his colleagues.7 Presidential Candidate, Barack Obama Supports Global Zero One of those leaders was then Presidential candidate, Barack Obama...movement. In their eyes, this could be chalked up as one of the first major “wins” for the Global Zero movement. 6 As the motivations for Iran

  15. Consumer motivations for sustainable consumption:

    Rezvani, Zeinab; Jansson, Johan; Bengtsson, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Recent conceptual studies identify gain, normative and hedonic factors as three categories of motivations of consumer proenvironmental behavior. However, empirical understanding of how these motivations interact and affect proenvironmental behavior is limited. This study is based on a survey of car...... owners in Sweden (N = 573) and uses structural equation modeling to analyze the data. The empirical findings point to the importance of all three motivations (gain, normative and hedonic) in consumer electric vehicle adoption intentions. Furthermore, for consumers who perceive high social norms regarding...

  16. Motivation for pilgrimage: using theory to explore motivations

    Ruth Blackwell

    2010-01-01

    This article is a discussion of the motivations for pilgrimage and it will draw upon theories of motivation to explore the continuing attraction of pilgrimage in contemporary times. This discussion is located within the field of Event Management. Event Management is a fast growing discipline which focuses on the design, production and management of planned events, such as festivals, celebrations, conferences, fund-raisers and so on. Clearly pilgrimages, as planned events, fit into this defini...

  17. Global Managers

    Barakat, Livia L.; Lorenz, Melanie P.; Ramsey, Jase R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cultural intelligence (CQ) on the job performance of global managers. Design/methodology/approach: – In total, 332 global managers were surveyed from multinational companies operating in Brazil. The mediating effect of job...... satisfaction was tested on the CQ-job performance relationship. Findings: – The findings suggest that job satisfaction transmits the effect of CQ to job performance, such that global managers high in CQ exhibit more job satisfaction in an international setting, and therefore perform better at their jobs....... Practical implications: – Results imply that global managers should increase their CQ in order to improve their job satisfaction and ultimately perform better in an international context. Originality/value: – The authors make three primary contributions to the international business literature. First...

  18. Globalization & technology

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...... of innovation" understanding of learning. Narula and Smith reconcile an important paradox. On the one hand, locations and firms are increasingly interdependent through supranational organisations, regional integration, strategic alliances, and the flow of investments, technologies, ideas and people...

  19. Another globalization

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of ...

  20. Gendered globalization

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  1. Motivation for pilgrimage: using theory to explore motivations

    Ruth Blackwell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a discussion of the motivations for pilgrimage and it will draw upon theories of motivation to explore the continuing attraction of pilgrimage in contemporary times. This discussion is located within the field of Event Management. Event Management is a fast growing discipline which focuses on the design, production and management of planned events, such as festivals, celebrations, conferences, fund-raisers and so on. Clearly pilgrimages, as planned events, fit into this definition. In this context, it is essential to recognise the importance of understanding the motives and needs of event customers so that we can plan to help our customers satisfy their motives. Whilst it might seem abhorrent and commercial to talk of pilgrims as customers, pilgrimages and religious sites have become more and more commodified and increasingly are deemed to need professional management. Key theories of motivation will be compared in order to identify the prime motivating factors underpinning people’s decisions to make pilgrimages.

  2. Employee motivation improvement at "Drogas" shop

    Konno, Viktorija

    2012-01-01

    Work : Employee motivation improvement at “Drogas” shop for getting baccalaureate in science management. This work includes four parts. In the first section author explained the definition of motivation, there was reviewed motivation's role in enterprise. Author reviewed total motivation's model, which models exist for a long while and how they were changing in process of time. The second part contains wide information about motivation's theories and description of motivation's t...

  3. Volunteers and Their Motivation for Canistherapy

    Saláková, Klára

    2014-01-01

    The bachelor thesis on the topic: "Volunteers and their motivation for canistherapy" is divided into the theoretical and practical part. The aim is to find out what motives lead people to do voluntary work in canistherapy. The theoretical part defines the basic concepts of motivation, volunteering and canistherapy, because these concepts are related with the name and with the aim of my work. First, there is defined motivation, basic concepts of motivation in relation to personality, motives a...

  4. International terrorism in the age of globalization

    Aksoy, Ece

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes the concept of terrorism in the age of globalization. Terrorism, which has been motivated by ideological, religious and national reasons, has added to its concern issues like inequality, injustice, dissatisfaction and antiglobalist movements, due to development and technology in the world. In order to clarify this shift in the policy, the concepts of terrorism and globalization are first explained as distinct issues...

  5. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Fitness is for life. Motivate yourself with these practical tips. By Mayo Clinic Staff Have ... 27, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20047624 . Mayo Clinic ...

  6. Tensor structure for Nori motives

    Barbieri-Viale, Luca; Huber, Annette; Prest, Mike

    2018-01-01

    We construct a tensor product on Freyd's universal abelian category attached to an additive tensor category or a tensor quiver and establish a universal property. This is used to give an alternative construction for the tensor product on Nori motives.

  7. Priming motivation through unattended speech.

    Radel, Rémi; Sarrazin, Philippe; Jehu, Marie; Pelletier, Luc

    2013-12-01

    This study examines whether motivation can be primed through unattended speech. Study 1 used a dichotic-listening paradigm and repeated strength measures. In comparison to the baseline condition, in which the unattended channel was only composed by neutral words, the presence of words related to high (low) intensity of motivation led participants to exert more (less) strength when squeezing a hand dynamometer. In a second study, a barely audible conversation was played while participants' attention was mobilized on a demanding task. Participants who were exposed to a conversation depicting intrinsic motivation performed better and persevered longer in a subsequent word-fragment completion task than those exposed to the same conversation made unintelligible. These findings suggest that motivation can be primed without attention. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Sustaining motivation for continuous improvement

    Jørgensen, Frances; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore possibilities for improving motivation for participation in Continuous Improvement (CI). Due to a number of issues, for example, challenges with measuring outcomes of CI activities on performance, the inherent slower, incremental rather than big bang...... activities is an important issue for managers. The paper begins with a short description of CI, with an emphasis on barriers to successful implementation cited in the literature. Thereafter, a number of widely-acknowledged-albeit perhaps somewhat dated-theories of motivation are explored in relation...... to the elements of CI in practice. Based on their own experiences with CI implementation in numerous action-research based studies, the authors propose a scenario for motivating CI participation through emphasis on factors common to the presented motivational theories. The paper ends with insights into future...

  9. Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses

    Bonde, Ane; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    Title: Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses: Spirit, Techniques, and Dilemmas in the Prevention of Child Obesity Introduction : School nurses play a central role in school-based, preventive health services in Denmark (National Board of Health, 2011), and they may play an important role...... a prevention strategy targeting children with a high risk of obesity with an intervention conducted by school nurses using motivational interviewing.Motivational interviewing is a counselling method to bring about behavioural change (Miller and Rollnick 1995). Effect has been documented for a range of problem...... behaviours related to lifestyle diseases in adults (Rubak et al. 2005; Söderlund et al. 2011). The use of motivational interviewing by school nurses for the prevention of child obesity in a family intervention is still new, and evidence on the potentials and problems is scarce (Resnicow, Davis and Rollnick...

  10. Motivational Rehabilitation using Serious Games

    Antoni Jaume i Capó; Javier Varona Gómez; Gabriel Moyà; Francisco Perales

    2013-01-01

    Research studies show that serious games help to motivate users in rehabilitation processes, and rehabilitation results are better when users are motivated. In long term rehabilitation for maintaining capacities, the demotivation of chronic patients is common. In this work, we have implemented balance rehabilitation video game for cerebral palsy patients. The video game was developed using the prototype development paradigm and following desirable features for rehabilitation serious games pre...

  11. Assessing school performance and motivation

    Pavelková, Isabella; Kubíková, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    We verify the theoretical hypothesis that individual reference norm helps the development of positive achievement motivation and lowers the performance fear of pupils. The research was carried out with pupils aged 9 to 12 years. The article presents the results of the research in using reference norms with 61 teachers in connection with achievement motivation of their 1144 pupils. The research also mapped the real school situations for the teachers involved, based partly on observation during...

  12. Motivators of teacher job satisfaction

    Juozaitienė, Agnė; Simonaitienė, Berita

    2011-01-01

    Article is seeking to answer these questions: what factors function as motivators and enhance teacher job satisfaction and which of the motivators are manifested at school? These questions are significant from a theoretical as well as practical point of view. The research problem addressed in the article encompasses three fields and is revealed in three parts of the article. The first part analyzes the notion of teacher job satisfaction and influencing factors. The second part is dedicated to...

  13. Hedonic Motivations for Online Shopping

    Pui-Lai To; E-Ping Sung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate hedonic online shopping motivations. A qualitative analysis was conducted to explore the factors influencing online hedonic shopping motivations. The results of the study indicate that traditional hedonic values, consisting of social, role, self-gratification, learning trends, pleasure of bargaining, stimulation, diversion, status, and adventure, and dimensions of flow theory, consisting of control, curiosity, enjoyment, and telepresence, exist in t...

  14. Handbook of motivation at school

    Miele, David B

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of the Handbook of Motivation at School presents an integrated compilation of theory and research in the field. With chapters by leading experts, this book covers the major theoretical perspectives in the field as well as their application to instruction, learning, and social adjustment at school. Section I focuses on theoretical perspectives and major constructs, Section II on contextual and social influences on motivation, and Section III on new directions in the field.

  15. Motivation for the teaching profession

    Křížová, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Anotace: The thesis "The motivation for the teaching profession" dealt with fundamental problems of motivation to the teaching profession. In the theoretical part, we have focused on general characteristics of terms that pertain to the teaching profession, particularly the theory of the teaching profession, the choice of the teaching profession, the phase of the teaching profession, teacher typology, the role of teacher training and professionalization of teachers, but also washed into the te...

  16. Corporate volunteering - motivation for voluntary work

    Debora Azevedo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, when the welfare state is a responsibility of the entire society, organizations in the private sector assume co-responsibility for social issues. They are also pressured by the challenges presented by technological advances and the globalization , involving new parameters and requirements for quality. In this context, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (RSC emerges as an option for solutions to the issues related to the company and the whole community. Among the actions of the RSC is the Corporate Volunteering-program, which aims to promote / encourage employes to do voluntary work. A central issue when talking about volunteering is the withdrawal of these (SILVA and FEITOSA, 2002; TEODÓSIO, 1999 and, in accordance with the Community Solidarity (1997, one of the possible causes for the withdrawal is the lack of clarity as to the motives and expectations that lead the person to volunteer themselves. This study uses qualitative research and triangulation of feedback from volunteers, coordinators of volunteers and social organizations, to present a framework from which it is possible to analyze the various motivations for the volunteer work. Key words: Corporate Volunteering program. Volunteering. Corporate social responsibility.

  17. Tourism and Globalization: some perspectives

    Luis Augusto Severo Soares

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, one searches to reflect on the implications of the globalization in the tourism, being recognized the possibility to carry through distinct comments on this phenomenon and its effect in the tourism, beyond arguing the consensus that defines it. Front to this objective, we will deal with the globalization as a movement preceded for the mundialization processes and internationalization that generates many transformations in the society, that is, an interlaced movement to a series of resolutions that intervene with the tourism. With the objective to direct the analysis to the specific field of study, it will be presented, from the perspective of Boaventura de Souza Santos, some of the influences in the tourist activity, having understood them as necessary points in order to the planners and administrators of the tourism understand it and motivate it without limiting themselves to the ways proposed by the consensus that exists in the idea of globalization.

  18. Qualitative models of global warming amplifiers

    Milošević, U.; Bredeweg, B.; de Kleer, J.; Forbus, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest from ecological experts to create qualitative models of phenomena for which numerical information is sparse or missing. We present a number of successful models in the field of environmental science, namely, the domain of global warming. The motivation behind the effort is

  19. Situational Context of Insurance in Globalization

    S V Martynenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how globalization resolves problems, which are motivated in a new way by modern situational context of social-insurance, how the 'insurance cocoon' of civilization leads to narrowing of conflict space in the world politics.

  20. Earth Matters: Studies for Our Global Future.

    Wasserman, Pamela; Doyle, Andrea

    Through 12 readings and 32 activities this curriculum material introduces high school students to issues of the global environment and society, while both challenging them to critically evaluate the issues and motivating them to develop solutions. The materials are cited as being applicable to social studies, science, math, language arts, and…

  1. Attenuating the alcohol allure: attentional broadening reduces rapid motivational response to alcohol pictures.

    Ryerson, Nicole C; Neal, Lauren B; Gable, Philip A

    2017-04-01

    Past research has found that exposure to alcohol cues causes a narrowing of attentional scope and enhances the neural responses associated with approach motivation. The current research sought to determine if a manipulated broadened (global) attentional scope would reduce approach-motivated neural reactivity to alcohol pictures. In the current study, participants (n = 82) were exposed to alcohol and neutral pictures following either a global or local attentional scope manipulation. Early motivated attentional processing was assessed using the N1 event-related potential (ERP), a neurophysiological marker of rapid motivated attention. A global attentional scope reduced N1 amplitudes to alcohol pictures as compared to a local attentional scope. Self-reported binge drinking related to larger N1 amplitudes to alcohol pictures, but not to neutral pictures. Individuals with greater binge drinking experience demonstrated increased rapid motivated attentional processing to alcohol pictures. These results suggest that enhancing a global (vs. local) attentional scope attenuates rapid motivated attentional processing of alcohol pictures in comparison to neutral pictures. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  2. The self-regulation of motivation: Motivational strategies as mediator between motivational beliefs and engagement for learning.

    Smit, Karin; De Brabander, Cornelis; Boekaerts, Monique; Martens, Rob

    2017-01-01

    In this research we studied students´ motivational self-regulation as mediator between motivational beliefs and motivational outcomes. Dutch students in pre-vocational secondary education (N=3602, mean age 14) completed a questionnaire on five motivational strategies (Environmental Control,

  3. MOTIVATION SPECIFIC FOR YOUNGSTERS INVOLVED INTO TERRORIST OPERATION

    Beslan Alexeyevich Tarchokov

    2015-01-01

    The paper made an attempt to explore preconditions, motives, reasons and factors capable of facilitating youth’ involvement into terrorist operations, emergence of youth terrorism and its spreading around, including the specifics of social and economic domains, of ideology and politics, psychology and law, etc. all of them taken on the scene of nowadays globalized society. Specifying in greater detail the causes and circumstances that contributed to involvement of young Russians into terroris...

  4. Global Issues

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  5. Global Inequality

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...... and unabated. Like these ‘absolute’ measures, our ‘centrist’ inequality indicators, the Krtscha measure and an intermediate Gini, also register a pronounced increase in global inequality, albeit, in the case of the latter, with a decline during 2005 to 2010. A critical question posed by our findings is whether...

  6. Global Inequality

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries....... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...

  7. Global Programs

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.

    2009-05-01

    IYA2009 is a global collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are global activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing global projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.

  8. Global rotation

    Rosquist, K.

    1980-01-01

    Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)

  9. TEACHING CHALLENGES IN INDONESIA: MOTIVATING STUDENTS AND TEACHERS’ CLASSROOM LANGUAGE

    Yuyun Yulia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper critically describes the main challenges English language teachers face in teaching in Indonesia. The subjects of the research were students and English teachers in twelve randomly selected junior high schools in government and private schools in five districts in Yogyakarta Province. A survey schedule, interviews with English language teachers, focus group discussions with students and class observation were used to gather the data. The results show that students’ motivation is more of an instrumental motivation, due to the requirements of the mandated national examination though English now is a global language and the 2006 curriculum targets communicative competence. On the other hand, the data indicated that teachers found English difficult to use in class. The classroom instruction was conducted mostly in the low variety of Bahasa Indonesia and in Javanese. The teachers claimed that it was due to students’ low motivation; in fact, the students’ eagerness to listen to the teachers as the models of English language expressions was good. Teachers need to motivate students to learn English by improving their teaching techniques as well as their speaking competence in class to achieve student integrative motivation as English is valuable for them.

  10. The Pursuit of Self-Esteem and Its Motivational Implications

    Jolene van der Kaap-Deeder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although recent studies have found contingent self-esteem (CSE to be negatively related to individuals’ well-being, research concerning its implications for motivation and engagement is scarce. In two studies, we investigated the relation between CSE, motivation, and engagement in achievement-related situations. A first cross-sectional study among second year high school students ('N' = 641; 54.1% female confirmed the hypothesized motivational ambiguity associated with academic CSE. Beyond the contribution of academic self-esteem, academic CSE was positively related to behavioral and emotional engagement, but also to emotional disaffection and test anxiety. These associations could partially be explained by motivational quality, as CSE was also positively related to both autonomous and controlled types of motivation. In a second experimental study among university students ('N' = 72; 70.8% female, who participated in a tangram puzzle task under varying feedback circumstances, global CSE related to more tension, while predicting less behavioral task perseverance. These effects were not moderated by the type of feedback provided (i.e., positive vs. negative. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  11. Student Motivation And Instructional Strategies In English Learning In Ghana

    Dr. Mustapha Bin Danquah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Motivation has been referred to as the single most important ingredient of learning Wieman 2013. However it does not come by chance application of appropriate instructional strategies are necessary. The present study conducted in-depth inquiry into the relevance of student motivation and its relationship with higher achievement in L2 learning. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. Using stratified sampling technique 60 students were sampled from three public schools in Kumasi Metropolis. Also by means of purposive sampling six English teachers were selected in the three schools as participants. Set of questionnaires were the instrument for the study and analysis involved simple frequencies percentages tables and Pearsons Correlation Coefficient r. The study revealed that students can be motivated by simplicity clarity practical and insightful analogies making lessons lively and interesting and most importantly generous use of TLMs. Positive relationship also existed between students motivation and the use of effective instructional strategies with the attendant proficiency in English. Unequivocally student motivation is pivotal to facilitating proficiency in English a key to riding the crest of globalization and technology.

  12. Motivation and Its Impact on Organizational Effectiveness in Albanian Businesses

    Dritan Shoraj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizations wish to perform successfully in the market and if possible to have a sustainable economic growth. However, in the current circumstances of globalization and strong competition, technology is advancing at a rapid pace, hence making the market an unsafe environment. The business organizations (BOs would have to make full use of all resources available. It is already a well-known fact that human resources or organization personnel constitute a key asset for achieving success. Yet, what makes the employees of a BO satisfied or motivated to achieve the planned objectives? In this research, we analyze some of the factors influencing the motivation of employees to enhance their performance. Through empirical and theoretical analysis, the study will identify the relationship between the motivation of employees and organizational effectiveness and finally the increase of BO revenues. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact produced by the motivation of employees on organizational effectiveness. Personnel motivation will involve criteria such as employees’ bonus, good communication within the working premises, and satisfaction at their job place.

  13. Another globalization

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of the architecture of the international institutional system and the promotion of those economical policies which must ensure the stability world-wide economy and the amelioration of the international equity.

  14. Measuring Globalization

    Andersen, Torben M.; Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate technique of factor analysis is used to combine several indicators of economic integration and international transactions into a single measure or index of globalization. The index is an alternative to the simple measure of openness based on trade, and it produces a ranking of countries over time for 23 OECD countries. Ireland is ranked as the most globalized country during the 1990?s, while the UK was at the top during the 1980?s. Some of the most notable changes in the rank...

  15. Going global

    Meade, W.; Poirier, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the global market for independent power projects and the increased competition and strategic alliances that are occurring to take advantage of the increasing demand. The topics of the article include the amount of involvement of US companies in the global market, the forces driving the market toward independent power, markets in the United Kingdom, North America, Turkey, Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Europe, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, the former Eastern European countries, Asia and the Pacific nations, and niche markets

  16. Drivers of entrepreneurial aspirations at the country level: The role of start-up motivations and social security

    Hessels, J.; van Gelderen, M.W.; Thurik, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates whether various start-up motivations and a country's level of social security can explain the prevalence of entrepreneurial aspirations. For entrepreneurial aspirations and motivations we use country-level data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) for the year 2005.

  17. A Structural Model of Self-Concept, Autonomous Motivation and Academic Performance in Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Ahmed, Wondimu; Bruinsma, Marjon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a motivational model of performance by integrating constructs from self-concept and self-determination theories and to explore cultural group differences in the model. To this end, self-report measures of global self-esteem, academic self-concept, academic motivation and academic performance were…

  18. What motivates money donation? A study on external motivators

    Nivea Coelho Degasperi

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study is to identify external motivating factors that favor individual money donation. Methodologically, we adopted a descriptive and quantitative cross-sectional study. In order to collect data, we prepared a questionnaire containing 49 statements based on external motivating variables of regular individual money donation found in the literature on the subject. After testing the questionnaire, we applied it to 1073 Brazilians, regular money donors and we performed an exploratory factor analysis. Conclusively, we identified 8 external factors that motivate individual money donation: Trust, Reward, Leadership influences, Characteristics of the organization, Environmental influences, Personal benefits, Characteristics of beneficiaries and Future Interests. We expect that these 8 factors combined, could become a useful tool to improve the management of charitable organizations, especially in defining campaigns or other marketing strategies to attract new donors and raise funds on occasions that are favorable to individual money donation.

  19. The Measurement of Motivation with Science Students

    Mubeen, Sarwat; Reid, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is an inner force that activates and provides direction to our thought, feelings and actions. Two main characteristics of motivation are goal directed behavior and persistence. Motivated people persistently work for the goal until it is achieved. This paper explores the nature of motivation in the context of learning and seeks to relate…

  20. Motivational Strategies in Medical English Classroom

    TIAN Jun-ying

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore strategies to motivate students in the classroom of Medical English. Methods:The motivational strategies applied in medical English classroom including defining course goals early in the semester, appropriate teacher behavior, creating real context and giving helpful and frequent Feedback were recommended. Results & Conclusion: The motivational strategies make a positive impact on students’motivation in medical English classroom.