WorldWideScience

Sample records for global maize collection

  1. Genomic variation in recently collected maize landraces from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Clara Arteaga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present dataset comprises 36,931 SNPs genotyped in 46 maize landraces native to Mexico as well as the teosinte subspecies Zea maiz ssp. parviglumis and ssp. mexicana. These landraces were collected directly from farmers mostly between 2006 and 2010. We accompany these data with a short description of the variation within each landrace, as well as maps, principal component analyses and neighbor joining trees showing the distribution of the genetic diversity relative to landrace, geographical features and maize biogeography. High levels of genetic variation were detected for the maize landraces (HE = 0.234 to 0.318 (mean 0.311, while slightly lower levels were detected in Zea m. mexicana and Zea m. parviglumis (HE = 0.262 and 0.234, respectively. The distribution of genetic variation was better explained by environmental variables given by the interaction of altitude and latitude than by landrace identity. This dataset is a follow up product of the Global Native Maize Project, an initiative to update the data on Mexican maize landraces and their wild relatives, and to generate information that is necessary for implementing the Mexican Biosafety Law. Keywords: Maize, Teosinte, Maize SNP50K BeadChip, Mexican landraces, Proyecto Global de Maíces Nativos

  2. Genomic variation in recently collected maize landraces from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, María Clara; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Breña-Ochoa, Alejandra; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Piñero, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present dataset comprises 36,931 SNPs genotyped in 46 maize landraces native to Mexico as well as the teosinte subspecies Zea maiz ssp. parviglumis and ssp. mexicana. These landraces were collected directly from farmers mostly between 2006 and 2010. We accompany these data with a short description of the variation within each landrace, as well as maps, principal component analyses and neighbor joining trees showing the distribution of the genetic diversity relative to landrace, geographical features and maize biogeography. High levels of genetic variation were detected for the maize landraces (HE = 0.234 to 0.318 (mean 0.311), while slightly lower levels were detected in Zea m. mexicana and Zea m. parviglumis (HE = 0.262 and 0.234, respectively). The distribution of genetic variation was better explained by environmental variables given by the interaction of altitude and latitude than by landrace identity. This dataset is a follow up product of the Global Native Maize Project, an initiative to update the data on Mexican maize landraces and their wild relatives, and to generate information that is necessary for implementing the Mexican Biosafety Law. PMID:26981357

  3. Global maize production, utilization, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranum, Peter; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays), also called corn, is believed to have originated in central Mexico 7000 years ago from a wild grass, and Native Americans transformed maize into a better source of food. Maize contains approximately 72% starch, 10% protein, and 4% fat, supplying an energy density of 365 Kcal/100 g and is grown throughout the world, with the United States, China, and Brazil being the top three maize-producing countries in the world, producing approximately 563 of the 717 million metric tons/year. Maize can be processed into a variety of food and industrial products, including starch, sweeteners, oil, beverages, glue, industrial alcohol, and fuel ethanol. In the last 10 years, the use of maize for fuel production significantly increased, accounting for approximately 40% of the maize production in the United States. As the ethanol industry absorbs a larger share of the maize crop, higher prices for maize will intensify demand competition and could affect maize prices for animal and human consumption. Low production costs, along with the high consumption of maize flour and cornmeal, especially where micronutrient deficiencies are common public health problems, make this food staple an ideal food vehicle for fortification. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  4. Maize Genetic Resources Collections – Utilizing a Treasure Trove

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maize genetic resource collection managed by the USDA-ARS's National Plant Germplasm System is heavily utilized by researchers and educators. A collection of landraces, inbred lines from public and private sector sources, synthetics and key populations, it serves both as a living snapshot of th...

  5. Aflatoxin variations in maize flour and grains collected from various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya, maize remains an important staple food in every household. ... upper limit is 10ppb, indicating good manufacturing practices (GMP) by the millers. ... In summary, the study found aflatoxin contamination in maize grains especially in ...

  6. Global maize trade and food security: implications from a social network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we developed a social network model of the global trade of maize: one of the most important food, feed, and industrial crops worldwide, and critical to food security. We used this model to analyze patterns of maize trade among nations, and to determine where vulnerabilities in food security might arise if maize availability was decreased due to factors such as diversion to nonfood uses, climatic factors, or plant diseases. Using data on imports and exports from the U.N. Commodity Trade Statistics Database for each year from 2000 to 2009 inclusive, we summarized statistics on volumes of maize trade between pairs of nations for 217 nations. There is evidence of market segregation among clusters of nations; with three prominent clusters representing Europe, Brazil and Argentina, and the United States. The United States is by far the largest exporter of maize worldwide, whereas Japan and the Republic of Korea are the largest maize importers. In particular, the star-shaped cluster of the network that represents U.S. maize trade to other nations indicates the potential for food security risks because of the lack of trade these other nations conduct with other maize exporters. If a scenario arose in which U.S. maize could not be exported in as large quantities, maize supplies in many nations could be jeopardized. We discuss this in the context of recent maize ethanol production and its attendant impacts on food prices elsewhere worldwide. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Diversity in global maize germplasm: Characterization and utilization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... maize farmers as well as to the scientific community are depicted in figure 1, and ..... best practices for maintaining the original genetic diversity of the gene bank ..... maize; in Studies in the neolithic and urban revolution: V.

  8. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Krupke, Christian H; White, Michael A; Alexander, Corinne E

    2008-01-01

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  9. Collective Action under Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    Collective action in the form of industrial conflict has declined dramatically since the high tide in the 1970s in Europe. This article argues that this decline is the result of significant changes in both economic and institutional factors, influencing the calculations of employees and of their ...

  10. Diversity in global maize germplasm: Characterization and utilization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is not only of worldwide importance as a food, feed and as a source of diverse industrially important products, but is also a model genetic organism with immense genetic diversity. Although it was first domesticated in Mexico, maize landraces are widely found across the continents. Several studies in ...

  11. Maize dependence or market integration? Caries prevalence among indigenous Maya communities with maize-based versus globalized economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Lizama, Elma Maria; Cucina, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between diet and oral health is widely known, yet data on dental caries prevalence is lacking for many indigenous groups with traditional or rapidly modernizing diets. This research documents caries prevalence in two Maya communities from northern Yucatán (Mexico) with significantly different levels of market integration, subsistence, and diet: Yalsihón, with a traditional, maize-based subsistence economy, and Dzilam, with access to globalized food markets. Each sample was subdivided by sex into 15-19, 20-24, and 25-30 years-of-age classes. Caries prevalence was considered separately both when the lesion affected the enamel superficially (grade 1+) and when it reached the dentin (grade 2+). In both villages, females of all age classes manifest more caries than males. Results show higher prevalence of caries at Dzilam than at Yalsihón, except for grade 1+ caries among 15-19-year-old males and grade 2+ caries among 15-19-year-old females. Though differences are not significant, earlier pregnancies among 15-19-year-old females at Yalsihón could be a causative factor. A survey indicated a more balanced diet at Yalsihón despite a heavier intake of maize than at Dzilam. Striking differences were documented in the ingestion of soda and globalized foods; sodas were virtually absent at Yalsihón, while at Dzilam they were ingested daily in great quantities. The decline in oral health at Dzilam is inferred to result from consumption of industrially processed foods and drinks, while a traditional diet leads to less caries despite daily heavy consumption of maize, which must be considered when interpreting caries rates in archaeological samples. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Yield risks in global maize markets: Historical evidence and projections in key regions of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson B. Villoria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous worldwide crop failures stemming from a more unstable climate may reduce the scope for international trade to compensate food shortages and stabilize food prices across the various regions of the world. Understanding the effects of changes in crop productivity on global markets requires knowledge about the extent to which crop yields may be systematically related across producing and consuming centers. This short communication contributes to this knowledge by investigating the potential changes in the strength of two key sources of supply risks in global maize markets: yield variance and cross-country yield correlation. We focus on the largest producing and consuming countries of the world. We capitalize on yield projections from the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison project. Exploratory analysis of the skill of the underlying GGCMI models in reproducing key moments of the distribution of observed yields reveals that they overstate observed variances but faithfully reproduce observed patterns of cross-country correlations. We find no evidence of an increase in the degree of cross-country dependency of maize yields. We also find a higher incidence of what would be considered extremely low maize yields by present-time standards stemming from the projected downward trend in yields levels toward mid-century. The weak dependency of maize yields across countries, an the possibility of reducing the higher incidence of extremes through policies aimed to reverse the climate-induced downward trends in yields, suggest that international trade can become a valuable tool to ameliorate the effects of more unstable crop yields. Keywords: Extremely low yields, Maize markets, Food prices, Agricultural yields, Systemic risk in agriculture, Global agriculture, AgMIP, Global gridded crop model intercomparison

  13. A predicted protein interactome identifies conserved global networks and disease resistance subnetworks in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt eGeisler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactomes are genome-wide roadmaps of protein-protein interactions. They have been produced for humans, yeast, the fruit fly, and Arabidopsis thaliana and have become invaluable tools for generating and testing hypotheses. A predicted interactome for Zea mays (PiZeaM is presented here as an aid to the research community for this valuable crop species. PiZeaM was built using a proven method of interologs (interacting orthologs that were identified using both one-to-one and many-to-many orthology between genomes of maize and reference species. Where both maize orthologs occurred for an experimentally determined interaction in the reference species, we predicted a likely interaction in maize. A total of 49,026 unique interactions for 6,004 maize proteins were predicted. These interactions are enriched for processes that are evolutionarily conserved, but include many otherwise poorly annotated proteins in maize. The predicted maize interactions were further analyzed by comparing annotation of interacting proteins, including different layers of ontology. A map of pairwise gene co-expression was also generated and compared to predicted interactions. Two global subnetworks were constructed for highly conserved interactions. These subnetworks showed clear clustering of proteins by function. Another subnetwork was created for disease response using a bait and prey strategy to capture interacting partners for proteins that respond to other organisms. Closer examination of this subnetwork revealed the connectivity between biotic and abiotic hormone stress pathways. We believe PiZeaM will provide a useful tool for the prediction of protein function and analysis of pathways for Z. mays researchers and is presented in this paper as a reference tool for the exploration of protein interactions in maize.

  14. Future Warming Increases Global Maize Yield Variability with Implications for Food Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigchelaar, M.; Battisti, D. S.; Naylor, R. L.; Ray, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    If current trends in population growth and dietary shifts continue, the world will need to produce about 70% more food by 2050, while earth's climate is rapidly changing. Rising temperatures in particular are projected to negatively impact agricultural production, as the world's staple crops perform poorly in extreme heat. Theoretical models suggest that as temperatures rise above plants' optimal temperature for performance, not only will mean yields decline rapidly, but the variability of yields will increase, even as interannual variations in climate remain unchanged. Here we use global datasets of maize production and climate variability combined with CMIP5 temperature projections to quantify how yield variability will change in major maize producing countries under 2°C and 4°C of global warming. Maize is the world's most produced crop, and is linked to other staple crops through substitution in consumption and production. We find that in warmer climates - absent any breeding gains in heat tolerance - the Coefficient of Variation (CV) of maize yields increases almost everywhere, to values much larger than present-day. This increase in CV is due both to an increase in the standard deviation of yields, and a decrease in mean yields. In locations where crop failures become the norm under high (4°C) warming (mostly in tropical, low-yield environments), the standard deviation of yields ultimately decreases. The probability that in any given year the most productive areas in the top three maize producing countries (United States, China, Brazil) have simultaneous production losses greater than 10% is virtually zero under present-day climate conditions, but increases to 12% under 2°C warming, and 89% under 4°C warming. This has major implications for global food markets and staple crop prices, affecting especially the 2.5 billion people that comprise the world's poor, who already spend the majority of their disposable income on food and are particularly vulnerable

  15. Global action networks: agents for collective action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbergen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Global action networks (GANs) are civil society initiated multi-stakeholder arrangements that aim to fulfill a leadership role for systemic change in global governance for sustainable development. The paper develops a network approach to study some of these GANs as motivators of global collective

  16. Maize production in terms of global climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekavac Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes and expected variability of climatic parameters represent a serious concern of the 21st century agriculture. At the global level, the further rise in temperature, changed quantity and distribution of precipitation, increased variability of climate parameters and the occurrence of extreme climate events are expected. In order to avoid, or at least reduce the negative effects of global climate change, several adaptation strategies are proposed. Adjustment of production technology and breeding for tolerance to changed environment are proposed as two most important adaptation measures.

  17. Global nitrogen budgets in cereals: A 50-year assessment for maize, rice, and wheat production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladha, J K; Tirol-Padre, A; Reddy, C K; Cassman, K G; Verma, Sudhir; Powlson, D S; van Kessel, C; de B Richter, Daniel; Chakraborty, Debashis; Pathak, Himanshu

    2016-01-18

    Industrially produced N-fertilizer is essential to the production of cereals that supports current and projected human populations. We constructed a top-down global N budget for maize, rice, and wheat for a 50-year period (1961 to 2010). Cereals harvested a total of 1551 Tg of N, of which 48% was supplied through fertilizer-N and 4% came from net soil depletion. An estimated 48% (737 Tg) of crop N, equal to 29, 38, and 25 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively, is contributed by sources other than fertilizer- or soil-N. Non-symbiotic N2 fixation appears to be the major source of this N, which is 370 Tg or 24% of total N in the crop, corresponding to 13, 22, and 13 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively. Manure (217 Tg or 14%) and atmospheric deposition (96 Tg or 6%) are the other sources of N. Crop residues and seed contribute marginally. Our scaling-down approach to estimate the contribution of non-symbiotic N2 fixation is robust because it focuses on global quantities of N in sources and sinks that are easier to estimate, in contrast to estimating N losses per se, because losses are highly soil-, climate-, and crop-specific.

  18. Grain quality of drought tolerant accessions within the MRI Zemun Polje maize germplasm collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vančetović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRI gene bank created an elite drought tolerant core collection of 40 accessions, based on field trials and general combining ability with inbred lines from the main heterotic groups (Lancaster, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic - BSSS and Iodent. A total of seven genetic groups were identified. Seven accessions showed good combining abilities with three testers from chosen heterotic groups, thus forming a dinstinctive genetic group (Unknown. In the present research, accessions with drought tolerance were also analyzed for grain quality, as these two traits are becoming highly important due to global warming and population growth. Kernel macronutrients contents (oil, protein and starch were determined using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR. Oil, protein and starch contents were significantly higher in introduced populations than in landraces for 0.43%, 0.12% and 0.85%, respectively (p<0.01. The greatest progress from the selection based on the expected genetic gain (ΔG for 5% selection intensity would be obtained for oil (14.74% followed by protein (10.14%. Landraces showed the least potential for the grain quality improvement due to the lowest expected ΔG for the three macronutrients. The differences between macronutrient content among genetic groups defined them as potentially favourable sources for a specific trait. According to ΔG values, the greatest progress in breeding would be accomplished for increased oil content with accessions from the Unknown group. Identification of the accessions with several favorable traits is valuable for simultaneous breeding for drought tolerance and grain quality.

  19. Grain quality of drought tolerant accessions within the MRI Zemun Polje maize germplasm collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancetovic, J.; Ignjatovic-Micic, D.; Bozinovic, S.; Babbic, M.; Filipovic, M.; Grcic, N.; Andjelkovic, V.

    2014-06-01

    Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRI) gene bank created an elite drought tolerant core collection of 40 accessions, based on field trials and general combining ability with inbred lines from the main heterotic groups (Lancaster, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic . BSSS and Iodent). A total of seven genetic groups were identified. Seven accessions showed good combining abilities with three testers from chosen heterotic groups, thus forming a distinctive genetic group (Unknown). In the present research, accessions with drought tolerance were also analyzed for grain quality, as these two traits are becoming highly important due to global warming and population growth. Kernel macronutrients contents (oil, protein and starch) were determined using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). Oil, protein and starch contents were significantly higher in introduced populations than in landraces for 0.43%, 0.12% and 0.85%, respectively (p < 0.01). The greatest progress from the selection based on the expected genetic gain ({Delta}G) for 5% selection intensity would be obtained for oil (14.74%) followed by protein (10.14%). Landraces showed the least potential for the grain quality improvement due to the lowest expected {Delta}G for the three macronutrients. The differences between macronutrient content among genetic groups defined them as potentially favourable sources for a specific trait. According to {Delta}G values, the greatest progress in breeding would be accomplished for increased oil content with accessions from the Unknown group. Identification of the accessions with several favorable traits is valuable for simultaneous breeding for drought tolerance and grain quality. (Author)

  20. Genetic resources in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize, wheat and rice are the most important cereals grown in the world. It is predicted that by 2025 maize is likely to become the crop with the greatest production globally. Conservation of maize germplasm provides the main resources for increased food and feed production. Conservation in gene banks (ex-situ is dominant strategy for maize conservation. More than 130 000 maize accessions, e.g. about 40% of total number, are stored in ten largest gene banks worldwide and Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRIZP gene bank, with about 6000 accessions, is among them. Organized collecting missions started in 1961. in the former Yugoslavian territory, and up today, more than 2000 local maize landraces were stored. Pre-breeding activities that refer to identification of desirable traits from unadapted germplasm within genebank, result in materials expected to be included in breeding programs. Successful examples are LAMP, GEM and GENRES projects. At the end of XX century, at MRIZP genebank two pre-breeding activities were undertaken: eco-core and elite-core collections were created and landraces fulfilled particular criteria were chosen. In the last decade, MRIZP genebank collection was used for identification of sources for drought tolerance and improved grain quality. According to agronomic traits and general combining ability, two mini-core collections were created and included in commercial breeding programs.

  1. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    OpenAIRE

    TANG Wen-xue; MA Zhong-ming; WEI Tao

    2017-01-01

    Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014) long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded) on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored....

  2. Resistance of maize varieties to the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating commonly used maize varieties, collected from Melkasa and Bako Agricultural Research Centers and Haramaya University, Ethiopia, against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motsch., one of the most important cosmopolitan stored product pests in maize. A total of 13 improved maize ...

  3. Breeding of speciality maize for industrial purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Zorica; Radosavljević Milica; Filipović Milomir; Todorović Goran; Srdić Jelena; Pavlov Milovan

    2010-01-01

    The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as c...

  4. Collective Global Leadership in Self-Managed Multicultural Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna; Lee, Yih-Teen

    2016-01-01

    Arguing that it is necessary to look into specific global leadership processes in specific contexts, this article focuses on collective global leadership in self-managed multicultural teams using an input-process-output model. Building on a study of nationally and culturally diverse self-managed...... teams, our work demonstrates that collective global leadership in these teams is critical for team performance (output). Our study also examines some of the affective or attitudinal antecedents of collective global leadership in self-managed multicultural teams (process) and their members’ goal...... orientations (input). Our findings suggest that a team learning orientation may greatly help multicultural teams overcome the liability of cultural diversity, create a positive intra-team environment, and enable collective global leadership. Our research also suggests that team performance orientation...

  5. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Wen-xue

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014 long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored. Plastic film residues mainly remained in 0~10 cm, 10~20 cm soil layers. In 0~30 cm soil layers, the two types of mulch residues (>25 cm2, 4~25 cm2 under zero plastic film residues treatment were much less than conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments, no significant differences were observed in the mulch residues (2 among 3 treatments. After maize harvest, the amount of plastic film residues under zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were 52.71, 80.85 kg·hm-2 and 152.65 kg·hm-2, respectively, the residual coefficient for zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were -9.45%, 8.53% and 54.42%, respectively. The stem diameter, ear length, ear width, ear row number, grain number per row and 100-grain weight of maize decreased with the increase of residual film amount. Compared with the conventional plastic film residues, the mean grain yield of whole plastic film residues remainded treatment decreased by 15.08%, whereas the zero plastic film residues treatment increased by 4.70%. The plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were comprehensively analyzed, the conventional plastic film residues practice should be adopted currently without appropriate plastic film residues collector. But from the long-term development, we should speed up the

  6. Social Breakthrough to Global Collective Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo C. Michelini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper look at the fancy build-up of our planned constructions, conventionally assessing on-the-go progress. The survey covers the tricky cross-links of ‹collective orders› and acknowledged ‹rationality›, viz., reverence and dependence assigned to mind objects expressing culture and ethics. Our relationship with the external world is, then, shortly tacked, because we need some sort of certainty about the ‹real› consistency of what is perceived, to trust in planned improvements. Afterword, the analysis moves to ‹intelligence› enabled processes, with especial focus on political cohesion rules, necessary foundation of the organised effectiveness. Last, the conditional framework of the human progress continuance is sketched, mentioning the existing economy globalisation drawbacks, to enlighten the requirements imposed by the impending ecology globalisation. The topics repeat known facts, only, perhaps, assembled by unusual construal.

  7. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) Collection maps the net amount of solar...

  8. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection maps the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through...

  9. Sampling strategy to develop a core collection of Uruguayan maize landraces based on morphological traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malosetti, M.; Abadie, T.

    2001-01-01

    Core collections were suggested to improve germplasm utilization. A core collection is a subset chosen to represent the diversity of a collection with a minimum of redundancies. Because diversity is distributed between and within groups with different degrees of organization, an adequate

  10. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  11. Global transcriptome analysis of the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line 08LF during leaf senescence initiated by pollination-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liancheng; Li, Mingna; Tian, Lei; Wang, Shunxi; Wu, Liuji; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Jun; Song, Xiaoheng; Liu, Haiping; Chen, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), leaf senescence acts as a nutrient recycling process involved in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids degradation and transport to the developing sink. However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize. To explore global gene expression changes during the onset and progression of senescence in maize, the inbred line 08LF, with severe early senescence caused by pollination prevention, was selected. Phenotypic observation showed that the onset of leaf senescence of 08LF plants occurred approximately 14 days after silking (DAS) by pollination prevention. Transcriptional profiling analysis of the leaf at six developmental stages during induced senescence revealed that a total of 5,432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 2314 up-regulated genes and 1925 down-regulated genes. Functional annotation showed that the up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in multi-organism process and nitrogen compound transport, whereas down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis. Expression patterns and pathway enrichment analyses of early-senescence related genes indicated that these DEGs are involved in complex regulatory networks, especially in the jasmonic acid pathway. In addition, transcription factors from several families were detected, particularly the CO-like, NAC, ERF, GRAS, WRKY and ZF-HD families, suggesting that these transcription factors might play important roles in driving leaf senescence in maize as a result of pollination-prevention.

  12. An Algorithm for Global Optimization Inspired by Collective Animal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cuevas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A metaheuristic algorithm for global optimization called the collective animal behavior (CAB is introduced. Animal groups, such as schools of fish, flocks of birds, swarms of locusts, and herds of wildebeest, exhibit a variety of behaviors including swarming about a food source, milling around a central locations, or migrating over large distances in aligned groups. These collective behaviors are often advantageous to groups, allowing them to increase their harvesting efficiency, to follow better migration routes, to improve their aerodynamic, and to avoid predation. In the proposed algorithm, the searcher agents emulate a group of animals which interact with each other based on the biological laws of collective motion. The proposed method has been compared to other well-known optimization algorithms. The results show good performance of the proposed method when searching for a global optimum of several benchmark functions.

  13. Spatial structure and climatic adaptation in African maize revealed by surveying SNP diversity in relation to global breeding and landrace panels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change threatens maize productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. To ensure food security, access to locally adapted genetic resources and varieties is an important adaptation measure. Most of the maize grown in Africa is a genetic mix of varieties introduced at different historic times following the birth of the trans-Atlantic economy, and knowledge about geographic structure and local adaptations is limited. METHODOLOGY: A panel of 48 accessions of maize representing various introduction routes and sources of historic and recent germplasm introductions in Africa was genotyped with the MaizeSNP50 array. Spatial genetic structure and genetic relationships in the African panel were analysed separately and in the context of a panel of 265 inbred lines representing global breeding material (based on 26,900 SNPs and a panel of 1127 landraces from the Americas (270 SNPs. Environmental association analysis was used to detect SNPs associated with three climatic variables based on the full 43,963 SNP dataset. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic structure is consistent between subsets of the data and the markers are well suited for resolving relationships and admixture among the accessions. The African accessions are structured in three clusters reflecting historical and current patterns of gene flow from the New World and within Africa. The Sahelian cluster reflects original introductions of Meso-American landraces via Europe and a modern introduction of temperate breeding material. The Western cluster reflects introduction of Coastal Brazilian landraces, as well as a Northeast-West spread of maize through Arabic trade routes across the continent. The Eastern cluster most strongly reflects gene flow from modern introduced tropical varieties. Controlling for population history in a linear model, we identify 79 SNPs associated with maximum temperature during the growing season. The associations located in genes of known importance for abiotic stress

  14. [Effects of plastic film mulching and nitrogen application rate on net global warming potential in semiarid rain-fed maize cropland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian Can; Wang, Ze Lin; Yue, Shan Chao; Li, Shi Qing

    2018-04-01

    A one-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of plastic film mulching (FM) and nitrogen application rates applied to rain-fed maize fields on net global warming potential (Net GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) at the Changwu Agricultural and Ecological Experimental Station. Both GWP and GHGI were affected by the plastic film mulching and nitrogen application rate. Under the FM treatment, maize yield ranged from 1643 to 16699 kg·hm -2 , the net GWP (CO 2 -eq) ranged from 595 to 4376 kg·hm -2 ·a -1 , and the GHGI (CO 2 -eq) ranged from 213 to 358 kg·t -1 . The grain yield of maize, net GWP and GHGI for the UM (no mulching) treatment were 956 to 8821 kg·hm -2 , 342 to 4004 kg·hm -2 ·a -1 and 204 to 520 kg·t -1 , respectively. The results suggested that plastic film mulching could simultaneously improve grain yield and decrease GHGI in rain-fed cropland along with nitrogen fertilizer of 250 kg·hm -2 .

  15. Globalized mobility and the loss of the collective? Refugees and global palyers: An ethnopsychoanlaytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestine Wohlfart

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay sheds a light on mobile individuals, the motivation behind their movement, and their experience in foreign social contexts. It is based on group analytical and interdisciplinary discourses. The focus lies on possible changings of the collective in globalized worlds- approached by the view of individuals. What could imply the loss of the primary group and the perception of this loss for the individual. What are the mobile individuals (refugees and global players looking to find abroad, what are the promises, the demands and necessities. Material: I am offering for discussion texts from an ethnopsychoanalytical study focusing on two very different groups of mobile individuals. On one hand, interviews with so-called "global players" or "job nomads" and on the other hand interviews with African refugees. The analysis of the material leads to the first hypothesis: The option offered by a globalised world to find an individual place and freedom everywhere in the world is associated with a lack of intersubjective spaces, a lack of embodiment in a group, less sharing of common meanings, rules and taboos.Keywords: Intersubjective space; Mobility; Global players; Refugees

  16. Globalized mobility and the loss of the collective? Refugees and global palyers: An ethnopsychoanlaytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestine Wohlfart

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay sheds a light on mobile individuals, the motivation behind their movement, and their experience in foreign social contexts. It is based on group analytical and interdisciplinary discourses. The focus lies on possible changings of the collective in globalized worlds- approached by the view of individuals. What could imply the loss of the primary group and the perception of this loss for the individual. What are the mobile individuals (refugees and global players looking to find abroad, what are the promises, the demands and necessities. Material: I am offering for discussion texts from an ethnopsychoanalytical study focusing on two very different groups of mobile individuals. On one hand, interviews with so-called "global players" or "job nomads" and on the other hand interviews with African refugees. The analysis of the material leads to the first hypothesis: The option offered by a globalised world to find an individual place and freedom everywhere in the world is associated with a lack of intersubjective spaces, a lack of embodiment in a group, less sharing of common meanings, rules and taboos.Keywords: Intersubjective space; Mobility; Global players; Refugees

  17. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    ) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection...

  18. Maize global transcriptomics reveals pervasive leaf diurnal rhythms but rhythms in developing ears are largely limited to the core oscillator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Hayes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant diurnal rhythms are vital environmental adaptations to coordinate internal physiological responses to alternating day-night cycles. A comprehensive view of diurnal biology has been lacking for maize (Zea mays, a major world crop. METHODOLOGY: A photosynthetic tissue, the leaf, and a non-photosynthetic tissue, the developing ear, were sampled under natural field conditions. Genome-wide transcript profiling was conducted on a high-density 105 K Agilent microarray to investigate diurnal rhythms. CONCLUSIONS: In both leaves and ears, the core oscillators were intact and diurnally cycling. Maize core oscillator genes are found to be largely conserved with their Arabidopsis counterparts. Diurnal gene regulation occurs in leaves, with some 23% of expressed transcripts exhibiting a diurnal cycling pattern. These transcripts can be assigned to over 1700 gene ontology functional terms, underscoring the pervasive impact of diurnal rhythms on plant biology. Considering the peak expression time for each diurnally regulated gene, and its corresponding functional assignment, most gene functions display temporal enrichment in the day, often with distinct patterns, such as dawn or midday preferred, indicating that there is a staged procession of biological events undulating with the diurnal cycle. Notably, many gene functions display a bimodal enrichment flanking the midday photosynthetic maximum, with an initial peak in mid-morning followed by another peak during the afternoon/evening. In contrast to leaves, in developing ears as few as 47 gene transcripts are diurnally regulated, and this set of transcripts includes primarily the core oscillators. In developing ears, which are largely shielded from light, the core oscillator therefore is intact with little outward effect on transcription.

  19. Crop maize evapotranspiration; 2: ratios between the evapotranspiration to class A pan evaporation, to the reference evapotranspiration and to global solar radiation, at three sowing dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzenauer, R.; Bergamashi, H.; Berlato, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Water availability is the most limiting factor for growth and grain yield of maize in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, reducing frequently this production. Therefore, studies involving the determination of the water requirements are important for irrigation management to minimize the water availability problem. The main objective of this study was to calculate ratios between the maize crop evapotranspiration (ETm) to the class A pan evaporation (Eo), to the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and to global solar radiation (Rs), in order to obtain ralations between ETm/Eo, ETm/ETo and ETm/Rs, at different crop stages for three different sowing dates. Field experiments were carried out at the Experimental Station of Taquari/RS, 29°48’ of south latitude, 51°49’of west longitude, and 76m of altitude, from 1976/77 to 1988/89. ETm was measured using drainage lysimeters (Thornthwaite-Mather type). The average ratio between ETm and Eo for whole crop cycle (from sowing to physiological maturity) was 0.66, 0.72, and 0.68, respectively, in crops sown on September, October, and November. The average ratio between ETm and ETo for whole crop cycle was 0.74, 0.81, and 0.8, in crops sown on September, October, and November, while the average ratio between ETm and Rs was 0.45, 0.51, and 0.49 for the same sowing dates. The higher average values of crop coefficients occured from tasseling to the milk grain stage, when ETm/Eo was 0.81, 0.92, and 0.81; ETm/ETo was 0.97, 1.05, and 0.96, whereas ETm/Rs was 0.6, 0.68, and 0.6 for crops sown on September, October, and November, respectively [pt

  20. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph; Farooq, Aamir; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2012-01-01

    . Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a

  1. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph

    2012-12-28

    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  2. Romanian maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes; Balint, Borbala

    This research aims at shedding empirical light on the relative efficiency of small-scale maize producers in Romania. Farmers in transition countries still face heavily distorted price systems resulting from imperfect market conditions and socioeconomic and institutional constraints. To capture...

  3. Foraging in maize field areas: A risky business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boily, Monique; Aras, Philippe; Jumarie, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    In Quebec, Canada, the cultivation of maize dominates the agricultural territory. This crop requires a sustained supply of fertilizers from different sources: chemical, natural or from residual materials (sludge). These amendments contain metallic trace elements, which may lead to metal-contaminated maize pollen, a possible source of prooxidants for the foraging bees. Our objective was to determine whether maize fields environment influences the oxidation processes and the accumulation of metals in bees. A few days prior to pollen shedding, beehives were installed in maize fields: one organically grown (site A) and three conventionally grown (sites B, C and D). Soil, maize pollen and bees were analyzed for metal content. Every 15days, bees were collected and analyzed for peroxidation of lipids, metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs), proteins, retinoids and lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids and α-tocopherol). The compound β-carotene was the most abundant in bees from all sites, followed by α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, α-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein. Retinaldehyde and retinol varied according to times and sites without demonstrating clear trends. However, significant differences between sites were noted in 13-cis-retinoic acid and two retinoic acid metabolites measured in bees, suggesting alteration in the reduction-oxidation processes. In line with these results, the level of lipid peroxidation was globally higher in sites B, C and D compared with the organic site. Higher concentrations of metals were observed in soil and pollen from the field A, but bees metal contents were equal or less than those measured in bees from other sites. Higher bee MTLP levels were measured in sites B, C and D. For most sampling times, the discriminant analysis revealed that the conditions were distinguished by the oxidation processes in bees. Our data suggest that bees foraging in conventionally grown maize fields are at risk of increased oxidative damages which can

  4. Synchronization and collective motion of globally coupled Brownian particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, Francisco J; Heiblum-Robles, Alexandro; Dossetti, Victor

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we study a system of passive Brownian (non-self-propelled) particles in two dimensions, interacting only through a social-like force (velocity alignment in this case) that resembles Kuramoto's coupling among phase oscillators. We show that the kinematical stationary states of the system go from a phase in thermal equilibrium with no net flux of particles, to far-from-equilibrium phases exhibiting collective motion by increasing the coupling among particles. The mechanism that leads to the instability of the equilibrium phase relies on the competition between two time scales, namely, the mean collision time of the Brownian particles in a thermal bath and the time it takes for a particle to orient its direction of motion along the direction of motion of the group. Our results show a clear connection between collective motion and the Kuramoto model for synchronization, in our case, for the direction of motion of the particles. (paper)

  5. Global Collective Dose Commitments from Release of Long-Lived Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, H. L.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of global collective dose commitment as a measure of total detriment from the release of radioactivity to the environment is outlined. Estimates are given of global collective dose commitments resulting from the release of 14C and uranium daughter products from the nuclear fuel cycle...... that the use of global collective dose commitments in differential cost-benefit analysis can lead to questionable results. In differential cost-benefit analysis it is suggested that population exposures should not simply be integrated irrespective of their time of occurrence, but that a certain discount rate...

  6. Social Identities in a Globalized World: Challenges and Opportunities for Collective Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmann, Amir; Reese, Gerhard; Cameron, James E

    2016-03-01

    Globalization-the increasing interconnectedness of societies, economies, and cultures-is a defining feature of contemporary social life. Paradoxically, it underlies both the dynamics of global crises (e.g., rising inequality, climate change) and the possibilities for ameliorating them. In this review, we introduce globalization as a multifaceted process and elaborate its psychological effects with respect to identity, culture, and collective action. Using a social identity approach, we discuss three foci of identification: local culture, globalized Western culture, and humanity in its entirety. Each source of identification is analyzed in terms of its psychological meaning and position vis-à-vis the global power structure. Globalized Western culture forms the basis for an exclusive globalized identity, which privileges only some cultures and ways of life. We conceptualize reactions to its core values in terms of cultural identification and rejection and acceptance of, or opposition to, its global social order. Opposition to this inequitable global order is central to inclusive globalized identities (e.g., identification with humanity). These identities may encourage globally minded collective action, even as more research is needed to address their potential caveats. We consider possibilities for social change and action and conclude that a focused application of psychological science to the study of these issues is overdue. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a digital map of human appropriation of net...

  8. Global collective dose commitments from release of long-lived radionuclides. Differential cost-benefit considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoerup, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of global collective dose commitment as a measure of total detriment from the release of radioactivity to the environment is outlined. Estimates are given of global collective dose commitments resulting from the release of 14 C and uranium daughter products from the nuclear fuel cycle. Comparisons are made with similar estimates of global collective dose commitments resulting from the use of fossil fuels and certain fertilizers due to their content of uranium and its daughter products. In the case of long-lived radionuclides that remain in circulation in the biosphere, it is shown that the use of global collective dose commitments in differential cost-benefit analysis can lead to questionable results. In differential cost-benefit analysis it is suggested that population exposures should not simply be integrated irrespective of their time of occurrence, but that a certain discount rate should be applied for future doses. This suggestion is examined. (author)

  9. Evaluating Strategies for Achieving Global Collective Action on Transnational Health Threats and Social Inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Steven Justin

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents three studies that evaluate different strategies for addressing transnational health threats and social inequalities that depend upon or would benefit from global collective action. Each draws upon different academic disciplines, methods and epistemological traditions. Chapter 1 assesses the role of international law in addressing global health challenges, specifically examining when, how and why global health treaties may be helpful. Evidence from 90 quantitati...

  10. 77 FR 37430 - BSEE Information Collection Activity: Global Positioning System for MODUs, Extension of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... major weather event, like a hurricane, lessees and operators need to report new GPS information to BSEE...-0012; OMB Control Number 1014-0013] BSEE Information Collection Activity: Global Positioning System for... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), BSEE is inviting comments on a collection of information pertaining...

  11. Maize, tropical (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assem, Shireen K

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the diet; 95 % of the maize grown is consumed directly as human food and as an important source of income for the resource-poor rural population. The biotechnological approach to engineer biotic and abiotic traits implies the availability of an efficient plant transformation method. The production of genetically transformed plants depends both on the ability to integrate foreign genes into target cells and the efficiency with which plants are regenerated. Maize transformation and regeneration through immature embryo culture is the most efficient system to regenerate normal transgenic plants. However, this system is highly genotype dependent. Genotypes adapted to tropic areas are difficult to regenerate. Therefore, transformation methods used with model genotypes adapted to temperate areas are not necessarily efficient with tropical lines. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the method of choice since it has been first achieved in 1996. In this report, we describe a transformation method used successfully with several tropical maize lines. All the steps of transformation and regeneration are described in details. This protocol can be used with a wide variety of tropical lines. However, some modifications may be needed with recalcitrant lines.

  12. Collecting Information for Rating Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): Sources of Information and Methods for Information Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I H, Monrad Aas

    2014-11-01

    Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is an assessment instrument that is known worldwide. It is widely used for rating the severity of illness. Results from evaluations in psychiatry should characterize the patients. Rating of GAF is based on collected information. The aim of the study is to identify the factors involved in collecting information that is relevant for rating GAF, and gaps in knowledge where it is likely that further development would play a role for improved scoring. A literature search was conducted with a combination of thorough hand search and search in the bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Campbell Collaboration Library of Systematic Reviews. Collection of information for rating GAF depends on two fundamental factors: the sources of information and the methods for information collection. Sources of information are patients, informants, health personnel, medical records, letters of referral and police records about violence and substance abuse. Methods for information collection include the many different types of interview - unstructured, semi-structured, structured, interviews for Axis I and II disorders, semistructured interviews for rating GAF, and interviews of informants - as well as instruments for rating symptoms and functioning, and observation. The different sources of information, and methods for collection, frequently result in inconsistencies in the information collected. The variation in collected information, and lack of a generally accepted algorithm for combining collected information, is likely to be important for rated GAF values, but there is a fundamental lack of knowledge about the degree of importance. Research to improve GAF has not reached a high level. Rated GAF values are likely to be influenced by both the sources of information used and the methods employed for information collection, but the lack of research-based information about these influences is fundamental. Further development of

  13. Creating cohesion from diversity: the challenge of collective identity formation in the global justice movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominaya, Cristina Flesher

    2010-01-01

    Collective identity formation is important because it plays a crucial role in sustaining movements over time. Studying collective identity formation in autonomous groups in the Global Justice Movement poses a challenge because they encompass a multiplicity of identities, ideologies, issues, frames, collective action repertoires, and organizational forms. This article analyzes the process of collective identity formation in three anti-capitalist globalization groups in Madrid, Spain, based on 3 years of ethnographic fieldwork. The author argues that for new groups practicing participatory democracy the regular face-to-face assemblies are the crucial arena in which collective identity can form and must be both effective and participatory in order to foster a sense of commitment and belonging. The article raises the possibility that scholars should consider what seems to be an oxymoron: the possible benefits of "failure" for social movements.

  14. Collective pensions and the global financial crisis : The case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Nijman, T.E.; Maurer, R.; Mitchell, O.S.; Warshawsky, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The global financial crisis triggered a major redesign of the collective pension system in the Netherlands. The current Dutch system can be characterized as a defined benefit system with nominal guarantees, which are increased in line with inflation if investment returns are satisfactory. The crisis

  15. A global reference database of crowdsourced cropland data collected using the Geo-Wiki platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laso Bayas, JC; Lesiv, M; Waldner, F; Schucknecht, A; Duerauer, M; See, L; Fritz, S.; Fraisl, D; Moorthy, I; McCallum, I.; Perger, C; Danylo, O; Defourny, P; Gallego, J; Gilliams, S; Akhtar, I.H.; Baishya, S. J.; Baruah, M; Bungnamei, K; Campos, A; Changkakati, T; Cipriani, A; Das, Krishna; Das, Keemee; Das, I; Davis, K.F.; Hazarika, P; Johnson, B.A.; Malek, Ziga; Molinari, M.E.; Panging, K; Pawe, C.K.; Pérez-Hoyos, A; Sahariah, P.K.; Sahariah, D; Saikia, A; Saikia, M; Schlesinger, Peter; Seidacaru, E; Singha, K; Wilson, John W

    2017-01-01

    A global reference data set on cropland was collected through a crowdsourcing campaign using the Geo-Wiki crowdsourcing tool. The campaign lasted three weeks, with over 80 participants from around the world reviewing almost 36,000 sample units, focussing on cropland identification. For quality

  16. Testing public Bt maize events for control of stem borers in the first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic maize (Zea mays L), developed using modified genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), controls stem borers without observable negative effects to humans, livestock or the environment, and is now sown on 134 million hectares globally. Bt maize could contribute to increasing maize production in ...

  17. Harnessing maize biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize is a remarkably diverse species, adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and farming practices. The latitudinal range of maize is immense, ranging from 54°N in Alberta, Canada, to 45°S in the province of Chubut, Argentina. In terms of altitude, maize is cultivated from sea level to 4000...

  18. Land Surface Phenology from MODIS: Characterization of the Collection 5 Global Land Cover Dynamics Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Friedl, Mark A.; Tan, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Verma, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Information related to land surface phenology is important for a variety of applications. For example, phenology is widely used as a diagnostic of ecosystem response to global change. In addition, phenology influences seasonal scale fluxes of water, energy, and carbon between the land surface and atmosphere. Increasingly, the importance of phenology for studies of habitat and biodiversity is also being recognized. While many data sets related to plant phenology have been collected at specific sites or in networks focused on individual plants or plant species, remote sensing provides the only way to observe and monitor phenology over large scales and at regular intervals. The MODIS Global Land Cover Dynamics Product was developed to support investigations that require regional to global scale information related to spatiotemporal dynamics in land surface phenology. Here we describe the Collection 5 version of this product, which represents a substantial refinement relative to the Collection 4 product. This new version provides information related to land surface phenology at higher spatial resolution than Collection 4 (500-m vs. 1-km), and is based on 8-day instead of 16-day input data. The paper presents a brief overview of the algorithm, followed by an assessment of the product. To this end, we present (1) a comparison of results from Collection 5 versus Collection 4 for selected MODIS tiles that span a range of climate and ecological conditions, (2) a characterization of interannual variation in Collections 4 and 5 data for North America from 2001 to 2006, and (3) a comparison of Collection 5 results against ground observations for two forest sites in the northeastern United States. Results show that the Collection 5 product is qualitatively similar to Collection 4. However, Collection 5 has fewer missing values outside of regions with persistent cloud cover and atmospheric aerosols. Interannual variability in Collection 5 is consistent with expected ranges of

  19. International obligations through collective rights: Moving from foreign health assistance to global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Fox, Ashley M

    2010-06-15

    This article analyzes the growing chasm between international power and state responsibility in health rights, proposing an international legal framework for collective rights - rights that can reform international institutions and empower developing states to realize the determinants of health structured by global forces. With longstanding recognition that many developing state governments cannot realize the health of their peoples without international cooperation, scholars have increasingly sought to codify international obligations under the purview of an evolving human right to health, applying this rights-based approach as a foundational framework for reducing global health inequalities through foreign assistance. Yet the inherent limitations of the individual human rights framework stymie the right to health in impacting the global institutions that are most crucial for realizing underlying determinants of health through the strengthening of primary health care systems. Whereas the right to health has been advanced as an individual right to be realized by a state duty-bearer, the authors find that this limited, atomized right has proven insufficient to create accountability for international obligations in global health policy, enabling the deterioration of primary health care systems that lack the ability to address an expanding set of public health claims. For rights scholars to advance disease protection and health promotion through national primary health care systems - creating the international legal obligations necessary to spur development supportive of the public's health - the authors conclude that scholars must look beyond the individual right to health to create collective international legal obligations commensurate with a public health-centered approach to primary health care. Through the development and implementation of these collective health rights, states can address interconnected determinants of health within and across countries

  20. Aflatoxins and fumonisin contamination of marketed maize, maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxins and fumonisin contamination of marketed maize, maize bran and maize used as animal feed in northern ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development.

  1. Global activism: new paths for Black people movement collective action in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Espinosa Bonilla

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the transformations in actor-network collective action in the Process of Black Communities —pcn—, which were developed as a consequence of the armed conflict worsening in the Pacific region —specifically on the collective lands in the municipalities of Buenaventura and Suárez (Southwestern Colombia— in the last ten years. Information was gathered through semi-structured interviews, observation records, analysis of audio/text documents on the organizations’ claims and communiqués, and the drafting of aggregated data on displacement and conflictual facts in the region. Findings show a significant up surging of conflict within the period, in the face of which PCN’s coalitions with local and global actors have come both to neutralize and make visible armed actors’ actions against populations, and to reorient collective action, introducing innovations in the repertoires of action and setting new goals for this actor-network in the region.

  2. Comparative diversity of arthropods on Bt maize and non-Bt maize in two different cropping systems in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truter, J; Van Hamburg, H; Van Den Berg, J

    2014-02-01

    The biodiversity of an agroecosystem is not only important for its intrinsic value but also because it influences ecological functions that are vital for crop production in sustainable agricultural systems and the surrounding environment. A concern about genetically modified (GM) crops is the potential negative impact that such crops could have on diversity and abundance of nontarget organisms, and subsequently on ecosystem functions. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential environmental risk of the release of a GM crop and to study its effect on species assemblages within that ecosystem. Assessment of the impact of Bt maize on the environment is hampered by the lack of basic checklists of species present in maize agroecosystems. The aims of the study were to compile a checklist of arthropods that occur on maize in South Africa and to compare the diversity and abundance of arthropods and functional groups on Bt maize and non-Bt maize. Collections of arthropods were carried out during two growing seasons on Bt maize and non-Bt maize plants at two localities. Three maize fields were sampled per locality during each season. Twenty plants, each of Bt maize and non-Bt maize, were randomly selected from the fields at each site. The arthropods collected during this study were classified to morphospecies level and grouped into the following functional groups: detritivores, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Based on feeding strategy, herbivores and predators were further divided into sucking herbivores or predators (piercing-sucking mouthparts) and chewing herbivores or predators (chewing mouthparts). A total of 8,771 arthropod individuals, comprising 288 morphospecies and presenting 20 orders, were collected. Results from this short-term study indicated that abundance and diversity of arthropods in maize and the different functional guilds were not significantly affected by Bt maize, either in terms of diversity or abundance.

  3. Propanol in maize silage at Danish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence maize silage containing propanol, the seasonal variation in propanol content of maize silage, and correlations between propanol and other fermentation products in maize silage collected from 20 randomly selected Danish dairy farms...... farms, the maize silage had ≥5 g propanol/kg DM. The present study indicates that dairy cows in Denmark are commonly exposed to propanol and that approximately 20% of the dairy cows will have an intake in the range of 75-100 g propanol/d under common feeding conditions....

  4. Global dust sources detection using MODIS Deep Blue Collection 6 aerosol products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez García-Pando, C.; Ginoux, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of the global dust cycle is limited by a dearth of information about dust sources, especially small-scale features which could account for a large fraction of global emissions. Remote sensing sensors are the most useful tool to locate dust sources. These sensors include microwaves, visible channels, and lidar. On the global scale, major dust source regions have been identified using polar orbiting satellite instruments. The MODIS Deep Blue algorithm has been particularly useful to detect small-scale sources such as floodplains, alluvial fans, rivers, and wadis , as well as to identify anthropogenic sources from agriculture. The recent release of Collection 6 MODIS aerosol products allows to extend dust source detection to the entire land surfaces, which is quite useful to identify mid to high latitude dust sources and detect not only dust from agriculture but fugitive dust from transport and industrial activities. This presentation will overview the advantages and drawbacks of using MODIS Deep Blue for dust detection, compare to other instruments (polar orbiting and geostationary). The results of Collection 6 with a new dust screening will be compared against AERONET. Applications to long range transport of anthropogenic dust will be presented.

  5. Analysis of the Supply Response of Maize Producers in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research work analyzed the supply response of maize producers in Nigeria and its implication for agricultural trade. The period covered was 1987-2007 (20 years) and data were collected on import quantity and value, export quantity and value, price of maize, price of its substitute, output and hectarage within the time ...

  6. Occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in maize kernels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen, teratogen and mutagen. 660 pre- and post- harvest maize samples were collected from major maize growing areas in Tamil Nadu, India. Aflatoxin contamination was observed in ...

  7. A comparison between hominy chop and defatted maize germ meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defatted maize germ meal (DMG) is arbitrarily rated at a lower economic value than maize meal or hominy chop (HC). Five treatments with 15 steers each were fed different inclusion levels of DMG (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), replacing hominy chop during the fattening period. Slaughter data were collected for carcass ...

  8. Determination of radioactivity in maize and mung beans grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two staple foods (maize and mung beans) which were cultivated in Minjingu village, where there is phosphate deposit in Tanzania, were collected directly from the farms. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Th and 40K were determined in the maize and mung beans samples using γ ray spectrometry employing HPGe ...

  9. Collective Security in the Context of Globalization. The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Dumitrache

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available European countries have taken part in the Globalization process ever since the end of the Second World War. Being active members of international institutions like the IMF, World Bank Group, NATO or the WTO, the European countries have even developed a collective entity of their own, that of the European Union. In later years, Eastern European countries like Romania have also become a part of this globalised system. It is the aim of this paper to present the effects that this integration has brought in terms of economic development and security challenges for EU member states, by taking into consideration the example of Romania.

  10. Authentication and Interpretation of Weight Data Collected from Accountability Scales at Global Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, Peter; Laughter, Mark D.; Martyn, Rose; Richardson, Dave; Rowe, Nathan C.; Pickett, Chris A.; Younkin, James R.; Shephard, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    Accountability scale data from the Global Nuclear Fuels (GNF) fuel fabrication facility in Wilmington, NC has been collected and analyzed as a part of the Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System (CATS) field trial in 2009. The purpose of the data collection was to demonstrate an authentication method for safeguards applications, and the use of load cell data in cylinder accountability. The scale data was acquired using a commercial off-the-shelf communication server with authentication and encryption capabilities. The authenticated weight data was then analyzed to determine facility operating activities. The data allowed for the determination of the number of full and empty cylinders weighed and the respective weights along with other operational activities. Data authentication concepts, practices and methods, the details of the GNF weight data authentication implementation and scale data interpretation results will be presented.

  11. Rural Associativity of Small Milk Producers and Collective Actions in the Free Market and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Andrés Cortés Millán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper emerges as a result of the research “Design of public policies for the Associativity o milk producers in Colombia”. The creation process of milk producers associations in Cundinamarca is shown, with the goal of offering a framework for public policy that makes it possible to support and recognize rural communities immersed in globalization processes, involved in free commerce treaties with the United States and the European Union. The methodology defined for the project had a qualitative framework, expressed through an interpretative discursive typology. Thorough interviews were made with a focus on categorization that, for the project, linked the narrations and perceptions of the collective identity components, traditional practices and collective political action. On the other hand, the methodological experience made it possible to link complementary strategies such as social cartography, documentary collection and ethnographic diaries, with which it was possible not only to collect information related to the categories of the study in an important proportion, but also to enrich the analysis itself, with the diversity and plurality that suggests an investigation of this nature.

  12. Chemical and nutritional values of maize and maize products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize and maize products in selected grain markets within Kaduna, Nigeria, were obtained and investigated for proximate and mineral composition analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and flame photometer. Proximate composition of maize and maize products were in the range of 11.6- 20 .0% ...

  13. Shedding light on the Global Ocean microbiome with algorithms and data collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, F.; Ostrowski, M.; Chénard, C.; Acerbi, E.; Paulsen, I.; Jensen, R.

    2016-02-01

    In the Global Oceans, the marine microbiome plays a critical role in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, but surveying marine microbial communities requires ship time for sample collection, economically constraining the number of samples collected. An integrative understanding of the microbiome's activity and performance requires the collection of high-density data, both temporally and spatially in a cost-effective way. We have overcome this bottleneck by crowdsourcing the data collection to vessels of opportunity, including bluewater sailing yachts. Sailors know the oceans, and experience first-hand the declines in ocean productivity and the effects of pollution and climate change. Moreover, simply the ability to sample a microbial community during anomalous or inclement weather conditions is a major advance in sampling strategy. Our approach inherently incorporates the benefit of outreach and participation of people in scientific research, gaining positive media attention for sailors, scientists and concerned citizens alike. We have tested the basic methods during a 2013 Indian Ocean Concept Cruise, from Cape Town to Singapore, performing experimental work and reaching sampling locations inaccessible to traditional Oceanographic Vessels. At the same time we developed a small, yacht-adapted automated sampling device that takes a variety of biological and chemical measurements. In 2015 our first beta-cruisers sampled the Pacific Ocean in the first ever citizen-oceanography transect at high and low latitudes in both hemispheres. The collected samples were characterized with next-gen sequencing technology and analysed with a combination of novel algorithmic approaches. With big data management, machine learning algorithms and agent-based models we show that it is possible to deconvolute the complexity of the Ocean Microbiome for the scientific management of fisheries, marine protected areas and preservation of the oceans and seas for generations to come.

  14. Operational Impact of Data Collected from the Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft During SHOUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, G. A.; Dunion, J. P.; Sippel, J.; Cucurull, L.; Aksoy, A.; Kren, A.; Christophersen, H.; Black, P.

    2017-12-01

    The primary scientific goal of the Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT) Project was to determine the potential utility of observations from high-altitude, long-endurance unmanned aircraft systems such as the Global Hawk (GH) aircraft to improve operational forecasts of high-impact weather events or mitigate potential degradation of forecasts in the event of a future gap in satellite coverage. Hurricanes and tropical cyclones are among the most potentially destructive high-impact weather events and pose a major forecasting challenge to NOAA. Major winter storms over the Pacific Ocean, including atmospheric river events, which make landfall and bring strong winds and extreme precipitation to the West Coast and Alaska are also important to forecast accurately because of their societal impact in those parts of the country. In response, the SHOUT project supported three field campaigns with the GH aircraft and dedicated data impact studies exploring the potential for the real-time data from the aircraft to improve the forecasting of both tropical cyclones and landfalling Pacific storms. Dropsonde observations from the GH aircraft were assimilated into the operational Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF) and Global Forecast System (GFS) models. The results from several diverse but complementary studies consistently demonstrated significant positive forecast benefits spanning the regional and global models. Forecast skill improvements within HWRF reached up to about 9% for track and 14% for intensity. Within GFS, track skill improvements for multi-storm averages exceeded 10% and improvements for individual storms reached over 20% depending on forecast lead time. Forecasted precipitation was also improved. Impacts for Pacific winter storms were smaller but still positive. The results are highly encouraging and support the potential for operational utilization of data from a platform like the GH. This presentation summarizes the

  15. The “treatment gap” in global mental health reconsidered: sociotherapy for collective trauma in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Jansen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The “treatment gap” (TG for mental disorders refers to the difference that exists between the number of people who need care and those who receive care. The concept is strongly promoted by the World Health Organization and widely used in the context of low- and middle-income countries. Although accepting the many demonstrable benefits that flow from this approach, it is important to critically reflect on the limitations of the concept of the TG and its implications for building capacity for mental health services in Rwanda. Objective: The article highlights concerns that the evidence base for mental health interventions is not globally valid, and problematizes the preponderance of psychiatric approaches in international guidelines for mental health. Specifically, the risk of medicalization of social problems and the limited way in which “community” has been conceptualized in global mental health discourses are addressed. Rather than being used as a method for increasing economic efficiency (i.e., reducing healthcare costs, “community” should be promoted as a means of harnessing collective strengths and resources to help promote mental well-being. This may be particularly beneficial for contexts, like Rwanda, where community life has been disrupted by collective violence, and the resulting social isolation constitutes an important determinant of mental distress. Conclusions: Moving forward there is a need to consider alternative paradigms where individual distress is understood as a symptom of social distress, which extends beyond the more individually oriented TG paradigm. Sociotherapy, an intervention used in Rwanda over the past 10 years, is presented as an example of how communities of support can be built to promote mental health and psychosocial well-being.

  16. Working with teams of "insiders": Qualitative approaches to data collection in the Global South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enid Schatz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The convergence of two qualitative methodological strategies - working in "teams" and with "insiders" - can facilitate access, efficiency, and insights into research questions of interest to demographers. Even though this approach is becoming more common among population researchers in the Global South to address a range of research questions, little has been published that describes the method and critically assesses its strengths and weaknesses. Objective: We draw on three projects embedded in the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System site in rural South Africa that integrate both approaches to demonstrate the benefits and limitations of this strategy. Methods: We document, through in-depth description, how these three projects achieve access, efficiency, and insights into issues of population concern (HIV/AIDS, aging, and child wellbeing utilizing a "team-insider" approach by working with groups of local research assistants. Conclusions: The projects vary in their use of "teams" and "insiders" but collectively deepen our understanding of pressing population concerns in the Global South. In particular, by using teams of insiders, these projects gain insights into local ideas about HIV, uncover ways that HIV affects older women's lives, and provide in-depth understanding of children's social connections. The approach also presents a number of challenges, however, such as grappling with the responsibilities and burdens that are placed on local insider team members.

  17. Fungal Diversity of Maize (Zea Mays L. Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulbis Kaspars

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize is becoming more and more important crop for dairy farming as forage and as substrate for biogas production. The mycotoxin producing fungi can spoil feed, reduce cattle productivity and cause health problems. The aim of this research was to study the mycoflora of maize grains in order to clarify the fungal composition and verify the presence of potential mycotoxin producing fungi. The grain samples were collected from different maize hybrid performance trial in Research and Study farm “Vecauce” of Latvia University of Agriculture in 2014. The fungi from 14 genera were isolated from surface sterilized grains. The most abundant were Alternaria, Fusarium and Penicillium spp. Mycotoxin producing fungi are present in maize grain mycoflora, and there is a risk that maize production can contain mycotoxins.

  18. Ontology-based meta-analysis of global collections of high-throughput public data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Kupershmidt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the interconnections between the molecular and genetic events that govern biological systems is essential if we are to understand the development of disease and design effective novel treatments. Microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies have the potential to provide this information. However, taking full advantage of these approaches requires that biological connections be made across large quantities of highly heterogeneous genomic datasets. Leveraging the increasingly huge quantities of genomic data in the public domain is fast becoming one of the key challenges in the research community today.We have developed a novel data mining framework that enables researchers to use this growing collection of public high-throughput data to investigate any set of genes or proteins. The connectivity between molecular states across thousands of heterogeneous datasets from microarrays and other genomic platforms is determined through a combination of rank-based enrichment statistics, meta-analyses, and biomedical ontologies. We address data quality concerns through dataset replication and meta-analysis and ensure that the majority of the findings are derived using multiple lines of evidence. As an example of our strategy and the utility of this framework, we apply our data mining approach to explore the biology of brown fat within the context of the thousands of publicly available gene expression datasets.Our work presents a practical strategy for organizing, mining, and correlating global collections of large-scale genomic data to explore normal and disease biology. Using a hypothesis-free approach, we demonstrate how a data-driven analysis across very large collections of genomic data can reveal novel discoveries and evidence to support existing hypothesis.

  19. Ontology-based meta-analysis of global collections of high-throughput public data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupershmidt, Ilya; Su, Qiaojuan Jane; Grewal, Anoop; Sundaresh, Suman; Halperin, Inbal; Flynn, James; Shekar, Mamatha; Wang, Helen; Park, Jenny; Cui, Wenwu; Wall, Gregory D; Wisotzkey, Robert; Alag, Satnam; Akhtari, Saeid; Ronaghi, Mostafa

    2010-09-29

    The investigation of the interconnections between the molecular and genetic events that govern biological systems is essential if we are to understand the development of disease and design effective novel treatments. Microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies have the potential to provide this information. However, taking full advantage of these approaches requires that biological connections be made across large quantities of highly heterogeneous genomic datasets. Leveraging the increasingly huge quantities of genomic data in the public domain is fast becoming one of the key challenges in the research community today. We have developed a novel data mining framework that enables researchers to use this growing collection of public high-throughput data to investigate any set of genes or proteins. The connectivity between molecular states across thousands of heterogeneous datasets from microarrays and other genomic platforms is determined through a combination of rank-based enrichment statistics, meta-analyses, and biomedical ontologies. We address data quality concerns through dataset replication and meta-analysis and ensure that the majority of the findings are derived using multiple lines of evidence. As an example of our strategy and the utility of this framework, we apply our data mining approach to explore the biology of brown fat within the context of the thousands of publicly available gene expression datasets. Our work presents a practical strategy for organizing, mining, and correlating global collections of large-scale genomic data to explore normal and disease biology. Using a hypothesis-free approach, we demonstrate how a data-driven analysis across very large collections of genomic data can reveal novel discoveries and evidence to support existing hypothesis.

  20. Occurrence of toxigenic fungi in maize and maize-gluten meal from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif SALEEMI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to isolate and identify toxigenic mycoflora of maize and maize-gluten meal. A total of 82 samples of maize and 8 samples of maize-gluten meal were collected from Faisalabad district of Pakistan over a period of two years. These samples were inoculated on different culture media. Fungal contamination of maize and maize-gluten was 56% and 75% of samples, respectively. Isolation frequencies of different genera isolated from maize were Aspergillus 33%; Penicillium 28%; Fusarium 10%; and Alternaria 1%. Isolation frequency among species was maximum for P. verrucosum, followed by A. niger aggregates, A. ochraceous, A. flavus, P. chrysogenum, A. parasiticus, A. carbonarius, Fusarium spp. and Alternaria spp. Relative density of Aspergillus isolates was maximum for A. niger aggregates and A. ochraceous (30% each followed by A. flavus (26%, A. parasiticus (11% and A. carbonarius (3%. Percentage of toxigenic fungi among Aspergillus isolates was 52%. Aflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were 43 and 67% and ochratoxigenic isolates of A. carbonarius, A. ochraceous and A. niger aggregates were 100, 63 and 38%, respectively. Aspergillus parasiticus produced higher concentrations of AFB1 (maximum 1374.23 ng g-1 than A. flavus (maximum 635.50 ng g-1. Ochratoxin A production potential of A. ochraceous ranged from 1.81 to 9523.1 ng g-1, while in A. niger aggregates it was 1.30 to 1758.6 ng g-1. Isolation frequencies of fungal genera from maize-gluten meal were Aspergillus (63% and Penicillium (50%. A. flavus was the most frequently isolated species. Percentage of toxigenic fungi among Aspergillus isolates was 40%. Aflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus were 33% and ochratoxigenic isolates of A. ochraceous were 100%.

  1. Radiation preservation of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasito.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation preservation of maize was carried out. Radiation doses and sources, shielding materials, packaging materials, chemical radiation effects, biological radiation effects, were discussed. Experimental methods, samples and accessories were also presented. (SMN)

  2. Towards a global participatory platform. Democratising open data, complexity science and collective intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, S.; Aberer, K.; Schmidt, A.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.; Anderson, S.; Charalabidis, Y.; Domingue, J.; de Freitas, S.; Dunwell, I.; Edmonds, B.; Grey, F.; Haklay, M.; Jelasity, M.; Karpištšenko, A.; Kohlhammer, J.; Lewis, J.; Pitt, J.; Sumner, R.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    The FuturICT project seeks to use the power of big data, analytic models grounded in complexity science, and the collective intelligence they yield for societal benefit. Accordingly, this paper argues that these new tools should not remain the preserve of restricted government, scientific or corporate élites, but be opened up for societal engagement and critique. To democratise such assets as a public good, requires a sustainable ecosystem enabling different kinds of stakeholder in society, including but not limited to, citizens and advocacy groups, school and university students, policy analysts, scientists, software developers, journalists and politicians. Our working name for envisioning a sociotechnical infrastructure capable of engaging such a wide constituency is the Global Participatory Platform (GPP). We consider what it means to develop a GPP at the different levels of data, models and deliberation, motivating a framework for different stakeholders to find their ecological niches at different levels within the system, serving the functions of (i) sensing the environment in order to pool data, (ii) mining the resulting data for patterns in order to model the past/present/future, and (iii) sharing and contesting possible interpretations of what those models might mean, and in a policy context, possible decisions. A research objective is also to apply the concepts and tools of complexity science and social science to the project's own work. We therefore conceive the global participatory platform as a resilient, epistemic ecosystem, whose design will make it capable of self-organization and adaptation to a dynamic environment, and whose structure and contributions are themselves networks of stakeholders, challenges, issues, ideas and arguments whose structure and dynamics can be modelled and analysed.

  3. Bio-fortification potential of global wild annual lentil core collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    Full Text Available Lentil, generally known as poor man's' meat due to its high protein value is also a good source of dietary fiber, antioxidants and vitamins along with fast cooking characteristics. It could be used globally as a staple food crop to eradicate hidden hunger, if this nutritionally rich crop is further enriched with essential minerals. This requires identification of essential mineral rich germplasm. So, in the present study, a core set of 96 wild accessions extracted from 405 global wild annual collections comprising different species was analyzed to determine its bio-fortification potential. Impressive variation (mg/100 g was observed for different minerals including Na (30-318, K (138.29-1578, P (37.50-593.75, Ca (4.74-188.75, Mg (15-159, Fe (2.82-14.12, Zn (1.29-12.62, Cu (0.5-7.12, Mn (1.22-9.99, Mo (1.02-11.89, Ni (0.16-3.49, Pb (0.01-0.58, Cd (0-0.03, Co (0-0.63 and As (0-0.02. Hierarchical clustering revealed high intra- and inter-specific variability. Further, correlation study showed positive significant association among minerals and between minerals including agro-morphological traits. Accessions representation from Turkey and Syria had maximum variability for different minerals. Diversity analysis exhibited wide geographical variations across gene-pool in core set. Potential use of the identified trait-specific genetic resources could be initial genetic material, for genetic base broadening and biofortification of cultivated lentil.

  4. "Omics" of maize stress response for sustainable food production: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fangping; Yang, Le; Tai, Fuju; Hu, Xiuli; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Maize originated in the highlands of Mexico approximately 8700 years ago and is one of the most commonly grown cereal crops worldwide, followed by wheat and rice. Abiotic stresses (primarily drought, salinity, and high and low temperatures), together with biotic stresses (primarily fungi, viruses, and pests), negatively affect maize growth, development, and eventually production. To understand the response of maize to abiotic and biotic stresses and its mechanism of stress tolerance, high-throughput omics approaches have been used in maize stress studies. Integrated omics approaches are crucial for dissecting the temporal and spatial system-level changes that occur in maize under various stresses. In this comprehensive analysis, we review the primary types of stresses that threaten sustainable maize production; underscore the recent advances in maize stress omics, especially proteomics; and discuss the opportunities, challenges, and future directions of maize stress omics, with a view to sustainable food production. The knowledge gained from studying maize stress omics is instrumental for improving maize to cope with various stresses and to meet the food demands of the exponentially growing global population. Omics systems science offers actionable potential solutions for sustainable food production, and we present maize as a notable case study.

  5. Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Bronwyn; Warnberg, Katey; Main, Marcy; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an effective method for introducing genes into maize. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for genetic transformation of the maize genotype Hi II. Our starting plant material is immature embryos cocultivated with an Agrobacterium strain carrying a standard binary vector. In addition to step-by-step laboratory transformation procedures, we include extensive details in growing donor plants and caring for transgenic plants in the greenhouse.

  6. The Emissions of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide during Winter without Cultivation in Local Saline-Alkali Rice and Maize Fields in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural ecosystems are important contributors to atmospheric greenhouse gasses (GHGs; however, in situ winter emission data in saline-alkali fields are scarce. Gas samples were collected during different periods, from three rice (R1–R3 and three maize (M1–M3 fields with different soil pH levels and salinity conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in the rice and maize fields decreased with decreasing temperature during the freezing period and increased with the rising temperature during the thawing period, with the majority of winter CO2 emissions occurring during these two periods. Peaks in methane (CH4 emissions were observed during the freezing period in the rice fields and during the snow-melting period in the rice and maize fields. CH4 emissions in the rice fields and CH4 uptake rates in the maize fields were significantly (P < 0.05 related to surface soil temperature. Nitrous oxide (N2O emissions remained relatively low, except for during the peaks observed during the snow-melting period in both the rice and maize fields, leading to the high GHG contribution of the snow-melting period throughout the winter. Higher pH and salinity conditions consistently resulted in lower CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions, CH4 uptake, and lower global warming potential (GWP. These results can contribute to the assessment of the GWP during winter in saline-alkali regions.

  7. Making better maize plants for sustainable grain production in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fangping; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Huiyong; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Achieving grain supply security with limited arable land is a major challenge in the twenty-first century, owing to the changing climate and increasing global population. Maize plays an increasingly vital role in global grain production. As a C4 plant, maize has a high yield potential. Maize is predicted to become the number one cereal in the world by 2020. However, maize production has plateaued in many countries, and hybrid and production technologies have been fully exploited. Thus, there is an urgent need to shape maize traits and architectures for increased stress tolerance and higher yield in a changing climate. Recent achievements in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics have provided an unprecedented opportunity to make better maize. In this paper, we discuss the current challenges and potential of maize production, particularly in China. We also highlight the need for enhancing maize tolerance to drought and heat waves, summarize the elite shoot and root traits and phenotypes, and propose an ideotype for sustainable maize production in a changing climate. This will facilitate targeted maize improvement through a conventional breeding program combined with molecular techniques.

  8. Relationships between emm and multilocus sequence types within a global collection of Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGregor Karen F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The M type-specific surface protein antigens encoded by the 5' end of emm genes are targets of protective host immunity and attractive vaccine candidates against infection by Streptococcus pyogenes, a global human pathogen. A history of genetic change in emm was evaluated for a worldwide collection of > 500 S. pyogenes isolates that were defined for genetic background by multilocus sequence typing of housekeeping genes. Results Organisms were categorized by genotypes that roughly correspond to throat specialists, skin specialists, and generalists often recovered from infections at either tissue site. Recovery of distant clones sharing the same emm type was ~4-fold higher for skin specialists and generalists, as compared to throat specialists. Importantly, emm type was often a poor marker for clone. Recovery of clones that underwent recombinational replacement with a new emm type was most evident for the throat and skin specialists. The average ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka and synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks was 4.9, 1.5 and 1.3 for emm types of the throat specialist, skin specialist and generalist groups, respectively. Conclusion Data indicate that the relationships between emm type and genetic background differ among the three host tissue-related groups, and that the selection pressures acting on emm appear to be strongest for the throat specialists. Since positive selection is likely due in part to a protective host immune response, the findings may have important implications for vaccine design and vaccination strategies.

  9. Barnyard millet global core collection evaluation in the submontane Himalayan region of India using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salej Sood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp. is one of the most underresearched crops with respect to characterization of genetic resources and genetic enhancement. A total of 95 germplasm lines representing global collection were evaluated in two rainy seasons at Almora, Uttarakhand, India for qualitative and quantitative traits and the data were subjected to multivariate analysis. High variation was observed for days to maturity, five-ear grain weight, and yield components. The first three principal component axes explained 73% of the total multivariate variation. Three major groups were detected by projection of the accessions on the first two principal components. The separation of accessions was based mainly on trait morphology. Almost all Indian and origin-unknown accessions grouped together to form an Echinochloa frumentacea group. Japanese accessions grouped together except for a few outliers to form an Echinochloa esculenta group. The third group contained accessions from Russia, Japan, Cameroon, and Egypt. They formed a separate group on the scatterplot and represented accessions with lower values for all traits except basal tiller number. The interrelationships between the traits indicated that accessions with tall plants, long and broad leaves, longer inflorescences, and greater numbers of racemes should be given priority as donors or parents in varietal development initiatives. Cluster analysis identified two main clusters based on agro-morphological characters.

  10. Validation of the MODIS Collection 6 MCD64 Global Burned Area Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Giglio, L.; Stehman, S. V.; Humber, M. L.; Sathyachandran, S. K.; Zubkova, M.; Melchiorre, A.; Huang, H.; Huo, L. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on rigorously assessing their accuracy. A number of NASA, ESA and EU funded global and continental burned area products have been developed using coarse spatial resolution satellite data, and have the potential to become part of a long-term fire Essential Climate Variable. These products have usually been validated by comparison with reference burned area maps derived by visual interpretation of Landsat or similar spatial resolution data selected on an ad hoc basis. More optimally, a design-based validation method should be adopted, characterized by the selection of reference data via probability sampling. Design based techniques have been used for annual land cover and land cover change product validation, but have not been widely used for burned area products, or for other products that are highly variable in time and space (e.g. snow, floods, other non-permanent phenomena). This has been due to the challenge of designing an appropriate sampling strategy, and to the cost and limited availability of independent reference data. This paper describes the validation procedure adopted for the latest Collection 6 version of the MODIS Global Burned Area product (MCD64, Giglio et al, 2009). We used a tri-dimensional sampling grid that allows for probability sampling of Landsat data in time and in space (Boschetti et al, 2016). To sample the globe in the spatial domain with non-overlapping sampling units, the Thiessen Scene Area (TSA) tessellation of the Landsat WRS path/rows is used. The TSA grid is then combined with the 16-day Landsat acquisition calendar to provide tri-dimensonal elements (voxels). This allows the implementation of a sampling design where not only the location but also the time interval of the reference data is explicitly drawn through stratified random sampling. The novel sampling approach was used for the selection of a reference dataset consisting of 700

  11. Bioactivity, Chemical Profiling, and 16S rRNA-Based Phylogeny of Pseudoalteromonas Strains Collected on a Global Research Cruise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vynne, Nikolaj Grønnegaard; Månsson, Maria; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2011-01-01

    One hundred one antibacterial Pseudoalteromonas strains that inhibited growth of a Vibrio anguillarum test strain were collected on a global research cruise (Galathea 3), and 51 of the strains repeatedly demonstrated antibacterial activity. Here, we profile secondary metabolites of these strains...

  12. History Teaches Us That Confronting Antibiotic Resistance Requires Stronger Global Collective Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolsky, Scott H; Bud, Robert; Gradmann, Christoph; Hobaek, Bård; Kirchhelle, Claas; Mitvedt, Tore; Santesmases, María Jesús; Thoms, Ulrike; Berild, Dag; Kveim Lie, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic development and usage, and antibiotic resistance in particular, are today considered global concerns, simultaneously mandating local and global perspectives and actions. Yet such global considerations have not always been part of antibiotic policy formation, and those who attempt to formulate a globally coordinated response to antibiotic resistance will need to confront a history of heterogeneous, often uncoordinated, and at times conflicting reform efforts, whose legacies remain apparent today. Historical analysis permits us to highlight such entrenched trends and processes, helping to frame contemporary efforts to improve access, conservation and innovation. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  13. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  14. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  15. A global snapshot of the state of digital collections in the health sciences, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Keith M; Knapp, Maureen M

    2014-04-01

    Two hundred twenty-nine health sciences libraries (HSLs) worldwide were surveyed regarding the availability of digital collections, evidence of the type of digital collections, level of access, software used, and HSL type. Of the surveyed libraries, 69% (n = 157) had digital collections, with an average of 1,531 items in each collection; 49% (n = 112) also had institutional repositories. In most cases (n = 147), these collections were publicly available. The predominant platforms for disseminating these digital collections were CONTENTdm and library web pages. Only 50% (n = 77) of these collections were managed by the health sciences library itself.

  16. Productivity and profitability of maize-pumpkin mix cropping in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Chandra Dhakal; Punya Prasad Regmi; Resham Bahadur Thapa; Shrawan Kumar Sah; Dilli Bahadur Khatri-Chhetri

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the productivity, profitability and resource use efficiency of maize-pumpkin mix crop production in Chitwan. The study used 53 maize-pumpkin mix crop adopting farmers from among 300 farmers adopting different pollinator friendly practices. Descriptive and statistical tools including Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze data, collected from structured interview schedule. The benefit cost ratio (1.58) indicates that maize-pumpkin mix croppin...

  17. Breeding of maize types with specific traits at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Maize is primarily grown as an energy crop, but the use of different specific versions, such as high-oil maize, high-lysine maize, waxy maize, white-seeded maize, popping maize and sweet maize, is quite extensive. Speciality maize, due to its traits and genetic control of these traits, requires a particular attention in handling breeding material during the processes of breeding. It is especially related to prevention of uncontrolled pollination. In order to provide successful selection for a...

  18. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  19. Developing an approach to assessing the political feasibility of global collective action and an international agreement on antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers Van Katwyk, Susan; Danik, Marie Évelyne; Pantis, Ioana; Smith, Rachel; Røttingen, John-Arne; Hoffman, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global issue. International trade, travel, agricultural practices, and environmental contamination all make it possible for resistant microbes to cross national borders. Global collective action is needed in the form of an international agreement or other mechanism that brings states together at the negotiation table and commits them to adopt or implement policies to limit the spread of resistant microorganisms. This article describes an approach to assessing whether political and stakeholder interests can align to commit to tackling AMR. Two dimensions affecting political feasibility were selected and compared across 82 countries: 1) states' global influence and 2) self-interest in addressing AMR. World Bank GDP ranking was used as a proxy for global influence, while human antibiotic consumption (10-year percent change) was used as a proxy for self-interest in addressing AMR. We used these data to outline a typology of four country archetypes, and discuss how these archetypes can be used to understand whether a proposed agreement may have sufficient support to be politically feasible. Four types of countries exist within our proposed typology: 1) wealthy countries who have the expertise and financial resources to push for global collective action on AMR, 2) wealthy countries who need to act on AMR, 3) countries who require external assistance to act on AMR, and 4) neutral countries who may support action where applicable. Any international agreement will require substantial support from countries of the first type to lead global action, and from countries of the second type who have large increasing antimicrobial consumption levels. A large number of barriers exist that could derail efforts towards global collective action on AMR; issues of capacity, infrastructure, regulation, and stakeholder interests will need to be addressed in coordination with other actors to achieve an agreement on AMR. Achieving a global agreement on

  20. Prevalence of genetically modified rice, maize, and soy in Saudi food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, A I; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended.

  1. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  2. Global approach to the n-dimensional traveling salesman problem: Application to the optimization of crystallographic data collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinrach, J.B.; Bennett, D.W.

    1987-12-01

    An algorithm for the optimization of data collection time has been written and a subsequent computer program tested for diffractometer systems. The program, which utilizes a global statistical approach to the traveling salesman problem, yields reasonable solutions in a relatively short time. The algorithm has been successful in treating very large data sets (up to 4000 points) in three dimensions with subsequent time savings of ca 30%.

  3. A Comprehensive Analysis of Alternative Splicing in Paleopolyploid Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Mei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and characterizing alternative splicing (AS enables our understanding of the biological role of transcript isoform diversity. This study describes the use of publicly available RNA-Seq data to identify and characterize the global diversity of AS isoforms in maize using the inbred lines B73 and Mo17, and a related species, sorghum. Identification and characterization of AS within maize tissues revealed that genes expressed in seed exhibit the largest differential AS relative to other tissues examined. Additionally, differences in AS between the two genotypes B73 and Mo17 are greatest within genes expressed in seed. We demonstrate that changes in the level of alternatively spliced transcripts (intron retention and exon skipping do not solely reflect differences in total transcript abundance, and we present evidence that intron retention may act to fine-tune gene expression across seed development stages. Furthermore, we have identified temperature sensitive AS in maize and demonstrate that drought-induced changes in AS involve distinct sets of genes in reproductive and vegetative tissues. Examining our identified AS isoforms within B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred lines (RILs identified splicing QTL (sQTL. The 43.3% of cis-sQTL regulated junctions are actually identified as alternatively spliced junctions in our analysis, while 10 Mb windows on each side of 48.2% of trans-sQTLs overlap with splicing related genes. Using sorghum as an out-group enabled direct examination of loss or conservation of AS between homeologous genes representing the two subgenomes of maize. We identify several instances where AS isoforms that are conserved between one maize homeolog and its sorghum ortholog are absent from the second maize homeolog, suggesting that these AS isoforms may have been lost after the maize whole genome duplication event. This comprehensive analysis provides new insights into the complexity of AS in maize.

  4. Using global positioning systems in health research a practical approach to data collection and processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Duncan, Scott; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    The use of GPS devices in health research is increasingly popular. There are currently no best-practice guidelines for collecting, processing, and analyzing GPS data. The standardization of data collection and processing procedures will improve data quality, allow more-meaningful comparisons acro...

  5. Intercropping Maize With Legumes for Sustainable Highland Maize Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adirek Punyalue

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Residue burning to prepare soil for maize growing deprives the soil of both protective cover and organic matter, and it exacerbates environmental issues such as Southeast Asia's haze problem. This paper reports on a study that evaluated the effectiveness of maize/legume intercropping as an alternative to maize cultivation with residue burning. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, mung bean (V. radiata, rice bean (V. umbellata, and lablab (Lablab purpureus were sown into a standing maize crop 30 days before harvest, and the results were compared with a maize crop grown using residue burning as the method for land preparation at Pang Da Agricultural Station in Chiang Mai, Thailand, in a replicated trial conducted over 3 growing seasons from 2012 to 2014. Intercropping increased maize grain yield by 31–53% and left 70–170% more residue containing 113–230% more nitrogen than the maize sown after residue burning, depending on the legume, and decreased weed dry weight by two-thirds after 2 seasons. Soil biodiversity was enriched by the intercrops, with a doubling in the spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the root-zone soil and increased abundance, diversity (Shannon index, and richness of the soil macrofauna. The abundance of soil animals increased with crop residue dry weight (r = 0.90, P < 0.05 and nitrogen content (r = 0.98, P < 0.01. The effect of intercropping on maize grain yield and accumulation of residue and nitrogen were then confirmed in a participatory experiment involving farmers in 2 highland villages in the Phrao and Chiang Dao districts of Chiang Mai Province with maize and rice bean in 2015. The effects of maize/legume intercropping—increased nitrogen accumulation and crop residue, enhanced soil biodiversity, suppression of weeds, and protection of the soil surface, which enabled the maize to be sown without land clearing with fire—should all contribute to sustainable highland maize production.

  6. Differential resistance reaction of maize genotypes to maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe at Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Bhandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize stem borer (MSB, Chilo partellus Swinhoe, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the most important insect pest of maize in Nepal. Host plant resistance is the cost-effective, ecologically sound and stable approach to reduce damage by stem borers. Forty four maize genotypes were screened for resistance to maize stem borer at the research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur during spring seasons (March to June of two consecutive years 2013 and 2014. The maize genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications and data were collected on foliar damage rating, tunnel length and number of exit holes made by the borer. The foliar damage and tunnel length damage were significant for genotypes for both the years. The exit holes were not significant in 2013 but significant in 2014 ranging from 2-6 scale. The foliar rating ranged from 2 to 5.5 in 2013 and 1.1 to 4.5 in 2014 on a 1-9 rating scale. The highly resistant genotypes (10 cm scale. The least susceptible genotypes (<5 cm were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18. The genotypes having least exit holes (2.0 in 2014 were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02, RampurS10F18. Thus less damage parameters were observed in R-POP-2, RML-5/RML-8, RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18 and therefore they can be used as parents or as sources of resistance in breeding program.

  7. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and ...

  8. A Collection of Studies Conducted in Education about "Global Warming" Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2011-01-01

    The studies global warming problem conducted in education discipline in the world and in Turkey were analysed for this study. The literature was reviewed extensively especially through the articles in the indexed journals of Ebsco Host, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis and Web of Science databases and this study was conducted according to the…

  9. Genetic diversity in South African maize ( Zea mays L.) genotypes as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One thousand and forty three (1043) maize genotypes including white and yellow maize inbred lines as well as hybrids from the public germplasm collection were characterized with 80 microsatellite markers distributed throughout the genome. A total of 1874 alleles were amplified and used in the genetic diversity analysis.

  10. Response of soil carbon fractions and dryland maize yield to mulching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimulation of root growth from mulching may enhance soil C fractions under maize (Zea mays L.). We studied the 5-yr straw (SM) and plastic film (PM) mulching effect on soil C fractions and maize yield compared with no mulching (CK) in the Loess Plateau of China. Soil samples collected from 0- to 10...

  11. Fusarium spp. and levels of fumonisins in maize produced by subsistence farmers in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, E.; Flett, B.C.; Waalwijk, C.; Viljoen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium spp. produce fumonisins - mycotoxins that are of importance to maize production in South Africa. Fumonisins have been associated with human oesophageal cancer and cause various diseases in animals that are of concern to the animal feed industry. Maize samples, collected from subsistence

  12. Effects of social network on production output of maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social is as a veritable factor for getting access to resources. Thus, the effect of social network on productivity of maize farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria was investigated. Primary data were collected from one hundred and fifty maize farmers using a multistage random sampling procedure. Data were analysed using ...

  13. and alkali treatment of maize intake and utilization by steers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mixture of urea and sunflower oilcake was used as a N supplement. These were given in a mixture with Ca, P, NaCl, minerals and vitamins (A.R.C.,. 1965) directly into the feed trough when the maize supplement was given. Digestibility study: Faeces was collected for 6 days. Collection periods for the 32 steers were.

  14. Using global positioning systems in health research: a practical approach to data collection and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Duncan, Scott; Schipperijn, Jasper; Schipperjin, Jasper

    2011-11-01

    The use of GPS devices in health research is increasingly popular. There are currently no best-practice guidelines for collecting, processing, and analyzing GPS data. The standardization of data collection and processing procedures will improve data quality, allow more-meaningful comparisons across studies and populations, and advance this field more rapidly. This paper aims to take researchers, who are considering using GPS devices in their research, through device-selection criteria, device settings, participant data collection, data cleaning, data processing, and integration of data into GIS. Recommendations are outlined for each stage of data collection and analysis and indicates challenges that should be considered. This paper highlights the benefits of collecting GPS data over traditional self-report or estimated exposure measures. Information presented here will allow researchers to make an informed decision about incorporating this readily available technology into their studies. This work reflects the state of the art in 2011. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  16. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  17. Influence of some environmental factors on maize productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperature, humidity and direction of the prevailing wind are parts of significant environmental factors, which have greater impact on crop productivity, especially with the recent global climate change. These were researched into on maize seeds planted at three different furrow orientations on the field; Or. 900, Or. 600 and ...

  18. Collective motions of globally coupled oscillators and some probability distributions on circle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaćimović, Vladimir [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Montenegro, Cetinjski put, bb., 81000 Podgorica (Montenegro); Crnkić, Aladin, E-mail: aladin.crnkic@hotmail.com [Faculty of Technical Engineering, University of Bihać, Ljubijankićeva, bb., 77000 Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    2017-06-28

    In 2010 Kato and Jones described a new family of probability distributions on circle, obtained as Möbius transformation of von Mises distribution. We present the model demonstrating that these distributions appear naturally in study of populations of coupled oscillators. We use this opportunity to point out certain relations between Directional Statistics and collective motion of coupled oscillators. - Highlights: • We specify probability distributions on circle that arise in Kuramoto model. • We study how the mean-field coupling affects the shape of distribution of phases. • We discuss potential applications in some experiments on cell cycle. • We apply Directional Statistics to study collective dynamics of coupled oscillators.

  19. Harnessing collective knowledge to create global public goods for education and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Theresa M

    2007-01-01

    Our global interconnectedness has first been expressed in the transformation of business and entertainment, but it will have profound effects on all aspects of our lives, including education and health. Today's students are accustomed to supplying and consuming user-generated content, such as the videos of YouTube, and to using social networking applications, such as MySpace. This can be turned to their advantage in the development of work skills for the twenty-first century. Central among these skills will be the ability to work in teams that cross disciplinary, cultural, and geographic borders.

  20. Something From Nothing (There): Collecting Global IPv6 Datasets from DNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiebig, T.; Borgolte, Kevin; Hao, Shuang; Kruegel, Christopher; Vigna, Giovanny; Spring, Neil; Riley, George F.

    2017-01-01

    Current large-scale IPv6 studies mostly rely on non-public datasets, asmost public datasets are domain specific. For instance, traceroute-based datasetsare biased toward network equipment. In this paper, we present a new methodologyto collect IPv6 address datasets that does not require access to

  1. Maize kernel evolution:From teosinte to maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize is the most productive and highest value commodity in the US and around the world: over 1 billion tons were produced each year in 2013 and 2014. Together, maize, rice and wheat comprise over 60% of the world’s caloric intake, with wide regional variability in the importance of each crop. The i...

  2. Leadership lessons in global nursing and health from the Nightingale Letter Collection at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Doreen C; Davey, Kimberly S; Fordham, Pamela N

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the components of Florence Nightingale's visionary leadership for global health and nursing within the historical context of Great Britain's colonization of India. The descriptive study used the qualitative approach of narrative analysis to analyze selected letters in the Nightingale Letter Collection at the University of Alabama at Birmingham that Nightingale wrote to or about Dr. Thomas Gillham Hewlett, a physician and health officer in Bombay, India. The authors sought to increase understanding of Nightingale's visionary leadership for global nursing and health through a study of the form and content of the letters analyzed as temporally contextualized data, focusing on how the narratives are composed and what is conveyed. Several recurring themes central to Nightingale's leadership on global nursing and health emerge throughout these letters, including health and sanitation reform, collaborative partnerships, data-driven policy development, and advocacy for public health. These themes are illustrated through her letters to and testimony about Dr. Thomas Gillham Hewlett in her vivid descriptions of health education and promotion, data-driven policy documents, public health and sanitation advice, and collaboration with citizens, medicine, policy makers, and governments to improve the health and welfare of the people of India. The focus on leadership in nursing as a global construct highlights the lessons learned from University of Alabama at Birmingham's Nightingale Letter Collection that has relevance for the future of nursing and health care, particularly Nightingale's collaboration with policy leaders, her analysis of data to set policy agendas, and public health reform centered on improving the health and well-being of underserved populations.

  3. Thumbnail‐based questionnaires for the rapid and efficient collection of macroseismic data from global earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, Remy; Landes, Matthieu; Roussel, Frederic; Steed, Robert; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Martin, Stacey S.; Hough, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of earthquake testimonies (i.e., qualitative descriptions of felt shaking) is essential for macroseismic studies (i.e., studies gathering information on how strongly an earthquake was felt in different places), and when done rapidly and systematically, improves situational awareness and in turn can contribute to efficient emergency response. In this study, we present advances made in the collection of testimonies following earthquakes around the world using a thumbnail‐based questionnaire implemented on the European‐Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) smartphone app and its website compatible for mobile devices. In both instances, the questionnaire consists of a selection of thumbnails, each representing an intensity level of the European Macroseismic Scale 1998. We find that testimonies are collected faster, and in larger numbers, by way of thumbnail‐based questionnaires than by more traditional online questionnaires. Responses were received from all seismically active regions of our planet, suggesting that thumbnails overcome language barriers. We also observed that the app is not sufficient on its own, because the websites are the main source of testimonies when an earthquake strikes a region for the first time in a while; it is only for subsequent shocks that the app is widely used. Notably though, the speed of the collection of testimonies increases significantly when the app is used. We find that automated EMSC intensities as assigned by user‐specified thumbnails are, on average, well correlated with “Did You Feel It?” (DYFI) responses and with the three independently and manually derived macroseismic datasets, but there is a tendency for EMSC to be biased low with respect to DYFI at moderate and large intensities. We address this by proposing a simple adjustment that will be verified in future earthquakes.

  4. Global brain storming : oil companies increasingly tap collective intelligence to overcome technology hurdles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2009-04-15

    This article described a novel exploration approach that Toronto-based Goldcorp Inc. took a decade ago when it placed its geological data on the web for a mass collaboration effort among the global community of geologists to identify potential drilling sites. The move resulted in the identification of 110 targets, of which half were entirely new to Goldcorp, and of which four in five struck considerable quantities of gold. The article emphasized that the computer network offers a power that has not yet been fully tapped. It described other companies that have followed suite in finding solutions to proprietary challenges, including Schlumberger, Deloro Resources Ltd., Electro-Petroleum Inc., and Proctor and Gamble Inc. among others. The Web 2.0, which serves as a platform for a range of applications, can also be used for open-source science or global brainstorming. While the idea of open innovation was a novelty a year or two ago, it has now become a necessity. InnoCentive solved a long-standing oil spill problem when a chemist from the web with no ties to the oil industry suggested a way to handle the spill. The Cordova, Alaska-based Oil Spill Recovery Institute has also sought solutions for oil spills and novel boom designs. It was concluded that at a time when research and development budgets in the petroleum industry are being cut, open innovation facilitators stand to benefit. This cross-industry collaboration does not involve geoscientists alone. Rather, it includes people from completely different fields of expertise, experience or education who can add to the real issues that the oil industry needs to address and change. 1 ref.

  5. Maize variety and method of production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah; Kraemer, Florian J

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a maize plant, seed, variety, and hybrid. More specifically, the disclosure relates to a maize plant containing a Cal-1 allele, whose expression results in increased cell wall-derived glucan content in the maize plant. The disclosure also relates to crossing inbreds, varieties, and hybrids containing the Cal-1 allele to produce novel types and varieties of maize plants.

  6. Some aspects of cultivation and utilization of waxy maize (Zea mays L. ssp. ceratina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of available literature on Zea mays L.ssp.ceratina. It contains information on the origin, cul- tivation and utilization of waxy maize in the world and can be a contribution to the development of new research on maize cultivation and starch processing technology. Maize, as an old and economically important cereal, played an enormous role in the ancient civilisations of the New World. Among the maize subspecies compared, Z. mays ssp. indurata and Z. mays ssp. indentata are now the most important in Poland. The subspecies Z. mays ssp. saccharata has a marginal role, while Z. mays ssp. ceratina has not been hitherto cultivated. Decisions to introduce the subspecies Z. mays ssp. ceratina into cultivation are based on different grounds, taking into account both agro-climatic conditions and industrial uses of grain processing products. The growing demand for maize grain, stimulated by the increased demand for maize starch and oil in the global market as raw materials that are important in food production, is an impulse for the development of agrobiological research. The development of the starch industry, associated with the demand for industrial starch, will probably contribute to increased interest in this subspecies in Central Europe, also including Poland. Waxy maize grain can be a major ingredient of high-energy feeds for livestock, replacing in this role the type of maize that has been grown for this purpose until now. A great advantage of waxy maize is its specific structure of starch, due to its unique and high amylopectin content (95-98%, which creates unlimited possibilities of industrial use. Currently, waxy maize acreage in Europe does not exceed 2% of the maize crop area in this continent.

  7. Mapping the Diversity of Maize Races in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Hugo; Golicher, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional landraces of maize are cultivated throughout more than one-half of Mexico's cropland. Efforts to organize in situ conservation of this important genetic resource have been limited by the lack of knowledge of regional diversity patterns. We used recent and historic collections of maize classified for race type to determine biogeographic regions and centers of landrace diversity. We also analyzed how diversity has changed over the last sixty years. Based on racial composition of maize we found that Mexico can be divided into 11 biogeographic regions. Six of these biogeographic regions are in the center and west of the country and contain more than 90% of the reported samples for 38 of the 47 races studied; these six regions are also the most diverse. We found no evidence of rapid overall decline in landrace diversity for this period. However, several races are now less frequently reported and two regions seem to support lower diversity than in previous collection periods. Our results are consistent with a previous hypothesis for diversification centers and for migration routes of original maize populations merging in western central Mexico. We provide maps of regional diversity patterns and landrace based biogeographic regions that may guide efforts to conserve maize genetic resources. PMID:25486121

  8. Collective Land Ownership in the 21st Century: Overview of Global Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Alden Wily

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Statutory recognition of rural communities as collective owners of their lands is substantial, expanding, and an increasingly accepted element of property relations. The conventional meaning of property in land itself is changing, allowing for a greater diversity of attributes without impairing legal protection. General identified trends include: (1 declining attempts to deny that community lands are property on the grounds that they may not be sold or are owned collectively; (2 increased provision for communities to be registered owners to the same degree as individual and corporate persons; (3 a rise in number of laws catering specifically to the identification, registration and governance of community property; and (4 in laws that acknowledge that community property may exist whether or not it has been registered, and that registration formalizes rather than creates property in these cases. The research examined the laws of 100 countries to ascertain the status of lands which social communities, either traditionally or in more contemporary arrangements, deem to be their own. Sampling is broadly consistent with numbers of countries per region. The constitutions of all 100 countries were examined. The land laws of 61 countries were scrutinized. Secondary sources were used for 39 countries, mainly due to laws not being available in English. The main secondary source used was LandMark, whose data is publicly available at www.landmarkmap.org.

  9. Population genetic analysis of a global collection of Fragaria vesca using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmarsson, Hrannar Smári; Hytönen, Timo; Isobe, Sachiko; Göransson, Magnus; Toivainen, Tuomas; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn

    2017-01-01

    The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, holds great promise as a model organism. It not only represents the important Rosaceae family that includes economically important species such as apples, pears, peaches and roses, but it also complements the well-known model organism Arabidopsis thaliana in key areas such as perennial life cycle and the development of fleshy fruit. Analysis of wild populations of A. thaliana has shed light on several important developmental pathways controlling, for example, flowering time and plant growth, suggesting that a similar approach using F. vesca might add to our understanding on the development of rosaceous species and perennials in general. As a first step, 298 F. vesca plants were analyzed using microsatellite markers with the primary aim of analyzing population structure and distribution of genetic diversity. Of the 68 markers tested, 56 were polymorphic, with an average of 4.46 alleles per locus. Our analysis partly confirms previous classification of F. vesca subspecies in North America and suggests two groups within the subsp. bracteata. In addition, F. vesca subsp. vesca forms a single global population with evidence that the Icelandic group is a separate cluster from the main Eurasian population.

  10. Population genetic analysis of a global collection of Fragaria vesca using microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrannar Smári Hilmarsson

    Full Text Available The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, holds great promise as a model organism. It not only represents the important Rosaceae family that includes economically important species such as apples, pears, peaches and roses, but it also complements the well-known model organism Arabidopsis thaliana in key areas such as perennial life cycle and the development of fleshy fruit. Analysis of wild populations of A. thaliana has shed light on several important developmental pathways controlling, for example, flowering time and plant growth, suggesting that a similar approach using F. vesca might add to our understanding on the development of rosaceous species and perennials in general. As a first step, 298 F. vesca plants were analyzed using microsatellite markers with the primary aim of analyzing population structure and distribution of genetic diversity. Of the 68 markers tested, 56 were polymorphic, with an average of 4.46 alleles per locus. Our analysis partly confirms previous classification of F. vesca subspecies in North America and suggests two groups within the subsp. bracteata. In addition, F. vesca subsp. vesca forms a single global population with evidence that the Icelandic group is a separate cluster from the main Eurasian population.

  11. Advances in Maize Transformation Technologies and Development of Transgenic Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, Pranjal; Abhishek, Alok; Singh, Reeva; Singh, Ishwar; Kaul, Tanushri; Pattanayak, Arunava; Agrawal, Pawan K

    2016-01-01

    Maize is the principal grain crop of the world. It is also the crop where genetic engineering has been employed to a great extent to improve its various traits. The ability to transform maize is a crucial step for application of gene technology in maize improvement. There have been constant improvements in the maize transformation technologies over past several years. The choice of genotype and the explant material to initiate transformation and the different types of media to be used in various stages of tissue culture can have significant impact on the outcomes of the transformation efforts. Various methods of gene transfer, like the particle bombardment, protoplast transformation, Agrobacterium -mediated, in planta transformation, etc., have been tried and improved over years. Similarly, various selection systems for retrieval of the transformants have been attempted. The commercial success of maize transformation and transgenic development is unmatched by any other crop so far. Maize transformation with newer gene editing technologies is opening up a fresh dimension in transformation protocols and work-flows. This review captures the various past and recent facets in improvement in maize transformation technologies and attempts to present a comprehensive updated picture of the current state of the art in this area.

  12. Banking biological collections: data warehousing, data mining, and data dilemmas in genomics and global health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, R J R

    2000-01-01

    While DNA databases may offer the opportunity to (1) assess population-based prevalence of specific genes and variants, (2) simplify the search for molecular markers, (3) improve targeted drug discovery and development for disease management, (4) refine strategies for disease prevention, and (5) provide the data necessary for evidence-based decision-making, serious scientific and social questions remain. Whether samples are identified, coded, or anonymous, biological banking raises profound ethical and legal issues pertaining to access, informed consent, privacy and confidentiality of genomic information, civil liberties, patenting, and proprietary rights. This paper provides an overview of key policy issues and questions pertaining to biological banking, with a focus on developments in specimen collection, transnational distribution, and public health and academic-industry research alliances. It highlights the challenges posed by the commercialization of genomics, and proposes the need for harmonization of biological banking policies.

  13. EFFECT OF UREA-MOLASSES BLOCK SUPPLEMENTATION ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND INTAKE OF AMMONIATED MAIZE STOVERS IN COW -CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman Faizi, M.M. Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in a 4x4 Latin square design with four cow-calves {Holstein Friesian, aged' 6-8 months to investigate the effect of supplementing molasses-urea block {MUB to untreated or ammoniated maize stovers on feed intake and in viva digestibility of nutrients. Each period consisted of 10 days adaptation, followed by five days data collection. The four diets were untreated maize stovers {Diet A, untreated maize stovers with MUB {Diet B, ammoniated maize stovers {Diet 'C and ammoniated maize stovers with MUB {Diet D. Daily consumption of maize stovers and total feed by the calves were higher {P< 0.01 on the diets containing ammoniated maize stovers than those containing untreated maize stovers. Ammoniation increased the intake of maize stovers by 61 %. Supplementary feeding of MUB did not change the daily intake of both untreated and ammoniated maize stovers. Calves receiving untreated maize stovers consumed more MUB {P< 0.01 than those given ammoniated maize stovers {496.40 vs 180.20g DM/d. Daily water consumption was affected {P< 0.01 by diets and was lowest on Diet A. Calves receiving ammoniated maize stovers consumed more water than those given untreated maize stovers. MUB increased {P<0.01 the water consumption only on untreated maize stovers. Mean water consumption was 13.93, 15.91, 15.07 and 15.60 lit/d on diet A, B, C and D, respectively. In vivo digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein were Influenced {P<0.01 by diet composition. I Among the four diets, dry matter digestibility was minimum (P< 0.01 on Diet A and remained the same on diets B, C and D {55.82, 58.02 and 58.14%, respectively. Organic matter and crude protein digestibility were higher in the claves receiving ammoniated maize stovers. Supplementation of MUB increased (P< 0.01 the digestibility of all the three nutrients in untreated maize stovers but did not affect the digestibility of ammoniated maize stovers. The results demonstrated

  14. MaizeGDB: The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lisa; Gardiner, Jack; Andorf, Carson; Lawrence, Carolyn J

    2016-01-01

    MaizeGDB is the community database for biological information about the crop plant Zea mays. Genomic, genetic, sequence, gene product, functional characterization, literature reference, and person/organization contact information are among the datatypes stored at MaizeGDB. At the project's website ( http://www.maizegdb.org ) are custom interfaces enabling researchers to browse data and to seek out specific information matching explicit search criteria. In addition, pre-compiled reports are made available for particular types of data and bulletin boards are provided to facilitate communication and coordination among members of the community of maize geneticists.

  15. Global Positioning System data collection, processing, and analysis conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jessica R.; Svarc, Jerry L.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center collects and processes Global Positioning System (GPS) data throughout the western United States to measure crustal deformation related to earthquakes and tectonic processes as part of a long‐term program of research and monitoring. Here, we outline data collection procedures and present the GPS dataset built through repeated temporary deployments since 1992. This dataset consists of observations at ∼1950 locations. In addition, this article details our data processing and analysis procedures, which consist of the following. We process the raw data collected through temporary deployments, in addition to data from continuously operating western U.S. GPS stations operated by multiple agencies, using the GIPSY software package to obtain position time series. Subsequently, we align the positions to a common reference frame, determine the optimal parameters for a temporally correlated noise model, and apply this noise model when carrying out time‐series analysis to derive deformation measures, including constant interseismic velocities, coseismic offsets, and transient postseismic motion.

  16. Intra-Household Impacts of Small Farm Commercialization of Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to analyze the impacts of small farm commercialization of maize enterprise on farming households in Abia State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 150 farming households through interview schedule and analysed using tables, percentages, a 4-scale Likert-type ranking method and ordinary least ...

  17. Critical parameters for maize yield under irrigation farming in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the critical variables that determine maize yield under irrigation farming in the savanna ecological zone of Kwara State. Seventy-five soil samples were randomly collected from irrigation farm of Oke-Oyi irrigation project of the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority Ilorin and bulked into 15 ...

  18. Effects Of Agricultural Extension On Cassava And Maize Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the effects of agricultural extension on food production in Abak Agricultural zone of Akwa Ibom state. Specifically, the effect was measured using the productivity of small-scale maize and cassava farmers between the years 2004 and 2005. Data for the study were collected from 108 ...

  19. A(maize)ing attraction: gravid Anopheles arabiensis are attracted and oviposit in response to maize pollen odours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondwosen, Betelehem; Hill, Sharon R; Birgersson, Göran; Seyoum, Emiru; Tekie, Habte; Ignell, Rickard

    2017-01-23

    Maize cultivation contributes to the prevalence of malaria mosquitoes and exacerbates malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. The pollen from maize serves as an important larval food source for Anopheles mosquitoes, and females that are able to detect breeding sites where maize pollen is abundant may provide their offspring with selective advantages. Anopheles mosquitoes are hypothesized to locate, discriminate among, and select such sites using olfactory cues, and that synthetic volatile blends can mimic these olfactory-guided behaviours. Two-port olfactometer and two-choice oviposition assays were used to assess the attraction and oviposition preference of gravid Anopheles arabiensis to the headspace of the pollen from two maize cultivars (BH-660 and ZM-521). Bioactive compounds were identified using combined gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection from the headspace of the cultivar found to be most attractive (BH-660). Synthetic blends of the volatile compounds were then assessed for attraction and oviposition preference of gravid An. arabiensis, as above. Here the collected headspace volatiles from the pollen of two maize cultivars was shown to differentially attract and stimulate oviposition in gravid An. arabiensis. Furthermore, a five-component synthetic maize pollen odour blend was identified, which elicited the full oviposition behavioural repertoire of the gravid mosquitoes. The cues identified from maize pollen provide important substrates for the development of novel control measures that modulate gravid female behaviour. Such measures are irrespective of indoor or outdoor feeding and resting patterns, thus providing a much-needed addition to the arsenal of tools that currently target indoor biting mosquitoes.

  20. Proper Methodology and Methods of Collecting and Analyzing Slavery Data: An Examination of the Global Slavery Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Guth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Global Slavery Index aims to, among other objectives, recognize the forms, size, and scope of slavery worldwide as well as the strengths and weaknesses of individual countries. An analysis of the Index’s methods exposes significant and critical weaknesses and raises questions into its replicability and validity. The Index may prove more valuable in the future if proper methods are implemented, but the longer improper methods are used the more damage is done to the public policy debate on slavery by advancing data and policy that is not based on sound methodology. To implement proper methods, a committee of sophisticated methodologists needs to develop measurement tools and constantly analyze and refine these methods over the years as data is collected.

  1. Breeding of maize types with specific traits at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is primarily grown as an energy crop, but the use of different specific versions, such as high-oil maize, high-lysine maize, waxy maize, white-seeded maize, popping maize and sweet maize, is quite extensive. Speciality maize, due to its traits and genetic control of these traits, requires a particular attention in handling breeding material during the processes of breeding. It is especially related to prevention of uncontrolled pollination. In order to provide successful selection for a certain trait, the following specific procedures in evaluation of the trait are necessary: the estimation of a popping volume and flake quality in popping maize; the determination of sugars and harvest maturity in sweet maize; the determination of oil in selected samples of high-oil maize types, and so forth. Breeding programmes for speciality maize, except high-amylose maize, have been implemented at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, Belgrade, for the last 45 years. A great number of high-yielding sweet maize hybrids, popping maize, high-oil and high-lysine, flint and white-seeded maize hybrids were developed during this 45-year period. Auspicious selection and breeding for these traits is facilitated by the abundant genetic variability and technical and technological possibilities necessary for successful selection.

  2. Deregulation of Lesotho's maize market

    OpenAIRE

    van Schalkwyk, Herman D.; van Zyl, Johan; Botha, P.W.; Bayley, B.

    1997-01-01

    During the past year, there have been major policy reforms in Lesotho and South Africa with respect to maize pricing and marketing. In Lesotho the impact of deregulation on producers, consumers and government revenues was substantially lower than it should have been, and as a result Lesotho was not able to reap the full benefits of these changes. This is partly because information on the changes to the maize marketing system did not reach the potential beneficiaries of the new system. Free an...

  3. Life-History Traits of Spodoptera frugiperda Populations Exposed to Low-Dose Bt Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fernanda F; Mendes, Simone M; Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Araújo, Octávio G; Oliveira, Eugenio E; Pereira, Eliseu J G

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in low- and moderate-dose transgenic crops may induce sublethal effects and increase the rate of Bt resistance evolution, potentially compromising control efficacy against target pests. We tested this hypothesis using the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a major polyphagous lepidopteran pest relatively tolerant to Bt notorious for evolving field-relevant resistance to single-gene Bt maize. Late-instar larvae were collected from Bt Cry1Ab and non-Bt maize fields in five locations in Brazil, and their offspring was compared for survival, development, and population growth in rearing environment without and with Cry1Ab throughout larval development. Larval survival on Cry1Ab maize leaves varied from 20 to 80% among the populations. Larvae reared on Cry1Ab maize had seven-day delay in development time in relation to control larvae, and such delay was shorter in offspring of armyworms from Cry1Ab maize. Population growth rates were 50-70% lower for insects continuously exposed to Cry1Ab maize relative to controls, showing the population-level effect of Cry1Ab, which varied among the populations and prior exposure to Cry1Ab maize in the field. In three out of five populations, armyworms derived from Bt maize reared on Cry1Ab maize showed higher larval weight, faster larval development and better reproductive performance than the armyworms derived from non-Bt maize, and one of these populations showed better performance on both Cry1Ab and control diets, indicating no fitness cost of the resistance trait. Altogether, these results indicate that offspring of armyworms that developed on field-grown, single-gene Bt Cry1Ab maize had reduced performance on Cry1Ab maize foliage in two populations studied, but in other three populations, these offspring had better overall performance on the Bt maize foliage than that of the armyworms from non-Bt maize fields, possibly because of Cry1Ab resistance alleles in these populations

  4. Genetic variation of european maize genotypes (zea mays l. Detected using ssr markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vivodík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The SSR molecular markers were used to assess genetic diversity in 40 old European maize genotypes. Ten SSR primers revealed a total of 65 alleles ranging from 4 (UMC1060 to 8 (UMC2002 and UMC1155 alleles per locus with a mean value of 6.50 alleles per locus. The PIC values ranged from 0.713 (UMC1060 to 0.842 (UMC2002 with an average value of 0.810 and the DI value ranged from 0.734 (UMC1060 to 0.848 (UMC2002 with an average value of 0.819. 100% of used SSR markers had PIC and DI values higher than 0.7 that means high polymorphism of chosen markers used for analysis. Probability of identity (PI was low ranged from 0.004 (UMC1072 to 0.022 (UMC1060 with an average of 0.008. A dendrogram was constructed from a genetic distance matrix based on profiles of the 10 maize SSR loci using the unweighted pair-group method with the arithmetic average (UPGMA. According to analysis, the collection of 40 diverse accessions of maize was clustered into four clusters. The first cluster contained nine genotypes of maize, while the second cluster contained the four genotypes of maize. The third cluster contained 5 maize genotypes. Cluster 4 contained five genotypes from Hungary (22.73%, two genotypes from Poland (9.10%, seven genotypes of maize from Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (31.81%, six genotypes from Czechoslovakia (27.27%, one genotype from Slovak Republic (4.55% and one genotype of maize is from Yugoslavia (4.55%. We could not distinguish 4 maize genotypes grouped in cluster 4, (Voroneskaja and Kocovska Skora and 2 Hungarian maize genotypes - Feheres Sarga Filleres and Mindszentpusztai Feher, which are genetically the closest.

  5. Impact of Climate Variability on Maize Production in Pakistan using Remote Sensing and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richetti, J.; Ahmad, I.; Aristizabal, F.; Judge, J.

    2017-12-01

    Determining maize agricultural production under climate variability is valuable to policy makers in Pakistan since maize is the third most produced crop by area after wheat and rice. This study aims to predict the maize production under climate variability. Two-hundred ground truth points of both maize and non-maize land covers were collected from the Faisalabad district during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016. Landsat-8 images taken in second week of May which correspond spatially and temporally to the local, peak growing season for maize were gathered. For classifying the region training data was constructed for a variety of machine learning algorithms by sampling the second, third, and fourth bands of the Landsat-8 imagery at these reference locations. Cross validation was used for parameter tuning as well as estimating the generalized performances. All the classifiers resulted in overall accuracies of greater than 90% for both years and a support vector machine with a radial basis kernel recorded the maximum accuracy of 97%. The tuned models were used to determine the spatial distribution of maize fields for both growing seasons in the Faisalabad district using parallel processing to improve computation time. The overall classified maize growing area represented 12% difference than that reported by the Crop Reporting Service (CRS) of Punjab Pakistan for both 2015 and 2016. For the agricultural production normalized difference vegetation index from Landsat-8 and climate indicators from ground stations will be used as inputs in a variety of machine learning regression algorithms. The expected results will be compared to actual yield from 64 commercial farms. To verify the impact of climate variability in the maize agricultural production historical climate data from previous 30 years will be used in the developed model to asses the impact of climate variability on the maize production.

  6. Soil Quality Indicators as Affected by a Long Term Barley-Maize and Maize Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Manachini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L. and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. with Italian ryegrass (R3 and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1 the high input level (H, done as a conventional tillage, 2 the low input level (L, where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability. Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.

  7. Soil Quality Indicators as Affected by a Long Term Barley-Maize and Maize Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Corsini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L. and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. with Italian ryegrass (R3 and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1 the high input level (H, done as a conventional tillage, 2 the low input level (L, where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability. Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.

  8. Summary of Recommendations of the GBIF Task Group on the Global Strategy and Action Plan for the Digitisation of Natural History Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter G. Berendsohn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Biodiversity Information Facility’s Task Group has formulated three basic recommendations to the GBIF Governing Board in order to increase the rate of the digitization of natural history collections and improve the usage of this information resource: (i GBIF must facilitate access to information about non-digitized collection resources by publicizing the research potential of collections through metadata and assessing the number of non-digitized specimens; (ii GBIF must work with collections to continue to increase the efficiency of specimen data capture and to enhance data quality by means of technical measures, by means of ensuring attribution and professional credit and influencing institutional priorities, and by engaging with funding agencies; (iii GBIF must continue to improve and promote the global infrastructure used to mobilize digitized collection data through technical measures, outreach activities and political measures.

  9. IMAZAPYR-RESISTANT MAIZE TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    decisions by protecting maize (Zea mays L.) crop in western Kenya from Striga. Key Words: Adopters, Zea ... Africa, efficient and profitable production of maize is severely constrained by ..... gap by understanding its source. African. Journal of ...

  10. On Thomas Pogge’s Theory of Global Justice. Why We Are Not Collectively Responsible for the Global Distribution of Benefits and Burdens between Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2012-01-01

    Thomas Pogge’s ingenious and influential Rawlsian theory of global justice asserts that principles of justice such as the difference principle or, alternatively, a universal criterion of human rights consisting of a subset of the principles of social justice apply to the global basic structure...

  11. Utility of RNA Sequencing for Analysis of Maize Reproductive Transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Davidson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptome sequencing is a powerful method for studying global expression patterns in large, complex genomes. Evaluation of sequence-based expression profiles during reproductive development would provide functional annotation to genes underlying agronomic traits. We generated transcriptome profiles for 12 diverse maize ( L. reproductive tissues representing male, female, developing seed, and leaf tissues using high throughput transcriptome sequencing. Overall, ∼80% of annotated genes were expressed. Comparative analysis between sequence and hybridization-based methods demonstrated the utility of ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-seq for expression determination and differentiation of paralagous genes (∼85% of maize genes. Analysis of 4975 gene families across reproductive tissues revealed expression divergence is proportional to family size. In all pairwise comparisons between tissues, 7 (pre- vs. postemergence cobs to 48% (pollen vs. ovule of genes were differentially expressed. Genes with expression restricted to a single tissue within this study were identified with the highest numbers observed in leaves, endosperm, and pollen. Coexpression network analysis identified 17 gene modules with complex and shared expression patterns containing many previously described maize genes. The data and analyses in this study provide valuable tools through improved gene annotation, gene family characterization, and a core set of candidate genes to further characterize maize reproductive development and improve grain yield potential.

  12. Cry1F resistance in fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: single gene versus pyramided Bt maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangneng; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Meagher, Robert L; Reisig, Dominic D; Head, Graham P; Andow, David A; Ni, Xinzi; Kerns, David; Buntin, G David; Niu, Ying; Yang, Fei; Dangal, Vikash

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report compelling evidence of field resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), to Cry1F maize (TC 3507) in the southeastern region of the U.S. An F2 screen showed a surprisingly high (0.293) Cry1F resistance allele frequency in a population collected in 2011 from non-Bt maize in south Florida. Field populations from non-Bt maize in 2012-2013 exhibited 18.8-fold to >85.4-fold resistance to purified Cry1F protein and those collected from unexpectedly damaged Bt maize plants at several locations in Florida and North Carolina had >85.4-fold resistance. In addition, reduced efficacy and control failure of Cry1F maize against natural populations of S. frugiperda were documented in field trials using Cry1F-based and pyramided Bt maize products in south Florida. The Cry1F-resistant S. frugiperda also showed a low level of cross-resistance to Cry1A.105 and related maize products, but not to Cry2Ab2 or Vip3A. The occurrence of Cry1F resistance in the U.S. mainland populations of S. frugiperda likely represents migration of insects from Puerto Rico, indicating the great challenges faced in achieving effective resistance management for long-distance migratory pests like S. frugiperda.

  13. Complete sequence and diversity of a maize-associated Polerovirus in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massawe, Deogracious P; Stewart, Lucy R; Kamatenesi, Jovia; Asiimwe, Theodore; Redinbaugh, Margaret G

    2018-06-01

    Since 2011-2012, Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged in East Africa, causing massive yield loss and propelling research to identify viruses and virus populations present in maize. As expected, next generation sequencing (NGS) has revealed diverse and abundant viruses from the family Potyviridae, primarily sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), and maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) (Tombusviridae), which are known to cause MLN by synergistic co-infection. In addition to these expected viruses, we identified a virus in the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae) in 104/172 samples selected for MLN or other potential virus symptoms from Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Tanzania. This polerovirus (MF974579) nucleotide sequence is 97% identical to maize-associated viruses recently reported in China, termed 'maize yellow mosaic virus' (MaYMV) and maize yellow dwarf virus (MaYMV; KU291101, KU291107, MYDV-RMV2; KT992824); and 99% identical to MaYMV (KY684356) infecting sugarcane and itch grass in Nigeria; 83% identical to a barley-associated polerovirus recently identified in Korea (BVG; KT962089); and 79% identical to the U.S. maize-infecting polerovirus maize yellow dwarf virus (MYDV-RMV; KT992824). Nucleotide sequences from ORF0 of 20 individual East African isolates collected from Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Tanzania shared 98% or higher identity, and were detected in 104/172 (60.5%) of samples collected for virus-like symptoms, indicating extensive prevalence but limited diversity of this virus in East Africa. We refer to this virus as "MYDV-like polerovirus" until symptoms of the virus in maize are known.

  14. Ground penetrating radar and differential global positioning system data collected in April 2016 from Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Arnell S.; Bernier, Julie C.; Miselis, Jennifer L.

    2018-02-22

    Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a long-term coastal morphologic-change study at Fire Island, New York, prior to and after Hurricane Sandy impacted the area in October 2012. The Fire Island Coastal Change project objectives include understanding the morphologic evolution of the barrier island system on a variety of time scales (months to centuries) and resolving storm-related impacts, post-storm beach response, and recovery. In April 2016, scientists from the USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted geophysical and sediment sampling surveys on Fire Island to characterize and quantify spatial variability in the subaerial geology with the goal of subsequently integrating onshore geology with other surf zone and nearshore datasets.  This report, along with the associated USGS data release, serves as an archive of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and post-processed differential global positioning system (DGPS) data collected from beach and back-barrier environments on Fire Island, April 6–13, 2016 (USGS Field Activity Number 2016-322-FA). Data products, including unprocessed GPR trace data, processed DGPS data, elevation-corrected subsurface profile images, geographic information system files, and accompanying Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata are available for download.

  15. Applying a World-City Network Approach to Globalizing Higher Education: Conceptualization, Data Collection and the Lists of World Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Alice S. Y.; Loo, Becky P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Both the commercial and education sectors experience an increase in inter-city exchanges in the forms of goods, capital, commands, people and information/knowledge under globalization. The quantification of flows and structural relations among cities in globalizing education are under-researched compared to the well-established world/global cities…

  16. Molecular confirmation of Maize rayado fino virus as the Brazilian corn streak virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond,Rosemarie Wahnbaeck; Bedendo,Ivan Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas G...

  17. Effects of Bt-maize material on the life cycle of the land snail Cantareus aspersus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramarz, Paulina; de Vaufleury, Annette; Gimbert, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    ). For snails not previously exposed to Bt material, hatchability of eggs was similar in the soils tested. The outcome of the experiments indicates that, in growing snails, long-term exposure is needed to reveal an effect of Bt-maize. The hazard analysis of Bt-maize which we performed, based on a worst......Insect resistant Bt-maize (MON 810) expresses active Cry1Ab endotoxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Snails constitute non-target soil species potentially exposed to Bt-toxin through consumption of plant material and soil in fields where transgenic plants have been grown. We studied...... the effect of the Cry1Ab toxin on survival, growth and egg hatchability of the snail Cantareus aspersus. From the age of 4 to 88 weeks, snails were fed either powdered Bt-maize or non-Bt-maize and exposed to soil samples collected after harvesting either the Bt-maize or non-Bt-maize. We applied four...

  18. Genetic diversity among yellow maize with pro-vitamin A content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Oluremi Olowolafe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An improvement in the concentration of vitamin A in adapted yellow maize varieties grown in Africa can have a positive impact on the dietary intakes in regions where maize is a staple food. The present study was designed to identify heterotic groups and divergent parents for developing new pro-vitamin A enriched maize lines. Ten Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR markers were used to generate DNA profiles among thirteen commonly grown yellow maize lines across south western Nigeria and three high pro-vitamin A lines from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA, Ibadan. The result obtained estimated 100% polymorphism among the ten SSR markers with polymorphic information content that ranged from 0.28 to 0.71 on an average of 0.50. Genetic similarity coefficients among the 16 maize lines varied from 0.28 to 0.92 GS with an average of 0.63 GS. Four well defined groups were identified at 0.65 GS with an IITA line, PVA8, solely, formed a group. The study identified PVA8 and its most three distant relatives as potential divergent parents that could serve as important genetic resources for broadening the genetic base of the presently assessed IAR&T maize collections and also to develop new maize lines with higher level of pro-vitamin A content.

  19. Maize Bioactive Peptides against Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gómez, Jorge L.; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; Preciado-Ortiz, Ricardo E.; García-Lara, Silverio

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is one of the main chronic degenerative diseases worldwide. In recent years, consumption of whole-grain cereals and their derived food products has been associated with reduction risks of various types of cancer. Cereals main biomolecules includes proteins, peptides, and amino acids present in different quantities within the grain. The nutraceutical properties associated with peptides exerts biological functions that promote health and prevent this disease. In this review, we report the current status and advances on maize peptides regarding bioactive properties that have been reported such as antioxidant, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, and anti-tumour activities. We also highlighted its biological potential through which maize bioactive peptides exert anti-cancer activity. Finally, we analyse and emphasize the possible areas of application for maize peptides.

  20. Putting the Function in Maize Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Moose

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The 51st Maize Genetics Conference was held March 12–15, 2009 at Pheasant Run Resort in St. Charles, Illinois. Nearly 500 attendees participated in a scientific program (available at covering a wide range of topics which integrate the rich biology of maize with recent discoveries in our understanding of the highly dynamic maize genome. Among the many research themes highlighted at the conference, the historical emphasis on studying the tremendous phenotypic diversity of maize now serves as the foundation for maize as a leading experimental system to characterize the mechanisms that generate variation in complex plant genomes and associate evolutionary change with phenotypes of interest.

  1. Genetic affinities within a large global collection of pathogenic Leptospira: implications for strain identification and molecular epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Nalam

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis with widespread human health implications. The non-availability of accurate identification methods for the individualization of different Leptospira for outbreak investigations poses bountiful problems in the disease control arena. We harnessed fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis (FAFLP for Leptospira and investigated its utility in establishing genetic relationships among 271 isolates in the context of species level assignments of our global collection of isolates and strains obtained from a diverse array of hosts. In addition, this method was compared to an in-house multilocus sequence typing (MLST method based on polymorphisms in three housekeeping genes, the rrs locus and two envelope proteins. Phylogenetic relationships were deduced based on bifurcating Neighbor-joining trees as well as median joining network analyses integrating both the FAFLP data and MLST based haplotypes. The phylogenetic relationships were also reproduced through Bayesian analysis of the multilocus sequence polymorphisms. We found FAFLP to be an important method for outbreak investigation and for clustering of isolates based on their geographical descent rather than by genome species types. The FAFLP method was, however, not able to convey much taxonomical utility sufficient to replace the highly tedious serotyping procedures in vogue. MLST, on the other hand, was found to be highly robust and efficient in identifying ancestral relationships and segregating the outbreak associated strains or otherwise according to their genome species status and, therefore, could unambiguously be applied for investigating phylogenetics of Leptospira in the context of taxonomy as well as gene flow. For instance, MLST was more efficient, as compared to FAFLP method, in clustering strains from the Andaman island of India, with their counterparts from mainland India and Sri Lanka, implying that such strains share genetic

  2. Do Refuge Plants Favour Natural Pest Control in Maize Crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Reinaldo; Mazón, Marina; Rodríguez-Berrío, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The use of non-crop plants to provide the resources that herbivorous crop pests’ natural enemies need is being increasingly incorporated into integrated pest management programs. We evaluated insect functional groups found on three refuges consisting of five different plant species each, planted next to a maize crop in Lima, Peru, to investigate which refuge favoured natural control of herbivores considered as pests of maize in Peru, and which refuge plant traits were more attractive to those desirable enemies. Insects occurring in all the plants, including the maize crop itself, were sampled weekly during the crop growing cycle, from February to June 2011. All individuals collected were identified and classified into three functional groups: herbivores, parasitoids, and predators. Refuges were compared based on their effectiveness in enhancing the populations of predator and parasitoid insects of the crop enemies. Refuges A and B were the most effective, showing the highest richness and abundance of both predators and parasitoids, including several insect species that are reported to attack the main insect pests of maize (Spodoptera frugiperda and Rhopalosiphum maidis), as well as other species that serve as alternative hosts of these natural enemies. PMID:28718835

  3. Farmers’ desired traits and selection criteria for maize varieties and their implications for maize breeding: A case study from KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sibiya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of hybrids and improved varieties has remained low in the smallholder farming sector of South Africa, despite maize being the staple food crop for the majority of households. The objective of this study was to establish preferred maize characteristics by farmers which can be used as selection criteria by maize breeders in crop improvement. Data were collected from three villages of a selected smallholder farming area in South Africa using a survey covering 300 households and participatory rural appraisal methodology. Results indicated a limited selection of maize varieties grown by farmers in the area compared to other communities in Africa. More than 97% of the farmers grew a local landrace called Natal-8-row or IsiZulu. Hybrids and improved open pollinated varieties were planted by less than 40% of the farmers. The Natal-8-row landrace had characteristics similar to landraces from eastern and southern Africa and closely resembled Hickory King, a landrace still popular in Southern Africa. The local landrace was preferred for its taste, recycled seed, tolerance to abiotic stresses and yield stability. Preferred characteristics of maize varieties were high yield and prolificacy, disease resistance, early maturity, white grain colour, and drying and shelling qualities. Farmers were willing to grow hybrids if the cost of seed and other inputs were affordable and their preferences were considered. Our results show that breeding opportunities exist for improving the farmers’ local varieties and maize breeders can take advantage of these preferred traits and incorporate them into existing high yielding varieties.

  4. Effects of airborne black carbon pollution on maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Bernadett; Anda, Angela; Soos, Gabor

    2013-04-01

    The black carbon (BC) changes the radiation balance of the Earth and contributes to global warming. The airborne BC deposited on the surface of plant, changing the radiation balance, water balance and the total dry matter (TDM) content of plant. The objective of our study was to investigate the impact of soot originated from motor vehicle exhaust on maize. The field experiment was carried out in Keszthely Agrometeorological Research Station (Hungary) in three consecutive years (2010, 2011, 2012) of growing season. The test plant was the maize hybrid Sperlona (FAO 340) with short growing season. The BC was chemically "pure", which means that it is free any contaminants (e.g. heavy metals). The BC was coming from the Hankook Tyre Company (Dunaújváros, Hungary), where used that for improve the wear resistance of tires. We used a motorised sprayer of SP 415 type to spray the BC onto the leaf surface. The leaf area index (LAI) was measured each week on the same 12 sample maize in each treatment using an LI 3000A automatic planimeter (LI-COR, Lincoln, NE). Albedo was measured by pyranometers of the CMA-11 type (Kipp & Zonen, Vaisala), what we placed the middle of the plot of 0.3 ha. The effects of BC were studied under two different water supplies: evapotranspirometers of Thornthwaite type were used for "ad libitum" treatment and rainfed treatment in field plots. In 2010 and 2012, a big difference was not observed in the case of LAI in the effects of BC. However, in 2011 there was a significant difference. The LAI of the BC polluted maize was higher (10-15%, P<0.05), than the LAI of the control maize in the rainfed plot and in the ET chambers, respectively. The albedo of the BC contaminated maize decreased (15-30%, P<0.05) in all three years. We also detected that the green plant surface of maize increased on BC contaminated treatment. These results may suggest that the plant is able to absorb the additional carbon source through the leaves. The albedo decreased

  5. Effects of Tillage on Yield and Economic Returns of Maize and Cowpea in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miriti, M.J; Kironchi, G; Gachene, K.K.C; Esilaba, O.A.; Mwangi, M.D; Nyamwaro, S.O; Heng, K.L

    2014-01-01

    Crop yields and financial returns are important criteria for adoption of conservation tillage by farmers. A study was conducted between 2007-2010 to compare the financial returns of subsoiling-ripping and tied-ridge tillage with the conventional ox-plough tillage in the production of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) under semi-arid subsistence farming conditions in lower eastern Kenya. Four cropping systems namely maize sole crop, cowpea sole crop, maize/cowpea intercrop and maize sole crop with manure were evaluated in a split-plot treatments arrangement with tillage practices as the main plots and cropping systems as the sub-plots. The grain yields of maize and cowpea, prevailing market prices for cowpea and maize grains, labour, inputs applied and other relevant socio-economic data were collected every season, to enable estimation of economic returns and acceptability of the technologies. The results showed that average grain yield for maize sole crop, cowpea sole crop, maize/cowpea intercrop and maize sole crop with manure cropping systems under tied-ridge were 5, 9, 97 and 27% greater than the yields under oxplough tillage, respectively. Crop yields produced under subsoiling-ripping and ox-plough tillage were generally similar. However, land preparation and weeding labour expenses (KES 4240 / ha) for ox-plough tillage were 34% greater than those for subsoiling-ripping tillage but 40% lower than those for tied-ridge tillage. When averaged across seasons and tillage systems, the highest gross margins (KES 8567 / ha) were obtained in sole cowpea cropping system, followed by sole maize with manure (KES 4070 / ha), intercrop (KES 864 / ha) and least (loss of KES 1330 / ha) in sole maize without manure cropping system. (author)

  6. Assessment of the potential for gene flow from transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) to eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon-Sub; Anderson, Eric K; Stojšin, Duška; McPherson, Marc A; Baltazar, Baltazar; Horak, Michael J; de la Fuente, Juan Manuel; Wu, Kunsheng; Crowley, James H; Rayburn, A Lane; Lee, D K

    2017-08-01

    Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) belongs to the same tribe of the Poaceae family as maize (Zea mays L.) and grows naturally in the same region where maize is commercially produced in the USA. Although no evidence exists of gene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass in nature, experimental crosses between the two species were produced using specific techniques. As part of environmental risk assessment, the possibility of transgene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass populations in nature was evaluated with the objectives: (1) to assess the seeds of eastern gamagrass populations naturally growing near commercial maize fields for the presence of a transgenic glyphosate-tolerance gene (cp4 epsps) that would indicate cross-pollination between the two species, and (2) to evaluate the possibility of interspecific hybridization between transgenic maize used as male parent and eastern gamagrass used as female parent. A total of 46,643 seeds from 54 eastern gamagrass populations collected in proximity of maize fields in Illinois, USA were planted in a field in 2014 and 2015. Emerged seedlings were treated with glyphosate herbicide and assessed for survival. An additional 48,000 seeds from the same 54 eastern gamagrass populations were tested for the presence of the cp4 epsps transgene markers using TaqMan ® PCR method. The results from these trials showed that no seedlings survived the herbicide treatment and no seed indicated presence of the herbicide tolerant cp4 epsps transgene, even though these eastern gamagrass populations were exposed to glyphosate-tolerant maize pollen for years. Furthermore, no interspecific hybrid seeds were produced from 135 hand-pollination attempts involving 1529 eastern gamagrass spikelets exposed to maize pollen. Together, these results indicate that there is no evidence of gene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass in natural habitats. The outcome of this study should be taken in consideration when assessing for environmental

  7. Assimilate unloading from maize (Zea mays L.) pedicel tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.A.; Knievel, D.P.; Shannon, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Sugar and 14 C-assimilate release from the pedicel tissue of attached maize (Zea mays L.) kernels was studied following treatment with solute concentrations of up to 800 millimolal. Exposure and collection times ranged from 3 to 6 hours. Sugar and 14 C-assimilate unloading and collection in agar traps was reduced by 25 and 43%, respectively, following exposure to 800 millimolal mannitol. Inhibition of unloading was not specific to mannitol, since similar concentrations of glucose, fructose, or equimolar glucose plus fructose resulted in comparable inhibition. Ethylene glycol, a rapidly permeating solute which should not greatly influence cell turgor, did not inhibit 14 C-assimilate unloading. Based on these results, they suggest that inhibition of unloading by high concentrations of sugar or mannitol was due to reduced pedicel cell turgor. Changes in pedicel cell turgor may play a role in the regulation of assimilate transfer within the maize kernel

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of maize aldose reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyota, Eduardo [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Sousa, Sylvia Morais de [Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Santos, Marcelo Leite dos; Costa Lima, Aline da [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Menossi, Marcelo [Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Yunes, José Andrés [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Centro Infantil Boldrini, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Aparicio, Ricardo, E-mail: aparicio@iqm.unicamp.br [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of apo maize aldose reductase at 2.0 Å resolution are reported. Maize aldose reductase (AR) is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. In contrast to human AR, maize AR seems to prefer the conversion of sorbitol into glucose. The apoenzyme was crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.2, b = 54.5, c = 100.6 Å and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data were collected and a final resolution limit of 2.0 Å was obtained after data reduction. Phasing was carried out by an automated molecular-replacement procedure and structural refinement is currently in progress. The refined structure is expected to shed light on the functional/enzymatic mechanism and the unusual activities of maize AR.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of maize aldose reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyota, Eduardo; Sousa, Sylvia Morais de; Santos, Marcelo Leite dos; Costa Lima, Aline da; Menossi, Marcelo; Yunes, José Andrés; Aparicio, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of apo maize aldose reductase at 2.0 Å resolution are reported. Maize aldose reductase (AR) is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. In contrast to human AR, maize AR seems to prefer the conversion of sorbitol into glucose. The apoenzyme was crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 47.2, b = 54.5, c = 100.6 Å and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data were collected and a final resolution limit of 2.0 Å was obtained after data reduction. Phasing was carried out by an automated molecular-replacement procedure and structural refinement is currently in progress. The refined structure is expected to shed light on the functional/enzymatic mechanism and the unusual activities of maize AR

  10. Thoughts on implementation of the recommendations of the GBIF Task Group on a Global Strategy and Action Plan for Mobilisation of Natural History Collections Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas King

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF has a mandate to facilitate free and open access to primary biodiversity data worldwide. This Special Issue of Biodiversity Informatics publishes the findings of the recent GBIF Task Group on a Global Strategy and Action Plan for Mobilisation of Natural History Collections Data (GSAP-NHC. The GSAP-NHC Task Group has made three primary recommendations dealing with discovery, capture, and publishing of natural history collections data. This overview article provides insight on various activities initiated by GBIF to date to assist with an early uptake and implementation of these recommendations. It calls for proactive participation by all relevant players and stakeholder communities. Given recent technological progress and growing recognition and attention to biodiversity science worldwide, we think rapid progress in discovery, publishing and access to large volumes of useful collection data can be achieved for the immediate benefit of science and society.

  11. Maize starch biphasic pasting curves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nelles, EM

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available (150–500 rev/min). The second pasting peak is attributed to the formation of complexes between amylose and low levels of lipid present in maize starch. When lipid was partially removed by extraction with methanol-chloroform (1: 3 v/v), the second...

  12. PROFITABILITY AND MARKETING EFFICIENCY OF MAIZE IN KWANDE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharias Ternenge Nyiatagher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents profi tability and marketing effi - ciency of maize in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Stratifi ed random sampling was used to select three hundred (300 maize marketers comprising producers (210, wholesalers (32 and retailers (58 in eight (8 major markets in the study area. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, marketing margin and marketing effi ciency. It was found that maize marketing in the study area was dominated by males (64.7% and young people (55.0% who are energetic enough to withstand the stress involved in the business. The marketing margin of an average maize marketer in the study area was N2,012.00 per 100kg and the percentage marketing margin was 37.2%. This showed that maize marketing in the study area was profi table and 100% retail price paid by the fi nal consumer resulted in farm-to-retail price spread or marketing margin of 37.2%. The marketing effi ciency (0.28 of mai ze in the study area indicated that the marketers were ineffi cient in maize business. It was recommended that government, non-governmental organizations and the rural populace should strive hard to improve the transportation network and the marketers should belong to marketing associations so that they can collectively access loans from rural banking institutions

  13. Exploring the Usefulness of MISR-HR Products to Estimate Maize Crop Extent and Using Field Evidence to Evaluate the Results in South Africa's Free State Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, M. M.; Knox, N. M.; Hunt, L. A.; Kleyn, L.

    2014-12-01

    The MISR instrument on NASA's Terra platform has been operating for almost 15 years. Standard products are generated at a spatial resolution of 1.1 km or coarser, but a recently developed method to re-analyze the Level-1B2 data allows the retrieval of biogeophysical products at the native spatial resolution of the instrument (275 m). This development opens new opportunities to better address issues such as the management of agricultural production and food security. South African maize production is of great economic and social importance, not only nationally, but on the global market too, being one of the top ten maize producing countries. Seasonal maize production statistics are currently based on a combination of field measurements and estimates derived from manually digitizing high resolution imagery from the SPOT satellite. The field measurements are collected using the Producer Independent Crop Estimate System (PICES) developed by Crop Estimates Committee of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. There is a strong desire to improve the quality of these statistics, to generate those earlier, and to automate the process to encompass larger areas. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the MISR-HR spectral and directional products, combined with the finer spatial resolution and the relatively frequent coverage afforded by that instrument, to address these needs. The study area is based in the Free State, South Africa, one of the primary maize growing areas in the country, and took place during the 2012-2013 summer growing season. The significance of the outcomes will be evaluated in the context of the 14+ years of available MISR data.

  14. Using observed warming to identify hazards to Mozambique maize production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Harrison, Laura; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    New Perspectives on Crop Yield Constraints because of Climate Change. Climate change impact assessments usually focus on changes to precipitation because most global food production is from rainfed cropping systems; however, other aspects of climate change may affect crop growth and potential yields.A recent (2011) study by the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) Climate Hazards Group, determined that climate change may be affecting Mozambique's primary food crop in a usually overlooked, but potentially significant way (Harrison and others, 2011). The study focused on the direct relation between maize crop development and growing season temperature. It determined that warming during the past three decades in Mozambique may be causing more frequent crop stress and yield reductions in that country's maize crop, independent of any changes occurring in rainfall. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of that study.

  15. Incidence of Fusarium spp. and Levels of Fumonisin B1 in Maize in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedera, C. J.; Plattner, R. D.; Desjardins, A. E.

    1999-01-01

    Maize kernel samples were collected in 1996 from smallholder farm storages in the districts of Bomet, Bungoma, Kakamega, Kericho, Kisii, Nandi, Siaya, Trans Nzoia, and Vihiga in the tropical highlands of western Kenya. Two-thirds of the samples were good-quality maize, and one-third were poor-quality maize with a high incidence of visibly diseased kernels. One hundred fifty-three maize samples were assessed for Fusarium infection by culturing kernels on a selective medium. The isolates obtained were identified to the species level based on morphology and on formation of the sexual stage in Gibberella fujikuroi mating population tests. Fusarium moniliforme (G. fujikuroi mating population A) was isolated most frequently, but F. subglutinans (G. fujikuroi mating population E), F. graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. solani, and other Fusarium species were also isolated. The high incidence of kernel infection with the fumonisin-producing species F. moniliforme indicated a potential for fumonisin contamination of Kenyan maize. However, analysis of 197 maize kernel samples by high-performance liquid chromatography found little fumonisin B1 in most of the samples. Forty-seven percent of the samples contained fumonisin B1 at levels above the detection limit (100 ng/g), but only 5% were above 1,000 ng/g, a proposed level of concern for human consumption. The four most-contaminated samples, with fumonisin B1 levels ranging from 3,600 to 11,600 ng/g, were from poor-quality maize collected in the Kisii district. Many samples with a high incidence of visibly diseased kernels contained little or no fumonisin B1, despite the presence of F. moniliforme. This result may be attributable to the inability of F. moniliforme isolates present in Kenyan maize to produce fumonisins, to the presence of other ear rot fungi, and/or to environmental conditions unfavorable for fumonisin production. PMID:9872757

  16. Association mapping of agro-morphological characters among the global collection of finger millet genotypes using genomic SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyana Babu, B; Agrawal, P K; Pandey, Dinesh; Jaiswal, J P; Kumar, Anil

    2014-08-01

    Identification of alleles responsible for various agro-morphological characters is a major concern to further improve the finger millet germplasm. Forty-six genomic SSRs were used for genetic analysis and population structure analysis of a global collection of 190 finger millet genotypes and fifteen agro-morphological characters were evaluated. The overall results showed that Asian genotypes were smaller in height, smaller flag leaf length, less basal tiller number, early flowering and early maturity nature, small ear head length, and smaller in length of longest finger. The 46 SSRs yielded 90 scorable alleles and the polymorphism information content values varied from 0.292 to 0.703 at an average of 0.442. The gene diversity was in the range of 0.355 to 0.750 with an average value of 0.528. The 46 genomic SSR loci grouped the 190 finger millet genotypes into two major clusters based on their geographical origin by the both phylogenetic clustering and population structure analysis by STRUCTURE software. Association mapping of QTLs for 15 agro-morphological characters with 46 genomic SSRs resulted in identification of five markers were linked to QTLs of four traits at a significant threshold (P) level of ≤ 0.01 and ≤ 0.001. The QTL for basal tiller number was strongly associated with the locus UGEP81 at a P value of 0.001 by explaining the phenotypic variance (R (2)) of 10.8%. The QTL for days to 50% flowering was linked by two SSR loci UGEP77 and UGEP90, explained 10 and 8.7% of R (2) respectively at a P value of 0.01. The SSR marker, FM9 found to have strong association to two agro-morphological traits, flag leaf width (P-0.001, R(2)-14.1 %) and plant height (P-0.001, R(2)-11.2%). The markers linked to the QTLs for above agro-morphological characters found in the present study can be further used for cloning of the full length gene, fine mapping and their further use in the marker assisted breeding programmes for introgression of alleles into locally well

  17. Extraction and characterization of natural cellulose fibers from maize tassel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maepa, CE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the extraction and characterization of novel natural cellulose fibers obtained from the maize (tassel) plant. Cellulose was extracted from the agricultural residue (waste biomaterial) of maize tassel. The maize tassel fibers...

  18. Aflatoxin levels in maize and maize products during the 2004 food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin levels in maize and maize products during the 2004 food poisoning ... district were received at the National Public Health Laboratory Services (NPHLS). On analysis, they were found to be highly contaminated with aflatoxin B1.

  19. Refuge or reservoir? The potential impacts of the biofuel crop Miscanthus x giganteus on a major pest of maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Spencer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interest in the cultivation of biomass crops like the C4 grass Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus is increasing as global demand for biofuel grows. In the US, Miscanthus is promoted as a crop well-suited to the Corn Belt where it could be cultivated on marginal land interposed with maize and soybean. Interactions (direct and indirect of Miscanthus, maize, and the major Corn Belt pest of maize, the western corn rootworm, (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, WCR are unknown. Adding a perennial grass/biomass crop to this system is concerning since WCR is adapted to the continuous availability of its grass host, maize (Zea mays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a greenhouse and field study, we investigated WCR development and oviposition on Miscanthus. The suitability of Miscanthus for WCR development varied across different WCR populations. Data trends indicate that WCR populations that express behavioural resistance to crop rotation performed as well on Miscanthus as on maize. Over the entire study, total adult WCR emergence from Miscanthus (212 WCR was 29.6% of that from maize (717 WCR. Adult dry weight was 75-80% that of WCR from maize; female emergence patterns on Miscanthus were similar to females developing on maize. There was no difference in the mean no. of WCR eggs laid at the base of Miscanthus and maize in the field. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Field oviposition and significant WCR emergence from Miscanthus raises many questions about the nature of likely interactions between Miscanthus, maize and WCR and the potential for Miscanthus to act as a refuge or reservoir for Corn Belt WCR. Responsible consideration of the benefits and risks associated with Corn Belt Miscanthus are critical to protecting an agroecosystem that we depend on for food, feed, and increasingly, fuel. Implications for European agroecosystems in which Miscanthus is being proposed are also discussed in light of the WCR's recent invasion into Europe.

  20. Environmental assessment of untreated manure use, manure digestion and codigestion with silage maize : Deliverable for the 'EU-AGRO-BIOGAS' project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Corre, W.J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the environmental impact of untreated manure use, manure digestion, and co-digestion with silage maize for energy production. The life cycle assessment methodology was used. Environmental indicators included were, global warming potential, energy use, eutrophication,

  1. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami; Santa Bahadur BK; Ghana Shyam Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage per...

  2. Investigation on the Assimilation of Nitrogen by Maize Roots and the Transport of Some Major Nitrogen Compounds by Xylem Sap. III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanko, S.; Ingversen, J.

    1971-01-01

    Xylem sap was collected from nitrogen-starved maize plants and investigations were made on the nitrogen transported. It appears from the results that several pools for different amino acids exist, which have different relations to the transport of nitrogen taken up. While in maize roots Glu, Glu...

  3. Genetic diversity of maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) in communities of the western highlands of Guatemala: geographical patterns and processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.; Fuentes, M.R.; Molina, L.G.; Ponciano, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study concerns spatial genetic patterning, seed flow and the impact of modern varieties in maize populations in Chimaltenango, Guatemala. It uses a collection of 79 maize seed samples from farmers in the area and five samples derived from modern varieties. Bulked SSR markers employed with

  4. "Achieving Mexico’s Maize Potential"

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Turrent Fernández; Timothy A. Wise; Elise Garvey

    2012-01-01

    Rising agricultural prices, combined with growing import dependence, have driven Mexico’s food import bill over $20 billion per year and increased its agricultural trade deficit. Mexico imports one-third of its maize, overwhelmingly from the United States, but three million producers grow most of the country’s white maize, which is used primarily for tortillas and many other pluricultural products for human consumption. Yield gaps are large among the country’s small to medium-scale maize farm...

  5. Fermentation characteristics of polysaccharide fractions extracted from the cell walls of maize endosperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.; Tamminga, S.; Williams, B.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schols, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cell walls were extracted from maize endosperm and separated into different polysaccharide fractions by sequential extraction with solutions of saturated Ba(OH)2, demineralised water and 1 and 4 M KOH. Solubilised polysaccharides were collected after each extraction. Residues were collected

  6. Backscatter Analysis Using Multi-Temporal SENTINEL-1 SAR Data for Crop Growth of Maize in Konya Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdikan, S.; Sekertekin, A.; Ustunern, M.; Balik Sanli, F.; Nasirzadehdizaji, R.

    2018-04-01

    Temporal monitoring of crop types is essential for the sustainable management of agricultural activities on both national and global levels. As a practical and efficient tool, remote sensing is widely used in such applications. In this study, Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery was utilized to investigate the performance of the sensor backscatter image on crop monitoring. Multi-temporal C-band VV and VH polarized SAR images were acquired simultaneously by in-situ measurements which was conducted at Konya basin, central Anatolia Turkey. During the measurements, plant height of maize plant was collected and relationship between backscatter values and plant height was analysed. The maize growth development was described under Biologische Bundesanstalt, bundessortenamt und CHemische industrie (BBCH). Under BBCH stages, the test site was classified as leaf development, stem elongation, heading and flowering in general. The correlation coefficient values indicated high correlation for both polarimetry during the early stages of the plant, while late stages indicated lower values in both polarimetry. As a last step, multi-temporal coverage of crop fields was analysed to map seasonal land use. To this aim, object based image classification was applied following image segmentation. About 80 % accuracies of land use maps were created in this experiment. As preliminary results, it is concluded that Sentinel-1 data provides beneficial information about plant growth. Dual-polarized Sentinel-1 data has high potential for multi-temporal analyses for agriculture monitoring and reliable mapping.

  7. Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to smallholder farmers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: extension personnel's awareness of stewardship requirements and dissemination practices.

  8. Socioeconomic analysis and problems of maize seed production in mid hill area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Sapkota

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize is considered as staple food and is a way of life for the hilly region of Nepal. The production and yield of maize crop is very low which is unable to meet the current demand and is mostly affected by various insect/pests and diseases. For such a backdrop, 182 cross sectional data were collected using simple random techniques in Palpa in June, 2016. Forced scaling technique was used to rank problems based on index value. The total average landholding was 0.91 hectare with 0.32 ha under maize seed cultivation. About 90.7 and 69.8% farmers were access to extension service and had received training respectively. Infestation of insect/pests ranked at first as a major problem in maize seed production with 0.79 index value followed by infrastructure/credit, storage, unavailability of inputs and marketing problems. Similarly poor bargaining power ranked as a 1st major marketing problem. Better access to extension service as well as frequent training service to farmers should be provided to increase production and yield of maize seed. Government and other stakeholder organizations should focus to develop irrigation infrastructure for the overall development of maize sector.

  9. Productivity and profitability of maize-pumpkin mix cropping in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Chandra Dhakal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the productivity, profitability and resource use efficiency of maize-pumpkin mix crop production in Chitwan. The study used 53 maize-pumpkin mix crop adopting farmers from among 300 farmers adopting different pollinator friendly practices. Descriptive and statistical tools including Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze data, collected from structured interview schedule. The benefit cost ratio (1.58 indicates that maize-pumpkin mix cropping was profitable with productivity of 2.83 ton per ha on maize main product equivalent basis. The magnitude of regression coefficients of maize-pumpkin mix cropping implied that expenditure on seed and fertilizer and irrigation had significant positive effect on gross return with estimated decreasing return to scale (0.85. According to estimated allocative efficiency indices, it is suggested to increase expenditure on seed and fertilizer cum irrigation by about 90% and 55% respectively. Extension of modern technologies with adjustment on resource use is to be encouraged for increase in productivity and profitability of maize-pumpkin mix crop production which indirectly promotes and ensure forage for pollinators

  10. Characterization of the maize lipoxygenase gene family in relation to aflatoxin accumulation resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwaseun F. Ogunola; Leigh K. Hawkins; Erik Mylroie; Michael V. Kolomiets; Eli Borrego; Juliet D. Tang; Paul W. Williams; Marilyn L. Warburton

    2017-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a globally important staple food crop prone to contamination by aflatoxin, a carcinogenic secondary metabolite produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. An efficient approach to reduce accumulation of aflatoxin is the development of germplasm resistant to colonization and toxin...

  11. Comparison of the effect of liquid humic fertilizers on yield of maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... rice around the world. The global production of maize .... in genotypes such as Golden West and Single Cross. 704. However, peat based .... Golden West. Genotype ZP677 (with a mean value of 15.48) and genotype ZP434 (with a mean value of 13.49) had the highest and lowest values of number per ear, ...

  12. A large scale joint analysis of flowering time reveals independent temperate adaptations in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modulating days to flowering is a key mechanism in plants for adapting to new environments, and variation in days to flowering drives population structure by limiting mating. To elucidate the genetic architecture of flowering across maize, a quantitative trait, we mapped flowering in five global pop...

  13. Designing global collective action in population and HIV/AIDS programs, 1983-2002: has anything changed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    The 1994 International Conference of Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo established goals for the expansion of assistance in matters of reproductive health and HIV/AIDS. This global effort marked a structural break in principle from the past, but did it also change funding behavior? Panel

  14. The iojap gene in maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martienssen, Robert

    2001-12-01

    The classical maize mutant iojap (Iodent japonica) has variegated green and white leaves. Green sectors have cells with normal chloroplasts whereas white sectors have cells where plastids fail to differentiate. These mutant plastids, when transmitted through the female gametophyte, do not recover in the presence of wild type Iojap. We cloned the Ij locus, and we have investigated the mechanism of epigenetic inheritance and phenotypic expression. More recently, a modifier of this type of variegation, ''Inhibitor of striate'', has also been cloned. Both the iojap and inhibitor of striate proteins have homologs in bacteria and are members of ancient conserved families found in multiple species. These tools can be used to address fundamental questions of inheritance and variegation associated with this classical conundrum of maize genetics. Since the work of Rhoades there has been considerable speculation concerning the nature of the Iojap gene product, the origin of leaf variegation and the mechanism behind the material inheritance of defective plastids. This has made Iojap a textbook paradigm for cytoplasmic inheritance and nuclear-organellar interaction for almost 50 years. Cloning of the Iojap gene in maize, and homologs in other plants and bacteria, provides a new means to address the origin of heteroplastidity, variegation and cytoplasmic inheritance in higher plants.

  15. Proteomics of Maize Root Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochholdinger, Frank; Marcon, Caroline; Baldauf, Jutta A; Yu, Peng; Frey, Felix P

    2018-01-01

    Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  16. Proteomics of Maize Root Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hochholdinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  17. Decomposition and fertilizing effects of maize stover and chromolaena odorata on maize yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetteh, F.M.; Safo, E.Y.; Quansah, C.

    2008-01-01

    The quality, rates of decomposition and the fertilizing effect of chromolaena odorata, and maize stover were determined in field experiments as surface application or buried in litter bags. Studies on the effect of plant materials of contrasting qualities (maize stover and C. odorata) applied sole (10 Mg ha -1 ) and mixed, on maize grain and biomass yield were also conducted on the Asuansi (Ferric Acrisol) soil series. Total nitrogen content of the residues ranged from 0.85% in maize stover to 3.50% in C. odorata. Organic carbon ranged from 34.90% in C. odorata to 48.50% in maize stover. Phosphorus ranged from 0.10% in maize stover to 0.76% in C. odorata. In the wet season, the decomposition rate constants (k) were 0.0319 day -1 for C. odorata, and 0.0081 for maize stover. In the dry season, the k values were 0.0083 for C. odorata, and 0.0072 day -1 for maize stover. Burying of the plant materials reduced the half-life (t 50 ) periods from 18 to 10 days for C. odorata, and 45 to 20 days for maize stover. Maize grain yield of 2556 kg ha -1 was obtained in sole C. odorata (10 Mg ha -1 ) compared with 2167 kg ha -1 for maize stover. Mixing of maize stover and C. odorata residues improved the nutrient content as well as nutrient release by the mixtures resulting in greater maize grain yields in the mixtures than the sole maize stover treatment. It is recommended that C. odorata be used as green manure, mulching or composting material to improve fertility. (au)

  18. PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) CULTIVARS AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    reported to have low remobilisation efficiency and reduced plasticity of seed weight to assimilate availability ... have indicated that the use of organo-mineral fertiliser in maize and melon gave high relative .... The soil physical and chemical characteristics of ..... yield in maize by examining genetic improvement and heterosis.

  19. (SSR) markers for drought tolerance in maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize is moderately sensitive to drought. Drought affects virtually all aspects of maize growth in varying degrees at all stages, from germination to maturity. Tolerance to drought is genetically and physiologically complicated and inherited quantitatively. Application of molecular-marker aided selection technique for ...

  20. Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikoyo, Duncan A.; Nobert, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, various climatic studies have estimated a reduction of crop yields due to changes in surface temperature and precipitation especially for the developing countries which is heavily dependent on agriculture and lacks resources to counter the negative effects of climate change. Uganda's economy and the wellbeing of its populace depend on rain-fed agriculture which is susceptible to climate change. This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on this study, it was found that temperatures have increased by up to 1 °C across much of Uganda since the 1970s, with rates of warming around 0.3 °C per decade across the country. High altitude, low rainfall regions experience the highest level of warming, with over 0.5 °C/decade recorded in Kasese. Rainfall is variable and does not follow a specific significant increasing or decreasing trend. For both future climate scenarios, Maize yields will reduce in excess of 4.7% for the fast warming-low rainfall climates but increase on average by 3.5% for slow warming-high rainfall regions, by 2050. Improved soil fertility can improve yields by over 50% while mulching and use of surface water management practices improve yields by single digit percentages. The use of fertilizer application needs to go hand in hand with other water management strategies since more yields as a result of the improved soil fertility leads to increased water stress, especially

  1. Cooccurrence of mycotoxins in maize and poultry feeds from Brazil by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA, M. de L. M. de; SULYOK, M.; SILVA, O. F.; COSTA, S. S.; BRABET, C.; MACHINSKI JUNIOR, M.; SEKIYAMA, B. L.; VARGAS, E. A.; KRSKA, R.; SCHUHMACHER, R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate mycotoxins in samples of maize and poultry feed produced in Brazil. A multimycotoxin method based on HPLC-MS/MS was applied to investigate the occurrence of toxical fungal metabolites in 119 samples collected from poultry feed factory integrated poultry farms: maize grain (74), poultry feed (36), and feed factory residue (9). Twenty of 101 fungal metabolites investigated were detected and quantified in the samples: aflatoxins B1, B2, ...

  2. Confirmação molecular do 'Maize rayado fino virus' como vírus da estria do milho

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Rosemarie Wahnbaeck; Bedendo, Ivan Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas G...

  3. Assessing spatiotemporal variation of drought and its impact on maize yield in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Enliang; Liu, Xingpeng; Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Yongfang; Wang, Cailin; Wang, Rui; Li, Danjun

    2017-10-01

    In the context of global climate change, drought has become an important factor that affects the maize yield in China. To analyse the impact of drought on maize yield loss in Northeast China in current and future climate scenarios, the Composite Meteorological Drought Index (CI) is introduced to reconstruct the following drought indicators: drought accumulative days (DAD), drought accumulative intensity (DAI), and consecutive drought days (CDD). These three drought indicators are used to describe the three-dimensional characteristics of drought in this study. Sen's slope method and three-dimensional copula functions are adopted to analyse the variety of drought features, and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is used to analyse the variations in maize yield. A temporal assessment of the standardized yield residuals series (SYRS) of maize from 1961 to 2014 is conducted. A panel regression model is applied to demonstrate the drought impact on maize yield at various growth stages under the RCP4.5 scenario. The results show that the drought risk level for midwest Jilin Province, western Liaoning, and eastern Heilongjiang increase with global warming in the current scenario. The shorter three-dimensional joint return periods, 44-80 yr, were mainly located in western Jilin Province, Liaodong Peninsula, and northwestern Liaoning. Eastern Heilongjiang has a slightly longer joint return period of 80-100 yr. The SYRS shows a strong statistical correlation with drought indicator variations; drought-prone regions exhibit strong positive correlations. In comparison, excess precipitation regions show strong negative correlations with drought indicators in most growth stages. Drought indicators have a relatively strong association with SYRS at the milky-mature maize growth stage, and the occurrence of drought during this period primarily determines the maize yield changes in the future. Maize yield changes are -2.04%, -2.65% and -1.57% for Liaoning, Jilin, and

  4. Aflatoxin contamination of maize from different storage locations in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akrobortu, Dick Emmanuel

    2008-05-01

    The contamination of maize by aflatoxins in Ghana is of major concern because of the health hazards associated with it. This study focused on the role played by variations in climatic factors such as relative humidity and rainfall on aflatoxin contamination of maize in different maize storage locations. The study was carried out on samples collected over a period of 10 years (1990 to 1999) in three Districts (Ejura-Sekyedumase, Afram Plains/North-Kwahu and Nkoranza) well – known for maize production in Ghana. The aim was to study the influence of storage locations on levels of aflatoxin contamination and distribution in maize. The findings indicated that significant difference exists between the aflatoxin contamination levels of samples collected from Ejura-Sekyedumase and Nkoranza (p<0.05). Also there was a significant difference between the aflatoxin contamination levels of samples collected from Ejura-Sekyedumase and North-Kwahu (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the contamination levels of samples from North- Kwahu and Nkoranza (p>0.05). The total aflatoxin levels in samples from Ejura-Sekyedumase, North-Kwahu and Nkoranza over the period were 120.50 ppb, 153.20 ppb and 134.17 ppb respectively. For the period 1990 to 1999 the aflatoxin distributions in the storage locations showed that Nkoranza had the highest level in 1997 and 1999 while North-Kwahu had the highest in 1990, 1991, 1993 and 1998. Similarly, Nkoranza and North-Kwahu had equal levels of 10.50 ppb in 1995. The three locations had equal levels of 9.50 ppb in 1994. On the whole, Ejura-Sekyedumase had fair distribution levels since it was the only location with its highest level far below the acceptable level of 20 ppb for humans. I hereby recommend that further research must be conducted in other districts in the country in order to create awareness of the health hazards associated with the aflatoxin contamination. (au)

  5. Characterization of Indian and exotic quality protein maize (QPM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymorphism analysis and genetic diversity of normal maize and quality protein maize (QPM) inbreds among locally well adapted germplasm is a prerequisite for hybrid maize breeding program. The diversity analyses of 48 maize accessions including Indian and exotic germplasm using 75 simple sequence repeat (SSR) ...

  6. Exploring maize-legume intercropping systems in Southwest Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Sanchez, D.; Pastor, A.V.; Lantinga, E.A.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Kropff, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Maize yields in continuous maize production systems of smallholders in the Costa Chica, a region in Southwest Mexico, are low despite consistent inputs of fertilizers and herbicides. This study was aimed at investigating the prospects of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) and maize-roselle (Hibiscus

  7. Selection for drought tolerance in two tropical maize populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought is a major factor limiting maize (Zea mays L.) yield in much of the world. The need to breed maize cultivars with improved drought tolerance is apparent. This study compared two maize populations, ZM601 and ZM607 for drought tolerance during flowering, the most drought-vulnerable period for the maize plant.

  8. Consumer preferences for maize products in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Hugo; Kimenju, Simon Chege

    2012-06-01

    New maize varieties have been biofortified with provitamin A, mainly a-carotene, which renders the grain yellow or orange. Unfortunately, many African consumers prefer white maize. The maize consumption patterns in Africa are, however, not known. To determine which maize products African consumers prefer to purchase and which maize preparations they prefer to eat. A survey of 600 consumers was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, at three types of maize outlets: posho mills (small hammer mills), kiosks, and supermarkets. Clients of posho mills had lower incomes and less education than those of kiosks and supermarkets. The preferred maize product of the posho-mill clients was artisanal maize meal; the preferred product of the others was industrial maize meal. Maize is the preferred staple for lunch and dinner, eaten as a stiff porridge (ugali), followed by boiled maize and beans (githeri), regardless of socioeconomic background. For breakfast, only half the consumers prefer maize, mostly as a soft porridge (uji). This proportion is higher in low-income groups. Consumers show a strong preference for white maize over yellow, mostly for its organoleptic characteristics, and show less interest in biofortified maize. Maize is the major food staple in Nairobi, mostly eaten in a few distinct preparations. For biofortified yellow maize to be accepted, a strong public awareness campaign to inform consumers is needed, based on a sensory evaluation and the mass media, in particular on radio in the local language.

  9. Heavy Metal Residues in Soil and Accumulation in Maize at Long-Term Wastewater Irrigation Area in Tongliao, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yintao Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil and plant samples were collected from Tongliao, China, during the maize growth cycle between May and October 2010. Heavy metals, such as Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn, were analyzed. The concentrations of Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn in the wastewater-irrigated area were higher than those in the topsoil from the groundwater-irrigated area. The concentrations of metals in the maize increased as follows: Pb < Ni < Zn < Cr. In addition, Cr, Pb, and Ni mainly accumulated in the maize roots, and Zn mainly accumulated in the maize fruit. The results of translocation factors (TF and bioconcentration factors (BCF of maize for heavy metals revealed that maize is an excluder plant and a potential accumulator plant and can serve as an ideal slope remediation plant. In addition, the increasing heavy metal contents in soils that have been polluted by wastewater irrigation must result in the accumulation of Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn in maize. Thus, the pollution level can be decreased by harvesting and disposing of and recovering the plant material.

  10. In vitro evaluation of different varieties of maize fodder for their methane generation potential and digestibility with goat rumen liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaswani, Shalini; Kumar, Ravindra; Kumar, Vinod; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the methane generation potential and digestibility of different (normal and three high-quality protein maize [HQPM]) varieties of maize fodder with goat rumen liquor in vitro . Methane production potential and digestibility of different varieties of maize fodder were tested in in vitro gas production test. Seven varieties of maize, four normal (HTHM 5101, DHM 117, HM 5, and Shaktiman/900 M Gold), and three high-quality protein (HQPM 5, HQPM 7, and HQPM 9/Vivek) were grown in different plots under the same environmental and agro-climatic conditions. Fodders were harvested at 45-50 days of sowing, and the representative samples of fodder from different varieties of maize were collected for analysis. Dried and grinded form of these maize fodder varieties was tested for gas, methane, and digestibility using goat rumen microflora in in vitro gas syringes. Gas production (ml/g dry matter [DM]) was highest for HM5 variety (97.66, whereas lowest for HQPM 9 variety (64.22). Gas production (ml/g degraded DM [DDM]) and methane (%) were statistically similar in different varieties of maize fodder. The methane production expressed as ml/g DM and ml/g DDM was significantly (pproduction.

  11. Survey on maize post-harvest losses and its management practices in the western hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Bhandari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in order to assess the losses of maize under farmers’ storage conditions in the Western hills of Nepal in 2014. The survey area included Thanapati Village Development Committee (VDC of Gulmi, Aalamdebi VDC of Syangja, Khasauli VDC of Palpa and Baglung municipality-12, Baglung district. Primary information was collected through semi-structured questionnaires among the heterogenous groups of the farming communities. Survey revealed that about 61% respondents reported the storage pest as the major pests and about 12% respondents reported that field pests as the major pests in the western hills. Maize weevil (Sitophylus zeamais Mostsch. and Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. were found to be major storage insect pests in surveyed areas. Majority of respondents (39% presumed on 10-20% losses during storage. Among the other biotic factors, farmers ranked insect (42%, weeds (32% and diseases (17% respectively. Maize storage methods had distinct among the surveyed areas compared with Baglung district to other surveyed areas. In Baglung, about (73% farmers had stored maize in the form of grain whereas in Palpa, Gulmi and Syangja, about (77% farmers had practice of storing maize with husk for 5-7 months. Approximately, 40% respondents were using open floor in upper stair “Aanti”as a major maize storage place in Palpa, Gulmi and Syangja whereas almost (79% of respondents were using sacks to store shelled grains in Baglung. Hence, there is ample opportunity to reduce the storage losses of maize depending upon the existing situation.

  12. Risk Adjusted Production Efficiency of Maize Farmers in Ethiopia: Implication for Improved Maize Varieties Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Diriba Lemessa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the technical efficiency and production risk of 862 maize farmers in major maize producing regions of Ethiopia. It employs the stochastic frontier approach (SFA to estimate the level of technical efficiencies of stallholder farmers. The stochastic frontier approach (SFA uses flexible risk properties to account for production risk. Thus, maize production variability is assessed from two perspectives, the production risk and the technical efficiency. The study also attempts to determine the socio-economic and farm characteristics that influence technical efficiency of maize production in the study area. The findings of the study showed the existence of both production risk and technical inefficiency in maize production process. Input variables (amounts per hectare such as fertilizer and labor positively influence maize output. The findings also show that farms in the study area exhibit decreasing returns to scale. Fertilizer and ox plough days reduce output risk while labor and improved seed increase output risk. The mean technical efficiency for maize farms is 48 percent. This study concludes that production risk and technical inefficiency prevents the maize farmers from realizing their frontier output. The best factors that improve the efficiency of the maize farmers in the study area include: frequency of extension contact, access to credit and use of intercropping. It was also realized that altitude and terracing in maize farms had influence on farmer efficiency.

  13. Molecular phylogenetic and expression analysis of the complete WRKY transcription factor family in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kai-Fa; Chen, Juan; Chen, Yan-Feng; Wu, Ling-Juan; Xie, Dao-Xin

    2012-04-01

    The WRKY transcription factors function in plant growth and development, and response to the biotic and abiotic stresses. Although many studies have focused on the functional identification of the WRKY transcription factors, much less is known about molecular phylogenetic and global expression analysis of the complete WRKY family in maize. In this study, we identified 136 WRKY proteins coded by 119 genes in the B73 inbred line from the complete genome and named them in an orderly manner. Then, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of five species was performed to explore the origin and evolutionary patterns of these WRKY genes, and the result showed that gene duplication is the major driving force for the origin of new groups and subgroups and functional divergence during evolution. Chromosomal location analysis of maize WRKY genes indicated that 20 gene clusters are distributed unevenly in the genome. Microarray-based expression analysis has revealed that 131 WRKY transcripts encoded by 116 genes may participate in the regulation of maize growth and development. Among them, 102 transcripts are stably expressed with a coefficient of variation (CV) value of WRKY genes with the CV value of >15% are further analysed to discover new organ- or tissue-specific genes. In addition, microarray analyses of transcriptional responses to drought stress and fungal infection showed that maize WRKY proteins are involved in stress responses. All these results contribute to a deep probing into the roles of WRKY transcription factors in maize growth and development and stress tolerance.

  14. The Environmental Mitigation Potential of Photovoltaic-Powered Irrigation in the Production of South African Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wettstein

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is under pressure to reduce its environmental impact. The use of renewable energy sources has potential to decrease these impacts. Maize is one of the most significant crops in South Africa and approximately 241,000 hectares are irrigated. This irrigation is most commonly powered by grid electricity generated using coal. However, South Africa has high solar irradiation, which could be used to generate photovoltaic electricity. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental mitigation potential of replacing grid-powered irrigation in South African maize production with photovoltaic irrigation systems using Life Cycle Assessment. The study included the value chain of maize production from cultivation to storage. Replacing grid electricity with photovoltaic-generated electricity leads to a 34% reduction in the global warming potential of maize produced under irrigation, and—applied at a national level—could potentially reduce South Africa’s greenhouse gas emissions by 536,000 t CO2-eq. per year. Non-renewable energy demand, freshwater eutrophication, acidification, and particulate matter emissions are also significantly lowered. Replacing grid electricity with renewable energy in irrigation has been shown to be an effective means of reducing the environmental impacts associated with South African maize production.

  15. Maize nutrient uptake affected by genotype and fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đalović Ivica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of nutrients in maize are commonly related with fertilization and soil quality and rarely explained with the individual hybrid properties. Therefore, the aim of this study is to access a long term fertilization system on ear leaf of Mg, Fe, Mn and Cu content in six maize hybrids(NS 3014, NS 4015, NS 5043, NS 6010, NS 6030 and NS 7020. Samples were collected from a long-term experiment at the Rimski Šančevi experimental field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The study included maize monoculture and 2-year rotations with the application of NPK and manure. Results showed that ear Mg content was influenced with the treatments, hybrid and their interaction and ranged from 1.77-2.69 g kg-1. Iron variability was significantly affected with the treatments and interaction (hybrid x treatments in range from 103.2 to151.9g kg-1. The ear manganese content (41.1-63.6g kg-1 derived from treatments and hybrid effect and Cu (12.3-23.6 g kg-1 was significantly influenced with treatments. Across all treatments, in average, NS6030 had higher values of nutrient and NS3014 was lower in ear nutrient content. This indicates that vegetation length could favor nutrient accumulation. Obtained results suggested that even on fairly productive soil such as Chernozem hybrid selection and the balanced fertilization is crucial for managing the maize nutrient content. [Projekat Ministarsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR031073

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING ADOPTION DECISIONS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Ayodeji Fadare

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The needs to develop improved varieties of maize have been in the heart of various researchers and institutions in Nigeria because of its strategic role in tackling food insecurity and poverty. Despite substantial efforts to improve maize varieties, the level of adoption of improved maize varieties (IMV in Nigeria in still very low. Although previous adoption studies have indicated a number of socioeconomic and institutional/organizational variables as important factors influencing adoption of improved maize (crop varieties in the country, whether these factors are the main issues of concern, and whether the inclusion of regional/agro-ecological variables in adoption model are also important in explaining what could drive farmers’ adoption behaviour requires investigation. This study therefore examined factors influencing adoption of IMV among farmers in Nigeria using a selected portion of the Nigeria Living Standard Measurement Survey data collected by the National Bureau of Statistics and the World Bank for 2010/2011 cropping season with descriptive statistics and probit model as tools for data analysis. The results suggest, in line with some previous studies, that farm size, education level of farmers and access to extension services would significantly influence adoption of IMV. The results also indicate that farmers across the entire agro-ecological regions of country share some negative sentiments regarding adoption of IMV. Renewed emphasis on interventions that would enable farmers gain more access to farmland, and promote formal education and extension service are advocated. An attempt to incorporate variables that capture farmers’ perception/experience on agroclimatic/ ecologically related concerns in adoption study could aid better understand of what drives farmers’ adoption decisions across the country especially in the light of the emerging climate change issues and its implication on food production.

  17. Characterization of a Novel Polerovirus Infecting Maize in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sha; Jiang, Guangzhuang; Wu, Jianxiang; Liu, Yong; Qian, Yajuan; Zhou, Xueping

    2016-04-28

    A novel virus, tentatively named Maize Yellow Mosaic Virus (MaYMV), was identified from the field-grown maize plants showing yellow mosaic symptoms on the leaves collected from the Yunnan Province of China by the deep sequencing of small RNAs. The complete 5642 nucleotide (nt)-long genome of the MaYMV shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity (73%) to Maize Yellow Dwarf Virus-RMV. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggested that MaYMV represents a new member of the genus Polerovirus in the family Luteoviridae. Furthermore, the P0 protein encoded by MaYMV was demonstrated to inhibit both local and systemic RNA silencing by co-infiltration assays using transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana line 16c carrying the GFP reporter gene, which further supported the identification of a new polerovirus. The biologically-active cDNA clone of MaYMV was generated by inserting the full-length cDNA of MaYMV into the binary vector pCB301. RT-PCR and Northern blot analyses showed that this clone was systemically infectious upon agro-inoculation into N. benthamiana. Subsequently, 13 different isolates of MaYMV from field-grown maize plants in different geographical locations of Yunnan and Guizhou provinces of China were sequenced. Analyses of their molecular variation indicate that the 3' half of P3-P5 read-through protein coding region was the most variable, whereas the coat protein- (CP-) and movement protein- (MP-)coding regions were the most conserved.

  18. Characterization of a Novel Polerovirus Infecting Maize in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel virus, tentatively named Maize Yellow Mosaic Virus (MaYMV, was identified from the field-grown maize plants showing yellow mosaic symptoms on the leaves collected from the Yunnan Province of China by the deep sequencing of small RNAs. The complete 5642 nucleotide (nt-long genome of the MaYMV shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity (73% to Maize Yellow Dwarf Virus-RMV. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggested that MaYMV represents a new member of the genus Polerovirus in the family Luteoviridae. Furthermore, the P0 protein encoded by MaYMV was demonstrated to inhibit both local and systemic RNA silencing by co-infiltration assays using transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana line 16c carrying the GFP reporter gene, which further supported the identification of a new polerovirus. The biologically-active cDNA clone of MaYMV was generated by inserting the full-length cDNA of MaYMV into the binary vector pCB301. RT-PCR and Northern blot analyses showed that this clone was systemically infectious upon agro-inoculation into N. benthamiana. Subsequently, 13 different isolates of MaYMV from field-grown maize plants in different geographical locations of Yunnan and Guizhou provinces of China were sequenced. Analyses of their molecular variation indicate that the 3′ half of P3–P5 read-through protein coding region was the most variable, whereas the coat protein- (CP- and movement protein- (MP-coding regions were the most conserved.

  19. Differences in liquid cloud droplet effective radius and number concentration estimates between MODIS collections 5.1 and 6 over global oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rausch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Differences in cloud droplet effective radius and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC estimates inferred from the Aqua–MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer collections 5.1 (C5.1 and 6 (C6 cloud products (MYD06 are examined for warm clouds over global oceans for the year 2008. Individual pixel level retrievals for both collections are aggregated to 1°  ×  1° and compared globally and regionally for the three main spectral channel pairs used for MODIS cloud optical property retrievals. Comparisons between both collections are performed for cases in which all three effective radii retrievals are classified by the MODIS cloud product as valid. The contribution to the observed differences of several key MYD06 Collection 6 algorithm updates are also explored, with a focus on changes to the surface reflectance model, assumed solar irradiance, above-cloud emission, cloud-top pressure (CTP, and pixel registration. Global results show a neutral to positive (> 50 cm−3 change for C6-derived CDNC relative to C5.1 for the 1.6 and 2.1 µm channel retrievals, corresponding to a neutral to −2 µm difference in droplet effective radius (re. For 3.7 µm retrievals, CDNC results show a negative change in the tropics, with differences transitioning toward positive values with increasing latitude spanning −25 to +50 cm−3 related to a +2.5 to −1 µm transition in effective radius. Cloud optical thickness (τ differences were small relative to effective radius and found to not significantly impact CDNC estimates. Regionally, the magnitude and behavior of the annual CDNC cycle are compared for each effective radius retrieval. Results from this study indicate significant inter-collection differences in aggregated values of effective radius due to changes to the precomputed retrieval lookup tables (LUTs for ocean scenes, changes to retrieved cloud-top pressure, solar irradiance, or above-cloud thermal emission

  20. INTEGRATED WEED CONTROL IN MAIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latré, J; Dewitte, K; Derycke, V; De Roo, B; Haesaert, G

    2015-01-01

    Integrated pest management has been implemented as a general practice by EU legislation. As weed control actually is the most important crop protection measure in maize for Western Europe, the new legislation will have its impact. The question is of course which systems can be successfully implemented in practice with respect to labour efficiency and economical parameters. During 3 successive growing seasons (2007, 2008, 2009) weed control in maize was evaluated, the main focus was put on different techniques of integrated weed control and was compared with chemical weed control. Additionally, during 4 successive growing seasons (2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014) two objects based on integrated weed control and two objects based on mechanical weed control were compared to about twenty different objects of conventional chemical weed control. One of the objects based on mechanical weed control consisted of treatment with the flex-tine harrow before and after emergence in combination with chemical weed control at a reduced rate in 3-4 leave stage. The second one consisted of broadcast mechanical treatments before and after emergence followed by a final in-row application of herbicides and an inter-row cultivation at 6-7(8) leave stage. All trials were conducted on the Experimental farm of Bottelare HoGent-UGent on a sandy loam soil. Maize was growing in 1/3 crop rotation. The effect on weed growth as well as the economic impact of the different applications was evaluated. Combining chemical and mechanical weed control is a possible option in conventional farming but the disadvantages must be taken into account. A better planned weed control based on the real present weed-population in combination with a carefully thought-out choice of herbicides should also be considered as an IPM--approach.

  1. An Indirect Defence Trait Mediated through Egg-Induced Maize Volatiles from Neighbouring Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Mutyambai

    Full Text Available Attack of plants by herbivorous arthropods may result in considerable changes to the plant's chemical phenotype with respect to emission of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs. These HIPVs have been shown to act as repellents to the attacking insects as well as attractants for the insects antagonistic to these herbivores. Plants can also respond to HIPV signals from other plants that warn them of impending attack. Recent investigations have shown that certain maize varieties are able to emit volatiles following stemborer egg deposition. These volatiles attract the herbivore's parasitoids and directly deter further oviposition. However, it was not known whether these oviposition-induced maize (Zea mays, L. volatiles can mediate chemical phenotypic changes in neighbouring unattacked maize plants. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the effect of oviposition-induced maize volatiles on intact neighbouring maize plants in 'Nyamula', a landrace known to respond to oviposition, and a standard commercial hybrid, HB515, that did not. Headspace volatile samples were collected from maize plants exposed to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae egg deposition and unoviposited neighbouring plants as well as from control plants kept away from the volatile emitting ones. Behavioural bioassays were carried out in a four-arm olfactometer using egg (Trichogramma bournieri Pintureau & Babault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and larval (Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoids. Coupled Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS was used for volatile analysis. For the 'Nyamula' landrace, GC-MS analysis revealed HIPV production not only in the oviposited plants but also in neighbouring plants not exposed to insect eggs. Higher amounts of EAG-active biogenic volatiles such as (E-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene were emitted from these plants compared to control plants. Subsequent behavioural assays with female T. bournieri and

  2. Aggressiveness of Cephalosporium maydis causing late wilt of maize in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carneros, A B; Girón, I; Molinero-Ruiz, L

    2012-01-01

    Late wilt of maize, caused by the vascular and soilborne pathogen Cephalosporium maydis, was identified in the Iberian Peninsula in 2008. During the last years the incidence and economical impact of the disease has importantly increased both in Portugal and Spain. Varieties of maize displaying tolerance to the pathogen are available, but the effectiveness can be dependent on the virulence of the fungus (i.e. ability to cause disease on a specific genotype). On the other hand, strains of crop pathogens from different geographic origins can differ with regard to the degree of disease caused on a specific genotype (i.e. aggressiveness). Our working hypothesis was that isolates of C. maydis from different maize growing areas may differ in aggressiveness towards maize plants. Seven fungal strains were isolated in 2009 from diseased plants collected in the most important maize growing regions of Spain and used to inoculate two susceptible maize varieties grown in shadehouse from March to July 2010. The experimental unit consisted of two 4-day-old seedlings planted in an 8-liter pot filled with sand/silt previously infested with 200 g of wheat grains colonized by the fungi. Non colonized wheat grains were used for the control treatments. Six replications (pots) were established for each variety/isolate combination according to a complete randomized 2 x 8 factorial design. The percentage of necrotic and dry aboveground tissues was recorded 14 weeks after inoculation and thereafter weekly until physiological senescence of the control plants. At the end of the experiment, weights of roots and aboveground parts of the plants were recorded. Initial occurrence of symptoms in the plants was significantly dependent on the isolate of C. maydis and on the maize variety. However, final severity of aboveground symptoms (leaf necroses and drying up) was only dependent on the fungal isolate. All the isolates significantly reduced the root weight of both varieties of maize. The highest

  3. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  4. Effects of maize planting patterns on the performance of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    The design was a split-plot arrangement, laid out in a randomized ... significant differences (P<0.05) between the treatments in the growth and yield parameters of maize. The mean effects of companion crops on maize leaf area were 0.61, 0.60, 0.60 and 0.52 m2/plant for sole maize, maize / melon, maize / cassava and.

  5. The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

  6. Differences in soil quality between organic and conventional farming over a maize crop season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Veiga, Adelcia; Puga, João; Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Ferreira, António

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation in agricultural areas is a major concern. The large number of mechanical interventions and the amount of inputs used to assure high crop productivity, such as fertilizers and pesticides, have negative impacts on soil quality and threaten crop productivity and environmental sustainability. Organic farming is an alternative agriculture system, based on organic fertilizers, biological pest control and crop rotation, in order to mitigate soil degradation. Maize is the third most important cereal worldwide, with 2008 million tons produced in 2013 (IGN, 2016). In Portugal, 120000 ha of arable land is devoted to maize production, leading to annual yields of about 930000 ton (INE, 2015). This study investigates soil quality differences in maize farms under organic and conventional systems. The study was carried out in Coimbra Agrarian Technical School (ESAC), in central region of Portugal. ESAC campus comprises maize fields managed under conventional farming - Vagem Grande (32 ha), and organic fields - Caldeirão (12 ha), distancing 2.8 km. Vagem Grande has been intensively used for grain maize production for more than 20 years, whereas Caldeirão was converted to organic farming in 2008, and is being used to select regional maize varieties. The region has a Mediterranean climate. The maize fields have Eutric Fluvisols, with gentle slopes (analyses. Additional soil samples were also collected with soil ring samplers (137 cm3) for bulk density analyses after sowing. Surface water infiltration was also measured with tension infiltrometer (membrane of 20cm), using different tensions (0 cm, -3cm, -6 cm e -15cm). Decomposition rate and litter stabilisation was assessed over a 3-month period through the Tea Bag Index (Keuskamp et al., 2013). The number and diversity of earthworms were also measured at the surface (0-20cm), through extraction, and at the subsurface (>20cm), using mustard solution.

  7. Molecular and cytological characterization of the global Musa germplasm collection provides insights into the treasure of banana diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Christelová, Pavla; De Langhe, E.; Hřibová, Eva; Čížková, Jana; Sardos, J.; Hušáková, Markéta; Van den Houwe, I.; Sutanto, A.; Kepler, A.K.; Swennen, R.; Roux, N.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2017), s. 801-824 ISSN 0960-3115 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk(CZ) LG12021; GA MŠk LG15017 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : genetic-linkage map * aab group * balbisiana colla * acuminata colla * black sigatoka * population-structure * marker analysis * flow-cytometry * plantain musa * aflp markers * Classification * Gene bank * Genetic diversity * ITC collection * Microsatellites * Musa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.265, year: 2016

  8. Ethylene Contributes to maize insect resistance1-Mediated Maize Defense against the Phloem Sap-Sucking Corn Leaf Aphid1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Joe; Basu, Saumik; Varsani, Suresh; Castano-Duque, Lina; Jiang, Victoria; Williams, W. Paul; Felton, Gary W.; Luthe, Dawn S.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling networks among multiple phytohormones fine-tune plant defense responses to insect herbivore attack. Previously, it was reported that the synergistic combination of ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) was required for accumulation of the maize insect resistance1 (mir1) gene product, a cysteine (Cys) proteinase that is a key defensive protein against chewing insect pests in maize (Zea mays). However, this study suggests that mir1-mediated resistance to corn leaf aphid (CLA; Rhopalosiphum maidis), a phloem sap-sucking insect pest, is independent of JA but regulated by the ET-signaling pathway. Feeding by CLA triggers the rapid accumulation of mir1 transcripts in the resistant maize genotype, Mp708. Furthermore, Mp708 provided elevated levels of antibiosis (limits aphid population)- and antixenosis (deters aphid settling)-mediated resistance to CLA compared with B73 and Tx601 maize susceptible inbred lines. Synthetic diet aphid feeding trial bioassays with recombinant Mir1-Cys Protease demonstrates that Mir1-Cys Protease provides direct toxicity to CLA. Furthermore, foliar feeding by CLA rapidly sends defensive signal(s) to the roots that trigger belowground accumulation of the mir1, signifying a potential role of long-distance signaling in maize defense against the phloem-feeding insects. Collectively, our data indicate that ET-regulated mir1 transcript accumulation, uncoupled from JA, contributed to heightened resistance to CLA in maize. In addition, our results underscore the significance of ET acting as a central node in regulating mir1 expression to different feeding guilds of insect herbivores. PMID:26253737

  9. The Effects of Partial Replacement of Maize with Plantain Peels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial involving one hundred and twenty (120) 1-week-old Anak starter broilers was carried out in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of maize with unripe plantain peel meals at 0, 4, 8 and 12% dietary levels on the performance of broilers. Data were collected on feed ...

  10. Genomic expression catalogue of a global collection of BCG vaccine strains show evidence for highly diverged metabolic and cell-wall adaptations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah

    2015-10-21

    Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines against tuberculosis have been available for more than 90 years, their effectiveness has been hindered by variable protective efficacy and a lack of lasting memory responses. One factor contributing to this variability may be the diversity of the BCG strains that are used around the world, in part from genomic changes accumulated during vaccine production and their resulting differences in gene expression. We have compared the genomes and transcriptomes of a global collection of fourteen of the most widely used BCG strains at single base-pair resolution. We have also used quantitative proteomics to identify key differences in expression of proteins across five representative BCG strains of the four tandem duplication (DU) groups. We provide a comprehensive map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation and insertions and deletions (indels) across fourteen BCG strains. Genome-wide SNP characterization allowed the construction of a new and robust phylogenic genealogy of BCG strains. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling revealed a metabolic remodeling in BCG strains that may be reflected by altered immunogenicity and possibly vaccine efficacy. Together, these integrated-omic data represent the most comprehensive catalogue of genetic variation across a global collection of BCG strains.

  11. Genomic expression catalogue of a global collection of BCG vaccine strains show evidence for highly diverged metabolic and cell-wall adaptations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Otto, Thomas D.; Coll, Francesc; Guerra-Assunç ã o, José Afonso; Gao, Ge; Naeem, Raeece; Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Malas, Tareq Majed Yasin; Adroub, Sabir; Verboom, Theo; Ummels, Roy; Zhang, Huoming; Panigrahi, Aswini Kumar; McNerney, Ruth; Brosch, Roland; Clark, Taane G.; Behr, Marcel A.; Bitter, Wilbert; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines against tuberculosis have been available for more than 90 years, their effectiveness has been hindered by variable protective efficacy and a lack of lasting memory responses. One factor contributing to this variability may be the diversity of the BCG strains that are used around the world, in part from genomic changes accumulated during vaccine production and their resulting differences in gene expression. We have compared the genomes and transcriptomes of a global collection of fourteen of the most widely used BCG strains at single base-pair resolution. We have also used quantitative proteomics to identify key differences in expression of proteins across five representative BCG strains of the four tandem duplication (DU) groups. We provide a comprehensive map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation and insertions and deletions (indels) across fourteen BCG strains. Genome-wide SNP characterization allowed the construction of a new and robust phylogenic genealogy of BCG strains. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling revealed a metabolic remodeling in BCG strains that may be reflected by altered immunogenicity and possibly vaccine efficacy. Together, these integrated-omic data represent the most comprehensive catalogue of genetic variation across a global collection of BCG strains.

  12. Screening of promising maize genotypes against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulky) in storage condition

    OpenAIRE

    Ram B Paneru; Resham B Thapa

    2017-01-01

    The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a serious pest of economic importance in stored grains. It causes major damage to stored maize grain thereby reducing its weight, quality and germination. An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications to screen 32 maize genotypes against maize weevil in no-choice and free-choice conditions at Entomology Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (Room temperature: Maximum 24-32°C and Minimum 18-27°C). The fin...

  13. Influence of Kernel Age on Fumonisin B1 Production in Maize by Fusarium moniliforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Colleen Y.; Gilchrist, David G.

    1999-01-01

    Production of fumonisins by Fusarium moniliforme on naturally infected maize ears is an important food safety concern due to the toxic nature of this class of mycotoxins. Assessing the potential risk of fumonisin production in developing maize ears prior to harvest requires an understanding of the regulation of toxin biosynthesis during kernel maturation. We investigated the developmental-stage-dependent relationship between maize kernels and fumonisin B1 production by using kernels collected at the blister (R2), milk (R3), dough (R4), and dent (R5) stages following inoculation in culture at their respective field moisture contents with F. moniliforme. Highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.001) in fumonisin B1 production were found among kernels at the different developmental stages. The highest levels of fumonisin B1 were produced on the dent stage kernels, and the lowest levels were produced on the blister stage kernels. The differences in fumonisin B1 production among kernels at the different developmental stages remained significant (P ≤ 0.001) when the moisture contents of the kernels were adjusted to the same level prior to inoculation. We concluded that toxin production is affected by substrate composition as well as by moisture content. Our study also demonstrated that fumonisin B1 biosynthesis on maize kernels is influenced by factors which vary with the developmental age of the tissue. The risk of fumonisin contamination may begin early in maize ear development and increases as the kernels reach physiological maturity. PMID:10388675

  14. A maize resistance gene functions against bacterial streak disease in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingyu; Lin, Xinghua; Poland, Jesse; Trick, Harold; Leach, Jan; Hulbert, Scot

    2005-10-25

    Although cereal crops all belong to the grass family (Poacea), most of their diseases are specific to a particular species. Thus, a given cereal species is typically resistant to diseases of other grasses, and this nonhost resistance is generally stable. To determine the feasibility of transferring nonhost resistance genes (R genes) between distantly related grasses to control specific diseases, we identified a maize R gene that recognizes a rice pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, which causes bacterial streak disease. Bacterial streak is an important disease of rice in Asia, and no simply inherited sources of resistance have been identified in rice. Although X. o. pv. oryzicola does not cause disease on maize, we identified a maize gene, Rxo1, that conditions a resistance reaction to a diverse collection of pathogen strains. Surprisingly, Rxo1 also controls resistance to the unrelated pathogen Burkholderia andropogonis, which causes bacterial stripe of sorghum and maize. The same gene thus controls resistance reactions to both pathogens and nonpathogens of maize. Rxo1 has a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat structure, similar to many previously identified R genes. Most importantly, Rxo1 functions after transfer as a transgene to rice, demonstrating the feasibility of nonhost R gene transfer between cereals and providing a valuable tool for controlling bacterial streak disease.

  15. Susceptibility and aversion of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Cry1F Bt maize and considerations for insect resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binning, Rachel R; Coats, Joel; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Hellmich, Richard L

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize was developed primarily for North American pests such as European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)). However, most Bt maize products are also cultivated outside of North America, where the primary pests may be different and may have lower susceptibility to Bt toxins. Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda JE Smith) is an important pest and primary target of Bt maize in Central and South America. S. frugiperda susceptibility to Cry1F (expressed in event TC1507) is an example of a pest-by-toxin interaction that does not meet the high-dose definition. In this study, the behavioral and toxic response of S. frugiperda to Cry1F maize was investigated by measuring the percentage of time naive third instars spent feeding during a 3-min exposure. S. frugiperda also were exposed as third instars to Cry1F maize for 14 d to measure weight gain and survival. S. frugiperda demonstrated an initial, postingestive aversive response to Cry1F maize, and few larvae survived the 14 d exposure. The role of susceptibility and avoidance are discussed in the context of global IRM refuge strategy development for Bt products.

  16. TasselNet: counting maize tassels in the wild via local counts regression network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhuang, Bohan; Shen, Chunhua

    2017-01-01

    Accurately counting maize tassels is important for monitoring the growth status of maize plants. This tedious task, however, is still mainly done by manual efforts. In the context of modern plant phenotyping, automating this task is required to meet the need of large-scale analysis of genotype and phenotype. In recent years, computer vision technologies have experienced a significant breakthrough due to the emergence of large-scale datasets and increased computational resources. Naturally image-based approaches have also received much attention in plant-related studies. Yet a fact is that most image-based systems for plant phenotyping are deployed under controlled laboratory environment. When transferring the application scenario to unconstrained in-field conditions, intrinsic and extrinsic variations in the wild pose great challenges for accurate counting of maize tassels, which goes beyond the ability of conventional image processing techniques. This calls for further robust computer vision approaches to address in-field variations. This paper studies the in-field counting problem of maize tassels. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a plant-related counting problem is considered using computer vision technologies under unconstrained field-based environment. With 361 field images collected in four experimental fields across China between 2010 and 2015 and corresponding manually-labelled dotted annotations, a novel Maize Tassels Counting ( MTC ) dataset is created and will be released with this paper. To alleviate the in-field challenges, a deep convolutional neural network-based approach termed TasselNet is proposed. TasselNet can achieve good adaptability to in-field variations via modelling the local visual characteristics of field images and regressing the local counts of maize tassels. Extensive results on the MTC dataset demonstrate that TasselNet outperforms other state-of-the-art approaches by large margins and achieves the overall best counting

  17. TasselNet: counting maize tassels in the wild via local counts regression network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurately counting maize tassels is important for monitoring the growth status of maize plants. This tedious task, however, is still mainly done by manual efforts. In the context of modern plant phenotyping, automating this task is required to meet the need of large-scale analysis of genotype and phenotype. In recent years, computer vision technologies have experienced a significant breakthrough due to the emergence of large-scale datasets and increased computational resources. Naturally image-based approaches have also received much attention in plant-related studies. Yet a fact is that most image-based systems for plant phenotyping are deployed under controlled laboratory environment. When transferring the application scenario to unconstrained in-field conditions, intrinsic and extrinsic variations in the wild pose great challenges for accurate counting of maize tassels, which goes beyond the ability of conventional image processing techniques. This calls for further robust computer vision approaches to address in-field variations. Results This paper studies the in-field counting problem of maize tassels. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a plant-related counting problem is considered using computer vision technologies under unconstrained field-based environment. With 361 field images collected in four experimental fields across China between 2010 and 2015 and corresponding manually-labelled dotted annotations, a novel Maize Tassels Counting (MTC dataset is created and will be released with this paper. To alleviate the in-field challenges, a deep convolutional neural network-based approach termed TasselNet is proposed. TasselNet can achieve good adaptability to in-field variations via modelling the local visual characteristics of field images and regressing the local counts of maize tassels. Extensive results on the MTC dataset demonstrate that TasselNet outperforms other state-of-the-art approaches by large

  18. Maize cob losses and their effects on the poverty status of maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed fresh maize cob losses and its effect on the poverty status of maize farmers in Edo State,. Nigeria. The specific .... is the poverty gap for ... Total cost. 162,367.48. 100.00. Returns. Total expected yield (N). 327,966.63. _.

  19. Identification of resistance to Maize rayado fino virus in maize inbred lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is one of the most important virus diseases of maize in America. Severe yield losses, ranging from 10 to 50% in landraces to nearly 100% in contemporary cultivars, have been reported. Resistance has been reported in populations, but few inbred lines have been identifie...

  20. Effects of feeding Mediterranean buffalo sorghum silage versus maize silage on the rumen microbiota and milk fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Huws, Sharon; Chiariotti, Antonella; Sarubbi, Fiorella; Carfì, Francesca; Pace, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum presents a sustainable feedstock for Mediterranean buffaloes due to its reduced water and nitrogen requirements compared with maize, which is currently fed primarily. We investigated the effects of feeding sorghum as opposed to maize on Mediterranean buffalo rumen microbial diversity and milk fatty acid content. Four cannulated lactating Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed a basal diet for one month before switching either to maize or sorghum-silage based diets for a 3-month period. Buffaloes were then changed over to the contrasting diet for a further one month. Rumen and milk samples were collected at the end of each month. DGGE- and T-RFLP-based dendrograms generated from rumen samples did not show an effect of diet on rumen bacterial diversity. Milk samples also did not differ in terms of their fatty acid content post sorghum feeding as compared with maize feeding. Thus, sorghum provides an environmentally beneficial alternative to maize for feeding Mediterranean buffalo with little effect on rumen microbial diversity or milk fatty acid composition compared with maize feeding.

  1. The use of cobs, a by-product of maize grain, for energy production in anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Blandino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the rising energy demand and the conflict between food, feed and energy crops for agricultural land, there is a growing need for alternative biomasses for energy purposes. New developments in harvesting technology have created the possibility of harvesting cobs as a by-product of maize grain harvesting. The aim of the present work has been to evaluate the potential and limitations of maize cob utilisation in an anaerobic digestion chain, considering the main agronomic, productive and qualitative traits. Maize grain and cob yields as well as the moisture content of samples collected from 1044 (farm fields (located in North West Italy have been determined over the 2012 growing season. Moreover, 27 representative fields were harvested using a modified combine-harvester that is able to collect maize grains and threshed cobs separately. The chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP of the cobs have been analysed. The relative potential yield of maize cobs was established as 18.7% of the grain mass, while the wet cob yield recorded in the field after mechanical harvesting was 1.6 t ha–1. The total solid content was 60%. Fibre fractions represented over 85% of the dry cob matter, lignin content was about 16%, while the protein, ash, lipids and macro-elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium contents were very low compared to the whole-plant maize used for silage. The average BMP of wet threshed cob was 250±20 Nm3 t VS–1. Collected data have underlined that maize cobs could be used as a sustainable feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes.

  2. In vitro evaluation of different varieties of maize fodder for their methane generation potential and digestibility with goat rumen liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Vaswani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the methane generation potential and digestibility of different (normal and three high-quality protein maize [HQPM] varieties of maize fodder with goat rumen liquor in vitro. Materials and Methods: Methane production potential and digestibility of different varieties of maize fodder were tested in in vitro gas production test. Seven varieties of maize, four normal (HTHM 5101, DHM 117, HM 5, and Shaktiman/900 M Gold, and three high-quality protein (HQPM 5, HQPM 7, and HQPM 9/Vivek were grown in different plots under the same environmental and agro-climatic conditions. Fodders were harvested at 45-50 days of sowing, and the representative samples of fodder from different varieties of maize were collected for analysis. Dried and grinded form of these maize fodder varieties was tested for gas, methane, and digestibility using goat rumen microflora in in vitro gas syringes. Results: Gas production (ml/g dry matter [DM] was highest for HM5 variety (97.66, whereas lowest for HQPM 9 variety (64.22. Gas production (ml/g degraded DM [DDM] and methane (% were statistically similar in different varieties of maize fodder. The methane production expressed as ml/g DM and ml/g DDM was significantly (p<0.05 highest for HM 5 (14.22 and 26.62 and lowest for DHM 117 variety (7.47 and 14.13. The in vitro DM digestibility (% and in vitro organic matter digestibility (% varied from 47.48 (HQPM 5 to 52.05 (HQPM 9 and 50.03 (HQPM 7 to 54.22 (HM 5, respectively. Conclusion: The present study concluded that DHM 117 maize variety fodder has lowest methane generation potential and incorporating it in the dietary regime of ruminants may contribute to lower methane production.

  3. Exploring karyotype diversity of Argentinian Guaraní maize landraces: Relationship among South American maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Realini

    Full Text Available In Argentina there are two different centers of maize diversity, the Northeastern (NEA and the Northwestern (NWA regions of the country. In NEA, morphological studies identified 15 landraces cultivated by the Guaraní communities in Misiones Province. In the present study we analyzed the karyotype diversity of 20 populations of Guaraní maize landraces through classical and molecular cytogenetic analyses. Our results demonstrate significant intra and inter-populational variation in the percentage, number, size, chromosome position and frequencies of the heterochromatic blocks, which are called knobs. Knob sequence analysis (180-bp and TR-1 did not show significant differences among Guaraní populations. B chromosomes were not detected, and abnormal 10 (AB10 chromosomes were found with low frequency (0.1≥f ≤0.40 in six populations. Our results allowed karyotypic characterization of each analyzed population, defining for the first time the chromosomal constitution of maize germplasm from NEA. The multivariate analysis (PCoA and UPGMA of karyotype parameters allowed the distinction between two populations groups: the Popcorn and the Floury maize populations. These results are in agreement with previously published microsatellite and morphological/phenological studies. Finally, we compared our karyotype results with those previously reported for NWA and Central Region of South America maize. Our data suggest that there are important differences between maize from NEA and NWA at the karyotype level, supporting the hypothesis that there are two pathways of input of South America maize. Our results also confirm the existence of two centers of diversification of Argentinian native maize, NWA and NEA. This work contributes new knowledge about maize diversity, which is relevant for future plans to improve commercial maize, and for conservation of agrobiodiversity.

  4. The Unanticipated Challenges Associated With Implementing an Observational Study Protocol in a Large-Scale Physical Activity and Global Positioning System Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David; Ellaway, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Background Large-scale primary data collections are complex, costly, and time-consuming. Study protocols for trial-based research are now commonplace, with a growing number of similar pieces of work being published on observational research. However, useful additions to the literature base are publications that describe the issues and challenges faced while conducting observational studies. These can provide researchers with insightful knowledge that can inform funding proposals or project development work. Objectives In this study, we identify and reflectively discuss the unforeseen or often unpublished issues associated with organizing and implementing a large-scale objectively measured physical activity and global positioning system (GPS) data collection. Methods The SPACES (Studying Physical Activity in Children’s Environments across Scotland) study was designed to collect objectively measured physical activity and GPS data from 10- to 11-year-old children across Scotland, using a postal delivery method. The 3 main phases of the project (recruitment, delivery of project materials, and data collection and processing) are described within a 2-stage framework: (1) intended design and (2) implementation of the intended design. Results Unanticipated challenges arose, which influenced the data collection process; these encompass four main impact categories: (1) cost, budget, and funding; (2) project timeline; (3) participation and engagement; and (4) data challenges. The main unforeseen issues that impacted our timeline included the informed consent process for children under the age of 18 years; the use of, and coordination with, the postal service to deliver study information and equipment; and the variability associated with when participants began data collection and the time taken to send devices and consent forms back (1-12 months). Unanticipated budgetary issues included the identification of some study materials (AC power adapter) not fitting through

  5. The Unanticipated Challenges Associated With Implementing an Observational Study Protocol in a Large-Scale Physical Activity and Global Positioning System Data Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrorie, Paul; Walker, David; Ellaway, Anne

    2018-04-30

    Large-scale primary data collections are complex, costly, and time-consuming. Study protocols for trial-based research are now commonplace, with a growing number of similar pieces of work being published on observational research. However, useful additions to the literature base are publications that describe the issues and challenges faced while conducting observational studies. These can provide researchers with insightful knowledge that can inform funding proposals or project development work. In this study, we identify and reflectively discuss the unforeseen or often unpublished issues associated with organizing and implementing a large-scale objectively measured physical activity and global positioning system (GPS) data collection. The SPACES (Studying Physical Activity in Children's Environments across Scotland) study was designed to collect objectively measured physical activity and GPS data from 10- to 11-year-old children across Scotland, using a postal delivery method. The 3 main phases of the project (recruitment, delivery of project materials, and data collection and processing) are described within a 2-stage framework: (1) intended design and (2) implementation of the intended design. Unanticipated challenges arose, which influenced the data collection process; these encompass four main impact categories: (1) cost, budget, and funding; (2) project timeline; (3) participation and engagement; and (4) data challenges. The main unforeseen issues that impacted our timeline included the informed consent process for children under the age of 18 years; the use of, and coordination with, the postal service to deliver study information and equipment; and the variability associated with when participants began data collection and the time taken to send devices and consent forms back (1-12 months). Unanticipated budgetary issues included the identification of some study materials (AC power adapter) not fitting through letterboxes, as well as the employment of

  6. Environmental life cycle assessments of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass and winter wheat straw for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential environmental impacts of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass, and straw from winter wheat as biomass feedstocks for biorefinery. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method included the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100),...

  7. Inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf economic traits in wheat and maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam R; Hale, Christine E; Cerabolini, Bruno E L; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Craine, Joseph; Gough, William A; Kattge, Jens; Tirona, Cairan K F

    2018-02-01

    Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES) trait variation underpins multiple agroecological processes and many prominent crop yield models. While there are numerous independent studies assessing trait variation in crops, to date there have been no comprehensive assessments of intraspecific trait variation (ITV) in LES traits for wheat and maize: the world's most widespread crops. Using trait databases and peer-reviewed literature, we compiled over 700 records of specific leaf area (SLA), maximum photosynthetic rates ( A max ) and leaf nitrogen (N) concentrations, for wheat and maize. We evaluated intraspecific LES trait variation, and intraspecific trait-environment relationships. While wheat and maize occupy the upper 90th percentile of LES trait values observed across a global species pool, ITV ranged widely across the LES in wheat and maize. Fertilization treatments had strong impacts on leaf N, while plant developmental stage (here standardized as the number of days since planting) had strong impacts on A max ; days since planting, N fertilization and irrigation all influenced SLA. When controlling for these factors, intraspecific responses to temperature and precipitation explained 39.4 and 43.7 % of the variation in A max and SLA, respectively, but only 5.4 % of the variation in leaf N. Despite a long history of domestication in these species, ITV in wheat and maize among and within cultivars remains large. Intraspecific trait variation is a critical consideration to refine regional to global models of agroecosystem structure, function and food security. Considerable opportunities and benefits exist for consolidating a crop trait database for a wider range of domesticated plant species.

  8. Locally processed roasted-maize-based weaning foods fortified with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locally processed roasted-maize-based weaning foods fortified with legumes: factors ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Tom Brown (roasted-maize porridge) is one of the traditional weaning foods in Ghana.

  9. the influence of farmers' adoption behaviour on maize production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    The main cash crops grown in the country include coffee, sisal, cashew, cotton, tobacco ... Among these food crops, maize is the most important cereal food crop, and ... promoting recommended maize production practices in a package form.

  10. Importance of husk covering on field infestation of maize by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... An experiment was conducted to determine the importance of husk covering on field infestation of maize by the maize ... high yielding plants with no consideration for resistance ..... provided financial support for the study.

  11. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. ... Two hundred maize marketers were selected from Vandeikya Local Area (LGA) of ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  12. participatory evaluation of drought tolerant maize varieties in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ). Maize production provides livelihoods for millions of subsistence farmers in WCA, thus, increasing the productivity of maize-based cropping sys- tems could increase and stabilize rural incomes, alleviate poverty and reduce food insecurity in.

  13. Leaf transpiration efficiency of some drought-resistant maize lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field measurements of leaf gas exchange in maize often indicate stomatal conductances higher than required to provide substomatal carbon dioxide concentrations saturating to photosynthesis. Thus maize leaves often operate at lower transpiration efficiency (TE) than potentially achievable for specie...

  14. Effect of different irrigation systems on root growth of maize and cowpea plants in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha A. Mahgoub

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University to study the influence of different irrigation systems on root length density and specific root length of maize and cowpea plants cultivated in sandy soil. Three irrigation systems (Surface, drip and sprinkler irrigation were used in this study. The NPK fertilizers were applied as recommended doses for maize and cowpea. Root samples were collected from the soil profile below one plant (maize and cowpea which was irrigated by the three irrigation systems by using an iron box (30 cm× 20 cm which is divided into 24 small boxes each box is (5× 5 × 5 cm. At surface irrigation, root length density of cowpea reached to soil depth 30-40cm with lateral distances 5-10 cm and 15-20 cm. Vertical distribution of root length density of maize was increased with soil depth till 20-25 cm, and then it decreased till soil depth 35-40cm. Under drip irrigation, root length density of cowpea increased horizontally from 0-5cm to 10-15cm then it decreased till soil depth 25-30 cm and below this depth root length density disappeared. For the root length density and specific root length of maize under drip irrigation, the data showed that root length density and specific root length decreased with increasing in soil depth. The root length density of cowpea under sprinkler irrigation at 0-5cm disappeared from horizontal distance at 25-30 cm. The data showed that root length density of maize under sprinkler irrigation was higher at the soil top layers 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm than other layers from 10-40 cm.

  15. Detection of genetically modified maize events in Brazilian maize-derived food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Branquinho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government has approved many transgenic maize lines for commercialization and has established a threshold of 1% for food labeling, which underscores need for monitoring programs. Thirty four samples including flours and different types of nacho chips were analyzed by conventional and real-time PCR in 2011 and 2012. The events MON810, Bt11, and TC1507 were detected in most of the samples, and NK603 was present only in the samples analyzed in 2012. The authorized lines GA21, T25, and the unauthorized Bt176 were not detected. All positive samples in the qualitative tests collected in 2011 showed a transgenic content higher than 1%, and none of them was correctly labeled. Regarding the samples collected in 2012, all positive samples were quantified higher than the threshold, and 47.0% were not correctly labeled. The overall results indicated that the major genetically modified organisms detected were MON810, TC1507, Bt11, and NK603 events. Some industries that had failed to label their products in 2011 started labeling them in 2012, demonstrating compliance with the current legislation observing the consumer rights. Although these results are encouraging, it has been clearly demonstrated the need for continuous monitoring programs to ensure consumers that food products are labeled properly.

  16. Strategic Marketing Problems in the Uganda Maize Seed Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald W.; Mbowa, Swaibu

    2004-01-01

    Strategic marketing issues and challenges face maize seed marketing firms as farmers increasingly adopt hybrid varieties in a modernizing third world country such as Uganda. The maize seed industry of Uganda has changed dramatically from a government owned, controlled, and operated industry to a competitive market oriented industry with substantial private firm investment and participation. The new maize seed industry is young, dynamic, growing and very competitive. The small maize seed marke...

  17. Extensive tissue-specific transcriptomic plasticity in maize primary roots upon water deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Opitz, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Malik, Waqas Ahmed; Lithio, Andrew; Brandt, Ronny; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Water deficit is the most important environmental constraint severely limiting global crop growth and productivity. This study investigated early transcriptome changes in maize (Zea mays L.) primary root tissues in response to moderate water deficit conditions by RNA-Sequencing. Differential gene expression analyses revealed a high degree of plasticity of the water deficit response. The activity status of genes (active/inactive) was determined by a Bayesian hierarchical model. In total, 70% o...

  18. Prediction of maize phenotype based on whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms using deep belief networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmatia, H.; Kusuma, W. A.; Hasibuan, L. S.

    2017-05-01

    Selection in plant breeding could be more effective and more efficient if it is based on genomic data. Genomic selection (GS) is a new approach for plant-breeding selection that exploits genomic data through a mechanism called genomic prediction (GP). Most of GP models used linear methods that ignore effects of interaction among genes and effects of higher order nonlinearities. Deep belief network (DBN), one of the architectural in deep learning methods, is able to model data in high level of abstraction that involves nonlinearities effects of the data. This study implemented DBN for developing a GP model utilizing whole-genome Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) as data for training and testing. The case study was a set of traits in maize. The maize dataset was acquisitioned from CIMMYT’s (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) Global Maize program. Based on Pearson correlation, DBN is outperformed than other methods, kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) regression, Bayesian LASSO (BL), best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP), in case allegedly non-additive traits. DBN achieves correlation of 0.579 within -1 to 1 range.

  19. Risk Assessment of Maize Drought Disaster in Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, H.; Pan, D.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural drought is one of the focuses of global concern and one of the natural disasters that affect the agriculture production mostly in China. Farming-pastoral zones in China are located in the monsoon fringe area, precipitation of which is extremely unstable, and drought occurs frequently. The agro-pastoral transitional zone in North China is one of the main producing areas of northern spring maize in northern China, and maize is the second largest grain crop in the region. An assessment of the risk of drought disaster in this region is therefore important in ensuring a reduction in such disasters and an increase in food security. A risk assessment model, EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) model, for maize drought disasters based on the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator crop model is proposed for areas with the topographic characteristics of agro-pastoral transitional zone in North China. The results showed that the hazard risk level for the maize zone of agro-pastoral transitional zone in North China is generally high. Most hazard index values were between 0.4 and 0.5, accounting for 48.77% of total study area. The high-risk areas were mainly distributed in Ordos Plateau (South of Inner Mongolia Autonomous region), South of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Center of Gansu Province. These results provide a scientific basis and support for the reduction of agricultural drought disasters and an increase in food security in the agro-pastoral transitional zone in North China.

  20. Global collection of mushroom pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Korsten, L.

    2013-01-01

    In many places in the world, increasingly less chemical crop protection agents are available for use in mushroom cultivation. As a consequence, mushroom cultivation will loose the ability to use crop protection agents. As a consequence, good hygiene management, early detection and monitoring of

  1. Nitrogen effects on maize yield following groundnut in rotation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotating maize (Zea mays L.) with groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has been proposed as a way to maintain soil fertility and prevent maize productivity declines in the smallholder cropping systems of sub-humid Zimbabwe. Field experiments with fertilizer-N on maize in rotation with groundnut were conducted at three ...

  2. Intercropping maize with cassava or cowpea in Ghana | Ennin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize/cassava and maize/cowpea intercrops were evaluated in southern Ghana, over a 5-year period to determine the optimum combination of component crop varieties and component plant population densities to optimize productivity of maize-based intercropping systems. Results indicated that some cowpea varieties ...

  3. The economic implication of substituting cocoa pod husk for maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This saving was found to bridge the deficit between demand and supply as given by supplementation done by importing maize. The study concluded that by utilizing CPH in compounding various livestock feed rations, the high price of maize arising from excessive demand can be reduced. The limiting role of maize in ...

  4. Developing a database for maize variety in Nigeria | Daniel | Moor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance data of maize varieties at different locations needs to be accurate and accessible to stimulate the improvement of the Nigerian maize seed system. This paper describes a database model to implement a simple computerized information system for maize varieties and their performance at various locations in ...

  5. Review: Maize research and production in Nigeria | Iken | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize (Zea mays) is a major important cereal being cultivated in the rainforest and the derived Savannah zones of Nigeria. Land races, improved high yielding and pest and diseases resistant varieties of maize have been developed. Key words: Maize, Zea mays, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(6) 2004: 302- ...

  6. quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    number row-1 and maize grain yield, respectively. The ridge ... Key Words: Furrow irrigation, water use efficiency, Zea mays. RÉSUMÉ ... important in arid and semi-arid regions, with ... as maize) canopy is not able to intercept all the solar radiation during the growth period. ... Intercropping maize and legumes considerably ...

  7. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to Maize rayado fino virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) causes one of the most important virus diseases of maize in regions of Mexico, Central and South America, where it causes moderate to severe yield losses. The virus is found from the southern United States. to northern Argentina where its vector, the maize leafhopper D...

  8. Oven-drying reduces ruminal starch degradation in maize kernels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Cone, J.W.; Hendriks, W.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of starch largely determines the feeding value of maize (Zea mays L.) for dairy cows. Normally, maize kernels are dried and ground before chemical analysis and determining degradation characteristics, whereas cows eat and digest fresh material. Drying the moist maize kernels

  9. Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van W.C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java was studied by means of a survey of farming practice and by field experiments. The influence of different sowing times and plant density of maize on the development and yield of groundnuts and maize were the main topics in this thesis. Plant

  10. Maize and the Malnutrition Conundrum in South Africa | BOOYENS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the author gives an overview of the factors leading to maize becoming a staple food among black people in South Africa. The purported relationship between maize consumption and malnutrition, proposals as well as experimental and practical efforts to correct the dietary deficiencies of maize are briefly ...

  11. Analyses of expressed sequence tags from the maize foliar pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis identity novel genes expressed during vegetative infectious, and repoductive growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bluhm, B.H.; Lindquist, E.; Kema, G.H.J.; Goodwin, S.B.; Dunkle, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis is an aggressive foliar pathogen of maize that causes substantial losses annually throughout the Western Hemisphere. Despite its impact on maize production, little is known about the regulation of pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis at the molecular level. The objectives of this study were to generate a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from C. zeae-maydis and evaluate their expression during vegetative, infectious, and reproductive growth. R...

  12. Analyses of expressed sequence tags from the maize foliar pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis identify novel genes expressed during vegetative, infectious, and reproductive growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bluhm, Burton H; Dhillon, Braham; Lindquist, Erika A; Kema, Gert HJ; Goodwin, Stephen B; Dunkle, Larry D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The ascomycete fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis is an aggressive foliar pathogen of maize that causes substantial losses annually throughout the Western Hemisphere. Despite its impact on maize production, little is known about the regulation of pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis at the molecular level. The objectives of this study were to generate a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from C. zeae-maydis and evaluate their expression during vegetative, infectious, and re...

  13. Maize production in mid hills of Nepal: from food to feed security

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad Timsina; Yuga Nath Ghimire; Jeevan Lamichhane

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken in 2016 to analyze the production and utilization of maize in Nepal. Sixty maize growers from Kavre and Lamjung districts were selected using purposive, cluster and simple random sampling techniques. Similarly, six feed industries and five maize experts from Chitwan district were also interviewed. Study shows 56% of the total areas were used for maize production and 50% of the maize areas were covered by hybrid maize. There was no practice of contract maize productio...

  14. Setting Up Decision-Making Tools toward a Quality-Oriented Participatory Maize Breeding Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mara L.; Brites, Cláudia; Paulo, Manuel; Carbas, Bruna; Belo, Maria; Mendes-Moreira, Pedro M. R.; Brites, Carla; Bronze, Maria do Rosário; Gunjača, Jerko; Šatović, Zlatko; Vaz Patto, Maria C.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported promising differences in the quality of kernels from farmers' maize populations collected in a Portuguese region known to produce maize-based bread. However, several limitations have been identified in the previous characterizations of those populations, such as a limited set of quality traits accessed and a missing accurate agronomic performance evaluation. The objectives of this study were to perform a more detailed quality characterization of Portuguese farmers' maize populations; to estimate their agronomic performance in a broader range of environments; and to integrate quality, agronomic, and molecular data in the setting up of decision-making tools for the establishment of a quality-oriented participatory maize breeding program. Sixteen farmers' maize populations, together with 10 other maize populations chosen for comparison purposes, were multiplied in a common-garden experiment for quality evaluation. Flour obtained from each population was used to study kernel composition (protein, fat, fiber), flour's pasting behavior, and bioactive compound levels (carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds). These maize populations were evaluated for grain yield and ear weight in nine locations across Portugal; the populations' adaptability and stability were evaluated using additive main effects and multiplication interaction (AMMI) model analysis. The phenotypic characterization of each population was complemented with a molecular characterization, in which 30 individuals per population were genotyped with 20 microsatellites. Almost all farmers' populations were clustered into the same quality-group characterized by high levels of protein and fiber, low levels of carotenoids, volatile aldehydes, α- and δ-tocopherols, and breakdown viscosity. Within this quality-group, variability on particular quality traits (color and some bioactive compounds) could still be found. Regarding the agronomic performance, farmers' maize populations

  15. Setting Up Decision-Making Tools toward a Quality-Oriented Participatory Maize Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara L. Alves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported promising differences in the quality of kernels from farmers' maize populations collected in a Portuguese region known to produce maize-based bread. However, several limitations have been identified in the previous characterizations of those populations, such as a limited set of quality traits accessed and a missing accurate agronomic performance evaluation. The objectives of this study were to perform a more detailed quality characterization of Portuguese farmers' maize populations; to estimate their agronomic performance in a broader range of environments; and to integrate quality, agronomic, and molecular data in the setting up of decision-making tools for the establishment of a quality-oriented participatory maize breeding program. Sixteen farmers' maize populations, together with 10 other maize populations chosen for comparison purposes, were multiplied in a common-garden experiment for quality evaluation. Flour obtained from each population was used to study kernel composition (protein, fat, fiber, flour's pasting behavior, and bioactive compound levels (carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds. These maize populations were evaluated for grain yield and ear weight in nine locations across Portugal; the populations' adaptability and stability were evaluated using additive main effects and multiplication interaction (AMMI model analysis. The phenotypic characterization of each population was complemented with a molecular characterization, in which 30 individuals per population were genotyped with 20 microsatellites. Almost all farmers' populations were clustered into the same quality-group characterized by high levels of protein and fiber, low levels of carotenoids, volatile aldehydes, α- and δ-tocopherols, and breakdown viscosity. Within this quality-group, variability on particular quality traits (color and some bioactive compounds could still be found. Regarding the agronomic performance, farmers

  16. Glycaemic Response to Quality Protein Maize Grits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora N. Panlasigui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carbohydrates have varied rates of digestion and absorption that induces different hormonal and metabolic responses in the body. Given the abundance of carbohydrate sources in the Philippines, the determination of the glycaemic index (GI of local foods may prove beneficial in promoting health and decreasing the risk of diabetes in the country. Methods. The GI of Quality Protein Maize (QPM grits, milled rice, and the mixture of these two food items were determined in ten female subjects. Using a randomized crossover design, the control bread and three test foods were given on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected through finger prick at time intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and analyzed for glucose concentrations. Results. The computed incremental area under the glucose response curve (IAUC varies significantly across test foods (P<.0379 with the pure QPM grits yielding the lowest IAUC relative to the control by 46.38. Resulting GI values of the test foods (bootstrapped were 80.36 (SEM 14.24, 119.78 (SEM 18.81, and 93.17 (SEM 27.27 for pure QPM grits, milled rice, and rice-QPM grits mixture, respectively. Conclusion. Pure QPM corn grits has a lower glycaemic response compared to milled rice and the rice-corn grits mixture, which may be related in part to differences in their dietary fibre composition and physicochemical characteristics. Pure QPM corn grits may be a more health beneficial food for diabetic and hyperlipidemic individuals.

  17. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), an emerging threat to maize-based food security in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize productivity. In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on...

  18. MaizeGDB: The Maize Model Organism Database for Basic, Translational, and Applied Research

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Harper, Lisa C.; Schaeffer, Mary L.; Sen, Taner Z.; Seigfried, Trent E.; Campbell, Darwin A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2001 maize became the number one production crop in the world with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reporting over 614 million tonnes produced. Its success is due to the high productivity per acre in tandem with a wide variety of commercial uses. Not only is maize an excellent source of food, feed, and fuel, but also its by-products are used in the production of various commercial products. Maize's unparalleled success in agriculture stems from basic research, th...

  19. Impact of Cry3Bb1-expressing Bt maize on adults of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissle, Michael; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg

    2011-07-01

    Genetically engineered maize producing insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is protected from root damage by corn rootworm larvae. An examination was made to establish whether western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) adults are affected by Cry3Bb1-expressing maize (MON88017) when feeding on above-ground tissue. In laboratory bioassays, adult D. v. virgifera were fed for 7 weeks with silk, leaves or pollen from Bt maize or the corresponding near-isoline. Male, but not female, survival was reduced in the Bt-leaf treatment compared with the control. Female weight was lower when fed Bt maize, and egg production was reduced in the Bt-silk treatment. ELISA measurements demonstrated that beetles feeding on silk were exposed to higher Cry3Bb1 concentrations than beetles collected from Bt-maize fields in the United States. In contrast to silk and pollen, feeding on leaves resulted in high mortality and low fecundity. Females feeding on pollen produced more eggs than on silk. C:N ratios indicated that silk does not provide enough nitrogen for optimal egg production. Direct effects of Cry3Bb1 on adult beetles could explain the observed effects, but varietal differences between Bt and control maize are also possible. The impact of Bt maize on adult populations, however, is likely to be limited. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Efficiency of phosphate fertilization to maize crop in high phosphorus content soil, evaluated by 32P tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevizam, Anderson R.; Alvarez Villanueva, Felipe C.; Silva, Maria Ligia de S.; Muraoka, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Application of high dosis of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils is justified by its intense fixation by the soil clays, which reduce availability to crops. The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of maize crops to five rates of triple superphosphate in a soil with high available phosphorus content. Portions of 2 dm 3 of soil (Typic Quartzipisamment) with 75 mg kg -1 of available phosphorus and pH 7.00, collected from the upper 0-20 cm layer, were placed in plastic pots, received solution containing 5.55 MBq (150 μCi) of 32 P and incubated for 7 days. Then 0, 250, 500, 1000 and 4000 mg P kg -1 as triple superphosphate was added to soil in the respective pots and incubated for 15 days keeping the soil moisture to 60 % of the field capacity. Maize (Zea mays L.) plants, single hybrid P30F80, were grown for 50 days (after germination), collected, oven dried, weighed and ground in a Wiley mill for analysis of total P content and 32 P radioactivity. The maize dry matter increased with triple superphosphate rates. The phosphorus content and accumulation in the maize plants increased with triple superphosphate rate up to 4000 mg kg -1 . The percentage of phosphorus derived from the fertilizer ranged from 79 to 97% and consequently the phosphorus derived from soil decreased with increasing application of triple superphosphate. In spite of soil high P available content, maize plants responded to applied phosphorus rates. (author)

  1. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  2. Transcriptomic Profiling of the Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaf Response to Abiotic Stresses at the Seedling Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengcheng; Cao, Wei; Fang, Huimin; Xu, Shuhui; Yin, Shuangyi; Zhang, Yingying; Lin, Dezhou; Wang, Jianan; Chen, Yufei; Xu, Chenwu; Yang, Zefeng

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, including drought, salinity, heat, and cold, negatively affect maize ( Zea mays L.) development and productivity. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of resistance to abiotic stresses in maize, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of B73 seedling leaves exposed to drought, salinity, heat, and cold stress. A total of 5,330 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in differential comparisons between the control and each stressed sample, with 1,661, 2,019, 2,346, and 1,841 DEGs being identified in comparisons of the control with salinity, drought, heat, and cold stress, respectively. Functional annotations of DEGs suggested that the stress response was mediated by pathways involving hormone metabolism and signaling, transcription factors (TFs), very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid signaling, among others. Of the obtained DEGs (5,330), 167 genes are common to these four abiotic stresses, including 10 up-regulated TFs (five ERFs, two NACs, one ARF, one MYB, and one HD-ZIP) and two down-regulated TFs (one b-ZIP and one MYB-related), which suggested that common mechanisms may be initiated in response to different abiotic stresses in maize. This study contributes to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of maize leaf responses to abiotic stresses and could be useful for developing maize cultivars resistant to abiotic stresses.

  3. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  4. Exploring Maize Intensification with the Global Yield Gap Atlas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Trade-off analysis has become an increasingly important approach far evaluating system level outcomes of agricultural production and for prioritising and taigeting management interventions in multi-functional agricultural landscapes. We review the strengths and weakness of different techniques

  5. Source and magnitude of ammonium generation in maize roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, J.; Vol, R.J.; Jackson, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    Studies with 15 N indicate that appreciable generation of NH 4 + from endogenous sources accompanies the uptake and assimilation of exogenous NH 4 + by roots. To identify the source of NH 4 + generation, maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings were grown on 14 NH 4 + and then exposed for 3 d to highly labeled 15 NH 4 + . More of the entering 15 NH 4 + was incorporated into the protein-N fraction of roots in darkness (approximately 25%) than in the light (approximately 14%). Although the 14 NH 4 + content of roots declined rapidly to less than 1 micromole per plant, efflux of 14 NH 4 + continued throughout the 3-d period at an average daily rate of 14 micromole per plant. As a consequence, cumulative 14 NH 4 + efflux during the 3-d period accounted for 25% of the total 14 N initially present in the root. Although soluble organic 14 N in roots declined during the 3-d period, insoluble 14 N remained relatively constant. In shoots both soluble organic 14 N and 14 NH 4 + declined, but a comparable increase in insoluble 14 N was noted. Thus, total 14 N in shoots remained constant, reflecting little or no net redistribution of 14 N between shoots and roots. Collectively, these observations reveal that catabolism of soluble organic N, not protein N, is the primary source of endogenous NH 4 + generation in maize roots. (author)

  6. Carbaryl residues in maize and processed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Sattar, A. Jr.; Naqvi, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Carbaryl residues in two local maize varieties were determined using a colorimetric method. No significant differences were observed for residues of the two varieties which ranged between 12.0 to 13.75 mg/kg in the crude oil, and averaged 1.04 and 0.67 mg/kg in the flour and cake respectively. In whole maize plants, carbaryl residues declined to approximately 2 mg/kg 35 days after treatment. Cooking in aqueous, oil or aqueous-oil media led to 63-83% loss of carbaryl residues, after 30 minutes. (author)

  7. Predicting stem borer density in maize using RapidEye data and generalized linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Landmann, Tobias; Kyalo, Richard; Ong'amo, George; Mwalusepo, Sizah; Sulieman, Saad; Ru, Bruno Le

    2017-05-01

    Average maize yield in eastern Africa is 2.03 t ha-1 as compared to global average of 6.06 t ha-1 due to biotic and abiotic constraints. Amongst the biotic production constraints in Africa, stem borers are the most injurious. In eastern Africa, maize yield losses due to stem borers are currently estimated between 12% and 21% of the total production. The objective of the present study was to explore the possibility of RapidEye spectral data to assess stem borer larva densities in maize fields in two study sites in Kenya. RapidEye images were acquired for the Bomet (western Kenya) test site on the 9th of December 2014 and on 27th of January 2015, and for Machakos (eastern Kenya) a RapidEye image was acquired on the 3rd of January 2015. Five RapidEye spectral bands as well as 30 spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were utilized to predict per field maize stem borer larva densities using generalized linear models (GLMs), assuming Poisson ('Po') and negative binomial ('NB') distributions. Root mean square error (RMSE) and ratio prediction to deviation (RPD) statistics were used to assess the models performance using a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. The Zero-inflated NB ('ZINB') models outperformed the 'NB' models and stem borer larva densities could only be predicted during the mid growing season in December and early January in both study sites, respectively (RMSE = 0.69-1.06 and RPD = 8.25-19.57). Overall, all models performed similar when all the 30 SVIs (non-nested) and only the significant (nested) SVIs were used. The models developed could improve decision making regarding controlling maize stem borers within integrated pest management (IPM) interventions.

  8. Solar-Induced Fluorescence of Maize Across A Water Stress Gradient in the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, G.; Guan, K.; Suyker, A.; Yang, X.; Benarcchi, C. J.; Gamon, J. A.; Berry, J. A.; DeLucia, E.; Franz, T.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Zygielbaum, A. I.; Walter-Shea, E. A.; Moore, C.; Zhang, Y.; Kim, H.; Hmimina, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the coming decades, agricultural ecosystems will be challenged by rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, and increasing extreme weather. Understanding how crops respond to weather variability and how humans manage agriculture to mitigate and adapt to climate change is critical for improving agricultural sustainability and supporting increasing global food demands. Accurately estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) of crops is of importance to evaluate their sustainability and capability but remains a challenge. The recent development of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) technology is stimulating studies to use SIF to approximate GPP. It has been observed that agricultural lands have remarkably high SIF and the SIF signal could be used as an indicator of vegetation stress, which is particularly valuable for improved monitoring of crop productivity and stress. To investigate the applicability of SIF for detecting maize stress and estimating GPP, we deployed three FluoSpec2 systems in 2017 at three long-term eddy covariance flux sites across the US Corn Belt, a rain-fed maize field (AmeriFlux sites US-NE3) and an irrigated maize field (US-NE2) at Mead, Nebraska and a rain-fed maize field at Urbana, Illinois. Together these form a water stress gradient. Variations in GPP, SIF, photosynthetic efficiency (LUE), SIF yield (SIFy), and relationships between GPP and SIF, LUE and SIFy will be compared as indications of the difference in maize growth across the water stress gradient. More importantly, differences in GPP and SIF signals will be examined over multiple growth stages to assess the potential of SIF in identifying the growth stages that are mostly affected by water stress and the ones that play the most important roles on the crop yield.

  9. Genetic Diversity and Molecular Evolution of a Violaxanthin De-epoxidase Gene in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Li, Zhigang; Yang, Haorui; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Cuixia; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) has a critical role in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, which is involved in protecting the photosynthesis apparatus from damage caused by excessive light. Here, a VDE gene in maize, ZmVDE1, was cloned and shown to have functional domains in common with the gramineous VDE protein. Candidate gene association analysis indicated that no polymorphic sites in ZmVDE1 were significant association with any of the examined carotenoid-related traits at P = 0.05 in an association panel containing 155 maize inbred lines. Nucleotide diversity analysis of VDE1 in maize and teosinte indicated that its exon had less genetic variation, consistent with the conserved function of VDE1 in plants. In addition, dramatically reduced nucleotide diversity, fewer haplotypes and a significantly negative parameter deviation for Tajima's D test of ZmVDE1 in maize and teosinte suggested that a potential selective force had acted across the ZmVDE1 locus. We further identified a 4.2 Mb selective sweep with low recombination surrounding the ZmVDE1 locus that resulted in severely reduced nucleotide diversity on chromosome 2. Collectively, natural selection and the conserved domains of ZmVDE1 might show an important role in the xanthophyll cycle of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway.

  10. Genetic Diversity and Molecular Evolution of a Violaxanthin De-Epoxidase Gene in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE has a critical role in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, which is involved in protecting the photosynthesis apparatus from damage caused by excessive light. Here, a VDE gene in maize, ZmVDE1, was cloned and shown to have functional domains in common with the gramineous VDE protein. Candidate gene association analysis indicated that no polymorphic sites in ZmVDE1 were significant association with any of the examined carotenoid-related traits at P = 0.05 in an association panel containing 155 maize inbred lines. Nucleotide diversity analysis of VDE1 in maize and teosinte indicated that its exon had less genetic variation, consistent with the conserved function of VDE1 in plants. In addition, dramatically reduced nucleotide diversity, fewer haplotypes and a significantly negative parameter deviation for Tajima’s D test of ZmVDE1 in maize and teosinte suggested that a potential selective force had acted across the ZmVDE1 locus. We further identified a 4.2 Mb selective sweep with low recombination surrounding the ZmVDE1 locus that resulted in severely reduced nucleotide diversity on chromosome 2. Collectively, natural selection and the conserved domains of ZmVDE1 might show an important role in the xanthophyll cycle of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway.

  11. Socio-economic analysis of maize seed production in Arghakhanchi district of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima Bajracharya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the socioeconomic condition of maize seed and non-seed producers. A field survey was carried out in sixty households of Khanchikot VDC of Arghakhanchi district during May, 2014. The district was major seed producing district and Khanchikot was found better in seed production than other VDC in district. Simple random sampling technique was used to collect data using pre-tested interview schedule. About 57% were seed producer among the sample. The average family size of household was 5. Dependency ratio was less in seed producing households (0.41 than non-seed producers (0.72. Farmers were involved in the production of certified seed and the major (50% source of foundation seed was National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan. The external input like chemical fertilizer was used in fewer amounts in the study area. The seed test was done at regional laboratory, Bhairahawa and sold to DADO, Arghakhanchi. Decision on loan taking, business operation and bank account were taken by males whereas cropping pattern, deficit labor use, religious and social works related decision were taken by females in the household. Major problem in maize production were lack of technical assistance followed by inadequate irrigation facilities. Proper training, extension service and government support on inputs would help in better socio-economic condition and production of maize.

  12. Arthropods dataset from different genetically modified maize events and associated controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálinkás, Zoltán; Zalai, Mihály; Szénási, Ágnes; Dorner, Zita; Kiss, József; North, Samuel; Woodward, Guy; Balog, Adalbert

    2018-02-01

    Arthropods from four genetically modified (GM) maize hybrids (coleopteran resistant, coleopteran and lepidopteran resistant, lepidopteran resistant+herbicide tolerant and coleopteran resistant and herbicide tolerant) and non-GM varieties were sampled during a two-year field assessment. A total number of 363 555 arthropod individuals were collected. This represents the most comprehensive arthropod dataset from GM maize, and together with weed data, is reasonable to determine functional groups of arthropods and interactions between species. Trophic groups identified from both phytophagous and predatory arthropods were previously considered non-target organisms on which possible detrimental effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins may have been directly (phytophagous species) or indirectly (predators) detected. The high number of individuals and species and their dynamics through the maize growing season can predict that interactions are highly correlational, and can thus be considered a useful tool to assess potential deleterious effects of Bt toxins on non-target organisms, serving to develop biosafety risk hypotheses for invertebrates exposed to GM maize plants.

  13. Integrating Plant Science and Crop Modeling: Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Soybean and Maize Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Nándor; Challinor, Andrew; Droutsas, Ioannis; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Zabel, Florian; Koehler, Ann-Kristin; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-11-01

    Increasing global CO2 emissions have profound consequences for plant biology, not least because of direct influences on carbon gain. However, much remains uncertain regarding how our major crops will respond to a future high CO2 world. Crop model inter-comparison studies have identified large uncertainties and biases associated with climate change. The need to quantify uncertainty has drawn the fields of plant molecular physiology, crop breeding and biology, and climate change modeling closer together. Comparing data from different models that have been used to assess the potential climate change impacts on soybean and maize production, future yield losses have been predicted for both major crops. When CO2 fertilization effects are taken into account significant yield gains are predicted for soybean, together with a shift in global production from the Southern to the Northern hemisphere. Maize production is also forecast to shift northwards. However, unless plant breeders are able to produce new hybrids with improved traits, the forecasted yield losses for maize will only be mitigated by agro-management adaptations. In addition, the increasing demands of a growing world population will require larger areas of marginal land to be used for maize and soybean production. We summarize the outputs of crop models, together with mitigation options for decreasing the negative impacts of climate on the global maize and soybean production, providing an overview of projected land-use change as a major determining factor for future global crop production. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  14. Sequencing, assembly, and annotation of Maize B104 : A maize transformation resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize transformation is complicated. Most lines are not readily cultured and transformed, making the germplasm available for genome engineering extremely limited. Developing a better understanding of the genomic regions responsible for differences in culturability and transformability would be a goo...

  15. Developing Inset Resistant Maize Varieties for Food Security in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugo, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) project aims at increasing maize production and food security through development and deployment of stem borer resistant maize germplasm developed using conventional and through biotechnology methods such as Bt maize. Bt maize offers farmers an effective and practical option for controlling stem borers. It was recognized that the development and routine use of Bt maize will require addressing relevant bio-safety, environmental, and community concerns and research and information gathering activities are in place to address these concerns and research and information gathering activities are in place to address these concerns. Suitable Bt gene have been acquired or synthesized and back-crossed into elite maize germplasm at CIMMYT-Mexico, and the effective Cry-proteins against the major maize stem borers in Kenya were identified to better target pests. Stem borer resistant maize germplasm is being developed through conventional breeding, using locally adapted and exotic germplasm. for safe and effective deployment of Bt maize,studies on its impacts on target and non-target arthropods as well as studies on the effects of Bt maize on key non-target arthropods as well as studies on gene flow are underway. Insect resistance management strategies are being developed through quantifying the effectiveness, ???. Socioeconomic impact studies are revealing factors in the society that may influence the adoption of Bt maize in Kenya. Also, baseline data, essential for the monitoring and evaluation of the Bt maize technology in Kenya, has been established. Technology transfer and capacity building, creating awareness and communications have received attention in the project. This paper describes the major research activities as they relate to development of the stem bore resistant maize germplasm

  16. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild maize (teosinte has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON. In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense.

  17. Screening of promising maize genotypes against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulky in storage condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram B Paneru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is a serious pest of economic importance in stored grains. It causes major damage to stored maize grain thereby reducing its weight, quality and germination. An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications to screen 32 maize genotypes against maize weevil in no-choice and free-choice conditions at Entomology Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (Room temperature: Maximum 24-32°C and Minimum 18-27°C. The findings showed that the maize genotypes had different response to maize weevil damage ranging from susceptible to tolerance. The genotypes Manakamana-3, Lumle White POP Corn and Ganesh-2 showed their tolerance to S. zeamais as evidenced by lower number of weevil emerged/attracted, lower amount of grain debris release and lower proportion of bored grains, while the genotype ZM-627 was the most susceptible to weevil damage in both tests. The other remaining genotypes were intermediate types. This information is useful to improve grain protection in storage and varietal improvement/release program.

  18. Variability of geographically distinct isolates of maize rayado fino virus in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W; Kogel, R; Ramirez, P

    1997-12-01

    We have examined the molecular epidemiology of the leafhopper-borne maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) in Latin America. The coat protein gene and 3' non-translated region of 14 isolates of MRFV collected from Latin America and the United States were sequenced and phylogenetic relationships examined. The nucleotide sequence revealed remarkable conservation, with a sequence similarity of 88-99%. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data obtained from a 633 bp fragment showed that MRFV has diverged into three main clusters, i.e. the geographically distinct northern and southern isolates and the Colombian isolates. Significant differences between the isolates collected from Colombia, previously named maize rayado colombiana virus, based upon differences in symptomatology and serological relationships to MRFV, and the other MRFV isolates, provides additional evidence supporting its designation as a unique strain of MRFV.

  19. The HAP Complex Governs Fumonisin Biosynthesis and Maize Kernel Pathogenesis in Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, John B; Smith, Jonathon E; Bluhm, Burton H

    2016-09-01

    Contamination of maize ( Zea mays ) with fumonisins produced by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides is a global concern for food safety. Fumonisins are a group of polyketide-derived secondary metabolites linked to esophageal cancer and neural tube birth defects in humans and numerous toxicoses in livestock. Despite the importance of fumonisins in global maize production, the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis during kernel pathogenesis is poorly understood. The HAP complex is a conserved, heterotrimeric transcriptional regulator that binds the consensus sequence CCAAT to modulate gene expression. Recently, functional characterization of the Hap3 subunit linked the HAP complex to the regulation of secondary metabolism and stalk rot pathogenesis in F. verticillioides . Here, we determine the involvement of HAP3 in fumonisin biosynthesis and kernel pathogenesis. Deletion of HAP3 suppressed fumonisin biosynthesis on both nonviable and live maize kernels and impaired pathogenesis in living kernels. Transcriptional profiling via RNA sequencing indicated that the HAP complex regulates at least 1,223 genes in F. verticillioides , representing nearly 10% of all predicted genes. Disruption of the HAP complex caused the misregulation of biosynthetic gene clusters underlying the production of secondary metabolites, including fusarins. Taken together, these results reveal that the HAP complex is a central regulator of fumonisin biosynthesis and kernel pathogenesis and works as both a positive and negative regulator of secondary metabolism in F. verticillioides .

  20. Historical genomics of North American maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van J.; Hufford, M.B.; Ross-Ibarra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of modern plant breeding in the 1930s, North American maize has undergone a dramatic adaptation to high-input agriculture. Despite the importance of genetic contributions to historical yield increases, little is known about the underlying genomic changes. Here we use high-density

  1. Hormonal responses during early embryogenesis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Lausser, Andreas; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Plant hormones have been shown to regulate key processes during embryogenesis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanisms that determine the peculiar embryo pattern formation of monocots are largely unknown. Using the auxin and cytokinin response markers DR5 and TCSv2 (two-component system, cytokinin-responsive promoter version #2), as well as the auxin efflux carrier protein PIN1a (PINFORMED1a), we have studied the hormonal response during early embryogenesis (zygote towards transition stage) in the model and crop plant maize. Compared with the hormonal response in Arabidopsis, we found that detectable hormone activities inside the developing maize embryo appeared much later. Our observations indicate further an important role of auxin, PIN1a and cytokinin in endosperm formation shortly after fertilization. Apparent auxin signals within adaxial endosperm cells and cytokinin responses in the basal endosperm transfer layer as well as chalazal endosperm are characteristic for early seed development in maize. Moreover, auxin signalling in endosperm cells is likely to be involved in exogenous embryo patterning as auxin responses in the endosperm located around the embryo proper correlate with adaxial embryo differentiation and outgrowth. Overall, the comparison between Arabidopsis and maize hormone response and flux suggests intriguing mechanisms in monocots that are used to direct their embryo patterning, which is significantly different from that of eudicots.

  2. INSECT AND MYCOFLORA INTERACTIONS IN MAIZE FLOUR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium moniliforme had the highest occurrence of 36.7%, 28.1% and 33.3% while Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus had a frequency of 3.2%, 3.1% and 3% on primary isolation media of czapek dox agar (CDA), potato dextrose agar (PDA) and sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) respectively, in maize flour without T. castaneum.

  3. The transcriptome landscape of early maize meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiosis, particularly meiotic recombination, is a major factor affecting yield and breeding of plants. To gain insight into the transcriptome landscape during early initiation steps of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize using RNA-seq. Our analyses of genes prefe...

  4. Zealactones. Novel natural strigolactones from maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charnikhova, Tatsiana V.; Gaus, Katharina; Lumbroso, Alexandre; Sanders, Mark; Vincken, Jean Paul; Mesmaeker, de Alain; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P.; Screpanti, Claudio; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2017-01-01

    In the root exudate and root extracts of maize hybrid cv NK Falkone seven putative strigolactones were detected using UPLC-TQ-MS-MS. All seven compounds displayed MS-MS-fragmentation common for strigolactones and particularly the presence of a fragment of m/z 97 Da, which may indicate the

  5. RESOURCE UTILISATION IN SOYBEAN/MAIZE INTERCROPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean and maize may be planted as intercrops in alternating single rows in forage production systems to take advantage of available solar radiation and greater dry matter yields. Key Words: Nitrogen, row arrangement, photosynthetic active radiation, productivity. Résumé Des études des champs étaient conduites en ...

  6. Estimation of leaf area in tropical maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.

    2000-01-01

    Leaf area development of six tropical maize cultivars grown in 1995 and 1996 in several tropical environments in Mexico (both favourable and moisture-and N-limited) was observed and analysed. First, the validity of a bell-shaped curve describing the area of individual leaves as a function of leaf

  7. Randomly detected genetically modified (GM maize (Zea mays L. near a transport route revealed a fragile 45S rDNA phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomar Espinosa Waminal

    Full Text Available Monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops has been emphasized to prevent their potential effects on the environment and human health. Monitoring of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenic maize in several fields and transport routes in Korea was carried out by qualitative multiplex PCR, and molecular analyses were conducted to identify the events of the collected GM maize. Cytogenetic investigations through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH of the GM maize were performed to check for possible changes in the 45S rDNA cluster because this cluster was reported to be sensitive to replication and transcription stress. Three GM maize kernels were collected from a transport route near Incheon port, Korea, and each was found to contain NK603, stacked MON863 x NK603, and stacked NK603 x MON810 inserts, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of the GM maize containing the stacked NK603 x MON810 insert revealed two normal compact 5S rDNA signals, but the 45S rDNA showed a fragile phenotype, demonstrating a "beads-on-a-string" fragmentation pattern, which seems to be a consequence of genetic modification. Implications of the 45S rDNA cluster fragility in GM maize are also discussed.

  8. Factors Affecting Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Grain Yield of Summer Maize on Smallholder Farms in the North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Guangfeng Chen; Hongzhu Cao; Jun Liang; Wenqi Ma; Lufang Guo; Shuhua Zhang; Rongfeng Jiang; Hongyan Zhang; Keith W. T. Goulding; Fusuo Zhang

    2018-01-01

    The summer maize yields and partial factor productivity of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (PFPN, grain yield per unit N fertilizer) on smallholder farms in China are low, and differ between farms due to complex, sub-optimal management practices. We collected data on management practices and yields from smallholder farms in three major summer maize-producing sites—Laoling, Quzhou and Xushui—in the North China Plain (NCP) for two growing seasons, during 2015–2016. Boundary line analysis and a Proc Mix...

  9. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xinpeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; He, Ping; Johnston, Adrian M.; Zhao, Shicheng; Qiu, Shaojun; Zhou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L.) were collected in four m...

  10. Arsenic contamination in irrigation water, agricultural soil and maize crop from an abandoned smelter site in Matehuala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Huerta, Esther Aurora; de la Garza Varela, Alonso; Gómez-Bernal, Juan Miguel; Castillo, Francisco; Avalos-Borja, Miguel; SenGupta, Bhaskar; Martínez-Villegas, Nadia

    2017-10-05

    Mobility of Arsenic (As) from metallurgical wastes in Matehuala, Mexico has been accounted for ultra-high concentration of As in water (4.8-158mg/L) that is used for recreational purposes as well as cultivation of maize. In this study, we (i) measured As concentrations in soils irrigated with this water, (ii) investigated the geochemical controls of available As, and (iii) measured bioaccumulation of As in maize. Water, soil, and maize plant samples were collected from 3 different plots to determine As in environmental matrices as well as water soluble As in soils. Soil mineralogy was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Bioaccumulation of As in maize plants was estimated from the bioconcentration and translocation factors. We recorded As built-up in agricultural soils to the extent of 172mg/kg, and noted that this As is highly soluble in water (30% on average). Maize crops presented high bioaccumulation, up to 2.5 times of bioconcentration and 45% of translocation. Furthermore, we found that water extractable As was higher in soils rich in calcite, while it was lower in soils containing high levels of gypsum, but As bioconcentration showed opposite trend. Results from this study show that irrigation with As rich water represents a significant risk to the population consuming contaminated crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation and Screening of Bacteria for Their Diazotrophic Potential and Their Influence on Growth Promotion of Maize Seedlings in Greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Medhin H; Laing, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Poor soil fertility is one of the major constraints for crop production. Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for increasing crop productivity. Therefore, there is a need to identify diazotrophic inoculants as an alternative or supplement to N-fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. In the current study, a number of free-living diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from soils collected from maize rhizosphere and from leaves and roots of maize within the KwaZulu-Natal Province, Republic of South Africa. Ninety-two isolates were selected for further screening because they were able to grow on N-free media containing different carbon sources. Isolates that were very slow to grow on N-free media were discarded. The isolates were screened in vitro for diazotrophic potential tests for ammonia production and acetylene reduction. Ethylene (C2H4) production was quantified and ranged from 4 to 73 nmoles of C2H4h(-1) culture(-1). The top 20 isolates were re-screened on maize seedlings, and eight isolates significantly (P = 0.001) enhanced some growth parameters of maize above the un-inoculated control. Isolates that showed significant effect on at least two growth parameters were identified at species or genera level. In conclusion, selected diazotrophic isolates may be potentially beneficial but they should be tested more in greenhouse and field conditions with maize to confirm their potential for application as biofertilizers.

  12. Isolation and screening of bacteria for their diazotrophic potential and their influence on growth promotion of maize seedlings in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhin Hadish Kifle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor soil fertility is one of the major constraints for crop production. Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for increasing crop productivity. Therefore, there is a need to identify diazotrophic inoculants as an alternative or supplement to N-fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. In the current study, a number of free-living diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from soils collected from maize rhizosphere and from leaves and roots of maize within the KwaZulu-Natal Province, Republic of South Africa. Ninety two isolates were selected for further screening because they were able to grow on N-free media containing different carbon sources. Isolates that were very slow to grow on N-free media were discarded. The isolates were screened in vitro for diazotrophic potential tests for ammonia production and acetylene reduction. Ethylene (C2H4 production was quantified and ranged from 4 to 73 nmoles of C2H4 h-1 culture-1. The top twenty isolates were re-screened on maize seedlings, and eight isolates significantly (P=0.001 enhanced some growth parameters of maize above the un-inoculated control. Isolates that showed significant effect on at least two growth parameters were identified at species or genera level. In conclusion, selected diazotrophic isolates may be potentially beneficial but they should be tested more in greenhouse and field conditions with maize to confirm their potential for application as biofertilizers.

  13. The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, Karen

    2014-03-26

    The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference was held February 27 - March 2, 2008 at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C. As the golden anniversary of the Conference and coinciding with the release of a draft of the maize genome sequence, this was a special meeting. To publicize this unique occasion, meeting organizers hosted a press conference, which was attended by members of the press representing science and non-science publications, and an evening reception at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, where the draft sequence was announced and awards were presented to Dr. Mary Clutter and Senator Kit Bond to thank them for their outstanding contributions to maize genetics and genomics research. As usual, the Conference provided an invigorating forum for exchange of recent research results in many areas of maize genetics, e.g., cytogenetics, development, molecular genetics, transposable element biology, biochemical genetics, and genomics. Results were shared via both oral and poster presentations. Invited talks were given by four distinguished geneticists: Vicki Chandler, University of Arizona; John Doebley, University of Wisconsin; Susan Wessler, University of Georgia; and Richard Wilson, Washington University. There were 46 short talks and 241 poster presentations. The Conference was attended by over 500 participants. This included a large number of first-time participants in the meeting and an increasingly visible presence by individuals from underrepresented groups. Although we do not have concrete counts, there seem to be more African American, African and Hispanic/Latino attendees coming to the meeting than in years past. In addition, this meeting attracted many participants from outside the U.S. Student participation continues to be hallmark of the spirit of free exchange and cooperation characteristic of the maize genetics community. With the generous support provided by DOE, USDA NSF, and corporate/private donors, organizers were

  14. In Vitro Activity of Imipenem against Carbapenemase-Positive Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Collected by the SMART Global Surveillance Program from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowsky, James A; Lob, Sibylle H; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Badal, Robert E; Young, Katherine; Motyl, Mary R; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-06-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) global surveillance program collected 103,960 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from 2008 to 2014. From this isolate collection, all ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates (MIC, ≥1 μg/ml; n = 3,428) and 9,371 isolates of Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella oxytoca , and Proteus mirabilis with an ertapenem-susceptible extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive phenotype were assessed for the presence of common carbapenemase genes using a Check-MDR CT101 microarray (Check-Points, Wageningen, the Netherlands) and published multiplex PCR assays. Testing identified 1,493 isolates that harbored a carbapenemase gene (1,485 ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates and 8 ertapenem-susceptible ESBL-positive isolates) and accounted for 1.4% (1,493/103,960) of all isolates of Enterobacteriaceae The most frequently identified carbapenemase genes were the KPC ( n = 794), OXA-48-like ( n = 300), and NDM ( n = 290) genes. Carbapenemase genes were most frequently identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae ( n = 1,127), Escherichia coli ( n = 149), and Enterobacter cloacae ( n = 110). Among the carbapenemase-positive isolates, 66.7% (2/3), 37.0% (111/300), 20.0% (8/40), 3.3% (3/92), 2.3% (18/794), and 0% (0/290) of the isolates with genes for GES, OXA-48-like, IMP, VIM, KPC, and NDM, respectively, were susceptible to imipenem (MIC, ≤1 μg/ml). Isolates that tested as susceptible to imipenem were not uncommon among carbapenemase-positive isolates (9.4%, 141/1,493) and most frequently carried OXA-48-like enzymes (78.7%; 111/141); however, overall, these isolates remained rare (0.1%, 141/103,960). The practice of screening clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that test as susceptible to carbapenems in vitro for the presence of carbapenemase genes remains controversial and requires further study. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Effect of organic fertilizers on maize production in Eastern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolokhava, Tamar; Kenchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia; Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2016-04-01

    Maize remains to be the most important cereal crop in Georgia. Total area of arable land under cereal crops production equals to 184 thousands hectares (FAO statistical yearbook, 2014), from which maize takes the biggest share. Leading position of maize among other cereal crops is caused by its dual purpose as food and feed product. In Spite of a relatively high production of maize to other cereals there is still a high demand on it, especially as feed for animal husbandry. The same tendency is seen in organic production, where producers of livestock and poultry products require organically grown maize, the average yield of which is much less than those produced conventionally. Therefore, it is important to increase productivity of maize in organic farms. Current study aimed to improve maize yield using locally produced organic fertilizers and to compare them to the effect of mineral fertilizers. The study was carried out in Eastern Georgia under dry subtropical climate conditions on local hybrid of maize. This is the first attempt to use hybrid maize (developed with organic plant breeding method) in organic field trials in Georgia. The results shown, that grain yield from two different types of organic fertilizers reached 70% of the yields achieved with industrial mineral fertilizers. As on farm level differences between organic and conventional maize production are much severe, the results from the field trials seems to be promising for future improvement of organic cereal crop production.

  16. Reaction of Global Collection of Rye (Secale cereale L. to Tan Spot and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Races in South Dakota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidrat Abdullah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. serves as an alternative host of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (PTR the cause of tan spot on wheat. Rye is cultivated as a forage or cover crop and overlaps with a significant portion of wheat acreage in the U.S. northern Great Plains; however, it is not known whether the rye crop influences the evolution of PTR races. We evaluated a global collection of 211 rye accessions against tan spot and assessed the diversity in PTR population on rye in South Dakota. All the rye genotypes were inoculated with PTR races 1 and 5, and infiltrated with Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxB, at seedling stage. We observed 21% of the genotypes exhibited susceptibility to race 1, whereas, 39% were susceptible to race 5. All 211 accessions were insensitive to both the Ptr toxins. It indicates that though rye exhibits diversity in reaction to tan spot, it lacks Ptr ToxA and ToxB sensitivity genes. This suggests that unknown toxins or other factors can lead to PTR establishment in rye. We characterized the race structure of 103 PTR isolates recovered from rye in South Dakota. Only 22% of the isolates amplified Ptr ToxA gene and were identified as race 1 based on their phenotypic reaction on the differential set. The remaining 80 isolates were noted to be race 4. Our results show that races 1 and 4 are prevalent on rye in South Dakota with a higher frequency of race 4, suggesting a minimal role of rye in the disease epidemiology.

  17. Reaction of Global Collection of Rye (Secale cereale L.) to Tan Spot and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Races in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Sidrat; Sehgal, Sunish K; Glover, Karl D; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-06-01

    Rye ( Secale cereale L.) serves as an alternative host of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis ( PTR ) the cause of tan spot on wheat. Rye is cultivated as a forage or cover crop and overlaps with a significant portion of wheat acreage in the U.S. northern Great Plains; however, it is not known whether the rye crop influences the evolution of PTR races. We evaluated a global collection of 211 rye accessions against tan spot and assessed the diversity in PTR population on rye in South Dakota. All the rye genotypes were inoculated with PTR races 1 and 5, and infiltrated with Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxB, at seedling stage. We observed 21% of the genotypes exhibited susceptibility to race 1, whereas, 39% were susceptible to race 5. All 211 accessions were insensitive to both the Ptr toxins. It indicates that though rye exhibits diversity in reaction to tan spot, it lacks Ptr ToxA and ToxB sensitivity genes. This suggests that unknown toxins or other factors can lead to PTR establishment in rye. We characterized the race structure of 103 PTR isolates recovered from rye in South Dakota. Only 22% of the isolates amplified Ptr ToxA gene and were identified as race 1 based on their phenotypic reaction on the differential set. The remaining 80 isolates were noted to be race 4. Our results show that races 1 and 4 are prevalent on rye in South Dakota with a higher frequency of race 4, suggesting a minimal role of rye in the disease epidemiology.

  18. Stochastic Frontier Analysis of Maize Farmers in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.; Wang, Y.; Yu, H.; Zhu, K.; Zhang, Z.; Zou, F. L. J.

    2015-01-01

    The research study was carried out to analyze the technical efficiency of maize growers through Cobb-Douglas type Stochastic Frontier Analysis in four villages of Muzaffarabad district, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. The proportional sampling allocation sampling technique was adopted to collect primary data from 80 sampled respondents in 2013-14. The maximum likelihood estimates of major inputs showed that seed, tractor hours, FYM and labor days have contributed significantly to increase the maize yield. However, the DAP and urea have shown no effect on maize yield. The mean technical efficiency was estimated at 83%, implying that the farmers can still enhance their technical efficiency by 11% within the given inputs and technology. The results have demonstrated that maize crop is lucrative crop in the study area as maize growers have received increasing return to scale i.e., 1.90 (Ep>1), hence economies of scale exists. The variance parameter lambda and gamma both were significant indicating the good fitness of model and inefficiency impact, respectively. The estimated value for gamma was 0.77 underscores that 77% variation in the production frontier was explained by technical inefficiency effect. The inefficiency indices showed that farmers with more schooling years and more number of contacts with extension agents were more efficient. Contrarily, age of the farmer and large farm size have inverse relation to technical efficiency of the farmers. This research study concludes that the use of more labor and application of farm yard manure is contributing significantly. It is recommended that the high input prices may be leveled off by the regulatory authorities so that farmers can apply the required crop inputs such as DAP and urea in study area. (author)

  19. Inferences from the historical distribution of wild and domesticated maize provide ecological and evolutionary insight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Hufford

    Full Text Available The species Zea mays includes both domesticated maize (ssp. mays and its closest wild relatives known as the teosintes. While genetic and archaeological studies have provided a well-established history of Z. mays evolution, there is currently minimal description of its current and past distribution. Here, we implemented species distribution modeling using paleoclimatic models of the last interglacial (LI; ∼135,000 BP and the last glacial maximum (LGM; ∼21,000 BP to hindcast the distribution of Zea mays subspecies over time and to revisit current knowledge of its phylogeography and evolutionary history.Using a large occurrence data set and the distribution modeling MaxEnt algorithm, we obtained robust present and past species distributions of the two widely distributed teosinte subspecies (ssps. parviglumis and mexicana revealing almost perfect complementarity, stable through time, of their occupied distributions. We also investigated the present distributions of primitive maize landraces, which overlapped but were broader than those of the teosintes. Our data reinforced the idea that little historical gene flow has occurred between teosinte subspecies, but maize has served as a genetic bridge between them. We observed an expansion of teosinte habitat from the LI, consistent with population genetic data. Finally, we identified locations potentially serving as refugia for the teosintes throughout epochs of climate change and sites that should be targeted in future collections.The restricted and highly contrasting ecological niches of the wild teosintes differ substantially from domesticated maize. Variables determining the distributions of these taxa can inform future considerations of local adaptation and the impacts of climate change. Our assessment of the changing distributions of Zea mays taxa over time offers a unique glimpse into the history of maize, highlighting a strategy for the study of domestication that may prove useful for other

  20. Measurements of water uptake of maize roots: the key function of lateral roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Zarebanadkouki, M.; Kroener, E.; Kaestner, A.; Carminati, A.

    2014-12-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crop worldwide. Despite its importance, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and root types of maize in extracting water from soils. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate locations of root water uptake in maize. We used neutron radiography to: 1) image the spatial distribution of maize roots in soil and 2) trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maizes were grown in aluminum containers (40×38×1 cm) filled with a sandy soil. When the plants were 16 days old, we injected D2O into selected soil regions containing primary, seminal and lateral roots. The experiments were performed during the day (transpiring plants) and night (not transpiring plants). The transport of D2O into roots was simulated using a new convection-diffusion numerical model of D2O transport into roots. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusional permeability and the water uptake of the different root segments. The maize root architecture consisted of a primary root, 4-5 seminal roots and many lateral roots connected to the primary and seminal roots. Laterals emerged from the proximal 15 cm of the primary and seminal roots. Water uptake occurred primarily in lateral roots. Lateral roots had the highest diffusional permeability (9.4×10-7), which was around six times higher that the diffusional permeability of the old seminal segments (1.4×10-7), and two times higher than the diffusional permeability of the young seminal segments (4.7×10-7). The radial flow of D2O into the lateral (6.7×10-5 ) was much higher than in the young seminal roots (1.1×10-12). The radial flow of D2O into the old seminal was negligible. We concluded that the function of the primary and seminal roots was to collect water from the lateral roots and transport it to the shoot. A maize root system with lateral roots branching from deep primary and seminal roots would be

  1. Carbon dynamics under a maize-Faidherbia albida agroforestry system in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengwe, Jones; Chipatela, Floyd; Amalia, Okky; Lungu, Obed; De Neve, Stefaan

    2017-04-01

    Continued crop residue removal for other competing uses such as livestock or household has exacerbated the decline of soil organic matter. Foliar litter from indigenous agroforestry trees such as Faidherbia albida (F. albida) can be a source of organic matter input in resource constrained farmers' fields to mitigate the declining fertility status of many Zambian soils. A controlled incubation study was conducted to evaluate the short term degradability of F. albida litter and maize plant residue. Further, we assessed the effect of F. albida litter and maize residue amendments on microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and enzyme activity. Soils were collected from outside and under the canopies of F. albida trees from six sites with 8, 9, 11, 15, and two sites with > 35-year old trees. Soils from under the canopies were amended with F. albida+maize residue (FMU), F. albida litter (FU), maize residue (MU) and controls were not amended (CTRU). The soils from outside the canopy were amended with maize residue (MO) and controls were not amended (CTRO). These were adjusted to 50% WFPS and incubated for twelve weeks at 27°C to assess C mineralization, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and enzyme activity (Dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase and β-glucosaminidase activity). The material used as amendment in the incubation experiment had two pools of carbon: a labile and a recalcitrant pool. The mixed amendment FMU had a significantly (pmineralization compared to the other amendments for all incubated soils. The treatment MU had a higher net C mineralized than FU. However, C mineralization from FU treatment was generally higher in the first 20 days of the incubation period but declined thereafter for all the soils. The net C mineralized from MU did not significantly differ with MO in all except soil from 11-year old trees. Enzyme activity and MBC consistently increased due to amendments for all soils. Enzyme activity was significantly (pmineralized and microbial activity were high in FMU

  2. Assessing the Impact of Climatic Variability and Change on Maize Production in the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, J.; Jain, A. K.; Niyogi, D. S.; Alagarswamy, G.; Biehl, L.; Delamater, P.; Doering, O.; Elias, A.; Elmore, R.; Gramig, B.; Hart, C.; Kellner, O.; Liu, X.; Mohankumar, E.; Prokopy, L. S.; Song, C.; Todey, D.; Widhalm, M.

    2013-12-01

    Weather and climate remain among the most important uncontrollable factors in agricultural production systems. In this study, three process-based crop simulation models were used to identify the impacts of climate on the production of maize in the Midwestern U.S.A. during the past century. The 12-state region is a key global production area, responsible for more than 80% of U.S. domestic and 25% of total global production. The study is a part of the Useful to Useable (U2U) Project, a USDA NIFA-sponsored project seeking to improve the resilience and profitability of farming operations in the region amid climate variability and change. Three process-based crop simulation models were used in the study: CERES-Maize (DSSAT, Hoogenboom et al., 2012), the Hybrid-Maize model (Yang et al., 2004), and the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM, Song et al., 2013). Model validation was carried out with individual plot and county observations. The models were run with 4 to 50 km spatial resolution gridded weather data for representative soils and cultivars, 1981-2012, to examine spatial and temporal yield variability within the region. We also examined the influence of different crop models and spatial scales on regional scale yield estimation, as well as a yield gap analysis between observed and attainable yields. An additional study was carried out with the CERES-Maize model at 18 individual site locations 1901-2012 to examine longer term historical trends. For all simulations, all input variables were held constant in order to isolate the impacts of climate. In general, the model estimates were in good agreement with observed yields, especially in central sections of the region. Regionally, low precipitation and soil moisture stress were chief limitations to simulated crop yields. The study suggests that at least part of the observed yield increases in the region during recent decades have occurred as the result of wetter, less stressful growing season weather conditions.

  3. Chemical characterization of Phoma pomorum isolated from Danish maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Aveskamp, M.M.; Thrane, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    Strains of the genus Phoma are often isolated from various environmental samples including cereals and maize. In the present study we performed a chemical characterization of strains isolated from Danish samples derived from whole plant material collected at harvest. All strains were isolated using...... a recently developed isolation medium and identified morphologically as P. pomorum. This species is placed in the Phoma section Peyronellaea and strains of other members in this section were also included in the present study. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) grouped...... the Danish A pomorum strains with representative P. pomorum strains isolated from other sources. The metabolite production on dichloran Rose Bengal yeast extract sucrose agar (DRYES) was analyzed and the strains were clustered using an in-house Chemical Image Analysis (CIA) program. The resulting tree showed...

  4. Studies on the traditional methods of production of maize tuwo (a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... on the quality characteristics of maize tuwo (a Nigerian nonfermented maize dumpling) ... The sequential mixing of flour and water during maize tuwo preparation should also ...

  5. Modern maize hybrids in Northeast China exhibit increased yield potential and resource use efficiency despite adverse climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochao; Chen, Fanjun; Chen, Yanling; Gao, Qiang; Yang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Lixing; Zhang, Fusuo; Mi, Guohua

    2013-03-01

    The impact of global changes on food security is of serious concern. Breeding novel crop cultivars adaptable to climate change is one potential solution, but this approach requires an understanding of complex adaptive traits for climate-change conditions. In this study, plant growth, nitrogen (N) uptake, and yield in relation to climatic resource use efficiency of nine representative maize cultivars released between 1973 and 2000 in China were investigated in a 2-year field experiment under three N applications. The Hybrid-Maize model was used to simulate maize yield potential in the period from 1973 to 2011. During the past four decades, the total thermal time (growing degree days) increased whereas the total precipitation and sunshine hours decreased. This climate change led to a reduction of maize potential yield by an average of 12.9% across different hybrids. However, the potential yield of individual hybrids increased by 118.5 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) with increasing year of release. From 1973 to 2000, the use efficiency of sunshine hours, thermal time, and precipitation resources increased by 37%, 40%, and 41%, respectively. The late developed hybrids showed less reduction in yield potential in current climate conditions than old cultivars, indicating some adaptation to new conditions. Since the mid-1990s, however, the yield impact of climate change exhibited little change, and even a slight worsening for new cultivars. Modern breeding increased ear fertility and grain-filling rate, and delayed leaf senescence without modification in net photosynthetic rate. The trade-off associated with delayed leaf senescence was decreased grain N concentration rather than increased plant N uptake, therefore N agronomic efficiency increased simultaneously. It is concluded that modern maize hybrids tolerate the climatic changes mainly by constitutively optimizing plant productivity. Maize breeding programs in the future should pay more attention to cope with the limiting

  6. Biochar helps enhance maize productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions under balanced fertilization in a rainfed low fertility inceptisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dengxiao; Pan, Genxing; Wu, Gang; Kibue, Grace Wanjiru; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Zheng, Jufeng; Cheng, Kun; Joseph, Stephen; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Maize production plays an important role in global food security, especially in arid and poor-soil regions. Its production is also increasing in China in terms of both planting area and yield. However, maize productivity in rainfed croplands is constrained by low soil fertility and moisture insufficiency. To increase the maize yield, local farmers use NPK fertilizer. However, the fertilization regime (CF) they practice is unbalanced with too much nitrogen in proportion to both phosphorus and potassium, which has led to low fertilizer use efficiency and excessive greenhouse gases emissions. A two-year field experiment was conducted to assess whether a high yielding but low greenhouse gases emission system could be developed by the combination of balanced fertilization (BF) and biochar amendment in a rainfed farmland located in the Northern region of China. Biochar was applied at rates of 0, 20, and 40 t/ha. Results show that BF and biochar increased maize yield and partial nutrient productivity and decreased nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. Under BF the maize yield was 23.7% greater than under CF. N2O emissions under BF were less than half that under CF due to a reduced N fertilizer application rate. Biochar amendment decreased N2O by more than 31% under CF, while it had no effect on N2O emissions under BF. Thus BF was effective at maintaining a high maize yield and reducing greenhouse gases emissions. If combined with biochar amendment, BF would be a good way of sustaining low carbon agriculture in rainfed areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards Better Simulation of US Maize Yield Responses to Climate in the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, B.; Guan, K.; Chen, M.; Lawrence, D. M.; Jin, Z.; Bernacchi, C.; Ainsworth, E. A.; DeLucia, E. H.; Lombardozzi, D. L.; Lu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Global food security is undergoing continuing pressure from increased population and climate change despites the potential advancement in breeding and management technologies. Earth system models (ESMs) are essential tools to study the impacts of historical and future climate on regional and global food production, as well as to assess the effectiveness of possible adaptations and their potential feedback to climate. Here we developed an improved maize representation within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) by combining the strengths of both the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) models. Specifically, we modified the maize planting scheme, incorporated the phenology scheme adopted from the APSIM model, added a new carbon allocation scheme into CLM4.5, and improved the estimation of canopy structure parameters including leaf area index (LAI) and canopy height. Unique features of the new model (CLM-APSIM) include more detailed phenology stages, an explicit implementation of the impacts of various abiotic environmental stresses (including nitrogen, water, temperature and heat stresses) on maize phenology and carbon allocation, as well as an explicit simulation of grain number and grain size. We conducted a regional simulation of this new model over the US Corn Belt during 1990 to 2010. The simulated maize yield as well as its responses to climate (growing season mean temperature and precipitation) are benchmarked with data from UADA NASS statistics. Our results show that the CLM-APSIM model outperforms the CLM4.5 in simulating county-level maize yield production and reproduces more realistic yield responses to climate variations than CLM4.5. However, some critical processes (such as crop failure due to frost and inundation and suboptimal growth condition due to biotic stresses) are still missing in both CLM-APSIM and CLM4.5, making the simulated yield responses to climate slightly deviate from the

  8. Effects of intercropping on maize stemborers and their natural enemies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Päts, Peeter

    1996-01-01

    The effects of maize-cowpea intercropping on three lepidopteran stemborers (Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) C. orichalcociliellus (Strand) and Sesamia calamistis Hampson) and their natural enemies were studied in Kenya. Oviposition was not affected by intercropping, but significantly fewer larvae...... and wandering spiders, were not augmented by intercropping, but an inverse relationship in abundance was found between these two predator groups. It is concluded that maize intercropped with cowpea has only limited potential as a method of controlling the key pests in maize....

  9. Effect and fate of lindane in maize plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennaceur, M.; Ghezal, F.; Klaa, K.

    1992-10-01

    The fate and effect of lindane in maize plant, soil and predators were studied following insecticide application under field conditions. Respectively 84,2% and 93,3% of lindane residues were lost after 2 and 4 months in soil after treatment. About 90% of the insecticide was lost after one month in maize plant. Lindane residues were present in maize grains (0,205ppm). Lindane decreases the density of many predators in soils such as species of collembola, coccinellidae, formicidae, coleoptera

  10. Combining Maize Base Germplasm for Cold Tolerance Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Graña, Víctor Manuel; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Sandoya Miranda, Germán; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Revilla Temiño, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Early planting can contribute to increased grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.), but it requires cold tolerance. A limited number of cold-tolerant maize genotypes have been reported. The objectives of this study were to test a new strategy to improve cold tolerance in maize searching for broad x narrow genetic combinations that may be useful as base populations for breeding programs, to compare genotype performance under cold-controlled and field conditions, and to establish the major genetic e...

  11. Status and prospects of maize research in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Govind KC; Tika B. Karki; Jiban Shrestha; Buddhi B. Achhami

    2015-01-01

    Food and nutritional securities are the major threats coupled with declining factor productivity and climate change effects in Nepal. Maize being the principal food crops of the majority of the hill people and source of animal feed for ever growing livestock industries in Terai of Nepal. Despite the many efforts made to increase the maize productivity in the country, the results are not much encouraging. Many of the maize based technologies developed and recommended for the farmers to date ar...

  12. Mixing of maize and wheat genomic DNA by somatic hybridization in regenerated sterile maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarka, B.; Göntér, I.; Molnár-Láng, M.; Mórocz, S.; Dudits, D.

    2002-07-01

    Intergeneric somatic hybridization was performed between albino maize ( Zea mays L.) protoplasts and mesophyll protoplasts of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) by polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments. None of the parental protoplasts were able to produce green plants without fusion. The maize cells regenerated only rudimentary albino plantlets of limited viability, and the wheat mesophyll protoplasts were unable to divide. PEG-mediated fusion treatments resulted in hybrid cells with mixed cytoplasm. Six months after fusion green embryogenic calli were selected as putative hybrids. The first-regenerates were discovered as aborted embryos. Regeneration of intact, green, maize-like plants needed 6 months of further subcultures on hormone-free medium. These plants were sterile, although had both male and female flowers. The cytological analysis of cells from callus tissues and root tips revealed 56 chromosomes, but intact wheat chromosomes were not observed. Using total DNA from hybrid plants, three RAPD primer combinations produced bands resembling the wheat profile. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using total wheat DNA as a probe revealed the presence of wheat DNA islands in the maize chromosomal background. The increased viability and the restored green color were the most-significant new traits as compared to the original maize parent. Other intermediate morphological traits of plants with hybrid origin were not found.

  13. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage percentage by stem borer was up to 18.11%. Length of the feeding tunnel in maize stem was significantly higher in January than July. In case of exit holes made by borer counted more than four holes per plant that were planted in the month of January. All in all, except the tunnel length measurement per plant, we observed similar pattern in other borer damage parameters such as exit whole counts and plant damage percentage within the tested varieties. Stem borer damage was not significantly affect on grain yield.

  14. Monitoring of Sesamia nonagrioides resistance to MON 810 maize in the European Union: lessons from a long-term harmonized plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinós, Gema P; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Ortego, Félix; Castañera, Pedro

    2018-03-01

    Use of MON 810 maize (Zea mays), which expresses the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize), is a highly effective method to control Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèbvre), a key maize pest in Mediterranean countries. Monitoring programs to assess the potential development of resistance of target pests to Bt maize are mandatory in the European Union (EU). Here we report the results of the S. nonagrioides resistance monitoring plan implemented for MON 810 maize in the EU between 2004 and 2015 and reassess the different components of this long-term harmonized plan. No major shifts in the susceptibility of S. nonagrioides to the Cry1Ab protein have occurred over time. The reassessment of this long-term program has identified some practical and technical constraints, allowing us to provide specific recommendations for improvement: use reference strains instead of susceptibility baselines as comparators for field-collected populations; shift from dose-response bioassays to diagnostic concentrations; and focus monitoring on areas with high adoption rates, such as the Ebro basin in Spain. There are no signs of field resistance of S. nonagrioides to the Cry1Ab protein of MON 810 maize. Specific recommendations for improvement are provided, based on the knowledge and experience accumulated through the implementation of this unique EU-wide harmonized plan. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. A model-based approach to preplanting risk assessment for gray leaf spot of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P A; Munkvold, G P

    2004-12-01

    ABSTRACT Risk assessment models for gray leaf spot of maize, caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis, were developed using preplanting site and maize genotype data as predictors. Disease severity at the dough/dent plant growth stage was categorized into classes and used as the response variable. Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) modeling approaches were used to predict severity classes as a function of planting date (PD), amount of maize soil surface residue (SR), cropping sequence, genotype maturity and gray leaf spot resistance (GLSR) ratings, and longitude (LON). Models were development using 332 cases collected between 1998 and 2001. Thirty cases collected in 2002 were used to validate the models. Preplanting data showed a strong relationship with late-season gray leaf spot severity classes. The most important predictors were SR, PD, GLSR, and LON. Logistic regression models correctly classified 60 to 70% of the validation cases, whereas the CART models correctly classified 57 to 77% of these cases. Cases misclassified by the CART models were mostly due to overestimation, whereas the logistic regression models tended to misclassify cases by underestimation. Both the CART and logistic regression models have potential as management decision-making tools. Early quantitative assessment of gray leaf spot risk would allow for more sound management decisions being made when warranted.

  16. Distribution of azotobacter in rhizosphere of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.B.; Baig, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Azotobacter distribution and species composition were studied under maize rhizosphere at four growth stages and in the uncropped soil (control). The study was conducted in the glazed pots with 10 kg soil in each pot. Soil in the pots was enriched with 20 mg N/kg and 15 mg/P/kg in the form of urea and single super phosphate, respectively. Six plants of maize variety Akbar were grown in 32 pots. Four pots were used as control (check). Sampling was done at four growth stages of 20, 40, 60 and 80 days after the germination of the crop. Results indicated that Azotobacter population increased as the plant growth progressed, reached maximum (1320) cells g/sup -1/ of soil at flowering stage and then declined. A chroococcum was found to be the dominant species in the main rhizosphere. (author)

  17. Grain yield stability of early maize genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Bahadur Kunwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate grain yield stability of early maize genotypes. Five early maize genotypes namely Pool-17, Arun1EV, Arun-4, Arun-2 and Farmer’s variety were evaluated using Randomized Complete Block Design along with three replications at four different locations namely Rampur, Rajahar, Pakhribas and Kabre districts of Nepal during summer seasons of three consecutive years from 2010 to 2012 under farmer’s fields. Genotype and genotype × environment (GGE biplot was used to identify superior genotype for grain yield and stability pattern. The genotypes Arun-1 EV and Arun-4 were better adapted for Kabre and Pakhribas where as pool-17 for Rajahar environments. The overall findings showed that Arun-1EV was more stable followed by Arun-2 therefore these two varieties can be recommended to farmers for cultivation in both environments.

  18. Maize Arabinoxylan Gels as Protein Delivery Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Martínez-López

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The laccase induced gelation of maize bran arabinoxylans at 2.5% (w/v in the presence of insulin or β-lactoglobulin at 0.1% (w/v was investigated. Insulin and β-lacto-globulin did not modify either the gel elasticity (9 Pa or the cross-links content (0.03 and 0.015 mg di- and triferulic acids/mg arabinoxylan, respectively. The protein release capability of the gel was also investigated. The rate of protein release from gels was dependent on the protein molecular weight. The apparent diffusion coefficient was 0.99 × 10-7 and 0.79 × 10-7 cm2/s for insulin (5 kDa and β-lactoglobulin (18 kDa, respectively. The results suggest that maize bran arabinoxylan gels can be potential candidates for the controlled release of proteins.

  19. RESPONSIVENESS OF SPATIAL PRICE VOLATILITY TO INCREASED GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN MAIZE GRAIN AND MAIZE MEAL MARKETING IN ZAMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Syampaku, E.M; Mafimisebi, Taiwo Ejiola

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzed the responsiveness of maize grain and maize meal spatial price volatilities to increased government participation in maize grain marketing in Zambia using descriptive statistics and vector auto-regression (VAR). This was achieved by comparing spatial price volatility means and spatial price means for the period under increased government participation with respective means for periods under limited government participation. Also, spatial price volatilities were regressed ag...

  20. MODIS-Derived 1.64 micron white-sky albedo on a global, 1-minute equal angle grid (Collection 004 and 005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Filled Land Surface Albedo Product is a global data set of spatially complete albedo maps. It was derived from the MODIS MOD43B3 Land product and includes both...

  1. Temperature sensing by primary roots of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poff, K. L.

    1990-01-01

    Zea mays L. seedlings, grown on agar plates at 26 degrees C, reoriented the original vertical direction of their primary root when exposed to a thermal gradient applied perpendicular to the gravity vector. The magnitude and direction of curvature can not be explained simply by either a temperature or a humidity effect on root elongation. It is concluded that primary roots of maize sense temperature gradients in addition to sensing the gravitational force.

  2. Intraguild Competition of Three Noctuid Maize Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivenha, J P F; Baldin, E L L; Hunt, T E; Paula-Moraes, S V; Blankenship, E E

    2016-08-01

    The western bean cutworm Striacosta albicosta (Smith), the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are among the major lepidopteran pests of maize in the United States, belonging to the same guild and injuring the reproductive tissues of this crop. Here, intraguild competition of these lepidopterans on non-Bt maize was evaluated through survival analysis of each species under laboratory and field conditions. Competition scenarios were carried out in arenas containing maize silk or ear tissue, using larvae on different stadium of development. Fitness cost competition studies were conducted to examine the influence of intraguild competition and cannibalism and predation rates on larval development. The survival of S. albicosta competing with the other species was significantly lower than in intraspecific competition, even when the larvae were more developed than the competitor. For S. frugiperda, survival remained high in the different competition scenarios, except when competing in a smaller stadium with H. zea Larvae of H. zea had a high rate of cannibalism, higher survival when competing against S. albicosta than S. frugiperda, and reduced survival when the H. zea larvae were at the same development stadium or smaller than the competitors. Based on fitness cost results, the absence of a competitor for the feeding source may confer an advantage to the larval development of S. frugiperda and H. zea Our data suggest that S. frugiperda has a competitive advantage against the other species, while S. albicosta has the disadvantage in the intraguild competition on non-Bt maize. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Determinants of the probability of adopting quality protein maize (QPM) technology in Tanzania: A logistic regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, T.; Sewando, P.

    2013-01-01

    Adoption of technology is an important factor in economic development. The thrust of this study was to establish factors affecting adoption of QPM technology in Northern zone of Tanzania. Primary data was collected from a random sample of 120 smallholder maize farmers in four villages. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and quantitative methods. Logit model was used to determine factors that influence adoption of QPM technology. The regression results indicated that education of t...

  4. Spatio-temporal dynamics of maize yield water constraints under climate change in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have analyzed the impact of climate change on crop productivity, but comparing the performance of water management systems has rarely been explored. Because water supply and crop demand in agro-systems may be affected by global climate change in shaping the spatial patterns of agricultural production, we should evaluate how and where irrigation practices are effective in mitigating climate change effects. Here we have constructed simple, general models, based on biological mechanisms and a theoretical framework, which could be useful in explaining and predicting crop productivity dynamics. We have studied maize in irrigated and rain-fed systems at a provincial scale, from 1996 to 2009 in Spain, one of the most prominent "hot-spots" in future climate change projections. Our new approach allowed us to: (1) evaluate new structural properties such as the stability of crop yield dynamics, (2) detect nonlinear responses to climate change (thresholds and discontinuities), challenging the usual linear way of thinking, and (3) examine spatial patterns of yield losses due to water constraints and identify clusters of provinces that have been negatively affected by warming. We have reduced the uncertainty associated with climate change impacts on maize productivity by improving the understanding of the relative contributions of individual factors and providing a better spatial comprehension of the key processes. We have identified water stress and water management systems as being key causes of the yield gap, and detected vulnerable regions where efforts in research and policy should be prioritized in order to increase maize productivity.

  5. Aflatoxin Accumulation in a Maize Diallel Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Paul Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimination of aflatoxin in maize grain. In this investigation, a diallel cross was produced by crossing 10 inbred lines with varying degrees of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in all possible combinations. Three lines that previously developed and released as sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation were included as parents. The 10 parental inbred lines and the 45 single crosses making up the diallel cross were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation in field tests conducted in 2013 and 2014. Plants were inoculated with an A. flavus spore suspension seven days after silk emergence. Ears were harvested approximately 60 days later and concentration of aflatoxin in the grain determined. Parental inbred lines Mp717, Mp313E, and Mp719 exhibited low levels (3–12 ng/g of aflatoxin accumulation. In the diallel analysis, both general and specific combining ability were significant sources of variation in the inheritance of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. General combining ability effects for reduced aflatoxin accumulation were greatest for Mp494, Mp719, and Mp717. These lines should be especially useful in breeding for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Breeding strategies, such as reciprocal recurrent selection, would be appropriate.

  6. Transcriptome Dynamics during Maize Endosperm Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhou Qu

    Full Text Available The endosperm is a major organ of the seed that plays vital roles in determining seed weight and quality. However, genome-wide transcriptome patterns throughout maize endosperm development have not been comprehensively investigated to date. Accordingly, we performed a high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analysis of the maize endosperm transcriptome at 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after pollination (DAP. We found that more than 11,000 protein-coding genes underwent alternative splicing (AS events during the four developmental stages studied. These genes were mainly involved in intracellular protein transport, signal transmission, cellular carbohydrate metabolism, cellular lipid metabolism, lipid biosynthesis, protein modification, histone modification, cellular amino acid metabolism, and DNA repair. Additionally, 7,633 genes, including 473 transcription factors (TFs, were differentially expressed among the four developmental stages. The differentially expressed TFs were from 50 families, including the bZIP, WRKY, GeBP and ARF families. Further analysis of the stage-specific TFs showed that binding, nucleus and ligand-dependent nuclear receptor activities might be important at 5 DAP, that immune responses, signalling, binding and lumen development are involved at 10 DAP, that protein metabolic processes and the cytoplasm might be important at 15 DAP, and that the responses to various stimuli are different at 20 DAP compared with the other developmental stages. This RNA-seq analysis provides novel, comprehensive insights into the transcriptome dynamics during early endosperm development in maize.

  7. MODELLING BIOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF MAIZE USING LANDSAT 8 TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dahms

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Open and free access to multi-frequent high-resolution data (e.g. Sentinel – 2 will fortify agricultural applications based on satellite data. The temporal and spatial resolution of these remote sensing datasets directly affects the applicability of remote sensing methods, for instance a robust retrieving of biophysical parameters over the entire growing season with very high geometric resolution. In this study we use machine learning methods to predict biophysical parameters, namely the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic radiation (FPAR, the leaf area index (LAI and the chlorophyll content, from high resolution remote sensing. 30 Landsat 8 OLI scenes were available in our study region in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. In-situ data were weekly to bi-weekly collected on 18 maize plots throughout the summer season 2015. The study aims at an optimized prediction of biophysical parameters and the identification of the best explaining spectral bands and vegetation indices. For this purpose, we used the entire in-situ dataset from 24.03.2015 to 15.10.2015. Random forest and conditional inference forests were used because of their explicit strong exploratory and predictive character. Variable importance measures allowed for analysing the relation between the biophysical parameters with respect to the spectral response, and the performance of the two approaches over the plant stock evolvement. Classical random forest regression outreached the performance of conditional inference forests, in particular when modelling the biophysical parameters over the entire growing period. For example, modelling biophysical parameters of maize for the entire vegetation period using random forests yielded: FPAR: R² = 0.85; RMSE = 0.11; LAI: R² = 0.64; RMSE = 0.9 and chlorophyll content (SPAD: R² = 0.80; RMSE=4.9. Our results demonstrate the great potential in using machine-learning methods for the interpretation of long-term multi-frequent remote sensing

  8. Modelling Biophysical Parameters of Maize Using Landsat 8 Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Thorsten; Seissiger, Sylvia; Conrad, Christopher; Borg, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Open and free access to multi-frequent high-resolution data (e.g. Sentinel - 2) will fortify agricultural applications based on satellite data. The temporal and spatial resolution of these remote sensing datasets directly affects the applicability of remote sensing methods, for instance a robust retrieving of biophysical parameters over the entire growing season with very high geometric resolution. In this study we use machine learning methods to predict biophysical parameters, namely the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic radiation (FPAR), the leaf area index (LAI) and the chlorophyll content, from high resolution remote sensing. 30 Landsat 8 OLI scenes were available in our study region in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. In-situ data were weekly to bi-weekly collected on 18 maize plots throughout the summer season 2015. The study aims at an optimized prediction of biophysical parameters and the identification of the best explaining spectral bands and vegetation indices. For this purpose, we used the entire in-situ dataset from 24.03.2015 to 15.10.2015. Random forest and conditional inference forests were used because of their explicit strong exploratory and predictive character. Variable importance measures allowed for analysing the relation between the biophysical parameters with respect to the spectral response, and the performance of the two approaches over the plant stock evolvement. Classical random forest regression outreached the performance of conditional inference forests, in particular when modelling the biophysical parameters over the entire growing period. For example, modelling biophysical parameters of maize for the entire vegetation period using random forests yielded: FPAR: R² = 0.85; RMSE = 0.11; LAI: R² = 0.64; RMSE = 0.9 and chlorophyll content (SPAD): R² = 0.80; RMSE=4.9. Our results demonstrate the great potential in using machine-learning methods for the interpretation of long-term multi-frequent remote sensing datasets to model

  9. Apparent in vivo nutrient digestibility of maize silages in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PÍŠOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to analyzed coefficients of digestibility of the maize silage nutrients in horse feeding. Horses of Slovak warmblood breed engaged in the research were 2.5 ± 0.5 years old. Horses in boxes without bedding to avoid eating it and excrement contamination were stabled. Horses individually with ad libitum access to water were housed. The boxes with trough for corn silage were equiped. The corn silage contained 362.3 g of dry matter, 74.1 g of crude protein, 27.1 g of crude fat and 948.2 g of organic matter in kg of dry matter. The feed twice a day, in the morning and in the evening was given. The feed intake and leftovers were weighed every day. Excrements immediately after excreting to avoid urine contamination into plastic containers were collected and weighed. The content of nutrients in the feed intake and in the excrements were analysed. In analysed samples the gravimetric dry matter amount by drying at 103 ± 2 °C, crude protein content by Kjeldahl method, fat content by extraction method according to Soxhlett – Henkel, ash content by burning the sample at 530 ± 20 °C in muffle furnace and organic matter content by calculation were determined. Coefficients of apparent digestibility in percent from taken in and excreted nutrients were calculated. In maize silage for horse feeding an average coefficient of digestibility of dry matter 61.94%, of crude protein 56.03%, of crude fat 72.34% and of organic matter 65.19% was found.

  10. Comparison of Collection Schemes of Municipal Solid Waste Metallic Fraction: The Impacts on Global Warming Potential for the Case of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Heiskanen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research article the sustainability of different practices to collect the metal fraction of household waste in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland is examined. The study is carried out by calculating and comparing the greenhouse gas reduction potential of optional practices for collecting the metal fraction of household waste in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. In order to locate the greenhouse gas reduction potential of the separate collection of the metallic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW collected from residential sources, a comparative carbon footprint analysis using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA on six different waste management scenarios is carried out. The modeled system consisted of a waste collection system, transportation, and different waste management alternatives, including on-site separation, separation at the waste management facility as well as metallurgical recovery of separated scrap. The results show that, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, separate collection and recycling of the metallic fraction of solid MSW at residential properties is the preferable option compared to a scenario with no source sorting and incineration of everything. According to this research scenario where the metal fraction of solid household waste was not source-separated or collected separately have clearly higher greenhouse gas emissions compared to all the other scenarios with separate collection for metals. In addition, metal recycling by regional collection points has considerably lower greenhouse gas emission potential than metal recycling by collection directly from residential properties.

  11. The response of maize production in Kenya to economic incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onono, P.A.,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development policy in Kenya has emphasised the use of incentives towards increased production and therefore self-sufficiency in maize which is a basic staple for most households. The channels used to provide incentives to maize farmers over the years include setting higher producer prices; subsidisation of inputs; provision of agricultural credit, research and extension services; construction and maintenance of roads, development of irrigation and water systems; legislative, institutional and macroeconomic reforms. Despite these efforts outputof maize has remained below domestic requirements in most years and the country continues to rely on imports to meet the deficits. Studies have assessed the responsiveness of maize to output price and reported inelastic responses and have recommended policies targeting non-price incentives to complement prices for the required increased production of maize. The studies, however, did not analyse the influence of the non-price incentives on the production of the crop. The findings of those studies are therefore deficient in explaining the relative importance of different non-price incentives and how they complement prices in influencing maize production in Kenya. This study investigated the response of maize production to both price and non-price incentives. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relative importance of non-price factors in influencing production of the crops as well as complementarity between price and non-price incentives. The findings show that maize production responds positively to its output price, development expenditures in agriculture, maize sales to marketing boards, growth in per capita GDP, liberalisation and governance reforms. However, maize production responds negatively to fertiliser price and unfavourable weather conditions. The response of maize output to its price is lower with rising inflation and grain market liberalisation.

  12. Climate change and maize yield in southern Africa: what can farm management do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurinda, Jairos; van Wijk, Mark T; Mapfumo, Paul; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Supit, Iwan; Giller, Ken E

    2015-12-01

    There is concern that food insecurity will increase in southern Africa due to climate change. We quantified the response of maize yield to projected climate change and to three key management options - planting date, fertilizer use and cultivar choice - using the crop simulation model, agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM), at two contrasting sites in Zimbabwe. Three climate periods up to 2100 were selected to cover both near- and long-term climates. Future climate data under two radiative forcing scenarios were generated from five global circulation models. The temperature is projected to increase significantly in Zimbabwe by 2100 with no significant change in mean annual total rainfall. When planting before mid-December with a high fertilizer rate, the simulated average grain yield for all three maize cultivars declined by 13% for the periods 2010-2039 and 2040-2069 and by 20% for 2070-2099 compared with the baseline climate, under low radiative forcing. Larger declines in yield of up to 32% were predicted for 2070-2099 with high radiative forcing. Despite differences in annual rainfall, similar trends in yield changes were observed for the two sites studied, Hwedza and Makoni. The yield response to delay in planting was nonlinear. Fertilizer increased yield significantly under both baseline and future climates. The response of maize to mineral nitrogen decreased with progressing climate change, implying a decrease in the optimal fertilizer rate in the future. Our results suggest that in the near future, improved crop and soil fertility management will remain important for enhanced maize yield. Towards the end of the 21st century, however, none of the farm management options tested in the study can avoid large yield losses in southern Africa due to climate change. There is a need to transform the current cropping systems of southern Africa to offset the negative impacts of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Changing water availability during the African maize-growing season, 1979–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, Lyndon D; Chaney, Nathaniel W; Herrera-Estrada, Julio; Sheffield, Justin; Caylor, Kelly K; Wood, Eric F

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how global change is impacting African agriculture requires a full physical accounting of water supply and demand, but accurate, gridded data on key drivers (e.g., humidity) are generally unavailable. We used a new bias-corrected meteorological dataset to analyze changes in precipitation (supply), potential evapotranspiration (E p , demand), and water availability (expressed as the ratio P/E p ) in 20 countries (focusing on their maize-growing regions and seasons), between 1979 and 2010, and the factors driving changes in E p . Maize-growing areas in Southern Africa, particularly South Africa, benefitted from increased water availability due in large part to demand declines driven primarily by declining net radiation, increasing vapor pressure, and falling temperatures (with no effect from changing windspeed), with smaller increases in supply. Sahelian zone countries in West Africa, as well as Ethiopia in East Africa, had strong increases in availability driven primarily by rainfall rebounding from the long-term Sahelian droughts, with little change or small reductions in demand. However, intra-seasonal supply variability generally increased in West and East Africa. Across all three regions, declining net radiation contributed downwards pressure on demand, generally over-riding upwards pressure caused by increasing temperatures, the regional effects of which were largest in East Africa. A small number of countries, mostly in or near East Africa (Tanzania and Malawi) experienced declines in water availability primarily due to decreased rainfall, but exacerbated by increasing demand. Much of the reduced water availability in East Africa occurred during the more sensitive middle part of the maize-growing season, suggesting negative consequences for maize production. (paper)

  14. Verification and characterization of chromosome duplication in haploid maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Couto, E G; Resende Von Pinho, E V; Von Pinho, R G; Veiga, A D; de Carvalho, M R; de Oliveira Bustamante, F; Nascimento, M S

    2015-06-26

    Doubled haploid technology has been used by various private companies. However, information regarding chromosome duplication methodologies, particularly those concerning techniques used to identify duplication in cells, is limited. Thus, we analyzed and characterized artificially doubled haploids using microsatellites molecular markers, pollen viability, and flow cytometry techniques. Evaluated material was obtained using two different chromosome duplication protocols in maize seeds considered haploids, resulting from the cross between the haploid inducer line KEMS and 4 hybrids (GNS 3225, GNS 3032, GNS 3264, and DKB 393). Fourteen days after duplication, plant samples were collected and assessed by flow cytometry. Further, the plants were transplanted to a field, and samples were collected for DNA analyses using microsatellite markers. The tassels were collected during anthesis for pollen viability analyses. Haploid, diploid, and mixoploid individuals were detected using flow cytometry, demonstrating that this technique was efficient for identifying doubled haploids. The microsatellites markers were also efficient for confirming the ploidies preselected by flow cytometry and for identifying homozygous individuals. Pollen viability showed a significant difference between the evaluated ploidies when the Alexander and propionic-carmin stains were used. The viability rates between the plodies analyzed show potential for fertilization.

  15. A Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genes Associated with Fusarium Ear Rot Resistance in a Maize Core Diversity Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zila, Charles T.; Samayoa, L. Fernando; Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Holland, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium ear rot is a common disease of maize that affects food and feed quality globally. Resistance to the disease is highly quantitative, and maize breeders have difficulty incorporating polygenic resistance alleles from unadapted donor sources into elite breeding populations without having a negative impact on agronomic performance. Identification of specific allele variants contributing to improved resistance may be useful to breeders by allowing selection of resistance alleles in coupling phase linkage with favorable agronomic characteristics. We report the results of a genome-wide association study to detect allele variants associated with increased resistance to Fusarium ear rot in a maize core diversity panel of 267 inbred lines evaluated in two sets of environments. We performed association tests with 47,445 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) while controlling for background genomic relationships with a mixed model and identified three marker loci significantly associated with disease resistance in at least one subset of environments. Each associated SNP locus had relatively small additive effects on disease resistance (±1.1% on a 0–100% scale), but nevertheless were associated with 3 to 12% of the genotypic variation within or across environment subsets. Two of three identified SNPs colocalized with genes that have been implicated with programmed cell death. An analysis of associated allele frequencies within the major maize subpopulations revealed enrichment for resistance alleles in the tropical/subtropical and popcorn subpopulations compared with other temperate breeding pools. PMID:24048647

  16. Land Change Regimes and the Evolution of the Maize-Cattle Complex in Neoliberal Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankuic Galvan-Miyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available How globalization impacts native land cover has become an important issue in studies addressing environmental change, which draw explicit attention to processes of cause and effect operating over significant distances. The literature shows that globalization constitutes an important underlying driver of both deforestation and forest transition via demographic and economic phenomena such as migration and remittance flows. Yet, little is known about how global forces mold the spatial structure of agro-commodity production and how this impacts the balance of forces affecting land change at the meso-scale, within the boundaries of the nation-state. The research presented here fills this gap by examining production networks for Mexico, a large OECD country with complex land change dynamics that has recently experienced a dramatic opening to the world economy. Specifically, we consider how maize and beef commodity chains evolved over the past few decades into a highly interdependent maize-cattle complex, and suggest linkages to patterns of land change at the national scale. Using land cover maps for 1993, 2002, and 2012, at the national scale, governmental statistics and datasets, interviews with key informants, and field observations the article provides an analysis of the impact of neoliberal reforms on the changing geography of beef and maize production, and argues that this process underlies the evolution of Mexico’s land change regime, both before and after the NAFTA reforms. As such, the article presents an account, and a case for further research on the topic of how teleconnections are constituted by spatially-extensive food production networks.

  17. OPTIMAS-DW: A comprehensive transcriptomics, metabolomics, ionomics, proteomics and phenomics data resource for maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colmsee Christian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maize is a major crop plant, grown for human and animal nutrition, as well as a renewable resource for bioenergy. When looking at the problems of limited fossil fuels, the growth of the world’s population or the world’s climate change, it is important to find ways to increase the yield and biomass of maize and to study how it reacts to specific abiotic and biotic stress situations. Within the OPTIMAS systems biology project maize plants were grown under a large set of controlled stress conditions, phenotypically characterised and plant material was harvested to analyse the effect of specific environmental conditions or developmental stages. Transcriptomic, metabolomic, ionomic and proteomic parameters were measured from the same plant material allowing the comparison of results across different omics domains. A data warehouse was developed to store experimental data as well as analysis results of the performed experiments. Description The OPTIMAS Data Warehouse (OPTIMAS-DW is a comprehensive data collection for maize and integrates data from different data domains such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, ionomics, proteomics and phenomics. Within the OPTIMAS project, a 44K oligo chip was designed and annotated to describe the functions of the selected unigenes. Several treatment- and plant growth stage experiments were performed and measured data were filled into data templates and imported into the data warehouse by a Java based import tool. A web interface allows users to browse through all stored experiment data in OPTIMAS-DW including all data domains. Furthermore, the user can filter the data to extract information of particular interest. All data can be exported into different file formats for further data analysis and visualisation. The data analysis integrates data from different data domains and enables the user to find answers to different systems biology questions. Finally, maize specific pathway information is

  18. The influence of farmers\\' adoption behaviour on maize production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore designed to determine the contribution of farmers\\' adoption of recommended maize production practices, namely maize varieties, seed spacing, fertilization and weeding on production efficiency in order to assess the soundness of the advice given to farmers. The research was conducted in the ...

  19. Effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, in early 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients and performance of maize. The experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design, with four levels of crop ...

  20. Regeneration of tropical maize lines ( Zea mays l .) from mature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of immature zygotic embryos as an explant for maize regeneration has been hampered by the strictly limited suitable duration of immature embryos for culture. In contrast, mature zygotic embryos harvested from dry seeds are ubiquitous. However, generally mature embryos and especially tropical maize genotypes ...

  1. Aflatoxin Levels in Locally Grown Maize from Makueni District, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Investigations were carried out to determine aflatoxin levels in household maize in Makueni District and to correlate aflatoxin levels to maize drying and storage practices. Also, aflatoxin exposure in villages that reported aflatoxicosis cases in 2005 was compared with that in villages that did not report cases to ...

  2. Combining ability for maize grain yield and other agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons with the objective to evaluate the combining ability for maize grain yield and other agronomic characters in 10 open pollinated maize varieties, which have been selected for high yield and stress ...

  3. Evaluating Terra MODIS Satellite Sensor Data Products for Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating Terra MODIS Satellite Sensor Data Products for Maize Yield Estimation in South Africa. C Frost, N Thiebaut, T Newby. Abstract. The Free State Province of the Republic of South Africa contains some of the most important maize-producing areas in South Africa. For this reason this province has also been selected ...

  4. Replacement Value of Palm Kernel Meal for Maize on Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal on nutrient composition, fatty acid profile and sensory qualities of the meat of turkeys fed the dietary treatments. Six dietary treatments were formulated using palm kernel meal to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent.

  5. Maize gene banks helps farmers adapt to new challenges | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... English · Français ... The farmers use a multitude of maize (corn) varieties – landraces – that are “very well adapted to harsh environments and poor soils, and ... These varieties were then “frozen in time” in maize gene banks.

  6. A Technique for Identification of Intrinsic Resistance of Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the insect fat body to determine the levels of fat body vitellogenin (FVg) in the vitellogenic S. zeamais females which were reared on different maize varieties. Results on levels of FVg varied and ranged from 83.33% to 43.33% in insects raised in different varieties ANOVA of FVg, maize weight loss and F1 numbers showed ...

  7. Sporophytic control of pollen tube growth and guidance in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausser, Andreas; Kliwer, Irina; Srilunchang, Kanok-orn; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Pollen tube germination, growth, and guidance (progamic phase) culminating in sperm discharge is a multi-stage process including complex interactions between the male gametophyte as well as sporophytic tissues and the female gametophyte (embryo sac), respectively. Inter- and intra-specific crossing barriers in maize and Tripsacum have been studied and a precise description of progamic pollen tube development in maize is reported here. It was found that pollen germination and initial tube growth are rather unspecific, but an early, first crossing barrier was detected before arrival at the transmitting tract. Pollination of maize silks with Tripsacum pollen and incompatible pollination of Ga1s/Ga1s-maize silks with ga1-maize pollen revealed another two incompatibility barriers, namely transmitting tract mistargeting and insufficient growth support. Attraction and growth support by the transmitting tract seem to play key roles for progamic pollen tube growth. After leaving transmitting tracts, pollen tubes have to navigate across the ovule in the ovular cavity. Pollination of an embryo sac-less maize RNAi-line allowed the role of the female gametophyte for pollen tube guidance to be determined in maize. It was found that female gametophyte controlled guidance is restricted to a small region around the micropyle, approximately 50–100 μm in diameter. This area is comparable to the area of influence of previously described ZmEA1-based short-range female gametophyte signalling. In conclusion, the progamic phase is almost completely under sporophytic control in maize. PMID:19926683

  8. Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. OO Alabi, AAA Coker, ME Idegbesor. Abstract. This study examined net farm income of maize production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory. The specific objectives are to: identify the ...

  9. Sources of Technical Efficiency Among Smallholders Maize Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the mean technical efficiency score for famers in the study area is 62.3%. This implies that there is a significant room for increasing maize yield in the study area if farmers use the resources at their disposal efficiently. Moreover, the results show that the efficiency of maize farmers in the study area is ...

  10. Determinants of technical inefficiency among maize-based farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining the level of farm-specific technical inefficiency of maize-based farming households in Niger state of Nigeria, this study fitted cross-sectional data into a Cobb- Douglass production frontier. Data used for this study were obtained using structured questionnaire administered to 108 randomly selected maize-based ...

  11. design, construction and performance analysis of a maize thresher

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    and evaluate a low cost maize sheller for rural farmers in Nigeria. ... between the human performance index for shelling and the machine .... maize in a mechanized system is the size of the ... factors are the design of the power transmis- .... and reliability in line with [11]). .... PGD thesis, Department of Mechanical En-.

  12. Contributions of Zea mays subspecies mexicana haplotypes to modern maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Xu, Xi-Wen; Wang, Rui-Ru; Peng, Wen-Lei; Cai, Lichun; Song, Jia-Ming; Li, Wenqiang; Luo, Xin; Niu, Luyao; Wang, Yuebin; Jin, Min; Chen, Lu; Luo, Jingyun; Deng, Min; Wang, Long; Pan, Qingchun; Liu, Feng; Jackson, David; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Ling-Ling; Yan, Jianbing

    2017-11-30

    Maize was domesticated from lowland teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), but the contribution of highland teosinte (Zea mays ssp. mexicana, hereafter mexicana) to modern maize is not clear. Here, two genomes for Mo17 (a modern maize inbred) and mexicana are assembled using a meta-assembly strategy after sequencing of 10 lines derived from a maize-teosinte cross. Comparative analyses reveal a high level of diversity between Mo17, B73, and mexicana, including three Mb-size structural rearrangements. The maize spontaneous mutation rate is estimated to be 2.17 × 10 -8 ~3.87 × 10 -8 per site per generation with a nonrandom distribution across the genome. A higher deleterious mutation rate is observed in the pericentromeric regions, and might be caused by differences in recombination frequency. Over 10% of the maize genome shows evidence of introgression from the mexicana genome, suggesting that mexicana contributed to maize adaptation and improvement. Our data offer a rich resource for constructing the pan-genome of Zea mays and genetic improvement of modern maize varieties.

  13. Exploring cost-effective maize integrated weed management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several production constraints have led to low yields (< 2.5 t ha-1) in maize (Zea mays L.) inUganda, among which are weeds. This study investigated the most cost-effective integrated weedmanagement (IWM) approach in maize in eastern Uganda. An experiment was conducted atIkulwe station, Mayuge in 2011 and 2012 ...

  14. Detection of genetically modified maize ( Zea mays L.) in seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize is the second major cereal in Nepal; its food biosafety and ecological conservation is an important concern. To address this issue, it is necessary to detect genetically modified (GM) maize and establish a monitoring and regulatory system in Nepal. Currently, Nepal does not have legal regulations or labeling directives ...

  15. Interaction of maize chromatin-associated HMG proteins with mononucleosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichota, J.; Grasser, Klaus D.

    2003-01-01

    maize HMGA and five different HMGB proteins with mononucleosomes (containing approx. 165 bp of DNA) purified from micrococcal nuclease-digested maize chromatin. The HMGB proteins interacted with the nucleosomes independent of the presence of the linker histone H1, while the binding of HMGA...

  16. Ion beam biotechnology and its application to maize breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lixia; Li Wenjian; Dong Xicun; Zhou Libin; Ma Shuang

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid of 1980's, ion beam had been widely used in mutagenic breeding of various crops. Ion beam biotechnology had provided a new way for improving corn variety and creating new germplasm resources, and had promoted the development of maize breeding. The ion beam characteristics, the mutagenic mechanism and its application in maize breeding were described. (authors)

  17. Detection of optimum maturity of maize using image processing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A CCD camera for image acquisition of the different green colorations of the maize leaves at maturity was used. Different color features were extracted from the image processing system (MATLAB) and used as inputs to the artificial neural network that classify different levels of maturity. Keywords: Maize, Maturity, CCD ...

  18. Inadvertent presence of genetically modified elements in maize food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenya has a biosafety law and has tested genetically modified (GM) maize under confinement and containment, but has neither released nor commercialized any GM crop. This study assessed various maize food products from the Kenyan farms and markets for the inadvertent presence of GMOs. It assessed the possibility ...

  19. Genetic diversity of Pakistani maize genotypes using chromosome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For improvement of maize crop presence of genetic diversity in the germplasm is very important. This study was conducted to determine genetic diversity among 17 Pakistani maize genotypes using 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer sets. All the amplification products were in the range of <250-750 bp. To estimate the ...

  20. Significance and transmission of maize streak virus disease in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... soil nutrients, altitude and temperature on the biology of maize streak virus (MSV) / vector populations is discussed. ... status of maize host plants and its effects on population dynamics of Cicadulina mbila Naudé. (Homoptera: ..... time necessary for the leafhopper to reach the mesophyll of the leaf and ingest ...

  1. Yield advantage and water saving in maize/pea intercrop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Li, W.; Werf, van der W.; Sun, J.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, L.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is a well-established strategy for maximization of yield from limited land, but mixed results have been obtained as to its performance in terms of water use efficiency. Here, two maize/pea intercrop layouts were studied in comparison to sole maize and sole pea with and without plastic

  2. Status and prospects of maize research in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind KC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Food and nutritional securities are the major threats coupled with declining factor productivity and climate change effects in Nepal. Maize being the principal food crops of the majority of the hill people and source of animal feed for ever growing livestock industries in Terai of Nepal. Despite the many efforts made to increase the maize productivity in the country, the results are not much encouraging. Many of the maize based technologies developed and recommended for the farmers to date are not fully adopted. Therefore, problem is either on technology development or on dissemination or on both. Considering the above facts, some of the innovative and modern approaches of plant breeding and crop management technologies to increase the maize yield need to be developed and disseminated. There is a need for location-specific maize production technologies, especially for lowland winter maize, marginal upland maize production system, and resource poor farmers. Research efforts can be targeted to address both yield potential and on-farm yields by reducing the impacts of abiotic and biotic constraints. Therefore, in order to streamline the future direction of maize research in Nepal, an attempt has been made in this article to highlight the present status and future prospects with few key pathways.

  3. Regeneration of Sudanese maize inbred lines and open pollinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Keywords: Sudanese maize genotypes, embryogenic callus, regeneration, and tissue culture. INTRODUCTION. Maize is an important food and forage crop in the North- ern and Southern regions of ... Skoog, 1965) containing 60 g l-1 sucrose and lacking 2,4-D (referred to as maturation or RI medium) and ...

  4. Intraplant communication in maize contributes to defense against insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vasculature of plants act as a channel for transport of signal(s) that facilitate long-distance intraplant communication. In maize, Maize insect resistance1-Cysteine Protease (Mir1-CP), which has homology to papain-like proteases, provides defense to different feeding guilds of insect pests. Fur...

  5. Studies on biochemical changes in maize wastes fermented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to transform the agricultural waste products of maize cobs and shafts into useful products such as animal feeds and reduce the pollution effects of these wastes during maize seasons, they were fermented using Aspergillus niger for 72 hours. The fermented residues were analyzed with regard to proximate ...

  6. Detection of genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) in seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... establish a monitoring and regulatory system in Nepal. Currently, Nepal does not ... maize lines in 46 maize seed samples from different locations in Nepal. Suspected samples .... seeds supplied by informal channels (Sthapit and San, 2001). ... rence Materials and Measurements (IRRM, Geel, Belgium;.

  7. Maize flour fortification in Africa: markets, feasibility, coverage, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Afidra, Ronald; Mugambi, Gladys; Tehinse, John; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Lividini, Keith; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia

    2014-04-01

    The economic feasibility of maize flour and maize meal fortification in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia is assessed using information about the maize milling industry, households' purchases and consumption levels of maize flour, and the incremental cost and estimated price impacts of fortification. Premix costs comprise the overwhelming share of incremental fortification costs and vary by 50% in Kenya and by more than 100% across the three countries. The estimated incremental cost of maize flour fortification per metric ton varies from $3.19 in Zambia to $4.41 in Uganda. Assuming all incremental costs are passed onto the consumer, fortification in Zambia would result in at most a 0.9% increase in the price of maize flour, and would increase annual outlays of the average maize flour-consuming household by 0.2%. The increases for Kenyans and Ugandans would be even less. Although the coverage of maize flour fortification is not likely to be as high as some advocates have predicted, fortification is economically feasible, and would reduce deficiencies of multiple micronutrients, which are significant public health problems in each of these countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Performance and Energy Metabolism by Broiler Chickens Fed Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize grain with different dietary levels of maize and millet offals on performance and energy metabolism in broiler chickens. Proximate composition and metabolizable energy (ME) values were determined. Feeding trial was also conducted to comparemaize and ...

  9. Climate Change and Maize Production: Empirical Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    Time series data on aggregate maize production, fertilizer use, .... The maize response model (eqn 3) was estimated using the time series data for ... The R. 2 value obtained from the equation is 0.534. This further indicates that aggregate total.

  10. Sub-Saharan African maize-based foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekpa, Onu; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Kruseman, Gideon; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Linnemann, Anita R.

    2018-01-01

    The demand for maize in Sub-Saharan Africa will triple by 2050 due to rapid population growth, while challenges from climate change will threaten agricultural productivity. Most maize breeding programmes have focused on improving agronomic properties and have paid relatively little attention to

  11. Evaluating Terra MODIS Satellite Sensor Data Products for Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Celeste

    Maize plants mature on average from 120 to 165 days after planting. ... is a maize yield estimation timing model, developed using data from the ... The objective yields were surveyed and randomly selected from results of the stratified point ... are used in formulae (Frost, 2006) to derive plant population and a predicted ...

  12. Sensitivity of CERES-Maize yield simulation to the selected weather data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalud, Z.; Stastna, M.

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis of selected weather data runs after successful parametrization and validation of the CERES-Maize simulation model. Estimation of the potential yield has been carried out during the long term experiment (1980-1997) as well as the estimation of influence of meteorological parameters on the simulation results for the water-limited yield. 10 % under and over stimulation of global radiation and precipitation as well as increasing and decreasing temperature by 1 deg C on simulated potential and water-limited yield have been done. In most of the years, air temperature underestimation resulted in a higher simulated grain yield and overstimulation shown a lower yield for water limited level. Overestimation of precipitation during wet days in growing period of the maize leads to an increase of amount of water available for the plant and to increase the yield. Underestimation of global radiation by 10 % resulted in a decline in simulated grain yield from -8.8 to -9.9 %. The overestimation caused increase of the yield from 7.8 to 10 %. Overestimation by 10 % resulted in a slight underestimation of the yield in low yielding years and underestimation of global radiation by 10 % in overestimation of the yield. The effect was opposite in high yielding years

  13. Estimating plant distance in maize using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinshui; Basso, Bruno; Price, Richard F; Putman, Gregory; Shuai, Guanyuan

    2018-01-01

    Distance between rows and plants are essential parameters that affect the final grain yield in row crops. This paper presents the results of research intended to develop a novel method to quantify the distance between maize plants at field scale using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Using this method, we can recognize maize plants as objects and calculate the distance between plants. We initially developed our method by training an algorithm in an indoor facility with plastic corn plants. Then, the method was scaled up and tested in a farmer's field with maize plant spacing that exhibited natural variation. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to precisely quantify the distance between maize plants. We found that accuracy of the measurement of the distance between maize plants depended on the height above ground level at which UAV imagery was taken. This study provides an innovative approach to quantify plant-to-plant variability and, thereby final crop yield estimates.

  14. Bridging the gap between data analysis and data collection in FIA and forest monitoring globally: successes, research findings, and lessons learned from the Western US and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif. Mortenson

    2015-01-01

    Globally, national forest inventories (NFI) require a large work force typically consisting of multiple teams spread across multiple locations in order to successfully capture a given nation’s forest resources. This is true of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program in the US and in many inventories in developing countries that are supported by USFS...

  15. Level of zinc in maize seeds and maize growing soils of central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia is one of the world countries with reported zinc deficiency or high probability of zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency is an important soil constraint to crop production, food quality and human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the zinc concentration of different cultivars of maize seeds and soil samples in central ...

  16. Evaluation of maize-soybean flour blends for sour maize bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Properties examined included amylose content, bulk density, dispersibility, swelling power, water absorption capacity and viscoelastic properties. The effect of the different flour/meal samples on the properties of sour maize bread were evaluated by baking bread samples with the different flours/meals using a mixed starter ...

  17. Responses by earthworms to reduced tillage in herbicide tolerant maize and Bt maize cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Griffiths, B.; Demsar, D.

    2007-01-01

    -toxin producing transgenic maize line MON810 was studied for 1 year. At a Danish study site, Foulum (Jutland), one year of Bt corn was followed by 2 years of herbicide tolerant corn. At the French study site the most prominent effects observed were due to the tillage method where RT significantly reduced...

  18. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize (corn) lethal necrosis in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2011, high incidence of a new maize (Zea mays L.) disease was reported at lower elevations (1900 masl) in the Longisa division of Bomet County, Southern Rift Valley of Kenya. Later the disease was noted in Bomet Central division, spreading into the neighboring Chepalungu and Narok South...

  19. A comparative study on infestation of three varieties of maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to study the infestation of three maize varieties (Maize suwan I–Y, Maize T2 USR – White single cross and Maize suwan 123) by Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Infestation was assessed by counting the numbers of alive and dead adults and the number of infested and uninfested seeds. It was found out ...

  20. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading 1005.10...

  1. The Combining Ability of Maize Inbred Lines for Grain Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Combining Ability of Maize Inbred Lines for Grain Yield and Reaction to Grey ... East African Journal of Sciences ... (GLS) to maize production, the national maize research program of Ethiopia ... The information from this study will be useful for the development of high-yielding and GLS disease-resistant maize varieties.

  2. MaizeGDB: enabling access to basic, translational, and applied research information

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaizeGDB is the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (available online at http://www.maizegdb.org). The MaizeGDB project is not simply an online database and website but rather an information service to maize researchers that supports customized data access and analysis needs to individual research...

  3. Seed treatments enhance photosynthesis in maize seedlings by reducing infection with Fusarium spp. and consequent disease development in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a seed treatment on early season growth, seedling disease development, incidence Fusarium spp. infection, and photosynthetic performance of maize were evaluated at two locations in Iowa in 2007. Maize seed was either treated with Cruiser 2Extreme 250 ® (fludioxonil + azoxystrobin + me...

  4. Genomic-based-breeding tools for tropical maize improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakradhar, Thammineni; Hindu, Vemuri; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar

    2017-12-01

    Maize has traditionally been the main staple diet in the Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and widely grown by millions of resource poor small scale farmers. Approximately, 35.4 million hectares are sown to tropical maize, constituting around 59% of the developing worlds. Tropical maize encounters tremendous challenges besides poor agro-climatic situations with average yields recorded <3 tones/hectare that is far less than the average of developed countries. On the contrary to poor yields, the demand for maize as food, feed, and fuel is continuously increasing in these regions. Heterosis breeding introduced in early 90 s improved maize yields significantly, but genetic gains is still a mirage, particularly for crop growing under marginal environments. Application of molecular markers has accelerated the pace of maize breeding to some extent. The availability of array of sequencing and genotyping technologies offers unrivalled service to improve precision in maize-breeding programs through modern approaches such as genomic selection, genome-wide association studies, bulk segregant analysis-based sequencing approaches, etc. Superior alleles underlying complex traits can easily be identified and introgressed efficiently using these sequence-based approaches. Integration of genomic tools and techniques with advanced genetic resources such as nested association mapping and backcross nested association mapping could certainly address the genetic issues in maize improvement programs in developing countries. Huge diversity in tropical maize and its inherent capacity for doubled haploid technology offers advantage to apply the next generation genomic tools for accelerating production in marginal environments of tropical and subtropical world. Precision in phenotyping is the key for success of any molecular-breeding approach. This article reviews genomic technologies and their application to improve agronomic traits in tropical maize breeding has been reviewed in

  5. Soil microbial activity under conventional and organic production of bean and maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Jelena B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of conventional and organic production system on microbial activity in the soil cultivated with bean and maize crops. The trial in Đurđevo was set up according to the conventional farming system, while organic farming system was used in Futog. Two maize hybrids and two bean cultivars were used in the trial. Soil samples were collected in two periods during 2014 (before sowing, at flowering stage of bean crops, and at 9-11 leaf stage of maize at two depths, at both locations. The following microbiological parameters were tested: the total number of micro­organisms, number of ammonifiers, Azotobacter sp., free nitrogen fixing bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and activity of dehydrogenase enzyme. The results showed that the total number of microorganisms, number of free N-fixers and dehydrogenase activity were higher within organic production, while Azotobacter sp. was more abundant in conventional production. Variations in the number of ammonifiers, fungi and actinomycetes in relation to the type of production were not obtained. Significant differences in microbial activity were also obtained between period and depths of sampling.

  6. Potential external contamination of pneumatic seed drills during sowing of dressed maize seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzone, Marco; Balsari, Paolo; Marucco, Paolo; Tamagnone, Mario

    2016-07-01

    The use of pneumatic drills in maize cultivation causes dispersion in the atmosphere of some harmful substances normally used for dressing maize seeds. Some of the dust particles may be deposited on the machine's body, becoming dangerous for the environment and for operators. The aim of the present study was to analyse the amount of dust deposited on the frame of drills during maize sowing operations. Tests were performed with different drills and in different operating conditions. Data analysis showed that a significant amount (up to 30%) of the tracer can be deposited on the drill body. When wind was not present, higher quantities of tracer were collected and the forward speed did not influence significantly the tracer deposit on the seed drills. The use of different devices designed to prevent dust dispersion was able to limit up to 95% but was not able to eliminate the external contamination of the drill. The particles present on drills could become a problem for the operator during the filling of the drill. Additionally, the environment can be contaminated if pesticide remains on the drill, generating point-source pollution when the drill is parked outside. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The effects of improved maize technology on household welfare in Buruku, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I. Audu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the welfare effects of improved maize technology in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. The study also examined the determinants of the adoption of improved maize technology. Structured questionnaires were used in collecting the primary data for the study. A multi-stage random technique was used in selecting 125 farm households for the study. The Logit and ordinary least square (OLS models were used in analyzing the data. The OLS results show that adoption of improved maize varieties is positively and significantly related to household welfare and thus has contributed to moving farm households out of poverty. Other variables found to be statistically significant in explaining household welfare are education, household size, and landholding. The Logit results show that age, household size, off-farm income, and education were found to be significant in influencing farmers’ adoption decisions. Some robustness checks were performed with different specifications of the Logit and OLS models as well as re-estimation with propensity matching score approach. Overall, the results are robust to different specifications.

  8. Isoenzymatic variation in the germplasm of Brazilian races of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenes Marcos Aparecido

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There are more than 200 races of maize (Zea mays L. divided into three groups (ancient commercial races, the recent commercial races, and indigenous races. Although the indigenous races have no commercial value, they have many important characteristics which can be incorporated into maize breeding programs. Most Brazilian indigenous germplasm race stocks were collected at least 40 years ago, and nothing is known of the genetic variability present in this germplasm. The genetic variability was assayed in 15 populations from four indigenous races of maize (Caingang, Entrelaçado, Lenha and Moroti and five indigenous cultivars, using five isoenzymatic systems encoded by 14 loci. The analysis revealed a low level of variability among the samples studied. Overall, the mean number of alleles/polymorphic locus was three, 64.3% of the loci analyzed being polymorphic and the estimated heterozygosity was 0.352. The mean number of alleles/polymorphic locus per population was 1.6. A mean of 47.5% of the loci were polymorphic. The mean expected heterozygosity was 0.195, the mean genetic identity was 0.821 and the proportion of total genetic diversity partitioned among populations (Gst was 0.156. A founder effect could explain the low variability detected.

  9. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaya, CP.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

  10. Optical and physical data collected by drifters during June 2000 - March 2001 in support of the Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics program (NODC Accession 0000581)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling and downwelling irradiance data were collected from surface drifter buoys off the California and Oregon coast from 04 June 2000 to 24 March 2001 (non...

  11. Chlorophyll and phaeophytin data collected in the Southern Oceans in support of the Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics project, 2001-07 to 2001-08 (NODC Accession 0001102)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Underway meteorological data were collected during NBP01 04 to help document the surface weather conditions encountered during the cruise and to characterize the...

  12. Quantifying the impact of weather extremes on global food security: A spatial bio-economic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sika Gbegbelegbe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a spatial bio-economic modelling framework to estimate the impact of the 2012 weather extreme in the USA on food security in the developing world. The study also quantifies the potential effects of a similar weather extreme occurring in 2050 under climate change. The study results indicate that weather extremes that affect maize productivity in key grain baskets can negatively affect food security in vulnerable countries. The 2012 weather extreme which occurred in the USA reduced US and global maize production by 29% compared to trend; maize consumption in the country decreased by 5% only and this resulted in less surplus maize for exports from the largest maize exporter in the world. Global maize production decreased by 6% compared to trend. The decrease in global maize production coupled with a reduction in the volume of global maize exports worsened food insecurity in eastern Africa, the Caribbean and Central America and India. The effects of the weather extreme on global food security would be worse, if the latter were to occur under climate change in 2050, assuming no climate change adaptation worldwide over the years. In addition, the hardest-hit regions would remain the same, whether the weather extreme occurs in 2012 instead of 2050: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, South Asia and the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC region. However, sustained growth in per capita income across world economies between 2000 and 2050 would allow few countries in SSA and the LAC region to virtually eliminate hunger within their borders. In these countries, per capita income would be high enough by 2050 to completely offset the negative effect of the weather extreme. The study results are also consistent with USDA׳s estimates on US and global maize production and consumption in 2012 after the weather extreme. Some discrepancy is found on the volume of global maize trade; this implies that the bio-economic model likely overestimates the effect of the

  13. Risk of DDT residue in maize consumed by infants as complementary diet in southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Lachat, Carl; Ambelu, Argaw; Steurbaut, Walter; Kolsteren, Patrick; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Houbraken, Michael; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Infants in Ethiopia are consuming food items such as maize as a complementary diet. However, this may expose infants to toxic contaminants like DDT. Maize samples were collected from the households visited during a consumption survey and from markets in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. The residues of total DDT and its metabolites were analyzed using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method combined with dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup (d-SPE). Deterministic and probabilistic methods of analysis were applied to determine the consumer exposure of infants to total DDT. The results from the exposure assessment were compared with the health based guidance value in this case the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI). All maize samples (n=127) were contaminated by DDT, with a mean concentration of 1.770 mg/kg, which was far above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The mean and 97.5 percentile (P 97.5) estimated daily intake of total DDT for consumers were respectively 0.011 and 0.309 mg/kg bw/day for deterministic and 0.011 and 0.083 mg/kg bw/day for probabilistic exposure assessment. For total infant population (consumers and non-consumers), the 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake were 0.265 and 0.032 mg/kg bw/day from the deterministic and probabilistic exposure assessments, respectively. Health risk estimation revealed that, the mean and 97.5 percentile for consumers, and 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake of total DDT for total population were above the PTDI. Therefore, in Ethiopia, the use of maize as complementary food for infants may pose a health risk due to DDT residue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic Factors Involved in Fumonisin Accumulation in Maize Kernels and Their Implications in Maize Agronomic Management and Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rogelio; Cao, Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2015-08-20

    Contamination of maize with fumonisins depends on the environmental conditions; the maize resistance to contamination and the interaction between both factors. Although the effect of environmental factors is a determinant for establishing the risk of kernel contamination in a region, there is sufficient genetic variability among maize to develop resistance to fumonisin contamination and to breed varieties with contamination at safe levels. In addition, ascertaining which environmental factors are the most important in a region will allow the implementation of risk monitoring programs and suitable cultural practices to reduce the impact of such environmental variables. The current paper reviews all works done to address the influence of environmental variables on fumonisin accumulation, the genetics of maize resistance to fumonisin accumulation, and the search for the biochemical and/or structural mechanisms of the maize plant that could be involved in resistance to fumonisin contamination. We also explore the outcomes of breeding programs and risk monitoring of undertaken projects.

  15. Climatic and non-climatic drivers of spatiotemporal maize-area dynamics across the northern limit for maize production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    It is expected that the ongoing anthropogenic climate change will drive changes in agricultural production and its geographic distribution. Here, we assess the extent to which climate change is already driving spatiotemporal dynamics in maize production in Denmark. We use advanced spatial...... regression modeling with multi-model averaging to assess the extent to which the recent spatiotemporal dynamics of the maize area in Denmark are driven by climate (temperature as represented by maize heating units [MHU] and growing-season precipitation), climate change and non-climatic factors (cattle...... cultivation and cattle farming, probably reflecting a change to a more favorable climate for maize cultivation: in the beginning of the study period, northern areas were mostly too cold for maize cultivation, irrespective of cattle density, but this limitation has been diminishing as climate has warmed...

  16. Efficiency of phosphate fertilization to maize crop in high phosphorus content soil, evaluated by {sup 32}P tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevizam, Anderson R.; Alvarez Villanueva, Felipe C.; Silva, Maria Ligia de S.; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fertilidade do Solo]. E-mails: trevizam@cena.usp.br; falvarez@cena.usp.br; mlsousi@hotmail.com; muraoka@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Application of high dosis of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils is justified by its intense fixation by the soil clays, which reduce availability to crops. The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of maize crops to five rates of triple superphosphate in a soil with high available phosphorus content. Portions of 2 dm{sup 3} of soil (Typic Quartzipisamment) with 75 mg kg{sup -1} of available phosphorus and pH 7.00, collected from the upper 0-20 cm layer, were placed in plastic pots, received solution containing 5.55 MBq (150 {mu}Ci) of {sup 32}P and incubated for 7 days. Then 0, 250, 500, 1000 and 4000 mg P kg{sup -1} as triple superphosphate was added to soil in the respective pots and incubated for 15 days keeping the soil moisture to 60 % of the field capacity. Maize (Zea mays L.) plants, single hybrid P30F80, were grown for 50 days (after germination), collected, oven dried, weighed and ground in a Wiley mill for analysis of total P content and {sup 32}P radioactivity. The maize dry matter increased with triple superphosphate rates. The phosphorus content and accumulation in the maize plants increased with triple superphosphate rate up to 4000 mg kg{sup -1}. The percentage of phosphorus derived from the fertilizer ranged from 79 to 97% and consequently the phosphorus derived from soil decreased with increasing application of triple superphosphate. In spite of soil high P available content, maize plants responded to applied phosphorus rates. (author)

  17. New inoculants on maize silage fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Giovana do Val de Assis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bacterial inoculants at two inoculation rates on chemical and biological characteristics of maize silage. The treatments consisted of two inoculating rates (5 and 6 log cfu g-1 of forage for each strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB identified as Lactobacillus buchneri, L. hilgardii, or L. plantarum. The maize was ensiled in experimental PVC silos. Samples were taken for the determination of the contents of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC, organic acids and alcohols, for the evaluation of the populations of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, and for the determination of pH values during ensilage and after 30 or 90 days of fermentation. The doses of inoculants did not promote significant differences on the evaluated characteristics. There was effect of inoculants on acetic acid, 1.2-propanediol, LAB population, filamentous fungi, and pH value. No significant influence of the treatments with inoculants was observed in the variables DM, WSC, CP, lactic acid concentrations, or ethanol. The maximum temperature, i.e., the time to achieve the maximum temperature (TMT and aerobic stability (AS, was not influencied by treatments. However, a decrease in maximum temperature, an increase in TMT, and improvement in the AS were observed after 90 days of fermentation. These results proved the advantage of microbial inoculation. The treatments influenced LAB populations and filamentous fungi, but no effect was observed on the yeast population. The best inoculation dose is 6 cfu g-1 of forage because it provides higher reduction of filamentous fungi in maize silage, thereby decreasing the aerobic deterioration by these microorganisms.

  18. Swelling Kinetics of Waxy Maize Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desam, Gnana Prasuna Reddy

    Starch pasting behavior greatly influences the texture of a variety of food products such as canned soup, sauces, baby foods, batter mixes etc. The annual consumption of starch in the U.S. is 3 million metric tons. It is important to characterize the relationship between the structure, composition and architecture of the starch granules with its pasting behavior in order to arrive at a rational methodology to design modified starch of desirable digestion rate and texture. In this research, polymer solution theory was applied to predict the evolution of average granule size of starch at different heating temperatures in terms of its molecular weight, second virial coefficient and extent of cross-link. Evolution of granule size distribution of waxy native maize starch when subjected to heating at constant temperatures of 65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90 C was characterized using static laser light scattering. As expected, granule swelling was more pronounced at higher temperatures and resulted in a shift of granule size distribution to larger sizes with a corresponding increase in the average size by 100 to 120% from 13 mum to 25-28 mum. Most of the swelling occurred within the first 10 min of heating. Pasting behavior of waxy maize at different temperatures was also characterized from the measurements of G' and G" for different heating times. G' was found to increase with temperature at holding time of 2 min followed by its decrease at larger holding times. This behavior is believed to be due to the predominant effect of swelling at small times. However, G" was insensitive to temperature and holding times. The structure of waxy maize starch was characterized by cryoscanning electron microscopy. Experimental data of average granule size vs time at different temperatures were compared with model predictions. Also the Experimental data of particle size distribution vs particle size at different times and temperatures were compared with model predictions.

  19. Spherical Harmonics Analysis of the ECMWF Global Wind Fields at the 10-Meter Height Level During 1985: A Collection of Figures Illustrating Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Braulio V.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Half-daily global wind speeds in the east-west (u) and north-south (v) directions at the 10-meter height level were obtained from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data set of global analyses. The data set covered the period 1985 January to 1995 January. A spherical harmonic expansion to degree and order 50 was used to perform harmonic analysis of the east-west (u) and north-south (v) velocity field components. The resulting wind field is displayed, as well as the residual of the fit, at a particular time. The contribution of particular coefficients is shown. The time variability of the coefficients up to degree and order 3 is presented. Corresponding power spectrum plots are given. Time series analyses were applied also to the power associated with degrees 0-10; the results are included.

  20. Selected parameters of maize straw briquettes combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraszkiewicz Artur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the process of burning briquettes made of maize straw was performed. A number of traits have been evaluated, including physical characteristics of the fuel through parameters describing combustion kinetics as well as products and combustion efficiency. The study was conducted in a grate boiler, during which the differentiating factor was the air velocity flowing to the boiler. It was observed that the obtained values of the considered parameters were different, particularly temperature of the flue gas and the amount of CO and SO2 in the flue gas.

  1. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  2. Proteomic analysis of maize grain development using iTRAQ reveals temporal programs of diverse metabolic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Li, Geng; Dong, Shuting; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Jiwang; Zhao, Bin

    2016-11-04

    Grain development in maize is an essential process in the plant's life cycle and is vital for use of the plant as a crop for animals and humans. However, little is known regarding the protein regulatory networks that control grain development. Here, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology was used to analyze temporal changes in protein expression during maize grain development. Maize grain proteins and changes in protein expression at eight developmental stages from 3 to 50 d after pollination (DAP) were performed using iTRAQ-based proteomics. Overall, 4751 proteins were identified; 2639 of these were quantified and 1235 showed at least 1.5-fold changes in expression levels at different developmental stages and were identified as differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). The DEPs were involved in different cellular and metabolic processes with a preferential distribution to protein synthesis/destination and metabolism categories. A K-means clustering analysis revealed coordinated protein expression associated with different functional categories/subcategories at different development stages. Our results revealed developing maize grain display different proteomic characteristics at distinct stages, such as numerous DEPs for cell growth/division were highly expressed during early stages, whereas those for starch biosynthesis and defense/stress accumulated in middle and late stages, respectively. We also observed coordinated expression of multiple proteins of the antioxidant system, which are essential for the maintenance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis during grain development. Particularly, some DEPs, such as zinc metallothionein class II, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) and 14-3-3 proteins, undergo major changes in expression at specific developmental stages, suggesting their roles in maize grain development. These results provide a valuable resource for analyzing protein function on a global scale and also

  3. Enhanced virus resistance in transgenic maize expressing a dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease gene from E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Cao

    Full Text Available Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD, caused by several Fijiviruses in the family Reoviridae, is a global disease that is responsible for substantial yield losses in maize. Although some maize germplasm have low levels of polygenic resistance to MRDD, highly resistant cultivated varieties are not available for agronomic field production in China. In this work, we have generated transgenic maize lines that constitutively express rnc70, a mutant E. coli dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease gene. Transgenic lines were propagated and screened under field conditions for 12 generations. During three years of evaluations, two transgenic lines and their progeny were challenged with Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, the causal agent of MRDD in China, and these plants exhibited reduced levels of disease severity. In two normal years of MRDD abundance, both lines were more resistant than non-transgenic plants. Even in the most serious MRDD year, six out of seven progeny from one line were resistant, whereas non-transgenic plants were highly susceptible. Molecular approaches in the T12 generation revealed that the rnc70 transgene was integrated and expressed stably in transgenic lines. Under artificial conditions permitting heavy virus inoculation, the T12 progeny of two highly resistant lines had a reduced incidence of MRDD and accumulation of RBSDV in infected plants. In addition, we confirmed that the RNC70 protein could bind directly to RBSDV dsRNA in vitro. Overall, our data show that RNC70-mediated resistance in transgenic maize can provide efficient protection against dsRNA virus infection.

  4. Cooccurrence of Mycotoxins in Maize and Poultry Feeds from Brazil by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Mendes de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate mycotoxins in samples of maize and poultry feed produced in Brazil. A multimycotoxin method based on HPLC-MS/MS was applied to investigate the occurrence of toxical fungal metabolites in 119 samples collected from poultry feed factory integrated poultry farms: maize grain (74, poultry feed (36, and feed factory residue (9. Twenty of 101 fungal metabolites investigated were detected and quantified in the samples: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, fumonisins B1, B2, and B3, hydrolyzed fumonisin B1, zearalenone, agroclavine, chanoclavine, deoxynivalenol, and nivalenol, and enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, kojic acid, and moniliformin. Most samples were contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. All samples were contaminated with fumonisins, with medians values of 1,840 μg/kg, 239 μg/kg, and 23,676 μg/kg for maize, feed, and factory residue samples, respectively. Surprisingly, beauvericin was detected in more than 90% of samples. The median contaminations of aflatoxin and trichothecenes were low, near LOD values. The factory residue presented highest contamination levels for all mycotoxins. This is the first study dealing with agroclavine, chanoclavine, enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, and kojic acid contamination of maize and poultry feeds from Brazil.

  5. Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L. in Central and Northern Benin (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège A. Agbodjato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims to characterize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR isolated from maize roots in five agroecological zones of central and northern Benin. Sixty samples were collected at the rate of four samples per village and three villages per agroecological zone. Rhizobacteria strains were isolated from these samples and biochemically characterized. These strains were analyzed for some of their PGPR traits like ammonia production and hydrogen cyanide following conventional methods. Microbiological investigation of these samples has shown that maize rhizospheres in central and northern Benin contain a high diversity of microorganisms. A total of nine species of maize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria were identified. Those PGPR include five Bacillus species (B. polymyxa, B. pantothenticus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. circulans, three Pseudomonas species (P. cichorii, P. putida, and P. syringae, and Serratia marcescens. The microbial diversity does not depend on the soil types. The microbial density, generally high, varies according to both soil types and agroecological zones. All Serratia strains (100% have produced ammonia, whereas 80% of Bacillus and 77.77% of Pseudomonas produced this metabolite. The hydrogen cyanide was produced by all isolates (100% independent of their genus. These results suggest the possibility to use these rhizobacteria as biological fertilizers to increase maize production.

  6. Effect of alkaline cooking of maize on the content of fumonisins B1 and B2 and their hydrolysed forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Girolamo, A; Lattanzio, V M T; Schena, R; Visconti, A; Pascale, M

    2016-02-01

    The effect of nixtamalization on the content of fumonisins (FBs), hydrolysed (HFBs) and partially hydrolysed (PHFBs) fumonisins in maize was investigated at laboratory-scale. Maize naturally contaminated with FBs and PHFBs was cooked with lime. Starting raw maize, steeping and washing waters and final masa fractions were analysed for toxin content. Control-cooking experiments without lime were also carried out. The nixtamalization reduced the amount of FBs and PHFBs in masa and converted them to HFBs. However, the three forms of fumonisins collected in all fractions amounted to 183%, indicating that nixtamalization made available forms of matrix-associated fumonisins that were then converted to their hydrolysed forms. Control-cooking enhanced FBs and PHFBs reduction, due to the solubility of fumonisins in water during the steeping process, but did not form HFBs. These findings indicate that benefits associated with enhancing the nutritional value of nixtamalized maize are also associated with a safer product in terms of fumonisin contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cooccurrence of mycotoxins in maize and poultry feeds from Brazil by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lourdes Mendes de Souza, Maria; Sulyok, Michael; Freitas-Silva, Otniel; Costa, Sônia Soares; Brabet, Catherine; Machinski Junior, Miguel; Sekiyama, Beatriz Leiko; Vargas, Eugenia Azevedo; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate mycotoxins in samples of maize and poultry feed produced in Brazil. A multimycotoxin method based on HPLC-MS/MS was applied to investigate the occurrence of toxical fungal metabolites in 119 samples collected from poultry feed factory integrated poultry farms: maize grain (74), poultry feed (36), and feed factory residue (9). Twenty of 101 fungal metabolites investigated were detected and quantified in the samples: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, fumonisins B1, B2, and B3, hydrolyzed fumonisin B1, zearalenone, agroclavine, chanoclavine, deoxynivalenol, and nivalenol, and enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, kojic acid, and moniliformin. Most samples were contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. All samples were contaminated with fumonisins, with medians values of 1,840  μ g/kg, 239  μ g/kg, and 23,676  μ g/kg for maize, feed, and factory residue samples, respectively. Surprisingly, beauvericin was detected in more than 90% of samples. The median contaminations of aflatoxin and trichothecenes were low, near LOD values. The factory residue presented highest contamination levels for all mycotoxins. This is the first study dealing with agroclavine, chanoclavine, enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, and kojic acid contamination of maize and poultry feeds from Brazil.

  8. Estimation of technical efficiency and it's determinants in the hybrid maize production in district chiniot: a cobb douglas model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.A.A.; Ashfaq, M.

    2014-01-01

    High yielding crop like maize is very important for countries like Pakistan, which is third cereal crop after wheat and rice. Maize accounts for 4.8 percent of the total cropped area and 4.82 percent of the value of agricultural production. It is grown all over the country but major areas are Sahiwal, Okara and Faisalabad. Chiniot is one of the distinct agroecological domains of central Punjab for the maize cultivation, that's why this district was selected for the study and the technical efficiency of hybrid maize farmers was estimated. The primary data of 120 farmers, 40 farmers from each of the three tehsils of Chiniot were collected in the year 2011. Causes of low yields for various farmers than the others, while using the same input bundle were estimated. The managerial factors causing the inefficiency of production were also measured. The average technical efficiency was estimated to be 91 percent, while it was found to be 94.8, 92.7 and 90.8 for large, medium and small farmers, respectively. Stochastic frontier production model was used to measure technical efficiency. Statistical software Frontier 4.1 was used to analyse the data to generate inferences because the estimates of efficiency were produced as a direct output from package. It was concluded that the efficiency can be enhanced by covering the inefficiency from the environmental variables, farmers personal characteristics and farming conditions. (author)

  9. Forms of phosphorus in an oxisol under different soil tillage systems and cover plants in rotation with maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus fractions play a key role in sustaining the productivity of acid-savanna Oxisols and are influenced by tillage practices. The aim of this study was to quantify different P forms in an Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo from the central savanna region of Brazil under management systems with cover crops in maize rotation. Three cover crops (Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan (L., and Raphanus sativus L. were investigated in maize rotation systems. These cover crops were compared to spontaneous vegetation. The inorganic forms NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP represented more than half of the total P in the samples collected at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season when the maize was grown. The concentration of inorganic P of greater availability (NaHCO3-iP and NaOH-iP was higher in the soil under no-tillage at the depth of 5-10 cm during the rainy season. Concentrations of organic P were higher during the dry season, when the cover crops were grown. At the dry season, organic P constituted 70 % of the labile P in the soil planted to C. cajan under no-tillage. The cover crops were able to maintain larger fractions of P available to the maize, resulting in reduced P losses to the unavailable pools, mainly in no-tillage systems.

  10. Short-term effects of different genetically modified maize varieties on arthropod food web properties: an experimental field assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szénási, Ágnes; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Zalai, Mihály; Schmitz, Oswald J; Balog, Adalbert

    2014-06-17

    There is concern that genetically modified (GM) plants may have adverse affects on the arthropod biodiversity comprising agricultural landscapes. The present study report on a two year field experimental test of whether four different genotypic lines, some are novel with no previous field tests, of GM maize hybrids alter the structure of arthropod food webs that they harbour, relative to non-GM maize (control) that is widely used in agriculture. The different GM genotypes produced either Bt toxins, conferred glyphosate tolerance or a combination of the two traits. Quantitative food web analysis, based on short-term assessment assigning a total of 243,896 arthropod individuals collected from the treatments to their positions in food webs, revealed that complex and stable food webs persisted in each maize treatment. Moreover, food web structure remained relatively unchanged by the GM-genotype. The results suggest that at least in short-term period these particular GM maize genotypes will not have adverse effects on arthropod biota of agricultural landscapes.

  11. Using climate model simulations to assess the current climate risk to maize production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Chris; Pope, Edward; Thompson, Vikki; Lewis, Kirsty; Scaife, Adam A.; Dunstone, Nick

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between the climate and agricultural production is of considerable importance to global food security. However, there has been relatively little exploration of climate-variability related yield shocks. The short observational yield record does not adequately sample natural inter-annual variability thereby limiting the accuracy of probability assessments. Focusing on the United States and China, we present an innovative use of initialised ensemble climate simulations and a new agro-climatic indicator, to calculate the risk of severe water stress. Combined, these regions provide 60% of the world’s maize, and therefore, are crucial to global food security. To probe a greater range of inter-annual variability, the indicator is applied to 1400 simulations of the present day climate. The probability of severe water stress in the major maize producing regions is quantified, and in many regions an increased risk is found compared to calculations from observed historical data. Analysis suggests that the present day climate is also capable of producing unprecedented severe water stress conditions. Therefore, adaptation plans and policies based solely on observed events from the recent past may considerably under-estimate the true risk of climate-related maize shocks. The probability of a major impact event occurring simultaneously across both regions—a multi-breadbasket failure—is estimated to be up to 6% per decade and arises from a physically plausible climate state. This novel approach highlights the significance of climate impacts on crop production shocks and provides a platform for considerably improving food security assessments, in the present day or under a changing climate, as well as development of new risk based climate services.

  12. Dissolution of different zinc salts and zn uptake by Sedum alfredii and maize in mono- and co-cropping under hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng'ai; Wu, Qitang; Zeng, Shucai; Chen, Xian; Wei, Zebin; Long, Xinxian

    2013-09-01

    Previous soil pot and field experiments demonstrated that co-cropping the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii with maize increased Zn phytoextraction by S. alfredii and decreased Zn uptake by maize shoots. This hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate whether the facilitation of Zn phytoextraction by S. alfredii resulted from improved dissolution in this co-cropping system and its relation to root exudates. S. alfredii and maize were mono- and co-cropped (without a root barrier) in nutrient solution spiked with four Zn compounds, ZnS, ZnO, Zn3(PO4)2 and 5ZnO x 2CO3-4H2O (represented as ZnCO3) at 1000 mg/L Zn for 15 days without renewal of nutrient solution after pre-culture. The root exudates were collected under incomplete sterilization and analyzed. The results indicated that the difference in Zn salts had a greater influence on the Zn concentration in maize than for S. alfredii, varying from 210-2603 mg/kg for maize shoots and 6445-12476 mg/kg for S. alfredii in the same order: ZnCO3 > ZnO > Zn3(PO4)2 > ZnS. For the four kinds of Zn sources in this experiment, co-cropping with maize did not improve Zn phytoextraction by S. alfredii. In most cases, compared to co-cropped and mono-cropped maize, mono-cropped S. alfredii resulted in the highest Zn2+ concentration in the remaining nutrient solution, and also had a higher total concentration of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) and lower pH of root exudation. Root exudates did partly influence Zn hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii.

  13. Deletion of an Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Element in a ZmPP2C-A Gene Facilitates Drought Tolerance of Maize Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yanli; Sun, Xiaopeng; Gao, Shan; Qin, Feng; Dai, Mingqiu

    2017-03-06

    Drought is a major abiotic stress that causes the yearly yield loss of maize, a crop cultured worldwide. Breeding drought-tolerant maize cultivars is a priority requirement of world agriculture. Clade A PP2C phosphatases (PP2C-A), which are conserved in most plant species, play important roles in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and plant drought response. However, natural variations of PP2C-A genes that are directly associated with drought tolerance remain to be elucidated. Here, we conducted a candidate gene association analysis of the ZmPP2C-A gene family in a maize panel consisting of 368 varieties collected worldwide, and identified a drought responsive gene ZmPP2C-A10 that is tightly associated with drought tolerance. We found that the degree of drought tolerance of maize cultivars negatively correlates with the expression levels of ZmPP2C-A10. ZmPP2C-A10, like its Arabidopsis orthologs, interacts with ZmPYL ABA receptors and ZmSnRK2 kinases, suggesting that ZmPP2C-A10 is involved in mediating ABA signaling in maize. Transgenic studies in maize and Arabidopsis confirmed that ZmPP2C-A10 functions as a negative regulator of drought tolerance. Further, a causal natural variation, deletion allele-338, which bears a deletion of ERSE (endoplasmic reticulum stress response element) in the 5'-UTR region of ZmPP2C-A10, was detected. This deletion causes the loss of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced expression of ZmPP2C-A10, leading to increased plant drought tolerance. Our study provides direct evidence linking ER stress signaling with drought tolerance and genetic resources that can be used directly in breeding drought-tolerant maize cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of ear rot (Fusarium verticillioides resistance and fumonisin accumulation in Italian maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta BALCONI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin contamination of maize (Zea mays L. grain is a global threat to the safety of both human food and animal feed. Hence, the development of maize genotypes with reduced mycotoxin accumulation in grain is of major importance. In order to find maize germplasm sources of resistance to Fusarium ear rot, 34 Italian and six public inbred lines were evaluated by means of artificial inoculation in field experiments during 2009 and 2010. Relationships between ear rot and fumonisin concentration in the ears were investigated. Primary ears were challenged with a mixture of two Fusarium verticillioides isolates from Northern Italy, through kernel inoculation, and ear rot severity was assessed.The average number of visibly infected kernels per ear, after inoculation, ranged from 2 to 68 in 2009 and from 0 to 120 in 2010. Fumonisin concentrations in the inoculated ears were greater than in the experimental controls for both years. Variability was found between the inbred lines: fumonisin accumulation ranged from 0.56 to 240.83 mg kg-1 in 2009 and from 1.09 to 190.60 mg kg-1 in 2010. In both years, six inbred lines showed high fumonisin content (≥100 mg kg-1, while the other genotypes were almost equally split into two groups, low (≤10 mg kg-1 and medium (from 11 to 100 mg kg-1 fumonisin content. The number of infected kernels after artificial inoculation correlated with fumonisin concentration both in 2009 (r = 0.94; P≤0.01 and 2010 (r = 0.67; P≤0.01. Additionally, the percentage of internally infected kernels correlated positively with fumonisin concentration (r = 0.37; P≤0.01 and with the number of infected kernels (r = 0.29; P≤0.05. This research has demonstrated that Italian maize germplasm is a valid source of resistance to Fusarium ear rot. Furthermore, there is a strong association of visible Fusarium symptoms with fumonisin concentration, suggesting that selection in maize for reduced visible moulds should reduce the risk of

  15. Effects of temperature changes on maize production in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L.; Michaelsen, J.; Funk, Chris; Husak, G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined intraseasonal changes in maize phenology and heat stress exposure over the 1979-2008 period, using Mozambique meteorological station data and maize growth requirements in a growing degree-day model. Identifying historical effects of warming on maize growth is particularly important in Mozambique because national food security is highly dependent on domestic food production, most of which is grown in already warm to hot environments. Warming temperatures speed plant development, shortening the length of growth periods necessary for optimum plant and grain size. This faster phenological development also alters the timing of maximum plant water demand. In hot growing environments, temperature increases during maize pollination threaten to make midseason crop failure the norm. In addition to creating a harsher thermal environment, we find that early season temperature increases have caused the maize reproductive period to start earlier, increasing the risk of heat and water stress. Declines in time to maize maturation suggest that, independent of effects to water availability, yield potential is becoming increasingly limited by warming itself. Regional variations in effects are a function of the timing and magnitude of temperature increases and growing season characteristics. Continuation of current climatic trends could induce substantial yield losses in some locations. Farmers could avoid some losses through simple changes to planting dates and maize varietal types.

  16. Growing sensitivity of maize to water scarcity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingfeng; Chen, Xinping; Lobell, David B; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Haishun; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-01-25

    Climate change can reduce crop yields and thereby threaten food security. The current measures used to adapt to climate change involve avoiding crops yield decrease, however, the limitations of such measures due to water and other resources scarcity have not been well understood. Here, we quantify how the sensitivity of maize to water availability has increased because of the shift toward longer-maturing varieties during last three decades in the Chinese Maize Belt (CMB). We report that modern, longer-maturing varieties have extended the growing period by an average of 8 days and have significantly offset the negative impacts of climate change on yield. However, the sensitivity of maize production to water has increased: maize yield across the CMB was 5% lower with rainfed than with irrigated maize in the 1980s and was 10% lower (and even >20% lower in some areas) in the 2000s because of both warming and the increased requirement for water by the longer-maturing varieties. Of the maize area in China, 40% now fails to receive the precipitation required to attain the full yield potential. Opportunities for water saving in maize systems exist, but water scarcity in China remains a serious problem.

  17. Vulnerability of Maize Yields to Droughts in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Epule Epule

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA forecast an increase in the intensity and frequency of droughts with implications for maize production. While studies have examined how maize might be affected at the continental level, there have been few national or sub-national studies of vulnerability. We develop a vulnerability index that combines sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity and that integrates agroecological, climatic and socio-economic variables to evaluate the national and spatial pattern of maize yield vulnerability to droughts in Uganda. The results show that maize yields in the north of Uganda are more vulnerable to droughts than in the south and nationally. Adaptive capacity is higher in the south of the country than in the north. Maize yields also record higher levels of sensitivity and exposure in the north of Uganda than in the south. Latitudinally, it is observed that maize yields in Uganda tend to record higher levels of vulnerability, exposure and sensitivity towards higher latitudes, while in contrast, the adaptive capacity of maize yields is higher towards the lower latitudes. In addition to lower precipitation levels in the north of the country, these observations can also be explained by poor soil quality in most of the north and socio-economic proxies, such as, higher poverty and lower literacy rates in the north of Uganda.

  18. Air analysis in the assessment of fumonisin contamination risk in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Emanuela; Gubiani, Rino; Firrao, Giuseppe; Cividino, Sirio; Locci, Romano; Gobbi, Emanuela

    2010-03-15

    In maize-growing areas where fumonisin contamination is endemic, there is an urgent need for novel methods to assess the quality of grain lots before their delivery to common drying and storage collection centres. Aerobiological samples of fungal spores released during harvest were analysed to establish a relationship between fumonisin contamination and the abundance of pathogen propagules collected in the combine harvester using a cyclone and membrane filters. Filter-captured propagules were analysed by direct plating, immunoenzymatic assay of specific Fusarium extracellular polysaccharides and real time polymerase chain reaction of the extracted DNA using fum1, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of fumonisin, as a target. The results showed that time of harvest and environmental conditions strongly influenced the efficiency and performance of the collection system. The data obtained were informative in comparing individual samples collected under similar conditions. The immunoenzymatic assay provided the most reliable data, which improved the ability of a neural network to predict the fumonisin content of lots, when added to agronomic, environmental and phytosanitary data. This is the first attempt to evaluate the Fusarium propagules dispersed during harvesting as a predictive means to assess maize quality. A method based on cyclone/filter capture and immunological detection has been shown to be feasible and to have the potential for the development of a continuous monitoring system, but the prediction capabilities in the present implementation were limited.

  19. Maize growth and yield in Peshawar under changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.; Akmal, M.; Asim, M.

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change is consequence of accumulating greenhouse gases (Carbon) at lower atmosphere which might affects crops growth and yield. Maize is an important summer cereals, grown on considerable area in Pakistan every year. We, therefore, study the delay sowing response with changing climate on maize. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan in a randomized complete block design. Sowing was done from June 8 to July 24, 2010 with ten days intervals. Mazie (cv. Azam) was planted in rows at 0.75 m distance in NS orientations. Crop was raised under the uniform recommended cultural practices. Data regarding days to emergence, tasseling and maturity showed a consecutive decrease when so wing was delayed form June 08 onwards. However, the crop life cycle (i.e. vegetative and reproductive durations) initially remained uniform but expanded for late sowing dates (July). Delay sowing showed an increase in the leaf area index with an abrupt decline for the late sown crop. Nonetheless, plant stand at harvest remained static during the growth for all sowing dates. A stable to moderate reduction was noticed in ear length (cm) when sowings was delayed from Jun 08 onwards. Grain rows cob/-1 did not influence by the delay sowing in the season. Moreover, delay sowing did not show any significant (P<0.05) change for the grain number. However, thousand grains weight was initially remained stable but declined (P<0.05) by delay in sowing. Biological yield, dry matter and grains yield (g m/sup -2/) revealed almost a similar decreasing trend when sowing was delayed. Dry matter to grain yield relationship was linear (r/sup 2/ = 0.95) and revealed a mean loss of 1.65 g m/sup 2/ when sowing delayed from June 08 to July 24 in the season. Radiation use efficiency (RUE), the growth function, was also declined by the delay in sowing. We inferred that losses in leaf area indices, ear length and grain weights were basis of the

  20. From many, one: genetic control of prolificacy during maize domestication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Wills

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A reduction in number and an increase in size of inflorescences is a common aspect of plant domestication. When maize was domesticated from teosinte, the number and arrangement of ears changed dramatically. Teosinte has long lateral branches that bear multiple small ears at their nodes and tassels at their tips. Maize has much shorter lateral branches that are tipped by a single large ear with no additional ears at the branch nodes. To investigate the genetic basis of this difference in prolificacy (the number of ears on a plant, we performed a genome-wide QTL scan. A large effect QTL for prolificacy (prol1.1 was detected on the short arm of chromosome 1 in a location that has previously been shown to influence multiple domestication traits. We fine-mapped prol1.1 to a 2.7 kb "causative region" upstream of the grassy tillers1 (gt1 gene, which encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factor. Tissue in situ hybridizations reveal that the maize allele of prol1.1 is associated with up-regulation of gt1 expression in the nodal plexus. Given that maize does not initiate secondary ear buds, the expression of gt1 in the nodal plexus in maize may suppress their initiation. Population genetic analyses indicate positive selection on the maize allele of prol1.1, causing a partial sweep that fixed the maize allele throughout most of domesticated maize. This work shows how a subtle cis-regulatory change in tissue specific gene expression altered plant architecture in a way that improved the harvestability of maize.

  1. Multicollinearity in canonical correlation analysis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, B M; Cargnelutti Filho, A; Burin, C

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of multicollinearity under two methods of canonical correlation analysis (with and without elimination of variables) in maize (Zea mays L.) crop. Seventy-six maize genotypes were evaluated in three experiments, conducted in a randomized block design with three replications, during the 2009/2010 crop season. Eleven agronomic variables (number of days from sowing until female flowering, number of days from sowing until male flowering, plant height, ear insertion height, ear placement, number of plants, number of ears, ear index, ear weight, grain yield, and one thousand grain weight), 12 protein-nutritional variables (crude protein, lysine, methionine, cysteine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, histidine, and arginine), and 6 energetic-nutritional variables (apparent metabolizable energy, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen, ether extract, crude fiber, starch, and amylose) were measured. A phenotypic correlation matrix was first generated among the 29 variables for each of the experiments. A multicollinearity diagnosis was later performed within each group of variables using methodologies such as variance inflation factor and condition number. Canonical correlation analysis was then performed, with and without the elimination of variables, among groups of agronomic and protein-nutritional, and agronomic and energetic-nutritional variables. The canonical correlation analysis in the presence of multicollinearity (without elimination of variables) overestimates the variability of canonical coefficients. The elimination of variables is an efficient method to circumvent multicollinearity in canonical correlation analysis.

  2. Iron and zinc availability in maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the Zn and Fe availability by phytic acid/Zn and phytic acid/Fe molar ratios, in 22 tropical maize inbred lines with different genetic backgrounds. The Zn and Fe levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the P through colorimetry method. Three screening methods for phytic acid (Phy analysis were tested and one, based on the 2,2'-bipyridine reaction, was select. There was significant variability in the contents of zinc (17.5 to 42 mg.kg-1, iron (12.2 to 36.7 mg.kg-1, phosphorus (230 to 400 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid (484 to 1056 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid P (140 to 293 mg.100 g-1 and available-P (43.5 to 199.5 mg.100 g-1, and in the available-P/total-P ratio (0.14 to 0.50, Phy/Zn (18.0 to 43.5 and Phy/Fe (16.3 to 45.5 molar ratios. Lines 560977, 560978 and 560982 had greater availability of Zn and lines 560975, 560977, 561010 and 5610111 showed better Fe availability. Lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 also showed better available-P/total-P ratio. Thus, the lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 were considered to have the potential for the development of cultivars of maize with high availability of Fe and/or Zn.

  3. Temperature affects radiation use efficiency in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, F.H.; Uhart, S.A.; Cirilo, A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study, under field conditions, the effect of temperature on radiation use efficiency (RUE) of maize. Field evidence of the negative effect of low temperature on this variable is lacking. Experiments with different sowing dates and five years of experimentation with October plantings provided a range of average temperatures during the vegetative period from 15.8 to 20.9°C. Delaying the sowing time from September to November produced a highly significant increase in RUE. There was a positive association between RUE and mean temperature from emergence to flowering. Efficiencies varied from 2.27 to 3.17 g of dry matter per MJ of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation for October plantings of five different years. With these data, a positive and significant association between RUE and mean temperature during the November–December vegetative period was found. Across years and planting dates, RUE and mean temperature during the vegetative period were closely correlated (r = 0.87). The regression equation was RUE = −1.8 + 0.07 T. Based on this evidence, it was concluded that low temperatures reduce RUE in maize. (author)

  4. Chlordecone Transfer and Distribution in Maize Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Létondor, Clarisse; Liber, Yohan; Jamin, Emilien L; Laurent, François

    2016-01-20

    Chlordecone (CLD) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that was mainly used as an insecticide against banana weevils in the French West Indies (1972-1993). Transfer of CLD via the food chain is now the major mechanism for exposure of the population to CLD. The uptake and the transfer of CLD were investigated in shoots of maize, a C4 model plant growing under tropical climates, to estimate the exposure of livestock via feed. Maize plants were grown on soils contaminated with [(14)C]CLD under controlled conditions. The greatest part of the radioactivity was associated with roots, nearly 95%, but CLD was detected in whole shoots, concentrations in old leaves being higher than those in young ones. CLD was thus transferred from the base toward the plant top, forming an acropetal gradient of contaminant. In contrast, results evidenced the existence of a basipetal gradient of CLD concentration within leaves whose extremities accumulated larger amounts of CLD because of evapotranspiration localization. Extractable residues accounted for two-thirds of total residues both in roots and in shoots. This study highlighted the fact that the distribution of CLD contamination within grasses resulted from a conjunction between the age and evapotranspiration rate of tissues. CLD accumulation in fodder may be the main route of exposure for livestock.

  5. Morphological variation in maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify morphological variation in maize inbred lines, one hundred five inbred lines were planted under randomized complete block design with two replications at research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during summer season (March to June, 2010. Descriptive statistics and cluster analysis were done. The results revealed a wide range of morphological variation among the tested inbred lines. The inbred lines grouped in cluster 4 namely PUTU-13, L-9, RL-105, RL-197, RL-103, RML-9, RML-41, RL-165, RL-36, RL-76, RL-125, RL-30-3, L-6, RL-107, RL-174, RL-41, L-13, RML-76 and L-5 had 0.833 days anthesis-silking interval and earlier in flowering (tasseling in 54.50 days and silking in 55.33 days. Moreover they consisted of 1.16 plant aspect, 1.25 ear aspect, 33.08 cm tassel length and 13.5 tassel branch number. Among tested lines, the above inbred lines had better morphological traits, so it was concluded that they were good candidates for development of hybrids and synthetic varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10521 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 98-107

  6. Effects of maize maturity at harvest and dietary proportion of maize silage on intake and performance of growing/finishing bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaralis, K.; Nørgaard, P.; Helander, C.

    2014-01-01

    Whole-crop maize silage as forage in diets of finishing cattle can promote high intakes and thus, enhances animal performance. In the present study we evaluated the effect of whole-crop maize maturity at harvest and the proportion of maize-silage in diets of finishing bulls, on feed intake...... of treatments, involving two maturity stages of maize at harvest (i.e. dough stage or dent stage) and two maize silage proportions (i.e. 100% maize silage or 50% maize and 50% grass silage). The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations (TMRs) with inclusion of concentrates (i.e. rolled barley; dried...... distillers’ grain plus soluble; cold-pressed rapeseed cake) in a 40% proportion on DM basis. All animals were slaughtered at a target body weight of 630 kg. Bulls fed on diets containing maize silage as sole forage achieved higher live-weight gain (P

  7. Development of a LC-MS/MS Method for the Analysis of Enniatins and Beauvericin in Whole Fresh and Ensiled Maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2008-01-01

    ) for beauvericin and at 17, 34, 24, and 26 ng g(-1) for enniatins A, A1, B, and 131, respectively. The method was used in surveys of the compounds in fresh maize samples collected at harvest in 2005 and 2006. All samples had the same distribution of the enniatins: B > B1 > A1 > A. Enniatin B was present in 90...

  8. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  9. Temperatures and the growth and development of maize and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Berta; Rasmussen, Anton; Porter, John Roy

    2014-01-01

    and maize crop responses to temperature in different, but consistent, phenological phases and development stages. A literature review and data compilation of around 140 scientific articles have determined the key temperature thresholds and response to extreme temperature effects for rice and maize...... defined in all three crops. Anthesis and ripening are the most sensitive temperature stages in rice as well as in wheat and maize. We call for further experimental studies of the effects of transgressing threshold temperatures so such responses can be included into crop impact and adaptation models....

  10. Extensive tissue-specific transcriptomic plasticity in maize primary roots upon water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Malik, Waqas Ahmed; Lithio, Andrew; Brandt, Ronny; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Water deficit is the most important environmental constraint severely limiting global crop growth and productivity. This study investigated early transcriptome changes in maize (Zea mays L.) primary root tissues in response to moderate water deficit conditions by RNA-Sequencing. Differential gene expression analyses revealed a high degree of plasticity of the water deficit response. The activity status of genes (active/inactive) was determined by a Bayesian hierarchical model. In total, 70% of expressed genes were constitutively active in all tissues. In contrast, deficit-responsive genes (1915) were consistently regulated in all tissues, while >75% (1501 genes) were specifically regulated in a single root tissue. Water deficit-responsive genes were most numerous in the cortex of the mature root zone and in the elongation zone. The most prominent functional categories among differentially expressed genes in all tissues were 'transcriptional regulation' and 'hormone metabolism', indicating global reprogramming of cellular metabolism as an adaptation to water deficit. Additionally, the most significant transcriptomic changes in the root tip were associated with cell wall reorganization, leading to continued root growth despite water deficit conditions. This study provides insight into tissue-specific water deficit responses and will be a resource for future genetic analyses and breeding strategies to develop more drought-tolerant maize cultivars. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Screening of different insecticides against maize shoot fly atherigona soccata (Rond.) and maize borer. chilo partellus (swinh.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Rana, Z.A.; Haq, I.; Tariq, H.

    2010-01-01

    Field studies were carried out in the research area of the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to determine the most effective maize seed treatment against maize shoot fly Atherigona soccata (Rond.) and insecticide against maize borer Chilo partellus (Swinh.) Trials were conducted following RCBD and replicated three times during 2005-2006. Two seed treatments Confider (imidacloprid) 70 WS and pensidor 72% WP (5 and 7 mg/kg seed) along with Confider (imidaclorid) 200 SC at the rate 40 ml/acre in the trial against maize shoot fly whereas, flubendiamide 48%, emamection 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC. carbofuran 3 G, indoxacarb 150 SC, alphacypermethrine 20 EC, monomehypo 5 G, bifenthrin 10 EC, cartap 4G, cyhalothrine 2.5 EC, cypermethrin 10 EC at the rate 20 ml, 150 ml, 40 ml, 8 kg, 150 ml, 200 ml, 5 kg, 150 ml, 6 kg. 250 ml and 300 ml per acre against maize borer were treated keeping one plo ast untreated check. Treatments were repeated as borer infestation reached above 5% level. All the seed treatments showed significant control of maize shoot fly in spite of dose 5 or 7 mg/kg seed along with foliar spray of confider 200 SC. The insecticides viz. flubendiamide 48% SC. emamectin 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC and carbofuran 3 G. indoxacarb 150 SC. alpha cypermethrin 20 EC, not only responded highest yield 5765, 5294, 5289, 5215, 5168 and 5025 kg/ha respectively but also manage the maize borer below ETL. (author)

  12. Water resources conservation and nitrogen pollution reduction under global food trade and agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wenfeng; Yang, Hong; Liu, Yu; Kummu, Matti; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Liu, Junguo; Schulin, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Global food trade entails virtual flows of agricultural resources and pollution across countries. Here we performed a global-scale assessment of impacts of international food trade on blue water use, total water use, and nitrogen (N) inputs and on N losses in maize, rice, and wheat production. We

  13. Mycoflora Of Maize Zea Maize At Different Locations In Hail Area-Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Zea maize is one of the main cereals produced in Hail area Saudi Arabia. The risk of mycotoxin contamination is related to mycoflora associated with corn kernel. This paper reports on isolation and identification of external and internal mycoflora of maize harvested in Hail area in 2006 2008. A mycological survey was carried out on 200 samples from two agricultural companies . Comparison between frequency and relative density of the prevalent genera and species was carried out. Genus Fusarium was the most prevalent component of the internal seed - borne mycoflora in the two companies Aspergillus spp. was the most prevalent genus as external seed borne mycoflora. The predominant species of the different genera were Fusarium moniliforrme Aspergillus flavus A. niger and Alternaria alternate.

  14. Genetic Identity in Genebanks: Application of the SolCAP 12K SNP Array in Fingerprinting and Diversity Analysis in the Global In Trust Potato Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David; Chavez, Oswaldo; Coombs, Joseph J; Soto, Julian V; Gomez, Rene; Douches, David S; Panta, Ana; Silvestre, Rocio; Anglin, Noelle Lynette

    2018-05-24

    Breeders rely on genetic integrity of material from genebanks, however, mislabeling and errors in original data can occur. Paired samples of original material and their in vitro counterparts from 250 diverse potato landrace accessions from the International Potato Center (CIP), were fingerprinted using the Infinium 12K V2 Potato Array to confirm genetic identity and evaluate genetic diversity. Diploid, triploid, and tetraploid accessions were included representing seven cultivated potato taxa (Hawkes, 1990). Fingerprints between mother field plants and in vitro clones, were used to evaluate identity, relatedness, and ancestry. Clones of the same accession grouped together, however eleven (4.4%) accessions were mismatches genetically. SNP genotypes were used to construct a phylogeny to evaluate inter- and intraspecific relationships and population structure. Data suggests that the triploids evaluated are genetically similar. STRUCTURE analysis identified several putative hybrids and suggests six populations with significant gene flow between. This study provides a model for genetic identity of plant genetic resources collections as mistakes in conservation of these collections and in genebanks is a reality and confirmed identity is critical for breeders and other users of these collections, as well as for quality management programs and to provide insights into the diversity of the accessions evaluated.

  15. Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Iversen

    Full Text Available Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008. Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed. Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013% and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%. Three of the 20 seed samples (15% included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603 intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10% included genes for insect resistance (from MON810. In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system.

  16. Influence of Wheat and Maize Starch on Fermentation in the Rumen, Duodenal Nutrient Flow and Nutrient Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Šimko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of feeding diets with different starch sources on fermentation in the rumen, duodenal nutrient flow and nutrient digestibility. The basis of the diets was maize silage and alfalfa hay supplemented with wheat meal in diet W, or maize meal in diet M. The experiment was performed on four Black-Spotted bulls with mean live weight of 525 kg, which were fed twice daily at 06.30 and 18.30 h. Experimental animals were fitted with ruminal fistulae and duodenal T-shaped cannulae. Cr2O3 was used as a marker of nutrient flow to the duodenum. Rations were formulated so that the ratio of starch to crude fibre (CF was 2.1:1 and the percentage of CF was maintained at 17% (DM. Duodenal chymus was collected at 2-h time intervals. Starch origin significantly affected ruminal fermentation. Concentration of propionic, butyric and lactic acid was higher with wheat than with maize meal. When the maize meal was the source of starch there was a significantly higher flow of fat, CF, nitrogen-free extract, and starch into duodenum. Differences in duodenal flow of crude protein were not significant across the starch sources. Intake of wheat meal or maize meal increased duodenal flow relative to intake by 33% or 42 % respectively. The apparent digestibility of dry matter (76 ± 2%, crude protein (67 ± 0.9%, CF (64 ± 1.9%, nitrogen-free extract (82 ± 1.5% and organic matter (76 ± 1.3% was significantly higher by offering wheat meal.

  17. Do European Union Farmers Reject Genetically Modified Maize? Farmer preferences for Genetically Modified Maize in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Skevas, T.; Kikulwe, E.M.; Papadopoulou, E.; Skevas, I.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2012-01-01

    The new EU proposal (IP/10/921) states that bans on genetically modified (GM) crops should not be based on environmental and health grounds, and it proposes a set of alternative reasons—including public order and morals—that can be cited by member states. This reveals the increasing importance of stakeholders’ attitudes in GM crops’ release decisions. This article analyzes farmers’ attitudes and perceptions toward GM maize based on a survey of large-area Greek farmers in Northeastern Greece. ...

  18. Limites du systeme de collecte du maïs comme vivrier marchand dans les hauts plateaux de l'Ouest Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN NOËL NGAPGUE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Limits of the system of maize collection developed by traders in West Cameroon plateau . In the Western high plateau region of Cameroon, maize is a cash crop but the farmers do not understand the marketing system giving way to middlemen traders to benefit from the disorganisation of the maize trade to exploit the relationship between the farme rs and the market. This paper seeks to know whether maize trade through middlemen can help peasant farmers to adequately fight against poverty. Findings show that in spite of adequate maize production the trade through middlemen presents limitations. The middlemen attend only the periodic markets and those one located in accessible places. They buy maize in small quantities at very low prices and stock in small relay centres for short periods of time. These centres therefore function simply loading maize and cannot serve as veritable poles of economic development. Such are the handicaps in the commercialisation of maize which cannot contribute to the development of maize farming with attendant improvements to the living conditions of the farmers.

  19. Global diagnostics of the ionospheric perturbations related to the seismic activity using the VLF radio signals collected on the DEMETER satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Molchanov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the VLF signals radiated by ground transmitters and received on board of the French DEMETER satellite, reveals a drop of the signals (scattering spot connected with the occurrence of large earthquakes. The extension of the "scattering spots" zone is large enough (1000–5000 km and, probably, it increases with the magnitude of the "relative" earthquake. A possible model to explain the phenomenology, based on the acoustic gravity waves and the ionosphere turbulence, is proposed. The method of diagnostics applied to this study has the advantage to be a global one due to the world wide location of the powerful VLF transmitters and of the satellite reception. However, a specific disadvantage exists because the method requires rather a long time period of analysis due to the large longitudinal displacements among the successive satellite orbits. At the moment, at least, one month seems to be necessary.

  20. Pilot study of nitrogen utilisation in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futo, I.; Palcsu, L.; Vodila, G.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In the cooperation between KITE Ltd., Nadudvar, Hungary and the Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, the aim was to determine the ideal locations of fertilising, the ideal distance of rows for the ideal production yield. To track the nitrogen utilisation of maize (Zea mays) 15 N enriched NH 4 NO 3 fertiliser was introduced among the usual fertilisers in the maize field of KITE Ltd. Nadudvar, Hungary on 30 th March 2012, before sowing. Four maize samples were taken from different areas of different fertiliser treatment (non-fertilised and non-labelled, fertilised and non-labelled, fertilised and labelled between the rows and fertilised and labelled within the rows) and from different development stages of the plant on 22 nd May, 8 th June, 6 th July and 7 th September being sampling periods 1-4, respectively. The plant samples were subsampled based on organs: root, stem and leaf. Samples were dried to constant mass and pulverised. The 15 N measurements were made by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer coupled with an elemental analyser. In case of non-fertilised and non-labelled plants, all the three organs were getting 15 N depleted with time, most intensively the stem and the less intensively the root (Figure 1). For the leaves and stems of the fertilised and non-labelled plants, the tendency in time is very similar to the ones of the non-fertilised and non-labelled plants, however, the roots of the fertilised and non-labelled plants got significantly enriched in the sample of September. In case of the fertilised and labelled between-the-rows samples, labelling is slightly seen as the delta values are positive. These values are significantly lower than the ones for the fertilised and labelled-within-the-rows plants. It is seen that fertiliser got to the vegetation in the largest extent in this layout. Labelling showed its maximum intensity in the second sampling (8 th June) showing that

  1. Effect of irrigation frequencies on grain yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Chaudhry, M.H.; Amjed, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    To find out the water requirement and its application frequencies in spring Maize a trial was designed. The trial was comprised of five maize varieties (Ev-5098, EV-6098, EV-1098, Composite-20 and Pack Afgoyee) and five irrigation frequencies (7,8,9,10 and 11). The trial was sown in split plot design with three replication, keeping varieties in main plots and irrigation frequencies in sub plots. The plot size was 5m x 4.5 with 75cm apart rows and plant to plant distance was 15 com to maintain the 88888 plants per hectare. The trial was conducted during spring 2000 and 2001. Data were collected for days to 50% silking. Plant height (cm), cob height (cm) and grain yield per hectare. The data were analyzed and results obtained which revealed highly significant differences among varieties and also among irrigation frequencies in all the characters studied during both the years and in pooled analysis over years. The interaction between varieties and irrigation frequencies was highly significant for grain yield kg ha/sup -1/ and significant for other characters studied in year wise as well as in pooled analysis. Years effect was also high significant which is clear from the table of weather data which shows that temperature remained high during the crop season of 2001 as compared to 2000 along with high temperature more rains were also received in March. April and May in 2001 while in 2000 rain was received only in February. Three was gradual decrease in days to 50% silking with the increase in number of irrigations in all the varieties while plant height, cob height and grain yield increased with every addition of irrigation. Trend of increase or decrease remained the same during both the year. All the varieties separately or in combine showed better results during spring 2001, maximum grain yield was obtained by EV-5098 (full duration variety) with 11 irrigations during both the years 2000 and 2001 i.e. 3511 and 6140 kg ha/sup -1/ while EV-1098 (short duration variety

  2. (Allium sativum L.) Liliaceae as protectants against the maize weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REV. FR. ANTHONY

    2014-03-05

    , was evaluated as a possible grain protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.). Each experiment was set out in completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications and a control treatment. Adult.

  3. Molecular analysis of quality protein (QPM) and normal maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... genetic variation among QPM and normal maize varieties is important for an efficient selection and .... olymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifications of RAPD and ISSR ..... Genetic characterization of Malawian cowpea.

  4. Maize production in the central Kenya highlands using cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    effective in the production of maize, compared to singular application of manures (5 t ha-1) and mineral fertilizer alone applied at rates below ...... A Handbook of Methods, 2nd. Edition. ... Manure management in the Kenya highlands: Practices.

  5. DYNAMICS OF Cercospora zeina POPULATIONS IN MAIZE-BASED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    DYNAMICS OFCercospora zeina POPULATIONS IN MAIZE-BASED AGRO- ..... Population differentiation of Cercospora zeina in three districts of Uganda based on analysis of molecular variance ..... interactions: The example of the Erysiphe.

  6. combustion properties of briquettes produced from maize cob

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    joke

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... were densified into briquettes using starch as binder. Combustion related ... Keywords: Briquette, maize cob, combustion properties, mesh sizes, binding agent ... smaller space requirement for storage (Yaman et al., 2000 and ...

  7. Inadvertent presence of genetically modified elements in maize food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... The maize imported into Kenya contained Bt genetic elements. Nevertheless, the .... obtained from various open air markets and retail shops located in ... Magic, Bokomo and Temmy) was not successful. Assessment of cry1Ab ...

  8. Evaluation of Conservation Tillage Techniques for Maize Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conservation tillage techniques and evaluate the impacts of the system on ... biological soil manipulation to optimize conditions for seed germination, emergence and ..... planting and weeding operations as total expense and sales from maize ...

  9. In vitro cytotoxicity of fungi spoiling maize silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium paneum, Monascus ruber, Alternaria tenuissima, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium avenaceum, Byssochlamys nivea and Aspergillus fumigatus have previously been identified as major fungal contaminants of Danish maize silage. In the present study their metabolite....... roqueforti metabolites roquefortine C (48μg/mL), andrastin A (>50μg/mL), mycophenolic acid (>100μg/mL) and 1-hydroxyeremophil-7(11),9(10)-dien-8-one (>280μg/mL) were high. Fractionating of agar extracts identified PR-toxin as an important cytotoxic P. roqueforti metabolite, also detectable in maize silage....... The strongly cytotoxic B. nivea and P. paneum agar extracts contained patulin above the IC50 of 0.6μg/mL, however inoculated onto maize silage B. nivea and P. paneum did not produce patulin (>371μg/kg). Still B. nivea infected maize silage containing mycophenolic acid (∼50mg/kg), byssochlamic acid and other...

  10. (CultiAF) Reducing maize-based aflatoxin contamination

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Zimbabwe, testing of harvested maize has revealed high levels of contamination by aflatoxins, ... and other private sector partners will increase the availability of improved grain storage containers. Researchers will work with the Ministry of ...

  11. Differential protein expression in maize (Zea mays) in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-27

    Jul 27, 2011 ... Accepted 25 May, 2011. Maize (Zea mays) is a major food stable in sub-Saharan Africa. .... has investigated differential expression at the proteome level, comparing this ..... GK, Jwa NS (2001). Characterization of rice (Oryza.

  12. traits and resistance to maize streak virus disease in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 14. No. 4, pp. ... Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Muguga-South, P.O. Box 30148, Nairobi, Kenya .... streak disease has been identified in various maize recycling and development of pure-lines at.

  13. Biofortification of maize flour with grain amaranth for improved nutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biofortification of maize flour with grain amaranth for improved nutrition. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home ...

  14. Orange maize in Zambia: crop development and delivery experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orange maize in Zambia: crop development and delivery experience. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home ...

  15. (MSV) resistant maize varieties for adaptation to a southern guinea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (19), pp. ... the development of superior maize varieties for the southern guinea savanna ecology. Key words: Zea ... tional agricultural research systems have succeeded in converting ...

  16. Screening of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria from Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria from Maize ( Zea Mays ) and Wheat ( Triticum Aestivum ) ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development.

  17. Genotypic variation for maize weevil resistance in eastern and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences by National Agricultural Research Organisation ... damage, median development period, Dobie's index of susceptibility, and ... resistance and grain yield, suggesting that breeding for maize weevil ...

  18. Agronomic potentials of quality protein maize hybrids developed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agronomic potentials of quality protein maize hybrids developed in Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) were evaluated on research stations and in farmers\\' fields in Ghana from 1995 to 1996.

  19. Studies on biochemical changes in maize wastes fermented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    In an attempt to transform the agricultural waste products of maize cobs and shafts into useful products such as ... with transforming organic matter in the nature .... cerevisae Solid Media Fermentation. Food. Chemistry 82 (4) 599-602. 6.AOAC ...

  20. Reproductive performance of rabbits fed maize-milling waste based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The influence of maize-milling waste on the reproductive performance of rabbits was assessed. The .... stored in air-tight polythene bags prior to use in the experimental .... Nutrient digestibility and effect of heat treatment, J. Appl. Rabbit Res.

  1. Farmers' preferences for maize attributes in eastern and western

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    African Crop Science Journal by African Crop Science Society is licensed ... Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important staple food crop in Uganda and is emerging as a cash crop for smallholder .... colour, grain size, pest and disease resistance.

  2. sources and use of extension information among maize farmers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    SOURCES AND USE OF EXTENSION INFORMATION AMONG MAIZE ... play one role or the other toward ensuring that research-based technologies ..... alternative means of controlling weeds (e.g. hoeing), high cost of herbicides and the risk.

  3. Drought tolerant tropical maize (Zea mays L.) developed through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-10-26

    Oct 26, 2016 ... Seeds of the tropical maize inbred line CML216 were obtained from the International ... Infection, co-cultivation, resting, selection and maturation media ...... abscisic acid concentration does not induce kernel abortion in field-.

  4. Metabolic and biofungicidal properties of maize rhizobacteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BALOGOUN

    2015-03-04

    Mar 4, 2015 ... Fusarium verticillioides, that is an important maize pathogenic. ... range of substances as carbon or nitrogen sources. (Karuppiah and Rajaram, 2011). ..... isolated PGPR Bacillus spp. on Fusarium oxysporum. Int. J. Appl. Sci.

  5. Is there a strategy I iron uptake mechanism in maize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suzhen; Zhou, Xiaojin; Chen, Jingtang; Chen, Rumei

    2018-04-03

    Iron is a metal micronutrient that is essential for plant growth and development. Graminaceous and nongraminaceous plants have evolved different mechanisms to mediate Fe uptake. Generally, strategy I is used by nongraminaceous plants like Arabidopsis, while graminaceous plants, such as rice, barley, and maize, are considered to use strategy II Fe uptake. Upon the functional characterization of OsIRT1 and OsIRT2 in rice, it was suggested that rice, as an exceptional graminaceous plant, utilizes both strategy I and strategy II Fe uptake systems. Similarly, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were identified as functional zinc and iron transporters in the maize genome, along with the determination of several genes encoding Zn and Fe transporters, raising the possibility that strategy I Fe uptake also occurs in maize. This mini-review integrates previous reports and recent evidence to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of Fe uptake in maize.

  6. Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casey W

    reviewed paper: Proc. ... maize grain is a staple food for humans and a major ingredient in the diets of intensively fed livestock. Therefore, Se in ..... Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and carotenoids. National Research.

  7. Researchers urge climate-resilience support for South African maize ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... Researchers urge climate-resilience support for South African maize farmers ... They found that climate change is likely to hurt livelihoods and food security ... In Burkina Faso, local cultivation and livestock practices are losing ...

  8. Analysis of fresh maize marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of fresh maize marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria. ... on marketing income in Anambra State, this study utilized descriptive statistic, Sherpherd-futrel model of determining marketing efficiency ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  9. a study of technical inefficiencies of maize farmers within and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    frontier production functions were estimated for a sample of maize farmers within and outside the .... the normal distributions with the same variance, σ2, such that the mean,. µit, associated with the technical inefficiency effect, uit, is defined by.

  10. Impact of selection on maize root traits and rhizosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. E.; Gaudin, A. C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Effects of domestication and breeding on maize have been well-characterized aboveground, but impacts on root traits and rhizosphere processes remain unclear. Breeding in high-inorganic-input environments may have negatively affected the ability of modern maize to acquire nutrients through foraging and microbial interactions in marginal and/or organically managed soils. Twelve maize genotypes representing a selection gradient (teosintes, landraces, open-pollinated parents of modern elite germplasm, and modern hybrids released 1934-2015) were grown in three soils varying in intensity of long-term management (unfertilized, organic, conventional) in the greenhouse. Recruitment of rhizosphere microbial communities, nutrient acquisition, and plant productivity were affected by genotype-by-soil interactions. Maize genotypes exhibit significant variation in their ability to obtain nutrients from soils of different management history, indicating the potential for re-integration of beneficial root and rhizosphere traits to increase adaptation to low-input agroecosystems.

  11. Genetic diversity of maize genotypes on the basis of morpho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity of maize genotypes on the basis of morpho-physiological and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Ashish Kumar, Arunita Rakshit, Naresh K Mangilipelli, Y Varalaxmi, T Vijayalakshmi, Jainender M Vanaja, SK Yadav, B Venkateswarlu, M Maheswari ...

  12. Molecular characterisation and interpretation of genetic diversity within globally distributed germplasm collections of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and meadow fescue (F. pratensis Huds.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Melanie L; Cogan, Noel O I; Forster, John W

    2012-04-01

    Allohexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh.) is an agriculturally important grass cultivated for pasture and turf world-wide. Genetic improvement of tall fescue could benefit from the use of non-domesticated germplasm to diversify breeding populations through the incorporation of novel and superior allele content. However, such potential germplasm must first be characterised, as three major morphotypes (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) with varying degrees of hybrid interfertility are commonly described within this species. As hexaploid tall fescue is also a member of a polyploid species complex that contains tetraploid, octoploid and decaploid taxa, it is also possible that germplasm collections may have inadvertently sampled some of these sub-species. In this study, 1,040 accessions from the publicly available United States Department of Agriculture tall fescue and meadow fescue germplasm collections were investigated. Sequence of the chloroplast genome-located matK gene and the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) permitted attribution of accessions to the three previously known morphotypes and also revealed the presence of tall fescue sub-species of varying ploidy levels, as well as other closely related species. The majority of accessions were, however, identified as Continental hexaploid tall fescue. Analysis using 34 simple sequence repeat markers was able to further investigate the level of genetic diversity within each hexaploid tall fescue morphotype group. At least two genetically distinct sub-groups of Continental hexaploid tall fescue were identified which are probably associated with palaeogeographic range expansion of this morphotype. This work has comprehensively characterised a large and complex germplasm collection and has identified genetically diverse accessions which may potentially contribute valuable alleles at agronomic loci for tall fescue cultivar

  13. Assessment of Climate Suitability of Maize in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.; Choi, D.; Seo, B.

    2017-12-01

    Assessing suitable areas for crops would be useful to design alternate cropping systems as an adaptation option to climate change adaptation. Although suitable areas could be identified by using a crop growth model, it would require a number of input parameters including cultivar and soil. Instead, a simple climate suitability model, e.g., EcoCrop model, could be used for an assessment of climate suitability for a major grain crop. The objective of this study was to assess of climate suitability for maize using the EcoCrop model under climate change conditions in Korea. A long term climate data from 2000 - 2100 were compiled from weather data source. The EcoCrop model implemented in R was used to determine climate suitability index at each grid cell. Overall, the EcoCrop model tended to identify suitable areas for maize production near the coastal areas whereas the actual major production areas located in inland areas. It is likely that the discrepancy between assessed and actual crop production areas would result from the socioeconomic aspects of maize production. Because the price of maize is considerably low, maize has been grown in an area where moisture and temperature conditions would be less than optimum. In part, a simple algorithm to predict climate suitability for maize would caused a relatively large error in climate suitability assessment under the present climate conditions. In 2050s, the climate suitability for maize increased in a large areas in southern and western part of Korea. In particular, the plain areas near the coastal region had considerably greater suitability index in the future compared with mountainous areas. The expansion of suitable areas for maize would help crop production policy making such as the allocation of rice production area for other crops due to considerably less demand for the rice in Korea.

  14. Classification of maize kernels using NIR hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Paul; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    NIR hyperspectral imaging was evaluated to classify maize kernels of three hardness categories: hard, medium and soft. Two approaches, pixel-wise and object-wise, were investigated to group kernels according to hardness. The pixel-wise classification assigned a class to every pixel from individual...... and specificity of 0.95 and 0.93). Both feature extraction methods can be recommended for classification of maize kernels on production scale....

  15. Evaluation of the Effect of Replacing Maize with Cattle Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the nutritive values of cattle rumen waste (CRW) meal used for replacement of maize in the diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. CRW (20.9% CP) was used to replace maize (10.1 CP) at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% making diets (D1-D5). The diets were fed to the fish (5.59±0.37g) to apparent ...

  16. Maize Endophytic Bacterial Diversity as Affected by Soil Cultivation History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Galeote, David; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Arone, Gregorio J

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities residing within roots of maize ( Zea mays L.) plants cultivated by a sustainable management in soils from the Quechua maize belt (Peruvian Andes) were examined using tags pyrosequencing spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA. Across four replicate libraries, two corresponding to sequences of endophytic bacteria from long time maize-cultivated soils and the other two obtained from fallow soils, 793 bacterial sequences were found that grouped into 188 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% genetic similarity). The numbers of OTUs in the libraries from the maize-cultivated soils were significantly higher than those found in the libraries from fallow soils. A mean of 30 genera were found in the fallow soil libraries and 47 were in those from the maize-cultivated soils. Both alpha and beta diversity indexes showed clear differences between bacterial endophytic populations from plants with different soil cultivation history and that the soils cultivated for long time requires a higher diversity of endophytes. The number of sequences corresponding to main genera Sphingomonas, Herbaspirillum, Bradyrhizobium and Methylophilus in the maize-cultivated libraries were statistically more abundant than those from the fallow soils. Sequences of genera Dyella and Sreptococcus were significantly more abundant in the libraries from the fallow soils. Relative abundance of genera Burkholderia, candidatus Glomeribacter, Staphylococcus, Variovorax, Bacillus and Chitinophaga were similar among libraries. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relative abundance of the main genera showed that the four libraries distributed in two clearly separated groups. Our results suggest that cultivation history is an important driver of endophytic colonization of maize and that after a long time of cultivation of the soil the maize plants need to increase the richness of the bacterial endophytes communities.

  17. Euplectrus furnius parasitizing Spodoptera frugiperda in maize in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Soares Sturza

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is among the world's biggest maize producers and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is the main insect pest on this crop in the country. Despite the importance of its natural enemies, there still is a lack of information about parasitoids species that attack this insect-pest, such as larval parasitoids. This research reports Euplectrus furnius Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae parasitizing S. fugiperda larvae on maize crop in Brazil.

  18. Genetic effects of heavy ion irradiation in maize and soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatou, Osamu; Amano, Etsuo; Takahashi, Tan.

    1992-01-01

    Somatic mutation on leaves of maize and soybean were observed to investigate genetic effects of heavy ion irradiation. Maize seeds were irradiated with N, Fe and U ions and soybean seeds were irradiated with N ions. This is a preliminary report of the experiment, 1) to examine the mutagenic effects of the heavy ion irradiation, and 2) to evaluate the genetic effects of cosmic ray exposure in a space ship outside the earth. (author)

  19. Intercropping soybean and maize in a derived savanna ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to sole soybean, intercropping soybean and maize on flat and ridge reduced yields by 1.0 –29.1% and 29.4 - 40.2% respectively. In maize, intercropping on flat and ridge reduced yields by 13.2 - 25.2% and 24.8 - 43.5% respectively. Planting sole soybean on ridge enhanced mean yield by 18.6% as compared to ...

  20. Comparison of Milk and Maize Based Diets in Kwashiorkor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Permeability ratios (95% confidence interval) on the milk diet improved by a mean of 6.4 (1.7 to 11.1) compared with - 6.8 (-16.8 to 5.0) in the maize group. The improved permeability on milk occurred despite more diarrhoea, which constituted 34.8% of hospital days compared to 24.3% in the maize group. Case fatality rates ...