Sample records for global lightning activity

  1. Applicability of ultralow-frequency global resonances for investigating lightning activity on Venus

    Nikolaenko, A.P.; Rabinovich, L.M.


    The application to experiments on Venus of methods of investigating global lightning activity that are used on earth in the ultralow-frequency range is discussed. Calculations of the electromagnetic fields in the range from a few Hertz to tens of Hertz are carried out in the framework of the model of the lower ionosphere of Venus, which generalizes the information about the planet's atmosphere which is presently available. The calculations showed that observations of global resonances on Venus must, as on the earth, allow one to obtain data about the global distribution of lightning in space and time, and to make the values of the parameters of the lower ionosphere model more precise

  2. Inversion of Multi-Station Schumann Resonance Background Records for Global Lightning Activity in Absolute Units

    Williams, E. R.; Mushtak, V. C.; Guha, A.; Boldi, R. A.; Bor, J.; Nagy, T.; Satori, G.; Sinha, A. K.; Rawat, R.; Hobara, Y.; Sato, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Price, C. G.; Neska, M.; Alexander, K.; Yampolski, Y.; Moore, R. C.; Mitchell, M. F.; Fraser-Smith, A. C.


    Every lightning flash contributes energy to the TEM mode of the natural global waveguide that contains the Earth's Schumann resonances. The modest attenuation at ELF (0.1 dB/Mm) allows for the continuous monitoring of the global lightning with a small number of receiving stations worldwide. In this study, nine ELF receiving sites (in Antarctica (3 sites), Hungary, India, Japan, Poland, Spitsbergen and USA) are used to provide power spectra at 12-minute intervals in two absolutely calibrated magnetic fields and occasionally, one electric field, with up to five resonance modes each. The observables are the extracted modal parameters (peak intensity, peak frequency and Q-factor) for each spectrum. The unknown quantities are the geographical locations of three continental lightning 'chimneys' and their lightning source strengths in absolute units (C2 km2/sec). The unknowns are calculated from the observables by the iterative inversion of an evolving 'sensitivity matrix' whose elements are the partial derivatives of each observable for all receiving sites with respect to each unknown quantity. The propagation model includes the important day-night asymmetry of the natural waveguide. To overcome the problem of multiple minima (common in inversion problems of this kind), location information from the World Wide Lightning Location Network has been used to make initial guess solutions based on centroids of stroke locations in each chimney. Results for five consecutive days in 2009 (Jan 7-11) show UT variations with the African chimney dominating on four of five days, and America dominating on the fifth day. The amplitude variations in absolute source strength exceed that of the 'Carnegie curve' of the DC global circuit by roughly twofold. Day-to-day variations in chimney source strength are of the order of tens of percent. Examination of forward calculations performed with the global inversion solution often show good agreement with the observed diurnal variations at

  3. Lightning activity on Jupiter

    Borucki, W. J.; Bar-Nun, A.; Scarf, F. L.; Look, A. F.; Hunt, G. E.


    Photographic observations of the nightside of Jupiter by the Voyager 1 spacecraft show the presence of extensive lightning activity. Detection of whistlers by the plasma wave analyzer confirms the optical observations and implies that many flashes were not recorded by the Voyager camera because the intensity of the flashes was below the threshold sensitivity of the camera. Measurements of the optical energy radiated per flash indicate that the observed flashes had energies similar to that for terrestrial superbolts. The best estimate of the lightning energy dissipation rate of 0.0004 W/sq m was derived from a consideration of the optical and radiofrequency measurements. The ratio of the energy dissipated by lightning compared to the convective energy flux is estimated to be between 0.000027 and 0.00005. The terrestrial value is 0.0001.

  4. On Day-to-Day Variability of Global Lightning Activity as Quantified from Background Schumann Resonance Observations

    Mushtak, V. C.; Williams, E. R.


    Among the palette of methods (satellite, VLF, ELF) for monitoring global lightning activity, observations of the background Schumann resonances (SR) provide a unique prospect for estimating the integrated activity of global lightning activity in absolute units (coul2 km2/sec). This prospect is ensured by the SR waves' low attenuation, with wavelengths commensurate with the dimensions of dominant regional lightning "chimneys", and by the accumulating methodology for background SR techniques. Another benefit is the reduction of SR measurements into a compact set of resonance characteristics (modal frequencies, intensities, and quality factors). Suggested and tested in numerical simulations by T.R. Madden in the 1960s, the idea to invert the SR characteristics for the global lightning source has been farther developed, statistically substantiated, and practically realized here on the basis of the computing power and the quantity of experimental material way beyond what the SR pioneers had at their disposal. The critical issue of the quality of the input SR parameters is addressed by implementing a statistically substantiated sanitizing procedure to dispose of the fragments of the observed time series containing unrepresentative elements - local interference of various origin and strong ELF transients originating outside the major "chimneys" represented in the source model. As a result of preliminary research, a universal empirical sanitizing criterion has been established. Due to the fact that the actual observations have been collected from a set of individually organized ELF stations with various equipment sets and calibration techniques, the relative parameters in both input (the intensities) and output (the "chimney" activities) are being used as far as possible in the inversion process to avoid instabilities caused by calibration inconsistencies. The absolute regional activities - and so the sought for global activity in absolute units - is determined in the

  5. NOx from lightning: 1. Global distribution based on lightning physics

    Price, Colin; Penner, Joyce; Prather, Michael


    This paper begins a study on the role of lightning in maintaining the global distribution of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the troposphere. It presents the first global and seasonal distributions of lightning-produced NOx (LNOx) based on the observed distribution of electrical storms and the physical properties of lightning strokes. We derive a global rate for cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes of 20-30 flashes/s with a mean energy per flash of 6.7×109 J. Intracloud (IC) flashes are more frequent, 50-70 flashes/s but have 10% of the energy of CG strokes and, consequently, produce significantly less NOx. It appears to us that the majority of previous studies have mistakenly assumed that all lightning flashes produce the same amount of NOx, thus overestimating the NOx production by a factor of 3. On the other hand, we feel these same studies have underestimated the energy released in CG flashes, resulting in two negating assumptions. For CG energies we adopt a production rate of 10×1016 molecules NO/J based on the current literature. Using a method to simulate global lightning frequencies from satellite-observed cloud data, we have calculated the LNOx on various spatial (regional, zonal, meridional, and global) and temporal scales (daily, monthly, seasonal, and interannual). Regionally, the production of LNOx is concentrated over tropical continental regions, predominantly in the summer hemisphere. The annual mean production rate is calculated to be 12.2 Tg N/yr, and we believe it extremely unlikely that this number is less than 5 or more than 20 Tg N/yr. Although most of LNOx, is produced in the lowest 5 km by CG lightning, convective mixing in the thunderstorms is likely to deposit large amounts of NOx, in the upper troposphere where it is important in ozone production. On an annual basis, 64% of the LNOx, is produced in the northern hemisphere, implying that the northern hemisphere should have natural ozone levels as much as 2 times greater than the southern hemisphere

  6. Irregularities of ionospheric VTEC during lightning activity over Antarctic Peninsula

    Suparta, W; Wan Mohd Nor, W N A


    This paper investigates the irregularities of vertical total electron content (VTEC) during lightning activity and geomagnetic quiet days over Antarctic Peninsula in year 2014. During the lightning event, the ionosphere may be disturbed which may cause disruption in the radio signal. Thus, it is important to understand the influence of lightning on VTEC in the study of upper-lower interaction. The lightning data is obtained from World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and the VTEC data has analyzed from Global Positioning System (GPS) for O’Higgins (OHI3), Palmer (PALV), and Rothera (ROTH). The results demonstrate the VTEC variation of ∼0.2 TECU during low lightning activity which could be caused by energy dissipation through lightning discharges from troposphere into the thermosphere. (paper)

  7. Global reactive nitrogen deposition from lightning NOx

    Shepon, A.; Gildor, H.; Labrador, L.J.; Butler, T.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Lawrence, M.G.


    We present results of the deposition of nitrogen compounds formed from lightning (LNO x ) using the global chemical transport Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry¿Max Planck Institute for Chemistry version. The model indicates an approximately equal deposition of LNO x in both terrestrial

  8. Global lightning and severe storm monitoring from GPS orbit

    Suszcynsky, D. M. (David M.); Jacobson, A. R.; Linford, J (Justin); Pongratz, M. B. (Morris B.); Light, T. (Tracy E.); Shao, X. (Xuan-Min)


    Over the last few decades, there has been a growing interest to develop and deploy an automated and continuously operating satellite-based global lightning mapper [e.g. Christian et al., 1989; Weber et al., 1998; Suszcynsky et al., 2000]. Lightning is a direct consequence of the electrification and breakdown processes that take place during the convective stages of thunderstorm development. Satellite-based lightning mappers are designed to exploit this relationship by using lightning detection as a proxy for remotely identifying, locating and characterizing strong convective activity on a global basis. Global lightning and convection mapping promises to provide users with (1) an enhanced global severe weather monitoring and early warning capability [e.g. Weber et al., 1998] (2) improved ability to optimize aviation flight paths around convective cells, particularly over oceanic and remote regions that are not sufficiently serviced by existing weather radar [e.g. Weber et al., 1998], and (3) access to regional and global proxy data sets that can be used for scientific studies and as input into meteorological forecast and global climatology models. The physical foundation for satellite-based remote sensing of convection by way of lightning detection is provided by the basic interplay between the electrical and convective states of a thundercloud. It is widely believed that convection is a driving mechanism behind the hydrometeor charging and transport that produces charge separation and lightning discharges within thunderclouds [e.g. see chapter 3 in MacGorman and Rust, 1998]. Although cloud electrification and discharge processes are a complex function of the convective dynamics and microphysics of the cloud, the fundamental relationship between convection and electrification is easy to observe. For example, studies have shown that the strength of the convective process within a thundercell can be loosely parameterized (with large variance) by the intensity of the

  9. The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and the Global Observing System for Total Lightning

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W.; Buechler, D.; Carey, L.; Chronis, T.; Mach, D.; Bateman, M.; Peterson, H.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.; hide


    for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product latency of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. The GLM will help address the National Weather Service requirement for total lightning observations globally to support warning decision-making and forecast services. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS national centers, forecast offices, and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and check-out of GOES-R in 2016. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.

  10. Lightning and 85-GHz MCSs in the Global Tropics

    Toracinta, E. Richard; Zipser, E. J.


    Numerous observations of tropical convection show that tropical continental mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are much more prolific lightning producers than their oceanic counterparts. Satellite-based climatologies using 85-GHz passive microwave ice-scattering signatures from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) indicate that MCSs of various size and intensity are found throughout the global tropics. In contrast, global lightning distributions show a strong land bias with an order of magnitude difference between land and ocean lightning. This is somewhat puzzling, since 85-GHz ice-scattering and the charge separation processes that lead to lightning are both thought to depend upon the existence of large graupel particles. The fact that low 85-GHz brightness temperatures are observed in tropical oceanic MCSs containing virtually no lightning leads to the postulate that tropical oceanic and tropical continental MCSs have fundamentally different hydrometeor profiles through the mixed phase region of the cloud (0 C Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), and the first space-borne radar, facilitates high-resolution case studies of MCS structure throughout the global tropics. An important precursor, however, is to better understand the distribution of MCSs and lightning in the tropics. With that objective in mind, this research undertakes a systematic comparison of 85-GHz-defined MCSs and lightning over the global tropics for a full year, as an initial step toward quantifying differences between land and ocean convective systems.

  11. Global Lightning Response to Forbush Decreases in Short-term

    Li, H.; Wu, Q.; Wang, C.


    During the past three decades, particular scientific attention has been drawn to the potential link between solar activities and global climate change. How the sun modulates the climate has always been controversial. There are three relatively widely accepted mechanisms illustrating this process: the total solar irradiance (TSI), the solar ultraviolet radiation (SUR), and the space weather mechanisms. As for space weather mechanism, the sun influences the microphysical process in cloud by modulating the cosmic ray flux and thus changes the cloud cover, which finally affects the earth's radiation balance. Unfortunately, the lack of related observations and some opposite research results make this mechanism rather debatable. In order to provide possible evidence for space weather mechanism, we study the influence of Forbush decreases (FDs) of galactic cosmic ray on global lightning activities, which to some extent represents the basic process of cosmic ray-atmospheric coupling. We use the daily lightning counts from 1998 to 2014 observed by LIS sensor aboard the TRMM satellite. Considering the "diurnal distribution" (occurring more in the afternoon than in the morning) and the "seasonal distribution" (occurring more in summer than in winter) of lightning activities as well as the 49-day precession of TRMM satellite, the daily lightning counts show an intricate periodic fluctuation. We propose a 3-step approach - latitude zone limitation, orbit branch selection and local time normalization - to eliminate it. As for FDs, we select them by checking the hourly neutron counts variation of each month of 17 years obtained from the Oulu Cosmic Ray Station. During the selection, we choose the FDs which are "strong" (decrease more than 6%) and "standard" (strongly decrease in a few hours to one day and gradually recover in about one week) to diminish the meteorological influence and other possible disturbance. For both case study and temporal superposition of several cases

  12. Cloud-to-ground lightning activity in Colombia: A 14-year study using lightning location system data

    Herrera, J.; Younes, C.; Porras, L.


    This paper presents the analysis of 14 years of cloud-to-ground lightning activity observation in Colombia using lightning location systems (LLS) data. The first Colombian LLS operated from 1997 to 2001. After a few years, this system was upgraded and a new LLS has been operating since 2007. Data obtained from these two systems was analyzed in order to obtain lightning parameters used in designing lightning protection systems. The flash detection efficiency was estimated using average peak current maps and some theoretical results previously published. Lightning flash multiplicity was evaluated using a stroke grouping algorithm resulting in average values of about 1.0 and 1.6 for positive and negative flashes respectively and for both LLS. The time variation of this parameter changes slightly for the years considered in this study. The first stroke peak current for negative and positive flashes shows median values close to 29 kA and 17 kA respectively for both networks showing a great dependence on the flash detection efficiency. The average percentage of negative and positive flashes shows a 74.04% and 25.95% of occurrence respectively. The daily variation shows a peak between 23 and 02 h. The monthly variation of this parameter exhibits a bimodal behavior typical of the regions located near The Equator. The lightning flash density was obtained dividing the study area in 3 × 3 km cells and resulting in maximum average values of 25 and 35 flashes km- 2 year- 1 for each network respectively. A comparison of these results with global lightning activity hotspots was performed showing good correlation. Besides, the lightning flash density variation with altitude shows an inverse relation between these two variables.

  13. Lightning

    Pampe, William R.


    Presents basic physical theory for movement of electric charges in clouds, earth, and air during production of lightning and thunder. Amount of electrical energy produced and heating effects during typical thunderstorms is described. Generalized safety practices are given. (JM)

  14. Global Lightning Climatology from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the Optical Transient Detector (OTD)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Blakeslee, Richard J.


    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) has been collecting observations of total lightning in the global tropics and subtropics (roughly 38 deg S - 38 deg N) since December 1997. A similar instrument, the Optical Transient Detector, operated from 1995-2000 on another low earth orbit satellite that also saw high latitudes. Lightning data from these instruments have been used to create gridded climatologies and time series of lightning flash rate. These include a 0.5 deg resolution global annual climatology, and lower resolution products describing the annual cycle and the diurnal cycle. These products are updated annually. Results from the update through 2013 will be shown at the conference. The gridded products are publicly available for download. Descriptions of how each product can be used will be discussed, including strengths, weaknesses, and caveats about the smoothing and sampling used in various products.

  15. The global lightning-induced nitrogen oxides source

    U. Schumann


    Full Text Available The knowledge of the lightning-induced nitrogen oxides (LNOx source is important for understanding and predicting the nitrogen oxides and ozone distributions in the troposphere and their trends, the oxidising capacity of the atmosphere, and the lifetime of trace gases destroyed by reactions with OH. This knowledge is further required for the assessment of other important NOx sources, in particular from aviation emissions, the stratosphere, and from surface sources, and for understanding the possible feedback between climate changes and lightning. This paper reviews more than 3 decades of research. The review includes laboratory studies as well as surface, airborne and satellite-based observations of lightning and of NOx and related species in the atmosphere. Relevant data available from measurements in regions with strong LNOx influence are identified, including recent observations at midlatitudes and over tropical continents where most lightning occurs. Various methods to model LNOx at cloud scales or globally are described. Previous estimates are re-evaluated using the global annual mean flash frequency of 44±5 s−1 reported from OTD satellite data. From the review, mainly of airborne measurements near thunderstorms and cloud-resolving models, we conclude that a "typical" thunderstorm flash produces 15 (2–40×1025 NO molecules per flash, equivalent to 250 mol NOx or 3.5 kg of N mass per flash with uncertainty factor from 0.13 to 2.7. Mainly as a result of global model studies for various LNOx parameterisations tested with related observations, the best estimate of the annual global LNOx nitrogen mass source and its uncertainty range is (5±3 Tg a−1 in this study. In spite of a smaller global flash rate, the best estimate is essentially the same as in some earlier reviews, implying larger flash-specific NO

  16. Projected Increase in Lightning Strikes in the United States Due to Global Warming

    Romps, D. M.; Seeley, J.; Vollaro, D.; Molinari, J.


    Lightning plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and in the initiation of wildfires, but the impact of global warming on lightning rates is poorly constrained. The lightning flash rate is proposed here to be proportional to the convective available potential energy (CAPE) times the precipitation rate. Using observations, the product of CAPE and precipitation is found to explain the majority of variance in the time series of total cloud-to-ground lightning flashes over the contiguous United States (CONUS) on timescales ranging from diurnal to seasonal. The observations reveal that storms convert the CAPE of water mass to discharged lightning energy with an efficiency of about 1%. This proxy can be applied to global climate models, which provide predictions for the increase in lightning due to global warming. Results from 11 GCMs will be shown.

  17. Climate change. Projected increase in lightning strikes in the United States due to global warming.

    Romps, David M; Seeley, Jacob T; Vollaro, David; Molinari, John


    Lightning plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and in the initiation of wildfires, but the impact of global warming on lightning rates is poorly constrained. Here we propose that the lightning flash rate is proportional to the convective available potential energy (CAPE) times the precipitation rate. Using observations, the product of CAPE and precipitation explains 77% of the variance in the time series of total cloud-to-ground lightning flashes over the contiguous United States (CONUS). Storms convert CAPE times precipitated water mass to discharged lightning energy with an efficiency of 1%. When this proxy is applied to 11 climate models, CONUS lightning strikes are predicted to increase 12 ± 5% per degree Celsius of global warming and about 50% over this century. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Wharton, N. A.; Stewart, M. F.; Ellett, W. T.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.


    Over two decades, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) provided global observations of tropical lightning for an impressive 17 years before that mission came to a close in April 2015. Now a space-qualified LIS, built as the flight spare for TRMM, has been installed on the International Space Station (ISS) for a minimum two year mission following its SpaceX launch on February 19, 2017. The LIS, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission, was robotically installed in an Earth-viewing position on the outside of the ISS, providing a great opportunity to not only extend the 17-year TRMM LIS record of tropical lightning measurements but also to expand that coverage to higher latitudes missed by the TRMM mission. Since its activation, LIS has continuously observed the amount, rate, and radiant energy lightning within its field-of-view as it orbits the Earth. A major focus of this mission is to better understand the processes which cause lightning, as well as the connections between lightning and subsequent severe weather events. This understanding is a key to improving weather predictions and saving lives and property here in the United States and around the world. The LIS measurements will also help cross-validate observations from the new Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) operating on NOAA's newest weather satellite GOES-16. An especially unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning data, especially valuable for operational forecasting and warning applications over data sparse regions such

  19. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.


    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  20. Lightning Forcing in Global Fire Models: The Importance of Temporal Resolution

    Felsberg, A.; Kloster, S.; Wilkenskjeld, S.; Krause, A.; Lasslop, G.


    In global fire models, lightning is typically prescribed from observational data with monthly mean temporal resolution while meteorological forcings, such as precipitation or temperature, are prescribed in a daily resolution. In this study, we investigate the importance of the temporal resolution of the lightning forcing for the simulation of burned area by varying from daily to monthly and annual mean forcing. For this, we utilize the vegetation fire model JSBACH-SPITFIRE to simulate burned area, forced with meteorological and lightning data derived from the general circulation model ECHAM6. On a global scale, differences in burned area caused by lightning forcing applied in coarser temporal resolution stay below 0.55% compared to the use of daily mean forcing. Regionally, however, differences reach up to 100%, depending on the region and season. Monthly averaged lightning forcing as well as the monthly lightning climatology cause differences through an interaction between lightning ignitions and fire prone weather conditions, accounted for by the fire danger index. This interaction leads to decreased burned area in the boreal zone and increased burned area in the Tropics and Subtropics under the coarser temporal resolution. The exclusion of interannual variability, when forced with the lightning climatology, has only a minor impact on the simulated burned area. Annually averaged lightning forcing causes differences as a direct result of the eliminated seasonal characteristics of lightning. Burned area is decreased in summer and increased in winter where fuel is available. Regions with little seasonality, such as the Tropics and Subtropics, experience an increase in burned area.

  1. Total Lightning Flash Activity Response to Aerosol over China Area

    Pengguo Zhao


    Full Text Available Twelve years of measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD, cloud fraction, cloud top height, ice cloud optical thickness and lightning flash density from 2001 to 2012 have been analyzed to investigate the effect of aerosols on electrical activity over an area of China. The results show that increasing aerosol loading inspires the convective intensity, and then increases the lightning flash density. The spatial distribution of the correlation between aerosol loading and electrical activity shows a remarkable regional difference over China. The high-correlation regions embody the positive aerosol microphysical effect on the intensity of the electrical activity, while the large-scale processes may play the main role in convection development and producing lightning in low-correlation regions.

  2. Towards understanding the nature of any relationship between Solar Activity and Cosmic Rays with thunderstorm activity and lightning discharge

    O'Regan, J.; Muller, J.-P.; Matthews, S.


    The runaway breakdown hypothesis of lightning discharge has predicted relationships between cosmic rays' interactions with the atmosphere and thunderstorm production and lightning activity. Precipitating energetic particles lead to the injection of MeV-energy electrons into electrified thunderclouds [1,2], resulting in runaway breakdown occurring, and assisting in the process of charge separation [2]. Previous lightning studies show that correlations to solar activity are weak but significant, with better correlations to solar activity and cosmic rays when carried out over smaller geographical areas [3,4,5,6] and over longer timescales [6]. In this work, correlations are explored between variations of SEPs and lightning activity levels at various spatio-temporal scales. Temporal scales span from short-term (days) scales surrounding large Earth-directed coronal mass ejection (CME) events to long-term (years) scales. Similarly, spatial scales span from 1-degree x 1-degree latitudinal-longitudinal grid scales to an entirely global study, for varying timescales. Additionally, investigation of correlation sign and statistical significance by 1-degree latitudinal bands is also employed, allowing a comparative study of lightning activity relative to regions of greatest - and contrasting regions of relative absence of - energetic particle precipitation. These regions are determined from electron and proton flux maps, derived from measurements from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED) onboard the Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) system. Lightning data is obtained from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) for the period 2005 to 2011. The correlations of lightning strike rates are carried out with respect to Relative Sunspot Number (R), 10.7cm Solar radio flux (F10.7), Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) neutron monitor flux, the Ap geomagnetic activity index, and Disturbance Storm Time (DST) index. Correlations show dramatic variations in

  3. The Deep Space Gateway Lightning Mapper (DLM) - Monitoring Global Change and Thunderstorm Processes Through Observations of Earth's High-Latitude Lightning from Cis-Lunar Orbit

    Lang, Timothy; Blakeslee, R. J.; Cecil, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Gatlin, P. N.; Goodman, S. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.; Quick, M.; Schultz, C. J.; hide


    Function: Monitor global change and thunderstorm processes through observations of Earth's high-latitude lightning. This instrument will combine long-lived sampling of individual thunderstorms with long-term observations of lightning at high latitudes: How is global change affecting thunderstorm patterns; How do high-latitude thunderstorms differ from low-latitude? Why is the Gateway the optimal facility for this instrument / research: Expected DSG (Deep Space Gateway) orbits will provide nearly continuous viewing of the Earth's high latitudes (50 degrees latitude and poleward); These regions are not well covered by existing lightning mappers (e.g., Lightning Imaging Sensor / LIS, or Geostationary Lightning Mapper / GLM); Polar, Molniya, Tundra, etc. Earth orbits have significant drawbacks related to continuous coverage and/or stable FOVs (Fields of View).

  4. Activity determination of the Am-241 radioactive lightning rods

    Dellamano, Jose C.; Minematsu, Denise; Potiens Jr, Ademar J.


    Full text: The radioactive lightning rods had been manufactured in Brazil up to 1989, when the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) lifted the license for manufacture, commerce and installation of these devices. Since this date, the radioactive lightning rods have been replaced for conventional protection systems against electric discharges and have been sent to the institutes subordinated to the CNEN, amongst them the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The radioactive lightning rods are constituted in its majority for a central metallic rod where the plates are mounted. Am-241 radioactive sources are fixed in these plates. The treatment of these devices is made in a glove box, where mechanically the sources are separate of the plates and connecting rods, placed in a metallic package and stored for posterior characterization, final packaging, intermediate storage and final disposal. In accordance with manufacturers information had been installed in Brazil, approximately 75,000 units with activities varying between 25 and 92 MBq. Preliminary studies were carried out in some of the 16,000 lightning rods received by the Laboratorio de Rejeitos Radioativos (LRR) of the IPEN-CNEN/SP, and demonstrated that the variation of the values of activity is very bigger. The implantation of a methodology for the radioisotope characterization of the Am-241 removed sources of the radioactive lightning rods is important because the isotope inventory is necessary for the certification of the processes considered for packaging and storage, besides being indispensable data for the final disposal. It is convenient mentioning that one is not about the determination of activity of a radioactive source with geometry and defined characteristics, but the implantation of a measure protocol for groups of sources that will be used in the routine tasks of the LRR. The current work presents the methodology developed for the radioisotope characterization of the Am

  5. Circulation types related to lightning activity over Catalonia and the Principality of Andorra

    Pineda, N.; Esteban, P.; Trapero, L.; Soler, X.; Beck, C.

    In the present study, we use a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to characterize the surface 6-h circulation types related to substantial lightning activity over the Catalonia area (north-eastern Iberia) and the Principality of Andorra (eastern Pyrenees) from January 2003 to December 2007. The gridded data used for classification of the circulation types is the NCEP Final Analyses of the Global Tropospheric Analyses at 1° resolution over the region 35°N-48°N by 5°W-8°E. Lightning information was collected by the SAFIR lightning detection system operated by the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC), which covers the region studied. We determined nine circulation types on the basis of the S-mode orthogonal rotated Principal Component Analysis. The “extreme scores” principle was used previous to the assignation of all cases, to obtain the number of final types and their centroids. The distinct differences identified in the resulting mean Sea Level Pressure (SLP) fields enabled us to group the types into three main patterns, taking into account their scale/dynamical origin. The first group of types shows the different distribution of the centres of action at synoptic scale associated with the occurrence of lightning. The second group is connected to mesoscale dynamics, mainly induced by the relief of the Pyrenees. The third group shows types with low gradient SLP patterns in which the lightning activity is a consequence of thermal dynamics (coastal and mountain breezes). Apart from reinforcing the consistency of the groups obtained, analysis of the resulting classification improves our understanding of the geographical distribution and genesis factors of thunderstorm activity in the study area, and provides complementary information for supporting weather forecasting. Thus, the catalogue obtained will provide advances in different climatological and meteorological applications, such as nowcasting products or detection of climate change trends.

  6. Nowcasting the lightning activity in Peninsular Malaysia using the GPS PWV during the 2009 inter-monsoons

    Wayan Suparta


    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal radio wave delay of the Global Positioning System (GPS signal can be manipulated to estimate the precipitable water vapor (PWV which favorable for meteorological applications. A rapid change of the water vapor amount was a precondition for the unbalanced atmospheric charges, which noticeably associated with the development of convective cloud as a lightning chamber. According to this fact, GPS derived PWV will be utilized to nowcasting the lightning event for the next couple of hours. The variances of PWV of four-selected station of the Peninsular Malaysia during the past two inter-monsoons events in May and November 2009 were analyzed. To clarify the response, the changes of PWV in hourly Δ (max-min before the lightning event was investigated with minimum value 2 mm and is maintained at least three consecutive hours. There are 177 samples were extracted from this method and 69% of the sample showed the lightning occurrence with an average duration was after the six consecutive hours. The lightning day with 2 mm Δ was also higher than the fair weather of 6.3%. These findings suggest that the GPS data can be proposed further as a guide to nowcast the occurrence of lightning activity.

  7. Industrial lightning. Towards a global cost approach of an industrial lightning installation; Eclairage industriel. Pour une approche en cout global d'une installation d'eclairage industriel



    This document proposes an approach of the global cost of an industrial lightning installation and provides information on the benefits and its associated performance of a good industrial lightning, examples of applications, the available products and the regulation texts of the domain. (A.L.B.)

  8. Determination of the Global-Average Charge Moment of a Lightning Flash Using Schumann Resonances and the LIS/OTD Lightning Data

    Boldi, Robert; Williams, Earle; Guha, Anirban


    In this paper, we use (1) the 20 year record of Schumann resonance (SR) signals measured at West Greenwich Rhode Island, USA, (2) the 19 year Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS)/Optical Transient Detector (OTD) lightning data, and (3) the normal mode equations for a uniform cavity model to quantify the relationship between the observed Schumann resonance modal intensity and the global-average vertical charge moment change M (C km) per lightning flash. This work, by integrating SR measurements with satellite-based optical measurements of global flash rate, accomplishes this quantification for the first time. To do this, we first fit the intensity spectra of the observed SR signals to an eight-mode, three parameter per mode, (symmetric) Lorentzian line shape model. Next, using the LIS/OTD lightning data and the normal mode equations for a uniform cavity model, we computed the expected climatological-daily-average intensity spectra. We then regressed the observed modal intensity values against the expected modal intensity values to find the best fit value of the global-average vertical charge moment change of a lightning flash (M) to be 41 C km per flash with a 99% confidence interval of ±3.9 C km per flash, independent of mode. Mode independence argues that the model adequately captured the modal intensity, the most important fit parameter herein considered. We also tested this relationship for the presence of residual modal intensity at zero lightning flashes per second and found no evidence that modal intensity is significantly different than zero at zero lightning flashes per second, setting an upper limit to the amount of nonlightning contributions to the observed modal intensity.

  9. Forest fires caused by lightning activity in Portugal

    Russo, Ana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Benali, Akli; Trigo, Ricardo M.


    and Atmosphere (IPMA). The main objective of this work was to evaluate and quantify the relations between the wildfires' occurrence and the lightning activity. In particularly we were able to verify if wildfires which were identified as "ignited by lightning" by comparing its location to the lightning discharges location database. Furthermore we have also investigated possible fire ignition by lightning discharges that have not yet been labeled in the PRFD by comparing daily data from both datasets. - Bastos A., Gouveia C.M., Trigo R.M., Running S.W., 2014. Biogeosciences, 11, 3421-3435. - Pereira M.G., B.D. Malamud R.M. Trigo, P.I. Alves, 2011. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358. - Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C., 2009. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 185-195 - Gouveia C.M., Bistinas I., Liberato M.L.R., Bastos A., Koutsiasd N., Trigo R., 2016. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 218-219, 135-145. Acknowledgements Research performed was supported by FAPESP/FCT Project Brazilian Fire-Land-Atmosphere System (BrFLAS) (1389/2014 and 2015/01389-4). Ana Russo thanks FCT for granted support (SFRH/BPD/99757/2014). A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral grant (FCT/DFRH/ SFRH/BPD/84328/2012).

  10. Pre-Launch GOES-R Risk Reduction Activities for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Boccippio, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.


    The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a new instrument planned for GOES-R that will greatly improve storm hazard nowcasting and increase warning lead time day and night. Daytime detection of lightning is a particularly significant technological advance given the fact that the solar illuminated cloud-top signal can exceed the intensity of the lightning signal by a factor of one hundred. Our approach is detailed across three broad themes which include: Data Processing Algorithm Readiness, Forecast Applications, and Radiance Data Mining. These themes address how the data will be processed and distributed, and the algorithms and models for developing, producing, and using the data products. These pre-launch risk reduction activities will accelerate the operational and research use of the GLM data once GOES-R begins on-orbit operations. The GLM will provide unprecedented capabilities for tracking thunderstorms and earlier warning of impending severe and hazardous weather threats. By providing direct information on lightning initiation, propagation, extent, and rate, the GLM will also capture the updraft dynamics and life cycle of convective storms, as well as internal ice precipitation processes. The GLM provides information directly from the heart of the thunderstorm as opposed to cloud-top only. Nowcasting applications enabled by the GLM data will expedite the warning and response time of emergency management systems, improve the dispatch of electric power utility repair crews, and improve airline routing around thunderstorms thereby improving safety and efficiency, saving fuel and reducing delays. The use of GLM data will assist the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Forest Service in quickly detecting lightning ground strikes that have a high probability of causing fires. Finally, GLM data will help assess the role of thunderstorms and deep convection in global climate, and will improve regional air quality and global chemistry/climate modeling

  11. Broad-band spectral studies of optical lightnings and possible correlation with solar activity

    Bhat, C.L.; Sapru, M.L.; Kaul, R.K.; Razdan, H.


    Optical pulses from lightning discharges have been recorded in a ground-based experiment, meant primarily for the detection of cosmic X- and γ-ray bursts through the atmospheric fluorescence technique. It is shown that the spectral ratio Asub(v)/Asub(y), i.e. the ratio of pulse amplitudes in the violet to that in yellow wavelength bands (3400-4300 A and 4400-6000 A respectively) provides a good indication of the lightning channel temperature, the range of derived temperatures extending from 5.000 K to 60.000 K. Based on the distribution of observed Asub(v)/Asub(y) values on a daily basis, it has been possible to separate the observed lightning activity into two classes. One class of event is shown to be correlated with the peaking of the global atmospheric electric field and occurs preferentially on days when the ground-level cosmic ray intensity shows a significant decrease in association with an increase in geomagnetic activity. The results are discussed in terms of the contemporary views regarding solar control of atmospheric electricity and the various sun-weather correlations reported earlier. (author)

  12. Cloud-to-ground lightning activity in Colombia and the influence of topography

    Aranguren, D.; López, J.; Inampués, J.; Torres, H.; Betz, H.


    Lightning activity on the Colombian mountains, where the altitude varies from 0 to more than 5000 MSL, is studied based on VLF/LF lightning detection data and using a 2012-2013 dataset. The influence of altitude is observed by evaluating cloud-to-ground lightning incidence at different altitude intervals. The relationship between ground flash density and altitude gradient vectors is studied. Results show a clear dependence of the flash density on elevation.

  13. Seasonal forecasting of lightning and thunderstorm activity in tropical and temperate regions of the world.

    Dowdy, Andrew J


    Thunderstorms are convective systems characterised by the occurrence of lightning. Lightning and thunderstorm activity has been increasingly studied in recent years in relation to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and various other large-scale modes of atmospheric and oceanic variability. Large-scale modes of variability can sometimes be predictable several months in advance, suggesting potential for seasonal forecasting of lightning and thunderstorm activity in various regions throughout the world. To investigate this possibility, seasonal lightning activity in the world's tropical and temperate regions is examined here in relation to numerous different large-scale modes of variability. Of the seven modes of variability examined, ENSO has the strongest relationship with lightning activity during each individual season, with relatively little relationship for the other modes of variability. A measure of ENSO variability (the NINO3.4 index) is significantly correlated to local lightning activity at 53% of locations for one or more seasons throughout the year. Variations in atmospheric parameters commonly associated with thunderstorm activity are found to provide a plausible physical explanation for the variations in lightning activity associated with ENSO. It is demonstrated that there is potential for accurately predicting lightning and thunderstorm activity several months in advance in various regions throughout the world.

  14. Upper limit set for level of lightning activity on Titan

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.


    Because optically thick cloud and haze layers prevent lightning detection at optical wavelength on Titan, a search was conducted for lightning-radiated signals (spherics) at radio wavelengths using the planetary radioastronomy instrument aboard Voyager 1. Given the maximum ionosphere density of about 3000/cu cm, lightning spherics should be detectable above an observing frequency of 500 kHz. Since no evidence for spherics is found, an upper limit to the total energy per flash in Titan lightning of about 10 to the 6th J, or about 1000 times weaker than that of typical terrestrial lightning, is inferred.

  15. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T. O.; Pavelitz, S. D.; Coker, C.


    Over the past 20 years, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The observations included measurements from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and its Optical Transient Detector (OTD) predecessor that acquired global observations of total lightning (i.e., intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges) spanning a period from May 1995 through April 2015. As an exciting follow-on to these prior missions, a space-qualified LIS built as a flight-spare for TRMM will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) for a 2 year or longer mission, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission. The STP-H5 payload containing LIS is scheduled launch from NASA's Kennedy Space Center to the ISS in November 2016, aboard the SpaceX Cargo Resupply Services-10 (SpaceX-10) mission, installed in the unpressurized "trunk" of the Dragon spacecraft. After the Dragon is berth to ISS Node 2, the payload will be removed from the trunk and robotically installed in a nadir-viewing location on the external truss of the ISS. Following installation on the ISS, the LIS Operations Team will work with the STP-H5 and ISS Operations Teams to power-on LIS and begin instrument checkout and commissioning. Following successful activation, LIS orbital operations will commence, managed from the newly established LIS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) located at the National Space Science Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL. The well-established and robust processing, archival, and distribution infrastructure used for TRMM was easily adapted to the ISS mission, assuring that lightning

  16. Global Electric Circuit Diurnal Variation Derived from Storm Overflight and Satellite Optical Lightning Datasets

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bateman, M. J.; Bailey, J. C.


    We have combined analyses of over 1000 high altitude aircraft observations of electrified clouds with diurnal lightning statistics from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) to produce an estimate of the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. Using basic assumptions about the mean storm currents as a function of flash rate and location, and the global electric circuit, our estimate of the current in the global electric circuit matches the Carnegie curve diurnal variation to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Mean contributions to the global electric circuit from land and ocean thunderstorms are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean). Contributions to the global electric circuit from ESCs are 0.22 kA for ocean storms and 0.04 kA for land storms. Using our analysis, the mean total conduction current for the global electric circuit is 2.0 kA.

  17. Combined Aircraft and Satellite-Derived Storm Electric Current and Lightning Rates Measurements and Implications for the Global Electric Circuit

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.


    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of electrified shower clouds and thunderstorms spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. The measurements were made with the NASA ER-2 and the Altus-II high altitude aircrafts. Peak electric fields, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16 kV/m, with a mean value of 0.9 kV/m. The median peak field was 0.29 kV/m. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean storms with lightning is 1.6 A while the mean current for land storms with lightning is 1.0 A. The mean current for oceanic storms without lightning (i.e., electrified shower clouds) is 0.39 A and the mean current for land storms without lightning is 0.13 A. Thus, on average, land storms with or without lightning have about half the mean current as their corresponding oceanic storm counterparts. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal lightning statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie

  18. The Deep Space Gateway Lightning Mapper (DLM) — Monitoring Global Change and Thunderstorm Processes through Observations of Earth's High-Latitude Lightning from Cis-Lunar Orbit

    Lang, T. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Cecil, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Gatlin, P. N.; Goodman, S. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.; Quick, M.; Schultz, C. J.; Tatum, P. F.


    We propose the Deep Space Gateway Lightning Mapper (DLM) instrument. The primary goal of the DLM is to optically monitor Earth's high-latitude (50° and poleward) total lightning not observed by current and planned spaceborne lightning mappers.

  19. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    Bailey, J. C.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.; Buechler, D. E.


    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011 in the vicinity of Sao Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012 during the Vale do Paraiba campaign. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to 150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. As the CHUVA Vale do Paraiba campaign opportunity was formulated, a broad community-based interest developed for a comprehensive Lightning Location System (LLS) intercomparison and assessment study, leading to the participation and/or deployment of eight other ground-based networks and the space-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The SP-LMA data is being intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment including noise reduction criteria, detection efficiency estimates, and statistical and climatological (both temporal and spatially) analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities.

  20. Seasonal prediction of lightning activity in North Western Venezuela: Large-scale versus local drivers

    Muñoz, Á. G.; Díaz-Lobatón, J.; Chourio, X.; Stock, M. J.


    The Lake Maracaibo Basin in North Western Venezuela has the highest annual lightning rate of any place in the world (~ 200 fl km- 2 yr- 1), whose electrical discharges occasionally impact human and animal lives (e.g., cattle) and frequently affect economic activities like oil and natural gas exploitation. Lightning activity is so common in this region that it has a proper name: Catatumbo Lightning (plural). Although short-term lightning forecasts are now common in different parts of the world, to the best of the authors' knowledge, seasonal prediction of lightning activity is still non-existent. This research discusses the relative role of both large-scale and local climate drivers as modulators of lightning activity in the region, and presents a formal predictability study at seasonal scale. Analysis of the Catatumbo Lightning Regional Mode, defined in terms of the second Empirical Orthogonal Function of monthly Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS-TRMM) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite data for North Western South America, permits the identification of potential predictors at seasonal scale via a Canonical Correlation Analysis. Lightning activity in North Western Venezuela responds to well defined sea-surface temperature patterns (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Meridional Mode) and changes in the low-level meridional wind field that are associated with the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone migrations, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and tropical cyclone activity, but it is also linked to local drivers like convection triggered by the topographic configuration and the effect of the Maracaibo Basin Nocturnal Low Level Jet. The analysis indicates that at seasonal scale the relative contribution of the large-scale drivers is more important than the local (basin-wide) ones, due to the synoptic control imposed by the former. Furthermore, meridional CAPE transport at 925 mb is identified as the best potential predictor for lightning activity in the Lake

  1. Modeling lightning-NOx chemistry on a sub-grid scale in a global chemical transport model

    A. Gressent


    Full Text Available For the first time, a plume-in-grid approach is implemented in a chemical transport model (CTM to parameterize the effects of the nonlinear reactions occurring within high concentrated NOx plumes from lightning NOx emissions (LNOx in the upper troposphere. It is characterized by a set of parameters including the plume lifetime, the effective reaction rate constant related to NOx–O3 chemical interactions, and the fractions of NOx conversion into HNO3 within the plume. Parameter estimates were made using the Dynamical Simple Model of Atmospheric Chemical Complexity (DSMACC box model, simple plume dispersion simulations, and the 3-D Meso-NH (non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model. In order to assess the impact of the LNOx plume approach on the NOx and O3 distributions on a large scale, simulations for the year 2006 were performed using the GEOS-Chem global model with a horizontal resolution of 2° × 2.5°. The implementation of the LNOx parameterization implies an NOx and O3 decrease on a large scale over the region characterized by a strong lightning activity (up to 25 and 8 %, respectively, over central Africa in July and a relative increase downwind of LNOx emissions (up to 18 and 2 % for NOx and O3, respectively, in July. The calculated variability in NOx and O3 mixing ratios around the mean value according to the known uncertainties in the parameter estimates is at a maximum over continental tropical regions with ΔNOx [−33.1, +29.7] ppt and ΔO3 [−1.56, +2.16] ppb, in January, and ΔNOx [−14.3, +21] ppt and ΔO3 [−1.18, +1.93] ppb, in July, mainly depending on the determination of the diffusion properties of the atmosphere and the initial NO mixing ratio injected by lightning. This approach allows us (i to reproduce a more realistic lightning NOx chemistry leading to better NOx and O3 distributions on the large scale and (ii to focus on other improvements to reduce remaining uncertainties from processes

  2. Fifty Years of Lightning Observations from Space

    Christian, H. J., Jr.


    Some of the earliest satellites, starting with OSO (1965), ARIEL (1967), and RAE (1968), detected lightning using either optical and RF sensors, although that was not their intent. One of the earliest instruments designed to detect lightning was the PBE (1977). The use of space to study lightning activity has exploded since these early days. The advent of focal-plane imaging arrays made it possible to develop high performance optical lightning sensors. Prior to the use of charged-coupled devices (CCD), most space-based lightning sensors used only a few photo-diodes, which limited the location accuracy and detection efficiency (DE) of the instruments. With CCDs, one can limit the field of view of each detector (pixel), and thus improve the signal to noise ratio over single-detectors that summed the light reflected from many clouds with the lightning produced by a single cloud. This pixelization enabled daytime DE to increase from a few percent to close to 90%. The OTD (1995), and the LIS (1997), were the first lightning sensors to utilize focal-plane arrays. Together they detected global lightning activity for more than twenty years, providing the first detailed information on the distribution of global lightning and its variability. The FORTE satellite was launched shortly after LIS, and became the first dedicated satellite to simultaneously measure RF and optical lightning emissions. It too used a CCD focal plane to detect and locate lightning. In November 2016, the GLM became the first lightning instrument in geostationary orbit. Shortly thereafter, China placed its GLI in orbit. Lightning sensors in geostationary orbit significantly increase the value of space-based observations. For the first time, lightning activity can be monitored continuously, over large areas of the Earth with high, uniform DE and location accuracy. In addition to observing standard lightning, a number of sensors have been placed in orbit to detect transient luminous events and

  3. Search for possible relationship between volcanic ash particles and thunderstorm lightning activity

    Várai, A.; Vincze, M.; Lichtenberger, J.; Jánosi, I. M.


    Explosive volcanic eruptions that eject columns of ash from the crater often generate lightning discharges strong enough to be remotely located by very low frequency radio waves. A fraction of volcanic ash particles can stay and disperse long enough to have an effect on weather phenomena days later such as thunderstorms and lightnings. In this work we report on lightning activity analysis over Europe following two recent series of volcanic eruptions in order to identify possible correlations between ash release and subsequent thunderstorm flash frequency. Our attempts gave negative results which can be related to the fact that we have limited information on local atmospheric variables of high enough resolution, however lightning frequency is apparently determined by very local circumstances.

  4. Search for possible relationship between volcanic ash particles and thunderstorm lightning activity

    Várai, A; Vincze, M; Jánosi, I M; Lichtenberger, J


    Explosive volcanic eruptions that eject columns of ash from the crater often generate lightning discharges strong enough to be remotely located by very low frequency radio waves. A fraction of volcanic ash particles can stay and disperse long enough to have an effect on weather phenomena days later such as thunderstorms and lightnings. In this work we report on lightning activity analysis over Europe following two recent series of volcanic eruptions in order to identify possible correlations between ash release and subsequent thunderstorm flash frequency. Our attempts gave negative results which can be related to the fact that we have limited information on local atmospheric variables of high enough resolution, however lightning frequency is apparently determined by very local circumstances.

  5. The Impact of Active Conductors on Czech and Hungarian Lightning Protection Legislation

    Jan Mikeš


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the developmental conditions for the emergence of protection against lightning. It reviews the legislation especially in the Czech Republic over the last 15 years, and its application for active lightning conductors. The paper presents examples of the damage caused bylightning strikes on buildings protected by ESE lightning rods constructed using the French nationalstandard NFC 17-102 [1] and STN 34 1391 [2]. Installation of lightning conductors based on thesestandards is not, however, in accordance with the valid legislation in the Czech Republic and Hungary.In response to a growing number of ESE installations in the Czech Republic, it is vital to inform boththe broader professional publc and the lay public of cases involving failures of this type of lightningconductor.

  6. Packaging Waste and Hitting Home Runs: How Education and Lightning Strike Detection Technology Supports Company and Community Activities

    Deecke, T.A.; Hyde, J.V.; Hylko, J.M.


    The weather is the most significant and unmanageable variable when performing environmental remediation activities. This variable can contribute to the failure of a project in two ways: 1) severe injury to an employee or employees following a cloud-to-ground lightning strike without prior visual or audible warnings; and 2) excessive 'down time' associated with mobilization and demobilization activities after a false alarm (e.g., lightning was seen in the distance but was actually moving away from the site). Therefore, in order for a project to be successful from both safety and financial viewpoints, the uncertainties associated with inclement weather, specifically lightning, need to be understood to eliminate the element of surprise. This paper discusses educational information related to the history and research of lightning, how lightning storms develop, types of lightning, the mechanisms of lightning injuries and fatalities, and follow-up medical treatment. Fortunately, lightning storm monitoring does not have to be either costly or elaborate. WESKEM, LLC selected the Boltek StormTracker Lightning Detection System with the Aninoquisi Lightning 2000 TM software. This fixed system, used in combination with online weather web pages, monitors and alarms WESKEM, LLC field personnel in the event of an approaching lightning storm. This application was expanded to justify the purchase of the hand-held Sky Scan Lightning/Storm Detector Model P5 used by the Heath Youth Athletic Association (HYAA) which is a non-profit, charitable organization offering sports programs for the youth and young adults in the local community. Fortunately, a lightning injury or fatality has never occurred on a WESKEM Paducah project or an HYAA-sponsored event. Using these fixed and hand-held systems will continue to prevent such injuries from occurring in the foreseeable future. (authors)

  7. Comparison of lightning activity in the two most active areas of the Congo Basin

    Kigotsi, Jean K.; Soula, Serge; Georgis, Jean-François


    A comparison of the lightning activity in the two most active areas (Area_max for the main maximum and Area_sec for the secondary maximum) of the Congo Basin is made with data obtained by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) during 2012 and 2013. Both areas of same size (5° × 5°) exhibit flash counts in a ratio of about 1.32 for both years and very different distributions of the flash rate density (FRD) with maximums in a ratio of 1.94 and 2.59 for 2012 and 2013, respectively. The FRD is much more widely distributed in Area_sec, which means the whole area contributes more or less equal to the lightning activity. The diurnal cycle is much more pronounced in Area_max than in Area_sec with a ratio between the maximum and the minimum of 15.4 and 4.7, respectively. However, the minimum and maximum of the hourly flash rates are observed roughly at the same time in both areas, between 07:00 and 09:00 UTC and between 16:00 and 17:00 UTC, respectively. In Area_sec the proportion of days with low lightning rate (0-1000 flashes per day) is much larger (˜ 45 % in 2013) compared to Area_max (˜ 23 % in 2013). In Area_max the proportion of days with moderate lightning rate (1001-6000 flashes per day) is larger (˜ 68.5 % in 2013) compared to Area_sec (˜ 46 % in 2013). The very intense convective events are slightly more numerous in Area_sec. In summary, the thunderstorm activity in Area_sec is more variable at different scales of time (annually and daily), in intensity and in location. Area_max combines two favourable effects for thunderstorm development, the convergence associated with the African easterly jet of the Southern Hemisphere (AEJ-S) and a geographic effect due to the orography and the presence of a lake. The location of the strong convection in Area_sec is modulated by the distance of westward propagation/regeneration of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in relation to the phase of Kelvin waves.

  8. Terrestrial gamma ray flash production by active lightning leader channels

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Carlson, B. E.; Lehtinen, N. G.


    The production of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) requires a seed energetic electron source and a strong electric field. Lightning leaders naturally provide seed electrons by cold runaway and strong electric fields by charge accumulation on the channel. We model possible TGF production in such fields by simulating the charges and currents on the channel. The resulting electric fields then drive simulations of runaway relativistic electron avalanche and photon emission. Photon spectra and...

  9. Possible linkage between supernovae, increased terrestrial lightning, and wildfire activity in the Late Miocene and Early Pleistocene

    Thomas, B. C.; Feulner, G.; Melott, A. L.; Kirsten, T.; von Bloh, W.


    Radioisotopes from deep-sea deposits show that Earth was affected by nearby supernovae about 2.5 and 8 million years ago. Recent modelling work shows that high-energy particles from these events resulted in greatly enhanced ionization of the troposphere. This could have led to an increase in wildfires via more frequent lightning. Here we show that published data on global fire activity from charcoal records reveal a marked increase in wildfires around the times of the supernova explosions. We use a dynamic global vegetation model to assess the impact of increased lightning frequency on vegetation patterns, finding a patchy global decrease in tree cover. Regionally, vegetation changes are particularly pronounced in western North America, the Mediterranean, Central Asia, Northern Indochina, subtropical South America, Africa and Australia, and notably East Africa, in agreement with empirical evidence for a global shift towards savannas during the Pleistocene. Our results demonstrate that moderately nearby supernovae have the potential to affect life on Earth even if they are too distant to initiate a mass extinction. Finally, we note that the shift from forest to savannah biomes in the East African Rift Valley region has been tentatively linked to hominin evolution in this region.

  10. An uncertain future for lightning

    Murray, Lee T.


    The most commonly used method for representing lightning in global atmospheric models generally predicts lightning increases in a warmer world. A new scheme finds the opposite result, directly challenging the predictive skill of an old stalwart.

  11. Forest fires and lightning activity during the outstanding 2003 and 2005 fire seasons

    Russo, Ana; Ramos, Alexandre; Trigo, Ricardo


    Wildfires in southern Europe cause frequent extensive economical and ecological losses and, even human casualties. Comparatively to other Mediterranean countries, Portugal is the country with more burnt area and fires per unit area in the last decade, mainly during the summer season (Pereira et al., 2011). According to the fire records available, between 1980 and 2009, wildfires have affected over 3 million hectares in Portugal (JRC, 2011), which corresponds to approximately a third of the Portuguese Continental territory. The main factors that influence fire ignition and propagation are: (1) the presence of fuel (i.e. vegetation); (2) climate and weather; (3) socioeconomic conditions that affect land use/land cover patterns, fire-prevention and fire-fighting capacity and (4) topography. Specifically, weather (e.g. wind, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and lightning occurrence) plays an important role in fire behavior, affecting both ignition and spread of wildfires. Some countries have a relatively large fraction of fires caused by lightning, e.g. northwestern USA, Canada, Russia (). In contrast, Portugal has only a small percentage of fire records caused by lightning. Although significant doubts remain for the majority of fires in the catalog since they were cataloged without a likely cause. The recent years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly outstanding for fire activity in Portugal, registering, respectively, total burned areas of 425 726 ha and 338 262 ha. However, while the 2003 was triggered by an exceptional heatwave that struck the entire western Europe, the 2005 fire season registered was coincident with one of the most severe droughts of the 20th century. In this work we have used mainly two different databases: 1) the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) which is representative of rural fires that have occurred in Continental Portugal, 2001-2011, with the original data provided by the Autoridade Florestal Nacional (AFN, 2011); 2) lightning

  12. A study of lightning activity over land and oceanic regions of India

    important point and above results have strongly motivated us to take up the study of land–land and land–ocean contrast in lightning activity over. India. The geographic regions of India chosen for the present study include: • Eastern region (ER) and western region (WR) of India,. • East coast of India and a strip of six oceanic.

  13. Activity determination of the Am-241 sources from radioactive lightning rods

    Minematsu, Denise; Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Ferreira, Robson de Jesus


    The authorization for manufacture commerce and installation of radioactive lightning rods, in Brazil, was lifted in 1989 by the National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN (Resolution no 4/89). Since this date, these devices have been replaced and have been sent to the Institutes subordinated to the CNEN, amongst them the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN-CNEN/SP. Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory - RWML of the IPEN - CNEN/SP had received, approximately, 16,000 units up to the end of 2008. The radioactive lightning rod is constituted in its majority, for a central metallic rod, where two or three metallic plates are mounted. In these plates, on average, six Am-241 sources are fixed. The process used for the radioactive lightning rods treatment is the dismantling of the device and the withdrawal of the sources from the metallic plates. The activity values of the lightning rods sources, supplied by the manufacturers, vary from two to three orders of magnitude and therefore it is necessary to characterize these sources. This paper describes the methodology used to measure the actual activity of each Am-241 sources extracted from the radioactive lightning rods. The first step was to sample tens of Am-241 sources and carry out the activity measurements for further use in the system calibration. The equipment used in this first stage was a gamma spectrometer, previously calibrated with an Am-241 standard source, in agreement with the same arrangement and same geometry in the measures of the sources. Results show that there are sources with similar activity values of those supplied by the manufacturers, but there are also sources with no activity - or also activity very low compared with the expected value -, as well as sources contend other radionuclides. (author)

  14. Dancing red sprites and the lightning activity in their parent thunderstorm

    Bór, József; Zelkó, Zoltán; Hegedüs, Tibor; Jäger, Zoltán; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Popek, Martin; Betz, Hans-Dieter


    Red sprites are brief optical emissions initiated in the mesosphere by intense tropospheric lightning discharges. A group of red sprites, in which the elements appear in rapid succession with some lateral offset from one another is referred to as a dancing sprite event. The occurrence of such events implies that significant and sequential charge removal extending to large regions of the thunderstorm can take place in the underlying cloud system. In this work, we examine the relation of the locations and observation times of appearing sprite elements to the temporal and spatial distribution of the lightning activity in a specific sprite-active thunderstorm. The selected mesoscale convective system (MCS) composed of several extremely active thundercloud cells crossed Central Europe from South-West to North-East through Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Poland on the night of 6 August, 2013. This MCS has triggered over one hundred sprites including several dancing sprite events. Video recordings of sprites captured from Sopron, Hungary (16.6°E, 47.7°N) and Nydek, Czech Republic (18.8°E, 49.7°N) were used to identify dancing sprite events and to determine the exact locations of the appearing sprite elements by a triangulation technique used originally to analyze meteor observations. Lightning activity in the MCS can be reviewed using the database of LINET lightning detection network which fully covers the region of interest (ROI). The poster demonstrates how cases of sequential charge removal in the thunderstorm can be followed by combining the available information on the occurrence time, location, polarity, and type (CG/IC) of detected lightning strokes in the ROI on one hand and the occurrence time and location of elements in dancing sprite events on the other hand.

  15. Solar rotational cycle in lightning activity in Japan during the 18-19th centuries

    Miyahara, Hiroko; Kataoka, Ryuho; Mikami, Takehiko; Zaiki, Masumi; Hirano, Junpei; Yoshimura, Minoru; Aono, Yasuyuki; Iwahashi, Kiyomi


    Thunderstorm and cloud activities sometimes show a 27-day period, and this has long been studied to uncover a possible important link to solar rotation. Because the 27-day variations in the solar forcing parameters such as solar ultraviolet and galactic cosmic rays become more prominent when the solar activity is high, it is expected that the signal of the 27-day period in meteorological phenomena may wax and wane according to the changes in the solar activity level. In this study, we examine in detail the intensity variations in the signal of the 27-day solar rotational period in thunder and lightning activity from the 18th to the 19th centuries based on 150-year-long records found in old diaries kept in Japan and discuss their relation with the solar activity levels. Such long records enable us to examine the signals of solar rotation at both high and low solar activity levels. We found that the signal of the solar rotational period in the thunder and lightning activity increases as the solar activity increases. In this study, we also discuss the possibility of the impact of the long-term climatological conditions on the signals of the 27-day period in thunder/lightning activities.

  16. The relationship of lightning activity and short-duation rainfall events during warm seasons over the Beijing metropolitan region

    Wu, F.; Cui, X.; Zhang, D. L.; Lin, Q.


    The relationship between lightning activity and rainfall associated with 2925 short-duration rainfall (SDR) events over the Beijing metropolitan region (BMR) is examined during the warm seasons of 2006-2007, using the cloud-to-ground (CG) and intracloud (IC) lightning data from Surveillance et Alerte Foudre par Interférometrie Radioélectrique (SAFIR)-3000 and 5-min rainfall data from automatic weather stations (AWSs). To facilitate the analysis of the rainfall-lightning correlations, the SDR events are categorized into six different intensity grades according to their hourly rainfall rates (HRRs), and an optimal radius of 10 km from individual AWSs for counting their associated lightning flashes is used. Results show that the lightning-rainfall correlations vary significantly with different intensity grades. Weak correlations (R 0.4) are found in the weak SDR events, and 40-50% of the events are no-flash ones. And moderate correlation (R 0.6) are found in the moderate SDR events, and > 10-20% of the events are no-flash ones. In contrast, high correlations (R 0.7) are obtained in the SDHR events, and < 10% of the events are no-flash ones. The results indicate that lightning activity is observed more frequently and correlated more robust with the rainfall in the SDHR events. Significant time lagged correlations between lightning and rainfall are also found. About 80% of the SDR events could reach their highest correlation coefficients when the associated lightning flashes shift at time lags of < 25 min before and after rainfall begins. The percentages of SDR events with CG or total lightning activity preceding, lagging or coinciding with rainfall shows that (i) in about 55% of the SDR events lightning flashes preceded rainfall; (ii) the SDR events with lightning flashes lagging behind rainfall accounted for about 30%; and (iii) the SDR events without any time shifts accounted for the remaining 15%. Better lightning-rainfall correlations can be attained when time

  17. Evidence for the influence of land uses and soil types on cloud-to-ground lightning activity in Asturias (Spain)

    Sisniega, David Prieto; García, Manuel Mora; Menéndez, Susana Fernández; Soriano, Luís Rivas; de Pablo Dávila, Fernando


    The present study analyses the impact of the different categories of land use and types of soils on cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning activity in the region of Asturias (Spain). Thirteen (fifteen) land uses (types of soils) and a range of fourteen years (2000 to 2013) of CG-lightning flash data were considered to complete the study. Some areas that have suffered the strong impact of human activity (urban, mining, and industrial) were associated with the increase of CG-lightning activity. When considering vegetated areas, areas with non-agricultural vegetation, arable land and permanent crops, it was showed a greater CG activity. With reference to the types of soils, Fluvisols, Regosols/Cambic-Arenosols, and Luvisols, these seemed to be associated to the increase of CG-lightning activity. The results found for the region of Asturias are different from those reported by Mora et al. (2015) for the region of Castilla y Leon (Spain).

  18. A global lightning parameterization based on statistical relationships among environmental factors, aerosols, and convective clouds in the TRMM climatology

    Stolz, Douglas C.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; van den Heever, Susan C.


    The objective of this study is to determine the relative contributions of normalized convective available potential energy (NCAPE), cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, warm cloud depth (WCD), vertical wind shear (SHEAR), and environmental relative humidity (RH) to the variability of lightning and radar reflectivity within convective features (CFs) observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Our approach incorporates multidimensional binned representations of observations of CFs and modeled thermodynamics, kinematics, and CCN as inputs to develop approximations for total lightning density (TLD) and the average height of 30 dBZ radar reflectivity (AVGHT30). The results suggest that TLD and AVGHT30 increase with increasing NCAPE, increasing CCN, decreasing WCD, increasing SHEAR, and decreasing RH. Multiple-linear approximations for lightning and radar quantities using the aforementioned predictors account for significant portions of the variance in the binned data set (R2 ≈ 0.69-0.81). The standardized weights attributed to CCN, NCAPE, and WCD are largest, the standardized weight of RH varies relative to other predictors, while the standardized weight for SHEAR is comparatively small. We investigate these statistical relationships for collections of CFs within various geographic areas and compare the aerosol (CCN) and thermodynamic (NCAPE and WCD) contributions to variations in the CF population in a partial sensitivity analysis based on multiple-linear regression approximations computed herein. A global lightning parameterization is developed; the average difference between predicted and observed TLD decreases from +21.6 to +11.6% when using a hybrid approach to combine separate approximations over continents and oceans, thus highlighting the need for regionally targeted investigations in the future.

  19. Infrasound from lightning measured in Ivory Coast

    Farges, T.; Millet, C.; Matoza, R. S.


    It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms occur continuously around the world and that about 45 lightning flashes are produced per second over the globe. More than two thirds (42) of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) are now certified and routinely measure signals due to natural activity (e.g., airflow over mountains, aurora, microbaroms, surf, volcanoes, severe weather including lightning flashes, …). Some of the IMS stations are located where worldwide lightning detection networks (e.g. WWLLN) have a weak detection capability but lightning activity is high (e.g. Africa, South America). These infrasound stations are well localised to study lightning flash activity and its disparity, which is a good proxy for global warming. Progress in infrasound array data processing over the past ten years makes such lightning studies possible. For example, Farges and Blanc (2010) show clearly that it is possible to measure lightning infrasound from thunderstorms within a range of distances from the infrasound station. Infrasound from lightning can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. The motion of the squall zone is very well measured inside this zone. Up to 25% of lightning flashes can be detected with this technique, giving better results locally than worldwide lightning detection networks. An IMS infrasound station has been installed in Ivory Coast for 9 years. The lightning rate of this region is 10-20 flashes/km2/year from space-based instrument OTD (Christian et al., 2003). Ivory Coast is therefore a good place to study infrasound data associated with lightning activity and its temporal variation. First statistical results will be presented in this paper based on 4 years of data (2005-2009). For short lightning distances (less than 20 km), up to 60 % of lightning detected by WWLLN has been one-to-one correlated

  20. Relationship between median intensities of electromagnetic emissions in the VLF range and lightning activity

    Němec, František; Santolík, Ondřej; Parrot, M.; Rodger, C. J.


    Roč. 115, - (2010), A08315/1-A08315/10 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1253; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk ME09107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : lightning activity * VLF electromagnetic waves * DEMETER satellite Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.303, year: 2010

  1. The relationship of lightning activity and short-duration rainfall events during warm seasons over the Beijing metropolitan region

    Wu, Fan; Cui, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Da-Lin; Qiao, Lin


    The relationship between lightning activity and rainfall associated with 2925 short-duration rainfall (SDR) events over the Beijing metropolitan region (BMR) is examined during the warm seasons of 2006-2007, using the cloud-to-ground (CG) and intracloud (IC) lightning data from Surveillance et Alerte Foudre par Interférometrie Radioélectrique (SAFIR)-3000 and 5-min rainfall data from automatic weather stations (AWSs). An optimal radius of 10 km around selected AWSs is used to determine the lightning-rainfall relationship. The lightning-rainfall correlations vary significantly, depending upon the intensity of SDR events. That is, correlation coefficient (R 0.7) for the short-duration heavy rainfall (SDHR, i.e., ≥ 20 mm h- 1) events is found higher than that (R 0.4) for the weak SDR (i.e., 5-10 mm h- 1) events, and lower percentage of the SDHR events (< 10%) than the weak SDR events (40-50%) are observed with few flashes. Significant time-lagged correlations between lightning and rainfall are also found. About 80% of the SDR events could reach their highest correlation coefficients when the associated lightning flashes shift at time lags of < 25 min before and after rainfall begins. Those events with lightning preceding rainfall account for 50-60% of the total SDR events. Better lightning-rainfall correlations can be attained when time lags are incorporated, with the use of total (CG and IC) lightning data. These results appear to have important implications for improving the nowcast of SDHR events.

  2. SAETTA: high resolution 3D mapping of the lightning activity around Corsica Island

    Coquillat, Sylvain; Defer, Eric; Lambert, Dominique; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Pont, Véronique; Prieur, Serge


    In the frame of the French atmospheric observatory CORSiCA (, a total lightning activity detection system called SAETTA (Suivi de l'Activité Electrique Tridimensionnelle Totale de l'Atmosphère) has been deployed in Corsica Island in order to strengthen the potential of observation of convective events causing heavy rainfall and flash floods in the West Mediterranean basin. SAETTA is a network of 12 LMA stations (Lightning Mapping Array) developed by New Mexico Tech (USA). The instrument allows observing lightning flashes in 3D and real time, at high temporal (80 µs) and spatial resolutions. It detects the radiations emitted by cloud discharges in the 60-66 MHz band, in a radius of about 350 km from the centre of the network, in passive mode and standalone (solar panel and batteries). Initially deployed in May 2014, SAETTA operated from July 13 to October 20 in 2014 and from April 19 to December 1st in 2015. It is now in permanent operation since 16 April 2016. Many high quality observations have been performed so far that provide an accurate location in space and time of the convective events. They also bring interesting dynamical and microphysical features of those events. For example the intensity of the convective surges, the transport of charged ice particles in the stratiform area of the thunderclouds can be deduced from SAETTA observations. Specific events have also been detected as well: bolts-from-the-blue, inter cloud discharges, high level discharges in convective but also in stratiform areas, inverted dipoles. The specific lightning patterns of 2015 illustrate the complex influence of the relief, probably via slope and valley winds over Corsica and via induced lee-side convergences over the sea. SAETTA is expected to operate for at least a decade over Corsica so it will participate to the calibration/validation of upcoming lightning detectors from space such as MTG-LI. It will also be a key instrument during the field

  3. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Combined Aircraft Storm Electric Current Measurements and Satellite-Based Diurnal Lightning Statistics

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.


    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds (ESCs) spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean thunderstorms is 1.7 A while the mean current for land thunderstorms is 1.0 A. The mean current for ocean ESCs 0.41 A and the mean current for land ESCs is 0.13 A. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal flash rate statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie curve) to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Given our data and assumptions, mean contributions to the global electric circuit are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean) from thunderstorms, and 0.22 kA (ocean) and 0.04 (land) from ESCs, resulting in a mean total conduction current estimate for the global electric circuit of 2.0 kA. Mean storm counts are 1100 for land

  4. Investigation of Global Lightning using Schumann Resonances measured by High Frequency Induction Coil Magnetometers in the UK

    Beggan, C.; Gabillard, T.; Swan, A.; Flower, S. M.; Thomson, A. W.


    In June 2012, the British Geological Survey Geomagnetism team installed two high frequency (100 Hz) induction coil magnetometers at the Eskdalemuir Observatory, in the Scottish Borders of the United Kingdom. The induction coils permit us to measure the very rapid changes of the magnetic field. The Eskdalemuir Observatory is one of the longest running geophysical sites in the UK (beginning operation in 1904) and is located in a rural valley with a quiet magnetic environment. The data output from the induction coils are digitized and logged onsite before being collected once per hour and sent to the Edinburgh office via the Internet. We intend to run the coils as a long term experiment. We present initial results from first five months of data. Analysis of spectrograms and power spectral density plots in the frequency band of 3-40 Hz from the coils show diffuse bands of peak power around 7.8 Hz, 14.3 Hz, 20.8 Hz, 27 Hz, 34 Hz and 39Hz related to the global Schumann resonances. We also detect a strong narrow peak at 25 Hz, which is a harmonic of the UK electrical power system. There are a number of features in the data that we wish to investigate, including the diurnal and seasonal variation of the Schumann resonances. For example, it has been suggested that lightning activity is related to climate variability in the tropics and that perhaps Madden-Julian Oscillations (MJO) or El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like correlations are detectable within the data. On longer timescales, we will look for solar cycle and climate variations. We also wish to note that the data is freely available on request to the community.

  5. Scientific Lightning Detection Network for Kazakhstan

    Streltsov, A. V.; Lozbin, A.; Inchin, A.; Shpadi, Y.; Inchin, P.; Shpadi, M.; Ayazbayev, G.; Bykayev, R.; Mailibayeva, L.


    In the frame of grant financing of the scientific research in 2015-2017 the project "To Develop Electromagnetic System for lightning location and atmosphere-lithosphere coupling research" was found. The project was start in January, 2015 and should be done during 3 years. The purpose is to create a system of electromagnetic measurements for lightning location and atmosphere-lithosphere coupling research consisting of a network of electric and magnetic sensors and the dedicated complex for data processing and transfer to the end user. The main tasks are to set several points for electromagnetic measurements with 100-200 km distance between them, to develop equipment for these points, to develop the techniques and software for lightning location (Time-of-arrival and Direction Finding (TOA+DF)) and provide a lightning activity research in North Tien-Shan region with respect to seismicity and other natural and manmade activities. Also, it is planned to use lightning data for Global Electric Circuit (GEC) investigation. Currently, there are lightning detection networks in many countries. In Kazakhstan we have only separate units in airports. So, we don't have full lightning information for our region. It is planned, to setup 8-10 measurement points with magnetic and electric filed antennas for VLF range. The final data set should be including each stroke location, time, type (CG+, CG-, CC+ or CC-) and waveform from each station. As the magnetic field lightning antenna the ferrite rod VLF antenna will be used. As the electric field antenna the wide range antenna with specific frequencies filters will be used. For true event detection TOA and DF methods needs detected stroke from minimum 4 stations. In this case we can get location accuracy about 2-3 km and better.

  6. Lightning Sensors for Observing, Tracking and Nowcasting Severe Weather

    Colin Price


    Full Text Available Severe and extreme weather is a major natural hazard all over the world, oftenresulting in major natural disasters such as hail storms, tornados, wind storms, flash floods,forest fires and lightning damages. While precipitation, wind, hail, tornados, turbulence,etc. can only be observed at close distances, lightning activity in these damaging stormscan be monitored at all spatial scales, from local (using very high frequency [VHF]sensors, to regional (using very low frequency [VLF] sensors, and even global scales(using extremely low frequency [ELF] sensors. Using sensors that detect the radio wavesemitted by each lightning discharge, it is now possible to observe and track continuouslydistant thunderstorms using ground networks of sensors. In addition to the number oflightning discharges, these sensors can also provide information on lightningcharacteristics such as the ratio between intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning, thepolarity of the lightning discharge, peak currents, charge removal, etc. It has been shownthat changes in some of these lightning characteristics during thunderstorms are oftenrelated to changes in the severity of the storms. In this paper different lightning observingsystems are described, and a few examples are provided showing how lightning may beused to monitor storm hazards around the globe, while also providing the possibility ofsupplying short term forecasts, called nowcasting.

  7. Using Volcanic Lightning Measurements to Discern Variations in Explosive Volcanic Activity

    Behnke, S. A.; Thomas, R. J.; McNutt, S. R.; Edens, H. E.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.


    VHF observations of volcanic lightning have been made during the recent eruptions of Augustine Volcano (2006, Alaska, USA), Redoubt Volcano (2009, Alaska, USA), and Eyjafjallajökull (2010, Iceland). These show that electrical activity occurs both on small scales at the vent of the volcano, concurrent with an eruptive event and on large scales throughout the eruption column during and subsequent to an eruptive event. The small-scale discharges at the vent of the volcano are often referred to as 'vent discharges' and are on the order of 10-100 meters in length and occur at rates on the order of 1000 per second. The high rate of vent discharges produces a distinct VHF signature that is sometimes referred to as 'continuous RF' radiation. VHF radiation from vent discharges has been observed at sensors placed as far as 100 km from the volcano. VHF and infrasound measurements have shown that vent discharges occur simultaneously with the onset of eruption, making their detection an unambiguous indicator of explosive volcanic activity. The fact that vent discharges are observed concurrent with explosive volcanic activity indicates that volcanic ejecta are charged upon eruption. VHF observations have shown that the intensity of vent discharges varies between eruptive events, suggesting that fluctuations in eruptive processes affect the electrification processes giving rise to vent discharges. These fluctuations may be variations in eruptive vigor or variations in the type of eruption; however, the data obtained so far do not show a clear relationship between eruption parameters and the intensity or occurrence of vent discharges. Further study is needed to clarify the link between vent discharges and eruptive behavior, such as more detailed lightning observations concurrent with tephra measurements and other measures of eruptive strength. Observations of vent discharges, and volcanic lightning observations in general, are a valuable tool for volcano monitoring, providing a

  8. Characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Seoul, South Korea in relation to an urban effect

    S. K. Kar


    Full Text Available Cloud-to-ground (CG lightning flash data collected by the lightning detection network installed at the Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA have been used to study the urban effect on lightning activity over and around Seoul, the largest metropolitan city of South Korea, for the period of 1989–1999. Negative and positive flash density and the percentage of positive flashes have been calculated. Calculation reveals that an enhancement of approximately 60% and 42% are observed, respectively, for negative and positive flash density over and downwind of the city. The percentage decrease of positive flashes occurs over and downwind of Seoul and the amount of decrease is nearly 20% compared to upwind values. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by Steiger et al. (2002 and Westcott (1995. CG lightning activities have also been considered in relation to annual averages of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm and sulphur dioxide (SO2 concentrations. Interesting results are found, indicating that the higher concentration of SO2 contributes to the enhancement of CG lightning flashes. On the other hand, the contribution from PM10 concentration has not appeared in this study to be as significant as SO2 in the enhancement of CG lightning flashes. Correlation coefficients of 0.33 and 0.64 are found between the change in CG lightning flashes and the PM10 and SO2, respectively, for upwind to downwind areas, suggesting a significant influence of the increased concentration of SO2 on the enhancement of CG flashes.

  9. Measurement of electromagnetic waves in ELF and VLF bands to monitor lightning activity in the Maritime Continent

    Yamashita, Kozo; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Ohya, Hiroyo; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Sato, Mitsuteru; Matsumoto, Jun


    Data of lightning discharge has been focused on as an effective way for monitoring and nowcasting of thunderstorm activity which causes extreme weather. Spatial distribution of lightning discharge has been used as a proxy of the presence or absence of deep convection. Latest observation shows that there is extremely huge lightning whose scale is more than hundreds times bigger than that of averaged event. This result indicates that lightning observation should be carried out to estimate not only existence but also scale for quantitative evaluation of atmospheric convection. In this study, lightning observation network in the Maritime Continent is introduced. This network is consisted of the sensors which make possible to measure electromagnetic wave radiated from lightning discharges. Observation frequency is 0.1 - 40 kHz for the measurement of magnetic field and 1 - 40 kHz for that of electric field. Sampling frequency is 100 kHz. Waveform of electromagnetic wave is recorded by personal computer. We have already constructed observation stations at Tainan in Taiwan (23.1N, 121.1E), Saraburi in Thailand (14.5N, 101.0E), and Pontianak in Indonesia (0.0N, 109.4E). Furthermore, we plan to install the monitoring system at Los Banos in Philippines (14.18, 121.25E) and Hanoi in Viet Nam. Data obtained by multipoint observation is synchronized by GPS receiver installed at each station. By using data obtained by this network, location and scale of lightning discharge can be estimated. Location of lightning is determined based on time of arrival method. Accuracy of geolocation could be less than 10km. Furthermore, charge moment is evaluated as a scale of each lightning discharge. It is calculated from electromagnetic waveform in ELF range (3-30 kHz). At the presentation, we will show the initial result about geolocation for source of electromagnetic wave and derivation of charge moment value based on the measurement of ELF and VLF sferics.

  10. Lightning activity, rainfall and flash flooding – occasional or interrelated events? A case study in the island of Crete

    A. G. Koutroulis


    Full Text Available The majority of cyclones passing over Crete in late autumn to early winter originate from southwest, west and northwest and are of varying size and intensity. A number of these cyclones cause flash floods. The present study reports the possible relationships between lighting activity and high precipitation related to flash flood events. In this study an attempt was made to correlate the lightning number and location, recorded by the ZEUS lightning detection system, with the rainfall characteristics for sixteen rain events (4 flood and 12 non-flood events on the island of Crete, during the period 2008–2009. Spatiotemporal analysis of rain and rain rate with flash count was performed with respect to distance (radius of flashes from raingauge location at various temporal scales, in order to examine the correlation of accumulated rainfall and lightning activity. The maximum attained statistical significant correlation was obtained within a circular area of an average radius of 15 km around the raingauge, and an average time lag of flash count prior precipitation accumulation of 15 min. The maximum correlation between the lightning and rainfall data is obtained for shorter time lags for the flood events (15 min than the non-flood events (25 min, that could reflect the faster propagation of flood triggering storms due to high convective activity. Results show increased lightning activity occurring during flood triggering storms, by an average of four times higher. Furthermore, there is evidence that the number of flashes that occur during a precipitation event is related to precipitation depth when the latter is adequate to produce a flood event. Differences between flood and non-flood producing storms need to be further assessed by analyzing more independent parameters, including the synoptic conditions and dominant flash flood hydrological generating processes.

  11. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Sefidvash, Farhang


    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  12. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Sefidvash, Farhang [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear


    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  13. Lightning NOx and Impacts on Air Quality

    Murray, Lee T.


    Lightning generates relatively large but uncertain quantities of nitrogen oxides, critical precursors for ozone and hydroxyl radical (OH), the primary tropospheric oxidants. Lightning nitrogen oxide strongly influences background ozone and OH due to high ozone production efficiencies in the free troposphere, effecting small but non-negligible contributions to surface pollutant concentrations. Lightning globally contributes 3-4 ppbv of simulated annual-mean policy-relevant background (PRB) surface ozone, comprised of local, regional, and hemispheric components, and up to 18 ppbv during individual events. Feedbacks via methane may counter some of these effects on decadal time scales. Lightning contributes approximately 1 percent to annual-mean surface particulate matter, as a direct precursor and by promoting faster oxidation of other precursors. Lightning also ignites wildfires and contributes to nitrogen deposition. Urban pollution influences lightning itself, with implications for regional lightning-nitrogen oxide production and feedbacks on downwind surface pollution. How lightning emissions will change in a warming world remains uncertain.

  14. Lightning rod ionizing natural ionca - Ionic electrode active trimetallictriac of grounding - Definitive and total solution against 'blackouts' and electrical faults generated by atmospheric charges (lightning)

    Cabareda, Luis


    The Natural Ionizing System of Electrical Protection conformed by: Lightning Rod Ionizing Natural Ionca and Ionic Electrode Active Trimetallic Triac of Grounding offers Total Protection, Maximum Security and Zero Risk to Clinics, Hospitals, Integral Diagnostic Center, avoiding ''the burning'' of Electronics Cards; Refineries, Tanks and Stations of Fuel Provision; Electrical Substations, Towers and Transmission Lines with transformer protection, motors, elevators, A/C, mechanicals stairs, portable and cooling equipment, electrical plants, others. This New High Technology is the solution to the paradigm of Benjamin Franklin and it's the mechanism to end the 'Blackouts' that produces so many damages and losses throughout the world.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Transient Detector (OTD) records optical measurements of global lightning events in the daytime and nighttime. The data includes individual point...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global lightning signatures from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) have been analyzed from the filmstrip imagery....

  17. Doppler radar observation, CG lightning activity and aerial survey of a multiple downburst in southern Germany on 23 March 2001

    Dotzek, Nikolai; Lang, Peter; Hagen, Martin; Fehr, Thorsten; Hellmiss, Werner


    Two downburst events from one thunderstorm are investigated, which occurred on 23 March 2001, in Germany's climatologic annual minimum of downburst activity. Observations by two Doppler radars are combined with hail reports, ground lightning detection and an aerial survey conducted after the event. The downburst-producing storm had formed at a synoptic convergence line within the warm sector of a cyclone. It had a remarkably high propagation speed of up to 31 m s−1 corresponding to the mid...

  18. Nowcast of thunderstorm and typhoon activity based on lightning detection and flexible operation of micro-satellites

    Takahashi, Y.


    It has become known that lightning activity represents the thunderstorm activity, namely, the intensity and area of precipitation and/or updraft. Thunderstorm is also important as a proxy of the energy input from ocean to atmosphere in typhoon, meaning that if we could monitor the thunderstorm with lightning we could predict the maximum wind velocity near the typhoon center by one or two days before. Constructing ELF and VLF radio wave observation network in Southeast Asia (AVON) and a regional dense network of automated weather station in a big city, we plan to establish the monitoring system for thunderstorm development in western pacific warm pool (WPWP) where typhoon is formed and in detail in big city area. On the other hand, some developing countries in SE-Asia are going to own micro-satellites dedicated to meteorological remote sensing. Making use of the lightning activity data measured by the ground-based networks, and information on 3-D structures of thunderclouds observed by the flexible on-demand operation of the remote-sensing micro-satellites, we would establish a new methodology to obtain very detail semi-real time information that cannot be achieved only with existing observation facilities, such as meteorological radar or large meteorological satellite. Using this new system we try to issue nowcast for the local thunderstorm and for typhoons. The first attempt will be carried out in Metro Manila in Philippines and WPWP as one of the SATREPS projects.

  19. Lightning Injuries

    ... metal vehicle (for example, a car, van, or truck) with the windows closed. Sheltering in a small ... A person struck by lightning does not retain electricity, so there is no danger in providing first ...

  20. Lightning strikes

    Dance, B.


    If a nuclear weapon were struck by a powerful lightning flash, what would happen Scientists have assembled a simulator to produce exceptionally powerful discharges to try to find the answer to this question by practical test. The Sandia facility enables the extremely powerful lightning discharges which occur only once in every hundred lightning strokes to be duplicated. A bolt is composed of a series of strokes between two clouds or between one cloud and the earth. The simulator consists of four circuits, an inductor, a resistor and a special crowbar-switch developed at Sandia. The crowbar is for accuracy in the simulation of a lightning stroke. The test data is conveyed to computers for analysis by means of fibre-optic links. The first series of tests involve the warhead for the Air-Launched Cruise Missile


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OLS Digital Derived Lightning from DMSP F10 dataset consists of global lightning signatures from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational...

  2. Lightning Safety Tips and Resources

    ... Services Careers Contact Us Glossary Safety National Program Lightning Safety Tips and Resources > Safety > Lightning Safety Tips and Resources Lightning Resources Lightning strikes ...

  3. Exploring Lightning Jump Characteristics

    Chronis, Themis; Carey, Larry D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise; Calhoun, Kristin; Goodman, Steven J.


    This study is concerned with the characteristics of storms exhibiting an abrupt temporal increase in the total lightning flash rate (i.e., lightning jump, LJ). An automated storm tracking method is used to identify storm "clusters" and total lightning activity from three different lightning detection systems over Oklahoma, northern Alabama and Washington, D.C. On average and for different employed thresholds, the clusters that encompass at least one LJ (LJ1) last longer, relate to higher Maximum Expected Size of Hail, Vertical Integrated Liquid and lightning flash rates (area-normalized) than the clusters that did not exhibit any LJ (LJ0). The respective mean values for LJ1 (LJ0) clusters are 80 min (35 min), 14 mm (8 mm), 25 kg per square meter (18 kg per square meter) and 0.05 flash per min per square kilometer (0.01 flash per min per square kilometer). Furthermore, the LJ1 clusters are also characterized by slower decaying autocorrelation functions, a result that implies a less "random" behavior in the temporal flash rate evolution. In addition, the temporal occurrence of the last LJ provides an estimate of the time remaining to the storm's dissipation. Depending of the LJ strength (i.e., varying thresholds), these values typically range between 20-60 min, with stronger jumps indicating more time until storm decay. This study's results support the hypothesis that the LJ is a proxy for the storm's kinematic and microphysical state rather than a coincidental value.

  4. The atmospheric electric global circuit. [thunderstorm activity

    Kasemir, H. W.


    The hypothesis that world thunderstorm activity represents the generator for the atmospheric electric current flow in the earth atmosphere between ground and the ionosphere is based on a close correlation between the magnitude and the diurnal variation of the supply current (thunderstorm generator current) and the load current (fair weather air-earth current density integrated over the earth surface). The advantages of using lightning survey satellites to furnish a base for accepting or rejecting the thunderstorm generator hypothesis are discussed.

  5. Aerosol indirect effect on tropospheric ozone via lightning

    Yuan, T.; Remer, L. A.; Bian, H.; Ziemke, J. R.; Albrecht, R. I.; Pickering, K. E.; Oreopoulos, L.; Goodman, S. J.; Yu, H.; Allen, D. J.


    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a pollutant and major greenhouse gas and its radiative forcing is still uncertain. The unresolved difference between modeled and observed natural background O3 concentrations is a key source of the uncertainty. Here we demonstrate remarkable sensitivity of lightning activity to aerosol loading with lightning activity increasing more than 30 times per unit of aerosol optical depth over our study area. We provide observational evidence that indicates the observed increase in lightning activity is caused by the influx of aerosols from a volcano. Satellite data analyses suggest O3 is increased as a result of aerosol-induced increase in lightning and lightning produced NOx. Model simulations with prescribed lightning change corroborate the satellite data analysis. This aerosol-O3 connection is achieved via aerosol increasing lightning and thus lightning produced nitrogen oxides. This aerosol-lightning-ozone link provides a potential physical mechanism that may account for a part of the model-observation difference in background O3 concentration. More importantly, O3 production increase from this link is concentrated in the upper troposphere, where O3 is most efficient as a greenhouse gas. Both of these implications suggest a stronger O3 historical radiative forcing. This introduces a new pathway, through which increasing in aerosols from pre-industrial time to present day enhances tropospheric O3 production. Aerosol forcing thus has a warming component via its effect on O3 production. Sensitivity simulations suggest that 4-8% increase of tropospheric ozone, mainly in the tropics, is expected if aerosol-lighting-ozone link is parameterized, depending on the background emission scenario. We note, however, substantial uncertainties remain on the exact magnitude of aerosol effect on tropospheric O3 via lightning. The challenges for obtaining a quantitative global estimate of this effect are also discussed. Our results have significant implications

  6. Lightning hazard reduction at wind farms

    Kithil, R. [National Lightning Safety Institute, Louisville, CO (United States)


    The USA wind farm industry (WFI) largely is centered in low-lightning areas of the State of California. While some evidence of lightning incidents is reported here, the problem is not regarded as serious by most participants. The USA WFI now is moving eastward, into higher areas of lightning activity. The European WFI has had many years experience with lightning problems. One 1995 German study estimated that 80% of wind turbine insurance claims paid for damage compensation were caused by lightning strikes. The European and USA WFI have not adopted site criteria, design fundamentals, or certification techniques aimed at lightning safety. Sufficient evidence about lightning at wind farms is available to confirm that serious potential problems exist.

  7. Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Estimates Derived from SSMI Microwave Remote Sensing and NLDN

    Winesett, Thomas; Magi, Brian; Cecil, Daniel


    Lightning observations are collected using ground-based and satellite-based sensors. The National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) in the United States uses multiple ground sensors to triangulate the electromagnetic signals created when lightning strikes the Earth's surface. Satellite-based lightning observations have been made from 1998 to present using the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, and from 1995 to 2000 using the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) on the Microlab-1 satellite. Both LIS and OTD are staring imagers that detect lightning as momentary changes in an optical scene. Passive microwave remote sensing (85 and 37 GHz brightness temperatures) from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) has also been used to quantify characteristics of thunderstorms related to lightning. Each lightning detection system has fundamental limitations. TRMM satellite coverage is limited to the tropics and subtropics between 38 deg N and 38 deg S, so lightning at the higher latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres is not observed. The detection efficiency of NLDN sensors exceeds 95%, but the sensors are only located in the USA. Even if data from other ground-based lightning sensors (World Wide Lightning Location Network, the European Cooperation for Lightning Detection, and Canadian Lightning Detection Network) were combined with TRMM and NLDN, there would be enormous spatial gaps in present-day coverage of lightning. In addition, a globally-complete time history of observed lightning activity is currently not available either, with network coverage and detection efficiencies varying through the years. Previous research using the TRMM LIS and Microwave Imager (TMI) showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between lightning flash rates and passive microwave brightness temperatures. The physical basis for this correlation emerges because lightning in a thunderstorm occurs where ice is first

  8. Effects of Lightning and Other Meteorological Factors on Fire Activity in the North American Boreal Forest: Implications for Fire Weather Forecasting

    Peterson, D.; Wang, J.; Ichoku, C.; Remer, L. A.


    The effects of lightning and other meteorological factors on wildfire activity in the North American boreal forest are statistically analyzed during the fire seasons of 2000-2006 through an integration of the following data sets: the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) level 2 fire products, the 3-hourly 32-kin gridded meteorological data from North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), and the lightning data collected by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) and the Alaska Lightning Detection Network (ALDN). Positive anomalies of the 500 hPa geopotential height field, convective available potential energy (CAPE), number of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes, and the number of consecutive dry days are found to be statistically important to the seasonal variation of MODIS fire counts in a large portion of Canada and the entirety of Alaska. Analysis of fire occurrence patterns in the eastern and western boreal forest regions shows that dry (in the absence of precipitation) lightning strikes account for only 20% of the total lightning strikes, but are associated with (and likely cause) 40% of the MODIS observed fire counts in these regions. The chance for ignition increases when a threshold of at least 10 dry strikes per NARR grid box and at least 10 consecutive dry days is reached. Due to the orientation of the large-scale pattern, complex differences in fire and lightning occurrence and variability were also found between the eastern and western sub-regions. Locations with a high percentage of dry strikes commonly experience an increased number of fire counts, but the mean number of fire counts per dry strike is more than 50% higher in western boreal forest sub-region, suggesting a geographic and possible topographic influence. While wet lightning events are found to occur with a large range of CAPE values, a high probability for dry lightning occurs only when 500 hPa geopotential heights are above 5700m and CAPE values are near the maximum

  9. Global physical activity levels

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C


    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  10. SAETTA: fine-scale observation of the total lightning activity in the framework of the CORSiCA atmospheric observatory

    Coquillat, Sylvain; Defer, Eric; Lambert, Dominique; Martin, Jean-Michel; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Pont, Véronique; Prieur, Serge


    Located in the West Mediterranean basin, Corsica is strategically positioned for atmospheric studies referred by MISTRALS/HyMeX and MISTRALS/CHARMEX programs. The implementation of the project of atmospheric observatory CORSiCA (supported by the Collectivité Territoriale de Corse via CPER/FEDER funds) was an opportunity to strengthen the potential observation of convective events causing heavy rainfall and flash floods, by acquiring a total lightning activity detection system adapted to storm tracking at a regional scale. This detection system called SAETTA (Suivi de l'Activité Electrique Tridimensionnelle Totale de l'Atmosphère) is a network of 12 LMA stations (Lightning Mapping Array). Developed by New Mexico Tech (USA), the instrument allows observing lightning flashes in 3D and real time, at high temporal and spatial resolutions. It detects the radiations emitted by cloud discharges in the 60-66 MHz band, in a radius of about 300 km from the centre of the network, in passive mode and standalone (solar panel and battery). Each LMA station samples the signal at high rate (80 microseconds), records data on internal hard disk, and transmits a decimated signal in real-time via the 3G phone network. The decimated data are received on a server that calculates the position of the detected sources by the time-of-arrival method and manages a quasi real-time display on a website. The non decimated data intended for research applications are recovered later on the field. Deployed in May and June 2014, SAETTA operated nominally from July 13 to October 20, 2014. It is to be definitively re-installed in spring 2015 after a hardware updating. The operation of SAETTA is contractually scheduled until the end of 2019, but it is planned to continue well beyond to obtain longer-term observations for addressing issues related to climatic trends. SAETTA has great scientific potential in a broad range of topics: physics of discharge; monitoring and simulation of storm systems

  11. Multivariate Statistical Inference of Lightning Occurrence, and Using Lightning Observations

    Boccippio, Dennis


    Two classes of multivariate statistical inference using TRMM Lightning Imaging Sensor, Precipitation Radar, and Microwave Imager observation are studied, using nonlinear classification neural networks as inferential tools. The very large and globally representative data sample provided by TRMM allows both training and validation (without overfitting) of neural networks with many degrees of freedom. In the first study, the flashing / or flashing condition of storm complexes is diagnosed using radar, passive microwave and/or environmental observations as neural network inputs. The diagnostic skill of these simple lightning/no-lightning classifiers can be quite high, over land (above 80% Probability of Detection; below 20% False Alarm Rate). In the second, passive microwave and lightning observations are used to diagnose radar reflectivity vertical structure. A priori diagnosis of hydrometeor vertical structure is highly important for improved rainfall retrieval from either orbital radars (e.g., the future Global Precipitation Mission "mothership") or radiometers (e.g., operational SSM/I and future Global Precipitation Mission passive microwave constellation platforms), we explore the incremental benefit to such diagnosis provided by lightning observations.

  12. Processes for the administration give the radio-active lightning rod in Brazil

    Torres de Miranda, L.E.; Vicente, R.


    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the national nuclear authority lifted the licenses to using radioactive sources in this consumer product. Since then, the installed devices are being replaced by Franklin type rods and being collected for treatment as radioactive waste. In this report we present options for the treatment of this radioactive waste. The conclusions may serve as input to the process of decision on the overall management strategic to be adopted by the authorities

  13. Analysis of thunderstorm and lightning activity associated with sprites observed during the EuroSprite campaigns

    Soula, S.; van der Velde, O.; Montanyà, J.


    During the summers of 2003 to 2006 sprites were observed over thunderstorms in France by cameras on mountain tops in Southern France. The observations were part of a larger coordinated effort, the EuroSprite campaigns, with data collected simultaneously from other sources including the French rad...... a subsequent CG flash (median value case of a lightning process associated with a sprite consisted of 7 CG flashes....

  14. Electromagnetic Methods of Lightning Detection

    Rakov, V. A.


    Both cloud-to-ground and cloud lightning discharges involve a number of processes that produce electromagnetic field signatures in different regions of the spectrum. Salient characteristics of measured wideband electric and magnetic fields generated by various lightning processes at distances ranging from tens to a few hundreds of kilometers (when at least the initial part of the signal is essentially radiation while being not influenced by ionospheric reflections) are reviewed. An overview of the various lightning locating techniques, including magnetic direction finding, time-of-arrival technique, and interferometry, is given. Lightning location on global scale, when radio-frequency electromagnetic signals are dominated by ionospheric reflections, is also considered. Lightning locating system performance characteristics, including flash and stroke detection efficiencies, percentage of misclassified events, location accuracy, and peak current estimation errors, are discussed. Both cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes are considered. Representative examples of modern lightning locating systems are reviewed. Besides general characterization of each system, the available information on its performance characteristics is given with emphasis on those based on formal ground-truth studies published in the peer-reviewed literature.

  15. Infrasound from lightning measured in Ivory Coast from 2004 to 2014

    Farges, Thomas; Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars; Diawara, Adama


    It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms occur continuously around the world and that about 45 lightning flashes are produced per second over the globe. 80 % of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) are now certified and routinely measure signals due to natural activity (e.g., airflow over mountains, aurora, microbaroms, surf, volcanoes, severe weather including lightning flashes …). Some of the IMS stations are located where lightning activity is high (e.g. Africa, South America). These infrasound stations are well localised to study lightning flash activity and its disparity, which is a good proxy for global warming. Progress in infrasound array data processing over the past ten years makes such lightning studies possible. Assink et al. (2008) and Farges and Blanc (2010) show clearly that it is possible to measure lightning infrasound from thunderstorms within 300 km. One-to-one correlation is possible when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. When the lightning flash occurs within 20 km, it is also possible to rebuild the 3D geometry of the discharges when the network size is less than 100 m (Arechiga et al., 2011; Gallin, 2014). An IMS infrasound station has been installed in Ivory Coast since 2002. The lightning rate of this region is 10-20 flashes/km²/year from space-based instrument OTD (Christian et al., 2003). Ivory Coast is therefore a good place to study infrasound data associated with lightning activity and its temporal variation. First statistical results will be presented in this paper based on 10 years of data (2005-2014). Correlation between infrasound having a mean frequency higher than 1 Hz and lightning flashes detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) is systematically looked for. One-to-one correlation is obtained for flashes occurring within about 100 km. An exponential decrease of the

  16. [Lightning strikes and lightning injuries in prehospital emergency medicine. Relevance, results, and practical implications].

    Hinkelbein, J; Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A


    Up to 32.2% of patients in a burn center suffer from electrical injuries. Of these patients, 2-4% present with lightning injuries. In Germany, approximately 50 people per year are injured by a lightning strike and 3-7 fatally. Typically, people involved in outdoor activities are endangered and affected. A lightning strike usually produces significantly higher energy doses as compared to those in common electrical injuries. Therefore, injury patterns vary significantly. Especially in high voltage injuries and lightning injuries, internal injuries are of special importance. Mortality ranges between 10 and 30% after a lightning strike. Emergency medical treatment is similar to common electrical injuries. Patients with lightning injuries should be transported to a regional or supraregional trauma center. In 15% of all cases multiple people may be injured. Therefore, it is of outstanding importance to create emergency plans and evacuation plans in good time for mass gatherings endangered by possible lightning.

  17. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    ... кий Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global strategy development ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on Physical Activity ...

  18. Effect of bacterial ice nuclei on the frequency and intensity of lightning activity inferred by the BRAMS model

    F. L. T. Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Many studies from the last decades have shown that airborne microorganisms can be intrinsically linked to atmospheric processes. Certain bacteria may constitute the most active ice nuclei found in the atmosphere and might have some influence on the formation of ice crystals in clouds. This study deals with the ice nucleation activity of Pseudomonas syringae inside of thunderstorms through numerical simulations using BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Model System. The numerical simulations were developed in order to investigate the effect on the total amount of rainwater as a function of ice nuclei (IN P. syringae concentrations with different scenarios (classified as S2 to S4 scenarios corresponding to a maximum of 102 to 104 IN bacteria per liter of cloud water plus the BRAMS default (classified as S5 scenario. Additionally, two other scenarios were included without any IN (S1 and the sum of RAMS default and S4 scenario (classified as S6. The chosen radiosonde data is for 3 March 2003, typical summertime in São Paulo City which presents a strong convective cell. The objective of the simulations was to analyze the effect of the IN concentrations on the BRAMS modeled cloud properties and precipitation. The simulated electrification of the cloud permitted analysis of the total flashes estimated from precipitable and non-precipitable ice mass fluxes in two different lightning frequencies. Among all scenarios, only S4 and S6 presented a tendency to decrease the total cloud water, and all bacteria scenarios presented a tendency to decrease the total amount of rain (−8%, corroborating other reports in the literature. All bacteria scenarios also present higher precipitable ice concentrations compared to S5 scenario, the RAMS default. The main results present the total flash number per simulation as well. From the results, the total flash numbers, from both lightning frequencies, in S4 and S6 scenarios

  19. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: detailed analysis

    Soula, Serge; Kigotsi, Jean; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle


    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analyzed in detail for the first time. It is based on World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the WWLLN detection efficiency (DE) in the region increases from about 1.70 % in the beginning of the period to 5.90 % in 2013, relative to LIS data, but not uniformly over the whole 2750 km × 2750 km area. Both the annual flash density and the number of stormy days show sharp maximum values localized in eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and west of Kivu Lake, regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km-2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond with a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range characterised with summits that can reach 3000 m. The presence of this range plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003) and other authors. Thus, a mean maximum value of about 157 fl km-2 y-1 is found for the annual lightning density. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56 % of the flashes located below the equator in the 10°S - 10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world.

  20. Global thunderstorm activity estimation based on number of transients in ELF-band

    Ondraskova, Adriena; Sevcik, Sebastian


    Schumann resonances (SR) are resonant electromagnetic oscillations in extremely low frequency band (ELF, 3 Hz - 3 kHz), which arise in the Earth-ionosphere cavity due to lightning activity in planetary range. The time records in the ELF-band consist of background signals and ELF transients/Q-bursts superimposed on the background exceeding it by a factor of 5 - 10. The former are produced by the common worldwide thunderstorm activity (100 - 150 events per second), the latter origin from individual intense distant lightning discharges (100 - 120 powerful strokes per hour). A Q-burst is produced by a combination of direct and antipodal pulses and the decisive factor for its shape follows from the source-to-observer distance. Diurnal/seasonal variations of global thunderstorm activity can be deduced from spectral amplitudes of SR modes. Here we focus on diurnal/seasonal variations of the number of ELF-transients assuming that it is another way of lightning activity estimation. To search for transients, our own code was applied to the SR vertical electric component measured in October 2004 - October 2008 at the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory of FMPI CU, Slovakia. Criteria for the identification of the burst are chosen on the basis of the transient amplitudes and their morphological features. Monthly mean daily variations in number of transients showed that African focus dominates at 14 - 16 h UT and it is more active in comparison with Asian source, which dominates at 5 - 8 h UT in dependence on winter or summer month. American source had surprisingly slight response. Meteorological observations in South America aiming to determine lightning hotspots on the Earth indicate that flash rate in this region is greatest during nocturnal 0 h - 3 h local standard time. This fact may be interpreted that Asian and South American sources contribute together in the same UT. Cumulative spectral amplitude of the first three SR modes compared with number of ELF-transients in

  1. Lightning Applications in Weather and Climate Research

    Price, Colin G.


    Thunderstorms, and lightning in particular, are a major natural hazard to the public, aviation, power companies, and wildfire managers. Lightning causes great damage and death every year but also tells us about the inner working of storms. Since lightning can be monitored from great distances from the storms themselves, lightning may allow us to provide early warnings for severe weather phenomena such as hail storms, flash floods, tornadoes, and even hurricanes. Lightning itself may impact the climate of the Earth by producing nitrogen oxides (NOx), a precursor of tropospheric ozone, which is a powerful greenhouse gas. Thunderstorms themselves influence the climate system by the redistribution of heat, moisture, and momentum in the atmosphere. What about future changes in lightning and thunderstorm activity? Many studies show that higher surface temperatures produce more lightning, but future changes will depend on what happens to the vertical temperature profile in the troposphere, as well as changes in water balance, and even aerosol loading of the atmosphere. Finally, lightning itself may provide a useful tool for tracking climate change in the future, due to the nonlinear link between lightning, temperature, upper tropospheric water vapor, and cloud cover.

  2. A model for lightning in littoral areas

    Blaj, M.A.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes


    The littoral or coastal areas are different compared to the maritime or continental areas considering lightning. Only the last years some research about these areas has been carried out. The need for a model, regarding the lightning activity in these areas is much needed. And now, with the changes

  3. A projected decrease in lightning under climate change

    Finney, Declan L.; Doherty, Ruth M.; Wild, Oliver; Stevenson, David S.; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Blyth, Alan M.


    Lightning strongly influences atmospheric chemistry1-3, and impacts the frequency of natural wildfires4. Most previous studies project an increase in global lightning with climate change over the coming century1,5-7, but these typically use parameterizations of lightning that neglect cloud ice fluxes, a component generally considered to be fundamental to thunderstorm charging8. As such, the response of lightning to climate change is uncertain. Here, we compare lightning projections for 2100 using two parameterizations: the widely used cloud-top height (CTH) approach9, and a new upward cloud ice flux (IFLUX) approach10 that overcomes previous limitations. In contrast to the previously reported global increase in lightning based on CTH, we find a 15% decrease in total lightning flash rate with IFLUX in 2100 under a strong global warming scenario. Differences are largest in the tropics, where most lightning occurs, with implications for the estimation of future changes in tropospheric ozone and methane, as well as differences in their radiative forcings. These results suggest that lightning schemes more closely related to cloud ice and microphysical processes are needed to robustly estimate future changes in lightning and atmospheric composition.

  4. Lightning injuries in sports and recreation.

    Thomson, Eric M; Howard, Thomas M


    The powers of lightning have been worshiped and feared by all known human cultures. While the chance of being struck by lightning is statistically very low, that risk becomes much greater in those who frequently work or play outdoors. Over the past 2 yr, there have been nearly 50 lightning-related deaths reported within the United States, with a majority of them associated with outdoor recreational activities. Recent publications primarily have been case studies, review articles, and a discussion of a sixth method of injury. The challenge in reducing lightning-related injuries in organized sports has been addressed well by both the National Athletic Trainers' Association and the National Collegiate Athletic Association in their guidelines on lightning safety. Challenges remain in educating the general population involved in recreational outdoor activities that do not fall under the guidelines of organized sports.

  5. Tropic lightning: myth or menace?

    McCarthy, John


    Lightning is one of the leading causes of death related to environmental disaster. Of all lightning fatalities documented between 2006 and 2012, leisure activities contributed the largest proportion of deaths, with water-associated, sports, and camping being the most common. Despite the prevalence of these activities throughout the islands, Hawai'i has had zero documented lightning fatalities since weather data tracking was initiated in 1959. There is a common misconception that lightning does not strike the ground in Hawai'i. This myth may contribute to a potentially dangerous false sense of security, and recognition of warning signs and risk factor modification remain the most important prevention strategies. Lightning damage occurs on a spectrum, from minor burns to multi-organ dysfunction. After injury, initial treatment should focus on "reverse triage" and immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation when indicated, followed by transfer to a healthcare facility. Definitive treatment entails monitoring and management of potential sequelae, to include cardiovascular, neurologic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, audiovestibular, and psychiatric complications.

  6. Visual Analysis for Nowcasting of Multidimensional Lightning Data

    Stefan Peters


    Full Text Available Globally, most weather-related damages are caused by thunderstorms. Besides floods, strong wind, and hail, one of the major thunderstorm ground effects is lightning. Therefore, lightning investigations, including detection, cluster identification, tracking, and nowcasting are essential. To enable reliable decisions, current and predicted lightning cluster- and track features as well as analysis results have to be represented in the most appropriate way. Our paper introduces a framework which includes identification, tracking, nowcasting, and in particular visualization and statistical analysis of dynamic lightning data in three-dimensional space. The paper is specifically focused on enabling users to conduct the visual analysis of lightning data for the purpose of identification and interpretation of spatial-temporal patterns embedded in lightning data, and their dynamics. A graphic user interface (GUI is developed, wherein lightning tracks and predicted lightning clusters, including their prediction certainty, can be investigated within a 3D view or within a Space-Time-Cube. In contrast to previous work, our approach provides insight into the dynamics of past and predicted 3D lightning clusters and cluster features over time. We conclude that an interactive visual exploration in combination with a statistical analysis can provide new knowledge within lightning investigations and, thus, support decision-making in weather forecast or lightning damage prevention.

  7. An Evaluation of Lightning Flash Rate Parameterizations Based on Observations of Colorado Storms during DC3

    Basarab, B.; Fuchs, B.; Rutledge, S. A.


    Predicting lightning activity in thunderstorms is important in order to accurately quantify the production of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) by lightning (LNOx). Lightning is an important global source of NOx, and since NOx is a chemical precursor to ozone, the climatological impacts of LNOx could be significant. Many cloud-resolving models rely on parameterizations to predict lightning and LNOx since the processes leading to charge separation and lightning discharge are not yet fully understood. This study evaluates predicted flash rates based on existing lightning parameterizations against flash rates observed for Colorado storms during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3). Evaluating lightning parameterizations against storm observations is a useful way to possibly improve the prediction of flash rates and LNOx in models. Additionally, since convective storms that form in the eastern plains of Colorado can be different thermodynamically and electrically from storms in other regions, it is useful to test existing parameterizations against observations from these storms. We present an analysis of the dynamics, microphysics, and lightning characteristics of two case studies, severe storms that developed on 6 and 7 June 2012. This analysis includes dual-Doppler derived horizontal and vertical velocities, a hydrometeor identification based on polarimetric radar variables using the CSU-CHILL radar, and insight into the charge structure using observations from the northern Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). Flash rates were inferred from the LMA data using a flash counting algorithm. We have calculated various microphysical and dynamical parameters for these storms that have been used in empirical flash rate parameterizations. In particular, maximum vertical velocity has been used to predict flash rates in some cloud-resolving chemistry simulations. We diagnose flash rates for the 6 and 7 June storms using this parameterization and compare

  8. Lightning Physics and Effects

    Orville, Richard E.


    Lightning Physics and Effects is not a lightning book; it is a lightning encyclopedia. Rarely in the history of science has one contribution covered a subject with such depth and thoroughness as to set the enduring standard for years, perhaps even decades, to come. This contribution covers all aspects of lightning, including lightning physics, lightning protection, and the interaction of lightning with a variety of objects and systems as well as the environment. The style of writing is well within the ability of the technical non-expert and anyone interested in lightning and its effects. Potential readers will include physicists; engineers working in the power industry, communications, computer, and aviation industries; atmospheric scientists; geophysicists; meteorologists; atmospheric chemists; foresters; ecologists; physicians working in the area of electrical trauma; and, lastly, architects. This comprehensive reference volume contains over 300 illustrations, 70 tables with quantitative information, and over 6000 reference and bibliography entries.

  9. Storm on lightning conductors

    Broomhead, Laurent.


    Radioactive lightning conductors using radium or americium 241 sources are compared to Faraday cage and lightning rod. Americium source preparation is shortly described. Efficiency of the different systems is still controversed [fr

  10. Lightning safety of animals.

    Gomes, Chandima


    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  11. The lightning flash

    Cooray, Vernon


    With contributions from today's leading lightning engineers and researchers, this updated 2nd edition of Vernon Cooray's classic text, The Lightning Flash provides the reader with an essential introduction to lightning and its impact on electrical and electronic equipment. Providing the reader with a thorough background into almost every aspect of lightning and its impact on electrical and electronic equipment, this new edition is updated throughout and features eight new chapters that bring the science up to date.

  12. New Physical Mechanism for Lightning

    Artekha, Sergey N.; Belyan, Andrey V.


    The article is devoted to electromagnetic phenomena in the atmosphere. The set of experimental data on the thunderstorm activity is analyzed. It helps to identify a possible physical mechanism of lightning flashes. This mechanism can involve the formation of metallic bonds in thunderclouds. The analysis of the problem is performed at a microphysical level within the framework of quantum mechanics. The mechanism of appearance of metallic conductivity includes the resonant tunneling of electrons along resonance-percolation trajectories. Such bonds allow the charges from the vast cloud charged subsystems concentrate quickly in lightning channel. The formation of metal bonds in the thunderstorm cloudiness is described as the second-order phase transition. A successive mechanism for the process of formation and development of the lightning channel is suggested. This mechanism is associated with the change in the orientation of crystals in growing electric field. Possible consequences of the quantum-mechanical mechanism under discussion are compared with the results of observations.

  13. Nitric acid particles in cold thick ice clouds observed at global scale: Link with lightning, temperature, and upper tropospheric water vapor

    Chepfer , H.; Minnis , P.; Dubuisson , P.; Chiriaco , Marjolaine; Sun-Mack , S.; Rivière , E.D.


    International audience; Signatures of nitric acid particles (NAP) in cold thick ice clouds have been derived from satellite observations. Most NAP are detected in the tropics (9 to 20% of clouds with T < 202.5 K). Higher occurrences were found in the rare midlatitudes very cold clouds. NAP occurrence increases as cloud temperature decreases, and NAP are more numerous in January than July. Comparisons of NAP and lightning distributions show that lightning seems to be the main source of the NOx...

  14. Neurorehabilitation of cerebral disorders following lightning and electrical trauma.

    Yarnell, Philip R


    The most devastating casualties in lightning and electrical trauma patients are the result of lesions of the nervous system, and especially lesions of the brain. The brain injuries can be divided into three categories: global dysfunction; focal brain injuries; and behavioral-cognitive sequelae without gross physical signs. Lightning injuries are usually the result of outdoor sports and leisure activities. Most electrical trauma cases are the result of workplace accidents. Rehabilitation planning should begin early after the incident and often needs to be continued for a long time. The goal of the rehabilitation team is to maximize functional return in patients with deficits related to brain lesions. The neurorehabilitation team includes the neurorehabilitation physician, physical therapists, occupational therapists, psychologists, speech therapists, and case managers.

  15. Combining satellite-based fire observations and ground-based lightning detections to identify lightning fires across the conterminous USA

    Bar-Massada, A.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Stewart, S.I.; Radeloff, V.C.


    Lightning fires are a common natural disturbance in North America, and account for the largest proportion of the area burned by wildfires each year. Yet, the spatiotemporal patterns of lightning fires in the conterminous US are not well understood due to limitations of existing fire databases. Our goal here was to develop and test an algorithm that combined MODIS fire detections with lightning detections from the National Lightning Detection Network to identify lightning fires across the conterminous US from 2000 to 2008. The algorithm searches for spatiotemporal conjunctions of MODIS fire clusters and NLDN detected lightning strikes, given a spatiotemporal lag between lightning strike and fire ignition. The algorithm revealed distinctive spatial patterns of lightning fires in the conterminous US While a sensitivity analysis revealed that the algorithm is highly sensitive to the two thresholds that are used to determine conjunction, the density of fires it detected was moderately correlated with ground based fire records. When only fires larger than 0.4 km2 were considered, correlations were higher and the root-mean-square error between datasets was less than five fires per 625 km2 for the entire study period. Our algorithm is thus suitable for detecting broad scale spatial patterns of lightning fire occurrence, and especially lightning fire hotspots, but has limited detection capability of smaller fires because these cannot be consistently detected by MODIS. These results may enhance our understanding of large scale patterns of lightning fire activity, and can be used to identify the broad scale factors controlling fire occurrence.

  16. TRMM-Based Lightning Climatology

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Blakeslee, Richard J.


    Gridded climatologies of total lightning flash rates seen by the spaceborne Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) have been updated. OTD collected data from May 1995 to March 2000. LIS data (equatorward of about 38 deg) has been added for 1998-2010. Flash counts from each instrument are scaled by the best available estimates of detection efficiency. The long LIS record makes the merged climatology most robust in the tropics and subtropics, while the high latitude data is entirely from OTD. The mean global flash rate from the merged climatology is 46 flashes per second. The peak annual flash rate at 0.5 deg scale is 160 fl/square km/yr in eastern Congo. The peak monthly average flash rate at 2.5 scale is 18 fl/square km/mo, from early April to early May in the Brahmaputra Valley of far eastern India. Lightning decreases in this region during the monsoon season, but increases further north and west. A monthly average peak from early August to early September in northern Pakistan also exceeds any monthly averages from Africa, despite central Africa having the greatest yearly average. Most continental regions away from the equator have an annual cycle with lightning flash rates peaking in late spring or summer. The main exceptions are India and southeast Asia, with springtime peaks in April and May. For landmasses near the equator, flash rates peak near the equinoxes. For many oceanic regions, the peak flash rates occur in autumn. This is particularly noticeable for the Mediterranean and North Atlantic. Landmasses have a strong diurnal cycle of lightning, with flash rates generally peaking between 3-5 pm local solar time. The central United States flash rates peak later, in late evening or early night. Flash rates peak after midnight in northern Argentina. These regions are known for large, intense, long-lived mesoscale convective systems.

  17. Climate Change and Tropical Total Lightning

    Albrecht, R.; Petersen, W.; Buechler, D.; Goodman, S.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.


    While global warming is regarded as a fact by many in the scientific community, its future impact remains a challenge to be determined and measured. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report (IPCC, 2007) shows inconclusive answers on global rainfall trends and general agreement on a future drier climate with increased global warming. The relationship between temperature, humidity and convection is not linear and is strongly dependent on regional scale features, such as topography and land cover. Furthermore, the relationship between convective lightning production (thunderstorms) and temperature is even more complicated, being subjected to the cloud dynamics and microphysics. Total lightning (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) monitoring is a relatively new field of observation. Global and tropical total lightning began to be more extensively measured by satellites in the mid 90s. In this scope, the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) has been operational for over 11 years. Here we address total lightning trends observed by LIS from 1998 to 2008 in different temporal (annual and seasonal) and spatial (large and regional) scales. The observed 11-year trends are then associate to different predicted/hypothesized climate change scenarios.

  18. NO signatures from lightning flashes

    Stith, J.; Dye, J.; Ridley, B.; Laroche, P.; Defer, E.; Baumann, K.; Hübler, G.; Zerr, R.; Venticinque, M.


    In situ measurements of cloud properties, NO, and other trace gases were made in active thunderstorms by two research aircraft. Concurrent measurements from a three-dimensional (3-D) VHF interferometer and the 2-D National Lightning Detection Network were used to determine lightning frequency and location. The CHILL Doppler radar and the NOAA-WP-3D Orion X band Doppler radar were also used to measure storm characteristics. Two case studies from the (STERAO) Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiments: Radiation, Aerosols, and Ozone project in northeastern Colorado during the summer of 1996 are presented. Narrow spikes (0.11-0.96 km across), containing up to 19 ppbv of NO, were observed in the storms. Most were located in or downwind of electrically active regions where the NO produced by lightning would be expected. However, it was difficult to correlate individual flashes with NO spikes. A simple model of the plume of NO from lightning is used to estimate NO production from the mean mixing ratio measured in these spikes. The estimates range from 2.0×1020 to 1.0×1022 molecules of NO per meter of flash length.

  19. Lightning Observations from the International Space Station (ISS) for Science Research and Operational Applications

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T.; hide


    There exist several core science applications of LIS lightning observations, that range from weather and climate to atmospheric chemistry and lightning physics due to strong quantitative connections that can be made between lightning and other geophysical processes of interest. The space-base vantage point, such as provided by ISS LIS, still remains an ideal location to obtain total lightning observations on a global basis.

  20. Multiple Lightning Discharges in Wind Turbines Associated with Nearby Cloud-to-Ground Lightning

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Madsen, Søren Find


    This paper presents the analysis of five events where simultaneous lightning currents were registered in different wind turbines of a wind farm with lightning monitoring equipment installed. Measurements from current monitoring devices installed at the wind turbines and observations from auto......-triggering video cameras were correlated with data from the U.S. National Lighting Detection Network. In all five events, the correlation showed that a cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning stroke with high peak current struck the ground within 10 km of the affected turbines at the time of the currents in the wind...... by the nearby CG strokes, involving mechanisms that vary depending on the polarity of the associated CG stroke. The analysis also suggests that the event of upward lightning from wind turbines triggered by nearby lightning activity occurs very often and therefore it should be considered carefully...

  1. An Integrated 0-1 Hour First-Flash Lightning Nowcasting, Lightning Amount and Lightning Jump Warning Capability

    Mecikalski, John; Jewett, Chris; Carey, Larry; Zavodsky, Brad; Stano, Geoffrey


    Lightning one of the most dangerous weather-related phenomena, especially as many jobs and activities occur outdoors, presenting risk from a lightning strike. Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning represents a considerable safety threat to people at airfields, marinas, and outdoor facilities-from airfield personnel, to people attending outdoor stadium events, on beaches and golf courses, to mariners, as well as emergency personnel. Holle et al. (2005) show that 90% of lightning deaths occurred outdoors, while 10% occurred indoors despite the perception of safety when inside buildings. Curran et al. (2000) found that nearly half of fatalities due to weather were related to convective weather in the 1992-1994 timeframe, with lightning causing a large component of the fatalities, in addition to tornadoes and flash flooding. Related to the aviation industry, CG lightning represents a considerable hazard to baggage-handlers, aircraft refuelers, food caterers, and emergency personnel, who all become exposed to the risk of being struck within short time periods while convective storm clouds develop. Airport safety protocols require that ramp operations be modified or discontinued when lightning is in the vicinity (typically 16 km), which becomes very costly and disruptive to flight operations. Therefore, much focus has been paid to nowcasting the first-time initiation and extent of lightning, both of CG and of any lightning (e.g, in-cloud, cloud-to-cloud). For this project three lightning nowcasting methodologies will be combined: (1) a GOESbased 0-1 hour lightning initiation (LI) product (Harris et al. 2010; Iskenderian et al. 2012), (2) a High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) lightning probability and forecasted lightning flash density product, such that a quantitative amount of lightning (QL) can be assigned to a location of expected LI, and (3) an algorithm that relates Pseudo-GLM data (Stano et al. 2012, 2014) to the so-called "lightning jump" (LJ) methodology (Shultz et al

  2. Weekly Cycle of Lightning: Evidence of Storm Invigoration by Pollution

    Bell, Thomas L.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Kim, Kyu-Myong


    We have examined summertime 1998 2009 U.S. lightning data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) to look for weekly cycles in lightning activity. As was found by Bell et al. (2008) for rain over the southeast U.S., there is a significant weekly cycle in afternoon lightning activity that peaks in the middle of the week there. The weekly cycle appears to be reduced over population centers. Lightning activity peaks on weekends over waters near the SE U.S. The statistical significance of weekly cycles over the western half of the country is generally small. We found no evidence of a weekly cycle of synoptic-scale forcing that might explain these patterns. The lightning behavior is entirely consistent with the explanation suggested by Bell et al. (2008) for the cycles in rainfall and other atmospheric data from the SE U.S., that aerosols can cause storms to intensify in humid, convectively unstable environments.

  3. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    Bandick, Roger


    the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...

  4. Prevalent lightning sferics at 600 megahertz near Jupiter's poles

    Brown, Shannon; Janssen, Michael; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Atreya, Sushil; Bolton, Scott; Gulkis, Samuel; Ingersoll, Andrew; Levin, Steven; Li, Cheng; Li, Liming; Lunine, Jonathan; Misra, Sidharth; Orton, Glenn; Steffes, Paul; Tabataba-Vakili, Fachreddin; Kolmašová, Ivana; Imai, Masafumi; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Gurnett, Donald; Connerney, John


    Lightning has been detected on Jupiter by all visiting spacecraft through night-side optical imaging and whistler (lightning-generated radio waves) signatures1-6. Jovian lightning is thought to be generated in the mixed-phase (liquid-ice) region of convective water clouds through a charge-separation process between condensed liquid water and water-ice particles, similar to that of terrestrial (cloud-to-cloud) lightning7-9. Unlike terrestrial lightning, which emits broadly over the radio spectrum up to gigahertz frequencies10,11, lightning on Jupiter has been detected only at kilohertz frequencies, despite a search for signals in the megahertz range12. Strong ionospheric attenuation or a lightning discharge much slower than that on Earth have been suggested as possible explanations for this discrepancy13,14. Here we report observations of Jovian lightning sferics (broadband electromagnetic impulses) at 600 megahertz from the Microwave Radiometer15 onboard the Juno spacecraft. These detections imply that Jovian lightning discharges are not distinct from terrestrial lightning, as previously thought. In the first eight orbits of Juno, we detected 377 lightning sferics from pole to pole. We found lightning to be prevalent in the polar regions, absent near the equator, and most frequent in the northern hemisphere, at latitudes higher than 40 degrees north. Because the distribution of lightning is a proxy for moist convective activity, which is thought to be an important source of outward energy transport from the interior of the planet16,17, increased convection towards the poles could indicate an outward internal heat flux that is preferentially weighted towards the poles9,16,18. The distribution of moist convection is important for understanding the composition, general circulation and energy transport on Jupiter.

  5. Estimates of lightning NOx production from GOME satellite observations

    K. F. Boersma


    Full Text Available Tropospheric NO2 column retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME satellite spectrometer are used to quantify the source strength and 3-D distribution of lightning produced nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2. A sharp increase of NO2 is observed at convective cloud tops with increasing cloud top height, consistent with a power-law behaviour with power 5±2. Convective production of clouds with the same cloud height are found to produce NO2 with a ratio 1.6/1 for continents compared to oceans. This relation between cloud properties and NO2 is used to construct a 10:30 local time global lightning NO2 production map for 1997. An extensive statistical comparison is conducted to investigate the capability of the TM3 chemistry transport model to reproduce observed patterns of lightning NO2 in time and space. This comparison uses the averaging kernel to relate modelled profiles of NO2 to observed NO2 columns. It exploits a masking scheme to minimise the interference of other NOx sources on the observed total columns. Simulations are performed with two lightning parameterizations, one relating convective preciptation (CP scheme to lightning flash distributions, and the other relating the fifth power of the cloud top height (H5 scheme to lightning distributions. The satellite-retrieved NO2 fields show significant correlations with the simulated lightning contribution to the NO2 concentrations for both parameterizations. Over tropical continents modelled lightning NO2 shows remarkable quantitative agreement with observations. Over the oceans however, the two model lightning parameterizations overestimate the retrieved NO2 attributed to lightning. Possible explanations for these overestimations are discussed. The ratio between satellite-retrieved NO2 and modelled lightning NO2 is used to rescale the original modelled lightning NOx production. Eight estimates of the lightning NOx production in 1997 are obtained from spatial and temporal

  6. When lightning strikes: bolting down the facts & fiction.

    Usatch, Ben


    MYTH: There's no danger from lightning until the rain starts. FACT: Lightning often precedes the storm by up to 10 miles. A reasonable guideline is the "30-30 rule," by which you count the seconds between the flash and the thunder. If the time span is less than 30 seconds, seek shelter. Additionally, wait a full 30 minutes from last lightning flash to resume outdoor activities.

  7. Lightning Discharges, Cosmic Rays and Climate

    Kumar, Sanjay; Siingh, Devendraa; Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kamra, A. K.


    The entirety of the Earth's climate system is continuously bombarded by cosmic rays and exhibits about 2000 thunderstorms active at any time of the day all over the globe. Any linkage among these vast systems should have global consequences. Numerous studies done in the past deal with partial links between some selected aspects of this grand linkage. Results of these studies vary from weakly to strongly significant and are not yet complete enough to justify the physical mechanism proposed to explain such links. This review is aimed at presenting the current understanding, based on the past studies on the link between cosmic ray, lightning and climate. The deficiencies in some proposed links are pointed out. Impacts of cosmic rays on engineering systems and the possible effects of cosmic rays on human health are also briefly discussed. Also enumerated are some problems for future work which may help in developing the grand linkage among these three vast systems.

  8. LOFAR Lightning Imaging: Mapping Lightning With Nanosecond Precision

    Hare, B. M.; Scholten, O.; Bonardi, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Ebert, U.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Leijnse, H.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Rutjes, C.; Schellart, P.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N. G.; ter Veen, S.; Winchen, T.


    Lightning mapping technology has proven instrumental in understanding lightning. In this work we present a pipeline that can use lightning observed by the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope to construct a 3-D map of the flash. We show that LOFAR has unparalleled precision, on the order of meters, even for lightning flashes that are over 20 km outside the area enclosed by LOFAR antennas (˜3,200 km2), and can potentially locate over 10,000 sources per lightning flash. We also show that LOFAR is the first lightning mapping system that is sensitive to the spatial structure of the electrical current during individual lightning leader steps.

  9. Combined VLF and VHF lightning observations of Hurricane Rita landfall

    Henderson, B. G.; Suszcynsky, D. M.; Wiens, K. C.; Hamlin, T.; Jeffery, C. A.; Orville, R. E.


    Hurricane Rita displayed abundant lightning in its northern eyewall as it made landfall at 0740 UTC 24 Sep 2005 near the Texas/Louisiana border. For this work, we combined VHF and VLF lightning data from Hurricane Rita, along with radar observations from Gulf Coast WSR-88D stations, for the purpose of demonstrating the combined utility of these two spectral regions for hurricane lightning monitoring. Lightning is a direct consequence of the electrification and breakdown processes that take place during the convective stages of thunderstorm development. As Rita approached the Gulf coast, the VHF lightning emissions were distinctly periodic with a period of 1.5 to 2 hours, which is consistent with the rotational period of hurricanes. VLF lightning emissions, measured by LASA and NLDN, were present in some of these VHF bursts but not all of them. At landfall, there was a significant increase in lightning emissions, accompanied by a significant convective surge observed in radar. Furthermore, VLF and VHF lightning source heights clearly increase as a function of time. The evolution of the IC/CG ratio is consistent with that seen in thunderstorms, showing a dominance of IC activity during storm development, followed by an increase in CG activity at the storm’s peak. The periodic VHF lightning events are correlated with increases in convective growth (quantified by the volume of radar echo >40 dB) above 7 km altitude. VLF can discriminate between lightning types, and in the LASA data, Rita landfall lightning activity was dominated by Narrow Bi-polar Events (NBEs)—high-energy, high-altitude, compact intra-cloud discharges. The opportunity to locate NBE lightning sources in altitude may be particularly useful in quantifying the vertical extent (strength) of the convective development and in possibly deducing vertical charge distributions.

  10. Parameters of thunderstorm activity and lightning discharges in Central Yakutia from 2009 to 2012

    Kozlov, V. I.; Mullayarov, V. A.; Grigorev, Yu. M.; Tarabukina, L. D.


    The results of integrated instrumental observations of thunderstorm activity around Yakutsk at a radius of 400 and 30 km are presented. The seasonal course of thunderstorm activity was found to contain characteristic peaks in the first 10 days of June and the last 10 days of July or early August. The fraction of cloud-to-ground discharges in Central Yakutia is 40-60%, which is consistent with observations in Western Siberia (40-50%). The number of positive discharges to the ground was 8-15% of all cases of discharges to the ground, which is consistent with observations in Germany (17%) and slightly exceeds the observed number in the Caucasus (2.2-8.2%) and United States (4.5%). The thunderstorm activity in Yakutsk is three times higher than in the area around Yakutsk with a radius of 400 km, which can be explained by the fact that the city is a heat island.

  11. Lightning injury: a review.

    Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C


    Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.

  12. The physics of lightning

    Dwyer, Joseph R., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Uman, Martin A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)


    Despite being one of the most familiar and widely recognized natural phenomena, lightning remains relatively poorly understood. Even the most basic questions of how lightning is initiated inside thunderclouds and how it then propagates for many tens of kilometers have only begun to be addressed. In the past, progress was hampered by the unpredictable and transient nature of lightning and the difficulties in making direct measurements inside thunderstorms, but advances in instrumentation, remote sensing methods, and rocket-triggered lightning experiments are now providing new insights into the physics of lightning. Furthermore, the recent discoveries of intense bursts of X-rays and gamma-rays associated with thunderstorms and lightning illustrate that new and interesting physics is still being discovered in our atmosphere. The study of lightning and related phenomena involves the synthesis of many branches of physics, from atmospheric physics to plasma physics to quantum electrodynamics, and provides a plethora of challenging unsolved problems. In this review, we provide an introduction to the physics of lightning with the goal of providing interested researchers a useful resource for starting work in this fascinating field.

  13. Lightning Often Strikes Twice


    Contrary to popular misconception, lightning often strikes the same place twice. Certain conditions are just ripe for a bolt of electricity to come zapping down; and a lightning strike is powerful enough to do a lot of damage wherever it hits. NASA created the Accurate Location of Lightning Strikes technology to determine the ground strike point of lightning and prevent electrical damage in the immediate vicinity of the Space Shuttle launch pads at Kennedy Space Center. The area surrounding the launch pads is enmeshed in a network of electrical wires and components, and electronic equipment is highly susceptible to lightning strike damage. The accurate knowledge of the striking point is important so that crews can determine which equipment or system needs to be retested following a strike. Accurate to within a few yards, this technology can locate a lightning strike in the perimeter of the launch pad. As an added bonus, the engineers, then knowing where the lightning struck, can adjust the variables that may be attracting the lightning, to create a zone that will be less susceptible to future strikes.

  14. Neutron generation in lightning bolts

    Shah, G.N.; Razdan, H.; Bhat, C.L.; Ali, Q.M.


    To ascertain neutron generation in lightning bolts, the authors have searched for neutrons from individual lightning strokes, for a time-interval comparable with the duration of the lightning stroke. 10 7 -10 10 neutrons per stroke were found, thus providing the first experimental evidence that neutrons are generated in lightning discharges. (U.K.)

  15. Catching lightning for alternative energy

    Helman, D.S. [California State University, Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd., Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States)


    The article reviews the current literature related to lightning and makes a case for using lightning as an alternative source of energy. Objections to using lightning as an alternative source of energy are listed. Current literature is reviewed and articles are suggested as useful for building a tower, or using rockets or lasers to target a strike, or for quantifying a lightning strike. (author)

  16. Monitoring of lightning from the April-May 2010 Eyjafjallajoekull volcanic eruption using a very low frequency lightning location network

    Bennett, A J; Odams, P; Edwards, D; Arason, P.


    The April-May 2010 explosive eruption of the Eyjafjallajoekull volcano in Iceland produced a tephra plume extending to an altitude of over 9 km. During many, but not all, of the periods of significant volcanic activity the plume was sufficiently electrified to generate lightning. This lightning was located by the UK Met Office long-range lightning location network (ATDnet), operating in the very low frequency radio spectrum. An approximately linear relationship between hourly lightning count rate and radar-derived plume height was found. A minimum plume height for lightning generation of sufficient strength to be detected by ATDnet was shown to be 5 km above sea level. It is not clear why some plumes exceeding 5 km did not produce lightning detected by ATDnet, although ambient atmospheric conditions may be an important factor.

  17. Monitoring of lightning from the April-May 2010 Eyjafjallajoekull volcanic eruption using a very low frequency lightning location network

    Bennett, A J; Odams, P; Edwards, D [Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter EX1 3PB (United Kingdom); Arason, P., E-mail: [Icelandic Meteorological Office, Bustaoavegi 9, IS-150 ReykjavIk (Iceland)


    The April-May 2010 explosive eruption of the Eyjafjallajoekull volcano in Iceland produced a tephra plume extending to an altitude of over 9 km. During many, but not all, of the periods of significant volcanic activity the plume was sufficiently electrified to generate lightning. This lightning was located by the UK Met Office long-range lightning location network (ATDnet), operating in the very low frequency radio spectrum. An approximately linear relationship between hourly lightning count rate and radar-derived plume height was found. A minimum plume height for lightning generation of sufficient strength to be detected by ATDnet was shown to be 5 km above sea level. It is not clear why some plumes exceeding 5 km did not produce lightning detected by ATDnet, although ambient atmospheric conditions may be an important factor.

  18. Nowcasting of Lightning-Related Accidents in Africa

    Ihrlich, Laura; Price, Colin


    Tropical Africa is the world capital of thunderstorm activity with the highest density of strikes per square kilometer per year. As a result it is also the continent with perhaps the highest casualties and injuries from direct lightning strikes. This region of the globe also has little lightning protection of rural homes and schools, while many casualties occur during outdoor activities (e.g. farming, fishing, sports, etc.) In this study we investigated two lightning-caused accidents that got wide press coverage: A lightning strike to a Cheetah Center in Namibia which caused a huge fire and great destruction (16 October 2013), and a plane crash in Mali where 116 people died (24 July 2014). Using data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) we show that the lightning data alone can provide important early warning information that can be used to reduce risks and damages and loss of life from lightning strikes. We have developed a now-casting scheme that allows for early warnings across Africa with a relatively low false alarm rate. To verify the accuracy of our now-cast, we have performed some statistical analysis showing relatively high skill at providing early warnings (lead time of a few hours) based on lightning alone. Furthermore, our analysis can be used in forensic meteorology for determining if such accidents are caused by lightning strikes.

  19. Lightning under water: Diverse reactive environments and evidence of synergistic effects for material treatment and activation

    Levchenko, Igor; Bazaka, Kateryna; Baranov, Oleg; Sankaran, R. Mohan; Nomine, Alexandre; Belmonte, Thierry; Xu, Shuyan


    This focused review aims to reveal and illustrate some unique features of processes triggered by high-density energy applied to liquids and gas-liquid interfaces and to highlight a wide spectrum of their technological applications capable of producing various advantageous effects, ranging from nanosynthesis to biological and medical applications. Plasma, electric discharges, laser, and ultrasound power effects were selected as representative examples of high-density energy and liquid interactions, yet the available possibilities are not limited by these quite different types of power and thus the reader could extrapolate the outlined features and effects to other kinds of powerful impacts. The basic physical mechanisms are briefly reviewed with the aim to familiarize the readers with the potential capabilities of high-density energy processes in liquids. These will be of direct interest to researchers tasked with the development, optimization, and characterization of processes and highly reactive environments for highly controlled transformation of matter in abiotic and biological systems. It could also be highly useful for under- and post-graduate students specializing in the related fields and general physical audience involved in various plasma, materials, energy conversion, and other concurrent research activities.

  20. Lightning in aeronautics

    Lago, F


    It is generally accepted that a civilian aircraft is struck, on average, once or twice per year. This number tends to indicate that a lightning strike risk is far from being marginal and so requires that aircraft manufacturers have to demonstrate that their aircraft is protected against lightning. The first generation of aircrafts, which were manufactured mainly in aluminium alloy and had electromechanical and pneumatic controls, had a natural immunity to the effects of lightning. Nowadays, aircraft structures are made primarily with composite materials and flight controls are mostly electronic. This aspect of the ''more composite and more electric'' aircraft demands to aircraft manufacturers to pay a particular attention to the lightning protection and to its certification by testing and/or analysis. It is therefore essential to take this risk into account when designing the aircraft. Nevertheless, it is currently impossible to reproduce the entire lightning phenomenon in testing laboratories and the best way to analyse the lightning protection is to reproduce its effects. In this context, a number of standards and guides are produced by standards committees to help laboratories and aircraft manufacturers to perform realistic tests. Although the environment of a laboratory is quite different from those of a storm cloud, the rules of aircraft design, the know-how of aircraft manufacturers, the existence of international work leading to a better understanding of the lightning phenomenon and standards more precise, permit, today, to consider the risk as properly controlled

  1. Nitric acid particles in cold thick ice clouds observed at global scale: Link with lightning, temperature, and upper tropospheric water vapor

    Chepfer, H.; Minnis, P.; Dubuisson, P.; Chiriaco, M.; Sun-Mack, S.; RivièRe, E. D.


    Signatures of nitric acid particles (NAP) in cold thick ice clouds have been derived from satellite observations. Most NAP are detected in the tropics (9 to 20% of clouds with T < 202.5 K). Higher occurrences were found in the rare midlatitudes very cold clouds. NAP occurrence increases as cloud temperature decreases, and NAP are more numerous in January than July. Comparisons of NAP and lightning distributions show that lightning seems to be the main source of the NOx, which forms NAP in cold clouds over continents. Qualitative comparisons of NAP with upper tropospheric humidity distributions suggest that NAP may play a role in the dehydration of the upper troposphere when the tropopause is colder than 195 K.

  2. An Optical Lightning Simulator in an Electrified Cloud-Resolving Model to Prepare the Future Space Lightning Missions

    Bovalo, Christophe; Defer, Eric; Pinty, Jean-Pierre


    The future decade will see the launch of several space missions designed to monitor the total lightning activity. Among these missions, the American (Geostationary Lightning Mapper - GLM) and European (Lightning Imager - LI) optical detectors will be onboard geostationary satellites (GOES-R and MTG, respectively). For the first time, the total lightning activity will be monitored over the full Earth disk and at a very high temporal resolution (2 and 1 ms, respectively). Missions like the French Tool for the Analysis of Radiation from lightNIng and Sprites (TARANIS) and ISS-LIS will bring complementary information in order to better understand the lightning physics and to improve the weather prediction (nowcasting and forecasting). Such missions will generate a huge volume of new and original observations for the scientific community and weather prediction centers that have to be prepared. Moreover, before the launch of these missions, fundamental questions regarding the interpretation of the optical signal property and its relation to cloud optical thickness and lightning discharge processes need to be further investigated. An innovative approach proposed here is to use the synergy existing in the French MesoNH Cloud-Resolving Model (CRM). Indeed, MesoNH is one of the only CRM able to simulate the lifecycle of electrical charges generated within clouds through non-inductive charging process (dependent of the 1-moment microphysical scheme). The lightning flash geometry is based on a fractal law while the electrical field is diagnosed thanks to the Gauss' law. The lightning optical simulator is linked to the electrical scheme as the lightning radiance at 777.4 nm is a function of the lightning current, approximated by the charges neutralized along the lightning path. Another important part is the scattering of this signal by the hydrometeors (mainly ice particles) that is taken into account. Simulations at 1-km resolution are done over the Langmuir Laboratory (New

  3. Simulating lightning tests to radar system

    Blaj, M.A.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes


    The risk of destruction due to lightning makes simulating the effects of lightning strikes a necessity. We modeled a radar enclosure and simulated the effect of a lightning strike. The results have been validated using full threat lightning current tests.

  4. A lightning climatology of the South-West Indian Ocean

    C. Bovalo


    Full Text Available The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN data have been used to perform a lightning climatology in the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO region from 2005 to 2011. Maxima of lightning activity were found in the Maritime Continent and southwest of Sri Lanka (>50 fl km−2 yr−1 but also over Madagascar and above the Great Lakes of East Africa (>10–20 fl km−2 yr−1. Lightning flashes within tropical storms and tropical cyclones represent 50 % to 100 % of the total lightning activity in some oceanic areas of the SWIO (between 10° S and 20° S.

    The SWIO is characterized by a wet season (November to April and a dry season (May to October. As one could expect, lightning activity is more intense during the wet season as the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ is present over all the basin. Flash density is higher over land in November–December–January with values reaching 3–4 fl km−2 yr−1 over Madagascar. During the dry season, lightning activity is quite rare between 10° S and 25° S. The Mascarene anticyclone has more influence on the SWIO resulting in shallower convection. Lightning activity is concentrated over ocean, east of South Africa and Madagascar.

    A statistical analysis has shown that El Niño–Southern Oscillation mainly modulates the lightning activity up to 56.8% in the SWIO. The Indian Ocean Dipole has a significant contribution since ~49% of the variability is explained by this forcing in some regions. The Madden–Julian Oscillation did not show significative impact on the lightning activity in our study.

  5. Globalization and Women's Labour Activism in Japan

    BISHOP, Beverley


    The concept of globalization not only encompasses increased economic integration and increased flows of capital, but also social, political and cultural change. While considerable attention has been paid to the pro-active role that Japanese government and business actors have played, there has been rather less analysis of the way civil actors in Japan have been affected by, and have adapted their goals and strategies to the changing global polity. This paper examines how female labour activis...

  6. Venus Express Contributions to the Study of Planetary Lightning

    Russell, C. T.; Hart, R. A.; Zhang, T. L.


    Jupiter, and Saturn are expected to generate the electrical potential differences in their clouds sufficient to cause a breakdown in the atmosphere,creating a conducting path for the electric potential to discharge. This high-energy phenomenon creates a hot, high-pressure channel that enables chemical reactions not possible under usual local thermodynamic conditions. Thus it is of some interest to determine if lightning occurs in an atmosphere. While Venus is not usually considered one of the wet planets, lightning has been an object of interest since the Venera landers. It was observed with electromagnetic coils on Venera 11, 12, 13, 14 landers [2]. It was observed with a visible spectrometer on the Venera 9 orbits [1]. It was mapped during solar occultations by the electric antenna on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter [4]. These measurements revealed extensive lightning activity with an electromagnetic energy flux similar to that on Earth. However, the observations were limited in number in the atmosphere and to the nightside from orbit. In order to improve the understanding of Venus lightning, the Venus Express magnetometer was given a 128-Hz sampling rate that could cover much of the ELF frequencies at which lightning could be observed in the weak magnetic fields of the Venus ionosphere [5]. This investigation was immediately successful [3], but mastering the cleaning of the broadband data took several years to accomplish. Furthermore, the high polar latitudes of VEX periapsis were not the ideal locations to conduct the more global survey that was desired. Fortunately, after precessing poleward over the first few years the latitude of periapsis has returned to lower latitudes(Figures 1 and 2) and active electrical storms are now being studied. The charged constituent of the Venus atmosphere need not be water. In fact, we believe it is H2SO4 which polarizes much as water does and which freezes and melts at similar temperatures. If it is H2SO4, we would expect the

  7. Situational Lightning Climatologies

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred


    Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. It was believed there were two flow systems, but it has been discovered that actually there are seven distinct flow regimes. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) has recalculated the lightning climatologies for the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and the eight airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) County Warning Area (CWA) using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The software determines the location of each CG lightning strike with 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-nmi (.9.3-, 18.5-, 37-, 55.6-km) radii from each airfield. Each CG lightning strike is binned at 1-, 3-, and 6-hour intervals at each specified radius. The software merges the CG lightning strike time intervals and distance with each wind flow regime and creates probability statistics for each time interval, radii, and flow regime, and stratifies them by month and warm season. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface (GUI) with the new data.

  8. Lightning characteristics of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems

    Bentley, Mace L.; Franks, John R.; Suranovic, Katelyn R.; Barbachem, Brent; Cannon, Declan; Cooper, Stonie R.


    Derechos, or widespread, convectively induced wind storms, are a common warm season phenomenon in the Central and Eastern United States. These damaging and severe weather events are known to sweep quickly across large spatial regions of more than 400 km and produce wind speeds exceeding 121 km h-1. Although extensive research concerning derechos and their parent mesoscale convective systems already exists, there have been few investigations of the spatial and temporal distribution of associated cloud-to-ground lightning with these events. This study analyzes twenty warm season (May through August) derecho events between 2003 and 2013 in an effort to discern their lightning characteristics. Data used in the study included cloud-to-ground flash data derived from the National Lightning Detection Network, WSR-88D imagery from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, and damaging wind report data obtained from the Storm Prediction Center. A spatial and temporal analysis was conducted by incorporating these data into a geographic information system to determine the distribution and lightning characteristics of the environments of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems. Primary foci of this research include: (1) finding the approximate size of the lightning activity region for individual and combined event(s); (2) determining the intensity of each event by examining the density and polarity of lightning flashes; (3) locating areas of highest lightning flash density; and (4) to provide a lightning spatial analysis that outlines the temporal and spatial distribution of flash activity for particularly strong derecho producing thunderstorm episodes.

  9. Can High-resolution WRF Simulations Be Used for Short-term Forecasting of Lightning?

    Goodman, S. J.; Lapenta, W.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.; LaCasse, K.; Petersen, W.


    A number of research teams have begun to make quasi-operational forecast simulations at high resolution with models such as the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. These model runs have used horizontal meshes of 2-4 km grid spacing, and thus resolved convective storms explicitly. In the light of recent global satellite-based observational studies that reveal robust relationships between total lightning flash rates and integrated amounts of precipitation-size ice hydrometeors in storms, it is natural to inquire about the capabilities of these convection-resolving models in representing the ice hydrometeor fields faithfully. If they do, this might make operational short-term forecasts of lightning activity feasible. We examine high-resolution WRF simulations from several Southeastern cases for which either NLDN or LMA lightning data were available. All the WRF runs use a standard microphysics package that depicts only three ice species, cloud ice, snow and graupel. The realism of the WRF simulations is examined by comparisons with both lightning and radar observations and with additional even higher-resolution cloud-resolving model runs. Preliminary findings are encouraging in that they suggest that WRF often makes convective storms of the proper size in approximately the right location, but they also indicate that higher resolution and better hydrometeor microphysics would be helpful in improving the realism of the updraft strengths, reflectivity and ice hydrometeor fields.

  10. Recent Activities on Global Nuclear Safety Regime

    Cho, Kun-Woo; Park, Jeong-Seop; Kim, Do-Hyoung


    Recently, rapid progress on the globalization of the nuclear safety issues is being made in IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and its member states. With the globalization, the need for international cooperation among international bodies and member states continues to grow for resolving these universal nuclear safety issues. Furthermore, the importance of strengthening the global nuclear safety regime is emphasized through various means, such as efforts in application of IAEA safety standards to all nuclear installations in the world and in strengthening the code of conduct and the convention on nuclear safety. In this regards, it is important for us to keep up with the activities related with the global nuclear safety regime as an IAEA member state and a leading country in nuclear safety regulation

  11. The start of lightning: Evidence of bidirectional lightning initiation

    van der Velde, Oscar; Williams, Earle R.; Montanya, Joan


    Lightning flashes are known to initiate in regions of strong electric fields inside thunderstorms, between layers of positively and negatively charged precipitation particles. For that reason, lightning inception is typically hidden from sight of camera systems used in research. Other technology such as lightning mapping systems based on radio waves can typically detect only some aspects of the lightning initiation process and subsequent development of positive and negative leader...

  12. Using the VAHIRR Radar Algorithm to Investigate Lightning Cessation

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.


    Accurately determining the threat posed by lightning is a major area for improved operational forecasts. Most efforts have focused on the initiation of lightning within a storm, with far less effort spent investigating lightning cessation. Understanding both components, initiation and cessation, are vital to improving lightning safety. Few organizations actively forecast lightning onset or cessation. One such organization is the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45WS has identified that charged anvil clouds remain a major threat of continued lightning and can greatly extend the window of a potential lightning strike. Furthermore, no discernable trend of total lightning activity has been observed consistently for all storms. This highlights the need for more research to find a robust method of knowing when a storm will cease producing lightning. Previous lightning cessation work has primarily focused on forecasting the cessation of cloud-to -ground lightning only. A more recent, statistical study involved total lightning (both cloud-to-ground and intracloud). Each of these previous works has helped the 45WS take steps forward in creating improved and ultimately safer lightning cessation forecasts. Each study has either relied on radar data or recommended increased use of radar data to improve cessation forecasts. The reasoning is that radar data is able to either directly or by proxy infer more about dynamical environment leading to cloud electrification and eventually lightning cessation. The authors of this project are focusing on a two ]step approach to better incorporate radar data and total lightning to improve cessation forecasts. This project will utilize the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) algorithm originally developed during the Airborne Field Mill II (ABFM II) research project. During the project, the VAHIRR product showed a trend of increasing

  13. LOFAR lightning imaging : mapping lightning with nanosecond precision

    Hare, B.M.; Scholten, O.; Bonardi, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Ebert, U.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J.R.; Leijnse, H.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Rutjes, C.; Schellart, P.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T.N.G.; ter Veen, S.; Winchen, T.


    Lightning mapping technology has proven instrumental in understanding lightning. In this work we present a pipeline that can use lightning observed by the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope to construct a 3-D map of the flash. We show that LOFAR has unparalleled precision, on the order of

  14. Laboratory demonstration of ball lightning

    Egorov, Anton I; Stepanov, Sergei I; Shabanov, Gennadii D


    A common laboratory facility for creating glowing flying plasmoids akin to a natural ball lightning, allowing a number of experiments to be performed to investigate the main properties of ball lightning, is described. (methodological notes)

  15. Emergency Preparedness and Response - Lightning

    ... for Pet Owners Frequently Asked Questions Additional Information Lightning Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... you know what to do when you see lightning or when you hear thunder as a warning. ...

  16. Katrina and Rita were lit up with lightning

    Shao, X.-M.; Harlin, J.; Stock, M.; Stanley, M.; Regan, A.; Wiens, K.; Hamlin, T.; Pongratz, M.; Suszcynsky, D.; Light, T.

    Hurricanes generally produce very little lightning activity compared to other noncyclonic storms, and lightning is especially sparse in the eye wall and inner regions within tens of kilometers surrounding the eye [Molinari et al., 1994, 1999]. (The eye wall is the wall of clouds that encircles the eye of the hurricane.) Lightning can sometimes be detected in the outer, spiral rainbands, but the lightning occurrence rate varies significantly from hurricane to hurricane as well as within an individual hurricane's lifetime.Hurricanes Katrina and Rita hit the U.S. Gulf coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, and their distinctions were not just limited to their tremendous intensity and damage caused. They also differed from typical hurricanes in their lightning production rate.

  17. Integration of Lightning- and Human-Caused Wildfire Occurrence Models

    Vilar, Lara; Nieto Solana, Hector; Martín, M. Pilar


    Fire risk indices are useful tools for fire prevention actions by fire managers. A fire ignition is either the result of lightning or human activities. In European Mediterranean countries most forest fires are due to human activities. However, lightning is still an important fire ignition source...... probability models at 1 × 1 km grid cell resolution in two regions of Spain: Madrid, which presents a high fire incidence due to human activities; and Aragón, one of the most affected regions in Spain by lightning-fires. For validation, independent fire ignition points were used to compute the Receiver...

  18. Faraday Cage Protects Against Lightning

    Jafferis, W.; Hasbrouck, R. T.; Johnson, J. P.


    Faraday cage protects electronic and electronically actuated equipment from lightning. Follows standard lightning-protection principles. Whether lightning strikes cage or cables running to equipment, current canceled or minimized in equipment and discharged into ground. Applicable to protection of scientific instruments, computers, radio transmitters and receivers, and power-switching equipment.

  19. Lightning and severe thunderstorms in event management.

    Walsh, Katie M


    There are a few national position stands/guidelines that address environmental conditions in athletics, yet they do not govern all outdoor sports. Extreme heat and cold, lightning, and severe wind can all be fatal, yet the majority of outdoor sports have no published guidelines addressing these conditions in relation to activity. Available research on extreme heat and cold conditions in athletics provides prevention strategies, to include acclimatization. Lightning and severe wind are two environmental conditions to which humans cannot accommodate, and they both can be deadly. There are strong positions on extreme heat/cold and lightning safety in athletics, but none affiliated with severe winds. Medical personnel involved in planning large outdoor sporting events must know of the presence of nationally published weather-related documents and apply them to their event. In addition, research needs to be expanded in the realm of establishing guidelines for safety to participants and spectators in severe wind conditions.

  20. Space activities and global popular music culture

    Wessels, Allison Rae; Collins, Patrick

    During the "space age" era, space activities appear increasingly as a theme in Western popular music, as they do in popular culture generally. In combination with the electronics and tele-communications revolution, "pop/rock" music has grown explosively during the space age to become an effectively global culture. From this base a number of trends are emerging in the pattern of influences that space activities have on pop music. The paper looks at the use of themes and imagery in pop music; the role of space technology in the modern "globalization" of pop music; and current and future links between space activities and pop music culture, including how public space programmes are affected by its influence on popular attitudes.

  1. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Myagmar Doljinsuren


    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  2. The start of lightning: Evidence of bidirectional lightning initiation.

    Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar; Williams, Earle R


    Lightning flashes are known to initiate in regions of strong electric fields inside thunderstorms, between layers of positively and negatively charged precipitation particles. For that reason, lightning inception is typically hidden from sight of camera systems used in research. Other technology such as lightning mapping systems based on radio waves can typically detect only some aspects of the lightning initiation process and subsequent development of positive and negative leaders. We report here a serendipitous recording of bidirectional lightning initiation in virgin air under the cloud base at ~11,000 images per second, and the differences in characteristics of opposite polarity leader sections during the earliest stages of the discharge. This case reveals natural lightning initiation, propagation and a return stroke as in negative cloud-to-ground flashes, upon connection to another lightning channel - without any masking by cloud.

  3. On the spatial and temporal distribution of global thunderstorm cells

    Mezuman, Keren; Price, Colin; Galanti, Eli


    Estimates of global thunderstorm activity have been made predominately by direct measurements of lightning discharges around the globe, either by optical measurements from satellites, or using ground-based radio antennas. In this paper we propose a new methodology in which thunderstorm clusters are constructed based on the lightning strokes detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) in the very low frequency range. We find that even with low lightning detection efficiency on a global scale, the spatial and temporal distribution of global thunderstorm cells is well reproduced. This is validated by comparing the global diurnal variations of the thunderstorm cells, and the currents produced by these storms, with the well-known Carnegie Curve, which represents the mean diurnal variability of the global atmospheric electric circuit, driven by thunderstorm activity. While the Carnegie Curve agrees well with our diurnal thunderstorm cluster variations, there is little agreement between the Carnegie Curve and the diurnal variation in the number of lightning strokes detected by the WWLLN. When multiplying the number of clusters we detect by the mean thunderstorm conduction current for land and ocean thunderstorms (Mach et al 2011 J. Geophys. Res. 116 D05201) we get a total average current of about 760 A. Our results show that thunderstorms alone explain more than 90% in the variability of the global electric circuit. However, while it has been previously shown that 90% of the global lightning occurs over continental landmasses, we show that around 50% of the thunderstorms are over the oceans, and from 00-09UTC there are more thunderstorm cells globally over the oceans than over the continents. Since the detection efficiency of the WWLLN system has increased over time, we estimate that the lower bound of the mean number of global thunderstorm cells in 2012 was around 1050 per hour, varying from around 840 at 03UTC to 1150 storms at 19UTC. (letter)

  4. Lightning on Venus

    Scarf, F. L.


    On the night side of Venus, the plasma wave instrument on the Pioneer-Venus Orbiter frequently detects strong and impulsive low-frequency noise bursts when the local magnetic field is strong and steady and when the field is oriented to point down to the ionosphere. The signals have characteristics of lightning whistlers, and an attempt was made to identify the sources by tracing rays along the B-field from the Orbiter down toward the surface. An extensive data set strongly indicates a clustering of lightning sources near the Beta and Phoebe Regios, with additional significant clustering near the Atla Regio at the eastern edge of Aphrodite Terra. These results suggest that there are localized lightning sources at or near the planetary surface.

  5. Estimating the NOx produced by lightning from GOME and NLDN data: a case study in the Gulf of Mexico

    S. Beirle


    Full Text Available Nitrogen oxides (NOxNO+NO2 play an important role in tropospheric chemistry, in particular in catalytic ozone production. Lightning provides a natural source of nitrogen oxides, dominating the production in the tropical upper troposphere, with strong impact on tropospheric ozone and the atmosphere's oxidizing capacity. Recent estimates of lightning produced NOx (LNOx are of the order of 5 Tg [N] per year with still high uncertainties in the range of one order of magnitude. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME on board the ESA-satellite ERS-2 allows the retrieval of tropospheric column densities of NO2 on a global scale. Here we present the GOME NO2 measurement directly over a large convective system over the Gulf of Mexico. Simultaneously, cloud-to-ground (CG flashes are counted by the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDNTM, and extrapolated to include intra-cloud (IC+CG flashes based on a climatological IC:CG ratio derived from NASA's space-based lightning sensors. A series of 14 GOME pixels shows largely enhanced column densities over thick and high clouds, coinciding with strong lightning activity. The enhancements can not be explained by transport of anthropogenic NOx and must be due to fresh production of LNOx. A quantitative analysis, accounting in particular for the visibility of LNOx from satellite, yields a LNOx production of 90 (32-240 moles of NOx, or 1.3 (0.4-3.4 kg [N], per flash. If simply extrapolated, this corresponds to a global LNOx production of 1.7 (0.6-4.7Tg [N]/yr.

  6. An Algorithm for Obtaining the Distribution of 1-Meter Lightning Channel Segment Altitudes for Application in Lightning NOx Production Estimation

    Peterson, Harold; Koshak, William J.


    An algorithm has been developed to estimate the altitude distribution of one-meter lightning channel segments. The algorithm is required as part of a broader objective that involves improving the lightning NOx emission inventories of both regional air quality and global chemistry/climate models. The algorithm was tested and applied to VHF signals detected by the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The accuracy of the algorithm was characterized by comparing algorithm output to the plots of individual discharges whose lengths were computed by hand; VHF source amplitude thresholding and smoothing were applied to optimize results. Several thousands of lightning flashes within 120 km of the NALMA network centroid were gathered from all four seasons, and were analyzed by the algorithm. The mean, standard deviation, and median statistics were obtained for all the flashes, the ground flashes, and the cloud flashes. One-meter channel segment altitude distributions were also obtained for the different seasons.

  7. Lightning Imaging with LOFAR

    Scholten Olaf


    Full Text Available We show that LOFAR can be used as a lightning mapping array with a resolution that is orders of magnitude better than existing arrays. In addition the polarization of the radiation can be used to track the direction of the stepping discharges.

  8. National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection

    Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)


    In the early development of wind turbine generators (WTG) in the United States, wind farms were primarily located in California where lightning activity is the lowest in the United States. As such, lightning protection for wind turbines was not considered to be a major issue for designers or wind farm operators. However, wind turbine installations are expanding into the Midwest, Southwest and other regions of the United States where lightning activity is significantly more intense and lightning damage to wind turbines is more common. There is a growing need, therefore, to better understand lightning activity on wind farms and to improve wind turbine lightning protection systems. In support of the U.S. Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) Utility Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently begun to take steps to determine the extent of damage due to lightning and the effectiveness of various lightning protection techniques for wind power plants. Working through the TVP program, NREL will also perform outreach and education to (1) help manufacturers to provide equipment that is adequately designed to survive lightning, (2) make sure that operators are aware of effective safety procedures, and (3) help site designers and wind farm developers take the risk of lightning into account as effectively as possible.

  9. Lightning and radar observations of hurricane Rita landfall

    Henderson, Bradley G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Suszcynsky, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamlin, Timothy E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jeffery, C A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Kyle C [TEXAS TECH U.; Orville, R E [TEXAS A& M


    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) owns and operates an array of Very-Low Frequency (VLF) sensors that measure the Radio-Frequency (RF) waveforms emitted by Cloud-to-Ground (CG) and InCloud (IC) lightning. This array, the Los Alamos Sferic Array (LASA), has approximately 15 sensors concentrated in the Great Plains and Florida, which detect electric field changes in a bandwidth from 200 Hz to 500 kHz (Smith et al., 2002). Recently, LANL has begun development of a new dual-band RF sensor array that includes the Very-High Frequency (VHF) band as well as the VLF. Whereas VLF lightning emissions can be used to deduce physical parameters such as lightning type and peak current, VHF emissions can be used to perform precise 3d mapping of individual radiation sources, which can number in the thousands for a typical CG flash. These new dual-band sensors will be used to monitor lightning activity in hurricanes in an effort to better predict intensification cycles. Although the new LANL dual-band array is not yet operational, we have begun initial work utilizing both VLF and VHF lightning data to monitor hurricane evolution. In this paper, we present the temporal evolution of Rita's landfall using VLF and VHF lightning data, and also WSR-88D radar. At landfall, Rita's northern eyewall experienced strong updrafts and significant lightning activity that appear to mark a transition between oceanic hurricane dynamics and continental thunderstorm dynamics. In section 2, we give a brief overview of Hurricane Rita, including its development as a hurricane and its lightning history. In the following section, we present WSR-88D data of Rita's landfall, including reflectivity images and temporal variation. In section 4, we present both VHF and VLF lightning data, overplotted on radar reflectivity images. Finally, we discuss our observations, including a comparison to previous studies and a brief conclusion.

  10. Geological Effects on Lightning Strike Distributions

    Berdahl, J. Scott


    Recent advances in lightning detection networks allow for detailed mapping of lightning flash locations. Longstanding rumors of geological influence on cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning distribution and recent commercial claims based on such influence

  11. Lightning hazard region over the maritime continent observed from satellite and climate change threat

    Ilhamsyah, Y.; Koesmaryono, Y.; Hidayat, R.; Murjaya, J.; Nurjaya, I. W.; Rizwan


    Climate change would lead to such hydrometeorological disaster as: flash-flood, landslide, hailstone, lightning, and twister become more likely to happen in the future. In terms of lightning event, one research question arise of where lightning would be mostly to strike over the Maritime Continent (MC)?. The objective of the research is to investigate region with high-density of lightning activity over MC by mapping climatological features of lightning flashes derived from onboard NASA-TRMM Satellite, i.e. Optical Transient Detector/Lightning Imaging Sensor (OTD/LIS). Based on data retrieved since 1995-2013, it is seasonally observed that during transition season March to May, region with high vulnerability of lightning flashes cover the entire Sumatra Island, the Malacca Strait, and Peninsular Malaysia as well as Java Island. High-frequent of lightning activity over the Malacca Strait is unique since it is the only sea-region in the world where lightning flashes are denser. As previously mentioned that strong lightning activity over the strait is driven by mesoscale convective system of Sumatra Squalls due to convergences of land breeze between Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Lightning activity over the strait is continuously observed throughout season despite the intensity reduced. Java Island, most populated island, receive high-density of lightning flashes during rainy season (December to February) but small part in the northwestern of Java Island, e.g., Bogor and surrounding areas, the density of lightning flashes are high throughout season. Northern and southern parts of Kalimantan and Central part of Sulawesi are also prone to lightning activity particularly during transition season March to May and September to November. In the eastern part of MC, Papua receive denser lightning flashes during September to November. It is found that lightning activity are mostly concentrated over land instead of ocean which is in accordance with diurnal convective

  12. Lightning-generated whistler waves observed by probes on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System satellite at low latitudes

    Holzworth, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Pfaff, R. F.; Jacobson, A. R.; Willcockson, W. L.; Rowland, D. E.


    Direct evidence is presented for a causal relationship between lightning and strong electric field transients inside equatorial ionospheric density depletions. In fact, these whistler mode plasma waves may be the dominant electric field signal within such depletions. Optical lightning data from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite and global lightning location information from the World Wide Lightning Location Network are presented as independent verification that these electric field transients are caused by lightning. The electric field instrument on C/NOFS routinely measures lightning-related electric field wave packets or sferics, associated with simultaneous measurements of optical flashes at all altitudes encountered by the satellite (401-867 km). Lightning-generated whistler waves have abundant access to the topside ionosphere, even close to the magnetic equator.

  13. Lightning discharges produced by wind turbines

    Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar; Williams, Earle R.


    New observations with a 3-D Lightning Mapping Array and high-speed video are presented and discussed. The first set of observations shows that under certain thunderstorm conditions, wind turbine blades can produce electric discharges at regular intervals of 3 s in relation to its rotation, over periods of time that range from a few minutes up to hours. This periodic effect has not been observed in static towers indicating that the effect of rotation is playing a critical role. The repeated discharges can occur tens of kilometers away from electrically active thunderstorm areas and may or may not precede a fully developed upward lightning discharge from the turbine. Similar to rockets used for triggering lightning, the fast movement of the blade tip plays an important role on the initiation of the discharge. The movement of the rotor blades allows the tip to "runaway" from the generated corona charge. The second observation is an uncommon upward/downward flash triggered by a wind turbine. In that flash, a negative upward leader was initiated from a wind turbine without preceding lightning activity. The flash produced a negative cloud-to-ground stroke several kilometers from the initiation point. The third observation corresponds to a high-speed video record showing simultaneous upward positive leaders from a group of wind turbines triggered by a preceding intracloud flash. The fact that multiple leaders develop simultaneously indicates a poor shielding effect among them. All these observations provide some special features on the initiation of lightning by nonstatic and complex tall structures.

  14. Land-ocean contrast on electrical characteristics of lightning discharge derived from satellite optical measurements

    Adachi, T.; Said, R.; Cummer, S. A.; Li, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Hsu, R.; Su, H.; Chen, A. B.; Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.


    Comparative studies on the electrical properties of oceanic and continental lightning are crucial to elucidate air discharge processes occurring under different conditions. Past studies however have primarily focused on continental lightning because of the limited coverage of ground-based instruments. Recent satellite measurements by FORMOSAT-2/ISUAL provided a new way to survey the global characteristics of lightning and transient luminous events regardless of land and ocean. In this study, we analyze ISUAL/spectrophotometer data to clarify the electrical properties of lightning on a global level. Based on the results obtained by Cummer et al. [2006] and Adachi et al. [2009], the OI-777.4nm emission intensity is used to infer lightning electrical parameters. Results show a clear land-ocean contrast on the parameters of lightning discharge: in oceanic lightning, peak luminosity is 60 % higher and the time scale of return stroke is 30 % shorter. These results suggest higher peak current in oceanic lightning, which is consistent with the fact that elves, EMP-driven phenomena, also tend to occur over the ocean [Chen et al., 2008]. Further analysis of lightning events occurring around the Caribbean Sea shows that the transition-line of lightning electrical properties is precisely located along the coastline. We suggest that the differences in these electrical properties may be due to the boundary conditions (conductivity, surface terrain, etc). In this talk, based on the calibration with NLDN and Duke magnetometer data, current moment change and charge moment change will be globally evaluated using a complete set of the ISUAL-observed lightning events.

  15. Control of Radioactive Lightning-Conductor

    Esposito, E.


    The radioactive lightning-conductor production in Brazil was started in 1970 and after a period of 19 years of commercialization of these devices, the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), based in studies done in Brazil and abroad, proved that the radioactive lightning-conductor performance wasn't superior to the conventional one, so the use of radioactive source is not justified. Thence, the authorization for its production was suspended and the installation of this type of lightning-conductor was forbidden. The radioactive material that results from the dismount of these devices must be immediately sent to CNEN, for treatment and temporary storage. After this prohibition and its publication in several specialized magazines, CNEN was searched for several institutions, factories, churches, etc, interested in obtaining information about the handling and shipment procedures of radioactive lightning-conductors that are inoperative and that must be sent to CNEN's Institutes, in a correct and secure form. From this moment CNEN technicians realize that the owners of radioactive lightning-conductors didn't have any knowledge and training in radiation protection, neither in equipment to monitoring the radiation. The radioactive material from these sources is, in almost all cases, the radioisotope 241Am which has a maximum activity of an order of 5 mCi (1,85 x 10-2 TBq); as the radiation emitted by 241Am is of alpha type, whose range in the air, is just few centimeters and the gamma rays are of low energy, an irradiation offer small risk. However, there is a contamination risk on someone hands, by the contact with the source. Aiming to attend, in an objective way, the users' interests in obtaining some pertinent technical information about the shipping of radioactive lightning-conductor that is inoperative or is being replaced and also to optimize its receipt in CNEN's Institutes, because there still has a great number of these lightning-conductors installed and still

  16. Monitoring of lightning discharge

    Grigor'ev, V.A.


    The paper presents a brief description of a lightning discharge recording system developed at the NPO 'Monitoring Techniques' under the direction of V.M. Moskolenko (Moscow). The system provides information about dangerous environmental occurrences such as tornados and hurricanes, making the forecast of extreme situations possible, especially in the areas of dangerous industries and objects. The created automatic system can be useful in solving the tasks relating to nuclear test monitoring. (author)

  17. A Probabilistic, Facility-Centric Approach to Lightning Strike Location

    Huddleston, Lisa L.; Roeder, William p.; Merceret, Francis J.


    A new probabilistic facility-centric approach to lightning strike location has been developed. This process uses the bivariate Gaussian distribution of probability density provided by the current lightning location error ellipse for the most likely location of a lightning stroke and integrates it to determine the probability that the stroke is inside any specified radius of any location, even if that location is not centered on or even with the location error ellipse. This technique is adapted from a method of calculating the probability of debris collisionith spacecraft. Such a technique is important in spaceport processing activities because it allows engineers to quantify the risk of induced current damage to critical electronics due to nearby lightning strokes. This technique was tested extensively and is now in use by space launch organizations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Future applications could include forensic meteorology.

  18. An In Depth Look at Lightning Trends in Hurricane Harvey using Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements

    Ringhausen, J.


    This research combines satellite measurements of lightning in Hurricane Harvey with ground-based lightning measurements to get a better sense of the total lightning occurring in the hurricane, both intra-cloud (IC) and cloud-to-ground (CG), and how it relates to the intensification and weakening of the tropical system. Past studies have looked at lightning trends in hurricanes using the space based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) or ground-based lightning detection networks. However, both of these methods have drawbacks. For instance, LIS was in low earth orbit, which limited lightning observations to 90 seconds for a particular point on the ground; hence, continuous lightning coverage of a hurricane was not possible. Ground-based networks can have a decreased detection efficiency, particularly for ICs, over oceans where hurricanes generally intensify. With the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) on the GOES-16 satellite, researchers can study total lightning continuously over the lifetime of a tropical cyclone. This study utilizes GLM to investigate total lightning activity in Hurricane Harvey temporally; this is augmented with spatial analysis relative to hurricane structure, similar to previous studies. Further, GLM and ground-based network data are combined using Bayesian techniques in a new manner to leverage the strengths of each detection method. This methodology 1) provides a more complete estimate of lightning activity and 2) enables the derivation of the IC:CG ratio (Z-ratio) throughout the time period of the study. In particular, details of the evolution of the Z-ratio in time and space are presented. In addition, lightning stroke spatiotemporal trends are compared to lightning flash trends. This research represents a new application of lightning data that can be used in future study of tropical cyclone intensification and weakening.

  19. Upward lightning attachment analysis on wind turbines and correlated current parameters

    Vogel, Stephan; Ishii, M.; Saito, M.


    This work provides insight in the attachment characteristics of upward initiated lightning discharges to wind turbines and their possible consequences for the lightning protection of wind turbine blades. All discharges were recorded at the Japanese coast of the Sea of Japan which is known...... for intense upward lightning activity. 172 video recordings of lightning discharges on rotating wind turbines are analysed and attachment angle, detachment angle, and the resulting angular displacement were determined. A classification between self-initiated and other-triggered upward lightning events...... is performed by means of video analysis. The results reveal that the majority of discharges are initiated on vertical blades; however, also attachments to horizontal blades are reported. Horizontal attachment (or a slightly inclined blade state) is often related with a triggered lightning event prior...

  20. Experimental research on ball lightning

    Ofuruton, H.; Ohtsuki, Y.H.


    Experiments on producing ball lightning were made with discharge in flammable gas and/or aerosol. A long lifetime (2 s) ball lightning was observed in 2.7 % ethane and 100 cm 3 cotton fibers, and in 1.5 % methane and 1.9 % ethane

  1. Lightning prediction using radiosonde data

    Weng, L.Y.; Bin Omar, J.; Siah, Y.K.; Bin Zainal Abidin, I.; Ahmad, S.K. [Univ. Tenaga, Darul Ehsan (Malaysia). College of Engineering


    Lightning is a natural phenomenon in tropical regions. Malaysia experiences very high cloud-to-ground lightning density, posing both health and economic concerns to individuals and industries. In the commercial sector, power lines, telecommunication towers and buildings are most frequently hit by lightning. In the event that a power line is hit and the protection system fails, industries which rely on that power line would cease operations temporarily, resulting in significant monetary loss. Current technology is unable to prevent lightning occurrences. However, the ability to predict lightning would significantly reduce damages from direct and indirect lightning strikes. For that reason, this study focused on developing a method to predict lightning with radiosonde data using only a simple back propagation neural network model written in C code. The study was performed at the Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA). In this model, the parameters related to wind were disregarded. Preliminary results indicate that this method shows some positive results in predicting lighting. However, a larger dataset is needed in order to obtain more accurate predictions. It was concluded that future work should include wind parameters to fully capture all properties for lightning formation, subsequently its prediction. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Ionospheric effects of thunderstorms and lightning

    Lay, Erin H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Tropospheric thunderstorms have been reported to disturb the lower ionosphere (~65-90 km) by convective atmospheric gravity waves and by electromagnetic field changes produced by lightning discharges. However, due to the low electron density in the lower ionosphere, active probing of its electron distribution is difficult, and the various perturbative effects are poorly understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that by using remotely-detected ?me waveforms of lightning radio signals it is possible to probe the lower ionosphere and its fluctuations in a spatially and temporally-resolved manner. Here we report evidence of gravity wave effects on the lower ionosphere originating from the thunderstorm. We also report variations in the nighttime ionosphere atop a small thunderstorm and associate the variations with the storm’s electrical activity. Finally, we present a data analysis technique to map ionospheric acoustic waves near thunderstorms.

  3. Lightning activity and radar observations of the multicell thunderstorm system passing over Swider Observatory (Poland) on 19 July 2015 and its dynamic and electric charge structure obtained from the WRF_ELEC model

    Kubicki, Marek; Konarski, Jerzy; Gajda, Wojciech; Barański, Piotr; Guzikowski, Jakub; Kryza, Maciej


    In this work we present preliminary results on the thunderstorm event at IG PAS Swider Geophysical Observatory (52.12°N, 21.25°E, geomagnetic latitude 50.5°N, near Warsaw, Poland) on 19 July 2015. The storm was caused by the abrasion of the warm front that stretched almost latitudinaly and cold front moving from the west to the east. Warm continental-tropical arrived at southern and eastern part of the country and the rest was covered by cool polar-maritime airmass. The storm had the squall-line character of approximately 100 km length and consisted of several cells, and the height of the cumulonimbus (Cb) cloud base was 1 km and top was 14 km, as inferred from the analysis of CAPPI (Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicator), CMAX (Column Maximum Display), MLVCUT (Multiple-Line Vertical Cut) radar map products from POLRAD observations at Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI), Legionowo station. In our paper we have discussed the obtained results of the post-time analysis of lightning activity and radar observations of the extended multicells thunderstorm system passing over IG PAS Swider Geophysical Observatory, on 19 July 2015 together with its dynamic and electric charge structure obtained from the WRF_ELEC model. We have used the archive data from the Polish National Lightning Location and Detection System PERUN (provided by IMWM-NRI) together with radar data obtained from the Doppler meteorological radar METEOR 1500C at Legionowo. Additionally, during the approach, passing over and moving away phase of the thunderstorm system, we have gathered the simultaneous and continuous recordings of E-field, the electric conductivity of air and the independent supplementary reference lightning detections delivered by the Swider measuring station of the Local Lightning Detection Network (LLDN) operated in Warsaw region. These data have given us a new possibility to acquire many valuable information about the

  4. Estimates of lightning NOx production from GOME satellite observations

    Boersma, K.F.; Eskes, H.J.; Meijer, E.W.; Kelder, H.M.


    Tropospheric NO2 column retreivals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Expeiment (GOME) satellite spectrometer are used to quantify the source strength and 3-D distribution of lightning produced nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2). A sharp increase of NO2 is observed at convective cloud tops with increasing

  5. Globalization of rheumatology: activities of ILAR. Think global - act local

    Dequeker, Jan; Rasker, Johannes J.; El-Hadidi, Tahsin


    In 1997 a distinguished EULAR rheumatologist involved in the development of biologics asked somewhat ironically, “What is ILAR [International League of Associations for Rheumatology] doing?” Now, 3 years later, we are in a position to review ILAR’s activities in recent years and its plans for the

  6. Long-Range Lightning Products for Short Term Forecasting of Tropical Cyclogenesis

    Businger, S.; Pessi, A.; Robinson, T.; Stolz, D.


    This paper will describe innovative graphical products derived in real time from long-range lightning data. The products have been designed to aid in short-term forecasting of tropical cyclone development for the Tropical Cyclone Structure Experiment 2010 (TCS10) held over the western Pacific Ocean from 17 August to 17 October 2010 and are available online at The long-range lightning data are from Vaisala’s Global Lightning Data 360 (GLD360) network and include time, location, current strength, polarity, and data quality indication. The products currently provided in real time include i. Infrared satellite imagery overlaid with lighting flash locations, with color indication of current strength and polarity (shades of blue for negative to ground and red for positive to ground). ii. A 15x15 degree storm-centered tile of IR imagery overlaid with lightning data as in i). iii. A pseudo reflectivity product showing estimates of radar reflectivity based on lightning rate - rain rate conversion derived from TRMM and PacNet data. iv. A lightning history product that plots each hour of lightning flash locations in a different color for a 12-hour period. v. Graphs of lightning counts within 50 or 300 km radius, respectively, of the storm center vs storm central sea-level pressure. vi. A 2-D graphic showing storm core lightning density along the storm track. The first three products above can be looped to gain a better understanding of the evolution of the lightning and storm structure. Examples of the graphics and their utility will be demonstrated and discussed. Histogram of lightning counts within 50 km of the storm center and graph of storm central pressure as a function of time.

  7. Chasing Lightning: Sferics, Tweeks and Whistlers

    Webb, P. A.; Franzen, K.; Garcia, L.; Schou, P.; Rous, P.


    We all know what lightning looks like during a thunderstorm, but the visible flash we see is only part of the story. This is because lightning also generates light with other frequencies that we cannot perceive with our eyes, but which are just as real as visible light. Unlike the visible light from lightning, these other frequencies can carry the lightning's energy hundreds or thousands of miles across the surface of the Earth in the form of special signals called "tweeks" and "sferics". Some of these emissions can even travel tens of thousands of miles out into space before returning to the Earth as "whistlers". The INSPIRE Project, Inc is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation whose beginning mission was to bring the excitement of observing these very low frequency (VLF) natural radio waves emissions from lightning to high school students. Since 1989, INSPIRE has provided specially designed radio receiver kits to over 2,600 participants around the world to make observations of signals in the VLF frequency range. Many of these participants are using the VLF data they collect in very creative projects that include fiction, music and art exhibitions. During the Fall 2008 semester, the first INSPIRE based university-level course was taught at University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) as part of its First-Year Seminar (FYS) series. The FYS classes are limited to 20 first-year students per class and are designed to create an active-learning environment that encourages student participation and discussion that might not otherwise occur in larger first-year classes. This presentation will cover the experiences gained from using the INSPIRE kits as the basis of a university course. This will include the lecture material that covers the basic physics of lightning, thunderstorms and the Earth's atmosphere, as well as the electronics required to understand the basic workings of the VLF kit. It will also cover the students assembly of the kit in an

  8. Using Total Lightning Observations to Enhance Lightning Safety

    Stano, Geoffrey T.


    Lightning is often the underrated threat faced by the public when it comes to dangerous weather phenomena. Typically, larger scale events such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes receive the vast majority of attention by both the general population and the media. This comes from the fact that these phenomena are large, longer lasting, can impact a large swath of society at one time, and are dangerous events. The threat of lightning is far more isolated on a case by case basis, although millions of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes hit this United States each year. While attention is given to larger meteorological events, lightning is the second leading cause of weather related deaths in the United States. This information raises the question of what steps can be taken to improve lightning safety. Already, the meteorological community s understanding of lightning has increased over the last 20 years. Lightning safety is now better addressed with the National Weather Service s access to the National Lightning Detection Network data and enhanced wording in their severe weather warnings. Also, local groups and organizations are working to improve public awareness of lightning safety with easy phrases to remember, such as "When Thunder Roars, Go Indoors." The impacts can be seen in the greater array of contingency plans, from airports to sports stadiums, addressing the threat of lightning. Improvements can still be made and newer technologies may offer new tools as we look towards the future. One of these tools is a network of sensors called a lightning mapping array (LMA). Several of these networks exist across the United States. NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT), part of the Marshall Spaceflight Center, has access to three of these networks from Huntsville, Alabama, the Kennedy Space Center, and Washington D.C. The SPoRT program s mission is to help transition unique products and observations into the operational forecast environment

  9. On the interactions between energetic electrons and lightning whistler waves observed at high L-shells on Van Allen Probes

    Zheng, H.; Holzworth, R. H., II; Brundell, J. B.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Jacobson, A. R.; Fennell, J. F.; Li, J.


    Lightning produces strong broadband radio waves, called "sferics", which propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and are detected thousands of kilometers away from their source. Global real-time detection of lightning strokes including their time, location and energy, is conducted with the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). In the ionosphere, these sferics couple into very low frequency (VLF) whistler waves which propagate obliquely to the Earth's magnetic field. A good match has previously been shown between WWLLN sferics and Van Allen Probes lightning whistler waves. It is well known that lightning whistler waves can modify the distribution of energetic electrons in the Van Allen belts by pitch angle scattering into the loss cone, especially at low L-Shells (referred to as LEP - Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation). It is an open question whether lightning whistler waves play an important role at high L-shells. The possible interactions between energetic electrons and lightning whistler waves at high L-shells are considered to be weak in the past. However, lightning is copious, and weak pitch angle scattering into the drift or bounce loss cone would have a significant influence on the radiation belt populations. In this work, we will analyze the continuous burst mode EMFISIS data from September 2012 to 2016, to find out lightning whistler waves above L = 3. Based on that, MAGEIS data are used to study the related possible wave-particle interactions. In this talk, both case study and statistical analysis results will be presented.

  10. Partitioning the LIS/OTD Lightning Climatological Dataset into Separate Ground and Cloud Flash Distributions

    Koshak, W. J.; Solarkiewicz, R. J.


    Presently, it is not well understood how to best model nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from lightning because lightning is highly variable. Peak current, channel length, channel altitude, stroke multiplicity, and the number of flashes that occur in a particular region (i.e., flash density) all influence the amount of lightning NOx produced. Moreover, these 5 variables are not the same for ground and cloud flashes; e.g., cloud flashes normally have lower peak currents, higher altitudes, and higher flash densities than ground flashes [see (Koshak, 2009) for additional details]. Because the existing satellite observations of lightning (Fig. 1) from the Lightning Imaging Sensor/Optical Transient Detector (LIS/OTD) do not distinguish between ground and cloud fashes, which produce different amounts of NOx, it is very difficult to accurately account for the regional/global production of lightning NOx. Hence, the ability to partition the LIS/OTD lightning climatology into separate ground and cloud flash distributions would substantially benefit the atmospheric chemistry modeling community. NOx indirectly influences climate because it controls the concentration of ozone and hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere. The importance of lightning-produced NOx is empasized throughout the scientific literature (see for example, Huntrieser et al. 1998). In fact, lightning is the most important NOx source in the upper troposphere with a global production rate estimated to vary between 2 and 20 Tg (N)yr(sup -1) (Lee et al., 1997), with more recent estimates of about 6 Tg(N)yr(sup -1) (Martin et al., 2007). In order to make accurate predictions, global chemistry/climate models (as well as regional air quality modells) must more accurately account for the effects of lightning NOx. In particular, the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Model E (Schmidt et al., 2005) and the GEOS-CHEM global chemical transport model (Bey et al., 2001) would each benefit from a partitioning of the

  11. Climate and Lightning: An updated TRMM-LIS Analysis

    Petersen, Walter A.; Buechler, D. E.


    The TRMM Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) has sampled global tropical and sub-tropical lightning flash densities for approximately 11 years. These data were originally processed and results presented by the authors in the 3rd AMS MALD Conference held in 2007 using both pre and post TRMM-boost lightning data. These data were normalized for the orbit boost by scaling the pre-boost data by a fixed constant based on the different swath areas for the pre and post-boost years (post-boost after 2001). Inevitably, one must question this simple approach to accounting for the orbit boost when sampling such a noisy quantity. Hence we are in the process of reprocessing the entire 11-year TRMM LIS dataset to reduce the orbit swath of the post-boost era to that of the pre-boost in order to eliminate sampling bias in the dataset. Study of the diurnal/seasonal/annual sampling suggests that those biases are already minimal and should not contribute to error in examination of annual trends. We will present new analysis of the 11-year annual trends in total lightning flash density for all latitudinal belts and select regions/regimes of the tropics as related to conventional climate signals and precipitation contents in the same period. The results should enable us to address, in some fashion, the sensitivity of the lightning flash density to subtle changes in climate.

  12. The First Sprite Observation from Moscow in the Direction of Tver Region Associated with Repetitive Lightning Discharge

    Sorokin, L.V.


    The summer thunderstorms 2016 in the central part of Russia produced heavy precipitations and were accompanied by huge amount of lightning. During these events we provide the Sprite observation from Moscow. On the 18 August we caught two Sprites on the distance from 260 km to 290 km in the Tver region. It is important to underline that both Sprites occurred after the rare repetitive lightning discharge and the multiple lightning discharge. These types of lightning are rare in the Moscow region and more habitual for the tropical thunderstorms in Equator area. Due to the Climate Change and Global Warming the Sprites are common for the Russian Federation now. (author)

  13. New model simulations of the global atmospheric electric circuit driven by thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds: The roles of lightning and sprites

    Rycroft, Michael J.; Odzimek, Anna; Arnold, Neil F.


    discharge from the base of a thunderstorm increases the ionospheric potential above the thundercloud by 0.0013%. Assuming the ionosphere to be an equipotential surface, this discharge increases the current flowing in the global circuit and the fair-weather electric field also by 0.0013%. A moderate positive...

  14. Terrestrial gamma-ray flash production by lightning

    Carlson, Brant E.

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are brief flashes of gamma-rays originating in the Earth's atmosphere and observed by satellites. First observed in 1994 by the Burst And Transient Source Experiment on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, TGFs consist of one or more ˜1 ms pulses of gamma-rays with a total fluence of ˜1/cm2, typically observed when the satellite is near active thunderstorms. TGFs have subsequently been observed by other satellites to have a very hard spectrum (harder than dN/d E ∝ 1/ E ) that extends from below 25 keV to above 20 MeV. When good lightning data exists, TGFs are closely associated with measurable lightning discharge. Such discharges are typically observed to occur within 300 km of the sub-satellite point and within several milliseconds of the TGF observation. The production of these intense energetic bursts of photons is the puzzle addressed herein. The presence of high-energy photons implies a source of bremsstrahlung, while bremsstrahlung implies a source of energetic electrons. As TGFs are associated with lightning, fields produced by lightning are naturally suggested to accelerate these electrons. Initial ideas about TGF production involved electric fields high above thunderstorms as suggested by upper atmospheric lightning research and the extreme energies required for lower-altitude sources. These fields, produced either quasi-statically by charges in the cloud and ionosphere or dynamically by radiation from lightning strokes, can indeed drive TGF production, but the requirements on the source lightning are too extreme and therefore not common enough to account for all existing observations. In this work, studies of satellite data, the physics of energetic electron and photon production, and consideration of lightning physics motivate a new mechanism for TGF production by lightning current pulses. This mechanism is then developed and used to make testable predictions. TGF data from satellite observations are compared

  15. Lightning climatology over Jakarta, Indonesia, based on long-term surface operational, satellite, and campaign observations

    Mori, Shuichi; Wu, Peiming; Yamanaka, Manabu D.; Hattori, Miki; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Arbain, Ardhi A.; Lestari, Sopia; Sulistyowati, Reni; Syamsudin, Fadli


    Lightning frequency over Indonesian Maritime Continent (MC) is quite high (Petersen and Rutledge 2001, Christian et al. 2003, Takayabu 2006, etc). In particular, Bogor (south of Jakarta, west Jawa) had 322 days of lightning in one year (Guinness Book in 1988). Lightning causes serious damage on nature and society over the MC; forest fore, power outage, inrush/surge currents on many kinds of electronics. Lightning climatology and meso-scale characteristics of thunderstorm over the MC, in particular over Jakarta, where social damage is quite serious, were examined. We made Statistical analysis of lightning and thunderstorm based on TRMM Lightning Image Sensor (LIS) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) together with long-term operational surface observation data (SYNOP) in terms of diurnal, intraseasonal, monsoonal, and interannual variations. In addition, we carried out a campaign observation in February 2015 in Bogor to obtain meso-scale structure and dynamics of thunderstorm over Jakarta to focus on graupel and other ice phase particles inside by using an X-band dual-polarimetric (DP) radar. Recently, Virts et al. (2013a, b) showed comprehensive lightning climatology based on the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). However, they also reported problems with its detection efficiency (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI (Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research) grant number 25350515 and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) 7th Research Announcement (RA).

  16. 2016 T Division Lightning Talks

    Ramsey, Marilyn Leann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Adams, Luke Clyde [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Ferre, Gregoire Robing [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Grantcharov, Vesselin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Iaroshenko, Oleksandr [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Krishnapriyan, Aditi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Kurtakoti, Prajvala Kishore [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Le Thien, Minh Quan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Lim, Jonathan Ng [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Low, Thaddeus Song En [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Lystrom, Levi Aaron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Ma, Xiaoyu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Nguyen, Hong T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Pogue, Sabine Silvia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Orandle, Zoe Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Reisner, Andrew Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Revard, Benjamin Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Roy, Julien [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Sandor, Csanad [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Slavkova, Kalina Polet [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Weichman, Kathleen Joy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Wu, Fei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Yang, Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division


    These are the slides for all of the 2016 T Division lightning talks. There are 350 pages worth of slides from different presentations, all of which cover different topics within the theoretical division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  17. 2017 T Division Lightning Talks

    Ramsey, Marilyn Leann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Abeywardhana, Jayalath AMM [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Adams, Colin Mackenzie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Adams, Luke Clyde [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carter, Austin Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ducru, Pablo Philippe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Duignan, Thomas John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gifford, Brendan Joel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hills, Benjamin Hale [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hoffman, Kentaro Jack [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Khair, Adnan Ibne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kochanski, Kelly Anne Pribble [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ledwith, Patrick John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leveillee, Joshua Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewis, Sina Genevieve [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ma, Xiaoyu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Merians, Hugh Drake [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Bryan Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nijjar, Parmeet Kaur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oles, Vladyslav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olszewski, Maciej W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Philipbar, Brad Montgomery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reisner, Andrew Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roberts, David Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rufa, Dominic Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sifain, Andrew E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Justin Steven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Lauren Taylor Wisbey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Svolos, Lampros [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thibault, Joshua Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ushijima-Mwesigwa, Hayato Montezuma [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Claire Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Witzen, Wyatt Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zentgraf, Sabine Silvia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alred, John Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    All members of the T Division Community, students, staff members, group leaders, division management, and other interested individuals are invited to come and support the following student(s) as they present their Lightning Talks.

  18. Emotional Eruptions, Volcanic Activity and Global Mobilities

    Jensen, Ole B.


    The eruption of Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April 2010 set off a number of environmental, economic and cultural effects obstructing thousands of people in the midst of their global mobility flows. It halted, as well, the exchange of goods and commodities and exposed the vulnerability...... of the global aeromobility system. In this paper an account is given of how the event was experienced by a European academic attending a number of North American conferences at precisely the time of the eruption. The paper is an attempt to describe how people reacted emotionally as well as rationally......, attempting to find strategies for coping with the consequences of the eruption....

  19. Ground Optical Lightning Detector (GOLD)

    Jackson, John, Jr.; Simmons, David

    A photometer developed to characterize lightning from the ground is discussed. The detector and the electronic signal processing and data storage systems are presented along with field data measured by the system. The discussion will include improvements that will be incorporated to enhance the measurement of lightning and the data storage capability to record for many days without human involvement. Finally, the calibration of the GOLD system is presented.

  20. Lightning safety awareness of visitors in three California national parks.

    Weichenthal, Lori; Allen, Jacoby; Davis, Kyle P; Campagne, Danielle; Snowden, Brandy; Hughes, Susan


    To assess the level of lightning safety awareness among visitors at 3 national parks in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. A 12-question, short answer convenience sample survey was administered to participants 18 years of age and over concerning popular trails and points of interest with known lightning activity. There were 6 identifying questions and 5 knowledge-based questions pertaining to lightning that were scored on a binary value of 0 or 1 for a total of 10 points for the survey instrument. Volunteers in Fresno, California, were used as a control group. Participants were categorized as Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park (SEKI), frontcountry (FC), or backcountry (BC); Yosemite National Park (YNP) FC or BC; and Fresno. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences between groups. 467 surveys were included for analysis: 77 in Fresno, 192 in SEKI, and 198 in YNP. National park participants demonstrated greater familiarity with lightning safety than individuals from the metropolitan community (YNP 5.84 and SEKI 5.65 vs Fresno 5.14, P = .0032). There were also differences noted between the BC and FC subgroups (YNP FC 6.07 vs YNP BC 5.62, P = .02; YNP FC 6.07 vs SEKI FC 5.58, P = .02). Overall results showed that participants had certain basic lightning knowledge but lacked familiarity with other key lightning safety recommendations. While there are statistically significant differences in lightning safety awareness between national parks and metropolitan participants, the clinical impact of these findings are debatable. This study provides a starting point for providing educational outreach to visitors in these national parks. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio


    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Miniaturization and globalization of clinical laboratory activities.

    Melo, Murilo R; Clark, Samantha; Barrio, Daniel


    Clinical laboratories provide an invaluable service to millions of people around the world in the form of quality diagnostic care. Within the clinical laboratory industry the impetus for change has come from technological development (miniaturization, nanotechnology, and their collective effect on point-of-care testing; POCT) and the increasingly global nature of laboratory services. Potential technological gains in POCT include: the development of bio-sensors, microarrays, genetics and proteomics testing, and enhanced web connectivity. In globalization, prospective opportunities lie in: medical tourism, the migration of healthcare workers, cross-border delivery of testing, and the establishment of accredited laboratories in previously unexplored markets. Accompanying these impressive opportunities are equally imposing challenges. Difficulty transitioning from research to clinical use, poor infrastructure in developing countries, cultural differences and national barriers to global trade are only a few examples. Dealing with the issues presented by globalization and the impact of developing technology on POCT, and on the clinical laboratory services industry in general, will be a daunting task. Despite such concerns, with appropriate countermeasures it will be possible to address the challenges posed. Future laboratory success will be largely dependent on one's ability to adapt in this perpetually shifting landscape.

  3. Global environment and activity of RITE

    Kondo, Jiro


    In the present paper, the author would like to discuss the relation between conventional energy and global warming. Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) was established in Japan, September 1990. The author would like to introduce what RITE is intending to achieve. This is the case when technology leads science. (J.P.N.)

  4. Geomagnetic activity and the global temperature

    Bucha, Václav


    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2009), s. 571-573 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : global warming * Southern Oscillation * geomagnetic storms Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  5. Long recovery VLF perturbations associated with lightning discharges

    Salut, M. M.; Abdullah, M.; Graf, K. L.; Cohen, M. B.; Cotts, B. R. T.; Kumar, Sushil


    Long D-region ionospheric recovery perturbations are a recently discovered and poorly understood subcategory of early VLF events, distinguished by exceptionally long ionospheric recovery times of up to 20 min (compared to more typical ˜1 min recovery times). Characteristics and occurrence rates of long ionospheric recovery events on the NWC transmitter signal recorded at Malaysia are presented. 48 long recovery events were observed. The location of the causative lightning discharge for each event is determined from GLD360 and WWLLN data, and each discharge is categorized as being over land or sea. Results provide strong evidence that long recovery events are attributed predominately to lightning discharges occurring over the sea, despite the fact that lightning activity in the region is more prevalent over land. Of the 48 long recovery events, 42 were attributed to lightning activity over water. Analysis of the causative lightning of long recovery events in comparison to all early VLF events reveals that these long recovery events are detectable for lighting discharges at larger distances from the signal path, indicating a different scattering pattern for long recovery events.

  6. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) for the International Space Station (ISS): Mission Description and Science Goals

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T.; hide


    In recent years, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners have developed and demonstrated space-based lightning observations as an effective remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) continues to acquire global observations of total (i.e., intracloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning after 17 years on-orbit. However, TRMM is now low on fuel, so this mission will soon be completed. As a follow on to this mission, a space-qualified LIS built as the flight spare for TRMM has been selected for flight as a science mission on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS LIS will be flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program (STP) H5 mission, which has a January 2016 baseline launch date aboard a SpaceX launch vehicle for a 2-4 year or longer mission. The LIS measures the amount, rate, and radiant energy of total lightning over the Earth. More specifically, it measures lightning during both day and night, with storm scale resolution (approx. 4 km), millisecond timing, and high, uniform detection efficiency, without any land-ocean bias. Lightning is a direct and most impressive response to intense atmospheric convection. It has been found that lightning measured by LIS can be quantitatively related to thunderstorm and other geophysical processes. Therefore, the ISS LIS lightning observations will continue to provide important gap-filling inputs to pressing Earth system science issues across a broad range of disciplines, including weather, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and lightning physics. A unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning data, especially valuable for operational applications over data sparse regions such as the oceans. The ISS platform will also uniquely enable LIS to provide simultaneous and complementary observations

  7. An overview of global activities in generation

    Grender-Jones, D.; Koenig, J.W.


    This paper examines the global trends in power generation. The topics of the paper include the issues affecting power production in North America, trends in Central and South America, changes in the European power generation market as the result of moving to a competitive market, self-sufficiency and energy exporting in Asia and the Far East, political turmoil and weak economies limit power generation prospects in Africa, and pollution clean-up and energy production in the Middle East.s

  8. Optical design of the lightning imager for MTG

    Lorenzini, S.; Bardazzi, R.; Di Giampietro, M.; Feresin, F.; Taccola, M.; Cuevas, L. P.


    The Lightning Imager for Meteosat Third Generation is an optical payload with on-board data processing for the detection of lightning. The instrument will provide a global monitoring of lightning events over the full Earth disk from geostationary orbit and will operate in day and night conditions. The requirements of the large field of view together with the high detection efficiency with small and weak optical pulses superimposed to a much brighter and highly spatial and temporal variable background (full operation during day and night conditions, seasonal variations and different albedos between clouds oceans and lands) are driving the design of the optical instrument. The main challenge is to distinguish a true lightning from false events generated by random noise (e.g. background shot noise) or sun glints diffusion or signal variations originated by microvibrations. This can be achieved thanks to a `multi-dimensional' filtering, simultaneously working on the spectral, spatial and temporal domains. The spectral filtering is achieved with a very narrowband filter centred on the bright lightning O2 triplet line (777.4 nm +/- 0.17 nm). The spatial filtering is achieved with a ground sampling distance significantly smaller (between 4 and 5 km at sub satellite pointing) than the dimensions of a typical lightning pulse. The temporal filtering is achieved by sampling continuously the Earth disk within a period close to 1 ms. This paper presents the status of the optical design addressing the trade-off between different configurations and detailing the design and the analyses of the current baseline. Emphasis is given to the discussion of the design drivers and the solutions implemented in particular concerning the spectral filtering and the optimisation of the signal to noise ratio.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) dataset was collected by the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP), which consists of 6 rotating vane type electric field...

  10. Measuring Method for Lightning Channel Temperature

    Li, X.; Zhang, J.; Chen, L.; Xue, Q.; Zhu, R.


    In this paper, we demonstrate the temperature of lightning channel utilizing the theory of lightning spectra and the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The impulse current generator platform (ICGS) was used to simulate the lightning discharge channel, and the spectral energy of infrared spectroscopy (930 nm) and the visible spectroscopy (648.2 nm) of the simulated lightning has been calculated. Results indicate that the peaks of luminous intensity of both infrared and visible spectra increase with the lightning current intensity in range of 5-50 kA. Based on the results, the temperature of the lightning channel is derived to be 6140.8-10424 K. Moreover, the temperature of the channel is approximately exponential to the lightning current intensity, which shows good agreement with that of the natural lightning cases.

  11. Spatial and temporal analysis of a 17-year lightning climatology over Bangladesh with LIS data

    Dewan, Ashraf; Ongee, Emmanuel T.; Rahman, Md. Masudur; Mahmood, Rezaul; Yamane, Yusuke


    Using NASA's TRMM Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data from 1998 to 2014, this paper presents a 17-year lightning climatology of Bangladesh, at 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution. Diurnal, seasonal, monthly and annual variations in the occurrence of lightning flashes were explored. The diurnal regime of lightning is dominated by afternoon/evening events. Overall, peak lightning activity occurs in the early morning (0200 LST) and evening (1900 LST). The distribution of lightning flash counts by season over Bangladesh landmass is as follows: pre-monsoon (69.2%), monsoon (24.1%), post-monsoon (4.6%) and winter (2.1%). Flash rate density (FRD) hotspots were primarily located in the north and north-eastern parts of Bangladesh, with a maximum of 72 fl km-2 year-1. Spatially, the distribution of FRD increases from the Bay of Bengal in the south to relatively higher elevations (of the Himalayan foothills) in the north. A spatial shift in FRD hotspots occurs with change in season. For example, in monsoon season, hotspots of lightning activity move in a south-westerly direction from their pre-monsoon location (i.e. north-eastern Bangladesh) towards West Bengal in India. South and south-eastern parts of Bangladesh experience high lightning activity during post-monsoon season due to regional orographic lifting and low-pressure systems (i.e. cyclone) in the Bay of Bengal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study focused on LIS-based lightning climatology over Bangladesh. This baseline study, therefore, is an essential first step towards effective management of lightning-related hazards in Bangladesh.

  12. Periodic inspections of lightning protection systems in intermediate storage facilities of nuclear technological plants

    Witzel, Andre; Schulz, Olav


    Especially for nuclear technological plants, periodic inspections of lightning protection systems are of great importance. This article shows the sequence of maintenance programs using the examples of the intermediate storage facilities of the nuclear technological plants Grohnde and Unterweser as well as the central intermediate storage facility in Gorleben and gives a description of the extensive measures of inspecting the external and internal lightning protection and the global earth termination system.

  13. Location accuracy evaluation of lightning location systems using natural lightning flashes recorded by a network of high-speed cameras

    Alves, J.; Saraiva, A. C. V.; Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Antunes, L.


    This work presents a method for the evaluation of location accuracy of all Lightning Location System (LLS) in operation in southeastern Brazil, using natural cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes. This can be done through a multiple high-speed cameras network (RAMMER network) installed in the Paraiba Valley region - SP - Brazil. The RAMMER network (Automated Multi-camera Network for Monitoring and Study of Lightning) is composed by four high-speed cameras operating at 2,500 frames per second. Three stationary black-and-white (B&W) cameras were situated in the cities of São José dos Campos and Caçapava. A fourth color camera was mobile (installed in a car), but operated in a fixed location during the observation period, within the city of São José dos Campos. The average distance among cameras was 13 kilometers. Each RAMMER sensor position was determined so that the network can observe the same lightning flash from different angles and all recorded videos were GPS (Global Position System) time stamped, allowing comparisons of events between cameras and the LLS. The RAMMER sensor is basically composed by a computer, a Phantom high-speed camera version 9.1 and a GPS unit. The lightning cases analyzed in the present work were observed by at least two cameras, their position was visually triangulated and the results compared with BrasilDAT network, during the summer seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The visual triangulation method is presented in details. The calibration procedure showed an accuracy of 9 meters between the accurate GPS position of the object triangulated and the result from the visual triangulation method. Lightning return stroke positions, estimated with the visual triangulation method, were compared with LLS locations. Differences between solutions were not greater than 1.8 km.

  14. Protection of LV system against lightning

    Yordanova Nedyalkova, Greta


    Lightning is a natural hazard and one of the greatest local mysteries. Scientists have not fully understood the mechanism of lightning. It is one of the most beautiful displays in nature and one of the nature's most dangerous phenomenon known to man. Overvoltage due to lightning is a very important problem of LV systems. Some lightning flashes damage buildings and a few kill or injure people and animals, either directly or indirectly, by causing fire and explosions. The need for protect...

  15. Lightning effects on electrical and nuclear equipment

    Gary, C.


    This paper gives the physical bases on which lightning protection of buildings and other erections such as nuclear power stations depend. To this end it first examines the impact phenomena of lightning, the operating systems of lightning conductors and methods of protection using metal mesh. It then describes various secondary effects of lightning, particularly those which occur inside buildings as a result of the potential rise in earthing systems and electromagnetic induction phenomena. 18 refs [fr

  16. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis.

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S; Mniszewski, Susan M; Del Valle, Sara Y; Hyman, James M


    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule's regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity's regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. We use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  17. Global Sourcing of Services Versus Manufacturing Activities

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent


    International sourcing strategies and operations are usually described distinctively for manufacturing and services. In this paper, the theoretical and strategic relevance of this distinction is questioned. As an alternative, an activity-based theoretical framework for exploring the linkages betw...... strategy, activity and organization is a key determinant of the success of the sourcing process and outcome....

  18. Relating lightning data to fire occurrence data

    Frank H. Koch


    Lightning disturbance can affect forest health at various scales. Lightning strikes may kill or weaken individual trees. Lightning-damaged trees may in turn function as epicenters of pest outbreaks in forest stands, as is the case with the southern pine beetle and other bark beetles (Rykiel and others 1988).

  19. Wind turbine with lightning protection system


    The present invention relates to a wind turbine comprising a lightning protection system comprising a waveguide interconnecting a communication device and a signal-carrying structure. In other aspects, the present invention relates to the use of a waveguide in a lightning protection system...... of a wind turbine, a power splitter and its use in a lightning protection system of a wind turbine....

  20. 49 CFR 176.120 - Lightning protection.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lightning protection. 176.120 Section 176.120 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.120 Lightning protection. A lightning conductor...

  1. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller has...

  2. Lightning Protection for Composite Aircraft Structures

    Olson, G. O.


    Lightning protection system consisting of two layers of aluminum foil separated by layer of dielectric material protects graphite/epoxy composite structures on aircraft. Protective layer is secondarily applied lightning protection system, prime advantage of which is nullification of thermal and right angle effect of lightning arc attachment to graphite/epoxy laminate.

  3. LOFAR for lightning-interferometery and mapping

    Scholten, Olaf; Buitink, Stijn; trinh, Gia; Bonardi, Antonio; Corstanje, Arthur; Ebert, Ute; Falcke, Heino; Hoerandel, Joerg; Mitra, Pragati; Mulrey, Katherine; Nelles, Anna; Rachen, Joerg; Rossetto, Laura; Rutjes, Casper; Schellart, Pim; Thoudam, Satayendra; ter Veen, Sander; Winchen, Tobias; Hare, Brian


    We show that a new observation mode at the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) for Lightning-Interferometery and Mapping (LIM) allows for lightning observations with a resolution that is at least an order of magnitude better than presently operating Lightning Napping Arrays LMAs. Furthermore the

  4. 14 CFR 420.71 - Lightning protection.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning protection. 420.71 Section 420.71... protection. (a) Lightning protection. A licensee shall ensure that the public is not exposed to hazards due to the initiation of explosives by lightning. (1) Elements of a lighting protection system. Unless an...

  5. 14 CFR 25.581 - Lightning protection.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning protection. 25.581 Section 25.581 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Lightning Protection § 25.581 Lightning protection. (a...

  6. Detection and characterization of lightning-based sources using continuous wavelet transform: application to audio-magnetotellurics

    Larnier, H.; Sailhac, P.; Chambodut, A.


    Atmospheric electromagnetic waves created by global lightning activity contain information about electrical processes of the inner and the outer Earth. Large signal-to-noise ratio events are particularly interesting because they convey information about electromagnetic properties along their path. We introduce a new methodology to automatically detect and characterize lightning-based waves using a time-frequency decomposition obtained through the application of continuous wavelet transform. We focus specifically on three types of sources, namely, atmospherics, slow tails and whistlers, that cover the frequency range 10 Hz to 10 kHz. Each wave has distinguishable characteristics in the time-frequency domain due to source shape and dispersion processes. Our methodology allows automatic detection of each type of event in the time-frequency decomposition thanks to their specific signature. Horizontal polarization attributes are also recovered in the time-frequency domain. This procedure is first applied to synthetic extremely low frequency time-series with different signal-to-noise ratios to test for robustness. We then apply it on real data: three stations of audio-magnetotelluric data acquired in Guadeloupe, oversea French territories. Most of analysed atmospherics and slow tails display linear polarization, whereas analysed whistlers are elliptically polarized. The diversity of lightning activity is finally analysed in an audio-magnetotelluric data processing framework, as used in subsurface prospecting, through estimation of the impedance response functions. We show that audio-magnetotelluric processing results depend mainly on the frequency content of electromagnetic waves observed in processed time-series, with an emphasis on the difference between morning and afternoon acquisition. Our new methodology based on the time-frequency signature of lightning-induced electromagnetic waves allows automatic detection and characterization of events in audio

  7. Two upward lightning at the Eagle Nest tower

    Montañá Puig, Juan; Van der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Romero Durán, David; March Nomen, Víctor; Solà de Las Fuentes, Gloria; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Soula, Serge; Hermoso Alameda, Blas


    A new instrument composed by a high speed camera, two high energy detectors, a E-field antenna and a VHF antenna were installed at the Eagle Nest tower (northeast of Spain) during summer 2011. With this equipment several lightning flashes to the tower and its vicinity have been observed. This paper presents two examples: the first was an upward negative leader triggered by a close c1oud-to-ground flash and the second was an upward negative flash not associated with previous lightning activity...

  8. Attempts to Create Ball Lightning with Triggered Lightning


    mechanisms by which ball lightning is generated. The most commonly reported observation is of an orange-to- grapefruit -size sphere (the range for the vast...Figure 5 shows a sequence of ten cropped frames extracted from the Phantom video at 48 ms intervals during the ICC process spanning the total 432 ms...strike the ground between 0.75-1.25 s after being emitted from the lightning-struck silicon wafers. A picture showing ten extracted frames at 280 ms

  9. Global design of an active integrated antenna for millimeter wave

    Marzolf, Eric; Drissi, M’hamed


    An active integrated antenna working in the millimeter wave has been realized in a monolithic process. The concept of active integrated antenna is first introduced, then the design of the integrated circuit based on a global approach, following electromagnetic and circuit simulations, is presented. The obtained performances of the active antenna are discussed and compared to a passive one.

  10. A proposed experiment on ball lightning model

    Ignatovich, Vladimir K.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.


    Highlights: → We propose to put a glass sphere inside an excited gas. → Then to put a light ray inside the glass in a whispering gallery mode. → If the light is resonant to gas excitation, it will be amplified at every reflection. → In ms time the light in the glass will be amplified, and will melt the glass. → A liquid shell kept integer by electrostriction forces is the ball lightning model. -- Abstract: We propose an experiment for strong light amplification at multiple total reflections from active gaseous media.

  11. In situ measurements of contributions to the global electrical circuit by a thunderstorm in southeastern Brazil

    Thomas, J.N.; Holzworth, R.H.; McCarthy, M.P.


    The global electrical circuit, which maintains a potential of about 280??kV between the earth and the ionosphere, is thought to be driven mainly by thunderstorms and lightning. However, very few in situ measurements of electrical current above thunderstorms have been successfully obtained. In this paper, we present dc to very low frequency electric fields and atmospheric conductivity measured in the stratosphere (30-35??km altitude) above an active thunderstorm in southeastern Brazil. From these measurements, we estimate the mean quasi-static conduction current during the storm period to be 2.5 ?? 1.25??A. Additionally, we examine the transient conduction currents following a large positive cloud-to-ground (+ CG) lightning flash and typical - CG flashes. We find that the majority of the total current is attributed to the quasi-static thundercloud charge, rather than lightning, which supports the classical Wilson model for the global electrical circuit.

  12. Lightning and its association with the frequency of headache in migraineurs: an observational cohort study.

    Martin, Geoffrey V; Houle, Timothy; Nicholson, Robert; Peterlin, Albert; Martin, Vincent T


    The aim of this article is to determine if lightning is associated with the frequency of headache in migraineurs. Participants fulfilling diagnostic criteria for International Headache Society-defined migraine were recruited from sites located in Ohio ( N  = 23) and Missouri ( N  = 67). They recorded headache activity in a daily diary for three to six months. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression determined the odds ratio (OR) of headache on lightning days compared to non-lightning days. Other weather factors associated with thunderstorms were also added as covariates to the GEE model to see how they would attenuate the effect of lightning on headache. The mean age of the study population was 44 and 91% were female. The OR for headache was 1.31 (95% confidence limits (CL); 1.07, 1.66) during lighting days as compared to non-lightning days. The addition of thunderstorm-associated weather variables as covariates were only able to reduce the OR for headache on lightning days to 1.18 (95% CL; 1.02, 1.37). The probability of having a headache on lightning days was also further increased when the average current of lightning strikes for the day was more negative. This study suggests that lightning represents a trigger for headache in migraineurs that cannot be completely explained by other meteorological factors. It is unknown if lightning directly triggers headaches through electromagnetic waves or indirectly through production of bioaerosols (e.g. ozone), induction of fungal spores or other mechanisms. These results should be interpreted cautiously until replicated in a second dataset.

  13. Electromagnetic emission from terrestrial lightning in the 0.1-30 MHz frequency range

    Karashtin, A. N.; Gurevich, A. V.

    Results of measurements carried out at SURA facility of Radiophisical Research Institute and at Tien-Shan Mountain Scientific Station of Lebedev Physical Institute using specially designed installations for short electromagnetic pulse observation in the frequency range from 0.1 to 30 MHz are presented. Specific attention is paid to initial stage of the lightning discharge. It is shown that lightning can be initiated by extensive atmospheric showers caused by high energy cosmic ray particles. Analysis of emission of few thousand lightning discharges showed that • Short wave radio emission of lightning consists of a series of short pulses with duration from less than 100 nanoseconds to several microseconds separated well longer gaps. • Background noise between lightning discharges is not differ from one observed without thunderstorm activity (at given sensitivity). Usually it is the same between lightning pulses at least at the initial stage. • Each lightning discharge radio emission starts with a number of very short (less than 100 nanoseconds at 0.7 level) bi-polar pulses. Gaps between initial pulses vary from several microseconds to few hundreds of microseconds. No radio emission was observed before the first pulse during at least 500 milliseconds. Both positive and negative polarity of the first pulses occur in approximately equal proportion in different lightning discharges while the polarity was the same in any individual lightning. • First pulse amplitude, width and waveform are consistent with predicted by the theory of combined action of runaway breakdown and extensive atmospheric shower caused by cosmic ray particle of 1016 eV energy. Lightning discharges at other planets can be initiated by cosmic ray particles as well. This work was partly supported by ISTC grant # 2236p. The work of one of the authors (A. N. Karashtin) was also partly supported by INTAS grant # 03-51-5727.

  14. Lightning and Life on Exoplanets

    Rimmer, Paul; Ardaseva, Aleksandra; Hodosan, Gabriella; Helling, Christiane


    Miller and Urey performed a ground-breaking experiment, in which they discovered that electric discharges through a low redox ratio gas of methane, ammonia, water vapor and hydrogen produced a variety of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. Since this experiment, there has been significant interest on the connection between lightning chemistry and the origin of life. Investigation into the atmosphere of the Early Earth has generated a serious challenge for this project, as it has been determined both that Earth's early atmosphere was likely dominated by carbon dioxide and molecular nitrogen with only small amounts of hydrogen, having a very high redox ratio, and that discharges in gases with high redox ratios fail to yield more than trace amounts of biologically relevant products. This challenge has motivated several origin of life researchers to abandon lightning chemistry, and to concentrate on other pathways for prebiotic synthesis. The discovery of over 2000 exoplanets includes a handful of rocky planets within the habitable zones around their host stars. These planets can be viewed as remote laboratories in which efficient lightning driven prebiotic synthesis may take place. This is because many of these rocky exoplanets, called super-Earths, have masses significantly greater than that of Earth. This higher mass would allow them to more retain greater amounts hydrogen within their atmosphere, reducing the redox ratio. Discharges in super-Earth atmospheres can therefore result in a significant yield of amino acids. In this talk, I will discuss new work on what lightning might look like on exoplanets, and on lightning driven chemistry on super-Earths. Using a chemical kinetics model for a super-Earth atmosphere with smaller redox ratios, I will show that in the presence of lightning, the production of the amino acid glycine is enhanced up to a certain point, but with very low redox ratios, the production of glycine is again inhibited. I will conclude

  15. Lightning Injury is a disaster in Bangladesh? - Exploring its magnitude and public health needs.

    Biswas, Animesh; Dalal, Koustuv; Hossain, Jahangir; Ul Baset, Kamran; Rahman, Fazlur; Rahman Mashreky, Saidur


    Background: Lightning injury is a global public health issue. Low and middle-income countries in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world are most affected by lightning. Bangladesh is one of the countries at particular risk, with a high number of devastating lightning injuries in the past years, causing high mortality and morbidity. The exact magnitude of the problem is still unknown and therefore this study investigates the epidemiology of lightning injuries in Bangladesh, using a national representative sample. Methods: A mixed method was used. The study is based on results from a nationwide cross-sectional survey performed in 2003 in twelve randomly selected districts. In the survey, a total of 819,429 respondents from 171,336 households were interviewed using face-to-face interviews. In addition, qualitative information was obtained by reviewing national and international newspaper reports of lightning injuries sustained in Bangladesh between 13 and 15 May 2016. Results: The annual mortality rate was 3.661 (95% CI 0.9313-9.964) per 1,000,000 people. The overall incidence of lightning injury was 19.89/100,000 people. Among the victims, 60.12% (n=98) were males and 39.87% (n=65) were females. Males were particularly vulnerable, with a 1.46 times increased risk compared with females (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.06-1.99). Rural populations were more vulnerable, with a 8.73 times higher risk, than urban populations (RR 8.73, 95% CI 5.13-14.86). About 43% of injuries occurred between 12 noon and 6 pm. The newspapers reported 81 deaths during 2 days of electric storms in 2016. Lightning has been declared a natural disaster in Bangladesh. Conclusions: The current study indicates that lightning injuries are a public health problem in Bangladesh. The study recommends further investigations to develop interventions to reduce lightning injuries, mortality and related burden in Bangladesh.

  16. Protecting Electronic Equipment in Composite Structures against Lightning

    Blaj, M.A.


    Damage resulting from an interaction with lightning current in a military naval vessel, especially in a conflict zone and at the time of a conflict, which leads to the incapacitation of vital activities on the ship, is unacceptable. Because many potential conflict zones are in littoral areas, and

  17. The real performance of radioactive lightning arrester

    Leite, D.M.


    The study of the performance of radioactive lightning arrester comparing to the performance of conventional one are presented. Measurements of currents between lightning arrester and an energyzed plate with wind simulation were done for radioactive and conventional lightning arresters, separately. The attraction range of radioactive and conventional lightning arresters using atmospheric pulses produced by a generator of 3MV were verified, separately and simultaneously. The influence of ionization produced by radioactive lightning arrester on critical disruptive tension of a spark plate, testing two lightning arresters for differents nominal attraction distances with applications of atmospheric pulses (positive and negative polarity) and tensions of 60 Hz was verified. The radiation emitted by a radioactive lightning had used in a building was retired and handled without special carefullness by a personnel without worthy of credence to evaluate the hazard in handling radioactive lightning arrester was measured. Critical disruptive tensions of radioactive and conventional lightning arrester using a suspensed electrode and external pulse generator of 6MV was measured. The effect of attraction of a radioactive and conventional lightning arresters disposed symmetrically regarding the same suspensed electrode was verified simultaneously. Seven cases on faults of radioactive lightning arrester in external areas are present. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Measuring Kinase Activity-A Global Challenge.

    Cann, Marissa L; McDonald, Ian M; East, Michael P; Johnson, Gary L; Graves, Lee M


    The kinase enzymes within a cell, known collectively as the kinome, play crucial roles in many signaling pathways, including survival, motility, differentiation, stress response, and many more. Aberrant signaling through kinase pathways is often linked to cancer, among other diseases. A major area of scientific research involves understanding the relationships between kinases, their targets, and how the kinome adapts to perturbations of the cellular system. This review will discuss many of the current and developing methods for studying kinase activity, and evaluate their applications, advantages, and disadvantages. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3595-3606, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Spatio-temporal variability of lightning and convective activity over South/South-East Asia with an emphasis during El Niño and La Niña

    Saha, Upal; Siingh, Devendraa; Midya, S. K.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, S.


    The present analysis investigates the spatio-temporal variability of the convective parameters and associated lightning flash rates during the period 1997-2013 including the El Niño and La Niña episode. It reveals that north-western and north-eastern part along the foothills of Himalayas as well as Indo-China peninsular region and South China Sea are much convective prone zones over the South/South-East Asia. The terrain/orography of the Himalayan range, the influence of cross-equatorial low-level jet and large-scale circulation during pre-monsoon and active phase of monsoon, the western Pacific Warm Pool with increased sea surface temperature as well as the solar-heating-originated local instability instigate the convective anomaly to propagate over the north-western and north eastern Indian sub-continent along with the Indo-China peninsula and South China Sea respectively. The land surfaces of the Indian sub-continent and the sea surface of South China Sea possesses significant correlation with lightning flash rates and convective parameters whereas the sea surface surrounding Indian sub-continent do not show such good correlations among them. Although, the occurrence of convective activities during the El Niño (La Niña) gets reduced (increased), the occurrence of lightning flashes gets enhanced (diminished) during this period which may be the direct consequence of warming atmosphere in relation to changing patterns of regional climate. Fig. S2 Spatial trend distribution per year of (a) LFR, (b) CAPE, (c) SCP, (d) LI, (e) CINE and (f) AT anomaly over South/South-East Asia during January-December for the years 1997-2013 (Trend is significant at 95% confidence level). Fig. S3 Correlation maps of LFR with (a) CAPE, (b) SCP, (c) CINE and (d) LI over South/South-East Asia during January-December for the years 1997-2013. Fig. S4 Synoptic wind direction patterns during (a)-(b) El Niño (May 2002 - February 2003) conditions and (c)-(d) La Niña (July 1998 - March

  20. Total Lightning as an Indicator of Mesocyclone Behavior

    Stough, Sarah M.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.


    Apparent relationship between total lightning (in-cloud and cloud to ground) and severe weather suggests its operational utility. Goal of fusion of total lightning with proven tools (i.e., radar lightning algorithms. Preliminary work here investigates circulation from Weather Suveilance Radar- 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) coupled with total lightning data from Lightning Mapping Arrays.

  1. Ball lightning dynamics and stability at moderate ion densities

    Morrow, R


    lightning. Additionally, ‘phantom plasma balls’ may well be generated and go unnoticed due to very low luminosity; luminous ball lightning may be the exception. Finally, the mechanism described here may also be active in the dynamics of bead lightning. (paper)

  2. Effects of human activities on global climate

    Kellogg, W W


    At present it is difficult to make any predictions for the natural course of climate in the next several decades. However by using climate models, predictions of the cause of climate changes as a result of anthropogenic influences can be made, other external factors remaining the same. Experiments with a number of different models have converged on approximately the same conclusions: the largest single effect of human activities on climate is due to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration through fossil fuel combustion, i.e., air and thermal pollution, which contributes to a warming of the lower atmosphere; the best estimate of the warming of the mean surface temperature of the earth is about 1C by 2000 AD and 3C by 2050 AD with 3 to 5 times that increase in polar regions, and an uncertainty of roughly a factor of two. These conclusions assume a continued quasi exponential rate of release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Absorption of the added carbon dioxide is expected to take between 1000 and 1500 years. If all economically recoverable fossil fuel is burned in the next few centuries, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide would increase by 5 to 8 times. An example of a natural warming on a similar scale to that expected in the middle of the next century occurred 4000 to 8000 years ago. Generally there was more rainfall especially over the present sub-tropical deserts, but some regions in middle and high latitudes were drier than now. The extent of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice would be influenced. The total volume of the major ice sheets would change, but a change in sea level cannot yet be predicted with any confidence.

  3. Lightning protection of wind turbines

    Soerensen, T; Brask, M H [DEFU (Denmark); Jensen, F V; Raben, N [SEAS (Denmark); Saxov, J [Nordjyllandsvaerket (Denmark); Nielsen, L [Vestkraft (Denmark); Soerensen, P E [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)


    Lightning damage to wind turbines is a serious problem for Danish power companies, who have experienced some cases with very costly lightning damage and a large number of cases with minor damage. The most costly cases include one catastrophic damage to an entire wind turbine, and several cases of destruction of blades, main bearings, generators and control systems. Over the years there have been several hundreds of cases with minor damage - typically damage and interruptions of the control and communication systems, or the power systems. The Danish power companies anticipate that the lightning threat will be even bigger for the large off-shore wind turbine installations that are currently being planned in Denmark. Furthermore, it is known from the off-shore wind turbines at Vindeby in Denmark that the costs of inspection and particularly repair work must be expected to be much higher off-shore as compared to wind turbines on land. These considerations was the background for a two year project concerned with investigation of lighting damages and with the formulation of a DEFU Recommendation for lightning protection of wind turbines, which was published in January 1999. The project was funded by the Danish power companies Elsam, Eltra, Elkraft and by DEFU. (au)

  4. Lightning Mapping Observations During DC3 in Northern Colorado

    Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.


    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3) was conducted in three regions covered by Lightning Mapping Arrays (LMAs): Oklahoma and west Texas, northern Alabama, and northern Colorado. In this and a companion presentation, we discuss results obtained from the newly-deployed North Colorado LMA. The CO LMA revealed a surprising variety of lightning-inferred electrical structures, ranging from classic tripolar, normal polarity storms to several variations of anomalously electrified systems. Storms were often characterized by a pronounced lack or deficit of cloud-to-ground discharges (negative or positive), both in relative and absolute terms compared to the large amount of intracloud activity revealed by the LMA. Anomalous electrification was observed in small, localized storms as well as in large, deeply convective and severe storms. Another surprising observation was the frequent occurrence of embedded convection in the downwind anvil/outflow region of large storm systems. Observations of discharges in low flash rate situations over or near the network are sufficiently detailed to enable branching algorithms to estimate total channel lengths for modeling NOx production. However, this will not be possible in large or distant storm systems where the lightning was essentially continuous and structurally complex, or spatially noisy. Rather, a simple empirical metric for characterizing the lightning activity can be developed based on the number of located VHF radiation sources, weighted for example by the peak source power, source altitude, and temporal duration.

  5. On the Relationship between Observed NLDN Lightning ...

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past decade, considerable uncertainties still exist with the quantification of lightning NOX production and distribution in the troposphere. It is even more challenging for regional chemistry and transport models to accurately parameterize lightning NOX production and distribution in time and space. The Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) parameterizes the lightning NO emissions using local scaling factors adjusted by the convective precipitation rate that is predicted by the upstream meteorological model; the adjustment is based on the observed lightning strikes from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). For this parameterization to be valid, the existence of an a priori reasonable relationship between the observed lightning strikes and the modeled convective precipitation rates is needed. In this study, we will present an analysis leveraged on the observed NLDN lightning strikes and CMAQ model simulations over the continental United States for a time period spanning over a decade. Based on the analysis, new parameterization scheme for lightning NOX will be proposed and the results will be evaluated. The proposed scheme will be beneficial to modeling exercises where the obs

  6. Global Advocacy for Physical Activity (GAPA): global leadership towards a raised profile.

    Blanchard, Claire; Shilton, Trevor; Bull, Fiona


    Physical inactivity has been recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the leading causes of death due to non-communicable disease (NCD), worldwide. The benefits of action over inactivity can cut across health, environment, transportation, sport, culture and the economy. Despite the evidence, the policies and strategies to increase population-wide participation in physical activity receive insufficient priority from across high, middle and low-income countries; where physical inactivity is a rapidly-emerging issue. There is an increased need for all countries to invest in policies, strategies and supportive environments that inform, motivate and support individuals and communities to be active in ways that are safe, accessible and enjoyable. This commentary presents some recent efforts towards physical activity promotion globally, led by the Global Advocacy for Physical Activity (GAPA). It provides an overview of the background and history of GAPA; describes GAPA and the council's key achievements and milestones; places physical activity promotion within the global NCD agenda; presents GAPA flagships; and reflects on the lessons learned, ingredients for success and the major challenges that remain. The commentary documents insights into the effectiveness and challenges faced by a small non-governmental organisation (NGO) in mounting global advocacy. These lessons may be transferrable to other areas of health promotion advocacy.

  7. The Globalization of Value chain activities, Knowledge dynamics, and Innovation

    Park, Eunkyung

    Firms are increasingly relocating diverse activities in the value chain abroad to reap the locational advantage available in other countries. One of the issues raised in this context is that, as global operations can function as channels for knowledge flows, the involved firms and locations may...... of the involved regions and countries. The purpose of this thesis is to study these issues with a broad research question, “What implications does the globalization of value chain activities have on innovation in firms and locations?” Four articles and a case study included in the thesis present empirical results...... gain or lose knowledge associated with the activities that are being globalized. Since knowledge is a critical input for innovation, this has some implications for the capability of firms to create new products and services. At the macro level, it may have an influence on the competitiveness...

  8. Lightning Prediction using Electric Field Measurements Associated with Convective Events at a Tropical Location

    Jana, S.; Chakraborty, R.; Maitra, A.


    Nowcasting of lightning activities during intense convective events using a single electric field monitor (EFM) has been carried out at a tropical location, Kolkata (22.65oN, 88.45oE). Before and at the onset of heavy lightning, certain changes of electric field (EF) can be related to high liquid water content (LWC) and low cloud base height (CBH). The present study discusses the utility of EF observation to show a few aspects of convective events. Large convective cloud showed by high LWC and low CBH can be detected from EF variation which could be a precursor of upcoming convective events. Suitable values of EF gradient can be used as an indicator of impending lightning events. An EF variation of 0.195 kV/m/min can predict lightning within 17.5 km radius with a probability of detection (POD) of 91% and false alarm rate (FAR) of 8% with a lead time of 45 min. The total number of predicted lightning strikes is nearly 9 times less than that measured by the lightning detector. This prediction technique can, therefore, give an estimate of cloud to ground (CG) and intra cloud (IC) lighting occurrences within the surrounding area. This prediction technique involving POD, FAR and lead time information shows a better prediction capability compared to the techniques reported earlier. Thus an EFM can be effectively used for prediction of lightning events at a tropical location.

  9. Dual-Polarization Radar Observations of Upward Lightning-Producing Storms

    Lueck, R.; Helsdon, J. H.; Warner, T.


    The Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS) seeks to determine how upward lightning, which originates from the tips of tall objects, is triggered by nearby flash activity. As a component of this study we analyze standard and dual-polarization weather radar data. The Correlation Coefficient (CC) in particular can be used to identify and quantify the melting layer associated with storms that produce upward lightning. It has been proposed that positive charge generation due to aggregate shedding at the melting layer results in a positive charge region just above the cloud base. This positive charge region may serve as a positive potential well favorable for negative leader propagation, which initiate upward positive leaders from tall objects. We characterize the horizontal coverage, thickness and height of the melting layer in addition to cloud base heights when upward lightning occurs to determine trends and possible threshold criteria relating to upward lightning production. Furthermore, we characterize storm type and morphology using relevant schemes as well as precipitation type using the Hydrometer Classification Algorithm (HCA) for upward lightning-producing storms. Ice-phase hydrometeors have been shown to be a significant factor in thunderstorm electrification. Only a small fraction of storms produce upward lightning, so null cases will be examined and compared as well.

  10. 10. VDE/ABB lightning protection conference. Lectures


    The proceedings of the 10. VDE/ABB lightning protection conference include lectures on the following issues: Status on the standardization and resulting consequences; lightning protection of specific facilities; electrical grounding and potential equalization; lightning research; personal security and protection.

  11. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity.

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L


    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  12. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    Craig Cora L


    Full Text Available Abstract In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet. International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  13. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.


    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a lightning connection to a common building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one lightning strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a lightning rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of lightning attachment to low buildings that are commonly found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment process and, consequently, the models and theories used by lightning protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of lightning flashes connecting lightning rods that

  14. Global Change. Teaching Activities on Global Change for Grades 4-6.

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This packet contains a series of teaching guides on global change. The series includes lessons on dendrochronology; land, air, and water; and island living. Included is information such as : laws of straws; where land, air, and water meet; and Earth as home. Each section provides an introductory description of the activity, the purpose of the…

  15. An Integrated 0-1 Hour First-Flash Lightning Nowcasting, Lightning Amount and Lightning Jump Warning Capability

    Mecikalski, John; Jewett, Chris; Carey, Larry; Zavodsky, Brad; Stano, Geoffrey; Chronis, Themis


    Using satellite-based methods that provide accurate 0-1 hour convective initiation (CI) nowcasts, and rely on proven success coupling satellite and radar fields in the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS; operated and developed at MIT-Lincoln Laboratory), to subsequently monitor for first-flash lightning initiation (LI) and later period lightning trends as storms evolve. Enhance IR-based methods within the GOES-R CI Algorithm (that must meet specific thresholds for a given cumulus cloud before the cloud is considered to have an increased likelihood of producing lightning next 90 min) that forecast LI. Integrate GOES-R CI and LI fields with radar thresholds (e.g., first greater than or equal to 40 dBZ echo at the -10 C altitude) and NWP model data within the WDSS-II system for LI-events from new convective storms. Track ongoing lightning using Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and pseudo-Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) data to assess per-storm lightning trends (e.g., as tied to lightning jumps) and outline threat regions. Evaluate the ability to produce LI nowcasts through a "lightning threat" product, and obtain feedback from National Weather Service forecasters on its value as a decision support tool.

  16. Lightning transient analysis in wind turbine blades

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Holbøll, Joachim; Madsen, Søren Find


    The transient behavior of lightning surges in the lightning protection system of wind turbine blades has been investigated in this paper. The study is based on PSCAD models consisting of electric equivalent circuits with lumped and distributed parameters involving different lightning current...... waveforms. The aim of the PSCAD simulations is to study the voltages induced by the lightning current in the blade that may cause internal arcing. With this purpose, the phenomenon of current reflections in the lightning down conductor of the blade and the electromagnetic coupling between the down conductor...... and other internal conductive elements of the blade is studied. Finally, several methods to prevent internal arcing are discussed in order to improve the lightning protection of the blade....

  17. A lightning prevention system for nuclear operations

    Lanzoni, J.A.; Carpenter, R.B.; Tinsley, R.H.


    Lightning presents a significant threat to the uninterrupted operation of nuclear power generation facilities. There exists two categories of lightning protection systems-collectors and preventors. Collectors are air terminals, overhead shield wires and other devices designed to collect incoming lightning strikes. Preventors, on the other hand, lower the electrical potential between a thundercloud and ground to a level lower than that required to collect a strike. The Dissipation Array reg-sign Systems prevents lightning strikes from terminating in the protected area, consequently eliminating both the direct hazard and indirect effects of lightning. Over 1,600 Dissipation Array reg-sign Systems are currently in service, with more than 10,500 system-years of operating experience and a historical success rate of over ninety-nine percent. Lightning Eliminators ampersand Consultants has fulfilled 24 contracts for Dissipation Array reg-sign Systems at nuclear power generation facilities

  18. Investigating correlation of lighting activity and precipitation in an Eastern Mediterranean island

    Iordanidou, Vasiliki; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Tsanis, Ioannis


    This study examines conditions under which lightning activity and precipitation events can be correlated in an Eastern Mediterranean island climate. As a first step, the activity within a predefined area of 50km radius around the gauge station is examined, given the temporal evolution of rain accumulation at an hourly time step. Then the lightning activity is grouped in time-space clusters and for each lightning-cluster precipitation recordings of 10 minutes time step from nearby gauges are searched in an area of variable radius ranging from 10 to 100km. The number of clusters is decided according to the g-means algorithm in which the number of clusters is increasing until the data of all clusters follow the Gaussian distribution. For different durations, number of lightning events and radius the proportion of the corresponding precipitation events for the given radius around the lightning-clusters is investigated. The methods are tested in the case study of the island of Crete. Precipitation data from 22 gauging stations over Crete and lightning data from the Global Lightning Network (GLN) are examined for the investigation of possible associations in a period of almost two years (09/2012-07/2014). For the first approach, for half of the stations rain accumulations over 10mm/h (90th percentile of rain) are recorded up to a day after lightning activity occurrence. According to the second approach, lightning-clusters of smaller duration (up to 5 hours) and more lightning flashes (more than 100) are highly associated with rain events. The optimal radius from the center of the lightning-cluster, according to the proportion of rain events, is found to be 30km. The results establish a better understanding of the relations between lightning and precipitation and could provide valuable information to the now-casting of flash flood events triggered by severe thunderstorms. The research reported in this study effort was fully supported by the "ARISTEIA II" Action

  19. Using Flow Regime Lightning and Sounding Climatologies to Initialize Gridded Lightning Threat Forecasts for East Central Florida

    Lambert, Winifred; Short, David; Volkmer, Matthew; Sharp, David; Spratt, Scott


    Each morning, the forecasters at the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) produce an experimental cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning threat index map for their county warning area (CWA) that is posted to their web site (httl:// . Given the hazardous nature of lightning in East Central Florida, especially during the warm season months of May September, these maps help users factor the threat of lightning, relative to their location, into their daily plans. The maps are color-coded in five levels from Very Low to Extreme, with threat level definitions based on the probability of lightning occurrence and the expected amount of CG activity. On a day in which thunderstorms are expected, there are typically two or more threat levels depicted spatially across the CWA. The locations of relative lightning threat maxima and minima often depend on the position and orientation of the low-level ridge axis, forecast propagation and interaction of sea/lake/outflow boundaries, expected evolution of moisture and stability fields, and other factors that can influence the spatial distribution of thunderstorms over the CWA. The lightning threat index maps are issued for the 24-hour period beginning at 1200 UTC each day with a grid resolution of 5 km x 5 km. Product preparation is performed on the AWIPS Graphical Forecast Editor (GFE), which is the standard NWS platform for graphical editing. Until recently, the forecasters created each map manually, starting with a blank map. To improve efficiency of the forecast process, NWS MLB requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) create gridded warm season lightning climatologies that could be used as first-guess inputs to initialize lightning threat index maps. The gridded values requested included CG strike densities and frequency of occurrence stratified by synoptic-scale flow regime. The intent was to improve consistency between forecasters while allowing them to focus on the


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-3 Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) dataset contains electrical field measurements of lightning within storms studied during the Convection And Moisture...

  1. Lightning Strike in Pregnancy With Fetal Injury.

    Galster, Kellen; Hodnick, Ryan; Berkeley, Ross P


    Injuries from lightning strikes are an infrequent occurrence, and are only rarely noted to involve pregnant victims. Only 13 cases of lightning strike in pregnancy have been previously described in the medical literature, along with 7 additional cases discovered within news media reports. This case report presents a novel case of lightning-associated injury in a patient in the third trimester of pregnancy, resulting in fetal ischemic brain injury and long-term morbidity, and reviews the mechanics of lightning strikes along with common injury patterns of which emergency providers should be aware. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Geological Effects on Lightning Strike Distributions

    Berdahl, J. Scott


    Recent advances in lightning detection networks allow for detailed mapping of lightning flash locations. Longstanding rumors of geological influence on cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning distribution and recent commercial claims based on such influence can now be tested empirically. If present, such influence could represent a new, cheap and efficient geophysical tool with applications in mineral, hydrothermal and oil exploration, regional geological mapping, and infrastructure planning. This project applies statistical analysis to lightning data collected by the United States National Lightning Detection Network from 2006 through 2015 in order to assess whether the huge range in electrical conductivities of geological materials plays a role in the spatial distribution of CG lightning. CG flash densities are mapped for twelve areas in the contiguous United States and compared to elevation and geology, as well as to the locations of faults, railroads and tall towers including wind turbines. Overall spatial randomness is assessed, along with spatial correlation of attributes. Negative and positive polarity lightning are considered separately and together. Topography and tower locations show a strong influence on CG distribution patterns. Geology, faults and railroads do not. This suggests that ground conductivity is not an important factor in determining lightning strike location on scales larger than current flash location accuracies, which are generally several hundred meters. Once a lightning channel is established, however, ground properties at the contact point may play a role in determining properties of the subsequent stroke.

  3. Using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Climatologies to Initialize Gridded Lightning Threat Forecasts for East Central Florida

    Lambert, Winnie; Sharp, David; Spratt, Scott; Volkmer, Matthew


    Each morning, the forecasters at the National Weather Service in Melbourn, FL (NWS MLB) produce an experimental cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning threat index map for their county warning area (CWA) that is posted to their web site ( . Given the hazardous nature of lightning in central Florida, especially during the warm season months of May-September, these maps help users factor the threat of lightning, relative to their location, into their daily plans. The maps are color-coded in five levels from Very Low to Extreme, with threat level definitions based on the probability of lightning occurrence and the expected amount of CG activity. On a day in which thunderstorms are expected, there are typically two or more threat levels depicted spatially across the CWA. The locations of relative lightning threat maxima and minima often depend on the position and orientation of the low-level ridge axis, forecast propagation and interaction of sea/lake/outflow boundaries, expected evolution of moisture and stability fields, and other factors that can influence the spatial distribution of thunderstorms over the CWA. The lightning threat index maps are issued for the 24-hour period beginning at 1200 UTC (0700 AM EST) each day with a grid resolution of 5 km x 5 km. Product preparation is performed on the AWIPS Graphical Forecast Editor (GFE), which is the standard NWS platform for graphical editing. Currently, the forecasters create each map manually, starting with a blank map. To improve efficiency of the forecast process, NWS MLB requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) create gridded warm season lightning climatologies that could be used as first-guess inputs to initialize lightning threat index maps. The gridded values requested included CG strike densities and frequency of occurrence stratified by synoptic-scale flow regime. The intent is to increase consistency between forecasters while enabling them to focus on

  4. Lightning Protection and Detection System

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Woodard, Marie (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor); Wang, Chuantong (Inventor); Mielnik, John J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor)


    A lightning protection and detection system includes a non-conductive substrate material of an apparatus; a sensor formed of a conductive material and deposited on the non-conductive substrate material of the apparatus. The sensor includes a conductive trace formed in a continuous spiral winding starting at a first end at a center region of the sensor and ending at a second end at an outer corner region of the sensor, the first and second ends being open and unconnected. An electrical measurement system is in communication with the sensor and receives a resonant response from the sensor, to perform detection, in real-time, of lightning strike occurrences and damage therefrom to the sensor and the non-conductive substrate material.

  5. Radioactive lightning rods waste treatment

    Vicente, Roberto; Dellamano, Jose C.; Hiromoto, Goro


    Full text: In this paper, we present alternative processes that could be adopted for the management of radioactive waste that arises from the replacement of lightning rods with attached Americium-241 sources. Lightning protectors, with Americium-241 sources attached to the air terminals, were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the regulatory authority overthrew the license for fabrication, commerce, and installation of radioactive lightning rods. It is estimated that, during the license period, about 75,000 such devices were set up in public, commercial and industrial buildings, including houses and schools. However, the policy of CNEN in regard to the replacement of the installed radioactive rods, has been to leave the decision to municipal governments under local building regulations, requiring only that the replaced rods be sent immediately to one of its research institutes to be treated as radioactive waste. As a consequence, the program of replacement proceeds in a low pace and until now only about twenty thousand rods have reached the waste treatment facilities The process of management that was adopted is based primarily on the assumption that the Am-241 sources will be disposed of as radioactive sealed sources, probably in a deep borehole repository. The process can be described broadly by the following steps: a) Receive and put the lightning rods in initial storage; b) Disassemble the rods and pull out the sources; c) Decontaminate and release the metal parts to metal recycling; d) Store the sources in intermediate storage; e) Package the sources in final disposal packages; and f) Send the sources for final disposal. Up to now, the disassembled devices gave rise to about 90,000 sources which are kept in storage while the design of the final disposal package is in progress. (author)

  6. Lightning Burns and Electrical Trauma in a Couple Simultaneously Struck by Lightning

    Stephanie A. Eyerly-Webb


    Full Text Available More people are struck and killed by lightning each year in Florida than any other state in the United States. This report discusses a couple that was simultaneously struck by lightning while walking arm-in-arm. Both patients presented with characteristic lightning burns and were admitted for hemodynamic monitoring, serum labs, and observation and were subsequently discharged home. Despite the superficial appearance of lightning burns, serious internal electrical injuries are common. Therefore, lightning strike victims should be admitted and evaluated for cardiac arrhythmias, renal injury, and neurological sequelae.

  7. Cell Mergers and Their Impact on Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Over the Houston Area

    Gauthier, Michael L.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.


    A previous hypothesis advanced from observational studies such as METROMEX suggests that the intensity, frequency, and organization of cumulus convection may be impacted by the forcing of enhanced merger activity downstream of urban zones. A resulting corollary is that cities may exert an indirect anthropogenic forcing of parameters related to convection and associated phenomena such as lightning and precipitation. This paper investigates the urban merger hypothesis by examining the role of convective cell mergers on the existence and persistence of the Houston lightning "anomaly", a local maximum in cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning activity documented to exist over and east of Houston. Using eight summer seasons of peak columnar radar reflectivity, CG lightning data and a cell-tracking algorithm, a two-dimensional cell merger climatology is created for portions of eastern Texas and Louisiana. Results from the tracking and analysis of over 3.8 million cells indicate that merger-driven enhancements in convection induce a positive response (O 46%) in ground-flash densities throughout the domain, with areas of enhanced lightning typically being co-located with areas of enhanced merger activity. However, while mergers over the Houston area (relative to elsewhere in the domain) do result in more vigorous convective cells that produce larger CG flash densities, we find that CG lightning contributions due to mergers are distributed similarly throughout the domain. Hence while we demonstrate that cell mergers do greatly impact the production of lightning, the urban cell merger hypothesis does not uniquely explain the presence of a local lightning maximum near and downstream of Houston.

  8. Lightning NOx emissions over the USA constrained by TES ozone observations and the GEOS-Chem model

    Jourdain, L.; Kulawik, S. S.; Worden, H. M.; Pickering, K. E.; Worden, J.; Thompson, A. M.


    Improved estimates of NOx from lightning sources are required to understand tropospheric NOx and ozone distributions, the oxidising capacity of the troposphere and corresponding feedbacks between chemistry and climate change. In this paper, we report new satellite ozone observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument that can be used to test and constrain the parameterization of the lightning source of NOx in global models. Using the National Lightning Detection (NLDN) and the Long Range Lightning Detection Network (LRLDN) data as well as the HYPSLIT transport and dispersion model, we show that TES provides direct observations of ozone enhanced layers downwind of convective events over the USA in July 2006. We find that the GEOS-Chem global chemistry-transport model with a parameterization based on cloud top height, scaled regionally and monthly to OTD/LIS (Optical Transient Detector/Lightning Imaging Sensor) climatology, captures the ozone enhancements seen by TES. We show that the model's ability to reproduce the location of the enhancements is due to the fact that this model reproduces the pattern of the convective events occurrence on a daily basis during the summer of 2006 over the USA, even though it does not well represent the relative distribution of lightning intensities. However, this model with a value of 6 Tg N/yr for the lightning source (i.e.: with a mean production of 260 moles NO/Flash over the USA in summer) underestimates the intensities of the ozone enhancements seen by TES. By imposing a production of 520 moles NO/Flash for lightning occurring in midlatitudes, which better agrees with the values proposed by the most recent studies, we decrease the bias between TES and GEOS-Chem ozone over the USA in July 2006 by 40%. However, our conclusion on the strength of the lightning source of NOx is limited by the fact that the contribution from the stratosphere is underestimated in the GEOS-Chem simulations.

  9. Lightning characteristics observed by a VLF/LF lightning detection network (LINET in Brazil, Australia, Africa and Germany

    H. Höller


    Full Text Available This paper describes lightning characteristics as obtained in four sets of lightning measurements during recent field campaigns in different parts of the world from mid-latitudes to the tropics by the novel VLF/LF (very low frequency/low frequency lightning detection network (LINET. The paper gives a general overview on the approach, and a synopsis of the statistical results for the observation periods as a whole and for one special day in each region. The focus is on the characteristics of lightning which can specifically be observed by this system like intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground stroke statistics, vertical distributions of intra-cloud strokes or peak current distributions. Some conclusions regarding lightning produced NOx are also presented as this was one of the aims of the tropical field campaigns TROCCINOX (Tropical Convection, Cirrus and Nitrogen Oxides Experiment and TroCCiBras (Tropical Convection and Cirrus Experiment Brazil in Brazil during January/February 2005, SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere and TWP-ICE (Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment during November/December 2005 and January/February 2006, respectively, in the Darwin area in N-Australia, and of AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses in W-Africa during June–November 2006.

    Regional and temporal characteristics of lightning are found to be dependent on orographic effects (e.g. S-Germany, Brazil, Benin, land-sea breeze circulations (N-Australia and especially the evolution of the monsoons (Benin, N-Australia. Large intra-seasonal variability in lightning occurrence was found for the Australian monsoon between the strong convection during build-up and break phases and the weak active monsoon phase with only minor lightning activity. Total daily lightning stroke rates can be of comparable intensity in all regions with the heaviest events found in Germany and N

  10. Measurements of Ozone, Lightning, and Electric Fields within Thunderstorms over Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico

    Eack, K. B.; Winn, W. P.; Rust, W. D.; Minschwaner, K.; Fredrickson, S.; Kennedy, D.; Edens, H. E.; Kalnajs, L. E.; Rabin, R. M.; Lu, G. P.; Bonin, D.


    A field project was conducted at the Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research during the summer of 2008 in an effort to better understand the direct production of ozone within electrically active storms. Five balloon flights were successfully launched into thunderstorms during this project. In situ measurements from the balloon instrument package included ozone mixing ratio, electric field strength, meteorological variables, and GPS location and timing. Lightning discharges were identified within each storm using a ground based lightning mapping array. The data show that the instruments ascended through regions of high electric fields within the sampled storms, and in some cases the balloon was in very close proximity to lightning. Relationships between electric field, lightning, and ozone observed during these flights will be discussed.

  11. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    Pulinets, Sergey A.; Depuev, Victor H.


    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstorm electric fields onto the Earth's ionosphere. (author)

  12. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    Pulinets, S A


    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstor...

  13. Characteristics of Lightning Within Electrified Snowfall Events Using Lightning Mapping Arrays

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Lang, Timothy J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Calhoun, Kristin M.; Harkema, Sebastian; Curtis, Nathan


    This study examined 34 lightning flashes within four separate thundersnow events derived from lightning mapping arrays (LMAs) in northern Alabama, central Oklahoma, and Washington DC. The goals were to characterize the in-cloud component of each lightning flash, as well as the correspondence between the LMA observations and lightning data taken from national lightning networks like the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). Individual flashes were examined in detail to highlight several observations within the data set. The study results demonstrated that the structures of these flashes were primarily normal polarity. The mean area encompassed by this set of flashes is 375 km2, with a maximum flash extent of 2,300 km2, a minimum of 3 km2, and a median of 128 km2. An average of 2.29 NLDN flashes were recorded per LMA-derived lightning flash. A maximum of 11 NLDN flashes were recorded in association with a single LMA-derived flash on 10 January 2011. Additionally, seven of the 34 flashes in the study contain zero NLDN-identified flashes. Eleven of the 34 flashes initiated from tall human-made objects (e.g., communication towers). In at least six lightning flashes, the NLDN detected a return stroke from the cloud back to the tower and not the initial upward leader. This study also discusses lightning's interaction with the human-built environment and provides an example of lightning within heavy snowfall observed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-16's Geostationary Lightning Mapper.

  14. Climatology of lightning in the Czech Republic

    Novák, Petr; Kyznarová, Hana


    The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) has utilized lightning data from the Central European Lightning Detection Network (CELDN) since 1999. The CELDN primarily focuses on the detection of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning but intra-cloud (IC) lightning detection is also available. Lightning detection is used by the CHMI forecasters as an additional source to radar and satellite data for nowcasting of severe storms. Lightning data are also quantitatively used in automatic nowcasting applications. The quality of lightning data can be evaluated using their climatological characteristics. Climatological characteristics are also useful for defining decision thresholds that are valuable for human forecasters as well as for automatic nowcasting applications. The seven-year period from 2002 to 2008, which had relatively even-quality lightning data, was used to calculate the spatial and temporal distributions of lightning. The monthly number of CG strokes varies depending on the season. The highest number of CG strokes occurs during summer, with more than 20 days of at least five detected CG strokes on the Czech Republic territory in June and July. The least number of CG stokes occurs in winter, with less than three days per month having at least five detected CG stokes. The mean diurnal distribution of CG strokes peaks between 1500 and 1600 UTC and reaches a minimum between 0500 and 0800 UTC. The average spatial distribution of CG strokes shows sharp local maxima corresponding with the locations of the TV broadcast towers. The average spatial distribution of CG flash density, calculated on a 20 × 20 km grid, shows the maximum (3.23 flashes km - 2 year - 1 ) in the western part of Czech Republic and the minimum (0.92 flashes km - 2 year - 1 ) in the south-southeast of the Czech Republic. In addition, lightning characteristics related to the identified convective cells, such as distribution of the lightning stroke rates or relation to the radar derived by Vertically

  15. Struggles Against Bilateral FTAs: Challenges for Transnational Global Justice Activism

    Aziz Choudry


    Full Text Available The past decade has seen major movements and mobilizations against the new crop of bilateral free trade and investment agreements being pursued by governments in the wake of the failure of global (World Trade Organization and regional (e.g. Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and the defeat of an attempted Multilateral Agreement on Investment in the 1990s.  However, in spite of much scholarly, non-governmental organization (NGO and activist focus on transnational global justice activism, many of these movements, such as the major multi-sectoral popular struggle over the recently-concluded US-Korea Free Trade Agreement, are hardly acknowledged in North America and Europe.  With a shift in emphasis pushing liberalization and deregulation of trade and investment increasingly favouring lower-profile bilateral agreements, this article maps the resistance movements to these latest shifts in global free market capitalist relations and discusses the disconnect between these (mainly Southern struggles and dominant scholarly and NGO conceptions of global justice and the global justice movement as well as questions of knowledge production arising from these movements.

  16. Preliminary Development and Evaluation of Lightning Jump Algorithms for the Real-Time Detection of Severe Weather

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.


    Previous studies have demonstrated that rapid increases in total lightning activity (intracloud + cloud-to-ground) are often observed tens of minutes in advance of the occurrence of severe weather at the ground. These rapid increases in lightning activity have been termed "lightning jumps." Herein, we document a positive correlation between lightning jumps and the manifestation of severe weather in thunderstorms occurring across the Tennessee Valley and Washington D.C. A total of 107 thunderstorms were examined in this study, with 69 of the 107 thunderstorms falling into the category of non-severe, and 38 into the category of severe. From the dataset of 69 isolated non-severe thunderstorms, an average peak 1 minute flash rate of 10 flashes/min was determined. A variety of severe thunderstorm types were examined for this study including an MCS, MCV, tornadic outer rainbands of tropical remnants, supercells, and pulse severe thunderstorms. Of the 107 thunderstorms, 85 thunderstorms (47 non-severe, 38 severe) from the Tennessee Valley and Washington D.C tested 6 lightning jump algorithm configurations (Gatlin, Gatlin 45, 2(sigma), 3(sigma), Threshold 10, and Threshold 8). Performance metrics for each algorithm were then calculated, yielding encouraging results from the limited sample of 85 thunderstorms. The 2(sigma) lightning jump algorithm had a high probability of detection (POD; 87%), a modest false alarm rate (FAR; 33%), and a solid Heidke Skill Score (HSS; 0.75). A second and more simplistic lightning jump algorithm named the Threshold 8 lightning jump algorithm also shows promise, with a POD of 81% and a FAR of 41%. Average lead times to severe weather occurrence for these two algorithms were 23 minutes and 20 minutes, respectively. The overall goal of this study is to advance the development of an operationally-applicable jump algorithm that can be used with either total lightning observations made from the ground, or in the near future from space using the

  17. Relationship between aerosol and lightning over Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India

    Lal, D. M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Mahakur, M.; Waghmare, R. T.; Tiwari, S.; Srivastava, Manoj K.; Meena, G. S.; Chate, D. M.


    The relationship between aerosol and lightning over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India has been evaluated by utilising aerosol optical depth (AOD), cloud droplet effective radius and cloud fraction from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. Lightning flashes have been observed by the lightning Imaging sensor on the board of Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and humidity from modern-era retrospective-analysis for research and applications for the period of 2001-2012. In this study, the role of aerosol in lightning generation over the north-west sector of IGP has been revealed. It is found that lightning activity increases (decreases) with increasing aerosols during normal (deficient) monsoon rainfall years. However, lightning increases with increasing aerosol during deficient rainfall years when the average value of AOD is less than 0.88. We have found that during deficient rainfall years the moisture content of the atmosphere and cloud fraction is smaller than that during the years with normal or excess monsoon rainfall over the north-west IGP. Over the north-east Bay of Bengal and its adjoining region the variations of moisture and cloud fraction between the deficient and normal rainfall years are minimal. We have found that the occurrence of the lightning over this region is primarily due to its topography and localised circulation. The warm-dry air approaching from north-west converges with moist air emanating from the Bay of Bengal causing instability that creates an environment for deep convective cloud and lightning. The relationship between lightning and aerosol is stronger over the north-west sector of IGP than the north-east, whereas it is moderate over the central IGP. We conclude that aerosol is playing a major role in lightning activity over the north-west sector of IGP, but, local meteorological conditions such as convergences of dry and moist air is the principal cause of lightning over the north-east sector of IGP. In addition

  18. The Global Geodetic Observing System: Recent Activities and Accomplishments

    Gross, R. S.


    The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) provides the basis on which future advances in geosciences can be built. By considering the Earth system as a whole (including the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere and biosphere), monitoring Earth system components and their interactions by geodetic techniques and studying them from the geodetic point of view, the geodetic community provides the global geosciences community with a powerful tool consisting mainly of high-quality services, standards and references, and theoretical and observational innovations. The mission of GGOS is: (a) to provide the observations needed to monitor, map and understand changes in the Earth's shape, rotation and mass distribution; (b) to provide the global frame of reference that is the fundamental backbone for measuring and consistently interpreting key global change processes and for many other scientific and societal applications; and (c) to benefit science and society by providing the foundation upon which advances in Earth and planetary system science and applications are built. The goals of GGOS are: (1) to be the primary source for all global geodetic information and expertise serving society and Earth system science; (2) to actively promote, sustain, improve, and evolve the integrated global geodetic infrastructure needed to meet Earth science and societal requirements; (3) to coordinate with the international geodetic services that are the main source of key parameters and products needed to realize a stable global frame of reference and to observe and study changes in the dynamic Earth system; (4) to communicate and advocate the benefits of GGOS to user communities, policy makers, funding organizations, and society. In order to accomplish its mission and goals, GGOS depends on the IAG Services, Commissions, and Inter-Commission Committees. The Services provide the infrastructure and products on which all contributions

  19. Sensors for lightning measurements on aircraft

    Stelmashuk, V.; Deursen, van A.P.J.


    Lightning strikes a commercial airliner on the average once a year. The European project ldquoIn-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System (ILDAS)rdquo [1] aims to develop and validate a prototype of a system capable to 1) reconstruct the current intensity and wave form, 2) determine of the

  20. Lightning protecting materials used on radar system

    Blaj, M.A.; Damstra, Geert C.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes


    Because of the extensive use in modern systems of very sensitive electronic components, lightning strikes does not represent only a threat, but something that cannot be neglected anymore and safety hazards caused by direct and indirect lightning to the aircraft or naval industry. Everyday new

  1. Global economic activity and crude oil prices. A cointegration analysis

    He, Yanan; Wang, Shouyang; Lai, Kin Keung


    This paper empirically investigates the cointegrating relationship between crude oil prices and global economic activity. The Kilian economic index is used as an indicator of global economic activity. Based on a supply-demand framework and the cointegration theory, we find that real futures prices of crude oil are cointegrated with the Kilian economic index and a trade weighted US dollar index, and crude oil prices are influenced significantly by fluctuations in the Kilian economic index through both long-run equilibrium conditions and short-run impacts. We also develop an empirically stable, data-coherent and single-equation error-correction model (ECM) which has sensible economic properties. Empirical results based on the ECM show that the adjustment implied by a permanent change in the Kilian economic index is a relatively drawn-out process. (author)

  2. Do lightning positive leaders really "step"?

    Petersen, D.


    It has been known for some time that positive leaders exhibit impulsive charge motion and optical emissions as they extend. However, laboratory and field observations have not produced any evidence of a process analogous to the space leader mechanism of negative leader extension. Instead, observations have suggested that the positive leader tip undergoes a continuous to intermittent series of corona streamer bursts, each burst resulting in a small forward extension of the positive leader channel. Traditionally, it has been held that lightning positive leaders extend in a continuous or quasi-continuous fashion. Lately, however, many have become concerned that this position is incongruous with observations of impulsive activity during lightning positive leader extension. It is increasingly suggested that this impulsive activity is evidence that positive leaders also undergo "stepping". There are two issues that must be addressed. The first issue concerns whether or not the physical processes underlying impulsive extension in negative and positive leaders are distinct. We argue that these processes are in fact physically distinct, and offer new high-speed video evidence to support this position. The second issue regards the proper use of the term "step" as an identifier for the impulsive forward extension of a leader. Traditional use of this term has been applied only to negative leaders, due primarily to their stronger impulsive charge motions and photographic evidence of clearly discontinuous forward progression of the luminous channel. Recently, due to the increasing understanding of the distinct "space leader" process of negative leader extension, the term "step" has increasingly come to be associated with the space leader process itself. Should this emerging association, "step" = space leader attachment, be canonized? If not, then it seems reasonable to use the term "step" to describe impulsive positive leader extension. If, however, we do wish to associate the

  3. Progress towards a lightning ignition model for the Northern Rockies

    Paul Sopko; Don Latham


    We are in the process of constructing a lightning ignition model specific to the Northern Rockies using fire occurrence, lightning strike, ecoregion, and historical weather, NFDRS (National Fire Danger Rating System), lightning efficiency and lightning "possibility" data. Daily grids for each of these categories were reconstructed for the 2003 fire season (...

  4. The Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM): Status and Recent Applications

    Koshak, William; Khan, Maudood; Peterson, Harold


    Improvements to the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) are discussed. Recent results from an August 2006 run of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system that employs LNOM lightning NOx (= NO + NO2) estimates are provided. The LNOM analyzes Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data to estimate the raw (i.e., unmixed and otherwise environmentally unmodified) vertical profile of lightning NOx. The latest LNOM estimates of (a) lightning channel length distributions, (b) lightning 1-m segment altitude distributions, and (c) the vertical profile of NOx are presented. The impact of including LNOM-estimates of lightning NOx on CMAQ output is discussed.

  5. Trends and Variability of Global Fire Emissions Due To Historical Anthropogenic Activities

    Ward, Daniel S.; Shevliakova, Elena; Malyshev, Sergey; Rabin, Sam


    Globally, fires are a major source of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere, occurring on a seasonal cycle and with substantial interannual variability. To understand past trends and variability in sources and sinks of terrestrial carbon, we need quantitative estimates of global fire distributions. Here we introduce an updated version of the Fire Including Natural and Agricultural Lands model, version 2 (FINAL.2), modified to include multiday burning and enhanced fire spread rate in forest crowns. We demonstrate that the improved model reproduces the interannual variability and spatial distribution of fire emissions reported in present-day remotely sensed inventories. We use FINAL.2 to simulate historical (post-1700) fires and attribute past fire trends and variability to individual drivers: land use and land cover change, population growth, and lightning variability. Global fire emissions of carbon increase by about 10% between 1700 and 1900, reaching a maximum of 3.4 Pg C yr-1 in the 1910s, followed by a decrease to about 5% below year 1700 levels by 2010. The decrease in emissions from the 1910s to the present day is driven mainly by land use change, with a smaller contribution from increased fire suppression due to increased human population and is largest in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Interannual variability of global fire emissions is similar in the present day as in the early historical period, but present-day wildfires would be more variable in the absence of land use change.

  6. Future Expansion of the Lightning Surveillance System at the Kennedy Space Center and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA

    Mata, C. T.; Wilson, J. G.


    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Eastern Range (ER) use data from two cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detection networks, the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and a volumetric mapping array, the lightning detection and ranging II (LDAR II) system: These systems are used to monitor and characterize lightning that is potentially hazardous to launch or ground operations and hardware. These systems are not perfect and both have documented missed lightning events when compared to the existing lightning surveillance system at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B). Because of this finding it is NASA's plan to install a lightning surveillance system around each of the active launch pads sharing site locations and triggering capabilities when possible. This paper shows how the existing lightning surveillance system at LC39B has performed in 2011 as well as the plan for the expansion around all active pads.

  7. Analysis of TRMM-LIS Lightning and Related Microphysics Using a Cell-Scale Database

    Leroy, Anita; Petersen, Walter A.


    Previous studies of tropical lightning activity using Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data performed analyses of lightning behavior over mesoscale "feature" scales or over uniform grids. In order to study lightning and the governing ice microphysics intrinsic to thunderstorms at a more process-specific scale (i.e., the scale over which electrification processes and lightning occur in a "unit" thunderstorm), a new convective cell-scale database was developed by analyzing and refining the University of Utah's Precipitation Features database and retaining precipitation data parameters computed from the TRMM precipitation radar (PR), microwave imager (TMI) and LIS instruments. The resulting data base was to conduct a limited four-year study of tropical continental convection occurring over the Amazon Basin, Congo, Maritime Continent and the western Pacific Ocean. The analysis reveals expected strong correlations between lightning flash counts per cell and ice proxies, such as ice water path, minimum and average 85GHz brightness temperatures, and 18dBz echo top heights above the freezing level in all regimes, as well as regime-specific relationships between lighting flash counts and PR-derived surface rainfall rates. Additionally, radar CFADs were used to partition the 3D structure of cells in each regime at different flash counts. The resulting cell-scale analyses are compared to previous mesoscale feature and gridded studies wherever possible.

  8. Estimates of the Lightning NOx Profile in the Vicinity of the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array

    Koshak, William J.; Peterson, Harold S.; McCaul, Eugene W.; Blazar, Arastoo


    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) is applied to August 2006 North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) data to estimate the (unmixed and otherwise environmentally unmodified) vertical source profile of lightning nitrogen oxides, NOx = NO + NO2. Data from the National Lightning Detection Network (Trademark) (NLDN) is also employed. This is part of a larger effort aimed at building a more realistic lightning NOx emissions inventory for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Overall, special attention is given to several important lightning variables including: the frequency and geographical distribution of lightning in the vicinity of the NALMA network, lightning type (ground or cloud flash), lightning channel length, channel altitude, channel peak current, and the number of strokes per flash. Laboratory spark chamber results from the literature are used to convert 1-meter channel segments (that are located at a particular known altitude; i.e., air density) to NOx concentration. The resulting lightning NOx source profiles are discussed.

  9. G8 global partnership. 2004-2005-2006 activity report


    The Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction was launched by the heads of state and government of the G8 at the G8 summit in Kananaskis in June 2002. Fourteen other countries have since joined this G8 initiative. The aim of this partnership is to 'prevent terrorists, or those who harbor them, from acquiring or developing nuclear, chemical radiological and biological weapons, missiles, and related materials, equipment and technology'. Within the framework of the Partnership, the participants have agreed to support cooperation projects, starting with Russia, to promote non-proliferation, disarmament, the fight against terrorism and nuclear safety. The destruction of chemical weapons, the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear submarines, the disposal of fissile materials and the employment of former weapons scientists are among the priority concerns expressed. Ukraine has also been a beneficiary of this partnership since 2004. The participants in this initiative have agreed to contribute up to 20 billion dollars (up to 750 million euros from France) to support these projects over a period of ten years from 2002. A group of experts from the G8 on the Global Partnership (the GPWG = Global Partnership Working Group) meets regularly and gives an account of the progress made with this initiative in its annual report to the G8. These annual reports are published at the G8 summits. This document is the 2004 to 2006 activity report of the G8 global partnership

  10. The Role of Volcanic Activity in Climate and Global Change

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.


    Explosive volcanic eruptions are magnificent events that in many ways affect the Earth\\'s natural processes and climate. They cause sporadic perturbations of the planet\\'s energy balance, activating complex climate feedbacks and providing unique opportunities to better quantify those processes. We know that explosive eruptions cause cooling in the atmosphere for a few years, but we have just recently realized that volcanic signals can be seen in the subsurface ocean for decades. The volcanic forcing of the previous two centuries offsets the ocean heat uptake and diminishes global warming by about 30%. The explosive volcanism of the twenty-first century is unlikely to either cause any significant climate signal or to delay the pace of global warming. The recent interest in dynamic, microphysical, chemical, and climate impacts of volcanic eruptions is also excited by the fact that these impacts provide a natural analogue for climate geoengineering schemes involving deliberate development of an artificial aerosol layer in the lower stratosphere to counteract global warming. In this chapter we aim to discuss these recently discovered volcanic effects and specifically pay attention to how we can learn about the hidden Earth-system mechanisms activated by explosive volcanic eruptions. To demonstrate these effects we use our own model results when possible along with available observations, as well as review closely related recent publications.

  11. VHF lightning mapping observations of a triggered lightning flash

    Edens, H. E.; Eack, K. B.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Trueblood, J. J.; Winn, W. P.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Aulich, G. D.; Hunyady, S. J.; Murray, W. C.; Rison, W.; Behnke, S. A.; Thomas, R. J.


    On 3 August 2010 an extensive lightning flash was triggered over Langmuir Laboratory in New Mexico. The upward positive leader propagated into the storm's midlevel negative charge region, extending over a horizontal area of 13 × 13 km and 7.5 km altitude. The storm had a normal-polarity tripolar charge structure with upper positive charge over midlevel negative charge. Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) observations were used to estimate positive leader velocities along various branches, which were in the range of 1-3 × 104 m s-1, slower than in other studies. The upward positive leader initiated at 3.4 km altitude, but was mapped only above 4.0 km altitude after the onset of retrograde negative breakdown, indicating a change in leader propagation and VHF emissions. The observations suggest that both positive and negative breakdown produce VHF emissions that can be located by time-of-arrival systems, and that not all VHF emissions occurring along positive leader channels are associated with retrograde negative breakdown.

  12. Global projects and Astronomy awareness activities in Nepal

    Gautam, Suman


    Modern astronomy is a crowning achievement of human civilization which inspires teenagers to choose career in science and technology and is a stable of adult education. It is a unique and cost effective tool for furthering sustainable global development because of its technological, scientific and cultural dimensions which allow us to reach with the large portion of the community interact with children and inspire with our wonderful cosmos.Using astronomy to stimulate quality and inspiring education for disadvantaged children is an important goal of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since its inception. NASO is carrying out various awareness activities on its own and in collaboration with national and international organizations like Central Department of Physics Tribhuvan University (TU), International astronomical Union (IAU), Department of Physics Prithvi Narayan Campus Pokhara, Nepal academy of science and technology (NAST), Global Hands on Universe (GHOU), EU- UNAWE and Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) to disseminate those activities for the school children and teachers in Nepal. Our experiences working with kids, students, teachers and public in the field of universe Awareness Activities for the school children to minimize the abstruse concept of astronomy through some practical approach and the project like Astronomy for the visually impaired students, Galileo Teacher Training program and International School for young astronomers (ISYA) outskirts will be explained which is believed to play vital role in promoting astronomy and space science activities in Nepal.

  13. Comparing distinct ground-based lightning location networks covering the Netherlands

    de Vos, Lotte; Leijnse, Hidde; Schmeits, Maurice; Beekhuis, Hans; Poelman, Dieter; Evers, Läslo; Smets, Pieter


    Lightning can be detected using a ground-based sensor network. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) monitors lightning activity in the Netherlands with the so-called FLITS-system; a network combining SAFIR-type sensors. This makes use of Very High Frequency (VHF) as well as Low Frequency (LF) sensors. KNMI has recently decided to replace FLITS by data from a sub-continental network operated by Météorage which makes use of LF sensors only (KNMI Lightning Detection Network, or KLDN). KLDN is compared to the FLITS system, as well as Met Office's long-range Arrival Time Difference (ATDnet), which measures Very Low Frequency (VLF). Special focus lies on the ability to detect Cloud to Ground (CG) and Cloud to Cloud (CC) lightning in the Netherlands. Relative detection efficiency of individual flashes and lightning activity in a more general sense are calculated over a period of almost 5 years. Additionally, the detection efficiency of each system is compared to a ground-truth that is constructed from flashes that are detected by both of the other datasets. Finally, infrasound data is used as a fourth lightning data source for several case studies. Relative performance is found to vary strongly with location and time. As expected, it is found that FLITS detects significantly more CC lightning (because of the strong aptitude of VHF antennas to detect CC), though KLDN and ATDnet detect more CG lightning. We analyze statistics computed over the entire 5-year period, where we look at CG as well as total lightning (CC and CG combined). Statistics that are considered are the Probability of Detection (POD) and the so-called Lightning Activity Detection (LAD). POD is defined as the percentage of reference flashes the system detects compared to the total detections in the reference. LAD is defined as the fraction of system recordings of one or more flashes in predefined area boxes over a certain time period given the fact that the reference detects at least one

  14. A simple lightning assimilation technique for improving ...

    Convective rainfall is often a large source of error in retrospective modeling applications. In particular, positive rainfall biases commonly exist during summer months due to overactive convective parameterizations. In this study, lightning assimilation was applied in the Kain-Fritsch (KF) convective scheme to improve retrospective simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The assimilation method has a straightforward approach: force KF deep convection where lightning is observed and, optionally, suppress deep convection where lightning is absent. WRF simulations were made with and without lightning assimilation over the continental United States for July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. The simulations were evaluated against NCEP stage-IV precipitation data and MADIS near-surface meteorological observations. In general, the use of lightning assimilation considerably improves the simulation of summertime rainfall. For example, the July 2012 monthly averaged bias of 6 h accumulated rainfall is reduced from 0.54 to 0.07 mm and the spatial correlation is increased from 0.21 to 0.43 when lightning assimilation is used. Statistical measures of near-surface meteorological variables also are improved. Consistent improvements also are seen for the July 2013 case. These results suggest that this lightning assimilation technique has the potential to substantially improve simulation of warm-season rainfall in retrospective WRF applications. The

  15. Recent Advancements in Lightning Jump Algorithm Work

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.


    In the past year, the primary objectives were to show the usefulness of total lightning as compared to traditional cloud-to-ground (CG) networks, test the lightning jump algorithm configurations in other regions of the country, increase the number of thunderstorms within our thunderstorm database, and to pinpoint environments that could prove difficult for any lightning jump configuration. A total of 561 thunderstorms have been examined in the past year (409 non-severe, 152 severe) from four regions of the country (North Alabama, Washington D.C., High Plains of CO/KS, and Oklahoma). Results continue to indicate that the 2 lightning jump algorithm configuration holds the most promise in terms of prospective operational lightning jump algorithms, with a probability of detection (POD) at 81%, a false alarm rate (FAR) of 45%, a critical success index (CSI) of 49% and a Heidke Skill Score (HSS) of 0.66. The second best performing algorithm configuration was the Threshold 4 algorithm, which had a POD of 72%, FAR of 51%, a CSI of 41% and an HSS of 0.58. Because a more complex algorithm configuration shows the most promise in terms of prospective operational lightning jump algorithms, accurate thunderstorm cell tracking work must be undertaken to track lightning trends on an individual thunderstorm basis over time. While these numbers for the 2 configuration are impressive, the algorithm does have its weaknesses. Specifically, low-topped and tropical cyclone thunderstorm environments are present issues for the 2 lightning jump algorithm, because of the suppressed vertical depth impact on overall flash counts (i.e., a relative dearth in lightning). For example, in a sample of 120 thunderstorms from northern Alabama that contained 72 missed events by the 2 algorithm 36% of the misses were associated with these two environments (17 storms).

  16. Spatio-temporal dimension of lightning flashes based on three-dimensional Lightning Mapping Array

    López, Jesús A.; Pineda, Nicolau; Montanyà, Joan; Velde, Oscar van der; Fabró, Ferran; Romero, David


    3D mapping system like the LMA - Lightning Mapping Array - are a leap forward in lightning observation. LMA measurements has lead to an improvement on the analysis of the fine structure of lightning, allowing to characterize the duration and maximum extension of the cloud fraction of a lightning flash. During several years of operation, the first LMA deployed in Europe has been providing a large amount of data which now allows a statistical approach to compute the full duration and horizontal extension of the in-cloud phase of a lightning flash. The "Ebro Lightning Mapping Array" (ELMA) is used in the present study. Summer and winter lighting were analyzed for seasonal periods (Dec-Feb and Jun-Aug). A simple method based on an ellipse fitting technique (EFT) has been used to characterize the spatio-temporal dimensions from a set of about 29,000 lightning flashes including both summer and winter events. Results show an average lightning flash duration of 440 ms (450 ms in winter) and a horizontal maximum length of 15.0 km (18.4 km in winter). The uncertainties for summer lightning lengths were about ± 1.2 km and ± 0.7 km for the mean and median values respectively. In case of winter lightning, the level of uncertainty reaches up to 1 km and 0.7 km of mean and median value. The results of the successful correlation of CG discharges with the EFT method, represent 6.9% and 35.5% of the total LMA flashes detected in summer and winter respectively. Additionally, the median value of lightning lengths calculated through this correlative method was approximately 17 km for both seasons. On the other hand, the highest median ratios of lightning length to CG discharges in both summer and winter were reported for positive CG discharges.

  17. A rare manifestation of burns after lightning strike in rural Ghana: a case report.

    Apanga, Paschal Awingura; Azumah, John Atigiba; Yiranbon, Joseph Bayewala


    Lightning is a natural phenomenon that mostly affects countries in the tropical and subtropical regions of the globe, including Ghana. Lightning strikes pose a global public health issue. Although strikes to humans are uncommon, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We present a case of a 10-year-old Ghanaian girl who got second-degree burns after being struck by lightning. She was put on an intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic (ceftriaxone), Ringer's lactate, and her burns were dressed with sterile gauze impregnated with Vaseline (petroleum jelly) and silver sulfadiazine ointment. There was marked improvement on the 16 th day of treatment despite the lack in capacity of the hospital to carry out some laboratory diagnostic tests. On the 21 st day of treatment, the burns were completely healed without scars and contractures. This is evidence of burns due to lightning strike, despite its rare occurrence. This report will help inform those in doubt, particularly in communities where lightning injuries are associated with widespread superstition. The case report also revealed how rural healthcare can be challenging amid a lack of basic diagnostic equipment and logistics. However, in resource-limited settings, Vaseline (petroleum jelly) and silver sulfadiazine could be used in the treatment of burns.

  18. Preliminary study on the Validation of FY-4A Lightning Mapping Imager

    Cao, D.; Lu, F.; Qie, X.; Zhang, X.; Huang, F.; Wang, D.


    The FengYun-4 (FY-4) geostationary meteorological satellite is the second generation of China's geostationary meteorological satellite. The FY-4A was launched on December 11th, 2016. It includes a new instrument Lightning Mapping Imager (LMI) for total lightning (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) detection. The LMI operates at a wavelength of 777.4nm with 1.9ms integrated time. And it could observe lightning activity continuously day and night with spatial resolution of 7.8 km (sub satellite point) over China region. The product algorithm of LMI consists of false signal filtering and flash clustering analysis. The false signal filtering method is used to identify and remove non-lightning artifacts in optical events. The flash clustering analysis method is used to cluster "event" into "group" and "flash" using specified time and space threshold, and the other non-lightning optical events are filtered further more in the clustering analysis. The ground-based lightning location network (LLN) in China and WWLLN (World Wide Lightning Location Network) were both used to make preliminary validation of LMI. The detection efficiency for cloud-to-ground lightning, spatial and temporal accuracy of LMI were estimated by the comparison of lightning observations from ground-based network and LMI. The day and night biases were also estiamted. Although the LLN and WWLLN mainly observe return strokes in cloud-to-ground flash, the accuracy of LMI still could be estimated for that it was not associated with the flash type mostly. The false alarm efficiency of LMI was estimated using the Geostationary Interferometric Infrared Sounder (GIIRS), another payloads on the FY-4A satellite. The GIIRS could identify the convective cloud region and give more information about the cloud properties. The GIIRS products were used to make a rough evaluation of false alarm efficiency of LMI. The results of this study reveal details of characteristics of LMI instrument. It is also found that the

  19. Active listening in medical consultations: development of the Active Listening Observation Scale (ALOS-global).

    Fassaert, T.; Dulmen, S. van; Schellevis, F.; Bensing, J.


    OBJECTIVE: Active listening is a prerequisite for a successful healthcare encounter, bearing potential therapeutic value especially in clinical situations that require no specific medical intervention. Although generally acknowledged as such, active listening has not been studied in depth. This paper describes the development of the Active Listening Observation Scale (ALOS-global), an observation instrument measuring active listening and its validation in a sample of general practice consulta...

  20. Global and photospheric physical parameters of active dwarf stars

    Pettersen, B.R.


    Physical parameters (temperature, luminosity, radius, mass and chemical abundance) of the photospheres of red dwarf flare stars and spotted stars are determined for quiescent conditions. The interrelations between these quantities are compared to the results of theoretical investigation for low mass stars. The evolutionary state of flare stars is discussed. Observational results from spectroscopic and photometric methods to determine the rotation of active dwarfs are reviewed. The possibilities of global oscillations in dwarf stars are considered and preliminary results of a photometric search for oscillation in red dwarf luminosities are presented. (orig.)

  1. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano


    Lightning-caused fire occurrence has been modelled for two different Spanish regions, Madrid andAragon, based on meteorological, terrain, and vegetation variables. The model was built on two very contrasting regions, one presenting low number of lightning-caused fires whereas the other presented...... in the model, where an increasing number of thunderstorms leads to a higher probability of occurrence. Validation was assessed through the Receiver Operator Characteristic, showing a good agreement between the modelled probabilities and the reported lightning-caused fires, with an Area Under the Curve around 0...

  2. Consciousness as a global property of brain dynamic activity

    Mateos, D. M.; Wennberg, R.; Guevara, R.; Perez Velazquez, J. L.


    We seek general principles of the structure of the cellular collective activity associated with conscious awareness. Can we obtain evidence for features of the optimal brain organization that allows for adequate processing of stimuli and that may guide the emergence of cognition and consciousness? Analyzing brain recordings in conscious and unconscious states, we followed initially the classic approach in physics when it comes to understanding collective behaviours of systems composed of a myriad of units: the assessment of the number of possible configurations (microstates) that the system can adopt, for which we use a global entropic measure associated with the number of connected brain regions. Having found maximal entropy in conscious states, we then inspected the microscopic nature of the configurations of connections using an adequate complexity measure and found higher complexity in states characterized not only by conscious awareness but also by subconscious cognitive processing, such as sleep stages. Our observations indicate that conscious awareness is associated with maximal global (macroscopic) entropy and with the short time scale (microscopic) complexity of the configurations of connected brain networks in pathological unconscious states (seizures and coma), but the microscopic view captures the high complexity in physiological unconscious states (sleep) where there is information processing. As such, our results support the global nature of conscious awareness, as advocated by several theories of cognition. We thus hope that our studies represent preliminary steps to reveal aspects of the structure of cognition that leads to conscious awareness.

  3. Active listening in medical consultations: development of the Active Listening Observation Scale (ALOS-global).

    Fassaert, Thijs; van Dulmen, Sandra; Schellevis, François; Bensing, Jozien


    Active listening is a prerequisite for a successful healthcare encounter, bearing potential therapeutic value especially in clinical situations that require no specific medical intervention. Although generally acknowledged as such, active listening has not been studied in depth. This paper describes the development of the Active Listening Observation Scale (ALOS-global), an observation instrument measuring active listening and its validation in a sample of general practice consultations for minor ailments. Five hundred and twenty-four videotaped general practice consultations involving minor ailments were observed with the ALOS-global. Hypotheses were tested to determine validity, incorporating patients' perception of GPs' affective performance, GPs' verbal attention, patients' self-reported anxiety level and gender differences. The final 7-item ALOS-global had acceptable inter- and intra-observer agreement. Factor analysis revealed one homogeneous dimension. The scalescore was positively related to verbal attention measured by RIAS, to patients' perception of GPs' performance and to their pre-visit anxiety level. Female GPs received higher active listening scores. The results of this study are promising concerning the psychometric properties of the ALOS-global. More research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. After establishing how active listening differentiates between health professionals, the ALOS-global may become a valuable tool in feedback and training aimed at increasing listening skills.

  4. Cloud-to-ground lightning in Portugal: patterns and dynamical forcing

    Santos, J. A.; Reis, M. A.; Sousa, J.; Leite, S. M.; Correia, S.; Janeira, M.; Fragoso, M.


    An analysis of the cloud-to-ground discharges (CGD) over Portugal is carried out using data collected by a network of sensors maintained by the Portuguese Meteorological Institute for 2003-2009 (7 yr). Only cloud-to-ground flashes are considered and negative polarity CGD are largely dominant. The total number of discharges reveals a considerable interannual variability and a large irregularity in their distribution throughout the year. However, it is shown that a large number of discharges occur in the May-September period (71%), with a bimodal distribution that peaks in May and September, with most of the lightning activity recorded in the afternoon (from 16:00 to 18:00 UTC). In spring and autumn the lightning activity tends to be scattered throughout the country, whereas in summer it tends to be more concentrated over northeastern Portugal. Winter generally presents low lightning activity. Furthermore, two significant couplings between the monthly number of days with discharges and the large-scale atmospheric circulation are isolated: a regional forcing, predominantly in summer, and a remote forcing. In fact, the identification of daily lightning regimes revealed three important atmospheric conditions for triggering lightning activity: regional cut-off lows, cold troughs induced by remote low pressure systems and summertime regional low pressures at low-tropospheric levels combined with a mid-tropospheric cold trough.

  5. ENSO Related Inter-Annual Lightning Variability from the Full TRMM LIS Lightning Climatology

    Clark, Austin; Cecil, Daniel


    The El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) contributes to inter-annual variability of lightning production more than any other atmospheric oscillation. This study further investigated how ENSO phase affects lightning production in the tropics and subtropics using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). Lightning data were averaged into mean annual warm, cold, and neutral 'years' for analysis of the different phases and compared to model reanalysis data. An examination of the regional sensitivities and preliminary analysis of three locations was conducted using model reanalysis data to determine the leading convective mechanisms in these areas and how they might respond to the ENSO phases

  6. The mechanism of lightning attraction and the problem of lightning initiation by lasers

    Bazelyan, E M; Raizer, Yurii P


    Physical processes determining the ability of lightning to change its trajectory by choosing high constructions to strike are discussed. The leader mechanism of lightning propagation is explained. The criterion for a viable ascending (upward) leader to originate from a construction is established. The mechanism of the weak long-distance interaction between the ascending counter leader originating from a grounded construction and the descending (downward) leader from a cloud is analyzed. Current problems concerning lightning protection and lightning triggering by a laser spark are discussed, the latter being of special interest owing to a recent successful experiment along this line. (physics of our days)

  7. Peak Source Power Associated with Positive Narrow Bipolar Lightning Pulses

    Bandara, S. A.; Marshall, T. C.; Karunarathne, S.; Karunarathne, N. D.; Siedlecki, R. D., II; Stolzenburg, M.


    During the summer of 2016, we deployed a lightning sensor array in and around Oxford Mississippi, USA. The array system comprised seven lightning sensing stations in a network approximately covering an area of 30 km × 30 km. Each station is equipped with four sensors: Fast antenna (10 ms decay time), Slow antenna (1.0 s decay time)), field derivative sensor (dE/dt) and Log-RF antenna (bandwidth 187-192 MHz). We have observed 319 Positive NBPs and herein we report on comparisons of the NBP properties measured from the Fast antenna data with the Log-RF antenna data. These properties include 10-90% rise time, full width at half maximum, zero cross time, and range-normalized amplitude at 100 km. NBPs were categorized according to the fine structure of the electric field wave shapes into Types A-D, as in Karunarathne et al. [2015]. The source powers of NBPs in each category were determined using single station Log-RF data. Furthermore, we also categorized the NBPs in three other groups: initial event of an IC flash, isolated, and not-isolated (according to their spatiotemporal relationship with other lightning activity). We compared the source powers within each category. Karunarathne, S., T. C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, and N. Karunarathna (2015), Observations of positive narrow bipolar pulses, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD023150.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) consists of 6 rotating vane type electric field sensors along with a central computer to record and monitor the instruments....

  9. A solid state lightning propagation speed sensor

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David


    A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground lightning has been developed. The lightning propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered lightning is different than that for natural lightning if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.

  10. Lightning measurements from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter

    Scarf, F. L.; Russell, C. T.


    The plasma wave instrument on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter frequently detects strong and impulsive low-frequency signals when the spacecraft traverses the nightside ionosphere near periapsis. These particular noise bursts appear only when the local magnetic field is strong and steady and when the field is oriented to point down to the ionosphere thus; the signals have all characteristics of lightning whistlers. We have tried to identify lightning sources between the cloud layers and the planet itself by tracing rays along the B-field from the Orbiter down toward the surface. An extensive data set, consisting of measurements through Orbit 1185, strongly indicates a clustering of lightning sources near the Beta and Phoebe Regios, with an additional significant cluster near the Atla Regio at the eastern edge of Aphrodite Terra. These results suggest that there are localized lightning sources at or near the planetary surface.

  11. Central hyperadrenergic state after lightning strike.

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Ahlskog, J Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H; Seime, Richard J; Craft, Jennifer M; Staab, Jeffrey P; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A


    To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation was highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the central nervous system or a secondary response is open to speculation.

  12. Lightning protection for wind turbines in Vietnam

    Thuan Nguyen


    Full Text Available Wind energy has become increasingly important in the total electrical energy supply mix in Vietnam over the last few years. Small, kW turbines were installed in isolated areas a decade ago, while wind farms of several MW to few hundred MW are now being connected directly to national grid, with many additional projects in planning or under construction to fulfill an objective of 6% of the total installed capacity by 2030 (approximately 6200 MW of wind energy component. The increase in wind farm generation results in increased damage from lightning. In this paper, the annual frequency of lightning strikes to wind turbines in Vietnam is calculated using electrogeometric model. Reported lightning incidents to three major wind farms in Vietnam are summarized. Possible causes of failure are discussed, and an EMTP simulation for each incident was performed accordingly. The simulations suggest the failure mechanisms as well the potential of improved grounding to reduce lightning induced damage in future windfarms.

  13. How Lightning Works Inside Thunderstorms: A Half-Century of Lightning Studies

    Krehbiel, P. R.


    Lightning is a fascinating and intriguing natural phenomenon, but the most interesting parts of lightning discharges are inside storms where they are obscured from view by the storm cloud. Although clouds are essentially opaque at optical frequencies, they are fully transparent at radio frequencies (RF). This, coupled with the fact that lightning produces prodigious RF emissions, has allowed us to image and study lightning inside storms using various RF and lower-frequency remote sensing techniques. As in all other scientific disciplines, the technology for conducting the studies has evolved to an incredible extent over the past 50 years. During this time, we have gone from having very little or no knowledge of how lightning operates inside storms, to being able to 'see' its detailed structure and development with an increasing degree of spatial and temporal resolution. In addition to studying the discharge processes themselves, lightning mapping observations provide valuable information on the electrical charge structure of storms, and on the mechanisms by which storms become strongly electrified. In this presentation we briefly review highlights of previous observations, focussing primarily on the long string of remote-sensing studies I have been involved in. We begin with the study of lightning charge centers of cloud-to-ground discharges in central New Mexico in the late 1960s and continue up to the present day with interferometric and 3-dimensional time-of-arrival VHF mapping observations of lightning in normally- and anomalously electrified storms. A particularly important aspect of the investigations has been comparative studies of lightning in different climatological regimes. We conclude with observations being obtained by a high-speed broadband VHF interferometer, which show in unprecedented detail how individual lightning discharges develop inside storms. From combined interferometer and 3-D mapping data, we are beginning to unlock nature's secrets

  14. Assessing global vegetation activity using spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling

    Mulder, Vera L.; van Eck, Christel M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Regnier, Pierre A. G.


    This work demonstrates the potential of modelling vegetation activity using a hierarchical Bayesian spatio-temporal model. This approach allows modelling changes in vegetation and climate simultaneous in space and time. Changes of vegetation activity such as phenology are modelled as a dynamic process depending on climate variability in both space and time. Additionally, differences in observed vegetation status can be contributed to other abiotic ecosystem properties, e.g. soil and terrain properties. Although these properties do not change in time, they do change in space and may provide valuable information in addition to the climate dynamics. The spatio-temporal Bayesian models were calibrated at a regional scale because the local trends in space and time can be better captured by the model. The regional subsets were defined according to the SREX segmentation, as defined by the IPCC. Each region is considered being relatively homogeneous in terms of large-scale climate and biomes, still capturing small-scale (grid-cell level) variability. Modelling within these regions is hence expected to be less uncertain due to the absence of these large-scale patterns, compared to a global approach. This overall modelling approach allows the comparison of model behavior for the different regions and may provide insights on the main dynamic processes driving the interaction between vegetation and climate within different regions. The data employed in this study encompasses the global datasets for soil properties (SoilGrids), terrain properties (Global Relief Model based on SRTM DEM and ETOPO), monthly time series of satellite-derived vegetation indices (GIMMS NDVI3g) and climate variables (Princeton Meteorological Forcing Dataset). The findings proved the potential of a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling approach for assessing vegetation dynamics, at a regional scale. The observed interrelationships of the employed data and the different spatial and temporal trends support

  15. Lightning protection system for a wind turbine

    Costin, Daniel P [Chelsea, VT; Petter, Jeffrey K [Williston, VT


    In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a lightning protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting lightning strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).

  16. Lightning magnetic field measuring system in Bogota

    Escobar Alvarado, Oscar Fernardo


    This thesis presents the configuration and performance of a lightning radiated electromagnetic field measuring system in Bogotá Colombia. The system is composed by both magnetic and electric field measuring systems working as separated sensors. The aim of the thesis is the design and construction of a Magnetic Field Measuring System and the implementation of a whole lightning measuring system in Bogotá. The theoretical background, design process, construction and implementation of the system ...

  17. Lightning Arrestor Connectors Production Readiness

    Marten, Steve; Linder, Kim; Emmons, Jim; Gomez, Antonio; Hasam, Dawud; Maurer, Michelle


    The Lightning Arrestor Connector (LAC), part “M”, presented opportunities to improve the processes used to fabricate LACs. The A## LACs were the first production LACs produced at the KCP, after the product was transferred from Pinnellas. The new LAC relied on the lessons learned from the A## LACs; however, additional improvements were needed to meet the required budget, yield, and schedule requirements. Improvement projects completed since 2001 include Hermetic Connector Sealing Improvement, Contact Assembly molding Improvement, development of a second vendor for LAC shells, general process improvement, tooling improvement, reduction of the LAC production cycle time, and documention of the LAC granule fabrication process. This report summarizes the accomplishments achieved in improving the LAC Production Readiness.

  18. A model for ball lightning

    Fryberger, D.


    A model for ball lightning (BL) is described. It is based upon the vorton model for elementary particles, which exploits the symmetry between electricity and magnetism. The core, or driving engine, of BL in this model is comprised of a vorton-antivorton plasma. The energy of BL, which derives from nucleon decay catalyzed by this plasma, leads, through various mechanisms, to BL luminosity as well as to other BL features. It is argued that this model could also be a suitable explanation for other luminous phenomena, such as the unidentified atmospheric light phenomena seen at Hessdalen. It is predicted that BL and similar atmospheric luminous phenomena should manifest certain features unique to this model, which would be observable with suitable instrumentation

  19. Multicolor Photometric Observation of Lightning from Space: Comparison with Radio Measurements

    Adachi, Toru; Cohen, Morris; Said, Ryan; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Cummer, Steven A.; Li, Jingbo; Lu, Geopeng; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Su, Han-Tzong; Chen, Alfred Bing-Chih; hide


    This study evaluates the effectiveness of spectrophotometric measurements from space in revealing properties of lightning flash. The multicolor optical waveform data obtained by FORMOSAT-2/Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) were analyzed in relation to National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). As of July 2011, we found six lightning events which were observed by ISUAL and North Alabama LMA. In two of these events, NLDN showed clear positive cloud-to-ground (CG) discharges with peak current of +139.9 kA and +41.6 kA and, around that time, LMA showed continuous intra-cloud (IC) leader activities at 4-6 km altitudes. ISUAL also observed consistent optical waveforms of the IC and CG components and, interestingly, it was found that the blue/red spectral ratio clearly decreased by a factor of 1.5-2.5 at the time of CG discharges. Other four lightning events in which NLDN did not detect any CG discharges were also investigated, but such a feature was not found in any of these cases. These results suggest that the optical color of CG component is more reddish than that of IC component and we explain this as a result of more effective Rayleigh scattering in blue light emissions coming from lower-altitude light source. This finding suggests that spectral measurements could be a new useful technique to characterize ICs and CGs from space. In this talk, we will also present a result from lightning statistical analysis of ISUAL spectrophotometric data and ULF magnetic data.

  20. Rationales for the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria

    Willett, John C. (Editor); Merceret, Francis J. (Editor); Krider, E. Philip; O'Brien, T. Paul; Dye, James E.; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Cummins, Kenneth; Christian, Hugh J.; Madura, John T.


    Since natural and triggered lightning are demonstrated hazards to launch vehicles, payloads, and spacecraft, NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) follow the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) for launches from Federal Ranges. The LLCC were developed to prevent future instances of a rocket intercepting natural lightning or triggering a lightning flash during launch from a Federal Range. NASA and DoD utilize the Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP) to establish and develop robust rationale from which the criteria originate. The rationale document also contains appendices that provide additional scientific background, including detailed descriptions of the theory and observations behind the rationales. The LLCC in whole or part are used across the globe due to the rigor of the documented criteria and associated rationale. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) adopted the LLCC in 2006 for commercial space transportation and the criteria were codified in the FAA's Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for Safety of an Expendable Launch Vehicle (Appendix G to 14 CFR Part 417, (G417)) and renamed Lightning Flight Commit Criteria in G417.

  1. On the Initiation of Lightning in Thunderclouds

    Chilingarian, A.; Chilingaryan, S.; Karapetyan, T.; Kozliner, L.; Khanikyants, Y.; Hovsepyan, G.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Soghomonyan, S.


    The relationship of lightning and elementary particle fluxes in the thunderclouds is not fully understood to date. Using the particle beams (the so-called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements - TGE) as a probe we investigate the characteristics of the interrelated atmospheric processes. The well-known effect of the TGE dynamics is the abrupt termination of the particle flux by the lightning flash. With new precise electronics, we can see that particle flux decline occurred simultaneously with the rearranging of the charge centers in the cloud. The analysis of the TGE energy spectra before and after the lightning demonstrates that intense high-energy part of the TGE energy spectra disappeared just after lightning. The decline of particle flux coincides on millisecond time scale with first atmospheric discharges and we can conclude that Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanches (RREA) in the thundercloud assist initiation of the negative cloud to ground lightning. Thus, RREA can provide enough ionization to play a significant role in the unleashing of the lightning flash. (author)

  2. The Elusive Evidence of Volcanic Lightning.

    Genareau, K; Gharghabi, P; Gafford, J; Mazzola, M


    Lightning strikes are known to morphologically alter and chemically reduce geologic formations and deposits, forming fulgurites. A similar process occurs as the result of volcanic lightning discharge, when airborne volcanic ash is transformed into lightning-induced volcanic spherules (LIVS). Here, we adapt the calculations used in previous studies of lightning-induced damage to infrastructure materials to determine the effects on pseudo-ash samples of simplified composition. Using laboratory high-current impulse experiments, this research shows that within the lightning discharge channel there is an ideal melting zone that represents roughly 10% or less of the total channel radius at which temperatures are sufficient to melt the ash, regardless of peak current. The melted ash is simultaneously expelled from the channel by the heated, expanding air, permitting particles to cool during atmospheric transport before coming to rest in ash fall deposits. The limited size of this ideal melting zone explains the low number of LIVS typically observed in volcanic ash despite the frequent occurrence of lightning during explosive eruptions.

  3. Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida: Phase V

    Bauman, William H., III


    The AMU added three years of data to the POR from the previous work resulting in a 22-year POR for the warm season months from 1989-2010. In addition to the flow regime stratification, moisture and stability stratifications were added to separate more active from less active lighting days within the same flow regime. The parameters used for moisture and stability stratifications were PWAT and TI which were derived from sounding data at four Florida radiosonde sites. Lightning data consisted of NLDN CG lightning flashes within 30 NM of each airfield. The AMU increased the number of airfields from nine to thirty-six which included the SLF, CCAFS, PAFB and thirty-three airfields across Florida. The NWS MLB requested the AMU calculate lightning climatologies for additional airfields that they support as a backup to NWS TBW which was then expanded to include airfields supported by NWS JAX and NWS MFL. The updated climatologies of lightning probabilities are based on revised synoptic-scale flow regimes over the Florida peninsula (Lambert 2007) for 5-, 10-, 20- and 30-NM radius range rings around the thirty-six airfields in 1-, 3- and 6-hour increments. The lightning, flow regime, moisture and stability data were processed in S-PLUS software using scripts written by the AMU to automate much of the data processing. The S-PLUS data files were exported to Excel to allow the files to be combined in Excel Workbooks for easier data handling and to create the tables and charts for the Gill. The AMU revised the Gill developed in the previous phase (Bauman 2009) with the new data and provided users with an updated HTML tool to display and manipulate the data and corresponding charts. The tool can be used with most web browsers and is computer operating system independent. The AMU delivered two Gills - one with just the PWAT stratification and one with both the PWAT and TI stratifications due to insufficient data in some of the PWATITI stratification combinations. This will allow

  4. Status on the Zeus lightning network in Brazil and its application to the electrical sector of COELCE - the Energy Company from Ceara state

    Morales Rodriguez, Carlos Augusto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], E-mail:; Sales, Francisco; Pinheiro, Francisco Geraldo [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), CE (Brazil)], E-mail:; Camara, Keyla Sampaio [Companhia de Energetica do Estado do Ceara (COELCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails:,; Anagnostou, Emmanouil E. [University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)], E-mail:


    This paper presents the deployment and new perspectives of the ZEUS VLF long range lightning monitoring network that has been established in Brazil after the support of the Research and Development Program of the 'Companhia Energetica do Ceara-(COELCE)'. The ZEUS network measures radio noise emitted by lightning that propagates through the ionosphere-earth surface waveguide up to thousands of kilometers. Two new VLF antennas have been installed in Fortaleza (Ceara) and Cachoeira Paulista (Sao Paulo) Brazil in the first semester of 2006 and were integrated with the 4 sensor installed in Africa and one in the Caribbean. Based on this new configuration, ZEUS is continuing measuring lightning discharges over South and North America, the Atlantic Ocean and Africa. Preliminary validation analysis using the data from the Brazilian Lightning Detection Network (RINDAT), National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) of USA, and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were employed to retrieve the location accuracy during the period of August through November of 2006. The location accuracy is based on coincident timing matches been the sferics measurements observed by ZEUS against the measurements of RINDAT, NLDN and LIS. Based on this new ZEUS configuration, the preliminary validation shows that ZEUS has location accuracy between 10-50 km over Brazil, 5-25 km in Africa, 70-100 km over the southern USA, and 5-25 km in the Atlantic Ocean. The measurements from August through November of 2006 show that the main lightning activity is located in the Western Amazon, Western and Central Africa, Central America, Colombia, Florida and Caribbean regions, which agrees with the lightning maps derived with LIS for the same time period. Finally, since ZEUS is been employed by COELCE, some lightning and thunderstorm products are been developed to help the improvement of their system over the states of Ceara, for example: lightning

  5. Lightning NOx Production in CMAQ Part I – Using Hourly NLDN Lightning Strike Data

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past dec...

  6. Lightning Performance on Overhead Distribution Lines : After Improvement Field Observation

    Reynaldo Zoro


    Full Text Available Two feeders of 20 kV overhead distribution lines which are located in a high lightning density area are chosen to be observed as a field study due to their good lightning performance after improvement of lightning protection system. These two feeders used the new overhead ground wire and new line arrester equipped with lightning counter on the main lines. The significant reduced of lines outages are reported. Study was carried out to observe these improvements by comparing to the other two feeders line which are not improved and not equipped yet with the ground wire and line arrester. These two feeders located in the nearby area. Two cameras were installed to record the trajectory of the lightning strikes on the improved lines. Lightning peak currents are measured using magnetic tape measurement system installed on the grounding lead of lightning arrester. Lightning overvoltage calculations are carried out by using several scenarios based on observation results and historical lightning data derived from lightning detection network. Lightning overvoltages caused by indirect or direct strikes are analyzed to get the lightning performance of the lines. The best scenario was chosen and performance of the lines were improved significantly by installing overhead ground wire and improvement of lightning arrester installation.

  7. Development of Lightning Observation Network in the Western Pacific Region for the Intensity Prediction of Severe Weather

    Sato, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Kubota, H.; Hamada, J. I.; Momota, E.; Marciano, J. J.


    Lightning activity represents the thunderstorm activity, that is, the precipitation and/or updraft intensity and area. Thunderstorm activity is also an important parameter in terms of the energy inputs from the ocean to the atmosphere inside tropical cyclone, which is one of severe weather events. Recent studies suggest that it is possible to predict the maximum wind velocity and minimum pressure near the center of the tropical cyclone by one or two days before if we monitor the lightning activities in the tropical cyclone. Many countries in the western Pacific region suffer from the attack of tropical cyclone (typhoon) and have a strong demand to predict the intensity development of typhoons. Thus, we started developing a new lightning observation system and installing the observation system at Guam, Palau, and Manila in the Philippines from this summer. The lightning observation system consists of a VLF sensor detecting lightning-excited electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of 1-5 kHz, an automatic data-processing unit, solar panels, and batteries. Lightning-excited pulse signals detected by the VLF sensor are automatically analyzed by the data-processing unit, and only the extracted information of the trigger time and pulse amplitude is transmitted to a data server via the 3G data communications. In addition, we are now developing an upgraded lightning and weather observation system, which will be installed at 50 automated weather stations in Metro Manila and 10 radar sites in the Philippines under the 5-year project (SATREPS) scheme. At the presentation, we will show the initial results derived from the lightning observation system in detail and will show the detailed future plan of the SATREPS project.

  8. Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities

    Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra


    This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

  9. Global suppression of electrocortical activity in unilateral perinatal thalamic stroke.

    Kharoshankaya, Liudmila


    We present an unusual case of persistent generalized electroencephalography (EEG) suppression and right-sided clonic seizures in a male infant born at 40(+2) weeks\\' gestation, birthweight 3240g, with an isolated unilateral thalamic stroke. The EEG at 13 hours after birth showed a generalized very low amplitude background pattern, which progressed to frequent electrographic seizures over the left hemisphere. The interictal background EEG pattern remained grossly abnormal over the next 48 hours, showing very low background amplitudes (<10μV). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an isolated acute left-sided thalamic infarction. This is the first description of severe global EEG suppression caused by an isolated unilateral thalamic stroke and supports the role of the thalamus as the control centre for cortical electrical activity.

  10. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj


    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  11. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj


    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  12. An Overview of Three-year JEM-GLIMS Nadir Observations of Lightning and TLEs

    Sato, M.; Ushio, T.; Morimoto, T.; Adachi, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Inan, U.; Linscott, I.; Hobara, Y.


    JEM-GLIMS nadir observations of lightning and TLEs at the ISS started from November 2012 and successfully ended on August 2015. For three-year observation period, JEM-GLIMS succeeded in detecting over 8,000 lightning events and 670 TLEs. The detected optical emissions of sprites showed clear horizontal displacement with the range of 10-20 km from the peak location of the +CG emissions and from the +CG locations detected by NLDN and WWLLN. Using VITF electric field waveform data, source locations of VHF pulses excited by the parent CG discharges are estimated. It is found that the possible VHF source locations were mostly located within the area of the parent lightning emissions. These facts may imply that the center region of the neutralized charge by CG discharges in the thundercloud located near the return stroke point and that the some seed conditions were established in advance at the sprite location before the occurrence of sprites. The global occurrence distributions and rates of lightning discharges and TLEs are also estimated. The estimated mean global occurrence rate of lightning discharges is ~1.5 events/s, which is smaller number than that derived from MicroLab-1/OTD and TRMM/LIS measurements. This may be originated in the fact that JEM-GLISM detected only intense lightning optical events due to the high threshold level for the event triggering. To the contrary, the estimated mean global occurrence rate of TLEs is ~9.8 events/min, which is two times higher than the ISUAL result. It is likely that JEM-GLIMS could detect dimmer optical emissions of TLEs than ISUAL since the distance between the JEM-GLIMS instruments and TLEs is much closer. At the presentation, we will summarize the results derived from three-year JEM-GLIMS nadir observations. We will discuss possible occurrence conditions of sprites, properties of global occurrence rates of lightning and TLEs, and their LT dependences more in detail.

  13. Global emissions and models of photochemically active compounds

    Penner, J.E.; Atherton, C.S.; Graedel, T.E.


    Anthropogenic emissions from industrial activity, fossil fuel combustion, and biomass burning are now known to be large enough (relative to natural sources) to perturb the chemistry of vast regions of the troposphere. A goal of the IGAC Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) is to provide authoritative and reliable emissions inventories on a 1 degree x 1 degree grid. When combined with atmospheric photochemical models, these high quality emissions inventories may be used to predict the concentrations of major photochemical products. Comparison of model results with measurements of pertinent species allows us to understand whether there are major shortcomings in our understanding of tropospheric photochemistry, the budgets and transport of trace species, and their effects in the atmosphere. Through this activity, we are building the capability to make confident predictions of the future consequences of anthropogenic emissions. This paper compares IGAC recommended emissions inventories for reactive nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to those that have been in use previously. We also present results from the three-dimensional LLNL atmospheric chemistry model that show how emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides might potentially affect tropospheric ozone and OH concentrations and how emissions of anthropogenic sulfur increase sulfate aerosol loadings

  14. WIN Global. 1977/98 Activities at a First Glance

    Rising, A.; Lopez CArbonell, M.T.; Perez-Griffo, M.L.


    WIN is a worldwide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and applications of radiation. The goal of WIN is to contribute to objectively inform the public on nuclear and radiation. WIN's principal objective is to emphasis and support the role that women can and do have in addressing the general public's concerns about nuclear energy and the application of radiation and nuclear technology. WIN is doing this through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. Members of WIN all have one thing in common: they want the general public to have a better understanding of nuclear and radiation matters. Membership status as ao April 21, 1998 was 605 members from 39 countries. During the year 7 new countries have joined to WIN ant two national WIN groups have been formed. Purpose of this paper is to present, to the Spanish Nuclear Society members, the WIN Global activities all over the world for the period 1997/98. The information included herein comes from different sources and WIN members and is, of course, a quick look over those activities. Win Spain activities for the period will be presented in a different paper of this Annual Meeting. (Author) 2 refs

  15. ENSO Related Interannual Lightning Variability from the Full TRMM LIS Lightning Climatology

    Clark, Austin; Cecil, Daniel J.


    It has been shown that the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) contributes to inter-annual variability of lightning production in the tropics and subtropics more than any other atmospheric oscillation. This study further investigated how ENSO phase affects lightning production in the tropics and subtropics. Using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI) for ENSO phase, lightning data were averaged into corresponding mean annual warm, cold, and neutral 'years' for analysis of the different phases. An examination of the regional sensitivities and preliminary analysis of three locations was conducted using model reanalysis data to determine the leading convective mechanisms in these areas and how they might respond to the ENSO phases. These processes were then studied for inter-annual variance and subsequent correlation to ENSO during the study period to best describe the observed lightning deviations from year to year at each location.

  16. Frequency domain analysis of lightning protection using four lightning protection rods

    Javor Vesna


    Full Text Available In this paper the lightning discharge channel is modeled as a vertical monopole antenna excited by a pulse generator at its base. The lightning electromagnetic field of a nearby lightning discharge in the case of lightning protection using four vertical lightning protection rods was determined in the frequency domain. Unknown current distributions were determined by numerical solving of a system of integral equations of two potentials using the Point Matching Method and polynomial approximation of the current distributions. The influence of the real ground, treated as homogeneous loss half-space of known electrical parameters, expressed through a Sommerfeld integral kernel, was modeled using a new Two-image approximation which gives good results in both near and far fields.

  17. Lightning Attachment Estimation to Wind Turbines by Utilizing Lightning Location Systems

    Vogel, Stephan; Holbøll, Joachim; Lopez, Javier


    three different wind power plant locations are analyzed and the impact of varying data qualities is evaluated regarding the ability to detect upward lightning. This work provides a variety of background information which is relevant to the exposure assessment of wind turbine and includes practical......The goal of a lightning exposure assessment is to identify the number, type and characteristics of lightning discharges to a certain structure. There are various Lightning Location System (LLS) technologies available, each of them are characterized by individual performance characteristics....... In this work, these technologies are reviewed and evaluated in order to obtain an estimation of which technologies are eligible to perform a lightning assessment to wind turbines. The results indicate that ground-based mid-range low frequency (LF) LLS systems are most qualified since they combine a wide...

  18. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on TRMM Science Data V4

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) Science Data was collected by the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), which was an instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement...

  19. Multiparameter Investigation of Significant Lightning Producing Storms in Northeastern Colorado

    Gauthier, Michael


    We present a regional, summer season, climatology of cloud to ground (CG) lightning immediately east of the central Rocky mountains from 1996-98 using data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The U.S. National Lightning Detection Network is a commercial lightning detection network operated by Vaisala. A network of over 100 antennae are connected to a...

  1. Geographic distribution of lightning-induced electron pricipitation observed as VLF/LF perturbation events

    Inan, U.S.; Wolf, T.G.; Carpenter, D.L.


    Expected occurrence characteristics of lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) events at longitudes of the western (110 0 W) versus eastern (71 0 W) Unted States are considered from the point of view of available trapped particle flux at the edge of the loss cone. Considered from the point of view of available trapped particle flux at the edge of the loss cone. Considering published data on nighttime fluxes of >68 keV electrons observed at L≅2.5, and for ''direct'' precipitation into the northern hemisphere induced by northern hemisphere lightning, the occurrence rate and flux levels are expected to a factor of 20--200 higher in the west than in the east, assuming no significant variation in lightning source activity with longitude. Again assuming lightning sources in the north, it is predicted that at 71 0 W, ''mirrored'' precipitation into the southern hemisphere would involve precipitation fluxes 30--300 times higher than ''direct'' precipitation into the noerthern hemisphere. However, at 110 0 W and again assuming lightning in the north, southern hemisphere precipitation would tend to be limited to that small fraction of particles that were initially scattered into the northern loss cone and that were then backscattered from the northern atmosphere so as to reach the south

  2. Subionospheric VLF signatures of nighttime D region perturbations in the vicinity of lightning discharges

    Inan, U.S.; Shafer, D.C.; Yip, W.Y.; Orville, R.E.


    A 12-hour sequence of perturbations of subionospheric VLF signals observed in association with lightning provided preliminary evidence that the ionospheric regions perturbed in these events may be confined to within ∼ 150 km of the lightning discharges, and that intracloud flashes as well as cloud-to-ground lightning may be important in producing the perturbations. High-resolution analysis of event signatures indicated the presence of two different classes of events. For one set of events, observed during the most active central 6 hours of the observations period, a ∼ 0.6-s delay between the causative lightning and VLF event onset and a ∼ 1-s onset duration was observed, consistent with previously suggested models of the gyroresonant whistler-paritcle interaction that leads to particle precipitation and perturbation of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. However, another set of events, observed during the first 2 hours of the observation period, exhibited a very different temporal signature, characterized by a much smaller (<50 ms) delay and sometimes also very short (< 50 ms) rise times. Such events are possibly related to previously reported cases of similarly early/fast events and may involve a more direct coupling between the lightning discharge and the lower ionosphere

  3. Identification of lightning vulnerability points on complex grounded structures

    Becerra Garcia, Marley; Cooray, Vernon; Hartono, Z.A


    The identification of the most vulnerable points on a given structure to be struck by lightning is an important issue on the design of areliable lightning protection system. Traditionally, these lightning strike points are identified using the rolling sphere method, through anempirical correlation with the prospective peak return stroke current. However, field observations in Kuala Lumpur and Singapore haveshown that the points where lightning flashes strike buildings also depend on the heigh...

  4. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen


    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  5. Spatial distribution and temporal variations of occurrence frequency of lightning whistlers observed by VLF/WBA onboard Akebono

    Oike, Yuta; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Goto, Yoshitaka


    We statistically analyzed lightning whistlers detected from the analog waveform data below 15 kHz observed by the VLF instruments onboard Akebono. We examined the large amount of data obtained at Uchinoura Space Center in Japan for 22 years from 1989 to 2010. The lightning whistlers were mainly observed inside the L shell region below 2. Seasonal dependence of the occurrence frequency of lightning whistlers has two peaks around July to August and December to January. As lightning is most active in summer, in general, these two peaks correspond to summer in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. Diurnal variation of the occurrence frequency showed that lightning whistlers begin to increase in the early evening and remain at a high-occurrence level through the night with a peak around 21 in magnetic local time (MLT). This peak shifts toward nightside compared with lightning activity, which begins to rise around noon and peaks in the late afternoon. This trend is supposed to be caused by attenuation of VLF wave in the ionosphere in the daytime. Comparison study with the ground-based observation revealed consistent results, except that the peak of the ground-based observation appeared after midnight while our measurements obtained by Akebono was around 21 in MLT. This difference is explained qualitatively in terms that lightning whistlers measured at the ground station passed through the ionosphere twice above both source region and the ground station. These facts provide an important clue to evaluate quantitatively the absorption effect of lightning whistler in the ionosphere.

  6. 14 CFR 27.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection....610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) of this section...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1316 - System lightning protection.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false System lightning protection. 25.1316... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1316 System lightning... systems to perform these functions are not adversely affected when the airplane is exposed to lightning...

  8. 14 CFR 29.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection... § 29.610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft structure must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) of...

  9. 14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having a...

  10. 30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning. ...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning. ...

  12. A Performance Evaluation of Lightning-NO Algorithms in CMAQ

    In the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQv5.2) model, we have implemented two algorithms for lightning NO production; one algorithm is based on the hourly observed cloud-to-ground lightning strike data from National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) to replace the previous m...

  13. How global brands compete.

    Holt, Douglas B; Quelch, John A; Taylor, Earl L


    It's time to rethink global branding. More than two decades ago, Harvard Business School professor Theodore Levitt argued that corporations should grow by selling standardized products all over the world. But consumers in most countries had trouble relating to generic products, so executives instead strove for global scale on backstage activities such as production while customizing product features and selling techniques to local tastes. Such "glocal" strategies now rule marketing. Global branding has lost more luster recently because transnational companies have been under siege, with brands like Coca-Cola and Nike becoming lightning rods for antiglobalization protests. The instinctive reaction of most transnational companies has been to try to fly below the radar. But global brands can't escape notice. In fact, most transnational corporations don't realize that because of their power and pervasiveness, people view them differently than they do other firms. In a research project involving 3,300 consumers in 41 countries, the authors found that most people choose one global brand over another because of differences in the brands'global qualities. Ratherthan ignore the global characteristics of their brands, firms must learn to manage those characteristics. That's critical, because future growth for most companies will likely come from foreign markets. Consumers base preferences on three dimensions of global brands--quality (signaled by a company's global stature); the cultural myths that brands author; and firms' efforts to address social problems. The authors also found that it didn't matter to consumers whether the brands they bought were American--a remarkable finding considering that the study was conducted when anti-American sentiment in many nations was on the rise.

  14. Statistical Evolution of the Lightning Flash

    Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Cohen, M.; Said, R.; Inan, U. S.


    Natural lightning is one of the most fascinating and powerful electrical processes on Earth. To date, the physics behind this natural phenomenon are not fully understood, due primarily to the difficulty of obtaining measurements inside thunderstorms and to the wide range of timescales involved (from nanoseconds to seconds). Our aim is to use accurate lightning geo-location data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) to study statistical patterns in lightning, taking advantage of the fact that millions of lightning flashes occur around the globe every day. We present two sets of results, one involving the patterns of flashes in a storm, and a second involving the patterns of strokes in a flash. These patterns can provide a surrogate measure of the timescales and the spatial extents of the underlying physical processes. First, we study the timescales of charge buildup inside thunderstorms. We find that, following a lightning flash, the probability of another neighboring flash decreases and takes tens of seconds to recover. We find that this suppression effect is a function of flash type, stroke peak current, cloud-to-ground (CG) stroke multiplicity, and other lightning and geographical parameters. We find that the probabilities of subsequent flashes are more suppressed following oceanic lightning, or following flashes with higher peak currents and/or higher multiplicities (for CG flashes). Second, we use NLDN data to study the evolution of the strokes within a CG flash. A CG flash typically includes multiple return strokes, which can occur in the same channel or in multiple channels within a few kilometers. We cluster NLDN stroke data into flashes and produce the probability density function of subsequent strokes as a function of distance and time-delays relative to the previous stroke. Using this technique, we investigate processes which occur during the CG lightning flash with nanosecond to millisecond timescales. For instance, our results suggest

  15. GLM Proxy Data Generation: Methods for Stroke/Pulse Level Inter-Comparison of Ground-Based Lightning Reference Networks

    Cummins, Kenneth L.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Bateman, Monte G.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Petersen, Walter Arthur; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.


    In order to produce useful proxy data for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in regions not covered by VLF lightning mapping systems, we intend to employ data produced by ground-based (regional or global) VLF/LF lightning detection networks. Before using these data in GLM Risk Reduction tasks, it is necessary to have a quantitative understanding of the performance of these networks, in terms of CG flash/stroke DE, cloud flash/pulse DE, location accuracy, and CLD/CG classification error. This information is being obtained through inter-comparison with LMAs and well-quantified VLF/LF lightning networks. One of our approaches is to compare "bulk" counting statistics on the spatial scale of convective cells, in order to both quantify relative performance and observe variations in cell-based temporal trends provided by each network. In addition, we are using microsecond-level stroke/pulse time correlation to facilitate detailed inter-comparisons at a more-fundamental level. The current development status of our ground-based inter-comparison and evaluation tools will be presented, and performance metrics will be discussed through a comparison of Vaisala s Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) with the NLDN at locations within and outside the U.S.

  16. Management of radioactive disused lightning rods

    Santos, Paulo de Oliveira; Silva, Fabio, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Energia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The manufacture of radioactive lightning rod was allowed from 1970 to 1989. This authorization was based on state-of-the art science of that time that verified that radioactive lightning rods had efficiency superior to the conventional lightning rods, denominated Franklin. However, the experience showed that their efficiency was not superior enough to justify the use of radioactive sources. Consequently, in 1989, the National Commission or Nuclear Energy - CNEN, issued the Resolution 04/89 from 04-19-1989, that forbidden the importation of {sup 241}Am tapes, assembling and commercialization of radioactive lightning-rods. The institutes of CNEN are responsible for receiving these lightning-rods and sending to the users procedures for removing and dispatch to the institutes. Therewith, these devices are kept away from the human being and environment. The Nuclear technology Development Center - CDTN and Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research - IPEN of CNEN, has built laboratories appropriate for dismantling such devices and store the {sup 241}Am tapes safely. Nowadays are being researched methodologies to evaluate the contamination levels of the frame for possible recycling and become better the management of these devices. (author)

  17. The Sandia transportable triggered lightning instrumentation facility

    Schnetzer, George H.; Fisher, Richard J.


    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of a munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck of by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of the systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATTLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within approximately 7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of approximately 2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications.

  18. Management of radioactive disused lightning rods

    Santos, Paulo de Oliveira; Silva, Fabio


    The manufacture of radioactive lightning rod was allowed from 1970 to 1989. This authorization was based on state-of-the art science of that time that verified that radioactive lightning rods had efficiency superior to the conventional lightning rods, denominated Franklin. However, the experience showed that their efficiency was not superior enough to justify the use of radioactive sources. Consequently, in 1989, the National Commission or Nuclear Energy - CNEN, issued the Resolution 04/89 from 04-19-1989, that forbidden the importation of 241 Am tapes, assembling and commercialization of radioactive lightning-rods. The institutes of CNEN are responsible for receiving these lightning-rods and sending to the users procedures for removing and dispatch to the institutes. Therewith, these devices are kept away from the human being and environment. The Nuclear technology Development Center - CDTN and Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research - IPEN of CNEN, has built laboratories appropriate for dismantling such devices and store the 241 Am tapes safely. Nowadays are being researched methodologies to evaluate the contamination levels of the frame for possible recycling and become better the management of these devices. (author)

  19. Exploring the Production of NOx by Lightning and Its Impact on Tropospheric Ozone

    Gillani, Noor; Koshak, William; Biazar, Arastoo; Doty, Kevin; Mahon, Robert; Newchurch, Michael; Byun, Daewon; Emmons, Louisa


    Our quantitative understanding of free tropospheric (FT) chemistry is quite poor. State-of-the-art regional air quality models (e.g., US EPA's CMAQ) perform very poorly in simulating FT chemistry, with Uniform ozone around 70 ppb throughout the FT in summer, while ozonesonde data show much higher levels of ozone and much spatial-temporal structure. Such models completely neglect lightning-NOx (LNOx) emissions (the most significant source of NOx in the FT), and also contain large uncertainties in the specifications of intercontinental transport, stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) and PBLFT exchange (PFTE). Global air chemistry models include LNOx, but in very crude fashion, with the frequency and distribution of lightning being based on modeled cloud parameters (hence large uncertainty), lightning energetics being assumed to be constant for all flashes (literature value, while in reality there is at least a two-orders of magnitude variability from flash-to-flash), and the production of NOx in the surrounding heated air, per Joule of heating, being assumed to be constant also (literature value, while in fact it is a non-linear function of the dissipated heat and local air density, p). This situation is commonly blamed on paucity of pertinent observational data, but for the USA, there is now a wealth of surface- and satellite-based data of lightning available to permit much improved observation-based estimation of LNOx emissions. In the FT, such NOx has a long residence time, and also the ozone production efficiency from NOx there is considerably higher than in the PBL. It is, therefore, of critical importance in FT chemistry. This paper will describe the approach and data products of an ongoing NSSTC project aimed at a much-improved quantification of not only LNOx production on the scale of continental USA based on local and regional lightning observations, but also of intercontinental transport, STE and PFTE, all in upgraded simulations of tropospheric

  20. Doppler Radar and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Observations of a Severe Outbreak of Tropical Cyclone Tornadoes

    McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Buechler, Dennis; Cammarata, Michael; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)


    Data from a single WSR-88D Doppler radar and the National Lightning Detection Network are used to examine the characteristics of the convective storms that produced a severe tornado outbreak within Tropical Storm Beryl's remnants on 16 August 1994. Comparison of the radar data with reports of tornadoes suggests that only 12 cells produced the 29 tornadoes that were documented in Georgia and the Carolinas on that date. Six of these cells spawned multiple tornadoes, and the radar data confirm the presence of miniature supercells. One of the cells was identifiable on radar for 11 hours, spawning tornadoes over a time period spanning approximately 6.5 hours. Time-height analyses of the three strongest supercells are presented in order to document storm kinematic structure and evolution. These Beryl mini-supercells were comparable in radar-observed intensity but much more persistent than other tropical cyclone-spawned tornadic cells documented thus far with Doppler radars. Cloud-to-ground lightning data are also examined for all the tornadic cells in this severe swarm-type tornado outbreak. These data show many of the characteristics of previously reported heavy-precipitation supercells. Lightning rates were weak to moderate, even in the more intense supercells, and in all the storms the lightning flashes were almost entirely negative in polarity. No lightning at all was detected in some of the single-tornado storms. In the stronger cells, there is some evidence that lightning rates can decrease during tornadogenesis, as has been documented before in some midlatitude tornadic storms. A number of the storms spawned tornadoes just after producing their final cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. These findings suggest possible benefits from implementation of observing systems capable of monitoring intracloud as well as cloud-to-ground lightning activity.

  1. Electrostatic charge bounds for ball lightning models

    Stephan, Karl D


    Several current theories concerning the nature of ball lightning predict a substantial electrostatic charge in order to account for its observed motion and shape (Turner 1998 Phys. Rep. 293 1; Abrahamson and Dinniss 2000 Nature 403 519). Using charged soap bubbles as a physical model for ball lightning, we show that the magnitude of charge predicted by some of these theories is too high to allow for the types of motion commonly observed in natural ball lightning, which includes horizontal motion above the ground and movement near grounded conductors. Experiments show that at charge levels of only 10-15 nC, 3-cm-diameter soap bubbles tend to be attracted by induced charges to the nearest grounded conductor and rupture. We conclude with a scaling rule that can be used to extrapolate these results to larger objects and surroundings

  2. Augmenting Satellite Precipitation Estimation with Lightning Information

    Mahrooghy, Majid [Mississippi State University (MSU); Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Younan, Nicolas H. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Petersen, Walter A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL; Hsu, Kuo-Lin [University of California, Irvine; Behrangi, Ali [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Aanstoos, James [Mississippi State University (MSU)


    We have used lightning information to augment the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network - Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). Co-located lightning data are used to segregate cloud patches, segmented from GOES-12 infrared data, into either electrified (EL) or non-electrified (NEL) patches. A set of features is extracted separately for the EL and NEL cloud patches. The features for the EL cloud patches include new features based on the lightning information. The cloud patches are classified and clustered using self-organizing maps (SOM). Then brightness temperature and rain rate (T-R) relationships are derived for the different clusters. Rain rates are estimated for the cloud patches based on their representative T-R relationship. The Equitable Threat Score (ETS) for daily precipitation estimates is improved by almost 12% for the winter season. In the summer, no significant improvements in ETS are noted.

  3. On the formation of ball lightning

    Silberg, P.A.


    A plasma continuum model for the formation of ball lightning is developed based on a substantial number of reports that the ball is often in the discharge column of a previous lightning stroke. The usual method of setting up the plasma equation for a one-component electron plasma is used. An approximate equation for the plasma is derived from the describing equation which is then solved exactly in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions. The formation of the ball is based on a nonlinearity of the plasma equation which uner certain circumstances permits the field to collapse into a small region. This collapse is interpreted to be ball lightning. The approximate equation derived for the plasma has the same form as a previous equation used to describe the formation of the fireball plasma. (author)

  4. Magnetic field generated by lightning protection system

    Geri, A.; Veca, G. M.


    A lightning protection system for today's civil buildings must be electromagnetically compatible with the electronic equipment present in the building. This paper highlights a mathematic model which analyzes the electromagnetic effects in the environment in which the lightning protection system is. This model is developed by means of finite elements of an electrical circuit where each element is represented by a double pole circuit according to the trapezoidal algorithm developed using the finite difference method. It is thus possible to analyze the electromagnetic phenomena associated with the transient effects created by the lightning stroke even for a high-intensity current. Referring to an elementary system comprised of an air terminal, a down conductor, and a ground terminal, numerical results are here laid out.

  5. Analysis and design of the installation of a lightning rod in risk areas of atmospheric discharge according to the standards NFPA 70, NFPA 780 and IEC 62305

    Cordoba Alfaro, Marco


    The design, analysis of the installation and handling of electrical protections oriented to atmospheric discharge in specific locations of the north zone of Costa Rica, are focused. Related topics with the devices of protection against atmospheric discharge, definitions, types, uses and characteristics were developed. The regulations NFPA 70, NFPA 780 and IEC 62305 are studied for the analysis and design of the lightning rod. The standards are analyzed, according to the rules applied at specialized companies in the elaboration and installation of lightning rod, in order to determine if these are adequate and used in correctly shape . A report is made about the design of a lightning rod and preventive measures for areas with regular activity of atmospheric discharges. The different devices for the elaboration and installation of a lightning rod are investigated in order to later use and exploitation. The design for the implementation of a system of conventional lightning rod, type tips of Franklin, was realized at the Iglesia Catedral of Ciudad Quesada. The materials that were used in this type of lightning rod, have followed the regulation NFPA 780. Several approximate plans of the cathedral have been performed to appreciate good the design, both in 2D as in 3D; these allow a better panorama of the installation. The distance between devices has been fundamental to take into account in the design of a system of lightning rod, as it marks an important difference between the area to protect and areas that may be exposed to an atmospheric discharge. The rule NFPA 780 has been established that to design the location of the lightning captors can use the rolling sphere method, also has marked the requirements of the downspouts systems and grounding systems. Before locating a lightning protection system it is important to be informed of the principal characteristics of the area to be protected; as on several occasions, the particularities of the selected area have

  6. Developing an Enhanced Lightning Jump Algorithm for Operational Use

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.


    Overall Goals: 1. Build on the lightning jump framework set through previous studies. 2. Understand what typically occurs in nonsevere convection with respect to increases in lightning. 3. Ultimately develop a lightning jump algorithm for use on the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). 4 Lightning jump algorithm configurations were developed (2(sigma), 3(sigma), Threshold 10 and Threshold 8). 5 algorithms were tested on a population of 47 nonsevere and 38 severe thunderstorms. Results indicate that the 2(sigma) algorithm performed best over the entire thunderstorm sample set with a POD of 87%, a far of 35%, a CSI of 59% and a HSS of 75%.

  7. Study of the transport parameters of cloud lightning plasmas

    Chang, Z. S.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, N.


    Three spectra of cloud lightning have been acquired in Tibet (China) using a slitless grating spectrograph. The electrical conductivity, the electron thermal conductivity, and the electron thermal diffusivity of the cloud lightning, for the first time, are calculated by applying the transport theory of air plasma. In addition, we investigate the change behaviors of parameters (the temperature, the electron density, the electrical conductivity, the electron thermal conductivity, and the electron thermal diffusivity) in one of the cloud lightning channels. The result shows that these parameters decrease slightly along developing direction of the cloud lightning channel. Moreover, they represent similar sudden change behavior in tortuous positions and the branch of the cloud lightning channel.

  8. Spatial variability of correlated color temperature of lightning channels

    Nobuaki Shimoji

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the spatial variability of the correlated color temperature of lightning channel shown in a digital still image. In order to analyze the correlated color temperature, we calculated chromaticity coordinates of the lightning channels in the digital still image. From results, the spatial variation of the correlated color temperature of the lightning channel was confirmed. Moreover, the results suggest that the correlated color temperature and peak current of the lightning channels are related to each other. Keywords: Lightning, Color analysis, Correlated color temperature, Chromaticity coordinate, CIE 1931 xy-chromaticity diagram

  9. Validity of the global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ) in Bangladesh.

    Mumu, Shirin Jahan; Ali, Liaquat; Barnett, Anthony; Merom, Dafna


    Feasible and cost-effective as well as population specific instruments for monitoring physical activity (PA) levels are needed for the management and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The WHO-endorsed Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) has been widely used in developing countries, but the evidence base for its validity, particularly for rural populations, is still limited. The aim of the study was to validate GPAQ among rural and urban residents in Bangladesh. A total of 162 healthy participants of both genders aged 18-60 years were recruited from Satia village (n = 97) and Dhaka City (n = 65). Participants were invited to take part in the study and were asked to wear an accelerometer (GT3X) for 7 days, after which they were invited to answer the GPAQ in a face to face interview. Valid accelerometer data (i.e., ≥10 h of wear times over ≥3 days) were received from 155 participants (rural = 94, urban = 61). The mean age was 35 (SD = ±9) years, 55% were females and 19% of the participants had no schooling, which was higher in the rural area (21% vs 17%). The mean ± SD steps/day was 9998 ± 3936 (8658 ± 2788 and 12,063 ± 4534 for rural and urban respectively, p = 0.0001) and the mean ± SD daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 58 ± 30 min (51 ± 26 for rural and 69 ± 34 for the urban, p = 0.001) for accelerometer. In case of GPAQ, rural residents reported significantly higher moderate work related PA (MET-minutes/week: 600 vs. 360 p = 0.02). Spearman correlation coefficients between GPAQ total MVPA MET-min/day and accelerometer MVPA min/day, counts per minute (CPM) or steps counts/day were acceptable for urban residents (rho: 0.46, 0.55 and 0.63, respectively; p activity levels for urban and rural residents. GPAQ is an acceptable measure for physical activity surveillance in Bangladesh particularly for urban residents, women and people with high education. Given waist worn

  10. Validity of the global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ in Bangladesh

    Shirin Jahan Mumu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feasible and cost-effective as well as population specific instruments for monitoring physical activity (PA levels are needed for the management and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The WHO-endorsed Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ has been widely used in developing countries, but the evidence base for its validity, particularly for rural populations, is still limited. The aim of the study was to validate GPAQ among rural and urban residents in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 162 healthy participants of both genders aged 18–60 years were recruited from Satia village (n = 97 and Dhaka City (n = 65. Participants were invited to take part in the study and were asked to wear an accelerometer (GT3X for 7 days, after which they were invited to answer the GPAQ in a face to face interview. Results Valid accelerometer data (i.e., ≥10 h of wear times over ≥3 days were received from 155 participants (rural = 94, urban = 61. The mean age was 35 (SD = ±9 years, 55% were females and 19% of the participants had no schooling, which was higher in the rural area (21% vs 17%. The mean ± SD steps/day was 9998 ± 3936 (8658 ± 2788 and 12,063 ± 4534 for rural and urban respectively, p = 0.0001 and the mean ± SD daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA was 58 ± 30 min (51 ± 26 for rural and 69 ± 34 for the urban, p = 0.001 for accelerometer. In case of GPAQ, rural residents reported significantly higher moderate work related PA (MET-minutes/week: 600 vs. 360 p = 0.02. Spearman correlation coefficients between GPAQ total MVPA MET-min/day and accelerometer MVPA min/day, counts per minute (CPM or steps counts/day were acceptable for urban residents (rho: 0.46, 0.55 and 0.63, respectively; p < 0.01 but poor for rural residents. The overall correlation between the GPAQ and accelerometer for sitting was low (rho: 0.23; p < 0.001. GPAQ-Accelerometer correlation for MVPA

  11. Artificial Neural Network applied to lightning flashes

    Gin, R. B.; Guedes, D.; Bianchi, R.


    The development of video cameras enabled cientists to study lightning discharges comportment with more precision. The main goal of this project is to create a system able to detect images of lightning discharges stored in videos and classify them using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)using C Language and OpenCV libraries. The developed system, can be split in two different modules: detection module and classification module. The detection module uses OpenCV`s computer vision libraries and image processing techniques to detect if there are significant differences between frames in a sequence, indicating that something, still not classified, occurred. Whenever there is a significant difference between two consecutive frames, two main algorithms are used to analyze the frame image: brightness and shape algorithms. These algorithms detect both shape and brightness of the event, removing irrelevant events like birds, as well as detecting the relevant events exact position, allowing the system to track it over time. The classification module uses a neural network to classify the relevant events as horizontal or vertical lightning, save the event`s images and calculates his number of discharges. The Neural Network was implemented using the backpropagation algorithm, and was trained with 42 training images , containing 57 lightning events (one image can have more than one lightning). TheANN was tested with one to five hidden layers, with up to 50 neurons each. The best configuration achieved a success rate of 95%, with one layer containing 20 neurons (33 test images with 42 events were used in this phase). This configuration was implemented in the developed system to analyze 20 video files, containing 63 lightning discharges previously manually detected. Results showed that all the lightning discharges were detected, many irrelevant events were unconsidered, and the event's number of discharges was correctly computed. The neural network used in this project achieved a

  12. Lightning, whistlers, and hiss - A possible relationship

    Sonwalkar, V.S.


    While it has been established that whistlers originate in terrestrial lightning, the generation mechanism remains unclear and is intractable by means of quasi-linear theory, which does not account for the generation of hiss from the background thermal noise. Observational data are presently discussed which indicate that the wave energy introduced in the magnetosphere by atmospheric lightning discharges may play an important role both in the loss of particles through wave-induced precipitation and in the embrionic generation of hiss. 13 refs

  13. Statistical analysis of lightning electric field measured under Malaysian condition

    Salimi, Behnam; Mehranzamir, Kamyar; Abdul-Malek, Zulkurnain


    Lightning is an electrical discharge during thunderstorms that can be either within clouds (Inter-Cloud), or between clouds and ground (Cloud-Ground). The Lightning characteristics and their statistical information are the foundation for the design of lightning protection system as well as for the calculation of lightning radiated fields. Nowadays, there are various techniques to detect lightning signals and to determine various parameters produced by a lightning flash. Each technique provides its own claimed performances. In this paper, the characteristics of captured broadband electric fields generated by cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in South of Malaysia are analyzed. A total of 130 cloud-to-ground lightning flashes from 3 separate thunderstorm events (each event lasts for about 4-5 hours) were examined. Statistical analyses of the following signal parameters were presented: preliminary breakdown pulse train time duration, time interval between preliminary breakdowns and return stroke, multiplicity of stroke, and percentages of single stroke only. The BIL model is also introduced to characterize the lightning signature patterns. Observations on the statistical analyses show that about 79% of lightning signals fit well with the BIL model. The maximum and minimum of preliminary breakdown time duration of the observed lightning signals are 84 ms and 560 us, respectively. The findings of the statistical results show that 7.6% of the flashes were single stroke flashes, and the maximum number of strokes recorded was 14 multiple strokes per flash. A preliminary breakdown signature in more than 95% of the flashes can be identified.

  14. Objective Classification of Radar Profile Types, and Their Relationship to Lightning Occurrence

    Boccippio, Dennis


    A cluster analysis technique is used to identify 16 "archetypal" vertical radar profile types from a large, globally representative sample of profiles from the TRMM Precipitation Radar. These include nine convective types (7 of these deep convective) and seven stratiform types (5 of these clearly glaciated). Radar profile classification provides an alternative to conventional deep convective storm metrics, such as 30 dBZ echo height, maximum reflectivity or VIL. As expected, the global frequency of occurrence of deep convective profile types matches satellite-observed total lightning production, including to very small scall local features. Each location's "mix" of profile types provides an objective description of the local convective spectrum, and in turn, is a first step in objectively classifying convective regimes. These classifiers are tested as inputs to a neural network which attempts to predict lightning occurrence based on radar-only storm observations, and performance is compared with networks using traditional radar metrics as inputs.

  15. Harmful effects of lightning surge discharge on communications terminal equipments

    Liang, Sisi; Xu, Xiaoying; Tao, Zhigang; Dai, Yanling


    The interference problem of lightning surges on electronic and telecommunication products were examined, and a series of experiments were conducted to analyze the failure situations to find out the mechanisms of failures caused by the lightning surge. In addition, the ways in which lightning surges damaged equipment were deduced. It was found that failure positions were scattered and appeared in groups, and most of them were ground discharge. Internet access transformer had high withstand-voltage under the lightning pulse, and the lightning surge seldom passed through the internet access transformer. The lightning current can release to the ground via the computer network adapter of the terminal user. The study will help to improve the performance of lightning surge protection circuit and protection level.

  16. LDAR, A Three-Dimensional Lightning Warning System: Its Development and Use by the Government, and Transition to Public Availability

    Starr, Stan; Sharp, David; Merceret, Francis; Madura, John; Murphy, Martin


    NASA, at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), developed and operates a unique high precision lightning location system to provide lightning related weather warnings. These warnings are used to stop lightning-sensitive operations such as space vehicle launches and ground operations where equipment and personnel are at risk. The data is provided to the Range Weather Operations [45th Weather Squadron, U. S. Air Force (USAF)] where it is used with other meteorological data to issue weather advisories and warnings for Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) and KSC operations. This system, called Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR), provides users with a graphical display in three dimensions of 66 MHz radio frequency events generated by lightning processes. The locations of these events provide a sound basis for the prediction of lightning hazards. NASA and Global Atmospherics, Inc. are developing a new system that will replace the unique LDAR components with commercially available and maintainable components having improved capabilities. These components will be phased in to ensure full continuity and access to this important warning technology. These LDAR systems are expected to eventually be available for installation and use by the public at specialized facilities, such as airports, and for general weather warnings via the National Weather Service (NWS) or television broadcast. The NWS in Melbourne has had access to real-time LDAR data since 1993 on an experimental basis. This use of LDAR has shown promise for the improvement of aviation forecasts and severe weather warnings. More so, it has opened the door to investigate the feasibility of issuing lightning-related public advisories. The success of its early use suggests that this technology may improve safety and potentially save lives, therefore constituting a significant benefit to the public. This paper describes the LDR system, the plans and progress of these upgrades, and the potential benefits of its use.

  17. Variation and management of the tertiary and industrial lightning; Variation et gestion de l'eclairage tertiaire et industriel



    This document provides information on the systems of possibilities of power variation and their management for an industrial lightning in the ternary sector. These systems bring to the user more comfort and improve the global and environmental cost of the installations. (A.L.B.)

  18. Thunderstorm and Lightning Studies using the FORTE Optical Lightning System (FORTE/OLS)

    Argo, P.; Franz, R.; Green, J.; Guillen, J.L.; Jacobson, A.R.; Kirkland, M.; Knox, S.; Spalding, R.; Suszcynsky, D.M.


    Preliminary observations of simultaneous RF and optical emissions from lightning as seen by the FORTE spacecraft are presented. RF/optical pairs of waveforms are routinely collected both as individual lightning events and as sequences of events associated with cloud-to-ground (CG) and intra-cloud (IC) flashes. CG pulses can be distinguished from IC pulses based on the properties of the RF and optical waveforms, but mostly based on the associated RF spectrograms. The RF spectrograms are very similar to previous ground-based VHF observations of lightning and show signatures associated with return strokes, stepped and dart leaders, and attachment processes,. RF emissions are observed to precede the arrival of optical emissions at the satellite by a mean value of 280 microseconds. The dual phenomenology nature of these observations are discussed in terms of their ability to contribute to a satellite-based lightning monitoring mission.

  19. Thunderstorm and Lightning Studies using the FORTE Optical Lightning System (FORTE/OLS)

    Argo, P.; Franz, R.; Green, J.; Guillen, J.L.; Jacobson, A.R.; Kirkland, M.; Knox, S.; Spalding, R.; Suszcynsky, D.M.


    Preliminary observations of simultaneous RF and optical emissions from lightning as seen by the FORTE spacecraft are presented. RF/optical pairs of waveforms are routinely collected both as individual lightning events and as sequences of events associated with cloud-to-ground (CG) and intra-cloud (IC) flashes. CG pulses can be distinguished from IC pulses based on the properties of the RF and optical waveforms, but mostly based on the associated RF spectrograms. The RF spectrograms are very similar to previous ground-based VHF observations of lightning and show signatures associated with return strokes, stepped and dart leaders, and attachment processes,. RF emissions are observed to precede the arrival of optical emissions at the satellite by a mean value of 280 microseconds. The dual phenomenology nature of these observations are discussed in terms of their ability to contribute to a satellite-based lightning monitoring mission


    I Putu Dedy Pratama


    analysis to determine the pattern of lightning strikes recorded by the sensor and make comparisons with satellite imagery. The data used is the recording lightning Cloud to Groud (CG. We used the CG lightning data because CG lightning strikes have a direct impact on human life. Spatial mapping both in determining the location of CG strikes on insurance claims and the incidence of Mesoscale Convective System (MCS in stratiform regions of the Multifunctional Transport Satellites (MTSAT and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrastion (NOAA satellite image data. From the results of spatial mapping showed that most lightning strikes concentrated in a radius of about 50 km from the sensors. For temporal graph shows that in the rainy season, lightning graph shows semidiurnal pattern with two peaks at dusk and dawn. When transitional season chart peak at dawn lightning strikes weakened so that it appears the pattern of the diurnal peaks. Whereas in the dry season chart show a random pattern of lightning strikes. Medium-scale weather phenomena such as tropical cyclones and Nino index 3.4 changes greatly affect the activity of lightning strikes in the area of Bali.

  1. Lightning Jump Algorithm Development for the GOES·R Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    Schultz. E.; Schultz. C.; Chronis, T.; Stough, S.; Carey, L.; Calhoun, K.; Ortega, K.; Stano, G.; Cecil, D.; Bateman, M.; hide


    Current work on the lightning jump algorithm to be used in GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)'s data stream is multifaceted due to the intricate interplay between the storm tracking, GLM proxy data, and the performance of the lightning jump itself. This work outlines the progress of the last year, where analysis and performance of the lightning jump algorithm with automated storm tracking and GLM proxy data were assessed using over 700 storms from North Alabama. The cases analyzed coincide with previous semi-objective work performed using total lightning mapping array (LMA) measurements in Schultz et al. (2011). Analysis shows that key components of the algorithm (flash rate and sigma thresholds) have the greatest influence on the performance of the algorithm when validating using severe storm reports. Automated objective analysis using the GLM proxy data has shown probability of detection (POD) values around 60% with false alarm rates (FAR) around 73% using similar methodology to Schultz et al. (2011). However, when applying verification methods similar to those employed by the National Weather Service, POD values increase slightly (69%) and FAR values decrease (63%). The relationship between storm tracking and lightning jump has also been tested in a real-time framework at NSSL. This system includes fully automated tracking by radar alone, real-time LMA and radar observations and the lightning jump. Results indicate that the POD is strong at 65%. However, the FAR is significantly higher than in Schultz et al. (2011) (50-80% depending on various tracking/lightning jump parameters) when using storm reports for verification. Given known issues with Storm Data, the performance of the real-time jump algorithm is also being tested with high density radar and surface observations from the NSSL Severe Hazards Analysis & Verification Experiment (SHAVE).

  2. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  3. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams


    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  4. CNEN resolution phohibits radioactive lightning rods


    After 15 years of irrestricted use in Brazil, the radioactive lightning rods were phohibited by Brazilian CNEN since the publication of a new law (Resolution number 4 of april 19,1989) published on may 9, 1989. All the existing ones will be removed at the time of their programed maintenance. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  5. Lightning Pin Injection Testing on MOSFETS

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Sankalita


    Lightning transients were pin-injected into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to induce fault modes. This report documents the test process and results, and provides a basis for subsequent lightning tests. MOSFETs may be present in DC-DC power supplies and electromechanical actuator circuits that may be used on board aircraft. Results show that unprotected MOSFET Gates are susceptible to failure, even when installed in systems in well-shielded and partial-shielded locations. MOSFET Drains and Sources are significantly less susceptible. Device impedance decreased (current increased) after every failure. Such a failure mode may lead to cascading failures, as the damaged MOSFET may allow excessive current to flow through other circuitry. Preliminary assessments on a MOSFET subjected to 20-stroke pin-injection testing demonstrate that Breakdown Voltage, Leakage Current and Threshold Voltage characteristics show damage, while the device continues to meet manufacturer performance specifications. The purpose of this research is to develop validated tools, technologies, and techniques for automated detection, diagnosis and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight, such as from lightning transients; and to understand the interplay between lightning-induced surges and aging (i.e. humidity, vibration thermal stress, etc.) on component degradation.

  6. A Preliminary ZEUS Lightning Location Error Analysis Using a Modified Retrieval Theory

    Elander, Valjean; Koshak, William; Phanord, Dieudonne


    The ZEUS long-range VLF arrival time difference lightning detection network now covers both Europe and Africa, and there are plans for further expansion into the western hemisphere. In order to fully optimize and assess ZEUS lightning location retrieval errors and to determine the best placement of future receivers expected to be added to the network, a software package is being developed jointly between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV). The software package, called the ZEUS Error Analysis for Lightning (ZEAL), will be used to obtain global scale lightning location retrieval error maps using both a Monte Carlo approach and chi-squared curvature matrix theory. At the core of ZEAL will be an implementation of an Iterative Oblate (IO) lightning location retrieval method recently developed at MSFC. The IO method will be appropriately modified to account for variable wave propagation speed, and the new retrieval results will be compared with the current ZEUS retrieval algorithm to assess potential improvements. In this preliminary ZEAL work effort, we defined 5000 source locations evenly distributed across the Earth. We then used the existing (as well as potential future ZEUS sites) to simulate arrival time data between source and ZEUS site. A total of 100 sources were considered at each of the 5000 locations, and timing errors were selected from a normal distribution having a mean of 0 seconds and a standard deviation of 20 microseconds. This simulated "noisy" dataset was analyzed using the IO algorithm to estimate source locations. The exact locations were compared with the retrieved locations, and the results are summarized via several color-coded "error maps."

  7. Enabling socio-economic activities: Opening global markets for the marginalized through secure ICT use

    Phahlamohlaka, Jackie


    Full Text Available This paper identifies and describes five economic activities through which ICT could effectively be used to open global markets for rural and marginalized communities. The activities are identified in contexts where there are no industries...

  8. Monitoring population disability: Evaluation of a new Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI)

    Oyen, H. van; Heyden, J.; Perenboom, R.; Jagger, C.


    Objective: To evaluate a single item instrument, the Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI), to measure long-standing health related activity limitations, against several health indicators: a composite morbidity indicator, instruments measuring mental health (SCL-90R, GHQ-12), physical

  9. Activating Global Operating Models: The bridge from organization design to performance

    Amy Kates


    Full Text Available This article introduces the concept of activation and discusses its use in the implementation of global operating models by large multinational companies. We argue that five particular activators help set in motion the complex strategies and organizations required by global operating models.

  10. Relationship between ionospheric plasma bubble occurrence and lightning strikes over the Amazon region

    J. Sousasantos


    Full Text Available The vertical coupling between the troposphere and the ionosphere presents some remarkable features. Under intense tropospheric convection, gravity waves may be generated, and once they reach the ionosphere, these waves may seed instabilities and spread F and equatorial plasma bubble events may take place. Additionally, there is a close association between severe tropospheric convection and lightning strikes. In this work an investigation covering an equinox period (September–October during the deep solar minimum (2009 presents the relation between lightning strike activity and spread F (equatorial plasma bubble detected over a low-latitude Brazilian region. The results show a considerable correlation between these two phenomena. The common element in the center of this conformity seems to be the gravity waves. Once gravity waves and lightning strikes share the same source (intense tropospheric convection and the effects of such gravity waves in the ionosphere include the seeding of instabilities according to the gravity waves magnitude, the monitoring of the lightning strike activity seems to offer some information about the subsequent development of spread F over the equatorial region.

  11. Relationship between ionospheric plasma bubble occurrence and lightning strikes over the Amazon region

    Sousasantos, Jonas; Sobral, José Humberto Andrade; Alam Kherani, Esfhan; Magalhães Fares Saba, Marcelo; Rodolfo de Campos, Diovane


    The vertical coupling between the troposphere and the ionosphere presents some remarkable features. Under intense tropospheric convection, gravity waves may be generated, and once they reach the ionosphere, these waves may seed instabilities and spread F and equatorial plasma bubble events may take place. Additionally, there is a close association between severe tropospheric convection and lightning strikes. In this work an investigation covering an equinox period (September-October) during the deep solar minimum (2009) presents the relation between lightning strike activity and spread F (equatorial plasma bubble) detected over a low-latitude Brazilian region. The results show a considerable correlation between these two phenomena. The common element in the center of this conformity seems to be the gravity waves. Once gravity waves and lightning strikes share the same source (intense tropospheric convection) and the effects of such gravity waves in the ionosphere include the seeding of instabilities according to the gravity waves magnitude, the monitoring of the lightning strike activity seems to offer some information about the subsequent development of spread F over the equatorial region.

  12. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Lightning-Damaged CFRP Laminates during Compression-after-Impact Test

    Kwon, Oh Yang; Shin, Jae Ha [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Carbon-fiber reinforced plastic(CFRP) laminates made of nano-particle-coated carbon fibers and damaged by a simulated lightning strike were tested under compression-after-impact(CAI) mode, during which the damage progress due to compressive loading has been monitored by acoustic emission(AE). The impact damage was induced not by mechanical loading but by a simulated lightning strike. Conductive nano-particles were coated directly on the fibers, from which CFRP coupons were made. The coupon were subjected to the strikes with a high voltage/current impulse of 10-40 kA within a few . The effects of nano-particle coating and the degree of damage induced by the simulated lightning strikes on AE activities were examined, and the relationship between the compressive residual strength and AE behavior has been evaluated in terms of AE event counts and the onset of AE activity with the compressive loading. The degree of impact damage was also measured in terms of damage area by using ultrasonic C-scan images. The assessment during the CAI tests of damaged CFRP showed that AE monitoring appeared to be useful to differentiate the degree of damage hence the mechanical integrity of composite structures damaged by lightning strikes.

  13. Acute transient hemiparesis induced by lightning strike.

    Rahmani, Seyed Hesam; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Jahangard, Samira


    According to data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,in the years from 1959 to 1994, lightning was responsible for more than 3000 deaths and nearly 10,000 casualties. The most important characteristic features of lightning injuries are multisystem involvement and widely variable severity. Lightning strikes are primarily a neurologic injury that affects all 3 components of the nervous system: central, autonomic,and peripheral. Neurologic complications of lightning strikes vary from transient benign symptoms to permanent disability. Many patients experience a temporary paralysis called keraunoparalysis. Here we reported a 22-year-old mountaineer man with complaining of left sided hemiparesis after being hit by a lightning strike in the mountain 3 hours ago. There was no loss of consciousness at hitting time. On arrival the patient was alert, awake and hemodynamically stable. In neurologic examination cranial nerves were intact, left sided upper and lower extremity muscle force was I/V with a combination of complete sensory loss, and right-sided muscle force and sensory examination were normal. There is not any evidence of significant vascular impairment in the affected extremities. Brain MRI and CT scan and cervical MRI were normal. During 2 days of admission, with intravenous hydration, heparin 5000 unit SC q12hr and physical therapy of the affected limbs, motor and sensory function improved and was normal except mild paresthesia. He was discharged 1 day later for outpatient follow up while vitamin B1 100mg orally was prescribed.Paresthesia improved after 3 days without further sequels.

  14. Going Global Activity Guide: A Project To Educate and Involve American Students in Global Hunger Issues.

    White, Gene; Balakshin, Maria

    Global hunger is one of the most urgent health and social problems the world faces at the beginning of the new millennium. In a world that produces enough food to feed every human being on the planet, there are still some 830 million people who do not get enough food on a daily basis. About 24,000 people die each day from the effects of hunger;…

  15. Global citizenship: From public support to active participation

    C.L. Carabain (Christine); S.A.C. Keulemans (Shelena); M. van Gent (Marije); G. Spitz (Gabi)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globalisation is not something that has happened overnight. It is an ongoing process that, by trial and error, is part of human development. And yet, the last few decades have seen the unprecedented acceleration of changes in global relations. The fall of the

  16. Globalization, Democracy, and Social Movements: The Educational Potential of Activism

    Hytten, Kathy


    In this essay, I explore the contemporary value of John Dewey's conception of democracy to addressing the challenges of neoliberal globalization. I begin by describing his vision of democracy as a way of life that requires habits of experimentalism, pluralism, and hope. I then suggest that contemporary forms of mobilization, resistance, and…

  17. Study of irradiation of flash lightning type in a Titan simulated atmosphere

    Rosa C, J.G. De la


    Titan is the greatest satellite of the Saturn planet and the unique moon of the Solar System which presents a dense atmosphere constituted by nitrogen, methane and traces of hydrocarbons and nitriles. Constantly it is bombarded by different energy sources which interacting with the atmosphere cause countless of chemical reactions which have giving origin to the synthesis of organic molecules from its formation since 4.5 thousand millions of years ago. The electric activity was not detected in the satellite when the space probe Voyager I had its nearest match with Titan in November 1980, however, due to the presence of methane clouds rain and of convective activity in the troposphere of the satellite, it is thought in the possible existence of electrical activity in this. In this work it is studied the production of gaseous compounds generated by irradiations type flash lightning in the Titan simulated atmosphere constituted by nitrogen and methane. The lightning are imitated by laser induced plasma (LIP) with similar physical properties to the naturals produced in the Earth. The separation and identification of the organic compounds generated by simulated lightning s were carried out by attached methods of analysis such as the Gas chromatography, Infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FTIR-S) and Mass spectroscopy (MS). The compounds which were identified are: hydrocarbons and nitriles, some of them already have been identified in Titan as well as the hydrogen cyanide (HCN), acetylene, etilene and cyanoacetylene. Moreover we studied the influence that different parameters of irradiation have in the production of organic molecules generated submitting to discharges type lightning the simulated atmosphere of Titan. It was realized an estimation of the available energy in the satellite which could be vanished as discharges type lightning. By means of a model based on conditions of thermodynamic equilibria it was calculated the temperature to which are freeze

  18. Studies on an Electromagnetic Transient Model of Offshore Wind Turbines and Lightning Transient Overvoltage Considering Lightning Channel Wave Impedance

    Li Zhang


    Full Text Available In recent years, with the rapid development of offshore wind turbines (WTs, the problem of lightning strikes has become more and more prominent. In order to reduce the failure rate caused by the transient overvoltage of lightning struck offshore WTs, the influencing factors and the response rules of transient overvoltage are analyzed. In this paper, a new integrated electromagnetic transient model of offshore WTs is established by using the numerical calculation method of the electromagnetic field first. Then, based on the lightning model and considering the impedance of the lightning channel, the transient overvoltage of lightning is analyzed. Last, the electromagnetic transient model of offshore WTs is simulated and analyzed by using the alternative transients program electro-magnetic transient program (ATP-EMTP software. The influence factors of lightning transient overvoltage are studied. The main influencing factors include the sea depth, the blade length, the tower height, the lightning flow parameters, the lightning strike point, and the blade rotation position. The simulation results show that the influencing factors mentioned above have different effects on the lightning transient overvoltage. The results of the study have some guiding significance for the design of the lightning protection of the engine room.

  19. Mapping lightning discharges on Earth with lightning-generated whistlers wave emission in space and their effects on radiation belt electrons

    Farges, T.; Ripoll, J. F.; Santolik, O.; Kolmasova, I.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.


    It is widely accepted that the slot region of the Van Allen radiation belts is sculpted by the presence of whistler mode waves especially by plasmaspheric hiss emissions. In this work, we investigate the role of lightning-generated whistler waves (LGW), which also contribute to scatter electrons trapped in the plasmaphere but, in general, to a lesser extent due to their low mean amplitude and occurrence rate. Our goal is to revisit the characterization of LGW occurrence in the Earth's atmosphere and in space as well as the computation of LGW effects by looking at a series of particular events, among which intense events, in order to characterize maximal scattering effects. We use multicomponent measurements of whistler mode waves by the Waves instrument of Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) onboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft as our primary data source. We combine this data set with local measurements of the plasma density. We also use the data of the World Wide Lightning Location Network in order to localize the source of lightning discharges on Earth and their radiated energy, both locally at the footprint of the spacecraft and, globally, along the drift path. We discuss how to relate the signal measured in space with the estimation of the power emitted in the atmosphere and the associated complexity. Using these unique data sets we model the coefficients of quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion and we estimate effects of these waves on radiation belt electrons. We show evidence that lightning generated whistlers can, at least in some cases, influence the radiation belt dynamics.

  20. Global Night-Time Lights for Observing Human Activity

    Hipskind, Stephen R.; Elvidge, Chris; Gurney, K.; Imhoff, Mark; Bounoua, Lahouari; Sheffner, Edwin; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Pettit, Donald R.; Fischer, Marc


    We present a concept for a small satellite mission to make systematic, global observations of night-time lights with spatial resolution suitable for discerning the extent, type and density of human settlements. The observations will also allow better understanding of fine scale fossil fuel CO2 emission distribution. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey recommends more focus on direct observations of human influence on the Earth system. The most dramatic and compelling observations of human presence on the Earth are the night light observations taken by the Defence Meteorological System Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Beyond delineating the footprint of human presence, night light data, when assembled and evaluated with complementary data sets, can determine the fine scale spatial distribution of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding fossil fuel carbon emissions is critical to understanding the entire carbon cycle, and especially the carbon exchange between terrestrial and oceanic systems.

  1. Overview of global space activities in 2007/2008

    Peter, Nicolas; Delmotte, Raphaëlle


    The period ranging from July 2007 to June 2008 has been marked by significant trends and issues in the space sector, particularly under the impulsion of space-faring countries. The internationalisation and globalisation of the space sector which started a few years ago have been gaining momentum as well. As a consequence, the size of the space sector has been growing, as well as the global competition for market shares.

  2. Thunderstorm nowcasting by means of lightning and radar data: algorithms and applications in northern Italy

    P. Bonelli


    Full Text Available Thunderstorms and their ground effects, such as flash floods, hail, lightning, strong winds, and tornadoes, are responsible for most weather damages in northern Italy, especially in the warm season from May to September. A nowcasting and warning system focused on severe thunderstorm events would be useful to reduce risks for people involved in outside activities and for electric, telecommunication, and sensitive industrial business. C-band radar and Lighting Location Systems provide useful, fast and high resolution data for the detection of convective systems and for following their dynamics. The whole of northern Italy is covered by radar with a resolution of 1 km and by a lightning network with a mean accuracy of 0.5 km on the single point of impact. The authors present an algorithm developed for tracking high intensity storm cells by means of radar and lightning data. Application to northern Italy reveals that tracking thunderstorm cells can be used as an alert system that may help prevent damages from extreme weather, as well as allowing for studying the correlation among lightning, rainfall and tornado occurrence. Assessing the algorithm skill is also discussed, and a forecast verification method is described and applied for the duration of a thunderstorm season.

  3. Lightning-produced NOx in an explicit electrical scheme: a STERAO case study

    Barthe, C.; Pinty, J.; Mari, C.


    An explicit lightning-produced nitrogen oxide scheme has been implemented in the French mesoscale model Meso-NH. The electrical scheme simulates explicitly the whole electric charge life cycle: charge separation, transfer, transport and neutralization by lightning flashes. The frequency and the 3D morphology of the lightning flashes are reproduced realistically. Therefore, fresh nitrogen oxide molecules can be added along the complex flash path as a function of the pressure, as suggested by results from laboratory experiments. No integral constraint on the total LNOx production at the cloud scale is added. The scheme is tested on the 10 July 1996, STERAO (Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiment-Radiation, Aerosols, and Ozone) storm. The model reproduces many features of the observed increase of electrical activity and LNOx flux through the anvil between the multicell and supercell stages. A large amount of LNOx is selectively produced in the upper part of the cells close to the updraft cores. Instantaneous peak concentrations exceed a few ppbv, as observed. The computed flux of NOx across the anvil compares favorably with the observations. The NOx production is estimated to 36 moles per lightning flash.

  4. Lightning-Generated NO(x) Seen By OMI during NASA's TC-4 Experiment: First Results

    Bucsela, Eric; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Huntemann, Tabitha; Cohen, Ronald; Perring, Anne; Gleason, James; Blakeslee, Richard; Navarro, Dylana Vargas; Segura, Ileana Mora; Hernandez, Alexia Pacheco; hide


    We present here case studies identifying upper-tropospheric NO2 produced in convective storms during NASA's Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TCi)n July and August 2007. DC8 aircraft missions, flown from the mission base in Costa Rica, recorded in situ NO2 profiles near active storms and in relatively quiet areas. We combine these data with measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite to estimate the amount of NO2 produced by lightning (LN02) above background levels in the regions influenced by storms. In our analysis, improved off-line processing techniques are employed to minimize known artifacts in the OM1 data. Information on lightning flashes (primarily CG) observed by the surface network operated by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad are examined upwind of regions where OM1 indicates enhanced LNO2. Comparisons of the observed flash data with measurements by the TRMM/LIS satellite instrument are used to obtain the lightning detection efficiency for total flashes. Finally, using the NO/NO2 ratio estimated from DC-8 observations, we estimate the average NO(x) production per lightning flash for each case in this study. The magnitudes of the measured NO(x) enhancements are compared with those observed by the DC-8 and with similar OM1 measurements analyzed in mid-latitude experiments.

  5. Long-term impacts of aerosols on precipitation and lightning over the Pearl River Delta megacity area in China

    Y. Wang


    Full Text Available Seven-year measurements of precipitation, lightning flashes, and visibility from 2000 to 2006 have been analyzed in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China, with a focus on the Guangzhou megacity area. Statistical analysis shows that the occurrence of heavy rainfall (>25 mm per day and frequency of lightning strikes are reversely correlated to visibility during this period. To elucidate the effects of aerosols on cloud processes, precipitation, and lightning activity, a cloud resolving – Weather Research and Forecasting (CR-WRF model with a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme is employed to simulate a mesoscale convective system occurring on 28 Match 2009 in the Guangzhou megacity area. The model predicted evolutions of composite radar reflectivity and accumulated precipitation are in agreement with measurements from S-band weather radars and automatic gauge stations. The calculated lightning potential index (LPI exhibits temporal and spatial consistence with lightning flashes recorded by a local lightning detection network. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to reflect aerosol conditions representative of polluted and clean cases. The simulations suggest that precipitation and LPI are enhanced by about 16% and 50%, respectively, under the polluted aerosol condition. Our results suggest that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation (less than 25 mm per day, but enhances heavy precipitation. The responses of hydrometeors and latent heat release to different aerosol loadings reveal the physical mechanism for the precipitation and lightning enhancement in the Guangzhou megacity area, showing more efficient mixed phase processes and intensified convection under the polluted aerosol condition.

  6. Global inventory of NOx sources

    Delmas, R.; Serca, D.; Jambert, C.


    Nitrogen oxides are key compounds for the oxidation capacity of the troposphere. Their concentration depends on the proximity of sources because of their short atmospheric lifetime. An accurate knowledge of the distribution of their sources and sinks is therefore crucial. At the global scale, the dominant sources of nitrogen oxides - combustion of fossil fuel (about 50%) and biomass burning (about 20%) - are basically anthropogenic. Natural sources, including lightning and microbial activity in soils, represent therefore less than 30% of total emissions. Fertilizer use in agriculture constitutes an anthropogenic perturbation to the microbial source. The methods to estimate the magnitude and distribution of these dominant sources of nitrogen oxides are discussed. Some minor sources which may play a specific role in tropospheric chemistry such as NO x emission from aircraft in the upper troposphere or input from production in the stratosphere from N 2 O photodissociation are also considered

  7. Storm clouds on Saturn: Lightning-induced chemistry and associated materials consistent with Cassini/VIMS spectra

    Baines, K.H.; Delitsky, M.L.; Momary, T.W.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; Nicholson, P.D.


    Thunderstorm activity on Saturn is associated with optically detectable clouds that are atypically dark throughout the near-infrared. As observed by Cassini/VIMS, these clouds are ~20% less reflective than typical neighboring clouds throughout the spectral range from 0.8 ??m to at least 4.1 ??m. We propose that active thunderstorms originating in the 10-20 bar water-condensation region vertically transport dark materials at depth to the ~1 bar level where they can be observed. These materials in part may be produced by chemical processes associated with lightning, likely within the water clouds near the ~10 bar freezing level of water, as detected by the electrostatic discharge of lightning flashes observed by Cassini/RPWS (e.g., Fischer et al. 2008, Space Sci. Rev., 137, 271-285). We review lightning-induced pyrolytic chemistry involving a variety of Saturnian constituents, including hydrogen, methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, phosphine, and water. We find that the lack of absorption in the 1-2 ??m spectral region by lightning-generated sulfuric and phosphorous condensates renders these constituents as minor players in determining the color of the dark storm clouds. Relatively small particulates of elemental carbon, formed by lightning-induced dissociation of methane and subsequently upwelled from depth - perhaps embedded within and on the surface of spectrally bright condensates such as ammonium hydrosulfide or ammonia - may be a dominant optical material within the dark thunderstorm-related clouds of Saturn. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of Lightning and EMI Shielding Properties of SWNT Buckypaper Nanocomposites

    Wang, Ben; Liang, Richard; Zhang, Chuck; Kramer, Leslie; Funchess, Percy


    ... EMI and lightning strike protection properties. The EMI shielding and lightning strike attenuation properties of the composites with the surface layer of SWNT buckypaper nanocomposite were preliminarily characterized...

  9. Assessment of lightning impact frequency for process equipment

    Necci, Amos; Antonioni, Giacomo; Cozzani, Valerio; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Borghetti, Alberto; Nucci, Carlo Alberto


    Fires and explosions triggered by lightning strikes are among the most frequent Natech scenarios affecting the chemical and process industry. Although lightning hazard is well known, well accepted quantitative procedures to assess the contribution of accidents caused by lightning to industrial risk are still lacking. In the present study, a quantitative methodology for the assessment of the expected frequency of lightning capture by process equipment is presented. A specific model, based on Monte Carlo simulations, was developed to assess the capture frequency of lightning for equipment with a given geometry. The model allows the assessment of lay-out effects and the reduction of the capture probability due to the presence of other structures or equipment items. The results of the Monte Carlo simulations were also used to develop a simplified cell method allowing a straightforward assessment of the lightning impact probability in a quantitative risk assessment framework. The developed approach allows an in-depth analysis of the hazard due to lightning impact by identifying equipment items with the highest expected frequency of lightning impacts in a given lay-out. The model thus supplies useful data to approach the assessment of the quantitative contribution of lightning-triggered accidents to industrial risk. - Highlights: • A specific approach to storage tank lightning impact frequency calculation was developed. • The approach is suitable for the quantitative assessment of industrial risk due to lightning. • The models developed provide lightning capture frequency based on tank geometry. • Lay-out effects due to nearby structures are also accounted. • Capture frequencies may be as high as 10 −1 events/year for standalone unprotected tanks

  10. Terrestrial gamma ray flash production by lightning current pulses

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Carlson, B. E.; Lehtinen, N. G.


    Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are brief bursts of gamma rays observed by satellites, typically in coincidence with detectable lightning. We incorporate TGF observations and the key physics behind current TGF production theories with lightning physics to produce constraints on TGF production mechanisms. The combined constraints naturally suggest a mechanism for TGF production by current pulses in lightning leader channels. The mechanism involves local field enhancements due to charge re...

  11. A case study on lightning protection, building resonances considered

    Deursen, van, A.P.J.; Geers - Bargboer, G.


    In a recent paper (G. Bargboer and A. P. J. van Deursen, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 684-90, Aug. 2010) we dealt with current injection measurements to test the lightning protection system of a newly built pharmaceutical plant. In a tentative extrapolation, the measurements were extrapolated to actual lightning. Here, we extend the model and calculate the response of the installation on lightning currents and include resonances in the cable trays and test cables cont...

  12. Lightning Strike Induced Damage Mechanisms of Carbon Fiber Composites

    Kawakami, Hirohide

    Composite materials have a wide application in aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries, because of the superior structural and weight performances. Since carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites possess a much lower electrical conductivity as compared to traditional metallic materials utilized for aircraft structures, serious concern about damage resistance/tolerance against lightning has been rising. Main task of this study is to clarify the lightning damage mechanism of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy polymer composites to help further development of lightning strike protection. The research on lightning damage to carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites is quite challenging, and there has been little study available until now. In order to tackle this issue, building block approach was employed. The research was started with the development of supporting technologies such as a current impulse generator to simulate a lightning strike in a laboratory. Then, fundamental electrical properties and fracture behavior of CFRPs exposed to high and low level current impulse were investigated using simple coupon specimens, followed by extensive parametric investigations in terms of different prepreg materials frequently used in aerospace industry, various stacking sequences, different lightning intensity, and lightning current waveforms. It revealed that the thermal resistance capability of polymer matrix was one of the most influential parameters on lightning damage resistance of CFRPs. Based on the experimental findings, the semi-empirical analysis model for predicting the extent of lightning damage was established. The model was fitted through experimental data to determine empirical parameters and, then, showed a good capability to provide reliable predictions for other test conditions and materials. Finally, structural element level lightning tests were performed to explore more practical situations. Specifically, filled-hole CFRP plates and patch

  13. Mechanism of Lightning Associated Infrasonic Pulses from Thunderclouds

    Pasko, V. P.


    The infrasonic waves correspond to the region of frequencies of acoustic sound waves 0.02-10 Hz, higher than the acoustic cut-off frequency but lower than the audible frequencies [e.g., Blanc, Ann. Geophys., 3, 673, 1985]. There is a strong experimental evidence that thunderstorms represent significant sources of infrasonic wave activity spanning a broad altitude range from the troposphere and up to the thermosphere [e.g., Blanc, 1985; Few, in Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics, Vol. 2, edited by H. Volland, pp. 1-31, CRC Press, 1995; Drob et al., JGR, 108, 4680, 2003]. This evidence includes electrostatic production of 0.1- 1 Hz infrasonic waves from thunderclouds [Few, 1995] and recent discovery of infrasound from lightning induced transient luminous events in the mesosphere called sprites [Liszka, J. Low Freq. Noise Vibr. Active Control, 23, 85, 2004; Farges et al., GRL, 32, L13824, 2005; Liszka and Hobara, JASTP, 68, 1179, 2006]. The understanding and classification of different infrasonic waves and their sources is of great current interest from a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification perspective [e.g., Assink et al., GRL, 35, L15802, 2008]. It has been pointed many decades ago by C. T. R. Wilson [Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A, 221, 73, 1920] that sudden reduction of the electric field inside a thundercloud immediately following a lightning discharge should produce an infrasound signature. Wilson [1920] noted that the pressure within a charged cloud must be less than the pressure outside, similarly to that within a charged soap bubble. In contrast to the sudden expansion of the air along the track of a lightning flash, the sudden contraction of a large volume of air must furnish a measurable rarefaction pulse [Wilson, 1920]. Many experimental and theoretical contributions followed these predictions by C. T. R. Wilson (see [Few, JGR, 90, 6175, 1985] and extensive list of references therein). Modeling investigation of related scenarios

  14. Lightning Radio Source Retrieval Using Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) Networks

    Koshak, William J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, J. C.


    A linear algebraic solution is provided for the problem of retrieving the location and time of occurrence of lightning ground strikes from an Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network. The ALDF network measures field strength, magnetic bearing and arrival time of lightning radio emissions. Solutions for the plane (i.e., no Earth curvature) are provided that implement all of tile measurements mentioned above. Tests of the retrieval method are provided using computer-simulated data sets. We also introduce a quadratic planar solution that is useful when only three arrival time measurements are available. The algebra of the quadratic root results are examined in detail to clarify what portions of the analysis region lead to fundamental ambiguities in source location. Complex root results are shown to be associated with the presence of measurement errors when the lightning source lies near an outer sensor baseline of the ALDF network. In the absence of measurement errors, quadratic root degeneracy (no source location ambiguity) is shown to exist exactly on the outer sensor baselines for arbitrary non-collinear network geometries. The accuracy of the quadratic planar method is tested with computer generated data sets. The results are generally better than those obtained from the three station linear planar method when bearing errors are about 2 deg. We also note some of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods over the nonlinear method of chi(sup 2) minimization employed by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and discussed in Cummins et al.(1993, 1995, 1998).

  15. Lightning study - climate change and the impact on the incidence of lightning adaptation needs in the power supply; Lynstudien - Klimaendringenes betydning for forekomsten av lyn tilpassingsbehov i kraftforsyningen

    Midtboe, Knut Helge; Haugen, Jan Erik; Koeltzow, Morten Andreas Oedegaard


    , but also for the network owner, since they cost money and require repair. In the results from not only an increase in lightning frequency is highlighted, in addition we must also allow for greater variations in different seasons and geographic areas. Areas that until now have been little troubled by lightning may be more exposed, and not least, already known 'problem areas' have more challenges to deal with. Planning under uncertainty. It is difficult with current knowledge to conclude a linear relationship between increased lightning frequency and increase in future outages, but that there will be a connection can not be excluded. Increase in lightning frequency will rise to the need to put this phenomenon in as an important factor in the planning of preventive measures for existing and future construction. Each business must assess the need for specific measures as a basis for prevention and for the dimensioning of the necessary emergency repairs. Through the emergency requirements of the regulations to conduct risk and vulnerability analysis for the individual business, it would be natural from NVE's side to expect that the companies take this or similar studies as the basis for such assessments own challenges. NVE's supervisory activities on emergency area has increased and will increase in the coming year. (Author)

  16. A first look at lightning energy determined from GLM

    Bitzer, P. M.; Burchfield, J. C.; Brunner, K. N.


    The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) was launched in November 2016 onboard GOES-16 has been undergoing post launch and product post launch testing. While these have typically focused on lightning metrics such as detection efficiency, false alarm rate, and location accuracy, there are other attributes of the lightning discharge that are provided by GLM data. Namely, the optical energy radiated by lightning may provide information useful for lightning physics and the relationship of lightning energy to severe weather development. This work presents initial estimates of the lightning optical energy detected by GLM during this initial testing, with a focus on observations during field campaign during spring 2017 in Huntsville. This region is advantageous for the comparison due to the proliferation of ground-based lightning instrumentation, including a lightning mapping array, interferometer, HAMMA (an array of electric field change meters), high speed video cameras, and several long range VLF networks. In addition, the field campaign included airborne observations of the optical emission and electric field changes. The initial estimates will be compared with previous observations using TRMM-LIS. In addition, a comparison between the operational and scientific GLM data sets will also be discussed.

  17. Cochlear implantation for severe sensorineural hearing loss caused by lightning.

    Myung, Nam-Suk; Lee, Il-Woo; Goh, Eui-Kyung; Kong, Soo-Keun


    Lightning strike can produce an array of clinical symptoms and injuries. It may damage multiple organs and cause auditory injuries ranging from transient hearing loss and vertigo to complete disruption of the auditory system. Tympanic-membrane rupture is relatively common in patients with lightning injury. The exact pathogenetic mechanisms of auditory lesions in lightning survivors have not been fully elucidated. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss caused by a lightning strike, who was successfully rehabilitated after a cochlear implantation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. "Thunderstruck": penetrating thoracic injury from lightning strike.

    van Waes, Oscar J F; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Halm, Jens A


    Lightning strike victims are rarely presented at an emergency department. Burns are often the primary focus. This case report describes the improvised explosive device like-injury to the thorax due to lightning strike and its treatment, which has not been described prior in (kerauno)medicine. Penetrating injury due to blast from lightning strike is extremely rare. These "shrapnel" injuries should however be ruled out in all patients struck by lightning. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Urban Influences on Convection and Lightning Over Houston

    Gauthier, Michael L


    The research presented in this dissertation addresses a fundamental question regarding urban, ultimately anthropogenic, influences on convection as it relates to lightning production and precipitation structure...

  20. An early record of ball lightning: Oliva (Spain), 1619

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando


    In a primary documentary source we found an early record of ball lightning (BL), which was observed in the monastery of Pi (Oliva, southeastern Spain) on 18 October 1619. The ball lightning was observed by at least three people and was described as a rolling burning vessel and a ball of fire. The ball lightning appeared following a lightning flash, showed a mainly horizontal motion, crossed a wall, smudged an image of the Lady of Rebollet (then known as Lady of Pi) and burnt her ruff, and overturned a cross.

  1. The globalization of energy activities: what are the issues?

    Percebois, J.


    Globalization in many sectors such as information, research and development, finance, technology, etc. led to the implementation of transnational networks to facilitate decision-making. The result is that governments are left to regulation functions. This globalization also led to a larger gap between North and South. Developing countries represent 80 per cent of world population, yet only produce less than 33 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). In the energy sector, developing countries have limited access to energy and use it less efficiently, since they do not master the latest technologies. States must retain their power to regulate this sector to ensure competition takes place in a fair environment within specified guidelines. Licenses must be issued through bidding or auctioned off, but in every case the State must ensure that commitments are met. It must also ensure that pricing is fair. Access for third parties to the power distribution system must be adequate, especially when the company operates in a monopoly environment. The State ends up managing a new category of risks (called major risks) that the private sector is not willing to consider, for example global warming or the management of nuclear waste. Confidence in market mechanisms is limited. Energy exchanges and others represent an economic growth factor and a potential guarantee for world peace. Who is responsible for the social costs associated with economic growth, and what are the solutions? A major issue left to decision-makers is the sharing of wealth within humankind and nations, and the State has a vital role to play. 5 refs., 5 tabs

  2. Structure of conducting channel of lightning

    Alanakyan, Yu. R.


    The spatial distribution of the plasma density in a lightning channel is studied theoretically. It is shown that the electric-field double layer is formed at the channel boundary. In this case, the electron temperature changes abruptly and ions are accelerated by the electric field of the double layer. The ion momentum flux density is close to the surrounding gas pressure. Cleaning of the channel from heavy particles occurs in particle-exchange processes between the plasma channel and the surrounding air. Hydrogen ions are accumulated inside the expanding channel from the surrounding air, which is enriched by hydrogen-contained molecules. In this case, the plasma channel is unstable and splits to a chain of equidistant bunches of plasma. The hydrogen-enrich bunches burn diffusely after recombination exhibiting the bead lightning behavior

  3. Runaway breakdown and hydrometeors in lightning initiation.

    Gurevich, A V; Karashtin, A N


    The particular electric pulse discharges are observed in thunderclouds during the initiation stage of negative cloud-to-ground lightning. The discharges are quite different from conventional streamers or leaders. A detailed analysis reveals that the shape of the pulses is determined by the runaway breakdown of air in the thundercloud electric field initiated by extensive atmospheric showers (RB-EAS). The high amplitude of the pulse electric current is due to the multiple microdischarges at hydrometeors stimulated and synchronized by the low-energy electrons generated in the RB-EAS process. The series of specific pulse discharges leads to charge reset from hydrometeors to the free ions and creates numerous stretched ion clusters, both positive and negative. As a result, a wide region in the thundercloud with a sufficiently high fractal ion conductivity is formed. The charge transport by ions plays a decisive role in the lightning leader preconditioning.

  4. Gigantic balloon type artificial lightning generator

    Horii; kenji


    This paper outlines a hot-air balloon type Van de Graaf 50-MV generator which can generate a 50,000,000 V, 0.2 to 0.3 coulomb artificial lightning comparable to natural lightning discharge and reports the results of investigation on discharging experiments conducted using this apparatus. The subjects covered are as follows: (1) Outline of the hot-air balloon type Van de Graaf 50-MV generator, (2) electric characteristics of the Van de Graaf 50-MV generator, (3) charge transfer with film and balloon charging, (4) the load of the balloon and buoyancy calculation, (5) leakage of charges, (6) study of charging experiments, and (7) evaluation of the apparatus and its method and problems to be solved. (4 figs, 4 tabs, 4 refs)

  5. Photonuclear reactions triggered by lightning discharge.

    Enoto, Teruaki; Wada, Yuuki; Furuta, Yoshihiro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Yuasa, Takayuki; Okuda, Kazufumi; Makishima, Kazuo; Sato, Mitsuteru; Sato, Yousuke; Nakano, Toshio; Umemoto, Daigo; Tsuchiya, Harufumi


    Lightning and thunderclouds are natural particle accelerators. Avalanches of relativistic runaway electrons, which develop in electric fields within thunderclouds, emit bremsstrahlung γ-rays. These γ-rays have been detected by ground-based observatories, by airborne detectors and as terrestrial γ-ray flashes from space. The energy of the γ-rays is sufficiently high that they can trigger atmospheric photonuclear reactions that produce neutrons and eventually positrons via β + decay of the unstable radioactive isotopes, most notably 13 N, which is generated via 14 N + γ →  13 N + n, where γ denotes a photon and n a neutron. However, this reaction has hitherto not been observed conclusively, despite increasing observational evidence of neutrons and positrons that are presumably derived from such reactions. Here we report ground-based observations of neutron and positron signals after lightning. During a thunderstorm on 6 February 2017 in Japan, a γ-ray flash with a duration of less than one millisecond was detected at our monitoring sites 0.5-1.7 kilometres away from the lightning. The subsequent γ-ray afterglow subsided quickly, with an exponential decay constant of 40-60 milliseconds, and was followed by prolonged line emission at about 0.511 megaelectronvolts, which lasted for a minute. The observed decay timescale and spectral cutoff at about 10 megaelectronvolts of the γ-ray afterglow are well explained by de-excitation γ-rays from nuclei excited by neutron capture. The centre energy of the prolonged line emission corresponds to electron-positron annihilation, providing conclusive evidence of positrons being produced after the lightning.

  6. Lightning Protection for the Orion Space Vehicle

    Scully, Robert


    The Orion space vehicle is designed to requirements for both direct attachment and indirect effects of lightning. Both sets of requirements are based on a full threat 200kA strike, in accordance with constraints and guidelines contained in SAE ARP documents applicable to both commercial and military aircraft and space vehicles. This paper describes the requirements as levied against the vehicle, as well as the means whereby the design shows full compliance.

  7. Impact of lightning strikes on hospital functions.

    Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Springel, Gert L J; Van Boxstael, Sam; Herrijgers, Jan; Hoflacks, Stefaan


    Two regional hospitals were struck by lightning during a one-month period. The first hospital, which had 236 beds, suffered a direct strike to the building. This resulted in a direct spread of the power peak and temporary failure of the standard power supply. The principle problems, after restoring standard power supply, were with the fire alarm system and peripheral network connections in the digital radiology systems. No direct impact on the hardware could be found. Restarting the servers resolved all problems. The second hospital, which had 436 beds, had a lightning strike on the premises and mainly experienced problems due to induction. All affected installations had a cable connection from outside in one way or another. The power supplies never were endangered. The main problem was the failure of different communication systems (telephone, radio, intercom, fire alarm system). Also, the electronic entrance control went out. During the days after the lightening strike, multiple software problems became apparent, as well as failures of the network connections controlling the technical support systems. There are very few ways to prepare for induction problems. The use of fiber-optic networks can limit damage. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first cases of lightning striking hospitals in medical literature.

  8. Performance Study of Earth Networks Total Lightning Network using Rocket-Triggered Lightning Data in 2014

    Heckman, S.


    Modern lightning locating systems (LLS) provide real-time monitoring and early warning of lightningactivities. In addition, LLS provide valuable data for statistical analysis in lightning research. It isimportant to know the performance of such LLS. In the present study, the performance of the EarthNetworks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) is studied using rocket-triggered lightning data acquired atthe International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT), Camp Blanding, Florida.In the present study, 18 flashes triggered at ICLRT in 2014 were analyzed and they comprise of 78negative cloud-to-ground return strokes. The geometric mean, median, minimum, and maximum for thepeak currents of the 78 return strokes are 13.4 kA, 13.6 kA, 3.7 kA, and 38.4 kA, respectively. The peakcurrents represent typical subsequent return strokes in natural cloud-to-ground lightning.Earth Networks has developed a new data processor to improve the performance of their network. Inthis study, results are presented for the ENTLN data using the old processor (originally reported in 2014)and the ENTLN data simulated using the new processor. The flash detection efficiency, stroke detectionefficiency, percentage of misclassification, median location error, median peak current estimation error,and median absolute peak current estimation error for the originally reported data from old processorare 100%, 94%, 49%, 271 m, 5%, and 13%, respectively, and those for the simulated data using the newprocessor are 100%, 99%, 9%, 280 m, 11%, and 15%, respectively. The use of new processor resulted inhigher stroke detection efficiency and lower percentage of misclassification. It is worth noting that theslight differences in median location error, median peak current estimation error, and median absolutepeak current estimation error for the two processors are due to the fact that the new processordetected more number of return strokes than the old processor.

  9. Cloud-to-ground lightning over Mexico and adjacent oceanic regions. A preliminary climatology using the WWLLN dataset

    Kucienska, B.; Raga, G.B. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera; Rodriguez, O. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Morelos (Mexico)


    This work constitutes the first climatological study of lightning over Mexico and adjacent oceanic areas for the period 2005-2009. Spatial and temporal distributions of cloud to ground lightning are presented and the processes that contribute to the lightning variability are analysed. The data are retrieved from theWorldWide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) dataset. The current WWLL network includes 40 stations which cover much of the globe and detect very low frequency radiation (''spherics'') associated with lightning. The spatial distribution of the average yearly lightning over the continental region of Mexico shows the influence of orographic forcing in producing convective clouds with high lightning activity. However, a very high number of strikes is also observed in the States of Tabasco and Campeche, which are low-lying areas. This maximum is related to the climatological maximum of precipitation for the country and it may be associated with a region of persistent low-level convergence and convection in the southern portion of the Gulf of Mexico. The maps of correlation between rainfall and lightning provide insight into the microphysical processes occurring within the clouds. The maritime clouds close to the coastline exhibit similar properties to continental clouds as they produce very high lightning activity. The seasonal cycle of lightning registered by WWLLN is consistent with the LIS/OTD dataset for the selected regions. In terms of the annual distribution of cloud-to-ground strikes, July, August and September exhibit the highest number of strikes over continental Mexico. The diurnal cycle indicates that the maximum number of strikes over the continent is observed between 6 and 9 p.m. LT. The surrounding oceanic regions were subdivided into four distinct sectors: Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Subtropical Pacific and Tropical Pacific. The Gulf of Mexico has the broadest seasonal distribution, since during winter lightning associated

  10. Spatial distribution of cold-season lightning frequency in the coastal areas of the Sea of Japan

    Tsurushima, Daiki; Sakaida, Kiyotaka; Honma, Noriyasu


    The coastal areas of the Sea of Japan are a well-known hotspot of winter lightning activity. This study distinguishes between three common types of winter lightning in that region (types A-C), based on their frequency distributions and the meteorological conditions under which they occur. Type A lightning occurs with high frequency in the Tohoku district. It is mainly caused by cold fronts that accompany cyclones passing north of the Japanese islands. Type B, which occurs most frequently in the coastal areas of the Hokuriku district, is mainly caused by topographically induced wind convergence and convective instability, both of which are associated with cyclones having multiple centers. Type C's lightning frequency distribution pattern is similar to that of type B, but its principal cause is a topographically induced wind convergence generated by cold air advection from the Siberian continent. Type A is most frequently observed from October to November, while types B and C tend to appear from November to January, consistent with seasonal changes in lightning frequency distribution in Japan's Tohoku and Hokuriku districts.

  11. Active and passive beam application design guide for global application

    Rimmer, Julian


    The Active and Passive Beam Application Design Guide is the result of collaboration by worldwide experts to give system designers a current, authoritative guide on successfully applying active and passive beam technology. Active and Passive Beam Application Design Guide provide energy-efficient methods of cooling, heating, and ventilating indoor areas, especially spaces that require individual zone control and where internal moisture loads are moderate. The systems are simple to operate, with low maintenance requirements. This book is an essential resource for consulting engineers, architects, owners, and contractors who are involved in the design, operation, and installation of these systems. Building on REHVA’s Chilled Beam Application Guidebook, this new guide provides up-to-date tools and advice for designing, commissioning, and operating chilled-beam systems to achieve a determined indoor climate, and includes examples of active and passive beam calculations and selections. Dual units (SI and I-P) are...

  12. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, Hourly Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet (AE) index is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  13. Global Modeling of Microwave Three Terminal Active Devices Using the FDTD Method

    Mrabet, O. E; Essaaidi, M; Drissi, M'hamed


    This paper presents a new approach for the global electromagnetic analysis of the three-Terminal active linear and nonlinear microwave circuits using the Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Method...

  14. Quantification and identification of lightning damage in tropical forests.

    Yanoviak, Stephen P; Gora, Evan M; Burchfield, Jeffrey M; Bitzer, Phillip M; Detto, Matteo


    Accurate estimates of tree mortality are essential for the development of mechanistic forest dynamics models, and for estimating carbon storage and cycling. However, identifying agents of tree mortality is difficult and imprecise. Although lightning kills thousands of trees each year and is an important agent of mortality in some forests, the frequency and distribution of lightning-caused tree death remain unknown for most forests. Moreover, because all evidence regarding the effects of lightning on trees is necessarily anecdotal and post hoc, rigorous tests of hypotheses regarding the ecological effects of lightning are impossible. We developed a combined electronic sensor/camera-based system for the location and characterization of lightning strikes to the forest canopy in near real time and tested the system in the forest of Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Cameras mounted on towers provided continuous video recordings of the forest canopy that were analyzed to determine the locations of lightning strikes. We used a preliminary version of this system to record and locate 18 lightning strikes to the forest over a 3-year period. Data from field surveys of known lightning strike locations (obtained from the camera system) enabled us to develop a protocol for reliable, ground-based identification of suspected lightning damage to tropical trees. In all cases, lightning damage was relatively inconspicuous; it would have been overlooked by ground-based observers having no knowledge of the event. We identified three types of evidence that can be used to consistently identify lightning strike damage in tropical forests: (1) localized and directionally biased branch mortality associated with flashover among tree and sapling crowns, (2) mortality of lianas or saplings near lianas, and (3) scorched or wilting epiphytic and hemiepiphytic plants. The longitudinal trunk scars that are typical of lightning-damaged temperate trees were never observed in this study. Given the

  15. Illuminating the role of lightning

    Krupa, Tyler J.


    The Department of Energy's Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are undertaking a project to measure electromagnetic pulses due to lightening within a noise environment due to TV and FM radio transmissions. A lightweight satellite called FORTE (Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events) is the central focus of the project. Data from FORTE will eventually help scientists studying global climate effects. (AIP) (c)

  16. Elves and associated electron density changes due to cloud-to-ground and in-cloud lightning discharges

    Marshall, R. A.; Inan, U. S.; Glukhov, V. S.


    A 3-D finite difference time domain model is used to simulate the lightning electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and its interaction with the lower ionosphere. Results agree with the frequently observed, doughnut-shaped optical signature of elves but show that the structure exhibits asymmetry due to the presence of Earth's ambient magnetic field. Furthermore, in-cloud (horizontal) lightning channels produce observable optical emissions without the doughnut shape and, in fact, produce a much stronger optical output for the same channel current. Electron density perturbations associated with elves are also calculated, with contributions from attachment and ionization. Results presented as a function of parameters such as magnetic field direction, dipole current orientation, altitude and amplitude, and ambient ionospheric density profile demonstrate the highly nonlinear nature of the EMP-ionosphere interaction. Ionospheric effects of a sequence of in-cloud discharges are calculated, simulating a burst of in-cloud lightning activity and resulting in large density changes in the overlying ionosphere.

  17. Characteristics of diurnal pattern of global photosynthetically-active ...

    A two year data (September 1992 August 1994) on photosynhetically-active radiation (PAR) measured at Ilorin (Lat.: 832´N. Long.:434´E) using LI-190SA quantum sensor are analysed both on daily and monthly mean diurnal bases. This was done with the aim of characterizing the diurnal pattern of this radiation at this ...

  18. Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity

    Jong, de R.; Schaepman, M.E.; Furrer, R.; Bruin, de S.; Verburg, P.H.


    Vegetation forms a main component of the terrestrial biosphere and plays a crucial role in land-cover and climate-related studies. Activity of vegetation systems is commonly quantified using remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI). Extensive reports on temporal trends over the past decades in time

  19. Sensors for in-flight lightning detection on aircraft

    Stelmashuk, V.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Webster, M.


    Commercial passenger aircraft are on average struck by lightning once a year. The In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System (ILDAS) project is to develop and validate a prototype of a system capable of in-flight measurement of the current waveform and reconstruction of the path of

  20. Lightning, IT Diffusion and Economic Growth across US States

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    Empirically, a higher frequency of lightning strikes is associated with slower growth in labor productivity across the 48 contiguous US states after 1990; before 1990 there is no correlation between growth and lightning. Other climate variables (e.g., temperature, rainfall and tornadoes) do...

  1. Wind Turbine Lightning Protection Project: 1999-2001

    McNiff, B.


    A lightning protection research and support program was instituted by NREL to help minimize lightning damage to wind turbines in the United States. This paper provides the results of a field test program, an evaluation of protection on selected turbines, and a literature search as well as the dissemination of the accumulated information.

  2. Delayed Post Mortem Predation in Lightning Strike Carcasses ...

    Campbell Murn

    An adult giraffe was struck dead by lightning on a game farm outside. Phalaborwa, South Africa in March 2014. Interestingly, delayed post-mortem predation occurred on the carcass, which according to the farm owners was an atypical phenomenon for the region. Delayed post-mortem scavenging on lightning strike ...

  3. Reliable protection of electronics against lightning: some practical applications

    Laan, van der P.C.T.; Deursen, van A.P.J.


    The classical lightning conductor, which must prevent fire, has to have a sufficiently small resistance. An analogous condition can be formulated for the new challenge: the protection of sensitive electronics against lightning. In this case, the so-called transfer impedance, which gives the

  4. 14 CFR 25.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.


    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 25.954...

  5. 14 CFR 27.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.


    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 27.954...

  6. 14 CFR 29.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.


    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 29.954...

  7. Assessments of Total Lightning Data Utility in Weather Forecasting

    Buechler, Dennis E.; Goodman, Steve; LaCasse, Katherine; Blakeslee, Richard; Darden, Chris


    National Weather Service forecasters in Huntsville, Alabama have had access to total lightning data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) since 2003. Forecasters can monitor real-time total lightning observations on their AWIPS (Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) workstations. The lightning data is used to supplement other observations such as radar and satellite data. The lightning data is updated every 2 min, providing more timely evidence of storm growth or decay than is available from 5 min radar scans. Total lightning observations have been used to positively impact warning decisions in a number of instances. A number of approaches are being pursued to assess the usefulness of total lightning measurements to the operational forecasting community in the warning decision process. These approaches, which include both qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, will be discussed. submitted to the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Conference on Meteorological Applications of Lightning Data to be held in San Diego, CA January 9-13,2005. This will be a presentation and an extended abstract will be published on a CD available from the AMS.

  8. Assimilation of Long-Range Lightning Data over the Pacific


    convective rainfall analyses over the Pacific, and (iii) to improve marine prediction of cyclogenesis of both tropical and extratropical cyclones over the North Pacific Ocean, refine the relationships between lightning and storm hydrometeor characteristics, and assimilate lightning...unresolved storm -scale areas of deep convection over the data-sparse open oceans. Diabatic heating sources, especially latent heat release in deep

  9. Designing concept on lightning protection of overhead power distribution line

    Yokoyama, Shigeru [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)], E-mail:


    The principle is shown for lightning protection of power distribution lines taking the effects of surge arresters, overhead ground wires and their combined use into consideration. Moreover an outline of a rational design method targeting direct lightning hits, induced over voltages and back flow currents from high structures. (author)

  10. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  11. Aerosol indirect effects on lightning in the generation of induced NOx and tropospheric ozone over an Indian urban metropolis

    Saha, Upal; Maitra, Animesh; Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti

    Lightning flashes, associated with vigorous convective activity, is one of the most prominent weather phenomena in the tropical atmosphere. High aerosol loading is indirectly associated with the increase in lightning flash rates via the formation of tropospheric ozone during the pre-monsoon and monsoon over the tropics. Tropospheric ozone, an important greenhouse pollutant gas have impact on Earth’s radiation budget and play a key role in changing the atmospheric circulation patterns. Lightning-induced NOx is a primary pollutant found in photochemical smog and an important precursor for the formation of tropospheric ozone. A critical analysis is done to study the indirect effects of high aerosol loading on the formation of tropospheric ozone via lightning flashes and induced NOx formation over an urban metropolitan location Kolkata (22°32'N, 88°20'E), India during the period 2001-2012. The seasonal variation of lightning flash rates (LFR), taken from TRMM-LIS 2.5o x 2.5o gridded dataset, show that the LFR was observed to be intensified in the pre-monsoon (March-May) and high in monsoon (June-September) months over the region. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 555nm, taken from MISR 0.5o x 0.5o gridded level-3 dataset, plays an indirect effect on the increase in LFR during the pre-monsoon and monsoon months and has positive correlations between them during these periods. This is also justified from the seasonal variation of the increase in LFR due to the increase in AOD over the region during 2001-2012. The calibrated GOME and OMI/AURA satellite data analysis shows that the tropospheric ozone, formed as a result of lightning-induced NOx and due to the increased AOD at 555 nm, also increases during the pre-monsoon and monsoon months. The seasonal variation of lightning-induced tropospheric NOx, taken from SCIAMACHY observations also justified the fact that the pre-monsoon and monsoon LFR solely responsible for the generation of induced NOx over the region. The

  12. Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity.

    de Jong, Rogier; Schaepman, Michael E; Furrer, Reinhard; de Bruin, Sytze; Verburg, Peter H


    Vegetation forms a main component of the terrestrial biosphere and plays a crucial role in land-cover and climate-related studies. Activity of vegetation systems is commonly quantified using remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI). Extensive reports on temporal trends over the past decades in time series of such indices can be found in literature. However, little remains known about the processes underlying these changes at large spatial scales. In this study, we aimed at quantifying the spatial relationship between changes in potential climatic growth constraints (i.e. temperature, precipitation and incident solar radiation) and changes in vegetation activity (1982-2008). We demonstrate an additive spatial model with 0.5° resolution, consisting of a regression component representing climate-associated effects and a spatially correlated field representing the combined influence of other factors, including land-use change. Little over 50% of the spatial variance could be attributed to changes in climatologies; conspicuously, many greening trends and browning hotspots in Argentina and Australia. The nonassociated model component may contain large-scale human interventions, feedback mechanisms or natural effects, which were not captured by the climatologies. Browning hotspots in this component were especially found in subequatorial Africa. On the scale of land-cover types, strongest relationships between climatologies and vegetation activity were found in forests, including indications for browning under warming conditions (analogous to the divergence issue discussed in dendroclimatology). © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Global RNA association with the transcriptionally active chromosome of chloroplasts.

    Lehniger, Marie-Kristin; Finster, Sabrina; Melonek, Joanna; Oetke, Svenja; Krupinska, Karin; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian


    Processed chloroplast RNAs are co-enriched with preparations of the chloroplast transcriptionally active chromosome. Chloroplast genomes are organized as a polyploid DNA-protein structure called the nucleoid. Transcriptionally active chloroplast DNA together with tightly bound protein factors can be purified by gel filtration as a functional entity called the transcriptionally active chromosome (TAC). Previous proteomics analyses of nucleoids and of TACs demonstrated a considerable overlap in protein composition including RNA binding proteins. Therefore the RNA content of TAC preparations from Nicotiana tabacum was determined using whole genome tiling arrays. A large number of chloroplast RNAs was found to be associated with the TAC. The pattern of RNAs attached to the TAC consists of RNAs produced by different chloroplast RNA polymerases and differs from the pattern of RNA found in input controls. An analysis of RNA splicing and RNA editing of selected RNA species demonstrated that TAC-associated RNAs are processed to a similar extent as the RNA in input controls. Thus, TAC fractions contain a specific subset of the processed chloroplast transcriptome.

  14. Mechanisms and effects of lightning current coupling to structures

    Foboda, Marek


    To evaluate the effects of a lightning discharge on a structure, it is necessary to know the modes of interaction of lightning electromagnetic field pulses to structures. The effects to these interactions are considered by means to the concept to equivalent collection areas. The equations to calculate the distance and equivalent collection areas due to lightning discharges are given in this article. Additionally, the possible modes of a direct lightning strike to the incoming line and the equations to calculate the resultant over voltages are also given. This article ends with the calculation of voltage drops due to direct and nearby lightning strike and induced voltages due to magnetic coupling. Several examples of calculations of the different mentioned cases are given

  15. Regulatory Guidance for Lightning Protection in Nuclear Power Plants

    Kisner, Roger A.; Wilgen, John B.; Ewing, Paul D.; Korsah, Kofi; Antonescu, Christina E.


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects.

  16. The Effect of a Corona Discharge on a Lightning Attachment

    Aleksandrov, N.L.; Bazelyan, E.M.; Raizer, Yu.P.


    The interaction between the lightning leader and the space charge accumulated near the top of a ground object in the atmospheric electric field is considered using analytical and numerical models developed earlier to describe spark discharges in long laboratory gaps. The specific features of a nonstationary corona discharge that develops in the electric field of a thundercloud and a downward lightning leader are analyzed. Conditions for the development of an upward lightning discharge from a ground object and for the propagation of an upward-connecting leader from the object toward a downward lightning leader (the process determining the point of strike to the ground) are investigated. Possible mechanisms for the interaction of the corona space charge with an upward leader and prospects of using it to control downward lightning discharges are analyzed

  17. Smart CMOS image sensor for lightning detection and imaging.

    Rolando, Sébastien; Goiffon, Vincent; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Molina, Romain; Tulet, Michel; Bréart-de-Boisanger, Michel; Saint-Pé, Olivier; Guiry, Saïprasad; Larnaudie, Franck; Leone, Bruno; Perez-Cuevas, Leticia; Zayer, Igor


    We present a CMOS image sensor dedicated to lightning detection and imaging. The detector has been designed to evaluate the potentiality of an on-chip lightning detection solution based on a smart sensor. This evaluation is performed in the frame of the predevelopment phase of the lightning detector that will be implemented in the Meteosat Third Generation Imager satellite for the European Space Agency. The lightning detection process is performed by a smart detector combining an in-pixel frame-to-frame difference comparison with an adjustable threshold and on-chip digital processing allowing an efficient localization of a faint lightning pulse on the entire large format array at a frequency of 1 kHz. A CMOS prototype sensor with a 256×256 pixel array and a 60 μm pixel pitch has been fabricated using a 0.35 μm 2P 5M technology and tested to validate the selected detection approach.

  18. Seasonal and Local Characteristics of Lightning Outages of Power Distribution Lines in Hokuriku Area

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko

    The proportion of the lightning outages in all outages on Japanese 6.6kV distribution lines is high with approximately 20 percent, and then lightning protections are very important for supply reliability of 6.6kV lines. It is effective for the lightning performance to apply countermeasures in order of the area where a large number of the lightning outages occur. Winter lightning occurs in Hokuriku area, therefore it is also important to understand the seasonal characteristics of the lightning outages. In summer 70 percent of the lightning outages on distribution lines in Hokuriku area were due to sparkover, such as power wire breakings and failures of pole-mounted transformers. However, in winter almost half of lightning-damaged equipments were surge arrester failures. The number of the lightning outages per lightning strokes detected by the lightning location system (LLS) in winter was 4.4 times larger than that in summer. The authors have presumed the occurrence of lightning outages from lightning stroke density, 50% value of lightning current and installation rate of lightning protection equipments and overhead ground wire by multiple regression analysis. The presumed results suggest the local difference in the lightning outages.

  19. 30 CFR 56.12069 - Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning protection for telephone wires and... NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12069 Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors... lightning shall be equipped with suitable lightning arrestors of approved type within 100 feet of the point...

  20. 30 CFR 57.12069 - Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning protection for telephone wires and... AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12069 Lightning protection for telephone wires and... exposed to lightning shall be equipped with suitable lightning arrestors of approved type within 100 feet...

  1. Simulation study on the lightning overvoltage invasion control transformer intelligent substation

    Xi, Chuyan; Hao, Jie; Zhang, Ying


    By simulating lightning on substation line of one intelligent substation, research the influence of different lightning points on lightning invasion wave overvoltage, and the necessity of arrester for the main transformer. The results show, in a certain lightning protection measures, the installation of arrester nearby the main transformer can effectively reduce the overvoltage value of bus and the main transformer [1].

  2. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment, Operation and Initial Data Analysis

    Blakeslee, R.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Rudlosky, S.; Goodman, S. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anseimo, E. M.; Pinto, O.


    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in November-December 2011, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sao Jos dos Campos.

  3. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment and Plans

    Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Pinto, O., Jr.


    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luz Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in December 2011-January 2012, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sa Luz Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sa Jos dos Campos.

  4. On the Relationship between Observed NLDN Lightning Strikes and Modeled Convective Precipitation Rates Parameterization of Lightning NOx Production in CMAQ

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past dec...

  5. Using cloud ice flux to parametrise large-scale lightning

    D. L. Finney


    Full Text Available Lightning is an important natural source of nitrogen oxide especially in the middle and upper troposphere. Hence, it is essential to represent lightning in chemistry transport and coupled chemistry–climate models. Using ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis data we compare the lightning flash density distributions produced using several existing lightning parametrisations, as well as a new parametrisation developed on the basis of upward cloud ice flux at 440 hPa. The use of ice flux forms a link to the non-inductive charging mechanism of thunderstorms. Spatial and temporal distributions of lightning flash density are compared to tropical and subtropical observations for 2007–2011 from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellite. The well-used lightning flash parametrisation based on cloud-top height has large biases but the derived annual total flash density has a better spatial correlation with the LIS observations than other existing parametrisations. A comparison of flash density simulated by the different schemes shows that the cloud-top height parametrisation has many more instances of moderate flash densities and fewer low and high extremes compared to the other parametrisations. Other studies in the literature have shown that this feature of the cloud-top height parametrisation is in contrast to lightning observations over certain regions. Our new ice flux parametrisation shows a clear improvement over all the existing parametrisations with lower root mean square errors (RMSEs and better spatial correlations with the observations for distributions of annual total, and seasonal and interannual variations. The greatest improvement with the new parametrisation is a more realistic representation of the zonal distribution with a better balance between tropical and subtropical lightning flash estimates. The new parametrisation is appropriate for testing in chemistry transport and chemistry

  6. Global Proteome Analysis Identifies Active Immunoproteasome Subunits in Human Platelets*

    Klockenbusch, Cordula; Walsh, Geraldine M.; Brown, Lyda M.; Hoffman, Michael D.; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Kast, Juergen


    The discovery of new functions for platelets, particularly in inflammation and immunity, has expanded the role of these anucleate cell fragments beyond their primary hemostatic function. Here, four in-depth human platelet proteomic data sets were generated to explore potential new functions for platelets based on their protein content and this led to the identification of 2559 high confidence proteins. During a more detailed analysis, consistently high expression of the proteasome was discovered, and the composition and function of this complex, whose role in platelets has not been thoroughly investigated, was examined. Data set mining resulted in identification of nearly all members of the 26S proteasome in one or more data sets, except the β5 subunit. However, β5i, a component of the immunoproteasome, was identified. Biochemical analyses confirmed the presence of all catalytically active subunits of the standard 20S proteasome and immunoproteasome in human platelets, including β5, which was predominantly found in its precursor form. It was demonstrated that these components were assembled into the proteasome complex and that standard proteasome as well as immunoproteasome subunits were constitutively active in platelets. These findings suggest potential new roles for platelets in the immune system. For example, the immunoproteasome may be involved in major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) peptide generation, as the MHC I machinery was also identified in our data sets. PMID:25146974

  7. Global proteome analysis identifies active immunoproteasome subunits in human platelets.

    Klockenbusch, Cordula; Walsh, Geraldine M; Brown, Lyda M; Hoffman, Michael D; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Kast, Juergen


    The discovery of new functions for platelets, particularly in inflammation and immunity, has expanded the role of these anucleate cell fragments beyond their primary hemostatic function. Here, four in-depth human platelet proteomic data sets were generated to explore potential new functions for platelets based on their protein content and this led to the identification of 2559 high confidence proteins. During a more detailed analysis, consistently high expression of the proteasome was discovered, and the composition and function of this complex, whose role in platelets has not been thoroughly investigated, was examined. Data set mining resulted in identification of nearly all members of the 26S proteasome in one or more data sets, except the β5 subunit. However, β5i, a component of the immunoproteasome, was identified. Biochemical analyses confirmed the presence of all catalytically active subunits of the standard 20S proteasome and immunoproteasome in human platelets, including β5, which was predominantly found in its precursor form. It was demonstrated that these components were assembled into the proteasome complex and that standard proteasome as well as immunoproteasome subunits were constitutively active in platelets. These findings suggest potential new roles for platelets in the immune system. For example, the immunoproteasome may be involved in major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) peptide generation, as the MHC I machinery was also identified in our data sets. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Lighting Observations During the Mt. Augustine Volcanic Eruptions With the Portable Lightning Mapping Stations

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P.; Thomas, R.; Edens, H.; Aulich, G.; O'Connor, N.; Kieft, S.; McNutt, S.; Tytgat, G.; Clark, E.


    Following the initial eruptions of Mt. Augustine on January 11-17 2006, we quickly prepared and deployed a first contingent of two portable mapping stations. This was our first use of the newly-developed portable stations, and we were able to deploy them in time to observe the second set of explosive eruptions during the night of January~27-28. The stations were located 17~km apart on the west coast of the Kenai Peninsula, 100~km distant from Augustine on the far western side of Cook Inlet. The stations comprised a minimal network capable of determining the azimuthal direction of VHF radiation sources from electrical discharges, and thus the transverse location of the electrical activity relative to the volcano. The time series data from the southern, Homer station for the initial, energetic explosion at 8:31 pm on January~27 revealed the occurrence of spectacular lightning, which from the two-station data drifted southward from Augustine with time, in the same direction as the plume from the eruption. About 300 distinct lightning discharges occurred over an 11-minute time interval, beginning 2-3~min after the main explosion. The lightning quickly became increasingly complex with time and developed large horizontal extents. One of the final discharges of the sequence lasted 600~ms and had a transverse extent of 15~km, extending to 22~km south of Augustine's summit. In addition to this more usual form of lightning, continuous bursts of radio frequency radiation occurred during the explosion itself, indicating that the tephra was highly charged upon being ejected from the volcano. A completely unplanned and initially missed but one of several fortuitous aspects of the observations was that the Homer station functioned as a 'sea-surface interferometer' whose interference pattern can be used to determine the altitude variation with time for some discharges. The station's VHF antenna was located on the edge of a bluff 210~m above Cook Inlet and received both the direct

  9. Global convergence of periodic solution of neural networks with discontinuous activation functions

    Huang Lihong; Guo Zhenyuan


    In this paper, without assuming boundedness and monotonicity of the activation functions, we establish some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence and global asymptotic stability of periodic solution of neural networks with discontinuous activation functions by using the Yoshizawa-like theorem and constructing proper Lyapunov function. The obtained results improve and extend previous works.

  10. Activity Based Learning in a Freshman Global Business Course: Analyses of Preferences and Demographic Differences

    Levine, Mark F.; Guy, Paul W.


    The present study investigates pre-business students' reaction to Activity Based Learning in a lower division core required course entitled Introduction to Global Business in the business curriculum at California State University Chico. The study investigates students' preference for Activity Based Learning in comparison to a more traditional…


    Andreea POPOVICI


    Full Text Available The crisis that affected the global financial stability and the economy in 2007-09 has reinforced the need to rethink some of the approaches adopted by the financial community in assessing banks’ performance. The aim of this paper is to see if global banks improve their performance due to their cross-border activity, whether we speak about mergers or acquisitions of local banks or we speak about other ways a global bank begins the activity in a different country. As methodology, we will analyze the dynamic of ROAA and ROAE during 2006-2013 in the case of two global banks, Société Générale and Erste Group, and their branches in countries from Central and Eastern Europe. At the end of the paper, we will compare the results for each big bank and their branches.

  12. A Unified Model of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Stroke

    Nag, A.; Rakov, V. A.


    The first stroke in a cloud-to-ground lightning discharge is thought to follow (or be initiated by) the preliminary breakdown process which often produces a train of relatively large microsecond-scale electric field pulses. This process is poorly understood and rarely modeled. Each lightning stroke is composed of a downward leader process and an upward return-stroke process, which are usually modeled separately. We present a unified engineering model for computing the electric field produced by a sequence of preliminary breakdown, stepped leader, and return stroke processes, serving to transport negative charge to ground. We assume that a negatively-charged channel extends downward in a stepped fashion through the relatively-high-field region between the main negative and lower positive charge centers and then through the relatively-low-field region below the lower positive charge center. A relatively-high-field region is also assumed to exist near ground. The preliminary breakdown pulse train is assumed to be generated when the negatively-charged channel interacts with the lower positive charge region. At each step, an equivalent current source is activated at the lower extremity of the channel, resulting in a step current wave that propagates upward along the channel. The leader deposits net negative charge onto the channel. Once the stepped leader attaches to ground (upward connecting leader is presently neglected), an upward-propagating return stroke is initiated, which neutralizes the charge deposited by the leader along the channel. We examine the effect of various model parameters, such as step length and current propagation speed, on model-predicted electric fields. We also compare the computed fields with pertinent measurements available in the literature.

  13. Determining Polarities Of Distant Lightning Strokes

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Brook, Marx


    Method for determining polarities of lightning strokes more than 400 km away. Two features of signal from each stroke correlated. New method based on fact each stroke observed thus far for which polarity determined unambiguously, initial polarity of tail same as polarity of initial deflection before initial-deflection signal altered by propagation effects. Receiving station equipped with electric-field-change antenna coupled to charge amplifier having time constant of order of 1 to 10 seconds. Output of amplifier fed to signal-processing circuitry, which determines initial polarity of tail.

  14. A Study of Lightning Protection Systems


    from lightning, we must bear in mind that it does not follow the law of electric currents such as we are familiar with or those we read about as...radius equal to twice its height. Later on Guy Lussac Introduced M. Charles’ single cone--ie, a similar cone having a base with a radius equal to...or nforms with orrect. Th required d preservatio 1901 two mention the ned. Dr. of Science, Guy Lussac curity, but less good the e means

  15. Lightning Physics: A Three Year Program


    because these aircraft are controlled poeal’ r r o(z’, I- RIC) with low-voltage digital electronics and are in part construct- 4w J(,3 cR "*t • at ed of... millise - limits pretrigger and delayed-trigger mode,. and a variety of sample conds, and hundreds of microseconds, respectively, the time of simple...processes, but we feel it prudent to discontinue use of the Proctor, D. E., A radio study of lightning, Ph.D. thesis , Univ. of designations in order

  16. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K


    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lightning Talks 2015: Theoretical Division

    Shlachter, Jack S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This document is a compilation of slides from a number of student presentations given to LANL Theoretical Division members. The subjects cover the range of activities of the Division, including plasma physics, environmental issues, materials research, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and computational methods.

  18. The Evolution and Structure of Extreme Optical Lightning Flashes.

    Peterson, Michael; Rudlosky, Scott; Deierling, Wiebke


    This study documents the composition, morphology, and motion of extreme optical lightning flashes observed by the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The furthest separation of LIS events (groups) in any flash is 135 km (89 km), the flash with the largest footprint had an illuminated area of 10,604 km 2 , and the most dendritic flash has 234 visible branches. The longest-duration convective LIS flash lasted 28 s and is overgrouped and not physical. The longest-duration convective-to-stratiform propagating flash lasted 7.4 s, while the longest-duration entirely stratiform flash lasted 4.3 s. The longest series of nearly consecutive groups in time lasted 242 ms. The most radiant recorded LIS group (i.e., "superbolt") is 735 times more radiant than the average group. Factors that impact these optical measures of flash morphology and evolution are discussed. While it is apparent that LIS can record the horizontal development of the lightning channel in some cases, radiative transfer within the cloud limits the flash extent and level of detail measured from orbit. These analyses nonetheless suggest that lightning imagers such as LIS and Geostationary Lightning Mapper can complement ground-based lightning locating systems for studying physical lightning phenomena across large geospatial domains.

  19. Extensive air showers, lightnings and thunderstorm ground enhancements

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Kozliner, L.


    For the lightning research, we monitor the particle fluxes from thunderclouds, the so called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs) initiated by the runaway electrons, and Extensive Air Showers (EASs) originated from high energy protons or fully stripped nuclei that enter the Earth’s atmosphere. Besides, we monitor the near-surface electric field and the atmospheric discharges with the help of a network of electric field mills. The Aragats “electron accelerator” produced plenty of TGE and lightning events in spring 2015. Using 1-sec time series, we investigated the relation of lightnings and particle fluxes. Lightning flashes often terminated the particle flux; during some of TGEs the lightning would terminate the particle flux 3 times after successive recovery. It was postulated that a lightning terminates a particle flux mostly in the beginning of TGE or on the decay phase of it; however, we observed two events (19 October 2013 and 20 April 2015) when the huge particle flux was terminated just on a maximum of its development. We discuss the possibility that a huge EAS facilitates lightning leader to find its path to the ground. (author)

  20. Reactive nitrogen over the tropical western Pacific: Influence from lightning and biomass burning during BIBLE A

    Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Nishi, N.; Liu, S. C.; Blake, D.; Ko, M.; Akutagawa, D.; Kawakami, S.; Takegawa, N.; Zhao, Y.; Ogawa, T.


    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment phase A (BIBLE A) aircraft campaign was carried out over the tropical western Pacific in September and October 1998. During this period, biomass burning activity in Indonesia was quite weak. Mixing ratios of NOx and NOy in air masses that had crossed over the Indonesian islands within 3 days prior to the measurement (Indonesian air masses) were systematically higher than those in air masses originating from the central Pacific (tropical air masses). Sixty percent of the Indonesian air masses at 9-13 km (upper troposphere, UT) originated from the central Pacific. The differences in NOy mixing ratio between these two types of air masses were likely due to processes that occurred while air masses were over the Islands. Evidence presented in this paper suggests convection carries material from the surface, and NO is produced from lightning. At altitudes below 3 km (lower troposphere, LT), typical gradient of NOx and NOy to CO (dNOy/dCO and dNOx/dCO) was smaller than that in the biomass burning plumes and in urban areas, suggesting that neither source has a dominant influence. When the CO-NOx and CO-NOy relationships in the UT are compared to the reference relationships chosen for the LT, the NOx and NOy values are higher by 40-60 pptv (80% of NOx) and 70-100 pptv (50% of NOy). This difference is attributed to in situ production of NO by lightning. Analyses using air mass trajectories and geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS) derived cloud height data show that convection over land, which could be accompanied by lightning activity, increases the NOx values, while convection over the ocean generally lowers the NOx level. These processes are found to have a significant impact on the O3 production rate over the tropical western Pacific.

  1. Sources and components of ball lightning theory

    Nikitin, A. I.; Bychkov, V. L.; Nikitina, T. F.; Velichko, A. M.; Abakumov, V. I.


    The article describes the cases when ball lightning (BL) exhibited an extremely high specific energy store (up to 1010 J/m3), a presence of uncompensated electric charge (up to 10‑3 C) and an ability to generate high frequency pulses (up to 10 MW). It is shown that the realization of a combination of these properties of BL is possible if to consider it as a heterogeneous system consisting of a unipolarly charged core and a dielectric shell. In the electric field of the core charge, arises a force owing to the polarization of the shell that opposes the Coulomb repulsion force of the charges. BL models constructed according to the indicated principle are described: the electrodynamic model and the chemical-thermal model, which treats BL as a hollow sphere filled with steam. The requirement to take into account the main three properties of BL makes it possible to reduce the number of models of this natural phenomenon. Detailed cases of observations of high-energy lightning are analyzed.

  2. Assessing pediatric ileocolonic Crohn's disease activity based on global MR enterography scores

    Pomerri, Fabio; Zuliani, Monica; Giorgi, Benedetta; Muzzio, Pier Carlo [University of Padova, Department of Medicine-DIMED, Padova (Italy); Al Bunni, Faise [Rovigo Hospital, Radiology Unit, S. Maria della Misericordia, Rovigo (Italy); Guariso, Graziella; Gasparetto, Marco; Cananzi, Mara [University of Padova, Department of Women and Child Health, Padova (Italy)


    This study was aimed at correlating a magnetic resonance index of activity (MaRIA) and a magnetic resonance enterography global score (MEGS) with activity indexes in a paediatric population with Crohn's disease (CD). This retrospective study included 32 paediatric patients (median age 14.5 years, 18 male) with proven CD who underwent magnetic resonance enterography (MRE). A correlation analysis was performed on the MRE-based scores, the simplified endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD), the paediatric Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Based on PCDAI, comparison of both global MaRIA and MEGS was made between patients with mild and moderate/severe disease activity. Global MaRIA correlated with SES-CD (r = 0.70, p = 0.001) and PCDAI (r = 0.42, p = 0.016). MEGS correlated with PCDAI (r = 0.46, p = 0.007) and CRP levels (r = 0.35, p = 0.046). MEGS differed significantly (p = 0.027) between patients grouped by clinical disease severity. MRE-based global scores correlated with clinical indexes of CD activity. Therefore, they represent a potential useful tool to predict CD activity and severity, as well as a possible promising alternative to endoscopy, to monitor paediatric patients with CD during their follow-up. (orig.)

  3. Properties of Lightning Strike Protection Coatings

    Gagne, Martin

    Composite materials are being increasingly used by many industries. In the case of aerospace companies, those materials are installed on their aircraft to save weight, and thus, fuel costs. These aircraft are lighter, but the loss of electrical conductivity makes aircraft vulnerable to lightning strikes, which hit commercial aircrafts on average once per year. This makes lightning strike protection very important, and while current metallic expanded copper foils offer good protection, they increase the weight of composites. Therefore, under the CRIAQ COMP-502 project, a team of industrial partners and academic researchers are investigating new conductive coatings with the following characteristics: High electromagnetic protection, high mechanical resistance, good environmental protection, manufacturability and moderate cost. The main objectives of this thesis, as part of this project, was to determine the main characteristics, such as electrical and tribomechanical properties, of conductive coatings on composite panels. Their properties were also to be tested after destructive tests such as current injection and environmental testing. Bombardier Aerospace provided the substrate, a composite of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix, and the current commercial product, a surfacing film that includes an expanded copper foil used to compare with the other coatings. The conductive coatings fabricated by the students are: silver nanoparticles inside a binding matrix (PEDOT:PSS or a mix of Epoxy and PEDOT:PSS), silvered carbon nanofibers embedded in the surfacing film, cold sprayed tin, graphene oxide functionalized with silver nanowires, and electroless plated silver. Additionally as part of the project and thesis, magnetron sputtered aluminum coated samples were fabricated. There are three main types of tests to characterize the conductive coatings: electrical, mechanical and environmental. Electrical tests consist of finding the sheet resistance and specific resistivity

  4. Lightning protection of flap system for wind turbine blades

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Madsen, Søren Find

    of insulating, semi-conductive and conductive materials in their structure. For this reason, the installation of a CRTEF in a blade requires a careful assessment of risks related to lightning strikes. The study of the lightning effects in the CRTEF system comprised the analysis of the discharge attachment......, the current transmission, including the study of the induced electromagnetic fields, and the effects of degradation of the flap material due to the exposure to the lightning high electric fields. The main tools for this analysis were the simulation by the finite elements method and testing in the high voltage...

  5. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan


    Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  6. Transcranial stimulability of phosphenes by long lightning electromagnetic pulses

    Peer, J.; Kendl, A.


    The electromagnetic pulses of rare long (order of seconds) repetitive lightning discharges near strike point (order of 100 m) are analyzed and compared to magnetic fields applied in standard clinical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) practice. It is shown that the time-varying lightning magnetic fields and locally induced electric fields are in the same order of magnitude and frequency as those established in TMS experiments to study stimulated perception phenomena, like magnetophosphenes. Lightning electromagnetic pulse induced transcranial magnetic stimulation of phosphenes in the visual cortex is concluded to be a plausible interpretation of a large class of reports on luminous perceptions during thunderstorms.

  7. Transcranial stimulability of phosphenes by long lightning electromagnetic pulses

    Peer, J. [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kendl, A., E-mail: [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)


    The electromagnetic pulses of rare long (order of seconds) repetitive lightning discharges near strike point (order of 100 m) are analyzed and compared to magnetic fields applied in standard clinical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) practice. It is shown that the time-varying lightning magnetic fields and locally induced electric fields are in the same order of magnitude and frequency as those established in TMS experiments to study stimulated perception phenomena, like magnetophosphenes. Lightning electromagnetic pulse induced transcranial magnetic stimulation of phosphenes in the visual cortex is concluded to be a plausible interpretation of a large class of reports on luminous perceptions during thunderstorms.

  8. Developing empirical lightning cessation forecast guidance for the Kennedy Space Center

    Stano, Geoffrey T.

    The Kennedy Space Center in east Central Florida is one of the few locations in the country that issues lightning advisories. These forecasts are vital to the daily operations of the Space Center and take on even greater significance during launch operations. The U.S. Air Force's 45th Weather Squadron (45WS), who provides forecasts for the Space Center, has a good record of forecasting the initiation of lightning near their locations of special concern. However, the remaining problem is knowing when to cancel a lightning advisory. Without specific scientific guidelines detailing cessation activity, the Weather Squadron must keep advisories in place longer than necessary to ensure the safety of personnel and equipment. This unnecessary advisory time costs the Space Center millions of dollars in lost manpower each year. This research presents storm and environmental characteristics associated with lightning cessation that then are utilized to create lightning cessation guidelines for isolated thunderstorms for use by the 45WS during the warm season months of May through September. The research uses data from the Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) network at the Kennedy Space Center, which can observe intra-cloud and portions of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes. Supporting data from the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS), radar observations from the Melbourne WSR-88D, and Cape Canaveral morning radiosonde launches also are included. Characteristics of 116 thunderstorms comprising our dataset are presented. Most of these characteristics are based on LDAR-derived spark and flash data and have not been described previously. In particular, the first lightning activity is quantified as either cloud-to-ground (CG) or intra-cloud (IC). Only 10% of the storms in this research are found to initiate with a CG strike. Conversely, only 16% of the storms end with a CG strike. Another characteristic is the average horizontal extent of all the flashes

  9. Automated Storm Tracking and the Lightning Jump Algorithm Using GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) Proxy Data

    Schultz, Elise; Schultz, Christopher Joseph; Carey, Lawrence D.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Bateman, Monte


    This study develops a fully automated lightning jump system encompassing objective storm tracking, Geostationary Lightning Mapper proxy data, and the lightning jump algorithm (LJA), which are important elements in the transition of the LJA concept from a research to an operational based algorithm. Storm cluster tracking is based on a product created from the combination of a radar parameter (vertically integrated liquid, VIL), and lightning information (flash rate density). Evaluations showed that the spatial scale of tracked features or storm clusters had a large impact on the lightning jump system performance, where increasing spatial scale size resulted in decreased dynamic range of the system's performance. This framework will also serve as a means to refine the LJA itself to enhance its operational applicability. Parameters within the system are isolated and the system's performance is evaluated with adjustments to parameter sensitivity. The system's performance is evaluated using the probability of detection (POD) and false alarm ratio (FAR) statistics. Of the algorithm parameters tested, sigma-level (metric of lightning jump strength) and flash rate threshold influenced the system's performance the most. Finally, verification methodologies are investigated. It is discovered that minor changes in verification methodology can dramatically impact the evaluation of the lightning jump system.

  10. Coupling Strength and System Size Induce Firing Activity of Globally Coupled Neural Network

    Wei Duqu; Luo Xiaoshu; Zou Yanli


    We investigate how firing activity of globally coupled neural network depends on the coupling strength C and system size N. Network elements are described by space-clamped FitzHugh-Nagumo (SCFHN) neurons with the values of parameters at which no firing activity occurs. It is found that for a given appropriate coupling strength, there is an intermediate range of system size where the firing activity of globally coupled SCFHN neural network is induced and enhanced. On the other hand, for a given intermediate system size level, there exists an optimal value of coupling strength such that the intensity of firing activity reaches its maximum. These phenomena imply that the coupling strength and system size play a vital role in firing activity of neural network

  11. Weather Avoidance Guidelines for NASA Global Hawk High-Altitude UAS

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Zipser, Edward J.; Velden, Chris; Monette, Sarah; Heymsfield, Gerry; Braun, Scott; Newman, Paul; Black, Pete; Black, Michael; Dunion, Jason


    NASA operates two Global Hawk unmanned aircraft systems for Earth Science research projects. In particular, they are used in the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) project during 2012, 2013, and 2014 to take measurements from the environment around tropical cyclones, and from directly above tropical cyclones. There is concern that strict adherence to the weather avoidance rules used in 2012 may sacrifice the ability to observe important science targets. We have proposed modifications to these weather avoidance rules that we believe will improve the ability to observe science targets without compromising aircraft safety. The previous guidelines, used in 2012, specified: Do not approach thunderstorms within 25 nm during flight at FL500 or below. When flying above FL500: Do not approach reported lightning within 25NM in areas where cloud tops are reported at FL500 or higher. Aircraft should maintain at least 10000 ft vertical separation from reported lightning if cloud tops are below FL500. No over-flight of cumulus tops higher than FL500. No flight into forecast or reported icing conditions. No flight into forecast or reported moderate or severe turbulence Based on past experience with high-altitude flights over tropical cyclones, we have recommended changing this guidance to: Do not approach thunderstorms within 25 nm during flight at FL500 or below. Aircraft should maintain at least 5000 ft vertical separation from significant convective cloud tops except: a) When cloud tops above FL500: In the event of reported significant lightning activity or indicators of significant overshooting tops, do not approach within 10-25 nm, depending on pilot discretion and advice from Mission Scientist. b) When cloud tops are below FL500, maintain 10000 ft separation from reported significant lightning or indicators of significant overshooting tops. No flight into forecasted or reported icing conditions. No flight into forecasted or reported moderate or severe turbulence The

  12. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Compression-after-Impact Test of Nano-Particles-Coated CFRP Damaged by Simulated Lightning Strikes

    Shin, Je Ha; Kwon, Oh Yang; Seo, Seong Wook [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Nanoparticles-coated and impact-damaged carbon-fiber reinforced plastics(CFRP) laminates were tested under compression-after-impact(CAI) mode and the propagation of damage due to compressive loading has been monitored by acoustic emission(AE). The impact damage was induced not by mechanical loading but by a simulated lightning strike. CFRP laminates were made of carbon prepregs prepared by coating of conductive nano-particles directly on the fibers and the coupons were subjected to simulated lightning strikes with a high voltage/current impulse of 10{approx}40 kA within a few microseconds. The effects of nano-particles coating and the degree of damage induced by the simulated lightning strikes on the AE activities were examined, and the relationship between the compressive residual strength and AE behavior has been evaluated in terms of AE event counts and the onset of AE activity with the compressive loading. The degree of impact damage was also measured in terns of damage area by using ultrasonic C-scan images. From the results assessed during the CAI tests of damaged CFRP showed that AE monitoring appeared to be very useful to differentiate the degree of damage hence the mechanical integrity of composite structures damaged by lightning strikes

  13. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Compression-after-Impact Test of Nano-Particles-Coated CFRP Damaged by Simulated Lightning Strikes

    Shin, Je Ha; Kwon, Oh Yang; Seo, Seong Wook


    Nanoparticles-coated and impact-damaged carbon-fiber reinforced plastics(CFRP) laminates were tested under compression-after-impact(CAI) mode and the propagation of damage due to compressive loading has been monitored by acoustic emission(AE). The impact damage was induced not by mechanical loading but by a simulated lightning strike. CFRP laminates were made of carbon prepregs prepared by coating of conductive nano-particles directly on the fibers and the coupons were subjected to simulated lightning strikes with a high voltage/current impulse of 10∼40 kA within a few microseconds. The effects of nano-particles coating and the degree of damage induced by the simulated lightning strikes on the AE activities were examined, and the relationship between the compressive residual strength and AE behavior has been evaluated in terms of AE event counts and the onset of AE activity with the compressive loading. The degree of impact damage was also measured in terns of damage area by using ultrasonic C-scan images. From the results assessed during the CAI tests of damaged CFRP showed that AE monitoring appeared to be very useful to differentiate the degree of damage hence the mechanical integrity of composite structures damaged by lightning strikes

  14. A review of the global relationship among freshwater fish, autotrophic activity, and regional climate

    Deines, Andrew M.; Bunnell, David B.; Rogers, Mark W.; Beard, T. Douglas; Taylor, William W.


    The relationship between autotrophic activity and freshwater fish populations is an important consideration for ecologists describing trophic structure in aquatic communities, fisheries managers tasked with increasing sustainable fisheries development, and fish farmers seeking to maximize production. Previous studies of the empirical relationships of autotrophic activity and freshwater fish yield have found positive relationships but were limited by small sample sizes, small geographic scopes, and the inability to compare patterns among many types of measurement techniques. Individual studies and reviews have also lacked consistent consideration of regional climate factors which may inform relationships between fisheries and autotrophic activity. We compiled data from over 700 freshwater systems worldwide and used meta-analysis and linear models to develop a comprehensive global synthesis between multiple metrics of autotrophic activity, fisheries, and climate indicators. Our results demonstrate that multiple metrics of fish (i.e., catch per unit effort, yield, and production) increase with autotrophic activity across a variety of fisheries. At the global scale additional variation in this positive relationship can be ascribed to regional climate differences (i.e., temperature and precipitation) across systems. Our results provide a method and proof-of-concept for assessing inland fisheries production at the global scale, where current estimates are highly uncertain, and may therefore inform the continued sustainable use of global inland fishery resources.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variability and Trends in 2001-2016 Global Fire Activity

    Earl, Nick; Simmonds, Ian


    Fire regimes across the globe have great spatial and temporal variability, and these are influence by many factors including anthropogenic management, climate, and vegetation types. Here we utilize the satellite-based "active fire" product, from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors, to statistically analyze variability and trends in fire activity from the global to regional scales. We split up the regions by economic development, region/geographical land use, clusters of fire-abundant areas, or by religious/cultural influence. Weekly cycle tests are conducted to highlight and quantify part of the anthropogenic influence on fire regime across the world. We find that there is a strong statistically significant decline in 2001-2016 active fires globally linked to an increase in net primary productivity observed in northern Africa, along with global agricultural expansion and intensification, which generally reduces fire activity. There are high levels of variability, however. The large-scale regions exhibit either little change or decreasing in fire activity except for strong increasing trends in India and China, where rapid population increase is occurring, leading to agricultural intensification and increased crop residue burning. Variability in Canada has been linked to a warming global climate leading to a longer growing season and higher fuel loads. Areas with a strong weekly cycle give a good indication of where fire management is being applied most extensively, for example, the United States, where few areas retain a natural fire regime.

  16. Electrostatic protection of the solar power satellite and rectenna. Part 2: Lightning protection of the rectenna


    Computer simulations and laboratory tests were used to evaluate the hazard posed by lightning flashes to ground on the Solar Power Satellite rectenna and to make recommendations on a lightning protection system for the rectenna. The distribution of lightning over the lower 48 of the continental United States was determined, as were the interactions of lightning with the rectenna and the modes in which those interactions could damage the rectenna. Lightning protection was both required and feasible. Several systems of lightning protection were considered and evaluated. These included two systems that employed lightning rods of different lengths and placed on top of the rectenna's billboards and a third, distribution companies; it consists of short lightning rods all along the length of each billboard that are connected by a horizontal wire above the billboard. The distributed lightning protection system afforded greater protection than the other systems considered and was easier to integrate into the rectenna's structural design.

  17. Characteristics of Lightning within Electrified Snowfall Events using Total Lightning Measurements

    Schultz, C. J.; Bruning, E. C.; Lang, T. J.; Kuhlman, K. M.


    Lightning within heavy snowfall indicates the presence of heavy snowfall rates. Most studies within the literature examine this phenomenon using ground based networks that are primarily designed for identifying cloud to ground flashes. Thus, very little study of the three dimensional structure of the lightning flashes within heavy snowfall has been accomplished. Herein, total lightning mapping arrays, interferometers and ground based networks like the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) are utilized to document the characteristics of these flashes, including flash size, polarity, flash initiation location and inferred charge structure. A total of six events are examined, resulting in a total of approximately 80 flashes. Both individual case studies and overall population statistics will be used to characterize flashes within this winter environment. Many of these flashes are found to initiate from tall objects like television and radio communication towers, and come to ground in multiple locations along their path, resulting in one LMA derived flash containing multiple NLDN identified flashes. Cloud-to-ground flashes of both polarities are noted within the 80 flash sample. In one case, 3 separate flashes which resulted in ground flashes of both polarities were observed coming out of the same overall charge structure. This structure exhibited a highly sloped nature in the LMA data from east to west, and both +IC and -IC components of flashes were observed by the NLDN in the same region where the flashes initiated. A decrease in flash size is noted with time in at least three of these events due to weaker updraft (compared to their summertime thunderstorm counter parts) and smaller available of supercooled liquid water as inferred through trends in radar observations. These limiting factors are hypothesized to result in slower charging rates, and smaller flash sizes with time. Several flashes also exhibit sloped structures that match reflectivity

  18. Lightning related fatalities in livestock: veterinary expertise and the added value of lightning location data.

    Vanneste, E; Weyens, P; Poelman, D R; Chiers, K; Deprez, P; Pardon, B


    Although lightning strike is an important cause of sudden death in livestock on pasture and among the main reasons why insurance companies consult an expert veterinarian, scientific information on this subject is limited. The aim of the present study was to provide objective information on the circumstantial evidence and pathological findings in lightning related fatalities (LRF), based on a retrospective analysis of 410 declarations, examined by a single expert veterinarian in Flanders, Belgium, from 1998 to 2012. Predictive logistic models for compatibility with LRF were constructed based on anamnestic, environmental and pathological factors. In addition, the added value of lightning location data (LLD) was evaluated. Pathognomonic singe lesions were present in 84/194 (43%) confirmed reports. Factors which remained significantly associated with LRF in the multivariable model were age, presence of a tree or open water in the near surroundings, tympany and presence of feed in the oral cavity at the time of investigation. This basic model had a sensitivity (Se) of 53.8% and a specificity (Sp) of 88.2%. Relying only on LLD to confirm LRF in livestock resulted in a high Se (91.3%), but a low Sp (41.2%), leading to a high probability that a negative case would be wrongly accepted as an LRF. The best results were obtained when combining the model based on the veterinary expert investigation (circumstantial evidence and pathological findings), together with the detection of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning at the time and location of death (Se 89.1%; Sp 66.7%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Post launch calibration and testing of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper on GOES-R satellite

    Rafal, Marc; Clarke, Jared T.; Cholvibul, Ruth W.


    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 μs) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.

  20. Global Asymptotic Stability of Impulsive CNNs with Proportional Delays and Partially Lipschitz Activation Functions

    Xueli Song


    Full Text Available This paper researches global asymptotic stability of impulsive cellular neural networks with proportional delays and partially Lipschitz activation functions. Firstly, by means of the transformation vi(t=ui(et, the impulsive cellular neural networks with proportional delays are transformed into impulsive cellular neural networks with the variable coefficients and constant delays. Secondly, we provide novel criteria for the uniqueness and exponential stability of the equilibrium point of the latter by relative nonlinear measure and prove that the exponential stability of equilibrium point of the latter implies the asymptotic stability of one of the former. We furthermore obtain a sufficient condition to the uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point of the former. Our method does not require conventional assumptions on global Lipschitz continuity, boundedness, and monotonicity of activation functions. Our results are generalizations and improvements of some existing ones. Finally, an example and its simulations are provided to illustrate the correctness of our analysis.