WorldWideScience

Sample records for global knowledge sharing

  1. When global virtual teams share knowledge

    Klitmøller, Anders; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Technological developments and internationalization have made virtual communication a central part of everyday life in many larger organizations. In recent years this trend has been intensified by travel-budget cuts imposed by the global financial crisis. Accordingly, the use of virtual media...... for internal knowledge sharing is now more important than ever before. Extant studies have provided useful theories and empirical documentation on how to manage global virtual teams. However, no prior research has examined the interaction of media type with the relation between culture/language and canonical....../equivocal knowledge sharing. This is an important omission because cultural and linguistic variations are known to have a great effect on knowledge sharing. We use ethnographic field-study methodology for an exploratory examination of the effects of culture, shared language commonality and media choice on knowledge...

  2. Knowledge Sharing Across Global-Local Boundaries

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....

  3. Establishing Shared Knowledge about Globalization in Asia and the Arctic

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Graczyk, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the role of knowledge in relations between Arctic communities and Asia (the Arctic Council observer states: China, India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea). We argue that mutual and shared knowledge between Arctic communities and Asia is necessary for local benefits and comprehensively su...... sustainable development for Arctic communities under globalization....

  4. Global Mental Health: sharing and synthesizing knowledge for sustainable development.

    O'Donnell, K; O'Donnell, M Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Global mental health (GMH) is a growing domain with an increasing capacity to positively impact the world community's efforts for sustainable development and wellbeing. Sharing and synthesizing GMH and multi-sectoral knowledge, the focus of this paper, is an important way to support these global efforts. This paper consolidates some of the most recent and relevant 'context resources' [global multi-sector (GMS) materials, emphasizing world reports on major issues] and 'core resources' (GMH materials, including newsletters, texts, conferences, training, etc.). In addition to offering a guided index of materials, it presents an orientation framework (global integration) to help make important information as accessible and useful as possible. Mental health colleagues are encouraged to stay current in GMH and global issues, to engage in the emerging agendas for sustainable development and wellbeing, and to intentionally connect and contribute across sectors. Colleagues in all sectors are encouraged to do likewise, and to take advantage of the wealth of shared and synthesized knowledge in the GMH domain, such as the materials featured in this paper.

  5. Empowering Faculty to Develop and Share Global Knowledge

    Harrison, David

    2014-01-01

    As colleges seek to increase global knowledge within its students, it is important that faculty members are also offered opportunities to increase their own knowledge of global issues. This chapter discusses faculty development models for seminars abroad and how these seminars encourage the development of unique global study programs.

  6. Sharing knowledge

    2009-07-01

    The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

  7. Knowledge Sharing

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  8. A systematic review of knowledge sharing challenges and practices in global software development

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Shahin, Mojtaba; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    the data extracted from the reviewed primary studies. Results: Our findings revealed that knowledge sharing challenges and practices in GSD could be classi- fied in 6 main themes: management, team structure, work processes/practices, team cognition, social attributes and technology. In regard to contextual......Context: Global Software Development (GSD) presents significant challenges to share and understand knowledge required for developing software. Organizations are expected to implement appropriate practices to address knowledge-sharing challenges in GSD. With the growing literature on GSD and its...... and practices fall under the theme of “work practices”. (c) The technology related knowledge-sharing challenges are the least reported; we discussed the available technologies for sup- porting knowledge sharing needs in GSD. (d) The organizational contextual information is missing from a large number of studies...

  9. Factors Impacting Knowledge Sharing

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors affecting knowledge sharing at the R&D center of a Western MNE in China. The paper employs qualitative methodology and is based on the action research and case study research techniques. The findings of the paper advance our understanding...... about factors that affect knowledge sharing. The main emphasis is given to the discussion on how to improve knowledge sharing in global R&D organizations....

  10. Knowledge Sharing in Knowledge-Intensive Firms

    Gupta, Akshey; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study of the knowledge-sharing difficulties experienced by three departments in a knowledge-intensive firm. The case organization is a global consulting firm that has been on the forefront of knowledge management and has won several knowledge management related international accla...

  11. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co...

  12. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... distinct situations of exchange denominated organizational exchange yielding extrinsic rewards, organizational exchange yielding intrinsic rewards, financial exchange, and social exchange. The paper argues that each situation of exchange has distinct assumptions about individual behaviour...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  13. Does Knowledge Sharing Pay?

    Mahnke, Volker; Pedersen, Torben; Venzin, Markus

    are developed using a simultaneous equation model applied to a unique dataset encompassing a German MNC, HeidelbergCement. Enablers and impediments of knowledge outflows are assessed in order to explain why subsidiaries share their knowledge with other MNC units. Implications are examined by studying the link......This empirical paper explores knowledge outflow from MNC subsidiaries and its impact on the MNC performance. We develop and test hypotheses derived from literature on MNC knowledge flows integrated with the perspective of knowledge-creating, self-interested MNC subsidiaries. The hypotheses...... between knowledge outflows and subsidiary performance. Our findings suggest that knowledge outflows increase a subsidiary's performance only up to a certain point and that too much knowledge sharing may be detrimental to the contributing subsidiary's performance....

  14. Knowledge sharing through social media: Investigating trends and technologies in a global marketing and advertising research company

    Dina Adamovic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate social media technology trends in Nielsen – a global information and measurement company – and to establish how these technologies can help the company to create a knowledge-sharing culture.Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate trends in knowledge-sharing technologies in Nielsen.Method: The researchers distributed semi-structured questionnaires to a sample of employees in Nielsen’s Television Audience Measurement Department. They also conducted interviews with specific employees in this department to gain a better understanding of employees’ attitudes toward, and perceptions of, the use of social media tools for creating a knowledgesharing culture at Nielsen. The researchers validated the data to see whether it could support the research and used triangulation to create a holistic view of the data they received from the questionnaires.Results: The findings of the study revealed that respondents had a positive attitude to sharing knowledge with one another through using social media tools. However, some respondents thought that technology, in general, was ‘the tree of good and evil’. The survey findings showed that Nielsen did have social media tools. However, not all employees were aware of these tools or were willing to use the tools to share knowledge. This study highlighted the possible advantages of the social media for sharing knowledge and how Nielsen could use the tools more widely.Conclusion: In order for a knowledge sharing culture to thrive at Nielsen, its employees need to engage more with social media tools in their business practices. 

  15. Global resource sharing

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  16. Globalization and Risk Sharing

    Jaume Ventura; Fernando A. Broner

    2006-01-01

    We study the effects of globalization on risk sharing and welfare. Like the previous literature, we assume that governments cannot commit to enforce the repayment of debts owed by their citizens. Unlike the previous literature, we assume that governments cannot discriminate between domestic and foreign creditors when enforcing debt payments. This creates novel interactions between domestic and international trade in assets. (i) Increases in domestic trade raise the benefits of enforcement and...

  17. Unveiling the Knowledge Sharing Culture

    Hendriks, P.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that organisation culture affects how knowledge processes such as knowledge-sharing evolve. Despite the growing attention to the aspects of culture, the knowledge management debate has not paid systematic attention to the assessment or measurement of a knowledge-sharing

  18. 'Sciencenet'--towards a global search and share engine for all scientific knowledge.

    Lütjohann, Dominic S; Shah, Asmi H; Christen, Michael P; Richter, Florian; Knese, Karsten; Liebel, Urban

    2011-06-15

    Modern biological experiments create vast amounts of data which are geographically distributed. These datasets consist of petabytes of raw data and billions of documents. Yet to the best of our knowledge, a search engine technology that searches and cross-links all different data types in life sciences does not exist. We have developed a prototype distributed scientific search engine technology, 'Sciencenet', which facilitates rapid searching over this large data space. By 'bringing the search engine to the data', we do not require server farms. This platform also allows users to contribute to the search index and publish their large-scale data to support e-Science. Furthermore, a community-driven method guarantees that only scientific content is crawled and presented. Our peer-to-peer approach is sufficiently scalable for the science web without performance or capacity tradeoff. The free to use search portal web page and the downloadable client are accessible at: http://sciencenet.kit.edu. The web portal for index administration is implemented in ASP.NET, the 'AskMe' experiment publisher is written in Python 2.7, and the backend 'YaCy' search engine is based on Java 1.6.

  19. Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its...... antecedents: attitude toward knowledge sharing, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In addition, we consider managerial interventions (governance mechanisms) that managers can employ to influence the identified antecedents and thereby govern individual knowledge sharing behavior. We test...... a positive effect on subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, respectively....

  20. Employees choice of knowledge sharing tools in a global firm : a study of MNC employee's choice of formal or informal knowledge sharing tools

    Loly, Linn Karine; Breilid, Olav Aleksander Simensen

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgave (MSc) in Master of Science in International Management, Handelshøyskolen BI, 2014 Due to changes in the competitive landscape and increasing globalisation, resources and the most effective use of these has become the key to competitive advantage for most multinational firms. As employees are in the possession of unique knowledge and expertise, employees have become an important resource for firms, and thus efficient transfer of knowledge to other part of the or...

  1. Knowledge sharing through social media: Investigating trends and technologies in a global marketing and advertising research company

    Dina Adamovic

    2012-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate trends in knowledge-sharing technologies in Nielsen. Method: The researchers distributed semi-structured questionnaires to a sample of employees in Nielsen’s Television Audience Measurement Department. They also conducted interviews with specific employees in this department to gain a better understanding of employees’ attitudes toward, and perceptions of, the use of social media tools for creating a knowledgesharing culture at Nielsen. The researchers validated the data to see whether it could support the research and used triangulation to create a holistic view of the data they received from the questionnaires. Results: The findings of the study revealed that respondents had a positive attitude to sharing knowledge with one another through using social media tools. However, some respondents thought that technology, in general, was ‘the tree of good and evil’. The survey findings showed that Nielsen did have social media tools. However, not all employees were aware of these tools or were willing to use the tools to share knowledge. This study highlighted the possible advantages of the social media for sharing knowledge and how Nielsen could use the tools more widely. Conclusion: In order for a knowledge sharing culture to thrive at Nielsen, its employees need to engage more with social media tools in their business practices.

  2. Knowledge sharing in industrial research

    Berends, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, the field of organization studies has increasingly focused on knowledge and knowledge processes in organizations. This thesis describes a study of one of those processes, knowledge sharing, in the context of industrial research. Though the attention for knowledge in

  3. A Case Study of the Global Group for Sharing Knowledge and Efforts in Human Resources within the Nuclear Industry

    Thomas, C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: One of the main conclusions from the IAEA’s HRD Conference in 2014 was that people and organisations in the global nuclear industry could cooperate more in sharing information and efforts. This was an inspiring conclusion, and there seemed an especially great opportunity for such sharing of information and efforts related to the attraction, recruitment, development and retention of people within the nuclear workforce. Founding members include people from the IAEA, WNA, WANO, EDF and OPG amongst others, the global working group for Human Resource matters aimed at “Building and Sustaining a Competent Nuclear Workforce” was established. This global working group is free to join and is open to anyone concerned with Building and Sustaining a Competent NuclearWorkforce. The objectives of the group are to share useful information, find others with similar objectives to cooperate with, ask questions, share opinions and crucially to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. The group already has 160 members from more than 15 countries and is currently hosted as a group on the LinkedIn website. The vision for the group is that it will become an invaluable resource for people across the world in the nuclear industry for sharing information and efforts. (author

  4. Knowledge Sharing and National Culture

    Michailova, Snejina; Hutchings, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Much of the knowledge management literature tends to assume a rather universalistunderstanding of knowledge sharing. Yet, attitudes to knowledge sharing as well as actualknowledge-sharing behaviour depend on conditions that vary across institutional and culturalenvironments. This paper contributes...... to the knowledge-sharing literature by specificallydiscussing the interplay between knowledge-sharing and national cultural factors in the context oftransition countries. The paper engages in a comparative examination of two major transitionsocieties, China and Russia, and contributes to understanding...... the complexity of differencesbetween transition economies. The paper is written as a set of theoretical arguments andpropositions that is designed to elucidate more nuanced ways of thinking about knowledgesharing in China and Russia. We argue that in the case of China and Russia, verticalindividualism...

  5. KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN PARTNERING

    Koch, Christian; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    . The diversity and disjunct feature of the practices is a condition of possibility of knowledge handling as it is a prerequisite for the synthesis of various forms of knowledge in the building construct. Here an orchestrated combination of relationbased interaction with boundary objects and brokers, requisite......This paper adopts practicebased theory for understanding interorganisational knowledge work and extents it with a discussion of the role of redundancy. The paper presents a case study of a project partnership in construction using the partnering concept. The project group responsible...... for the building design counts members from different companies like architects, engineers, and contractors. The paper discusses three central mechanisms for coordinating knowledge in a complex construction project, redundancy, relations, and governance. The knowledge relations is conceptualised through focusing...

  6. Akuisisi dan Budaya Knowledge Sharing

    Nuril Kusumawardhani Soeprapto Putri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Large companies which are experiencing barriers in innovation often take a radical step to acquire knowledge, namely acquisition. Though innovation is not the only reason, acquisition will result in the company wishes to achieve competitive advantage affected by the creation of ideas, creativity and innovation. The three points can be achieved more easily when the knowledge sharing within the organization / company runs well. However, the acquisition maybe impacts as a counter-attack for the knowledge sharing culture both in the acquisitor and and company which obtains the acquisition. Therefore, a key to succeed the acquisition is a sharing culture among individuals within a company that runs well or even better. Individuals from the acquisitor and those of the company that obtains the acquisition can adapt to each other and have confidence in order not to hinder them to share knowledge. This study discusses in detail the potential impacts of an acquisition upon a knowledge sharing culture in a company. 

  7. Knowledge Management for Shared Awareness

    2013-05-01

    knowledge derived from experiences that can be communicated through mechanisms such as storytelling , debriefing etc., or summarized in databases...patterned on the neural architecture of the brain . Neural nets often consist of a large number of nodes connected by links that transmit signals...that allow speech generation by a computer. Storytelling : The use of stories in organizations as a way of sharing knowledge and helping learning

  8. Knowledge sharing in global health research - the impact, uptake and cost of open access to scholarly literature.

    Smith, Elise; Haustein, Stefanie; Mongeon, Philippe; Shu, Fei; Ridde, Valéry; Larivière, Vincent

    2017-08-29

    In 1982, the Annals of Virology published a paper showing how Liberia has a highly endemic potential of Ebola warning health authorities of the risk for potential outbreaks; this journal is only available by subscription. Limiting the accessibility of such knowledge may have reduced information propagation toward public health actors who were indeed surprised by and unprepared for the 2014 epidemic. Open access (OA) publication can allow for increased access to global health research (GHR). Our study aims to assess the use, cost and impact of OA diffusion in the context of GHR. A total of 3366 research articles indexed under the Medical Heading Subject Heading "Global Health" published between 2010 and 2014 were retrieved using PubMed to (1) quantify the uptake of various types of OA, (2) estimate the article processing charges (APCs) of OA, and (3) analyse the relationship between different types of OA, their scholarly impact and gross national income per capita of citing countries. Most GHR publications are not available directly on the journal's website (69%). Further, 60.8% of researchers do not self-archive their work even when it is free and in keeping with journal policy. The total amount paid for APCs was estimated at US$1.7 million for 627 papers, with authors paying on average US$2732 per publication; 94% of APCs were paid to journals owned by the ten most prominent publication houses from high-income countries. Researchers from low- and middle-income countries are generally citing less expensive types of OA, while researchers in high-income countries are citing the most expensive OA. Although OA may help in building global research capacity in GHR, the majority of publications remain subscription only. It is logical and cost-efficient for institutions and researchers to promote OA by self-archiving publications of restricted access, as it not only allows research to be cited by a broader audience, it also augments citation rates. Although OA does not

  9. Information Sharing and Knowledge Sharing as Communicative Activities

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper elaborates the picture of information sharing and knowledge sharing as forms of communicative activity. Method: A conceptual analysis was made to find out how researchers have approached information sharing and knowledge sharing from the perspectives of transmission and ritual. The findings are based on the analysis of one…

  10. Towards Modern Collaborative Knowledge Sharing Systems

    Świrski, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The development of new technologies still accelerates. As a result the requirement of easy access to high quality information is essential in modern scientific society. We believe that new cloud-based online system will replace the old system of books and magazines in the future. This is mainly because contemporary system of journal and conference publications appears to be outdated, especially in such domains as computer science, because process of publishing of an article takes too much time. In this book a new approach of sharing knowledge is proposed. The main idea behind this new approach is to take advantage of collaboration techniques used in industry to share the knowledge and build teams which work on the same subject at different locations. This will allow to accelerate the exchange of information between scientists and allow to build global teams of researchers who deal with the same scientific subjects. Furthermore, an easy access to structured knowledge will facilitate cross domain cooperation. T...

  11. Organisational Diversity and Knowledge Sharing

    Lauring, Jakob; Jonasson, Charlotte

    productivity and diversity management - that is not engaging in a discussion of how and why there could be potential benefits or difficulties. In this paper we will describe and analyse some of the complications multicultural organisations can experience in regard to knowledge sharing......The last years' focus on diversity management has gone from social responsibility to arguments for the competitive advantages, called the business case. It has been argued that diversity management can increase organisational efficiency, improve on moral, and give better access to new market...... segments. But a substantial critique has recently been launched at the arguments for the business case for diversity, especially in the employment of knowledge synergies. Most studies that support or reject the business case argument have limited their research to establish a link between organisational...

  12. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers. 

  13. Communicating shared knowledge in infancy.

    Egyed, Katalin; Király, Ildikó; Gergely, György

    2013-07-01

    Object-directed emotion expressions provide two types of information: They can convey the expressers' person-specific subjective disposition toward objects, or they can be used communicatively as referential symbolic devices to convey culturally shared valence-related knowledge about referents that can be generalized to other individuals. By presenting object-directed emotion expressions in communicative versus noncommunicative contexts, we demonstrated that 18-month-olds can flexibly assign either a person-centered interpretation or an object-centered interpretation to referential emotion displays. When addressed by ostensive signals of communication, infants generalized their object-centered interpretation of the emotion display to other individuals as well, whereas in the noncommunicative emotion-expression context, they attributed to the emoting agent a person-specific subjective dispositional attitude without generalizing this attribution as relevant to other individuals. The findings indicate that, as proposed by natural pedagogy theory, infants are prepared to learn shared cultural knowledge from nonverbal communicative demonstrations addressed to them at a remarkably early age.

  14. Relational models for knowledge sharing behavior

    Boer, N.I.; Berends, J.J.; Baalen, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the relational dimension of knowledge sharing behavior by proposing a comprehensive theoretical framework for studying knowledge sharing in organizations. This theoretical framework originates from (Fiske, 1991) and (Fiske, 1992) Relational Models Theory (RMT). The RMT

  15. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-09-01

    Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance. Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’. Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.

  16. Knowledge sharing at the World Bank

    Denning, S.

    2004-01-01

    The World Bank is thus one of many organizations that have recognized that knowledge sharing is a central driver of the 21st century economy. The World Bank experience replicates what has been learned in many organizations that have attempted to implement an organization-wide program over the last eight years. Here are ten main features of that experience. 1. Knowledge sharing requires seven basic elements: strategy of knowledge management; organizing for knowledge management; budget of knowledge management; incentives for knowledge management; communities of practice; technology of knowledge management; measurement of KM strategy. 2. Communities of practice are the key to knowledge sharing. 3. Virtual community members also need physical interactions. 4. Passion is the driving force behind communities of practice. 5. Tacit knowledge can be at least partially captured. 6. Knowledge sharing has an inside-out and outside-in dynamic. 7. Storytelling is needed to ignite knowledge sharing. 8. Knowledge sharing is at some point confused with IT. 9. Vibrant communities of practice attract new talents. 10. Organizations are in different stages of knowledge sharing

  17. Successful Architectural Knowledge Sharing: Beware of Emotions

    Poort, Eltjo R.; Pramono, Agung; Perdeck, Michiel; Clerc, Viktor; van Vliet, Hans

    This chapter presents the analysis and key findings of a survey on architectural knowledge sharing. The responses of 97 architects working in the Dutch IT Industry were analyzed by correlating practices and challenges with project size and success. Impact mechanisms between project size, project success, and architectural knowledge sharing practices and challenges were deduced based on reasoning, experience and literature. We find that architects run into numerous and diverse challenges sharing architectural knowledge, but that the only challenges that have a significant impact are the emotional challenges related to interpersonal relationships. Thus, architects should be careful when dealing with emotions in knowledge sharing.

  18. GLOBALIZATION IMPACT ON UKRAINIAN MARKET OF SHARES

    O. Zotsenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of globalization on the Ukrainian market of shares. Main trends of globalization of world share market are analyzed. The study highlights key elements of the operating share markets of the world leading countries. The research investigates main factors that affect on the level of national market of shares. The findings trace out a number of problems that hinder and distort the role of the Ukrainian share market in capital allocation.

  19. How to share tacit nuclear knowledge?

    Rintala, N.; Kuronen, T.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear organisations are struggling to preserve their expertise and knowledge despite the widespread retirement of nuclear experts in the near future. Already, NPPs have noticed that the retiring experts have tacit knowledge, which is difficult to codify and/or share during formal training. Tacit knowledge sharing requires methods that are based on social interaction, either in one-on-one situations or in groups. This paper describes 23 methods for sharing tacit knowledge. Critical tacit knowledge should be identified at individual level, sub-unit level and NPP level. Different methods for sharing the tacit knowledge can be implemented, as employees and organisational units may have different preferences in terms of how they want to share expertise. (author)

  20. The Cross-Cultural Knowledge Sharing Challenge

    Persson, John Stouby

    2013-01-01

    Cross-cultural offshoring in software development challenges effective knowledge sharing. While research has suggested temporarily co-locating participants to address this challenge, few studies are available on what knowledge sharing practices emerge over time when co-locating cross-cultural sof...

  1. Knowledge sharing in diverse organizations

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    the fact that organisations which can make full use of their collective knowledge and expertise could be expected to be more efficient, effective and creative. Therefore, a survey was directed towards 16 diverse academic departments in three large universities in Denmark, and 489 academics took part...... of these findings for the management of knowledge in intensive diverse organisations are discussed in detail....

  2. Human resource management practices stimulating knowledge sharing

    Matošková Jana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The major goal of the paper was to develop a theoretical framework that conceptualizes the indirect impact on human resource management practice on knowledge sharing in the organization. In the current competitive environment, the ability to use knowledge assets and to continuously renovate it is required for organizational success. Therefore, the field of human resource management should dedicate great effort to understanding how to enhance the knowledge flows within the organization. Theoretical indications were provided about HRM practices that influence the quality and quantity of knowledge sharing within an organization. Further, a conceptual model of relations between HRM practices and factors influencing knowledge sharing within an organization was introduced. It is supposed that HRM practices have direct impacts on personality traits of employees, organizational culture, characteristics of managers, and instruments used for knowledge sharing. Subsequently, these factors have direct effects on the perceived intensity of knowledge sharing. The paper offers 12 testable propositions for the indirect relation between HRM practices and knowledge sharing in the organization. The suggested model could assist future research to examine the influence of HRM practices upon managing knowledge is a more complex way. Via a theoretical contribution to the debate on the influence on HRM practices upon managing knowledge, the study contributes to further research development in this field.

  3. Knowledge-Sharing Hostility and Governance Mechanisms

    Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina; Minbaeva, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims at further developing and empirically examining the concept of knowledge-sharing hostility. It seeks to analyze reasons for hoarding knowledge, reasons for rejecting external knowledge, and attitudes towards mistakes, as well as the influence of these factors on actual k...

  4. Describing functional requirements for knowledge sharing communities

    Garrett, Sandra; Caldwell, Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Human collaboration in distributed knowledge sharing groups depends on the functionality of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support performance. Since many of these dynamic environments are constrained by time limits, knowledge must be shared efficiently by adapting the level of information detail to the specific situation. This paper focuses on the process of knowledge and context sharing with and without mediation by ICT, as well as issues to be resolved when determining appropriate ICT channels. Both technology-rich and non-technology examples are discussed.

  5. Why share knowledge? The influence of ICT on the motivation for knowledge sharing

    Hendriks, P.H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) can enhance knowledge sharing by lowering temporal and spatial barriers between knowledge workers, and improving access to information about knowledge. Looking at ICT for knowledge sharing in this light, however, has limited value, because it ignores

  6. Knowledge Sharing and R&D Investment

    Sarkar, Abhirup

    We consider an R&D race between two symmetric firms. The game consists of two stages. In the first stage, firms non-cooperatively decide upon their levels of investment in R&D which, in turn, determine the Poisson probabilities of their subsequent sucesses. In the second stage, they engage in a Nash bargaining game to share their knowledge. We show that the firms over-invest and earn lower profits if knowledge sharing is possible compared to the situation where it is not. Hence, before the first stage, if the firms are given the option of precommitting to no knowledge sharing, they will do so and be better off. The society, of course, would be better off with full knowledge sharing.

  7. Knowledge Shared: Participatory Evaluation in Development ...

    Knowledge Shared: Participatory Evaluation in Development Cooperation ... El Salvador, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, and St Vincent, the book is a ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  8. Creating sustainable campuses: Sharing knowledge between ...

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... As part of the Sustainable Campuses: Sharing our Knowledge for Social and ... structure, environmental education, and project design and management. ... Read the project report, Sustainable Campuses: Sharing our ... Innovative grants program teams up Canadian and Latin American researchers.

  9. A knowledge sharing framework in the South African public sector

    Peter L. Mkhize

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy, organisations are shifting their investment focus to intellectual capital in order to sustain a competitive advantage in the global marketplace. Organisational survival is increasingly dependent on the organisation’s ability to create and distribute knowledge that contributes to the improvement of performance. The purpose of this article is to evaluate individual knowledge-acquisition and sharing practices in the South African public sector. I applied the techniques of grounded theory analysis to extract themes from data that could provide insight into the knowledge sharing that takes place in the South African public sector. Findings revealed that the informal sharing of knowledge takes place in discussion forums within communities of practice through web-based, socially orientated platforms. These communities of practice are widespread throughout the public sector and are established with the purpose of soliciting expert knowledge from those who have been using open-source software successfully.

  10. 1. round table. Information and knowledge sharing

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the first round table debates about the information dissemination and the sharing of knowledge which took place at Caen. The main discussions of this session concerns the political decisions and the information of the public, and the transparency of this information as it should be in a western democracy. (J.S.)

  11. Understanding the Climate-knowledge Sharing Relation

    Llopis, Oscar; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2016-01-01

    motivation and job autonomy as moderators of this relationship. We find that the social climate for cooperation better predicts knowledge sharing when employees show low levels of intrinsic motivation and have high levels of job autonomy. This suggests that a cooperative climate and intrinsic motivation...... are substitutes with respect to their impact on knowledge-sharing behaviors, while climate and job autonomy are complements. We find support for these ideas in data gathered from a sample of 170 employees of a knowledge-intensive firm....

  12. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence......Purpose: Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...

  13. Sharing experience and knowledge with wearable computers

    Nilsson, Marcus; Drugge, Mikael; Parnes, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Wearable computer have mostly been looked on when used in isolation. But the wearable computer with Internet connection is a good tool for communication and for sharing knowledge and experience with other people. The unobtrusiveness of this type of equipment makes it easy to communicate at most type of locations and contexts. The wearable computer makes it easy to be a mediator of other people knowledge and becoming a knowledgeable user. This paper describes the experience gained from testing...

  14. Proposing a Model for Successful Application of Knowledge Sharing II (Social Knowledge Sharing) within Organizations

    Mehdi Shamizanjani; Seyed Mohammad Ghasemtabar Shahri

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is the development of a success model of Knowledge Sharing 2.0 (social knowledge sharing) through organizations. A three-step strategy is used in this research as stated below: In the first step, identification of social software and extraction of factors effective on success of each for knowledge sharing were obtained from literature review. Execution of Delphi method and identification of critical factors were done in the second step. At l...

  15. Global health governance as shared health governance.

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-07-01

    With the exception of key 'proven successes' in global health, the current regime of global health governance can be understood as transnational and national actors pursuing their own interests under a rational actor model of international cooperation, which fails to provide sufficient justification for an obligation to assist in meeting the health needs of others. An ethical commitment to providing all with the ability to be healthy is required. This article develops select components of an alternative model of shared health governance (SHG), which aims to provide a 'road map,' 'focal points' and 'the glue' among various global health actors to better effectuate cooperation on universal ethical principles for an alternative global health equilibrium. Key features of SHG include public moral norms as shared authoritative standards; ethical commitments, shared goals and role allocation; shared sovereignty and constitutional commitments; legitimacy and accountability; country-level attention to international health relations. A framework of social agreement based on 'overlapping consensus' is contrasted against one based on self-interested political bargaining. A global health constitution delineating duties and obligations of global health actors and a global institute of health and medicine for holding actors responsible are proposed. Indicators for empirical assessment of select SHG principles are described. Global health actors, including states, must work together to correct and avert global health injustices through a framework of SHG based on shared ethical commitments.

  16. Establishment of the National Nuclear Regulatory Portal (NNRP) as the key element of the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network and Regulatory Network (GNSSN/RegNet) for sharing of nuclear safety information and knowledge among the Global Expert Community

    Kuvshinnikov, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network (GNSSN) implements the concept of the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Framework (GNSSF) as outlined in INSAG 21. This is the framework of instruments and resources for achieving and maintaining worldwide a high level of safety and security at nuclear facilities and activities as stated in SF-1 and supporting safety standards or recommendations such as INSAG-12. National efforts are and should be augmented by the activities of a variety of international enterprises that facilitate safety and security. The IAEA standard GS-R-3 requires that information and knowledge is managed as a resource. Further strengthening of GNSSN in particular regulatory networking as intended by GNSSN/RegNet has to be based on current national priorities, on existing regional and thematic networks and on the established mechanisms of international co-operation as presented for example on the websites of the IAEA or the OECD-NEA. Current design and operation of RegNet are flexible enough to accommodate differences in national and international approaches and practices and to facilitate exchange and cooperation on regulatory matters. The main role of GNSSN/RegNet is sharing knowledge and bringing people together to enhance and promote nuclear safety and security. The objectives of GNSSN/RegNet: enhancing safety and security by international cooperation, sharing information and best practices, enabling adequate access to relevant safety and security information and promoting the dissemination of this information, implementing active collaboration in the relevant areas related to safety and security, such as joint projects, peer reviews, enabling synergies among existing networks and initiatives, informing the public on the relevant safety and security areas and the related international collaboration. In the RegNet part of the GNSSN exist the National Nuclear Regulatory Portal (NNRP) which is on one hand a part of the global RegNet and on the

  17. Knowledge sharing and social interaction within MNEs

    Noorderhaven, N.G.; Harzing, A.W.K.

    2009-01-01

    Social interaction between managers from different units of a multinational enterprise (MNE) has been shown to be an important factor stimulating intra-MNE knowledge-sharing. Face-to-face social interactions form a communication channel particularly conducive to the transfer of tacit, non-codified

  18. Case Study: Indigenous Knowledge and Data Sharing

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The IDRC-funded project 'Empowering Indigenous Peoples and Knowledge Systems Related to Climate Change and Intellectual Property Rights' is part of the Open and Collaborative Science in Development Network (OCSDNet. The project “examiners processes of open and collaborative science related to indigenous peoples’ knowledge, climate change and intellectual property rights”. Natural Justice, the lead organisation has a strong ethical stance on the agency and control over knowledge being vested with the contributing project participants, communities of the Nama and Griqua peoples of the Western Cape of South Africa. The project focuses on questions of how climate change is affecting these communities, how do they produce and maintain knowledge relating to climate change, how that knowledge is characterised and shared (or not with wider publics, and how legal frameworks promote or hinder the agenda of these indigenous communities and their choices to communicate and collaborate with wider publics. Indigenous Knowledge is an area where ethical issues of informed consent, historical injustice, non-compatible epistemologies and political, legal, and economic issues all collide in ways that challenge western and Anglo-American assumptions about data sharing. The group seeks to strongly model and internally critique their own ethical stance in the process of their research, through for instance, using community contracts and questioning institutional informed consent systems.

  19. Assessing Knowledge Sharing Among Academics: A Validation of the Knowledge Sharing Behavior Scale (KSBS).

    Ramayah, T; Yeap, Jasmine A L; Ignatius, Joshua

    2014-04-01

    There is a belief that academics tend to hold on tightly to their knowledge and intellectual resources. However, not much effort has been put into the creation of a valid and reliable instrument to measure knowledge sharing behavior among the academics. To apply and validate the Knowledge Sharing Behavior Scale (KSBS) as a measure of knowledge sharing behavior within the academic community. Respondents (N = 447) were academics from arts and science streams in 10 local, public universities in Malaysia. Data were collected using the 28-item KSBS that assessed four dimensions of knowledge sharing behavior namely written contributions, organizational communications, personal interactions, and communities of practice. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the items loaded on the dimension constructs that they were supposed to represent, thus proving construct validity. A within-factor analysis revealed that each set of items representing their intended dimension loaded on only one construct, therefore establishing convergent validity. All four dimensions were not perfectly correlated with each other or organizational citizenship behavior, thereby proving discriminant validity. However, all four dimensions correlated with organizational commitment, thus confirming predictive validity. Furthermore, all four factors correlated with both tacit and explicit sharing, which confirmed their concurrent validity. All measures also possessed sufficient reliability (α > .70). The KSBS is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to formally assess the types of knowledge artifacts residing among academics and the degree of knowledge sharing in relation to those artifacts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Global games with noisy sharing of information

    Touri, Behrouz

    2014-12-15

    We provide a framework for the study of global games with noisy sharing of information. In contrast to the previous works where it is shown that an intuitive threshold policy is an equilibrium for such games, we show that noisy sharing of information leads to non-existence of such an equilibrium. We also investigate the group best-response dynamics of two groups of agents sharing the same information to threshold policies based on each group\\'s observation and show the convergence of such dynamics.

  1. Global games with noisy sharing of information

    Touri, Behrouz; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    We provide a framework for the study of global games with noisy sharing of information. In contrast to the previous works where it is shown that an intuitive threshold policy is an equilibrium for such games, we show that noisy sharing of information leads to non-existence of such an equilibrium. We also investigate the group best-response dynamics of two groups of agents sharing the same information to threshold policies based on each group's observation and show the convergence of such dynamics.

  2. The new genesis of knowledge: Shared leadership for knowledge development

    Crielaard, J.P.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Today’s issues, like sustainable growth, are demanding for leaders, employees, knowledge and organisational innovation. Leadership literature until now is restrained by a hierarchical bias. This study takes an Ecologic System Model, and tests the contribution of shared leadership, self-directive

  3. Challenges of knowledge sharing in the petrochemical industry

    Chin Wei Chong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing is one of the important and also challenging parts in the success of KM implementation. The objective of this paper is to find out knowledge sharing barriers in the petrochemical companies in a Middle East country. Three main categories are found to have an impact on knowledge sharing in the companies. These categories are potential individual knowledge sharing barriers, potential organizational knowledge sharing barriers and potential technological knowledge sharing barriers. Data were collected by using a convenience sampling survey method. 500 questionnaires were distributed among employees and 302 questionnaires were returned. Trust, knowledge as power, communication, organizational hierarchy and knowledge sharing technological systems are found to have relationships with knowledge sharing. However, reward and recognition system have less significant relationship with knowledge sharing in the petrochemical companies.

  4. From Global Knowledge to Global Civic Engagement

    Lorenzini, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that student learning is enhanced when civic engagement is a component of international education initiatives. When only presented with knowledge about global challenges, students can become frustrated and overwhelmed unless they also understand how they might contribute to solutions. Political science programs are…

  5. Fostering the culture of knowledge sharing in higher education ...

    ... to recognise and value the knowledge created within and to encourage the sharing of best practices, lessons learned and knowledge among academic staff. The article examines the dynamics of knowledge sharing, and also how trust and organisational culture inhibits the sharing of knowledge within higher education.

  6. KNOWLEDGE FACTORS OF KNOWLEDGE-SHARING INTENTION AND BEHAVIOR

    Mahyarni mahyarni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the external environment in the world of education, ranging from the social, economy, technology, and politics, require a rethinking of these influences as an institution and  their interactions. Islamic University has more challenges than other high education. The challenges are linked to the human resource improvement in science and technology. Islamic University has also been bonded to a commitment in leading the core mission of university; therefore, Islamic University has to hold strong commitment and needs to be attached by a self-image which bolds life values in leading the commitment. This research is based on the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior, which develops other theories related to knowledge-sharing behavior such as covering information technology and Islamic teachings. Data are analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling with Analysis of Moment Structures application program. The research objectives are to test and analyze direct and indirect effects of information technology covering variables, Islamic teachings, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control and knowledge-sharing behavior.The result shows that technology, religion taught, and theory of planned behavior insignificantly influence knowledge-sharing behavior.

  7. Knowledge Sharing for Common Understanding of Technical Specifications Through Artifactual Culture

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Context: Software engineering is a knowledge intensive activity that is supported by documenting and sharing the required knowledge through a wide variety of artifacts. Global Software Development (GSD) teams heavily rely on artifacts as a vital means of knowledge sharing. However, there is little...... empirical knowledge about the key reasons and practices of using artifacts in GSD for knowledge sharing to support common understanding of technical specifications. Objective: This study aims at empirically studying the key motivators, practices, and drawbacks of artifact-based knowledge sharing...... specification knowledge. We also present the practices that make up the artifact-based knowledge sharing system in the studied case. Finally, we shed some light on the caveats of knowledge sharing practices adopted by the studied company. The findings can provide useful insights into the artifact...

  8. Knowledge sharing in international product development teams

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

    Many companies are facing an increasing need to compete on a global scale. But as companies move into multiple markets, the process of developing new products becomes increasingly complex. Coping successfully with the increased internationalization forces companies to excel at collaboration...... company are far from trivial and the problems associated with transfer will increase with geographical and cultural difference (Bresman et al., 1999). Especially tacit knowledge is difficult to transport across national boarders (Kogut & Zander, 1992) and not much research exists on how companies overcome...... development process is by using teams. Teams are considered one of the best tools for exchanging especially tacit knowledge, since this kind of knowledge is transferred best through personal interaction and face-to-face meetings (Madhavan & Grover, 1998; Nonaka, 1994). In accordance with this, more and more...

  9. Uncertainties as Barriers for Knowledge Sharing with Enterprise Social Media

    Trier, Matthias; Fung, Magdalene; Hansen, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    become a barrier for the participants’ adoption. There is only limited existing research studying the types of uncertainties that employees perceive and their impact on knowledge transfer via social media. To address this gap, this article presents a qualitative interview-based study of the adoption...... of the Enterprise Social Media tool Yammer for knowledge sharing in a large global organization. We identify and categorize nine uncertainties that were perceived as barriers by the respondents. The study revealed that the uncertainty types play an important role in affecting employees’ participation...

  10. ANENT Activities for Knowledge Sharing and Dissemination

    Nam, Y.; Rho, S.; Chanyota, S.; Hanamitsu, K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the main activities and achievement of the Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT) related to knowledge sharing and dissemination in the Asia and Pacific region, and how it has strengthened its networks. Since the establishment of ANENT in 2004, the basic framework and infrastructure of collaboration among universities, R&D organizations, and training institutes have been established and improved. The ANENT web-portal was opened in 2004 to share, exchange, and disseminate information and experiences of interest for the educational communities in the region. A regional learning management system (LMS) was installed in the Korean server as an innovative tool for facilitating and promoting e-Learning. Using this LMS, six e-Training courses and five Train the Trainer (TTT) courses were implemented. In 2016, a newly launched four year IAEA Technical Cooperation project will facilitate ANENT activities to strengthen the nuclear knowledge management (NKM), develop the human resources and enhance young nuclear scientists’ and public understanding of nuclear science and technology. Internet technology will help implement these activities by providing effective and efficient methods and tools and use the regional scientific infrastructures such as research reactors for nuclear education and training through regional LMS. (author

  11. To share or not to share, that is the question. Conditions for the willingness to share knowledge

    Andriessen, J.H.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sharing knowledge is an important aspect of most modern organisation. Ideas about how to stimulate knowledge sharing abound, but without much theorising. The objective of this article is to link basic motivation theories to empirical studies of knowledge sharing and its conditions. The paper starts

  12. On the different "worlds" of intra-organizational knowledge management: Understanding idiosyncratic variation in MNC cross-site knowledge-sharing practices.

    Kasper, Helmut; Lehrer, Mark; Mühlbacher, Jürgen; Müller, Barbara

    2013-02-01

    This qualitative field study investigated cross-site knowledge sharing in a small sample of multinational corporations in three different MNC business contexts (global, multidomestic, transnational). The results disclose heterogeneous "worlds" of MNC knowledge sharing, ultimately raising the question as to whether the whole concept of MNC knowledge sharing covers a sufficiently unitary phenomenon to be meaningful. We derive a non-exhaustive typology of MNC knowledge-sharing practices: self-organizing knowledge sharing, technocratic knowledge sharing, and best practice knowledge sharing. Despite its limitations, this typology helps to elucidate a number of issues, including the latent conflict between two disparate theories of MNC knowledge sharing, namely "sender-receiver" and "social learning" theories (Noorderhaven & Harzing, 2009). More generally, we develop the term "knowledge contextualization" to highlight the way that firm-specific organizational features pre-define which knowledge is considered to be of special relevance for intra-organizational sharing.

  13. Knowledge logistics in business contexts: analysing and diagnosing knowledge sharing by logistics concepts

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge sharing is regarded by many management scientists as a main factor to evaluate organizational learning and knowledge management performance in organizations. Therefore, it is important to develop instruments for the analysis and diagnosis of knowledge sharing. Unfortunately, management

  14. Willingness to Share Knowledge Compared with Selected Social Psychology Theories

    Ewa Krok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the key determinants in the growth and competitiveness of modern enterprises. Hence, it is essential to analyse the factors that induce employees to exchange knowledge. The problem of sharing an intangible asset — in this case, the knowledge of individuals — can be viewed from many perspectives: psychological, economic, organisational, sociological and technological. The aim of this article is to explore selected social psychology theories and to analyse the incentives for people to share knowledge. The article attempts to interpret the willingness to share knowledge through the Social Exchange Theory, the Social Impact Theory, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This analysis leads to the following conclusions: •we share our knowledge and expect a return; •we share our knowledge when we believe that the benefits of this action outweigh the costs; •we are pushed to share knowledge by the power of empathy; •workers’ willingness to share knowledge is influenced by three social processes: subordination, identification and internalisation; •the decision to share knowledge is preceded by an intention formed under the influence of an individual attitude towards that behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control; and •the decision to share knowledge is also influenced by additional components, including the knowledge and skills to implement this behaviour, environmental limitations, behavioural emphasis and habits.

  15. Development Plans and Life Plans: Knowledge Sharing?

    Juan José Vieco Albarracín

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the possibilities of establishing knowledge sharing between governmental development plans and the “life plans” (planes de vida made by indigenous organizations, in particular the life plan of the Asociación de Autoridades Indígenas del Resguardo Tikuna, Cocama, Yagua (Aticoya, municipality of Puerto Nariño, Amazonas, Colombia. Colombia’s Constitution of 1991 created the ETI (Entidad Territorial Indígena,“indigenous territorial entity” as a territorial unit, just like municipalities, departments, and districts. This means that indigenous reservations (or “reserves” or “preserves” and associations should manage public funds, for which they must design a life plan. This inclusion and recognition of indigenous peoples entails that those life plans should articulate with the municipal, departmental, and national development plans. The article illustrates this situation by comparing two welfare programs –Resa (Red de Seguridad Alimentaria “Food Security Network” and Familias Guardabosques (“Forest Ranger Families”– and two income-generating productive and service (tourism projects carried out by Aticoya and the local indigenous councils of communities on the Amazon and Loretoyacu Rivers.

  16. Interpersonal Similarity and Knowledge Sharing within Multinational Organizations

    Mäkelä, Kristiina; Andersson, Ulf; Seppälä, Tomi

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has established that interpersonal similarity can influence knowledge sharing in such a way that similar people are more likely to share knowledge than those who are dissimilar. We contribute to the literature by showing that in the MNC context, cultural and functional similarit....... These microfoundations of inter-unit knowledge exchange point to important theoretical and practical implications for international management....

  17. Preserving and sharing tacit knowledge in a nuclear power plant

    Kuronen, T.; Saeaemaenen, K.; Jaervenpaeae, E.; Rintala, N.

    2007-01-01

    Tacit knowledge of nuclear experts is essential for reliable and competent performance of nuclear power plants. This report discusses preserving and sharing tacit knowledge in nuclear power plant context. Tacit knowledge as well as its structure and content in this complex and safety-critical context are described, and the role of tacit knowledge in expertise is discussed. In order to contribute to tacit knowledge preserving the challenges in and prerequisites for tacit knowledge sharing are identified. In addition, based on empirical case studies and literature, good practices and methods for tacit knowledge sharing are described. The report is based on the results of DIAMOND research project conducted in 2004-2006 in Finnish nuclear power plants, tacit knowledge, nuclear power plant, tacit knowledge sharing methods, expertise. (author abstract)

  18. Final report for Palestine knowledge-sharing network enhancing ...

    Naser Qadous

    2013-08-27

    Aug 27, 2013 ... needs a Chief Knowledge Officer, a position designed for someone who can connect the loose ends between ... included, "the role of technology in knowledge sharing/management," "the resources of tacit ... Financial Report:.

  19. Social Networks Impacts on Knowledge Sharing Among Public ...

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Keywords- Social networks, Social media, Facebook, Twitter, and. Linkedin, Knowledge ... of knowledge sharing among public education students which the researcher see as .... frankness with teaching sphere. The American ...

  20. Sharing tacit knowledge to understand reality

    Klostermann, J.E.M.

    2003-01-01

    The author gives her answer to the question of knowledge production in science and society, according to a theoretical framework (The social construction of reality: a treatise in the sociology of knowledge; Berger, Luckmann, 1966)

  1. Social capital and knowledge sharing: effects on patient safety.

    Chang, Chia-Wen; Huang, Heng-Chiang; Chiang, Chi-Yun; Hsu, Chiu-Ping; Chang, Chia-Chen

    2012-08-01

    This article is a report on a study that empirically examines the influence of social capital on knowledge sharing and the impact of knowledge sharing on patient safety. Knowledge sharing is linked to many desirable managerial outcomes, including learning and problem-solving, which are essential for patient safety. Rather than studying the tangible effects of rewards, this study examines whether social capital (including social interaction, trust and shared vision) directly supports individual knowledge sharing in an organization. This cross-sectional study analysed data collected through a questionnaire survey of nurses from a major medical centre in northern Taiwan. The data were collected over a 9-month period from 2008 to 2009. The data analysis was conducted using the Partial Least Squares Graph v3.0 program to evaluate the measurement properties and the structural relationships specified in the research model. Based on a large-scale survey, empirical results indicate that Registered Nurses' perceptions of trust and shared vision have statistically significant and direct effects on knowledge sharing. In addition, knowledge sharing is significantly and positively associated with patient safety. The findings suggest that hospital administrators should foster group trust and initiate a common vision among Registered Nurses. In addition, administrators and chief knowledge officers of hospitals should encourage positive intentions towards knowledge sharing. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Boundary Spanners and Intra-MNC Knowledge Sharing

    Minbaeva, Dana; Santangelo, Grazia D.

    2018-01-01

    intermediaries between many individuals from within and outside their organizations. They are well connected internally and externally and share knowledge across MNC units to a greater extent than non-boundary spanners. However, their contribution to knowledge sharing should not be taken for granted......Research summary: We examine the conditions under which boundary spanners positively contribute to intra-MNC knowledge sharing. Specifically, we argue that the knowledge-sharing behavior of boundary spanners should not be taken for granted, as it is affected by the individual's motivation to share...... knowledge and is contingent upon the immediate organizational context in which the individual is located. An analysis of data covering 482 individuals located in different business units of a Danish MNC confirms our arguments. Managerial summary: Boundary spanners are employees who act as knowledge...

  3. Knowledge Management Challenges For Global Business

    Veli Denizhan Kalkan

    2011-01-01

    Managing organizational knowledge effectively is a prerequisite for securing competitive advantages in the global marketplace. The field of knowledge management brings out important challenges for global business practices. Based on a comprehensive academic and popular literature review, this paper identifies six main knowledge management challenges faced by global business today. These are developing a working definition of knowledge, dealing with tacit knowledge and utilization of informati...

  4. Knowledge sharing in virtual communities: A social exchange theory perspective

    Li Jinyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The author tried to identify the knowledge sharing behaviors on the internet, using structural equation modeling methods, proposing a model based on social exchange theory in which share willingness, trust, reciprocity, altruism tended to have impact on people’s knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Design/methodology/approach: We presented an empirical research which integrated social exchange theory and structural equation modeling methods to analyze several important factors influencing members’ knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Findings: We analyzed the knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. We found that members’ altruism can not predict knowledge sharing behaviors. We also found that members’ sharing willingness is the most important factor on virtual community knowledge sharing behaviors compared with trust, reciprocity and altruism. Originality/value: From the perspective of social exchange theory, we did empirical test and verified the proposed research model by using structural equation modeling methods. Our finding can help recognize people’s incentive about knowledge sharing.

  5. Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Detection

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Koopmans, Marion G.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larger...

  6. Attitudes of librarians toward knowledge sharing in university ...

    This study identified and analyzed knowledge sharing at the individual level among librarians. It explored how personality and situational characteristics influenced librarians knowledge-sharing. The personal traits that were considered include: self-esteem and self-efficacy, while cognitive appraisal was the situation ...

  7. Sharing Knowledge in Universities: Communities of Practice the Answer?

    Buckley, Sheryl; du Toit, Adeline

    2009-01-01

    The change from an industrial economy to a knowledge economy forced many organizations to change their modus operandi if they were going to survive in a sustainable way. The introduction of communities of practice (CoPs) by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger shed new light on knowledge sharing and dissemination of information. Sharing, interacting,…

  8. Sharing of Knowledge among Faculty in a Mega Open University

    Santosh, Sujata; Panda, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Developments in ICTs and knowledge societies have revolutionized the traditional paradigms of education. There is a lot of emphasis on a culture of sharing and collaboration in the education scenario of today though educators have certain inhibitions about sharing of knowledge, ideas and resources. The present study was undertaken to explore the…

  9. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  11. Revisiting Knowledge Sharing from the Organizational Change Perspective

    Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Eun-Jee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify how knowledge sharing literature has discussed task, structure, technology and people as elements of organizational change and to examine the interactions between the four elements of knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: The research questions guiding the study are: How do organizational…

  12. Organizational Values and Knowledge Sharing in Multinational Corporations

    Michailova, Snejina; Minbaeva, Dana

    2012-01-01

    While the existing knowledge sharing literature, in general, emphasizes the link between organizational culture and knowledge sharing, it remains rather ambiguous about how certain components of the former may shape the latter. This issue is especially relevant to multinational corporations (MNCs......), which typically consist of multiple organizational (sub)cultures and whose existence depends, to a great extent, on sharing knowledge across borders. The present study examines the influence of one key component of organizational culture – organizational values – on knowledge sharing. From 2003 to 2007......, we studied Danisco, a Danish MNC, to examine the processes of espousement, enactment and internalization of a core organizational value – dialogue. In particular, we studied how these processes influence knowledge sharing behavior among employees. We collected original empirical data using content...

  13. George Mikenberg honoured by the Sharing Knowledge Foundation

    CERN Bulletin

    2016-01-01

    The Sharing Knowledge Foundation Prize was presented to the ATLAS physicist at a ceremony on 18 March.   ATLAS physicist George Mikenberg receives the Sharing Knowledge Foundation Prize. From left to right: Peter Jenni, former ATLAS Spokesperson, Rolf Heuer, former CERN Director-General, Frédérick Bordry, CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology, George Mikenberg, Patrick Fassnacht, CERN International Relations sector, Eliane Jacot-Des-Combes Mikenberg, Herwig Schopper, former CERN Director-General, Constantin Lanaras, treasurer of the Sharing Knowledge Foundation, Robert Klapisch, President of the Sharing Knowledge Foundation, Federico Saldana, logistical support, Catherine Cesarsky, Vice-President of the CERN Council, Eliezer Rabinovici, Vice-President of the CERN Council and of SESAME. (Image: Sophia Bennett/CERN) The Sharing Knowledge Foundation awarded its 2016 prize to George Mikenberg, a member of the LHC's ATLAS experiment who has been...

  14. Information technology to support informal knowledge sharing

    Davison, R.M.; Ou, C.X.J.; Martinsons, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge management (KM) literature largely focuses on the explicit and formal representation of knowledge in computer-based KM systems. Informal KM practices are widespread, but less is known about them. This paper aims to redress this imbalance by exploring the use of interactive information

  15. A Pattern to Evaluation of Motivational Factors Affecting Knowledge Sharing

    Elnaz Hajian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the motivational factors affecting the willingness of employees to share knowledge and examine intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and influences on attitudes toward knowledge sharing and explicit and implicit knowledge sharing intention. Planned behavior pattern is used as a theoretical framework. This research was conducted in two phases. First, factors were identified according to the literature review and exploratory interviews. Then the impact of each factor was evaluated in terms of structural equation modeling. This is an empirical research and the research method is descriptive survey. Data was collected using a questionnaire and interview. The study was on the staff working in administrative units of Tehran Municipality and the number of staff at the time of study was 2230. Cluster sampling method and sample size based on population and using Cochran formula of 328 people determined that 35 persons were not held accountable. To determine the reliability of questionnaires, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated to 0.824 which was found at a high level. Data was analyzed by SPSS and LISREL software. Finally, the proposed pattern was confirmed. The results showed that the intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influence on the attitude of employees and the attitude influence on tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intention. Also, extrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention. Extrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention by the attitude and tacit knowledge sharing intention influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention.

  16. Knowledge-sharing Behavior and Post-acquisition Integration Failure

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    AbstractNot achieving the anticipated synergy effects in the post-acquisition integration context is a serious causefor the high acquisition failure rate. While existing studies on failures of acquisitions exist fromeconomics, finance, strategy, organization theory, and human resources management......, this paper appliesinsights from the knowledge-sharing literature. The paper establishes a conceptual link between obstaclesin the post-acquisition integration processes and individual knowledge-sharing behavior as related toknowledge transmitters and knowledge receivers. We argue that such an angle offers...... important insights toexplaining the high failure rate in acquisitions.Descriptors: post-acquisition integration, acquisition failure, individual knowledge-sharing behavior...

  17. David against Goliath? Group size and bystander effects in virtual knowledge sharing

    Voelpel, S.C.; Eckhoff, R.A.; Förster, J.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge management has been identified as a key factor for sustaining a competitive advantage in today’s corporate world. A fundamental aspect of knowledge management in a global economy is the sharing of information in online groups. Most researchers and practitioners have so far assumed that a

  18. Measuring successful knowledge sharing among academia through social media

    Ghazali, Saadiah; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zabidi, Nerda Zura; Omar, Mohd Faizal; Alias, Rose Alinda

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to study the influence of social media on knowledge sharing among academia. Previously, many researches have been done to explore the importance emergence of social media for public use, but there are still limited studies on how this technological advancement affects the academia. For this study, Facebook is chosen as one of the online social networking tools as the medium of knowledge sharing. To begin with, this study is started with the identification of factors that encourage the academia to share their knowledge through social media. These factors are then categorized based on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). After this knowledge has successfully shared, the level of successful knowledge sharing through Facebook is modeled using Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy inputs for this study are the number of like, comment and share. Findings from this study indeed showed that there are many reasons encouraging academia to utilize social media for their work. Besides, this paper contributes new knowledge to fuzzy logic application as it is the first known research in measuring Facebook engagement for knowledge sharing purposes. In conclusion although there exist some barriers and limitations with the use of social media, academia are showing a positive shift in the application of these tools for work.

  19. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  20. Organizational Justice and the Intent to Share: Knowledge Sharing Practices among Forensic Experts in Turkey

    Can, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational climate and organization culture can be some of the leading factors in hindering knowledge sharing within the organization. It is generally accepted that successful knowledge management practice, including knowledge sharing, comes as a result of a conducive and knowledge sharing friendly environment. Organizations that promote and reward collective work generate a trustful and a more collaborative learning culture. The perception of fairness in an organization has been considered an important indicator of employee behavior, attitude, and motivation. This study investigates organizational justice perception and its impact on knowledge sharing practices among forensic experts in the Turkish National Police. The study findings revealed that senior officers, who are experts in the field, have the strongest organizational justice perception. Meanwhile, noncommissioned officers or technicians bear positive but comparatively weaker feelings about the existence of justice within the organization. The study argues that those who satisfy their career expectations tend to have a higher organizational justice perception.

  1. Knowledge Sharing Strategies for Large Complex Building Projects.

    Esra Bektas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is a project-based sector with a myriad of actors such as architects, construction companies, consultants, producers of building materials (Anumba et al., 2005. The interaction between the project partners is often quite limited, which leads to insufficient knowledge sharing during the project and knowledge being unavailable for reuse (Fruchter et al. 2002. The result can be a considerable amount of extra work, delays and cost overruns. Design outcomes that are supposed to function as boundary objects across different disciplines can lead to misinterpretation of requirements, project content and objectives. In this research, knowledge is seen as resulting from social interactions; knowledge resides in communities and it is generated through social relationships (Wenger 1998, Olsson et al. 2008. Knowledge is often tacit, intangible and context-dependent and it is articulated in the changing responsibilities, roles, attitudes and values that are present in the work environment (Bresnen et al., 2003. In a project environment, knowledge enables individuals to solve problems, take decisions, and apply these decisions to actions. In order to achieve a shared understanding and minimize the misunderstanding and misinterpretations among project actors, it is necessary to share knowledge (Fong 2003. Sharing knowledge is particularly crucial in large complex building projects (LCBPs in order to accelerate the building process, improve architectural quality and prevent mistakes or undesirable results. However, knowledge sharing is often hampered through professional or organizational boundaries or contractual concerns. When knowledge is seen as an organizational asset, there is little willingness among project organizations to share their knowledge. Individual people may recognize the need to promote knowledge sharing throughout the project, but typically there is no deliberate strategy agreed by all project partners to address

  2. International product development - Challenges in knowledge sharing

    Sonne, Anne-Mette

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge and internationalization are two important concepts in the corporate world today. Knowledge is companies' most important resource, and internationalization is a factor which affects all areas of management - particularly product development. The development of successful products...... for the international market rests on a company's ability to cooperate and to share knowledge. In order to develop products for the international market, companies must be capable of expanding knowledge sharing across geographical and professional divides. This is the focus of a new MAPP PhD dissertation....

  3. Motivational theory and knowledge sharing in the public service

    Nthabiseng N. Mosala-Bryant

    2017-05-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to explore factors that motivated knowledge sharing practices in a South African public service CoP. Method: This study used the mixed methods design through the lens of the motivational theory. Primary quantitative data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires returned by 23 of the 31 KwaZulu-Natal (KZN Provincial Human Resource Development Forum (PHRDF members to whom the questionnaires were distributed. In addition, primary qualitative data were collected from the senior managers of Human Resource Development (HRD units from 10 different KZN Provincial Departments of the 14 managers requested. The quantitative analysis was established using SPSS software, whereas qualitative analysis was established using thematic codes with the NVIVO software. Results: The findings from the results revealed that PHRDF members were intrinsically motivated to share their knowledge rather than extrinsically motivated. Conclusion: Although literature confirmed the main barrier to knowledge sharing in organisations as being the unwillingness to share, CoPs were likely to reduce the extent to which knowledge sharing was hindered. Members of a CoP ultimately related to one another as homogeneous groups despite representing different departments. To this end, hedonic intrinsic motivation occurred as members shared knowledge for the good of the whole regardless of the absence of extrinsic motivation. Departmental silos fell away, and there was no anticipation of rewards or incentives for knowledge sharing. It is, therefore, imperative that the South African public service strategically positions CoPs as knowledge sharing platforms to curb the loss of knowledge when employees leave its employ for whatever reason.

  4. Penerapan Knowledge Sharing Untuk Peningkatan Layanan Perpustakaan Perguruan Tinggi

    Dyah Safitri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sharing knowledge is one of important elements in academic libraries. The activity uses ICT to inform one another. Most academic libraries in Indonesia, supporting infrastructures and reward are the main factor to conduct the activity. The implementation of such activity, especially in academic libraries, has resulted some beneficial both for librarians and its users. Motivation is considered as one of important aspects in sharing knowledge. By having supporting facilities or infrastructures, the activity can run smoothly and properly.

  5. Knowledge Translation in Rehabilitation: A Shared Vision.

    Moore, Jennifer L; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Backus, Deborah

    2017-07-01

    Advances in rehabilitation provide the infrastructure for research and clinical data to improve care and patient outcomes. However, gaps between research and practice are prevalent. Knowledge translation (KT) aims to decrease the gap between research and its clinical use. This special communication summarizes KT-related proceedings from the 2016 IV STEP conference, describes current KT in rehabilitation science, and provides suggestions for its application in clinical care. We propose a vision for rehabilitation clinical practice and research that includes the development, adaptation, and implementation of evidence-based practice recommendations, which will contribute to a learning health care system. A clinical research culture that supports this vision and methods to engage key stakeholders to innovate rehabilitation science and practice are described. Through implementation of this vision, we can lead an evolution in rehabilitation practice to ultimately prevent disabilities, predict better outcomes, exploit plasticity, and promote participation.

  6. Enhancing knowledge sharing management using BIM technology in construction.

    Ho, Shih-Ping; Tserng, Hui-Ping; Jan, Shu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Construction knowledge can be communicated and reused among project managers and jobsite engineers to alleviate problems on a construction jobsite and reduce the time and cost of solving problems related to constructability. This paper proposes a new methodology for the sharing of construction knowledge by using Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology. The main characteristics of BIM include illustrating 3D CAD-based presentations and keeping information in a digital format and facilitation of easy updating and transfer of information in the BIM environment. Using the BIM technology, project managers and engineers can gain knowledge related to BIM and obtain feedback provided by jobsite engineers for future reference. This study addresses the application of knowledge sharing management using BIM technology and proposes a BIM-based Knowledge Sharing Management (BIMKSM) system for project managers and engineers. The BIMKSM system is then applied in a selected case study of a construction project in Taiwan to demonstrate the effectiveness of sharing knowledge in the BIM environment. The results demonstrate that the BIMKSM system can be used as a visual BIM-based knowledge sharing management platform by utilizing the BIM technology.

  7. Individual, social, and cultural approaches to knowledge sharing

    Widen, Gunilla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Workplace knowledge sharing is a complex process and there are a large number of studies in the area. In this article three theoretical approaches in library and information science are used to discuss knowledge sharing in the workplace. The approaches are information behavior, social capital, and information culture, and they bring important insights that need to be considered from a holistic management point of view when it comes to knowledge sharing. The individual's relation to different levels of context is important, meaning both in relation to work roles, work tasks, situations, organizational structures, and culture. The frameworks also shed light on where and how knowledge sharing activities are present in the organization. From a knowledge management point of view, it is important to acknowledge that when knowledge is valued, there is also an awareness of the knowledge sharing activities. Also, in addition to more traditional views of context, the frameworks bring forward different views on context, such as time and space as contextual factors.

  8. Motivation and Knowledge Sharing through Social Media within Danish Organizations

    Nielsen, Pia; Razmerita, Liana

    2014-01-01

    Based on an empirical quantitative study, this article investigates employee motivation in Danish companies and aims at determining which factors affect employees’ knowledge sharing through social media in a working environment. Our findings pinpoint towards the potential social media have......, but it is the influence from the combination of individual and organizational factors, which affect the adoption of the platforms. A key finding in the study is that knowledge sharing is not a ‘social dilemma’ as previous studies have found. The study shows a positive development in employees’ willingness to share...

  9. Utilizing visualization for shared knowledge spaces

    Mareda, John F.; Marek, Edward L., Jr.; Smith, Steven A.

    1997-04-01

    The amount and variety of data on the Web continues to grow exponentially, greatly complicating the process of finding relevant information, and making it increasingly difficult to understand information in the context of related material. Advanced visualization techniques, as long as they are compatible and effective ion the context of the widely distributed nature of data on the Web, can provide some measure of order to this chaos. Despite the proliferation of automated tools which attempt to deal with this sea of data, there is still a pressing need for human involvement in the organization and representation of information. People 'living' on the Web tend to form little 'knowledge spaces', revolving around those subjects that they are interested in. We describe several research efforts currently underway which address the problem of organizing and finding information in Cyberspace. We conclude with 'CiteMaps', a technology we are developing which combines Web-relevant visualization techniques with concepts and tools, to allow 'real people' to develop shareable clusters of related information.

  10. Impact of global investment processes on ukrainian share market

    O.К. Zotsenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effects of financial and investment processes on the Ukrainian share market. The research analyzed and estimated investment climate in Ukraine. The study highlights a comparison of the domestic share market with share markets of other countries. In terms of share capitalization of listed companies in the GDP determined that equity is the most developed in the USA and UK. Largest share markets with highest capitalization rate characterized. The regional distribution of the share market capitalization by continents are shown. The study of the dynamics of Ukrainian and global share indexes revealed that the Ukrainian share market indexes show a constant volatility and unpredictability. Correlation Ukrainian stock indexes with indexes in Europe, Russia and America is very weak, which is a very negative trend of the stock market of Ukraine. The key problems and risks of the domestic investments are defined which are consequences of downturn in the Ukrainian share market.

  11. Construction of Engineering Ontologies for Knowledge Sharing and Reuse

    Borst, Willem Nico; Borst, W.N.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation into the practical use of ontologies for the development of information systems. Ontologies are formal descriptions of shared knowledge in a domain. An ontology can be used as a specification of an information system because it specifies the knowledge that is

  12. Sharing knowledge, being different and working as a team

    Rosendaal, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge-intensive work in modern global organisations is largely organised in teams or groups. Most of this work can be classified as knowledge creation with outcomes such as plans, contracts, proposals and analyses. Cooperating for knowledge-intensive work is recognised as a social process in

  13. INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

    Florina BRAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and knowledge are two important entities, which make up present stage of globalization, based mostly on their dynamics. This paper is providing an overview of information and knowledge in global context, highlighting the importance of information society that turned into knowledge society in the beginning of the 21 century, being driven by Internet – the latter, as part of globalization process. Modern economic theories recognise the importance of information in economic process because its impact on globalization process in economy was essential, and change the way how markets and companies work and represent the key factor of new era of economic development. This paper presents main results from available literature about the relationship between information, knowledge and economic theory in a global conterxt and finally explained the benefits of the knowledge economy to all countries.

  14. Emerging Problems in Knowledge Sharing and the Three New Ethics of Knowledge Transfer

    Mikhail Koulikov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Topics related to knowledge management and knowledge sharing have received extensive attention in the recent literature of management and information science. Much of the discussion has focused on how these processes take place - and frequently fail to take place - in formal business, corporate and organizational settings. Knowledge sharing, however, occurs along the entire spectrum of human activity. Often, information and knowledge are shared in ways that appear unregulated and even outright subversive. This paper surveys many of the recent critiques of formal mechanisms of knowledge sharing. It identifies a set of methods, structures and ethics of "informal" and unauthorized transfer of information, and suggests that these can offer valuable lessons for the further development of the study of knowledge sharing methods, practices and behaviors in all types of settings.

  15. Groups like the support sharing channel of information and knowledge

    Armando Sergio de Aguiar Filho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of sharing information and knowledge which tends to lead to a new understanding of distribution channels, allowing the maturation of sharing concept and its relationship to the process of information management. This interaction arises range of alternatives par as organizations relate internally with employees and externally with your audience. Objects: The goal is to survey and presentation of studies related to information sharing and knowledge channels, trying to identify its correlates in the area of administration. Methodology: The work was developed from a literature search. For both sought to initially align the concepts and terminology of information science area and a second time to identify a differentiated approach to sharing that would contribute to validate the interdisciplinary character of the information area and the contribution that other areas can make to the studies of information management and knowledge. Results: The analysis of the survey indicated considerations relevant to the understanding of the various approaches used in relation to the sharing of channels, as well as the common and different characteristics of these media and the impact on their dynamics. Conclusions: The Support Group terminology is one of several approaches used in the sharing of information and knowledge, and, like the other approaches presented to assess and promote better information services to meet the specific demands.

  16. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge…

  17. Strategic Knowledge Networks for Global Education

    Peterson, J. Fiona

    2009-01-01

    The inherent opportunities for communication, collaboration and experiential learning in an online and global network create the impetus for the new network paradigm in higher education. A strategic knowledge network in education was designed and developed to build "Mode 2" knowledge capabilities; create new knowledge for innovative…

  18. The global structure of knowledge network

    Angelopoulos, Spyros; Lomi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we treat patent citations as knowledge networks connecting pieces of formalized knowledge and people, and focus on how ideas are connected, rather than how they are protected. We focus on the global structural properties of formalized knowledge network, and more specifically on the

  19. Role of organizational citizenship behavior in promoting knowledge sharing

    Mohammad Reza Dehghani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organizational citizenship behavior has been linked to overall organizational effectiveness, thus these types of employee behaviors have important consequences in the workplace. One of the important consequences of these types of behaviors is knowledge sharing. Thus, the current study examined the role of organizational citizenship behavior in promoting knowledge sharing. Method: A descriptive correlation design was employed in this study. We collected the data from Kharazmi University employees in city of Tehran in 2014. The statistical population consisted of 484 Kharazmi University employees from which 210 persons were selected randomly (using simple random sampling by the Krejcie and Morgan (1978 sample size determination table. Data werecollected through organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire and knowledge sharing questionnaire. To examine the reliability of the questionnaires, Cronbach alpha coefficient was used. These coefficients were 0.80 for attitude toward knowledge sharing and 0.77 for intention to share knowledge. Also, for organizational citizenship behavior it ranged from 0.71 (courtesy to 0.82 (altruism. To determine the validity, content validity method was applied. All descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson correlation and multiple regression were performed using SPSS 19. Results: The results of t-test indicated that the means of organizational citizenship behavior (mean=2.50 and all its dimensions (altruism: 2.60, conscientiousness: 2.52, sportsmanship: 2.41, courtesy: 2.49, civic virtue: 2.45 among employees were at the moderate level. The results showed that the correlation between organizational citizenship behavior and knowledge sharing was significant (r=0.50, P<0.001. Other results showed that the correlations between knowledge sharing and organizational citizenship behavior dimensions - Altruism (r=0.35, Conscientiousness (r=0.19, Sportsmanship (r=0.46, Courtesy (r=0.39, Civic virtue (r=0

  20. When do they care to share? : How manufacturers make contracted service partners share knowledge

    de Vries, J.; Schepers, J.; van Weele, A.; van der Valk, W.

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing firms that outsource customer-facing services, risk losing touch with their customers and thereby forfeit valuable market and customer-related knowledge. To maintain informed and competitive, the manufacturer's customer-facing service partners should engage in knowledge sharing and

  1. When do they care to share? : how manufacturers make contracted service partners share knowledge

    Vries, de J.J.A.P.; Schepers, J.J.L.; Weele, van A.J.; Valk, van der W.

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing firms that outsource customer-facing services, risk losing touch with their customers and thereby forfeit valuable market and customer-related knowledge. To maintain informed and competitive, the manufacturer's customer-facing service partners should engage in knowledge sharing and

  2. Dare to share? How people share high-quality knowledge in online communities

    Rotundo, Enrico; Blank, M.; Moser, C.; Leopold, H.

    The Internet has fundamentally changed how work gets done in the 21st century. For example, people increasingly spend time on the Internet where they share and develop knowledge in online communities. Yet, little is known about how high-quality knowledge comes about in these communities. This is

  3. World Knowledge and Global Citizenship: Factual and Perceived World Knowledge as Predictors of Global Citizenship Identification

    Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva; Gibson, Shonda A.; Hobson, Braken

    2013-01-01

    We examine the influence of factual and perceived world knowledge on global citizenship identification. Perceived world knowledge directly predicted global citizenship identification, while factual world knowledge did not (Study 1). Students' factual (Study 1) and perceived (Study 2) world knowledge predicted students' normative environment…

  4. What happens when organisations embrace social networking? Knowledge sharing at a multinational business solutions corporation

    C. Stafford

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Amid widespread resistance to online social networking tools, their effectiveness in promoting knowledge sharing in a knowledge-driven organisation was demonstrated in the study. Usage patterns, user attitudes and perceptions regarding online social networking technologies as a professional application for knowledge sharing within the workplace were investigated. Self-administered questionnaires were administered to a sample of IBM Global Business Services employees in South Africa. Upon completion of the questionnaire analysis an interview was conducted with the knowledge manager for verification and clarification purposes. The results revealed the respondents' positive attitudes regarding the use of social networking tools for knowledge sharing. The culture of knowledge sharing at IBM and the contribution that social networking tools makes within the company were uncovered. Findings disclosed that the online social networking tools were effective and that management at IBM encourages employees to make more and more use of the tools for knowledge sharing and knowledge creation. The results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of online social networking tools and serve as encouragement to hesitant organisations to adopt social networking in their business practices.

  5. Enhancing Knowledge Sharing and Research Collaboration among Academics: The Role of Knowledge Management

    Tan, Christine Nya-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Although knowledge sharing (KS) has been acknowledged as important, universities face issues that may hinder active sharing among its faculty members such as the absence of trust among its members or insufficient incentives rewarded to those who deserved it. The aim of this research is to focus on the impact of knowledge management (KM) factors in…

  6. Knowledge sharing in a multicultural environment: challenges and opportunities

    Luyanda Dube

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article underscores the process of knowledge sharing in a multicultural organisational environment. Generally,multiculturalism emanates from being influenced by different contexts that provide the potential for human diversity. Itresults in disparate behavioural patterns and bodies of knowledge which lead to variance in terms of racial, sexual, ageand cultural orientations. The process of sharing knowledge is complex and is susceptible to multicultural variances.Considering that knowledge sharing processes and probable multicultural influences are contextual, the purpose of thearticle is to establish the extent of knowledge flows in the Department of Information Science at the University of SouthAfrica. In particular the article seeks to give an overall view on how knowledge is shared across intergenerational, culturaland interracial lines in the Department. The qualitative approach was considered appropriate for this study because itfocuses on observing events from the perspectives of those who are involved and is aimed at understanding the attitude,behaviour and opinions of those individuals (Powell & Connaway 2004. A basic interpretive qualitative research designwas used for this study. Data was collected through interviews and document analysis. The data were inductively analysedand the findings are presented and discussed using references to the literature that informed the study.

  7. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing in Russian and Chinese Subsidiaries

    Hutchings, Kate; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    operations hasbecome an issue of increasing importance. Where the cultural distance between homeand host nations is great, as it is between Western industrialised economies and thetransition economies of the (former) Communist nations, there is even greatersaliency for achieving effective knowledge sharing......The unprecedented escalation in the number of organisations that have decided tointernationalise their operations in the last two decades, and the internationalmovement of labour that has accompanied such expansion, has meant thatunderstanding the process of knowledge sharing within subsidiary...... if its potential value for gainingorganisational competitive advantage is to be harnessed. In examining knowledgesharing in Russia and China, this paper specifically addresses how group membershipand personal networking in these countries facilitate and impede knowledge sharing.Ultimately, the paper...

  8. Factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software development

    Lucas T. Khoza

    2017-07-01

    Objective: This study seeks to identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context. Method: Expert sampling as a subcategory of purposive sampling was employed to extract information, views and opinions from experts in the field of information and communication technology, more specifically from those who are involved in software development projects. Four Johannesburg-based software developing organisations listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, South Africa, participated in this research study. Quantitative data were collected using an online questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Results: Findings of this research reveal that job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards are core factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software developing organisations. Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing is expected to assist software developing organisations in closing the gap for software development projects failing to meet the triple constraint of time, cost and scope.

  9. Debriefing in Moodle: Written Feedback on Trust and Knowledge Sharing in a Social Dilemma Game

    Oertig, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to debriefing that uses the discussion forum feature of the Moodle open source course management system to debrief a simulation game with undergraduate business students. The simulation game allowed the students to experience the fragility of trust when sharing knowledge in a global virtual project team. I…

  10. Challenges associated with knowledge sharing in international product development teams

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

    on product development teams, knowledge sharing, and international product development management to form a conceptual framework of factors that influence knowledge sharing in international teams. Four in-depth case studies are used to explore and expand the understanding of the challenges associated...... with international product development teams. Results indicate that international product development might not be as international as would be expected and that even if many of the characteristics and problems associated with international product development in the literature are found, there are also a number...

  11. Sharing Data in the Global Ocean Observing System (Invited)

    Lindstrom, E. J.; McCurdy, A.; Young, J.; Fischer, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    We examine the evolution of data sharing in the field of physical oceanography to highlight the challenges now before us. Synoptic global observation of the ocean from space and in situ platforms has significantly matured over the last two decades. In the early 1990’s the community data sharing challenges facing the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) largely focused on the behavior of individual scientists. Satellite data sharing depended on the policy of individual agencies. Global data sets were delivered with considerable delay and with enormous personal sacrifice. In the 2000’s the requirements for global data sets and sustained observations from the likes of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have led to data sharing and cooperation at a grander level. It is more effective and certainly more efficient. The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) provided the means to organize many aspects of data collection and data dissemination globally, for the common good. In response the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites organized Virtual Constellations to enable the assembly and sharing of like kinds of satellite data (e.g., sea surface topography, ocean vector winds, and ocean color). Individuals in physical oceanography have largely adapted to the new rigors of sharing data for the common good, and as a result of this revolution new science has been enabled. Primary obstacles to sharing have shifted from the individual level to the national level. As we enter into the 2010’s the demands for ocean data continue to evolve with an expanded requirement for more real-time reporting and broader disciplinary coverage, to answer key scientific and societal questions. We are also seeing the development of more numerous national contributions to the global observing system. The drivers for the establishment of global ocean observing systems are expanding beyond climate to include biological and

  12. Effect of Knowledge Sharing on Success of IT Outsourcing

    فرج‌اله رهنورد

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Outsourcing relationship in the area of information technology for local organizations is not an option, but a necessity strategy. By outsourcing, organizations can focus on core functions, decrease their operational costs and technology risk, and to use external sources to achieve the organizational objectives. In this research, local organizations in Zanjan province which have outsourcing experience in the area of information technology, were selected as statistical population, to study the effect of knowledge sharing based on outsourcing with regards to contingency approach. Findings of this research showed that knowledge sharing with regards to situational variables, leads to influence success of IT outsourcing. To put it in other words, relationship between knowledge sharing as independent variable and success of IT outsourcing as a dependent variable, is influenced by partnership and organizational capabilities. Therefore, IT outsourcing is a successful strategy if partners through partnership to share their organizational knowledge and by enhancing their organizational capabilities to use the transferred knowledge in an effective way.

  13. Constructing Ontology for Knowledge Sharing of Materials Failure Analysis

    Peng Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials failure indicates the fault with materials or components during their performance. To avoid the reoccurrence of similar failures, materials failure analysis is executed to investigate the reasons for the failure and to propose improved strategies. The whole procedure needs sufficient domain knowledge and also produces valuable new knowledge. However, the information about the materials failure analysis is usually retained by the domain expert, and its sharing is technically difficult. This phenomenon may seriously reduce the efficiency and decrease the veracity of the failure analysis. To solve this problem, this paper adopts ontology, a novel technology from the Semantic Web, as a tool for knowledge representation and sharing and describes the construction of the ontology to obtain information concerning the failure analysis, application area, materials, and failure cases. The ontology represented information is machine-understandable and can be easily shared through the Internet. At the same time, failure case intelligent retrieval, advanced statistics, and even automatic reasoning can be accomplished based on ontology represented knowledge. Obviously this can promote the knowledge sharing of materials service safety and improve the efficiency of failure analysis. The case of a nuclear power plant area is presented to show the details and benefits of this method.

  14. Social media for knowledge sharing in automotive repair

    Finkbeiner, Patric

    2017-01-01

    This book explores, describes and explains the predictors essential for the acceptance of social media as a digital platform to share professional knowledge in the field of automotive repair in Germany. It reports a rigorous literature review covering key elements of social media, knowledge management and technology acceptance studies. The book assumes a pragmatist approach and applies mixed methods in an exploratory sequential design, combining qualitative and quantitative methods to ensure robust collection and analysis of the collected data. Based on a survey on German automotive repair shops, the author provides a framework, for various stakeholders, to comprehend the motivations for knowledge sharing for automotive repair professionals in Germany. This book not only adds to the existing academic body of knowledge but also provides implications for industry and legislation on a European scale. .

  15. Meeting Organizational Performance with Shared Knowledge Management Processes

    Franco, Massimo; Mariano, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    Using empirical research data, this study investigated how knowledge is stored and retrieved in an American company and contributed to the growing body of literature on the use of knowledge, technology, and memory systems to improve organizational performance. It demonstrated the importance of individual motivation and efforts, managerial capabilities, and shared organizational technologies in the management of organizational processes and revealed factors influencing the processes of knowled...

  16. Knowledge Sharing in IT Consultant and SME Interactions

    Adrian Bradshaw

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many small and medium enterprises (SMEs depend on consultants to overcome knowledge barriers, especially for IT projects. This paper aims to determine how IT consultants affect the IT knowledge of SMEs when IT consultants and SMEs interact. Data were collected using face-to-face interviews with both IT consultants and SME managers. The study is the first to identify what and how SMEs learn from consultants during an IT implementation project. Consultants help SMEs gain different types of knowledge, employing a broad range of knowledge sharing mechanisms. As consultants are an important part of the knowledge creation processes of SMEs, SMEs should strive to form long-term relationships with consultants and use these interactions to develop IT knowledge within the SME.

  17. Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge

    Nakata, Martin; Hamacher, Duane W.; Warren, John; Byrne, Alex; Pagnucco, Maurice; Harley, Ross; Venugopal, Srikumar; Thorpe, Kirsten; Neville, Richard; Bolt, Reuben

    2014-06-01

    Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project emerging between experts in the higher education, library, archive and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a culturally sensitive manner.

  18. Social Technologies and Informal Knowledge Sharing within and across Organizations

    Jarrahi, Mohammad Hosein

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation is focused on both empirical and conceptual contributions relative to the roles social technologies play in informal knowledge sharing practices, both within and across organizations. Social technologies include (a) traditional social technologies (e.g., email, phone and instant messengers), (b) emerging social…

  19. Optimizing Knowledge Sharing in Learning Networks through Peer Tutoring

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., Kester, L., & Sloep, P. (2009). Optimizing Knowledge Sharing in Learning Networks through Peer Tutoring. Presentation at the IADIS international conference on Cognition and Exploratory in Digital Age (CELDA 2009). November, 20-22, 2009, Rome, Italy.

  20. Optimizing Knowledge Sharing In Learning Networks Through Peer Tutoring

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., Kester, L., & Sloep, P. B. (2009). Optimizing Knowledge Sharing In Learning Networks Through Peer Tutoring. In D. Kinshuk, J. Sampson, J. Spector, P. Isaías, P. Barbosa & D. Ifenthaler (Eds.). Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Cognition and Exploratory Learning

  1. Knowledge Sharing for the Provision of sustainable Cooperation ...

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... knowledge sharing imitation model and prototype for sustainable cooperation between ... enterprises. The goal involves innovative methods and web-based ..... rather informative and motivating for everyone to return to the cooperative ... communication style and activity between involved parties. The main ...

  2. Knowledge sharing in an Emerging Network of Practice: The Role of a Knowledge Portal

    P.J. van Baalen (Peter); J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses the emergence of networks of practice and the role of knowledge sharing via knowledge portals. Its focus is on factors that stimulate the successful emergence of networks of practice. Literature on knowledge management and communities of practice suggest the

  3. Students' Knowledge Sources and Knowledge Sharing in the Design Studio--An Exploratory Study

    Chiu, Sheng-Hsiao

    2010-01-01

    Architectural design is a knowledge-intensive activity; however, students frequently lack sufficient knowledge when they practice design. Collaborative learning can supplement the students' insufficient expertise. Successful collaborative learning relies on knowledge sharing between students. This implies that the peers are a considerable design…

  4. User observations on information sharing (corporate knowledge and lessons learned)

    Montague, Ronald A.; Gregg, Lawrence A.; Martin, Shirley A.; Underwood, Leroy H.; Mcgee, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The sharing of 'corporate knowledge' and lessons learned in the NASA aerospace community has been identified by Johnson Space Center survey participants as a desirable tool. The concept of the program is based on creating a user friendly information system that will allow engineers, scientists, and managers at all working levels to share their information and experiences with other users irrespective of location or organization. The survey addresses potential end uses for such a system and offers some guidance on the development of subsequent processes to ensure the integrity of the information shared. This system concept will promote sharing of information between NASA centers, between NASA and its contractors, between NASA and other government agencies, and perhaps between NASA and institutions of higher learning.

  5. KM Tools and Technologies that Share Distribute Knowledge

    Ileana Hauer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in information, primarily due to the electronic capture of data and its storage in vast data warehouses, has created a demand for analyzing the large amount of data generated by today’s organizations so that enterprise can respond quickly to fast changing markets. There are various tools and technologies that can be used to share and distribute knowledge, include e-mail, groupware, data mining ,expert systems and others. The paper outlines these technologies, which dominate the technical tools for sharing knowledge from an organizations data assets and finally. The case study, an Expert System, use expert knowledge to attain highlevel decision performance in a narrow domain.

  6. Employee participation in knowledge sharing and change solutions through enterprise social media

    Andersen, Mona Agerholm; Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette; Valentini, Chiara

    Purpose - This paper explores the relationship between the participative style of the immediate manager and employees’ motivation to participate on enterprise social media both in daily knowledge sharing activities and in relation to organizational change solutions. Methodology - This project.......046). Findings - The data shows a positive relationship between the participative style of the immediate manager and the employees’ motivation to participate on enterprise social media both in daily knowledge sharing activities and in creating and discussing change solutions. Key words: Internal social media...... is based on a quantitative study in a global Danish company with approximately 18,000 employees worldwide. The company has a strategic focus on implementing social collaboration platforms to create a global working culture. An online survey was conducted globally and a total of 1.046 employees replied (n=1...

  7. Methods for sharing tacit nuclear knowledge and expertise

    Hyttinen, L.; Rintala, N.

    2004-01-01

    The ageing of workforce, the lack of training programs and recruits, and the decline in R and D activities have evoked discussion about the need to preserve nuclear knowledge by transferring it from retiring experts to new recruits. Studies conducted in the nuclear and power industries have found that challenges lie especially in transferring tacit knowledge, which the experts have accumulated through long careers and various experiences in professional settings. This paper examines methods with which tacit knowledge is transferred at the Finnish nuclear power plants. The aim of this paper is to provide empirical knowledge of the current state of practices for sharing tacit knowledge that could be utilized at NPPs more generally. (author)

  8. Methods for sharing tacit nuclear knowledge and expertise

    Rintala, N.; Hyttinen, L.

    2006-01-01

    The ageing of workforce, the lack of training programmes and recruitments, and the decline in R and D activities have prompted discussions about the need to preserve nuclear knowledge by transferring it from retiring experts to new recruits. Studies conducted in the nuclear and power industries have found that challenges lie especially in transferring tacit knowledge, which the experts have accumulated over the course of long careers and various experiences in professional settings. This paper examines methods by which tacit knowledge is transferred at the Finnish nuclear power plants. The aim of this paper is to provide empirical knowledge of the current state of practices for sharing tacit knowledge that could be utilised at NPPs more generally. (author)

  9. Construction of a knowledge classification scheme for sharing and usage of knowledge

    Yoo, Jae Bok; Oh, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Ji Ho; Ko, Young Chul

    2003-12-01

    To efficiently share knowledge among our members on the basis of knowledge management system, first of all, we need to systematically design the knowledge classification scheme that we can classify these knowledge well. The objective of this project is to construct the most suitable knowledge classification scheme that all of us can share them in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). To construct the knowledge classification scheme all over the our organization, we established a few principles to design it and examined related many classification schemes. And we carried out 3 steps to complete the best desirable KAERI's knowledge classification scheme, that is, 1) the step to design a draft of the knowledge classification scheme, 2) the step to revise a draft of the knowledge classification scheme, 3) the step to verify the revised scheme and to decide its scheme. The scheme completed as a results of this project is consisted of total 218 items, that is, sections of 8 items, classes of 43 items and sub-classes of 167 items. We expect that the knowledge classification scheme designed as the results of this project can be played an important role as the frame to share knowledge among our members when we introduce knowledge management system in our organization. In addition, we expect that methods to design its scheme as well as this scheme itself can be applied when design a knowledge classification scheme at the other R and D institutes and enterprises

  10. Step by Step Implementation of Knowledge Sharing for Library In Indonesian

    Nove E. Variant Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Knowledge sharing banyak diyakini sebagai kegiatan yang mampu mendorong kreativitas dan terciptanya inovasi bagi sebuah organisasi. Banyak organisasi yang memiliki inisiatif menerapkan knowledge sharing demi terciptanya inovasi. Paper ini ingin memberikan wacana bagi perpustakaan yang ingin mengimplementasikan knowledge sharing di perpustakaan. Paper ini terdiri dari pemaparan dan analisis kondisi perpustakaan dan implementasi knowledge sharig di perpustakaan, teknologi yang mendukung knowledge sharing. Langkah-langkah yang bisa diimplementasikan dalam knowledge sharing antara lain dengan menciptakan leader dan champion, menciptakan budaya sharing dan trust antar pegawai, menciptakan office layout yang mendorong terjadinya kolaborasi, dan memberikan motivasi bagi para pegawai agar mau berpartisipasi dalam knowledge sharing. Metode yang digunakan pada paper ini adalah studi pustaka dengan menelusur sumber informasi baik dari jurnal, artikel, berita, studi kasus, dan standar terkait knowledge sharing.   Kata kunci: knowledge sharing, knowledge sharing di perpustakaan, perpustakaan, strategi knowledge sharing   Abstract. Knowledge sharing is believed to be an activity that is able to encourage creativity and create innovation in an organization. Many organizations have the initiative to implement knowledge sharing in order to create innovations. This paper proposes a discourse for libraries that want to implement knowledge sharing. This paper explains and analyzes the condition of the library and the implementation of knowledge sharing in the library and the technology that supports knowledge sharing. The steps that can be implemented in knowledge sharing include creating leaders and champions, creating sharing culture and trust among employees, creating office layout which encourage collaboration and motivating the employees to participate in knowledge sharing. This paper used literature study to search sources of information from

  11. Patterns of Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Creation in New Information Environments

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Meyer, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    and creation processes. The aim is to obtain a deeper comprehension of which factors determine whether the use of information technology becomes a success or a failure in relation to knowledge sharing and creation. The paper is based on three previous studies investigating the use of information technology......Do the knowledge sharing and creation processes in collaborating groups benefit from the use of new information environments or are the environments rather inhibitive to the development of these processes? A number of different studies have shown quite varied results when it comes to appraising...... the importance and value of using new information technology in knowledge sharing and creation processes. In this paper we will try to unveil the patterns appearing in the use of new information environment and the users' understanding of the significance of using information technology in knowledge sharing...

  12. A Foundation for Understanding Knowledge Sharing: Organizational Culture, Informal Workplace Learning, Performance Support, and Knowledge Management

    Caruso, Shirley J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper serves as an exploration into some of the ways in which organizations can promote, capture, share, and manage the valuable knowledge of their employees. The problem is that employees typically do not share valuable information, skills, or expertise with other employees or with the entire organization. The author uses research as well as…

  13. Challenge in Sharing Tacit Knowledge: Academicians’ Behavior towards Developing A Web Portal for Sharing Research Ideas

    Hafiza Adenan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Academicians’ collective memories soft information, such as research ideas, expertise, experiences, academic skills, know-what, know-how and know-why which inevitability it is considered should made accessible. The Higher Education Institution needs to identify, collect, classify, verbalize and diffuse the academicians’ soft information specifically research ideas present in the university for knowledge enrichment. This can be implemented by the academicians actively sharing their research ideas with others. Actively sharing research ideas by academicians will have great impact on the enrichment of their intellectual capability as most of the valuable knowledge resides in one’s brain. However, as there is no specific medium to bring their research ideas into the surface and be visible to others, the precious research ideas still remain in the academicians’ brains. Therefore, the objective of the study is to explore academicians’ behavior toward the development of a sharing research ideas web portal at private university colleges in Malaysia. This study used the qualitative method that is a multiple cases study. The study refers to four private university colleges in Malaysia. In-depth interview, focus group discussion and document analysis were formed the data collection for this study. The theory of Planned Behavior by Ajzen (1991 was used to determine academicians’ behavior. This study showed that the academicians’ attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control towards developing a web portal for sharing research ideas all affect their intention to share their research ideas with others.

  14. Cognition and Knowledge Sharing in Post-acquisition Integration

    Jaura, Manya; Michailova, Snejina

    2014-01-01

    conducted with ten respondents in four Indian IT companies that have acquired firms abroad. Findings: The authors find evidence for supporting the negative effect of in- and out-groups differentiation and the positive effect of interpersonal interaction on knowledge sharing among employees of the acquired...... of organisational objectives in a post-acquisition context. Managers should understand that the knowledge their employees possess is a strategic asset, and therefore how they use it is influential in attaining organisational goals in general, and acquisition integration objectives in particular. The creation...... of task- and project-related communities or groups can help in establishing a shared organisational identity, especially after the turbulent event of one company acquiring another one. The creation of communities or groups where socialisation is encouraged can lead to employees interacting with one...

  15. Enabling organisational learning and knowledge sharing through employee involvement

    Bjerrum, Eva; Dahl, Susanne

    In this paper we want to suggest that involving the employees in the development of the new workspaces is an important element in organisational learning and that it makes good sense to rethink space in order to support both tacit knowledge and collaboration. We want to argue that involving...... the employees in the design of their future workplace is key to giving the employee ownership for the change and may provide the organisation with invaluable ideas for the new work environment and the process of enabling organisational learning and knowledge sharing. We base our argument on a series of research...

  16. Importance of mutual benefits in online knowledge sharing communities

    Tian, Y.; Lau, L.M.S.; Dew, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The sustainability of knowledge sharing e-communities is a major issue at present. A hypothesis was\\ud proposed at the outset in the paper that the provision of mutual benefits among participants will lead to positive\\ud participation. Drawing from the economic and social theories, a framework for analysis was developed and tested in\\ud an empirical study. The preliminary results demonstrated a direct relationship between mutual benefits and the level\\ud of participation, and hence supported ...

  17. Evaluasi Pemanfaatan Media Sosial sebagai Sarana Knowledge Sharing

    Assegaff, Setiawan

    2017-01-01

    . The aim of this research is to evaluate the succsess of social media for knowledge sharing among academician in Indonesia in virtual group at Facebook. IS Success Model by Delone and McLean was apply as a basis theory along with individual characteristic factor. This study develops a research model with twelve hypotheses. Model and hypotheses then validated using data from online survey. Online Survey was conducted in a group of Indonesian academician. 160 questionnaires were collected from...

  18. Open knowledge coordinating knowledge sharing through peer-to-peer interaction

    Robertson, Dave; Giunchiglia, Fausto; Van Harmelen, Frank; Marchese, Maurizio; Sabou, Marta; Schorlemmer, Marco; Shadbolt, Nigel; Siebes, Ronnie; Sierra, Carles; Walton, Chris; Dasmahapatra, Srinandan; Dupplaw, Dave; Lewis, Paul; Yatskevich, Mikalai; Kotoulas, Spyros; De Pinninck, Adrian Perreau; Loizou, Antonis

    2008-01-01

    The drive to extend the Web by taking advantage of automated symbolic reasoning (the so-called Semantic Web) has been dominated by a traditional model of knowledge sharing, in which the focus is on task-independent standardisation of knowledge. It appears to be difficult, in practice, to standardise

  19. Threshold policy for global games with noisy information sharing

    Mahdavifar, Hessam

    2015-12-15

    It is known that global games with noisy sharing of information do not admit a certain type of threshold policies [1]. Motivated by this result, we investigate the existence of threshold-type policies on global games with noisy sharing of information and show that such equilibrium strategies exist and are unique if the sharing of information happens over a sufficiently noisy environment. To show this result, we establish that if a threshold function is an equilibrium strategy, then it will be a solution to a fixed point equation. Then, we show that for a sufficiently noisy environment, the functional fixed point equation leads to a contraction mapping, and hence, its iterations converge to a unique continuous threshold policy.

  20. Global and local knowledge networks in innovation

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    , of which global sources are considered most important to innovation, while the regional level basically provides a labour market. Firms are able to establish direct links to knowledge sources at all scales, and widely rely on ICT and their access to foreign customers. This questions the proximity...... hypothesis and the regional focus of industrial and regional innovation policies....

  1. Global Education Greenhouse: Constructing and Organizing Online Global Knowledge

    K. Kaun (Kaun); P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractEducation, and the knowledge it generates, is seen as a means to effective participation in societies and economies that are affected by globalization (UNESCO). The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2015) was declared by a Resolution of the General

  2. Beyond Our Borders? Public Resistance to Global Genomic Data Sharing.

    Mary A Majumder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prospects have never seemed better for a truly global approach to science to improve human health, with leaders of national initiatives laying out their vision of a worldwide network of related projects. An extensive literature addresses obstacles to global genomic data sharing, yet a series of public polls suggests that the scientific community may be overlooking a significant barrier: potential public resistance to data sharing across national borders. In several large United States surveys, university researchers in other countries were deemed the least acceptable group of data users, and a just-completed US survey found a marked increase in privacy and security concerns related to data access by non-US researchers. Furthermore, diminished support for sharing beyond national borders is not unique to the US, although the limited data from outside the US suggest variation across countries as well as demographic groups. Possible sources of resistance include apprehension about privacy and security protections. Strategies for building public support include making the affirmative case for global data sharing, addressing privacy, security, and other legitimate concerns, and investigating public concerns in greater depth.

  3. Sharing knowledge, shaping Europe US technological collaboration and nonproliferation

    Krige, John

    2016-01-01

    In the 1950s and the 1960s, U.S. administrations were determined to prevent Western European countries from developing independent national nuclear weapons programs. To do so, the United States attempted to use its technological pre-eminence as a tool of “soft power” to steer Western European technological choices toward the peaceful uses of the atom and of space, encouraging options that fostered collaboration, promoted nonproliferation, and defused challenges to U.S. technological superiority. In Sharing Knowledge, Shaping Europe, John Krige describes these efforts and the varying degrees of success they achieved. Krige explains that the pursuit of scientific and technological leadership, galvanized by America’s Cold War competition with the Soviet Union, was also used for techno-political collaboration with major allies. He examines a series of multinational arrangements involving shared technological platforms and aimed at curbing nuclear proliferation, and he describes the roles of the Department ...

  4. Why should I share my knowledge? A multiple foci of commitment perspective

    Swart, Juani; Kinnie, Nicholas; van Rossenberg, Yvonne Gerarda Theodora

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge-intensive firms need to leverage their individual knowledge assets via knowledge sharing to create collective knowledge resources. This process is, however, in the control of the knowledge worker. We explore this personal and emotive quality of knowledge sharing by asking: ‘How does emp...

  5. The challenges of knowledge sharing in practice a social approach

    Widen-Wulff, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    Addresses the key skills that are required in organisations in the information intensive society. The book examines the power of information behaviour on the construction of different kinds of shared knowledge and social identity in a group. An introduction to the different dimensions of social capital that is structural and cognitive, and looks at the relational aspects of information behaviour in organisations. Experiences are analysed in two different case studies - in the financial and biotechnology industries - in order to gain additional insights in how the internal organisation environm

  6. The impacts of network competence, knowledge sharing on service innovation performance: Moderating role of relationship quality

    Zaoquan Jian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine how network competence, knowledge sharing and relationship quality affect service innovation performanceDesign/methodology/approach: Empirical ResearchFindings: 1 Both enterprise’s network competence and knowledge sharing have distinct positive impact on SIP; (2 Knowledge sharing partially mediates the effect of network competence on SIP. (3 Relationship quality positively moderates the effect of network competence on knowledge sharing, and the effect of knowledge sharing on SIP. (4 Relationship quality does not positively moderate the effect of network competence on SIP.Originality/value: This study has enriched current understanding of the relationship among network competence, knowledge sharing, relationship quality and service innovation performance.

  7. The Development of Tacit Knowledge Sharing Behaviour among Employees in Organizations

    Miss Hathaiporn Mongkolajala

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the economic growth in Thailand, many organizations have recognized the importance of maintaining their employees’ knowledge and tried to create the knowledge sharing environment. In general, knowledge sharing is initiated from an individual level and extended to organizational level. Since knowledge sharing among employees is a procedure which passes on abilities and capabilities from one person to another. This study attempts to investigate the factors and relationships that influence tacit knowledge sharing behavior in an organizational context. Based on the widely accepted theory of reasoned action (TRA, we tried to develop a comprehensive model covering factors influencing intention to share both explicit and tacit knowledge. For the empirical validation, 270 responses from employees in private-sector organization in Thailand were collected via an online questionnaire. This research evaluated the influence of a series of potential factors on knowledge sharing behavior. Attitude toward knowledge sharing and subjective norms had a positive significant impact on intention to share explicit knowledge and also on intention to share tacit knowledge. In addition, intention to share explicit knowledge had direct significant relationship with intention to share tacit knowledge. Finally, intention to share tacit knowledge reflected a positive effect on knowledge sharing behavior.

  8. Effort sharing in ambitious, global climate change mitigation scenarios

    Ekholm, Tommi; Soimakallio, Sampo; Moltmann, Sara; Hoehne, Niklas; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2010-01-01

    The post-2012 climate policy framework needs a global commitment to deep greenhouse gas emission cuts. This paper analyzes reaching ambitious emission targets up to 2050, either -10% or -50% from 1990 levels, and how the economic burden from mitigation efforts could be equitably shared between countries. The scenarios indicate a large low-cost mitigation potential in electricity and industry, while reaching low emission levels in international transportation and agricultural emissions might prove difficult. The two effort sharing approaches, Triptych and Multistage, were compared in terms of equitability and coherence. Both approaches produced an equitable cost distribution between countries, with least developed countries having negative or low costs and more developed countries having higher costs. There is, however, no definitive solution on how the costs should be balanced equitably between countries. Triptych seems to be yet more coherent than other approaches, as it can better accommodate national circumstances. Last, challenges and possible hindrances to effective mitigation and equitable effort sharing are presented. The findings underline the significance of assumptions behind effort sharing on mitigation potentials and current emissions, the challenge of sharing the effort with uncertain future allowance prices and how inefficient markets might undermine the efficiency of a cap-and-trade system.

  9. Effort sharing in ambitious, global climate change mitigation scenarios

    Ekholm, Tommi [TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Moltmann, Sara; Hoehne, Niklas [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Cologne (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The post-2012 climate policy framework needs a global commitment to deep greenhouse gas emission cuts. This paper analyzes reaching ambitious emission targets up to 2050, either or from 1990 levels, and how the economic burden from mitigation efforts could be equitably shared between countries. The scenarios indicate a large low-cost mitigation potential in electricity and industry, while reaching low emission levels in international transportation and agricultural emissions might prove difficult. The two effort sharing approaches, Triptych and Multistage, were compared in terms of equitability and coherence. Both approaches produced an equitable cost distribution between countries, with least developed countries having negative or low costs and more developed countries having higher costs. There is, however, no definitive solution on how the costs should be balanced equitably between countries. Triptych seems to be yet more coherent than other approaches, as it can better accommodate national circumstances. Last, challenges and possible hindrances to effective mitigation and equitable effort sharing are presented. The findings underline the significance of assumptions behind effort sharing on mitigation potentials and current emissions, the challenge of sharing the effort with uncertain future allowance prices and how inefficient markets might undermine the efficiency of a cap-and-trade system. (author)

  10. The knowledge game - motivating knowledge sharing and testing organization policies in this concern

    Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Seixas, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    The ageing of nuclear experts and operating personnel and the lack of attractiveness of nuclear jobs to younger generation were emphasized as two of the most important factors that could jeopardize the preservation and sustainable development of the present body of nuclear knowledge worldwide. The willingness to share knowledge is at the inner core of any process involving transfer and dissemination of knowledge. This paper deals with the development of a tool to demonstrate the advantages of a culture inductive of knowledge sharing and cooperation from both the organization's and individual's viewpoints and coins the basics of reward policies that foster the development of desirable cultures. The Knowledge Game is a software tool to: (a) show the importance of sharing knowledge to both the individual and the organization; (b) demonstrate the fact that collaborative behaviors achieve higher payoffs in the long run; (c) test organizational rewards policies. It is an agent based modeling tool in which users may play with other humans and/or built in agents with fixed strategies. Payoff rules, simulation speed, number of players and their strategies and number of cycles are set before beginning the simulation. Plots display results in real time and output files can be generated for further analysis. Tests encompassing proof of concept and application confirm the game's great potential as a demonstration and policy testing tool. To test policies more effectively future implementations of intelligent agents coupled with fitness selection of players should be a very key lever. (author)

  11. Globalization And Knowledge Management In Projects

    Bubel Dagmara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is a field of management dealing with the use of knowledge, methods, and tools to effectively coordinate complex and unique projects. In accordance with this definition, project knowledge can be treated as a useful resource of information that allows projects to be implemented in compliance with its objectives: time, costs, and quality of results. Knowledge in the activity of an organization, including in the implementation of projects, has for many years been an area of interest to researchers, who confirmed its key importance for building permanent competitive advantages of companies and enterprises. In project management, this issue takes on a new character, as it is transferred to the field of dynamic, time restricted, temporary, and team-implemented projects. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a survey regarding the use of practices of knowledge management in projects in international organizations and to show that the concept of knowledge management in projects is a tool conducive to spreading the process of globalization.

  12. Data Use for School Improvement : Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Brokerage in Network Structures

    Hubers, Mireille Desirée; Moolenaar, Nienke; Schildkamp, Kim; Handelzalts, Adam; Pieters, Julius Marie; Daly, A.J.; Daly, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    Data teams are used in Dutch secondary education to support schools in data use for school improvement. Such teams are likely to be most effective when knowledge is shared between the data team members and brokered throughout the school. Social network structures may play an important role in this.

  13. The impact of downsizing on knowledge sharing in an airline company

    Nuril Kusumawardhani Soeprapto Putri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies are becoming more proactive towards changes in face of the turbulent environment. As the market becomes increasingly unpredictable, people are forced to develop their individual potentials for the sake of survival. Besides personal development, interaction among people through sharing of knowledge is equally critical. This paper discusses the impact of downsizing on knowledge sharing environment in an airline company. The findings reveal that employees had different views on the impact of downsizing on knowledge sharing. Their views were influenced by self-enthusiasm towards knowledge sharing. The availability of media for sharing also had an influence on knowledge sharing.

  14. Bridging the Science-Management Divide: Moving from Unidirectional Knowledge Transfer to Knowledge Interfacing and Sharing

    Dirk J. Roux

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable ecosystem management relies on a diverse and multi-faceted knowledge system in which techniques are continuously updated to reflect current understanding and needs. The challenge is to minimize delay as ideas flow from intent through scientific capability, and finally to implementation to achieve desired outcomes. The best way to do this is by setting the stage for the flow of knowledge between researchers, policy makers, and resource managers. The cultural differences between these groups magnify the challenge. This paper highlights the importance of the tacit dimension of knowledge, and how this renders the concept of knowledge transfer much less useful than the concepts of information transfer and technology transfer. Instead of knowledge transfer, we propose that "co-production" of knowledge through collaborative learning between "experts" and "users" is a more suitable approach to building a knowledge system for the sustainable management of ecosystems. This can be achieved through knowledge interfacing and sharing, but requires a shift from a view of knowledge as a "thing" that can be transferred to viewing knowledge as a "process of relating" that involves negotiation of meaning among partners. Lessons from informal communities of practice provide guidance on how to nurture and promote knowledge interfacing between science and management in R&D programs.

  15. Sharing and community curation of mass spectrometry data with Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking

    Wang, Mingxun; Carver, Jeremy J.; Pevzner, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    are well-suited to high-throughput characterization of NP, there is a pressing need for an infrastructure to enable sharing and curation of data. We present Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS; http://gnps.ucsd.edu), an open-access knowledge base for community-wide organization...... and sharing of raw, processed or identified tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry data. In GNPS, crowdsourced curation of freely available community-wide reference MS libraries will underpin improved annotations. Data-driven social-networking should facilitate identification of spectra and foster collaborations...

  16. Knowledge Sharing among Academics in Institutions of Higher Learning: A Research Agenda

    Ramayah, T.; Ignatius, Joshua; Leen, Jasmine Yeap Ai

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a research agenda for a funded research project on knowledge sharing among academics in Malaysia. One of the main objectives is to develop validate and measure of knowledge sharing which is suitable for academicians. Previous studies on knowledge sharing have used standard measurement items which do not cater for the multiple…

  17. Rating knowledge sharing in cross-domain collaborative filtering.

    Li, Bin; Zhu, Xingquan; Li, Ruijiang; Zhang, Chengqi

    2015-05-01

    Cross-domain collaborative filtering (CF) aims to share common rating knowledge across multiple related CF domains to boost the CF performance. In this paper, we view CF domains as a 2-D site-time coordinate system, on which multiple related domains, such as similar recommender sites or successive time-slices, can share group-level rating patterns. We propose a unified framework for cross-domain CF over the site-time coordinate system by sharing group-level rating patterns and imposing user/item dependence across domains. A generative model, say ratings over site-time (ROST), which can generate and predict ratings for multiple related CF domains, is developed as the basic model for the framework. We further introduce cross-domain user/item dependence into ROST and extend it to two real-world cross-domain CF scenarios: 1) ROST (sites) for alleviating rating sparsity in the target domain, where multiple similar sites are viewed as related CF domains and some items in the target domain depend on their correspondences in the related ones; and 2) ROST (time) for modeling user-interest drift over time, where a series of time-slices are viewed as related CF domains and a user at current time-slice depends on herself in the previous time-slice. All these ROST models are instances of the proposed unified framework. The experimental results show that ROST (sites) can effectively alleviate the sparsity problem to improve rating prediction performance and ROST (time) can clearly track and visualize user-interest drift over time.

  18. Anthropology, knowledge-flows and global health.

    Feierman, S; Kleinman, A; Stewart, K; Farmer, D; Das, V

    2010-01-01

    Global health programmes are damaged by blockages in the upward flow of information from localities and regional centres about realities of professional practice and about patients' lives and conditions of treatment. Power differentials between local actors and national or international decision-makers present further obstacles to effective action. Anthropological research and action, in its most effective current forms, make important contributions to these issues. This research often continues over the long term, intensively. It can be multi-sited, studying actors at local, national and international levels simultaneously. It studies the relative knowledge and power of impoverished patients and global decision-makers, all within a single frame. By doing so, anthropological research is capable of providing new and important insights on the diverse meanings of patient decision-making, informed consent, non-compliance, public health reporting, the building of political coalitions for health and many other issues.

  19. The Determination of Children's Knowledge of Global Lunar Patterns from Online Essays Using Text Mining Analysis

    Cheon, Jongpil; Lee, Sangno; Smith, Walter; Song, Jaeki; Kim, Yongjin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use text mining analysis of early adolescents' online essays to determine their knowledge of global lunar patterns. Australian and American students in grades five to seven wrote about global lunar patterns they had discovered by sharing observations with each other via the Internet. These essays were analyzed for…

  20. Accelerating knowledge discovery through community data sharing and integration.

    Yip, Y L

    2009-01-01

    To summarize current excellent research in the field of bioinformatics. Synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2009. The selection process for this yearbook's section on Bioinformatics results in six excellent articles highlighting several important trends First, it can be noted that Semantic Web technology continues to play an important role in heterogeneous data integration. Novel applications also put more emphasis on its ability to make logical inferences leading to new insights and discoveries. Second, translational research, due to its complex nature, increasingly relies on collective intelligence made available through the adoption of community-defined protocols or software architectures for secure data annotation, sharing and analysis. Advances in systems biology, bio-ontologies and text-ming can also be noted. Current biomedical research gradually evolves towards an environment characterized by intensive collaboration and more sophisticated knowledge processing activities. Enabling technologies, either Semantic Web or other solutions, are expected to play an increasingly important role in generating new knowledge in the foreseeable future.

  1. Knowledge sharing behaviour and demographic variables amongst secondary school teachers in and around Gaborone, Botswana

    Isaac C. Mogotsi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between knowledge sharing behaviour and the demographic variables gender, age, organisational tenure and professional tenure. Following a correlational survey approach, the study sourced its data from senior secondary school teachers in and around Gaborone, Botswana. Knowledge sharing behaviour was measured using an instrument sourced from the extant literature. No statistically significant relationship was detected between knowledge sharing behaviour and gender, age, or professional tenure. Only organisational tenure weakly negatively correlated with knowledge sharing behaviour. Thus, according to these findings, demographic variables do not appear to be important determinants of knowledge sharing behaviour.

  2. The knowledge game - motivating knowledge sharing and testing organization policies in this concern

    Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Seixas, Marcelo A., E-mail: barroso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The ageing of nuclear experts and operating personnel and the lack of attractiveness of nuclear jobs to younger generation were emphasized as two of the most important factors that could jeopardize the preservation and sustainable development of the present body of nuclear knowledge worldwide. The willingness to share knowledge is at the inner core of any process involving transfer and dissemination of knowledge. This paper deals with the development of a tool to demonstrate the advantages of a culture inductive of knowledge sharing and cooperation from both the organization's and individual's viewpoints and coins the basics of reward policies that foster the development of desirable cultures. The Knowledge Game is a software tool to: (a) show the importance of sharing knowledge to both the individual and the organization; (b) demonstrate the fact that collaborative behaviors achieve higher payoffs in the long run; (c) test organizational rewards policies. It is an agent based modeling tool in which users may play with other humans and/or built in agents with fixed strategies. Payoff rules, simulation speed, number of players and their strategies and number of cycles are set before beginning the simulation. Plots display results in real time and output files can be generated for further analysis. Tests encompassing proof of concept and application confirm the game's great potential as a demonstration and policy testing tool. To test policies more effectively future implementations of intelligent agents coupled with fitness selection of players should be a very key lever. (author)

  3. Knowledge sharing in Chinese hospitals identifying sharing barriers in traditional Chinese and Western medicine collaboration

    Zhou, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to identify, understand and qualify barriers to the patient-centred knowledge sharing (KS) in interprofessional practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Western Medicine (WM) healthcare professionals in Chinese hospitals.  This collaboration is particularly crucial and unique to China since, contrary to Western practice, these two types of professionals actually work together complimentary in the same hospital. This study adopted a Grounded Theory approach as the overarching methodology to guide the analysis of the data collected in a single case-study design.  A public hospital in central China was selected as the case-study site, at which 49 informants were interviewed by using semi-structured and evolving interview scripts.  The research findings point to five categories of KS barriers: contextual influences, hospital management, philosophical divergence, Chinese healthcare education and interprofessional training.  Further conceptualising the research findings, it is identifie...

  4. A comparability analysis of global burden sharing GHG reduction scenarios

    Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Saveyn, Bert; Soria, Antonio; Szabo, Laszlo; Van Regemorter, Denise; Van Ierland, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the mitigation burden across countries is a key issue regarding the post-2012 global climate policies. This article explores the economic implications of alternative allocation rules, an assessment made in the run-up to the COP15 in Copenhagen (December 2009). We analyse the comparability of the allocations across countries based on four single indicators: GDP per capita, GHG emissions per GDP, GHG emission trends in the recent past, and population growth. The multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model of the global economy, GEM-E3, is used for that purpose. Further, the article also compares a perfect carbon market without transaction costs with the case of a gradually developing carbon market, i.e. a carbon market with (gradually diminishing) transaction costs. - Highlights: ► Burden sharing of global mitigation efforts should consider equity and efficiency. ► The comparability of allocations across countries is based on four indicators. ► The four indicators are GDP/capita, GHG/GDP, population growth, and GHG trend. ► Any possible agreement on effort comparability needs a combination of indicators. ► We analyse the role played by the degree of flexibility in global carbon trading

  5. Epistemological Beliefs and Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: A New Model and Research Questions

    Weinberg, Frankie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge-sharing model that explains individual members' motivation to share knowledge (knowledge donation and knowledge collection). Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on social-constructivist theories of epistemological beliefs, learning and distributed cognition, and is organized…

  6. Knowledge Sharing Barriers of Acquisitioned Growth: A Case Study from a Software Company

    Marianne Kukko

    2013-03-01

    challenging task of managing such growth. The paper also contributes to the literature on knowledge management by defining knowledge sharing barriers in the context of acquisitioned growth in the software business. A contribution to growth literature is made by touching on the issue of the management of acquisitions from the perspective of knowledge management, and especially knowledge sharing.

  7. Framework for managing shared knowledge in an information systems outsourcing context

    Smuts, H

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Both information systems (IS) outsourcing and knowledge management are well-established business phenomena. The integration of shared knowledge in an IS outsourcing arrangement, represents the blending of organisational knowledge with external...

  8. Knowledge Sharing as a Social Dilemma in Pharmaceutical Innovation.

    Kim, Daria

    This article addresses the problem of restricted access to industry-sponsored clinical trial data. In particular, it analyzes the intersection of the competing claims that mandatory disclosure of pharmaceutical test data impedes drug sponsors’ innovation incentives and that access facilitates new drug development. These claims are characterized in terms of public-good and common-resource dilemmas. The analysis finds confidentiality protection of primary research data plays an ambiguous role. While secrecy, as such, does not solve the public-good problem in pharmaceutical innovation (in the presence of regulatory instruments that protect the originator drug against generic competition), it is likely to exacerbate the common-resource problem, in view of data as a source of scientific knowledge. It is argued that the claim by the research-based industry that disclosure of clinical data impedes innovation incentives is misplaced and should not be leveraged against pro-access policies. While much attention has been paid to the problem of appropriability of drug R&D investment, this analysis highlights another consequence resulting from the private provision of clinical trials, i.e., factual confidentiality and possession of data by drug sponsors. The associated social costs are qualified in terms of internalized knowledge externalities. Since, in a competitive environment, companies are unlikely to change the strategy of non-sharing of primary data, the resulting economic inefficiencies at the sector level call for regulatory intervention. To reconcile the competing policy objectives, it is proposed that the rules of access should be designed in such a way that third-party use of primary data does not interfere with protection against generic competition. At the same time, the long-term collective benefit can be maximized when the “cooperative choice” (i.e., when everyone shares data) becomes the “dominant strategy.” This can be achieved only when access is

  9. D and D knowledge management information tool - a web based system developed to share D and D knowledge worldwide

    Lagos, L.; Upadhyay, H.; Shoffner, P. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler Street,EC2100, Miami, FL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    to their problem areas by using the vast resources and knowledge base available throughout the global D and D community. The D and D KM-IT offers a mechanism to the global D and D community for searching relevant D and D information and is focused on providing a single point of access into the collective knowledge base of the D and D community within and outside of the DOE. Collecting information from subject matter specialists, it builds a knowledge repository for future reference archiving Lessons Learned, Best Practices, ALARA reports, and other relevant documents and maintains a secured collaboration platform for the global D and D community to share knowledge. With the dynamic nature and evolution of the D and D knowledge base due to multiple factors such as changes in the workforce, new technologies and methodologies, economics, and regulations, the D and D KM-IT is being developed in a phased and modular fashion. (authors)

  10. D and D knowledge management information tool - a web based system developed to share D and D knowledge worldwide

    Lagos, L.; Upadhyay, H.; Shoffner, P.

    2013-01-01

    to their problem areas by using the vast resources and knowledge base available throughout the global D and D community. The D and D KM-IT offers a mechanism to the global D and D community for searching relevant D and D information and is focused on providing a single point of access into the collective knowledge base of the D and D community within and outside of the DOE. Collecting information from subject matter specialists, it builds a knowledge repository for future reference archiving Lessons Learned, Best Practices, ALARA reports, and other relevant documents and maintains a secured collaboration platform for the global D and D community to share knowledge. With the dynamic nature and evolution of the D and D knowledge base due to multiple factors such as changes in the workforce, new technologies and methodologies, economics, and regulations, the D and D KM-IT is being developed in a phased and modular fashion. (authors)

  11. Knowledge Sharing Behavior in E-Communities: from the Perspective of Transaction Cost Theory

    Teresa L. Ju; Szu-Yuan Sun; Pei-Ju Chao; Chang-Yao Wu

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to examine the factors affecting knowledge sharing behavior in knowledge-based electronic communities (e-communities) because quantity and quality of knowledge shared among the members play a critical role in the community-s sustainability. Past research has suggested three perspectives that may affect the quantity and quality of knowledge shared: economics, social psychology, and social ecology. In this study, we strongly believe that an economic perspective ma...

  12. Knowledge Sharing: Two-Dimensional Motivation Perspective and the Role of Demographic Variables

    Aamir Amin; Mohd Fadzil Hassan; Mazeyanti Bt. Mohd Ariffin; Mobashar Rehman

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) efforts cannot be successful unless employees open their minds to share their valuable knowledge. Knowledge sharing is a voluntary act which requires an individual's motivation. Based on the notion that an individual's motivation is of two types, namely intrinsic and extrinsic, a framework of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators of knowledge sharing was presented at the International Symposium on Information Technology (ITSIM) in June 2010, in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. Th...

  13. A Qualitative Approach to Examining Knowledge Sharing in Iran Tax Administration Reform Program

    Mehdi Shami Zanjanie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine knowledge sharing infrastructure of "Iran Tax Administration Reform Program". The qualitative approach by using case study method was applied in this research. In order to meet the research goal, four infrastructural dimensions of knowledge sharing were studied: leadership & strategy, culture, structure, and information technology. To the authors’ knowledge, this was maybe the first paper which examined knowledge sharing infrastructure in programs environment

  14. International Nuclear Information System: Researchers' Platform for Knowledge Sharing

    Mohd Hafizal Yusof; Habibah Adnan; Samsurdin Ahamad

    2011-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an organization under the United Nations (UN), which serves to disseminate accurate information about the nuclear world. In accordance with its role, an International Nuclear Information System (INIS) was established in 1970, provides the opportunities for member countries under the auspices of the IAEA to share information, expertise and knowledge, particularly in the nuclear field. Malaysia has become a member since 1978, and the first country input was posted in the 1980's. INIS member countries are supervised by a specially appointed liaison officers to monitor and oversee matters related to that. Each issue is associated with 49 subject matter (subject heading) will be checked and recorded by using Win fibre before being sent to the INIS database at IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria. Material received will be distributed directly to all IAEA member states through the INIS web site and CD distribution to subscribers countries. Today, INIS is still a successful nuclear-related information provider through nearly 3 million data have been recorded including journals, reports, scientific papers, patents, nuclear laws, the web sites contents, and many more. (author)

  15. Knowledge sharing and affective commitment: the mediating role of psychological ownership

    Li, Jian; Yuan, Ling; Ning, Lutao

    2015-01-01

    and key knowledge sharing, while KPO exerted a negative impact on both; common knowledge sharing was positively related to key knowledge sharing; the relationship between affective commitment and key knowledge sharing was multi-mediated by OPO and common knowledge sharing. Originality/value – OPO and KPO....../methodology/approach – This paper is an empirical study based on structural equation modelling, with a sample of 293 employees from 31 high-technology firms in China. Findings – The result indicated that affective commitment had a significant positive effect on OPO but no effect on KPO; OPO was positively related to both common......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the meditating role of psychological ownership which includes both organisation-based psychological ownership (OPO) and knowledge-based psychological ownership (KPO) on the relationship between affective commitment and knowledge sharing. Design...

  16. Toward a Conceptual Model for Social Mechanisms Enabling Knowledge Sharing: Dynamic Relationships among Three Dimensions of Social Capital

    Jo, Sung Jun

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge sharing is important because individual knowledge is not transformed into organizational knowledge until it is shared. The conceptual model presents how social factors create the conditions for effective knowledge sharing. It illustrates how three dimensions of social capital impact with each other and with knowledge sharing. Social…

  17. Creation and Sharing of Environmental Knowledge across Communities and Networks

    Søndergård, Bent; Hansen, Ole Erik; Holm, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Environmental communication is analysed with reference an understanding of knowledge as situated enacted practice. Exchange of environmental knowledge is conceptualised as processes of creating and transfer/translation of knowledge in and between communities of practices and as conditioned...

  18. Effects of Peer-Tutor Competences on Learner Cognitive Load and Learning Performance during Knowledge Sharing

    Hsiao, Ya-Ping; Brouns, Francis; van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    In Learning Networks, learners need to share knowledge with others to build knowledge. In particular, when working on complex tasks, they often need to acquire extra cognitive resources from others to process a high task load. However, without support high task load and organizing knowledge sharing themselves might easily overload learners'…

  19. An Empirical Inquiry on Knowledge Sharing among Academicians in Higher Learning Institutions

    Ramayah, T.; Yeap, Jasmine A. L.; Ignatius, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Universities are expected to be places where knowledge is shared freely among academicians. However, the reality shows that knowledge sharing is barely present within universities these days. As Malaysia shifts towards building a knowledge-based society, academic institutions, particularly the public universities, now face ever-growing faculty…

  20. Tacit Knowledge Sharing Modes of University Teachers from the Perspectives of Psychological Risk and Value

    Yu, Dengke; Zhou, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Tacit knowledge sharing (TKS) is important to improve the teaching skill and researching knowledge of university teachers. In this paper, the tacit knowledge sharing of university teachers is catalogued as four modes from perspectives of the psychological risk and psychological value which are measured by two grades--high and low. The four modes…

  1. Knowledge Sharing and Dialogue among Information Technology Workers: A Case Study Using a Public Works Department

    Harrison, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    The problem addressed in this study is the willingness or reluctance of information technology (IT) knowledge workers and managers to share knowledge. The purpose of the study was to examine the willingness or unwillingness of technical personnel in IT to share technical knowledge and the issues surrounding their reluctance, if any. The study…

  2. Employee Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: Effects of Team Diversity, Emergent States, and Team Leadership

    Noh, Jae Hang

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing in work teams is one of the critical team processes. Without sharing of knowledge, work teams and organizations may not be able to fully utilize the diverse knowledge brought into work teams by their members. The purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents and underlying mechanisms influencing the extent to which team…

  3. Analysis of Knowledge-Sharing Evolutionary Game in University Teacher Team

    Huo, Mingkui

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge-sharing activity is a major drive force behind the progress and innovation of university teacher team. Based on the evolutionary game theory, this article analyzes the knowledge-sharing process model of this team, studies the influencing mechanism of various factors such as knowledge aggregate gap, incentive coefficient and risk…

  4. An Effective Assessment of Knowledge Sharing and E-Learning Portals

    Subramanian, D. Venkata; Geetha, Angelina; Shankar, P.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, most of the companies have increasingly realized the importance of the knowledge sharing portal and E-Learning portals to provide competitive knowledge for their employees. The knowledge stored in these portals varies from technical, process and project knowledge functional or domain specific knowledge to face the competitiveness…

  5. How do rewards and management styles influence the motivation to share knowledge?

    Harder, Mie

    2008-01-01

    How to motivate knowledge sharing is of crucial importance to many companies. This paper analyzes individual knowledge sharing behavior in a self-determination theory (SDT) perspective. The primary aim is to explore what type of motivation predicts knowledge sharing behavior and how this type of motivation is affected by reward structures and management styles in organizations. The paper builds on survey and interview data from a pilot case study and provides statistical evidence of a strong ...

  6. The Relationship between Humanness and Knowledge Sharing in Malaysia Empirical Evidence from Malaysian Managers

    Boom, Ilona H.; Pennink, Bartjan W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores whether there is a relationship between humanness and the willingness to share knowledge in Malaysia. Furthermore, the differences between the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnicities are researched for the presence of humanness and the willingness to share knowledge. Two hundred and fourteen respondents from privately owned companies participated in this research showing that there is a strong relationship between humanness and knowledge sharing. However, the differences bet...

  7. Knowledge Sharing via Social Networking Platforms in Organizations

    Kettles, Degan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge Management Systems have been actively promoted for decades within organizations but have frequently failed to be used. Recently, deployments of enterprise social networking platforms used for knowledge management have become commonplace. These platforms help harness the knowledge of workers by serving as repositories of knowledge as well…

  8. Sharing and Cultivating Tacit Knowledge in an Online Learning Environment

    Tee, Meng Yew; Karney, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Research on knowledge cultivation often focuses on explicit forms of knowledge. However, knowledge can also take a tacit form--a form that is often difficult or impossible to tease out, even when it is considered critical in an educational context. A review of the literature revealed that few studies have examined tacit knowledge issues in online…

  9. Knowledge Sharing for Climate Change Adaptation in Africa | CRDI ...

    This project aims to put in place a vast mechanism for sharing information on climate change adaptation across the continent of Africa. The interactive network will be a platform for exchange of ideas, debate and information sharing between diverse actors (communities, researchers, development practitioners, ...

  10. Knowledge Sharing for Climate Change Adaptation in Africa | IDRC ...

    This project aims to put in place a vast mechanism for sharing information on climate change adaptation across the continent of Africa. The interactive network will be a platform for exchange of ideas, debate and information sharing between diverse actors (communities, researchers, development practitioners, ...

  11. Knowledge Sharing, Communities of Practice, and Learning Asset Integration - DAU's Major Initiatives

    Hickok, John

    2005-01-01

    .... What follows is an overview of Knowledge Sharing through the eyes of the Defense Acquisition University, along with some new initiatives called Learning Asset Integration and Workflow Learning...

  12. The Design of Individual Knowledge Sharing Platform Based on Blog for Online Information Literacy Education

    Qun, Zeng; Xiaocheng, Zhong

    Knowledge sharing means that an individual, team and organization share the knowledge with other members of the organization in the course of activities through the various ways. This paper analyzes the obstacle factors in knowledge sharing based on the technical point, and chooses the Blog technology to build a platform for improving knowledge sharing between individuals. The construction of the platform is an important foundation for information literacy education, and it also can be used to achieve online information literacy education. Finally, it gives a detailed analysis of its functions, advantages and disadvantages.

  13. A CONCEPT: FACTORS INFLUENCING SHARING TACIT KNOWLEDGE IN PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATION

    Kurniawati D.T.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sharing tacit knowledge is a personal and more practical knowledge sharing based on someone's experience and skill. This research aimed to determine the process of sharing tacit knowledge in a public sector organization by putting several variables of organizational culture and servant leadership as antecedent and trust as mediation. This research was a combination of the previous model; it did not appear a new basis theory since it was an interaction of the previous research but more focusing on government organization. This research was practically expected to provide information to government organization on the factors influencing sharing tacit knowledge.

  14. The impact of emotional intelligence on faculty members' knowledge sharing behaviors

    Masoomeh Arabshahi,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Universities and institutions of higher education with a professional, special, educational and cultural environment, play an important role in effective knowledge management and preparing the background for knowledge sharing. Faculty members are known as the main elements of the university who own mental and intellectual property. Their knowledge sharing under certain conditions along with knowledge sharing behaviors improve individual and organizational operations. Moreover, the tendency to do these actions is the most important factor in knowledge sharing behavior and emotional intelligence (EQ, as one of the social intelligence factors, can guide individual thinking and activity. This study examines the impact of emotional intelligence on faculty members' knowledge sharing behaviors. Regarding the purpose and nature, this study was functional and its methodology was exploratory and due to evaluation of the relations and impacts among variables, it was a correlational method. Data collection included interviews with experts for the qualitative part and a questionnaire for the quantitative part. The qualitative findings indicate different emotional intelligence dimensions, which includes self-awareness, social skills, coping with pressure, adaptability and overall creation. In addition, the result of EQ dimensions on knowledge sharing behavior reveal that “social skills, coping with pressure, and overall creation” share a link with faculty members' research behavior among the four dimensions of knowledge sharing behavior and that “adaptability” has no significant relationship with knowledge sharing behavior.

  15. ASTER Global DEM contribution to GEOSS demonstrates open data sharing

    Sohre, T.; Duda, K. A.; Meyer, D. J.; Behnke, J.; Nasa Esdis Lp Daac

    2010-12-01

    across all the GEOSS Societal Benefit areas was shown. The release of the global tiled research-grade DEM resulted in a significant increase in demand for ASTER elevation models, and increased awareness of related products. No cost access to these data has also promoted new applications of remotely sensed data, increasing their use across the full range of the GEOSS societal benefit areas. In addition, the simplified data access and greatly expanded pool of users resulted in a number of suggestions from researchers in many disciplines for possible enhancements to future versions of the ASTER GDEM. The broad distribution of the product can be directly attributed to the adoption of fundamental GEOSS data sharing principles, which are directed toward expanded access by minimizing time delay and cost, thus facilitating data use for education, research, and a range of other applications. The ASTER GDEM demonstrated the need and user demand for an improved global DEM product as well as the added benefit of not only “full and open” distribution, but “free and open” distribution.

  16. What impedes knowledge sharing in culturally diverse organizations: Asking ethnographic questions

    Lauring, Jakob; Madsen, Mona Toft

    Ideas of linking cultural diversity and knowledge resources have recently gained momentum. However, only little research has empirically addressed the issues of knowledge sharing in diverse organizations. This explorative article is based on an ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish organization...

  17. A Study on Employee Behavior Intention of Knowledge Sharing in a R&D Organization

    Cheng-Hui Chin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the relations-hips among external variables, internal variables, and employee intention of knowledge sharing in the Theory of Planned Behavior. Industrial Technology Research Institute in Taiwan is chosen as the case under study. A questionnaire survey has been done respectively in two research groups which represent senior R&D employee and members in community of practice of knowledge management, in order to find out the major determinants of employee intention of knowledge sharing. In conclusion, it has positive influences on employee intention of knowledge sharing by reinforcing the cooperative work relationship within employees and activating altruistic motive of knowledge sharing. In addition, it is helpful for knowledge sharing contexture by building up a trustful organizational culture and adopting proper managerial system.[Article content in Chinese

  18. Coping with the knowledge sharing barriers in Product Service Systems design

    Bertoni, Marco; Larsson, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the knowledge sharing process that characterizes Product Service Systems (PSS) design, drawing on data from an in-depth study in the Swedish manufacturing industry. It categorizes and describes the most relevant knowledge sharing barriers affecting early PSS development phases, discussing them in terms of capabilities to be included in a knowledge engineering system to fulfil the increasing need for knowledge in product-service design. To cope with these barriers, the auth...

  19. Description of dynamic shared knowledge: an exploratory study during a competitive team sports interaction.

    Bourbousson, J; Poizat, G; Saury, J; Seve, C

    2011-02-01

    This exploratory case study describes the sharedness of knowledge within a basketball team (nine players) and how it changes during an official match. To determine how knowledge is mobilised in an actual game situation, the data were collected and processed following course-of-action theory (Theureau 2003). The results were used to characterise the contents of the shared knowledge (i.e. regarding teammate characteristics, team functioning, opponent characteristics, opposing team functioning and game conditions) and to identify the characteristic types of change: (a) the reinforcement of a previous element of shared knowledge; (b) the invalidation of an element of shared knowledge; (c) fragmentation of an element of shared knowledge; (d) the creation of a new element of shared knowledge. The discussion deals with the diverse types of change in shared knowledge and the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of common ground within the team. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The present case study focused on how the cognitions of individual members of a team coordinate to produce a team performance (e.g. surgical teams in hospitals, military teams) and how the shared knowledge changes during team activity. Traditional methods to increase knowledge sharedness can be enhanced by making use of 'opportunities for coordination' to optimise team adaptiveness.

  20. Big Data Knowledge in Global Health Education.

    Olayinka, Olaniyi; Kekeh, Michele; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; Akpinar-Elci, Muge

    The ability to synthesize and analyze massive amounts of data is critical to the success of organizations, including those that involve global health. As countries become highly interconnected, increasing the risk for pandemics and outbreaks, the demand for big data is likely to increase. This requires a global health workforce that is trained in the effective use of big data. To assess implementation of big data training in global health, we conducted a pilot survey of members of the Consortium of Universities of Global Health. More than half the respondents did not have a big data training program at their institution. Additionally, the majority agreed that big data training programs will improve global health deliverables, among other favorable outcomes. Given the observed gap and benefits, global health educators may consider investing in big data training for students seeking a career in global health. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Higher Education and Knowledge Sharing: From Ivory Tower to Twenty-First Century

    Buckley, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge is the driving force of a knowledge economy. Therefore, the way knowledge is shared and created and the way these actions are managed could lead to either a competitive advantage for an organisation or it could lead to its demise. Managing especially academics' knowledge to the benefit of all can be even a greater challenge to any…

  2. The impact of organizational culture on knowledge sharing

    Poul Sahar Khazaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between knowledge management and organizational culture, adopting the view of knowledge. Understanding how different cultural types are associated with specific knowledge management should shed light on how the relationship between organizational culture and knowledge management is manifested in the choices of organizations. For this research, the quantitative research design will be used. A survey questionnaire will be employed in achieving the objectives of this research. Results indicate that successful KM application should go beyond the operational side into social, human and organizational aspects to create individual commitment towards KM implementation. This discussion also emphasizes the importance of the collective knowledge and knowledge network concepts on the organizational level.

  3. Media Richness, Knowledge sharing and computer progamming by virtual Software teams

    Williams, Idongesit; Gyamfi, Albert

    2018-01-01

    Software programming is a task with high analysability. However, knowledge sharing is an intricate part of the software programming process. Today, new media platforms have been adopted to enable knowledge sharing between virtual teams. Taking into consideration the high task analyzability and th...

  4. Organizational Culture as Determinant of Knowledge Sharing Practices of Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the influence of organisational culture on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The study hypothesized the impact of various aspects of organisational culture on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The data required for the…

  5. Innovative knowledge sharing, supply chain integration and firm performance of Australian manufacturing firms

    Singh, Prakash J.; Power, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A number of reports show that innovation in Australian manufacturing firms is declining. We propose that better knowledge sharing practices can assist these firms to become more innovative. In this paper, we examine this proposition by empirically testing the relationship between knowledge sharing

  6. The Content and Implementation of Shared Professional Knowledge in Early Childhood Education

    Melasalmi, Anitta; Husu, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the sociocultural view, shared knowledge is regarded as a basis for interdependent working and multi-professional learning in early childhood education. Shared professional knowledge can be seen as a central element in successful collaboration facilitating individual and collaborative professional learning. This study aims to…

  7. What one feels and what one knows: The influence of emotions on knowledge sharing

    van den Hooff, B.J.; Schouten, A.P.; Simonovski, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide theoretical and empirical insight into the relationship between emotions and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: Hypotheses concerning the influence of pride and empathy on knowledge sharing attitudes and intentions are developed, based on prior

  8. Breaking the Myths of Rewards: An Exploratory Study of Attitudes about Knowledge Sharing.

    Bock, Gee-Woo; Kim, Young-Gul

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of organizational knowledge sharing focuses on a study of Korean public organizations that investigated factors affecting the individual's knowledge sharing behavior. Highlights include social exchange theory; self-efficacy; theory of reasoned action; and hypothesis testing that showed expected associations and contribution, rather than…

  9. Knowledge-Sharing Intention among Information Professionals in Nigeria: A Statistical Analysis

    Tella, Adeyinka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researcher administered a survey and developed and tested a statistical model to examine the factors that determine the intention of information professionals in Nigeria to share knowledge with their colleagues. The result revealed correlations between the overall score for intending to share knowledge and other…

  10. Conceptualising Online Knowledge Sharing: What Teachers' Perceptions Can Tell Us

    Hood, Nina

    2017-01-01

    This study questions the current dependence on theories of social learning and communities of practice in research on teachers' online learning and online knowledge-sharing behaviour. It employs the interpretative approach to examine how teachers conceptualise their engagement with two USA-based online knowledge-sharing platforms within the…

  11. The relation between humans and knowledge sharing in Malaysia : Empirical evidence from Malaysian managers

    Boom, I.; Pennink, Barteld

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores whether there is a relationship between humanness and the willingness to share knowledge in Malaysia. Furthermore, the differences between the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnicities are researched for the presence of humanness and the willingness to share knowledge. Two hundred

  12. Using ePortfolio-Based Learning Approach to Facilitate Knowledge Sharing and Creation among College Students

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Chou, Pao-Nan; Liang, Chaoyan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of the ePortfolio-based learning approach (ePBLA) on knowledge sharing and creation with 92 college students majoring in electrical engineering as the participants. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with a covariance of pretest on knowledge sharing and creation was conducted…

  13. THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING ON INNOVATION CAPABILITY

    Dhyah Harjanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research examines social capital and knowledge sharing effect on innovation capability among lectures in universities. Social capital was analyzed using three constructs, namely trust, norm and network, while knowledge sharing was broken down into two variables, namely knowledge collecting and knowledge donating. Innovation capability was explained on an individual level based on personality, behavioral and output perspectives. The research model and hypotheses were developed from the literature. Data collection is conducted through a survey on lecturers of private universities in Surabaya. The obtained data from the questionnaires were analyzed with the Partial Least Square (PLS to investigate the research model. The results suggest that social capital significantly influences innovation capability, while high level of knowledge collecting and knowledge donating can lead to high level of innovation capability. This study offers a foundation to analyze the relationships between social capital, knowledge-sharing process, consisting of knowledge collecting and knowledge donating, and innovation capability

  14. Managing opportunities in the global knowledge society

    Nielsen, Sven Hvid

    2007-01-01

    It is commonplace these days to say that knowledge is the most critical asset to be managed. Yet not many people - particularly not practitioners - invest very much time in learning about what knowledge really is and how different knowledge management (KM) is from information management (IM...

  15. Tacit Knowledge Transfer through Global Narratives

    G. Touburg (Giorgio); C.I.S.G. Lee (Colin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractA central topic in the knowledge management literature is the distinction between codified and tacit knowledge: the former refers to knowledge that is easily transmittable through formal, systematic language and communicated through blueprints, maps, manuals and similar formats, the

  16. Why does site visit matter in global software development: A knowledge-based perspective

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Face-to-Face (F2F) interaction is a strong means to foster social relationships and effective knowledge sharing within a team. However, communication in Global Software Development (GSD) teams is usually restricted to computer-mediated conversation that is perceived to be less effective...

  17. Knowledge Sharing Among Tourists via Social Media: A Comparison Between Facebook and TripAdvisor

    Okazaki Ono, Shintaro; Andreu, Luisa; Campo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines tourists’ knowledge sharing behavior in social media. Based on social capital theory, we aim to examine the effects of three dimensions of social capital—structural (social interaction ties), cognitive (shared vision), and relational (trust)—for two different types of social media: Facebook and TripAdvisor. We propose a structural model that connects an antecedent (homophily) and a consequence (knowledge sharing through posting) of these main dimensions of social capital. ...

  18. Knowledge silos: assessing knowledge sharing between specialties through the vestibular schwannoma literature.

    Schnurman, Zane; Golfinos, John G; Roland, J Thomas; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE It is common for a medical disorder to be managed or researched by individuals who work within different specialties. It is known that both neurosurgeons and neurotologists manage vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. While overlap in specialty focus has the potential to stimulate multidisciplinary collaboration and innovative thinking, there is a risk of specialties forming closed-communication loops, called knowledge silos, which may inhibit knowledge diffusion. This study quantitatively assessed knowledge sharing between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the subject of VS. METHODS A broad Web of Science search was used to download details for 4439 articles related to VS through 2016. The publishing journal's specialty and the authors' specialties (based on author department) were determined for available articles. All 114,647 of the article references were categorized by journal specialty. The prevalence of several VS topics was assessed using keyword searches of titles. RESULTS For articles written by neurosurgeons, 44.0% of citations were from neurosurgery journal articles and 23.4% were from otolaryngology journals. The citations of otolaryngology authors included 11.6% neurosurgery journals and 56.5% otolaryngology journals. Both author specialty and journal specialty led to more citations of the same specialty, though author specialty had the largest effect. Comparing the specialties' literature, several VS topics had significantly different levels of coverage, including radiosurgery and hearing topics. Despite the availability of the Internet, there has been no change in the proportions of references for either specialty since 1997 (the year PubMed became publicly available). CONCLUSIONS Partial knowledge silos are observed between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the topic of VS, based on the peer-reviewed literature. The increase in access provided by the Internet and searchable online databases has not decreased specialty reference bias

  19. The effect of organizational justice on knowledge sharing: Empirical evidence from the Chinese telecommunications sector

    Tayyaba Akram

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the impact of organizational justice on knowledge sharing among employees of Chinese telecommunications firms. The study focused on five forms of organizational justice (distributive, procedural, interactional, temporal, and spatial and two forms of knowledge sharing (donating and collecting. A self-administered questionnaire yielded data for 245 employees. The data were analyzed using a two-step process in Amos 21. First, the measurement model was determined through CFA. Second, SEM was applied to test the hypotheses. The results suggest that if employees have positive perceptions of distributive, procedural, interactional, and temporal justice, they are intrinsically encouraged to share their knowledge with colleagues. Spatial justice, however, was found to affect knowledge sharing negatively and significantly. In an organizational work context, each form of organizational justice has a unique contribution toward knowledge sharing. Therefore, all forms of organizational justice should be considered.

  20. Knowledge Management: A Conceptual Platform for the Sharing of Ideas.

    Mahdjoubi, Darius; Harmon, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    The concept of the learning organization and intellectual capital were instrumental in the beginning stage of knowledge management, about 1995. From the spontaneous combination of these two fields, the modern concept of knowledge management as a conceptual platform emerged. The seven main fields that are so far most intimately connected to…

  1. Impact of effective knowledge sharing on outsourcing performance

    Khan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Outsourcing projects are far more strategically-inclined in today's post-industrial knowledge economy than in the past decades. This leads to a tight inter-reliance between the client and vendor - inevitably requiring that they be constantly aware of each other's knowledge needs and requirements.

  2. Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Change in Higher Education

    Dee, Jay; Leisyte, Liudvika

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Organizational learning in higher education institutions depends upon the ability of managers and academics to maintain a flow of knowledge across the structural boundaries of the university. This paper aims to understand the boundary conditions that foster or impede the flow of knowledge during organizational change at a large public…

  3. Knowledge sharing and organizational performance: an agent-mediated

    Dignum, M.V.

    2007-01-01

    Organizational effectiveness depends on many factors, including excellence, effective planning and capability to understand and match context requirements. Moreover, organizational performance cannot be just evaluated in economic or other global terms, but it must consider values of the

  4. Knowledge sharing and innovation in relationships interorganizational type of information technology outsourcing

    Roberta Rodrigues Faoro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: this paper presents an analysis of the sharing of knowledge and innovation in the inter-relationships of the type outsourcing of Information Technology. Objective: analyze the existence of relationship between knowledge sharing and innovation in the inter-relationships of the type of outsourcing information technology (IT. Methodology: research is exploratory, qualitative and using as a strategy the multiple case study, which analyzed 12 companies in IT outsourcing environments, 4 suppliers of IT and IT 8 client companies. Data were collected through semi structured interviews, documentary and direct observation. Results: it can be noted that the sharing of knowledge showed contribute to the existence of innovation in IT outsourcing environment. The suppliers prioritize the codification of shared knowledge, while customers prefer the sharing of knowledge through informal conversations. It was identified that the motives for outsourcing IT may be related to the sharing of knowledge and innovation. Conclusions: this research contributes to the advancement of knowledge about the knowledge and innovation sharing phenomena in outsourcing of IT environments.

  5. Investigating issues influencing knowledge sharing in a research organization, using the Appreciative Inquiry Method

    Hart, Penny

    2013-01-01

    This research contributes to the literature on the subjective experience of knowledge sharing from the perspective of those actively engaged in it. The sharing of knowledge in organizations is influenced by interconnecting factors, including organizational mission, the use made of information technology, and the motivation of individuals. Much of the existing literature takes a reductionist approach to investigating these, treating knowledge as an asset and humans as rational beings. A re...

  6. Knowledge sharing via social media in software development: a systematic literature review

    Sarka, Peter Bo; Ipsen, Christine

    2017-01-01

    communication are driving organizations to leverage social media tools to improve performance. These tools, which have changed the way we share knowledge, enable people to connect, communicate, and collaborate. Research on knowledge sharing via social media is still in its early phases, with a comprehensive......Effective knowledge exchange among software developers is crucial for the competitive performance of their organizations. Today, the constant pressure on businesses to continually innovate and the increasing capability of information technologies to facilitate broader and more distributed...

  7. A crystallographic perspective on sharing data and knowledge

    Bruno, Ian J.; Groom, Colin R.

    2014-10-01

    The crystallographic community is in many ways an exemplar of the benefits and practices of sharing data. Since the inception of the technique, virtually every published crystal structure has been made available to others. This has been achieved through the establishment of several specialist data centres, including the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre, which produces the Cambridge Structural Database. Containing curated structures of small organic molecules, some containing a metal, the database has been produced for almost 50 years. This has required the development of complex informatics tools and an environment allowing expert human curation. As importantly, a financial model has evolved which has, to date, ensured the sustainability of the resource. However, the opportunities afforded by technological changes and changing attitudes to sharing data make it an opportune moment to review current practices.

  8. A multi-agent architecture for sharing knowledge and experimental data about waste water treatment plants through the Internet

    Abu Yaman, I. R.; Kerckhoffs, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a first prototype of a local multi-agent architecture for the sharing of knowledge and experimental data about waste water treatment plants through the Internet, or more specifically the WWW. Applying a net browser such as nets cape, a user can have access to a CLIPS expert system (advising on waste water cleaning technologies) and experimental data files. The discussed local prototype is part of proposed global agent architecture. (authors)

  9. An Analysis of Knowledge Sharing Approaches for Emerging-technology-based Strategic Alliances in Electronic Industry

    LIU Ju; LI Yong-jian

    2006-01-01

    Emerging technologies are now initiating new industries and transforming old ones with tremendous power. They are different games compared with established technologies with distinctive characteristics of knowledge management in knowledge-based and technological-innovation-based competition. How to obtain knowledge advantage and enhance competences by knowledge sharing for emerging-technology-based strategic alliances (ETBSA) is what we concern in this paper. On the basis of our previous work on emerging technologies'distinctive attributes, we counter the wide spread presumption that the primary purpose of strategic alliances is knowledge acquiring by means of learning. We offers new insight into the knowledge sharing approaches of ETBSAs - the knowledge integrating approach by which each member firm integrates its partner's complementary knowledge base into the products and services and maintains its own knowledge specialization at the same time. So that ETBSAs should plan and practice their knowledge sharing strategies from the angle of knowledge integrating rather than knowledge acquiring. A four-dimensional framework is developed to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of these two knowledge sharing approaches. Some cases in electronic industry are introduced to illustrate our point of view.

  10. globalization, technology transfer and the knowledge gap

    USER

    2011-06-10

    Jun 10, 2011 ... manufacturing technology to the less developed countries of the South (Nigeria) in ... the primary sources of progress (Mill 1846 cited .... globalization process as in Asia and Latin. America. The Nigerian technology dream is.

  11. The structural approach to shared knowledge: an application to engineering design teams.

    Avnet, Mark S; Weigel, Annalisa L

    2013-06-01

    We propose a methodology for analyzing shared knowledge in engineering design teams. Whereas prior work has focused on shared knowledge in small teams at a specific point in time, the model presented here is both scalable and dynamic. By quantifying team members' common views of design drivers, we build a network of shared mental models to reveal the structure of shared knowledge at a snapshot in time. Based on a structural comparison of networks at different points in time, a metric of change in shared knowledge is computed. Analysis of survey data from 12 conceptual space mission design sessions reveals a correlation between change in shared knowledge and each of several system attributes, including system development time, system mass, and technological maturity. From these results, we conclude that an early period of learning and consensus building could be beneficial to the design of engineered systems. Although we do not examine team performance directly, we demonstrate that shared knowledge is related to the technical design and thus provide a foundation for improving design products by incorporating the knowledge and thoughts of the engineering design team into the process.

  12. Global bike share: What the data tells us about road safety

    Fishman, E.; Schepers, J.P.

    Introduction Bike share has emerged as a rapidly growing mode of transport in over 800 cities globally, up from just a handful in the 1990s. Some analysts had forecast a rise in the number of bicycle crashes after the introduction of bike share, but empirical research on bike share safety is rare.

  13. Translating Knowledge: The role of Shared Learning in Bridging the Science-Application Divide

    Moench, M.

    2014-12-01

    As the organizers of this session state: "Understanding and managing our future relation with the Earth requires research and knowledge spanning diverse fields, and integrated, societally-relevant science that is geared toward solutions." In most cases, however, integration is weak and scientific outputs do not match decision maker requirements. As a result, while scientific results may be highly relevant to society that relevance is operationally far from clear. This paper explores the use of shared learning processes to bridge the gap between the evolving body of scientific information on climate change and its relevance for resilience planning in cities across Asia. Examples related to understanding uncertainty, the evolution of scientific knowledge from different sources, and data extraction and presentation are given using experiences generated over five years of work as part of the Rockefeller Foundation supported Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network and other programs. Results suggest that processes supporting effective translation of knowledge between different sources and different applications are essential for the identification of solutions that respond to the dynamics and uncertainties inherent in global change processes.

  14. Incentives for knowledge sharing: impact of organisational culture and information technology

    Lyu, Hongbo; Zhang, Zuopeng Justin

    2017-10-01

    This research presents and examines an analytical model of knowledge management in which organisational culture dynamically improves with knowledge-sharing and learning activities within organisations. We investigate the effects of organisational incentives and the level of information technology on the motivation of knowledge sharing. We derive a linear incentive reward structure for knowledge sharing under both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. In addition, we show how the organisational culture and the optimum linear sharing reward change with several crucial factors, and summarise three sets of methods (strong IT support, congruent organisational culture, and effective employee assessment) to complement the best linear incentive. Our research provides valuable insights for practitioners in terms of implementing knowledge-management initiatives.

  15. The Relationship between Humanness and Knowledge Sharing in Malaysia Empirical Evidence from Malaysian Managers

    Ilona H. Boom

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether there is a relationship between humanness and the willingness to share knowledge in Malaysia. Furthermore, the differences between the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnicities are researched for the presence of humanness and the willingness to share knowledge. Two hundred and fourteen respondents from privately owned companies participated in this research showing that there is a strong relationship between humanness and knowledge sharing. However, the differences between the three ethnicities are small, which is a surprising finding. It can be concluded that people-oriented managers (one of the ways to express humanness are more willing to share knowledge, and differences between ethnicities have no influence in this matter. From these results, it can be recommended to managers and organizations in Malaysia that they pay more attention and be aware of their management style.Stressing the humanness aspects more as they are described could improve the knowledge transfer within companies.

  16. Team innovation climate and knowledge sharing among healthcare managers: mediating effects of altruistic intentions.

    Liu, Feng-Chuan; Cheng, Kai-Lin; Chao, Minston; Tseng, Hsu-Min

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide empirical evidence concerning the impact of team climate on knowledge sharing behavior and the mediating effects of individuals' altruistic intentions in the context of healthcare settings. Questionnaire data were collected from 212 administrators employed at a medical center in Taiwan. Team climate was assessed by the Team Climate Inventory composed of four factors, participative safety, support for innovation, vision, and task orientation. The proposed hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. The influence of the team innovation climate on knowledge sharing behavior was evident. Furthermore, individuals' altruistic intentions played a full mediating role in the relationship between team innovation climate and knowledge sharing behavior. These results contribute to the field of the people-orientated perspective in knowledge management. The full mediating effect of employees' altruistic intentions provides healthcare team managers the direction to accelerate knowledge sharing behavior.

  17. Distributed Cognition and the Shared Knowledge Model of the Mazahua: A Cultural Approach.

    de Haan, Mariette

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of distributed cognition and school reform focuses on the teaching and learning practices of a Native American group, the Mexican Mazahuas. Topics include knowledge construction; a shared knowledge model of learning; interconnectedness between knowledge and practice; models of guidance; cognitive apprenticeship models; shared…

  18. Knowledge sharing among workers: a study on their contribution through informal communication in Cyberjaya, Malaysia

    Norizzati Azudin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia, being a multi-racial society, faces the challenges of creating knowledge sharing capability in organisations, as cultural values are often reflected in the workplace by individual employees. For organisations, it is not clear whether this diversity has resulted in any form of competitive advantage. Studies have shown that various communities in Malaysia do not bring their respective cultures to work, and as such the company values prevail. This research is based on the demographic study of Informal Knowledge Sharing in Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia. After twelve years, Cyberjaya is approximately 25% developed, gradually expanding with the establishment of multinational and international organizations. Several flagship applications have been developed in MSC Malaysia to accelerate its growth. However, the expertise and knowledge shared among the workers are doubtful, especially at its initial growth stage. As Knowledge Management (KM developed, Communities of Practice (Wenger, 1998 became popular, even dominant „KM‟ intervention. Soon it was supplemented with story-telling interventions encouraging knowledge workers to use stories to „sell‟ KM internally, share knowledge and facilitate collaboration. This study will focus on knowledge sharing among workers, particularly the approach used to share knowledge through informal communication outside their organizations.

  19. Influence of demographic factors on knowledge sharing among ...

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Workshop on SHAring and Reusing architectural Knowledge: (SHARK 2011)

    Avgeriou, P.; Lago, P.; Kruchten, P.; Taylor, R.N.; Gall, H.; Medvidovic, N.

    2011-01-01

    Architectural Knowledge (AK) is defined as the integrated representation of the software architecture of a software-intensive system or family of systems along with architectural decisions and their rationale, external influence and the development environment. The SHARK workshop series focuses on

  1. Evaluating a Tacit Knowledge Sharing Initiative: A Case Study

    Gubbins, Claire; Corrigan, Siobhan; Garavan, Thomas N.; O'Connor, Christy; Leahy, Damien; Long, David; Murphy, Eamonn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a case study illustrating the issues involved in the tacit knowledge conversion process and to determine whether such conversion delivers value to the organisation in terms of business value and return on investment (ROI). Design/methodology/approach: A single-case multiple baseline participants experimental…

  2. Advanced quality prediction model for software architectural knowledge sharing

    Liang, Peng; Jansen, Anton; Avgeriou, Paris; Tang, Antony; Xu, Lai

    In the field of software architecture, a paradigm shift is occurring from describing the outcome of architecting process to describing the Architectural Knowledge (AK) created and used during architecting. Many AK models have been defined to represent domain concepts and their relationships, and

  3. The Mediating Role of Knowledge Sharing on Information Technology and Innovation

    Onwika Kaewchur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationship between information technology, knowledge sharing, and a firm’s innovation. Knowledge sharing as a mediating effect is also simultaneously investigated with regard to the relationship between information technology and a firm’s innovation. In this research, the quantitative method was mainly employed. The data was collected with a survey. A total of 224 respondents from herbal manufacturing companies were included in the research. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that knowledge sharing and information technology can critically influence the organization’s innovation and can play a vital role as a significant success factor in this process.

  4. Value Creation through IT-supported Knowledge Management? The Utilisation of a Knowledge Management System in a Global Consulting Company

    Karlheinz Kautz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many consulting companies have introduced IT-supported knowledge-management systems, and proponents of the literature continue to advocate knowledge management as a key to competitive advantage in consultancies, many knowledge management systems have fallen short of expectation in companies that have adopted them. However, empirical studies regarding the performance implications of these systems are missing. This paper reports such an empirical, explorative study identifying the extent as well as impediments of the utilization of an IT-supported knowledge management system in a large, global consulting company. The main findings are that the majority of the IT users are not familiar with the knowledge management framework of the company; still the knowledge management system is used by 3/4 of all respondents, but mainly to search for general information, much less to participate in competence networks to develop shared knowledge assets. The knowledge management system is not used as the primary repository and communication media for knowledge assets. The limited use is explained by the practitioners as being caused by lack of time and their perception of the system as a slow and poorly structured technical infrastructure. These and other findings are discussed with regard to the current understanding of knowledge management as presented by the literature, and important issues with regard to future research integrating individual, organisational, technical and economical perspectives of knowledge management are raised.

  5. The use of information technologies for knowledge sharing by secondary healthcare organisations in New Zealand.

    Ali, Nor'ashikin; Whiddett, Dick; Tretiakov, Alexei; Hunter, Inga

    2012-07-01

    To explore the extent of use of information technologies (ITs) for knowledge sharing by secondary healthcare organisations in New Zealand. We used a self-administered questionnaire to survey Chief Information Officers at all 21 of New Zealand's District Health Boards regarding the extent to which their organisations use knowledge sharing activities involving ITs. The list of activities to include in the questionnaire was compiled by reviewing the literature. We analysed the extent of use of the knowledge sharing activities using descriptive statistics, repeated measures ANOVA, and correlation analysis. The response rate was 76%. Although all the responding organisations reported using ITs to share knowledge, they used ITs to share documents significantly more than to support discussions or to connect employees to experts. Discussions via teleconferencing, videoconferencing, and email lists were significantly more common than discussions via social media technologies: electronic discussion forums, blogs, and on-line chatrooms. There were significant positive correlations between publishing and accessing documents, between using teleconferencing and using videoconferencing, and between publishing and finding contact details of experts. New Zealand's District Health Boards are using a range of ITs to share knowledge. Knowledge sharing activities emphasising the sharing of explicit knowledge (via exchanging documents in electronic form) are significantly more common than knowledge sharing activities emphasising the sharing of tacit knowledge (via technology-mediated discussions and via using technology to connect employees to experts). In view of the evidence in the literature that information technology may be highly effective in supporting tacit knowledge exchanges, our results suggest that health organisations should consider greater adoption of ITs for sharing tacit knowledge. The finding that several organisations are currently making extensive use of

  6. Emergency Contraception: A Global Overview of Knowledge ...

    Context: Recent concerns over teenage pregnancy, abortion and sexuality have pushed emergency contraceptive methods to the fore once again. The studies on knowledge and attitudes of providers are of particular importance, as they will have direct effects on potential users of emergency contraception. Aim/Method: ...

  7. Research on the Mechanism of Cross Organizational Knowledge Sharing in BIM Competitive Environment

    Zhong Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-opetition under the environment of BIM implementation process because the level is not high resulting in the project BIM application value of incomplete knowledge sharing among organizations, thus establishing good knowledge can effectively solve this problem and achieve the overall benefit and benefit sharing mechanism in the project organization. This paper defines five competing modes according to the competing degree of organization between different BIM applications, including imperfect competition, competition, competition and cooperation, full cooperation and cooperation, and put forward the conceptual model and related assumptions. Analysis of the effect of path and effect of project determined in BIM application mode, the concurrence of knowledge sharing, efficiency and overall efficiency of the project within the organization through the survey and empirical results, and according to the proposed contract, the distribution of benefits and work three kinds of knowledge sharing mechanism implementation path.

  8. Knowledge sharing within organizations: linking art, theory, scenarios and professional experience

    Bailey, T.; Burton, Y. C.

    2000-01-01

    In this discussion, T. Bailey will be addressing the multiple paradigms within organizations using imagery. Dr. Burton will discuss the relationship between these paradigms and social exchanges that lead to knowledge sharing.

  9. Employee Relations And Organizational Knowledge Sharing: An Application In Banking Sector

    Gülşah KARAVARDAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, employee relations and knowledge sharing relation’s analysing is aimed. According to this aim, a private bank’s branches’, which are located in Istanbul/ Anatolia side, employees are applied surveys. For determining employee relations a survey which was developed by S.Liao and study friends is used. For determining the knowledge sharing, the survey which was developed by R. K. Yeo and M. A. Youssef is used. The independent variable is employee relations which consists of working environment, conditions of respect, conditions of support, justice perception, relationship with superiors, self-satisfaction and self-learning. The dependent variable is knowledge sharing. Regression Analysis is used. According to regression analysis results, conditions of respect, conditions of support, justice perception and relationships with superiors have an effect on knowledge sharing.

  10. Theme II Joint Work Plan -2017 Collaboration and Knowledge Sharing on Large-scale Demonstration Projects

    Zhang, Xiaoliang [World Resources Inst. (WRI), Washington, DC (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-25

    This effort is designed to expedite learnings from existing and planned large demonstration projects and their associated research through effective knowledge sharing among participants in the US and China.

  11. Knowledge, politics and power in global health

    Brown, Garrett Wallace

    2015-01-01

    This article agrees with recent arguments suggesting that normative and epistemic power is rife within global health policy and provides further examples of such. However, in doing so, it is argued that it is equally important to recognize that global health is, and always will be, deeply political and that some form of power is not only necessary for the system to advance, but also to try and control the ways in which power within that system operates. In this regard, a better focus on health politics can both expose illegitimate sources of power, but also provide better recommendations to facilitate deliberations that can, although imperfectly, help legitimate sources of influence and power. PMID:25674575

  12. An empirical investigation on relationship between organizational intelligence and faculty members' knowledge sharing behaviors

    Masoomeh Arabshahi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Universities and institutions of higher education with a professional, special, educational and cultural environment play important roles in the direction towards the effective management of knowledge and space provision for the sharing of knowledge. Faculty members are known as the main elements of the university and they are the mental and intellectual investment banks who share their knowledge under certain conditions. In addition, their knowledge sharing behaviors lead to the success and improvement of individual and organizational operations. Moreover, organizational intelligence is the capacity of the organization to create knowledge and to use it in a strategic way to coordinate and to conform itself to its surroundings. This study examines the impact of organizational intelligence on faculty members' knowledge sharing behaviors. Data collection for qualitative research includes interviews with experts and quantitative research is performed using a questionnaire. The research results show that there was a significant relationship between organizational intelligence and faculty members' knowledge sharing behaviors. Among these dimensions, “knowledge application” influenced other dimensions. On the other hand, “common outcome” had a significant relationship with the “behavioral” dimension and “special and professional activities”.

  13. On the Use of Shared Task Models in Knowledge Acquisition, Strategic User Interaction and Clarification Agents.

    Brazier, F.M.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, three different roles of a shared task model as an intermediate representation of a task are presented and illustrated by applications developed in cooperation with industry. First the role of a shared task model in knowledge acquisition is discussed. In one of the two applications,

  14. Explaining knowledge sharing: the role of team communication styles, job satisfaction and performance beliefs

    van den Hooff, B.J.; de Vries, R.; de Ridder, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate the relationships between team communication styles and job-related cognitions on one hand and knowledge-sharing attitudes and behaviors on the other using 424 members of different work-related teams. Both eagerness and willingness to share are positively

  15. Explaining knowledge sharing: The role of team communication styles, job satisfaction, and performance beliefs

    de Vries, R.E.; van den Hooff, B.J.; de Ridder, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate the relationships between team communication styles and job-related cognitions on one hand and knowledge-sharing attitudes and behaviors on the other using 424 members of different work-related teams. Both eagerness and willingness to share are positively

  16. Knowledge sharing and innovation in relationships interorganizational type of information technology outsourcing

    Roberta Rodrigues Faoro; Mírian Oliveira; Marcelo Faoro de Abreu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: this paper presents an analysis of the sharing of knowledge and innovation in the inter-relationships of the type outsourcing of Information Technology. Objective: analyze the existence of relationship between knowledge sharing and innovation in the inter-relationships of the type of outsourcing information technology (IT). Methodology: research is exploratory, qualitative and using as a strategy the multiple case study, which analyzed 12 companies in IT outsourci...

  17. An exploratory study of knowledge brokering in hospital settings: facilitating knowledge sharing and learning for patient safety?

    Waring, Justin; Currie, Graeme; Crompton, Amanda; Bishop, Simon

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study of intra-organisational knowledge brokers working within three large acute hospitals in the English National Health Services. Knowledge brokering is promoted as a strategy for supporting knowledge sharing and learning in healthcare, especially in the diffusion of research evidence into practice. Less attention has been given to brokers who support knowledge sharing and learning within healthcare organisations. With specific reference to the need for learning around patient safety, this paper focuses on the structural position and role of four types of intra-organisational brokers. Through ethnographic research it examines how variations in formal role, location and relationships shape how they share and support the use of knowledge across organisational and occupational boundaries. It suggests those occupying hybrid organisational roles, such as clinical-managers, are often best positioned to support knowledge sharing and learning because of their 'ambassadorial' type position and legitimacy to participate in multiple communities through dual-directed relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Shadow Libraries: Access to Knowledge in Global Higher Education ...

    2018-05-04

    May 4, 2018 ... Shadow Libraries: Access to Knowledge in Global Higher Education ... that are emerging in middle- and low-income countries as opportunities for higher education expand but funding for materials shrinks. ... Innovation.

  19. The relationship between organizational commitment and knowledge sharing: A case study of university employee cooperation

    Hosein Bahramzadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing plays an important role on helping organizations reach their goals, it facilitates distribution of overall awareness among workers and create better environment for adding more value. There are different factors influencing knowledge sharing and organizational commitment is believed one of the most important items. In this paper, we present an empirical study in one of privately held universities located in city of Bojnourd, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample size 145 out of 236 people from both regular employees and university professors and we have used different tests such as Pearson correlation test to analyze the results. The proposed model of the paper has confirmed that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between these two components when the level of significance is set to five percent. The results of this survey also reveals that while ethical commitment and normative play important role on knowledge sharing, continuity has no significant impact on knowledge sharing within organization. The other observation is that while gender and age has no impact on knowledge sharing, higher educational background is an important factor on knowledge sharing.

  20. Appropriation of social media for fostering effective tacit knowledge sharing: developing conceptual model

    Amidi, A.; Jabar, M.; Jusoh, Y. Y.; Abdullah, R.

    2017-09-01

    With the rising popularity of social media in the past few years, several researches ratiocinate that this type of interactive and collaborative technology could be a beneficial tool for the sharing of tacit knowledge. Nevertheless, very few literatures have tackled the subject of how social media could facilitate tacit knowledge sharing among medical practitioners, and what are its contributions in the area. Thus, the factors that drive individuals to share tacit knowledge need to be investigated further and included in literature. Through a systematic literature review, this study proposes seven enabling conditions which could potentially facilitate the sharing of tacit knowledge. TAM was applied as a novelty in this study in investigating the factors influencing knowledge sharing via social media, whilst taking into account the mediation effects of Attitude in social media usage. This study uncovered an important correlation between virtual settings and the conversion of tacit knowledge, which affects organizational members who are not co-located physically but have a crucial need for sharing information.

  1. Academy Sharing Knowledge (ASK). The NASA Source for Project Management Magazine, Volume 11, March 2003

    2003-01-01

    APPL is a research-based organization that serves NASA program and project managers, as well as project teams, at every level of development. In 1997, APPL was created from an earlier program to underscore the importance that NASA places on project management and project teams through a wide variety of products and services, including knowledge sharing, classroom and online courses, career development guidance, performance support, university partnerships, and advanced technology tools. ASK Magazine grew out of APPL's Knowledge Sharing Initiative. The stories that appear in ASK are written by the 'best of the best' project managers, primarily from NASA, but also from other government agencies and industry. Contributors to this issue include: Teresa Bailey, a librarian at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Roy Malone, Deputy Director in the Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), W. Scott Cameron, Capital Systems Manager for the Food and Beverage Global Business Unit of Procter and Gamble, Ray Morgan, recent retiree as Vice President of AeroVironment, Inc., Marty Davis, Program Manager of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, Todd Post, editor of ASK Magazine, and works for EduTech Ltd. in Silver Spring, Maryland, Dr. Owen Gadeken, professor of Engineering Management at the Defense Acquisition University, Ken Schwer, currently the Project Manager of Solar Dynamics Observatory, Dr. Edward Hoffmwan, Director of the NASA Academy of Program and Project Leadership, Frank Snow, a member of the NASA Explorer Program at Goddard Space Flight Center since 1992, Dr. Alexander Laufer, Editor-in-Chief of ASK Magazine and a member of the Advisory Board of the NASA Academy of Program and Project Leadership, Judy Stokley, presently Air Force Program Executive Officer for Weapons in Washington, D.C. and Terry Little, Director of the Kinetic

  2. Threshold policy for global games with noisy information sharing

    Mahdavifar, Hessam; Beirami, Ahmad; Touri, Behrouz; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2015-01-01

    of information and show that such equilibrium strategies exist and are unique if the sharing of information happens over a sufficiently noisy environment. To show this result, we establish that if a threshold function is an equilibrium strategy, then it will be a

  3. 1. round table. Information and knowledge sharing; 1. table ronde - information et partage des connaissances

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the first round table debates about the information dissemination and the sharing of knowledge which took place at Caen. The main discussions of this session concerns the political decisions and the information of the public, and the transparency of this information as it should be in a western democracy. (J.S.)

  4. Occupational Therapy and overweight and obese people: Knowledge and sharing

    Vanina Tereza Barbosa Lopes da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide phenomenon that affects both the rich and poor populations. It results from the action of environmental factors, dietary habits, physical activity and psychological conditions on individuals genetically predisposed to present excess adipose tissue. The impact of obesity can be measured by its influence on the quality of life. Occupational therapy has developed a significant role within the interdisciplinary treatment of obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe the experience of the work of occupational therapists in an interdisciplinary group for adult and elderly people presenting overweight and obesity in an extension project of a private university in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte state. The Occupational Therapy team performed weekly interdisciplinary care, assessment, planning, organization of the therapeutic setting and occupational therapy intervention. The team was composed by an occupational therapy teacher, a scholar and five volunteer undergraduate students. The service group was open to new components, caregivers, and family and community members. Playful, cognitive, bodily, physical and productive occupational therapy activities were used in the sessions. These activities favored positive outcomes in mental, emotional and social dimensions. Thus, the project enabled the visibility of Occupational Therapy at the university, as well as the growth and expansion of academic and occupational knowledge on therapeutic intervention in obesity.

  5. Knowledge in Development: Epistemic Machineries in a Global Context

    Evers, Hans-Dieter; Kaiser, Markus; Muller, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge has become a decisive and competitive resource for local and global development, especially since the paradigm "knowledge for development" was initiated and promoted by the World Bank in 1998-1999. Through the use of novel management structures and technologically supported social networks, development organisations and…

  6. Global knowledge economy in the post-colony: public universities ...

    Annals of Modern Education ... like widening digital divide and increasing exclusion from the global knowledge economy, devaluation of indigenous knowledge systems, increased 'white slavery' and perpetuation of the culture of dependency, as well as lack of self-confidence in local intellectual values and practice.

  7. Studying the Relations of Social Capital Factors With Knowledge Sharing: A Case Study at Research Department of Irib

    Hassan DARVISH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to further develop an understanding of social capital in organizational knowledge sharing. We first developed a measurement tool and then a theoretical framework in which six social capital factors (social interaction ties, trust, identification, norm of reciprocity, openmindedness, and shared language & goals can have effect on two sides of knowledge sharing; attitude and expectations about knowledge sharing, and quality of knowledge sharing. We surveyed 144 managers and researchers from a research department of IRIB, and then examined their relationships using step-wise multiple regression analysis. We confirm that social interaction ties, trust, norm of reciprocity, and shared language & goals significantly contributed to a person’s attitude and expectations about knowledge sharing, but only shared language and goals directly contributed to quality of knowledge sharing.

  8. Orchestration of Globally Distributed Knowledge for Innovation in Multinational Companies

    Sajadirad, Solmaz; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    Conducting a multiple-case study in five companies from Danish industry, this paper explores how multinational companies orchestrate knowledge from their globally distributed subsidiaries for innovation. Comparisons of knowledge orchestration within headquarter and subsidiaries for improvement...... and innovation show that a combination of the dynamic use of inter-firm objects and a well-established knowledge orchestration process underlies knowledge orchestration for innovation in multinational companies, as it advances headquarters’ abilities to effectively acquire, evaluate, disseminate, and utilize...... globally distributed knowledge. This study contributes to the understanding of knowledge orchestration between headquarter and distributed subsidiaries in multinational companies and how it is related to innovation. Specifically, this paper has important implications regarding the use of inter-firm objects...

  9. Lack of Knowledge Sharing Amongst Institutions in Denmark Responsible for Vulnerable Groups

    Bojsen, Ann Kristina Mikkelsen

    they share their knowledge about risk and policy management. In order to protect vulnerable groups such as children, disabled, sick and elderly people, we need to learn more about the general risk understanding and sharing of such according to region, responsibility, common events and hazards....... This information is needed to protect against future unintentional and intentional hazards and compare those with the institutional responsibilities. Risk understanding and knowledge sharing among professionals with responsibility for vulnerable groups can be a crucial tool for handling everyday threats as well......Lack of Knowledge Sharing Amongst Institutions in Denmark Responsible for Vulnerable Groups Ann Bojsen, Senior Lecturer Emergency and Risk Management Department, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark Even though understanding risk and how it is enacted is regarded as a crucial step...

  10. More than a Master: Developing, Sharing, and Using Knowledge in School-University Research Networks

    Cornelissen, Frank; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi-Hwa; van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Postgraduate master's programs for in-service teachers may be a promising new avenue in developing research partnership networks that link schools and university and enable collaborative development, sharing and use of knowledge of teacher research. This study explores the way these knowledge processes originating from master's students' research…

  11. A Connective Ethnography of Peer Knowledge Sharing and Diffusion in a Tween Virtual World

    Fields, Deborah A.; Kafai, Yasmin B.

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have shown how knowledge diffusion occurs in classrooms and structured small groups around assigned tasks yet have not begun to account for widespread knowledge sharing in more native, unstructured group settings found in online games and virtual worlds. In this paper, we describe and analyze how an insider gaming practice spread…

  12. Teachers' Knowledge of Children's Strategies for Equal Sharing Fraction Problems

    Krause, Gladys; Empson, Susan; Pynes, D'Anna; Jacobs, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In this exploratory study, we documented teachers' knowledge of children's mathematical thinking as they engaged in the task of anticipating children's strategies for an equal sharing fraction problem. To elicit an array of knowledge, 18 teachers were deliberately selected with a variety of numbers of years participating in professional…

  13. Knowledge sharing behaviour within organisations; A diary-based study of unplanned meetings between researchers

    Appel-Meulenbroek, Rianne; Weggeman, Mathieu; Torkkeli, Marko

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyses Knowledge Sharing (KS) behaviour of employees during unplanned, work-related face-to-face meetings with colleagues. Hypotheses were formulated from theory on how this behaviour relates to three categories of known KS antecedents (knowledge components, organisational distance, and

  14. Meetings: From the transmission of information to the sharing of actionable knowledge

    Ravn, Ib

    2015-01-01

    . A more viable model of human communication has people sharing knowledge that leads to action. To generate such actionable knowledge, meetings must enable participants to be active, to interpret and discuss the presentations, to be autonomously motivated, to engage in social relations with peers...

  15. Improving Online Collaboration for FR Knowledge Preservation – Repositories, E-learning and Sharing

    Grosbois, John de

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Knowledge Portals: 1. Focus on common theme (e.g. technology); 2. Central homepage for multiple services or resources related to theme; 3. Focus on “community with shared interest”; Possible service bundle examples: • knowledge repository or archive access; • related news and/or events; • e-learning (learning management system); • “social media” for organizational collaboration

  16. Optimize Knowledge Sharing, Team Effectiveness, and Individual Learning within the Flipped Team-Based Classroom

    Huang, Chung-Kai; Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Zih-Cin; Wang, Cui; Lin, Chia-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Due to the competitive and fast-changing nature of external business environments, university students should acquire knowledge of how to cooperate, share knowledge, and enhance team effectiveness and individual learning in the future workplace. Consequently, the redesign of business courses in higher education merits more discussion. Based on the…

  17. The effect of knowledge sharing behavior on organizational performance (Case Study: Iranian Space Agency

    Maryam Philsoophian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: One of the main activities in the field of knowledge management, is knowledge sharing, because employees can play an important role in organizational competitive advantages. Effective knowledge sharing  can improve the quality of R&D activities. On the other hand it seems that, knowledge sharing behavior improvs organizational performances and competitive advantages for the organization. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of knowledge sharing (with regards to attitude, intention and behavior on organizational performances. Methodology: The research method is based on descriptive - survey and questionnaire methods that uses partial least squares by “SMARTPLS” software. Result and findings: Studying of 85 collected  questionnaire  showed that " attitude "  has positive and significant effect on " intention " and  " intention "has  a significant positive impact on "behavior". Also the knowledge sharing affects strongly on the performance of the Iranian Space Agency. Remarkably, the results indicate that all financial performance, processes performance and internal performance have positive impact on Iranian Space Agency performance.

  18. The Needs for Information and Knowledge Sharing through Microsoft Office Sharepoint System (MOSS) in Nuclear Agency

    Radhiah Jamalludin; Manisah Saedon; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan; Sufian Norazam Mohamed Aris

    2011-01-01

    This paper explain in detail the advantage of using Microsoft Office Sharepoint System or Sharepoint-Knowledge Management System (SP-KMS) use as a platform for knowledge sharing among Nuclear Malaysia staffs. SP-KMS was launched in early June 2010 for Technical Programme starting with Technical Support Division, Radiation Safety and Health Division, Engineering Division and Reactor Technology Division. The uses of SP-KMS then expand in other division that need knowledge sharing such as Research Institute of Management Center (RIMC) and Agricultural and Biosciences Division. (author)

  19. Aspects of knowledge management: knowledge sharing as a social dilemma; Aspekte zum Wissensmanagement: Wissen-teilen als soziales Dilemma

    Oldigs-Kerber, J. [Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Information Management

    2007-07-01

    Starting from the assumption that knowledge is closely linked with people and that it continues to develop among these people, three major areas can be identified as ''sources of knowledge'' on which approaches to knowledge management can be based. 1. If people make their knowledge available in the form of information in documents, then the need arises for information from this source of ''knowledge'' to be retrievable and extractable easily and systematically once a certain magnitude has been reached (document orientation). Typical approaches to this are e.g. literature databases and search tools including conclusive searches across documents. 2. Since the documents were written by people, it might be thought that people themselves can be regarded as a source of ''knowledge'', coupled with the wish to be able to find and contact these people easily and systematically. Although such a search would not yield any content like documents do, it would reveal people who could disclose such content and probably even more comprehensively than documents. Approaches to this are oriented towards people or the individual knowledge carriers. Typical approaches are Yellow Pages and expert-finding systems. 3.As an alternative to the many one-to-one links of the above approach it is possible to encourage a topic-centered organizational structure within which information is obtained and passed on. The source of ''knowledge'' is the social interaction in organizational structures / the networks, coupled with the wish to promote knowledge sharing across departmental boundaries and to keep knowledge that has been gained alive in the company. Typical approaches are e.g. communities of practice or promotion of learning processes (e.g. lessons learned, best practices, interrupted case study) Knowledge sharing plays an important part in the two last-mentioned points and will therefore considered in greater

  20. Information Professionals’ Knowledge Sharing Practices in Social Media: A Study of Professionals in Developing Countries

    Anwarul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to investigate the perception of informational professionals’ knowledge sharing practices in social media platforms. The specific objectives of the study included learning professionals’ perceptions and awareness of knowledge sharing using social media, understanding their opinions and beliefs, and gaining familiarity with and reasons for using these tools. Open & close ended web-based questions were sent out by email to the international training program (ITP participants. Findings indicated that most of the respondents’ were aware of using social media and that they used social media for knowledge sharing. Speed and ease of use, managing personal knowledge, easier communication with users and colleagues and powerful communication tool are the areas that motivated them to use it. It also stated some barriers like lack of support, familiarity, trust, unfiltered information and fear of providing information. The study was limited to the perceptual aspect of the issue, specifically from the individuals’ opinions and sentiments.

  1. 77 FR 58412 - Meeting of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal Advisory Committee

    2012-09-20

    ... support of the Administration's justice priorities. The GAC will guide and monitor the development of the Global information sharing concept. It will advise the Assistant Attorney General, OJP; the Attorney...

  2. 76 FR 13226 - Meeting of the Department of Justice Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal...

    2011-03-10

    ... coordination of national policy, practices, and technical solutions in support of the Administration's justice priorities. The GAC will guide and monitor the development of the Global information sharing concept. It will...

  3. Teach for All: Storytelling "Shared Solutions" and Scaling Global Reform

    Ahmann, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    "Teach For All" is a global network of state-based organizations that translate "Teach For America's" market model of school reform into moral projects of nation-building abroad. Referring to this challenge as one of "scaling" the organization, its leaders elaborate a theory of change that hinges on replicability: in…

  4. Scientometric trends and knowledge maps of global health systems research.

    Yao, Qiang; Chen, Kai; Yao, Lan; Lyu, Peng-hui; Yang, Tian-an; Luo, Fei; Chen, Shan-quan; He, Lu-yang; Liu, Zhi-yong

    2014-06-05

    In the last few decades, health systems research (HSR) has garnered much attention with a rapid increase in the related literature. This study aims to review and evaluate the global progress in HSR and assess the current quantitative trends. Based on data from the Web of Science database, scientometric methods and knowledge visualization techniques were applied to evaluate global scientific production and develop trends of HSR from 1900 to 2012. HSR has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, there are 28,787 research articles published in 3,674 journals that are listed in 140 Web of Science subject categories. The research in this field has mainly focused on public, environmental and occupational health (6,178, 21.46%), health care sciences and services (5,840, 20.29%), and general and internal medicine (3,783, 13.14%). The top 10 journals had published 2,969 (10.31%) articles and received 5,229 local citations and 40,271 global citations. The top 20 authors together contributed 628 papers, which accounted for a 2.18% share in the cumulative worldwide publications. The most productive author was McKee, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, with 48 articles. In addition, USA and American institutions ranked the first in health system research productivity, with high citation times, followed by the UK and Canada. HSR is an interdisciplinary area. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries showed they are the leading nations in HSR. Meanwhile, American and Canadian institutions and the World Health Organization play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, and citation of high quality articles. Moreover, health policy and analysis research, health systems and sub-systems research, healthcare and services research, health, epidemiology and economics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, primary care research, health economics and health costs, and pharmacy of hospital have been identified as the

  5. Beyond the knowledge level : descriptions of rational behavior for sharing and reuse

    Schmalhofer, Franz; Aitken, J. Stuart; Bourne, Lyle E.

    1994-01-01

    The currently dominant approach to the sharing and reuse of knowledge strives to develop ontologies, with clearly constrained interpretations. The idea of ontological commitments is based on the knowledge level perspective. Several shortcomings of the knowledge level have been identified (Clancey, 1991). Pursuing Clancey's argument, if KBS are to be situated in ever changing environments, their purposes and significance will change over time and they have to be redescribed accordingly. The be...

  6. Knowledge sharing Network analysis and its relationship with the experience and education of librarians at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

    Maryam Salami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As human resources are important resources in organization, it is important for organizations to use knowledge organization of human resources. Thus managing and sharing knowledge in organizations is so important. Libraries as well service-oriented and knowledge-based organizations, librarians’ contribution of knowledge management is important. The study tries to determine Ferdowsi University of Mashhad librarians’ participation in the process of knowledge sharing by knowledge sharing network analysis method. The application used for social network analysis is UCINET6. Determining the degree of centralization in the network of knowledge sharing can also help to detect factors may influence it. In this study, the degree of centralization in the network of knowledge sharing communicating with the librarians' qualifications and work experiences were tested. It is also determined the degree centralization of the whole of the knowledge sharing network with 26.76% that is not so satisfactory.  The results show that despite the positive relationship between level of education and the centrality of people, the experience no significant relationship. Statistically, there is also no significant difference between men and women in knowledge sharing degrees of librarians in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. At the end, according to the results of this research some suggestions are given to increase degrees of knowledge sharing of librarians and generally knowledge sharing degree of the network knowledge sharing.

  7. Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership

    Matthews, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth

  8. Testing knowledge sharing effectiveness: trust, motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and social network embedded model

    Rahman Muhammad Sabbir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this inquiry is to investigate the relationships among the antecedents of knowledge sharing effectiveness under the position of non-academic staff of higher learning institutions through an empirical test of a conceptual model consisting of trust, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and online social network. This study used the respondents from the non-academic staff of higher learning institutions in Malaysia (n = 200, utilizing a self-administered survey questionnaire. The structural equation modeling approach was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The outcomes indicate that all the antecedents play a substantial function in knowledge sharing effectiveness. In addition, perceived risk plays a mediating role between trust and knowledge sharing effectiveness. On the other hand, this research also proved the communication skill also plays a mediating role between leadership style and knowledge sharing effectiveness. This study contributes to pioneering empirical findings on knowledge sharing literature under the scope of the non-academic staff perspective.

  9. R&D outsourcing contract for the unverified value of tacit knowledge sharing

    Han Song

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a R&D outsourcing contract design framework to incent R&D outsourcing service providers sharing tacit and explicit knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: The author uses the principal-agent theory to builds multitask principal-agent model which focuses on two cases. One case is that the effort costs of explicit and tacit knowledge sharing are complementary, but another is the effort costs are substitutable. Findings: It was found that when the effort costs of explicit and tacit knowledge sharing are mutually complementary the multitask R&D outsourcing contract can incent tacit knowledge sharing. Moreover, the multitask R&D outsourcing contract can motivate the effort of explicit knowledge sharing to achieve system optimization, but it fails to motivate the effort of tacit knowledge sharing to achieve system optimization. Research limitations/implications: In this paper we only consider that the outsourcing relationship is short-term, so the multitask R&D outsourcing contract is formal. In fact, the outsourcing relationship may be long-term, so the multitask R&D outsourcing contract is informal. In the long-term cooperation the buyer can promise some reward which cannot be verified by court. service providers choose to trust the promise of the buyer first. Once the buyer don’t fulfill the promise, they not only lose the trust of service providers in this cooperation, but also lose social trust and are seen as dishonest enterprises. Practical implications: Our study provides a theoretical model for formulating an effective R&D outsourcing contract and promoting the transfer of explicit and tacit knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The paper extends prior literature by designing multitask R&D outsourcing contract to share the tacit knowledge. We not only consider the cost of substitution relationship between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge, but also considered the cost of

  10. Organized Communities as a Hybrid Form of Data Sharing: Experiences from the Global STEP Project

    Isabell Stamm

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With this article, I explore a new way of how social scientists can share primary qualitative data with each other. More specifically, I examine organized research communities, which are small membership groups of scholars. This hybrid form of data sharing is positioned between informal sharing through collaboration and institutionalized sharing through accessing research archives. Using the global "Successful Transgenerational Entrepreneurship Practices" (STEP project as an example, I draw attention to the pragmatic practices of data sharing in such communities. Through ongoing negotiations, organized communities can, at least temporarily, put forward sharing policies and create a culture of data sharing that elevates the re-use of qualitative data while being mindful of the data's intersubjective and processual character.

  11. Participatory innovation through user-designed knowledge sharing and Web2.0 in the Danish seed industry

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Boelt, Birte; Misfeldt, Morten

    seed scientists from Aarhus University will work together with seed growers and seed company consultants in designing a collaborative knowledge platform to optimise the diffusion of innovation between them. The aim of the Ph.D. project is to look at the processes within the three communities......For many years the Danish seed industry has been at the forefront with high quality seed production, but in a rapidly changing global market innovation is a key factor for the future of Danish seed production - one important element to innovation is transfer of knowledge. In a new Ph.D. project...... of practice in their participatory efforts to design and select technologies that will improve their knowledge dissemination through a shared understanding of learning and innovation within the Danish seed industry. The research questions are: •What boundary objects emerge between and within the collaborating...

  12. Participatory innovation through user-designed knowledge sharing and Web2.0 in the Danish seed industry

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Boelt, Birte; Misfeldt, Morten

    2010-01-01

    For many years the Danish seed industry has been at the forefront with high quality seed production, but in a rapidly changing global market innovation is a key factor for the future of Danish seed production - one important element to innovation is transfer of knowledge. In a new Ph.D. project...... seed scientists from Aarhus University will work together with seed growers and seed company consultants in designing a collaborative knowledge platform to optimise the diffusion of innovation between them. The aim of the Ph.D. project is to look at the processes within the three communities...... of practice in their participatory efforts to design and select technologies that will improve their knowledge dissemination through a shared understanding of learning and innovation within the Danish seed industry. The research questions are: •What boundary objects emerge between and within the collaborating...

  13. Developing an intranet towards knowledge sharing: A practitioner-based inquiry

    U. R. Averweg

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The intranet is a common feature in many organizations. With the increasing use of a technology infrastructure in organizations, there is a continued challenge for employees in an organization to contribute their knowledge willingly and to make use of knowledge sharing with other employees. Intranets are well-suited for use as a strategic tool in knowledge sharing due to their ability to support the distribution, connectivity and publishing of data and information. Intranets should be seen as integral to an organization’s knowledge management strategy and should be tailored to suit and enhance an organization’s knowledge-sharing activities. The question arises: To what extent does an organization’s existing intranet facilitate knowledge sharing? From a practitioner-based inquiry perspective, this question was explored by the selection of a large organization – eThekwini Municipality, Durban, South Africa – as the field of application. Derived from a mixed methodology approach, the results of a survey are presented. It is suggested that encouragement be given for more practitioner-based inquiry research.

  14. The role of innovative global institutions in linking knowledge and action.

    van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Szlezák, Nicole A

    2016-04-26

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that our collective ability to tackle complex problems will require the development of new, adaptive, and innovative institutional arrangements that can deal with rapidly changing knowledge and have effective learning capabilities. In this paper, we applied a knowledge-systems perspective to examine how institutional innovations can affect the generation, sharing, and application of scientific and technical knowledge. We report on a case study that examined the effects that one large innovative organization, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, is having on the knowledge dimensions of decision-making in global health. The case study shows that the organization created demand for new knowledge from a range of actors, but it did not incorporate strategies for meeting this demand into their own rules, incentives, or procedures. This made it difficult for some applicants to meet the organization's dual aims of scientific soundness and national ownership of projects. It also highlighted that scientific knowledge needed to be integrated with managerial and situational knowledge for success. More generally, the study illustrates that institutional change targeting implementation can also significantly affect the dynamics of knowledge creation (learning), access, distribution, and use. Recognizing how action-oriented institutions can affect these dynamics across their knowledge system can help institutional designers build more efficient and effective institutions for sustainable development.

  15. Knowledge Shared is Power: Utilizing Knowledge Management Activities to Replicate Lean Sigma Best Practices

    Dennis C. Chen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean Sigma programs produce localized gains within corporations. The knowledge generated by these local successes should be manipulated by the organization, so that the gains can be replicated, and savings multiplied across the organization. However, why does knowledge often fail to be successfully manipulated within an organization? This paper discusses a case study analysis in knowledge manipulation activities of a multi- national consumer products company through the lens of the Knowledge Management (KM Ontology. We then identify and document common obstacles, and offer potential solutions.

  16. Social media, FOAMed in medical education and knowledge sharing: Local experiences with international perspective

    Arif Alper Cevik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Social media, through the Internet and other web-based technologies, have become a means of communication and knowledge-sharing. In this article, we provide details about the social media traffic of various scientific activities, the organizations of which we have played an active role in. We also provide information in our native language through our FOAMed website, which has been published for about 30 months, with us acting as editors. We are comparing these local and limited ventures with examples from the world and aim to remind that social media sources play a very important role in sharing knowledge in medical training and encouraging local initiatives, like ours, with limited resources. Keywords: Medical education, Social media, FOAMed, Knowledge sharing

  17. The Globalization of Value chain activities, Knowledge dynamics, and Innovation

    Park, Eunkyung

    Firms are increasingly relocating diverse activities in the value chain abroad to reap the locational advantage available in other countries. One of the issues raised in this context is that, as global operations can function as channels for knowledge flows, the involved firms and locations may...... of the involved regions and countries. The purpose of this thesis is to study these issues with a broad research question, “What implications does the globalization of value chain activities have on innovation in firms and locations?” Four articles and a case study included in the thesis present empirical results...... gain or lose knowledge associated with the activities that are being globalized. Since knowledge is a critical input for innovation, this has some implications for the capability of firms to create new products and services. At the macro level, it may have an influence on the competitiveness...

  18. The Utilisation of Facebook for Knowledge Sharing in Selected Local Government Councils in Delta State, Nigeria

    Uzoma Heman Ononye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Facebook has made it possible for organisation to embrace social and network centric knowledge processes by creating opportunities to connect, interact, and collaborate with stakeholders. We have witnessed a significant increase in the popularity and use of this tool in many organisations, especially in the private sector. But the utilisation of Facebook in public organisations is at its infancy, with many also believing that the use of Facebook is not a common practice in many public organisations in Nigeria. In spite of this fact, our discernment on the implications of Facebook usage in public organisations in Nigeria, especially organisations at the local level, seem to be remarkably limited. This paper specifically sought to ascertain if Facebook usage influenced inward and outward knowledge sharing in the selected local government councils in Delta State, Nigeria Methodology: The qualitative method was adopted. The study used interview as the primary means of data gathering. The study purposively sampled thirty-six employees as interviewees, twenty from Oshimili South and sixteen from Oshimili North local government councils respectively. The thematic content analysis method was used to analyse interview transcripts. Contribution: This research made distinct contributions to the available literature in social knowledge management, specifically bringing to the fore the intricacies surrounding the use of Facebook for knowledge sharing purposes in the public sector. Findings: The local government councils were yet to appreciate and utilise the interactive and collaborative nature of Facebook in improving stakeholders’ engagement, feedback, and cooperation. Facebook was used for outward knowledge sharing but not for inward knowledge sharing. Recommendations for Practitioners: Local government councils should encourage interaction via Facebook, show willingness to capture knowledge from identifiable sources, and effectively manage

  19. Rethinking Knowledge Management: Strategies for Enhancing District-Level Teacher and Leader Tacit Knowledge Sharing

    Edge, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Grounded within knowledge management (KM) theory and conceptions of tacit and explicit knowledge, this article draws on historical evidence from the Early Years Literacy Project (EYLP), a four-year instructional renewal strategy implemented across 100 schools in a large Canadian school district. The EYLP management approach included a series of…

  20. Sustainability in China: Bridging Global Knowledge with Local Action

    Bing Xue

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the biggest emerging and developing country, and the second largest economy on the planet, China’s road to sustainability has attracted global attention; therefore, we need to have a deeper understanding to address this issue at very different levels. This editorial mainly reviews the contributions of the published papers in the Special Issue of “Sustainability in China: Bridging Global Knowledge with Local Action”, the main findings in this special edition suggest that the concept of sustainability is more comprehensive and complex, and the transformation process from scientific knowledge to local action still has a long way to go, not only in China, but also in many developing countries. More research on the fundamental and innovative processes of sustainable transformations should be conducted. China needs to make more efforts to strengthen its road to sustainability, by merging all relevant types of knowledge, both within and outside science, as well as locally and globally.As the biggest emerging and developing country, and the second largest economy on the planet, China's road to sustainability has attracted global attention; therefore, we need to have a deeper understanding to address this issue at very different levels. This editorial mainly reviews the contributions of the published papers in the Special Issue of "Sustainability in China: Bridging Global Knowledge with Local Action", the main findings in this special edition suggest that the concept of sustainability is more comprehensive and complex, and the transformation process from scientific knowledge to local action still has a long way to go, not only in China, but also in many developing countries. More research on the fundamental and innovative processes of sustainable transformations should be conducted. China needs to make more efforts to strengthen its road to sustainability, by merging all relevant types of knowledge, both within and outside science, as well as

  1. Developing and Deploying Knowledge on a Global Scale

    Borron, James; Morales, David; Klahr, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Reuters is a worldwide company focused on supplying financial and news information to its more than 40,000 subscribers around the world. To enhance the quality and consistency of its customer- support organization, Reuters embarked on a global knowledge development and reuse project. The resulting system is in operational use in North America, Europe, and Asia. The system supports 38 Reuter products worldwide. This article presents a case study of Reuter experience in putting a global knowled...

  2. The Effect of Organizational Separation on Individuals’ Knowledge Sharing in MNCs

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben; Gooderham, Paul N.

    2017-01-01

    a unique data-set of more than 4000 individual responses from an MNC, Telenor, we test how three types of drivers for individuals’ knowledge sharing – individuals’ motivation, and individuals’ perceptions of organizational values and organizational work practices – work differently within, as opposed...... to across, business units. Our analysis suggests that while intrinsic motivation, innovative values and job autonomy are relatively important drivers of knowledge sharing within the business units, extrinsic motivation, result-oriented values and participation in corporate employee development...

  3. Buy-back and revenue-sharing contracts in global supply shain

    Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main propose of this study is to investigate how exchange rate risk affects the buy-back and revenue-sharing contracts in the global supply chain, hence to improve the performance of global supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a two-echelon global supply chain, with the model equilibrium, this paper studies the difference between the buy-back contract and the revenue-sharing contract. By the transmitting of the exchange rate risk, it discusses the node-enterpris...

  4. Sharing knowledge in technology deficient environments : Individual workarounds amid corporate restrictions

    Ou, C.X.J.; van Hillegersberg, J.; Spiekermann, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on socio-technical theory to explore how Chinese professionals engage in informal knowledge focused activities facilitated by guanxi networks in the face of restrictive corporate IT policies. Following a short review of the global and Chinese literature on knowledge management

  5. Sharing scientific discovery globally: toward a CERN virtual visit service

    Goldfarb, S.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Lapka, M.; Papanestis, A.

    2017-10-01

    The installation of virtual visit services by the LHC collaborations began shortly after the first high-energy collisions were provided by the CERN accelerator in 2010. The experiments: ATLAS [1], CMS [2], LHCb [3], and ALICE [4] have all joined in this popular and effective method to bring the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery into classrooms and other public venues around the world. Their programmes, which use a combination of video conference, webcast, and video recording to communicate with remote audiences have already reached tens of thousands of viewers, and the demand only continues to grow. Other venues, such as the CERN Control Centre, are also considering similar permanent installations. We present a summary of the development of the various systems in use around CERN today, including the technology deployed and a variety of use cases. We then lay down the arguments for the creation of a CERN-wide service that would support these programmes in a more coherent and effective manner. Potential services include a central booking system and operational management similar to what is currently provided for the common CERN video conference facilities. Certain choices in technology could be made to support programmes based on popular tools including (but not limited to) Skype™ [5], Google Hangouts [6], Facebook Live [7], and Periscope [8]. Successful implementation of the project, which relies on close partnership between the experiments, CERN IT CDA [9], and CERN IR ECO [10], has the potential to reach an even larger, global audience, more effectively than ever before.

  6. Towards Knowledge Sharing Through Social Media in Software Development: A Systematic Literature Review

    Sarka, Peter Bo; Heisig, Peter

    2015-01-01

    An effective knowledge exchange among software developers is crucial for the competitive performance of their organisations. Today, the constant pressure on business to continually innovate and the increasing capability of information technologies to facilitate broader and more distributed....... Although several studies of the relationship is available, today there exists no comprehensive overview of what has been investigated. Using a systematic literature review approach, this study aims to map the current state of literature on knowledge sharing through social media applicable to software...

  7. Using Social Media Tools to Enhance Tacit Knowledge Sharing Within the USMC

    2013-09-01

    Organizational KM Success According to Davenport, De Long, and Beers, “If the cultural soil isn’t fertile for a knowledge project, no amount of...1998). The USMC is always ready to provide forcible entry or ship-to- objective maneuver (STOM) on foreign soil for a wide range of operations from... enviro nment has called f o r gre ater attention o n how the Marine Corps captures, shares, and transfers info rmation and knowledge assets within

  8. Social Network Perspective: Model of Student Knowledge Sharing On Social Network Media

    Bentar Priyopradono; Danny Manongga; Wiranto H. Utomo

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the role and development of information technology especially the internet, gives impact and influence in social relationship especially for social network site services users. The impact and influence the use of Internet which is related to exchange information and knowledge sharing still become one of the interesting topics to be researched. Now, the use of social media network by students are the best way to them to increase their knowledge as communication media such as, exchang...

  9. Assessing the Future Directions of Global Knowledge Partnership ...

    129124.pdf. Studies. ICT4D and K4D trends : report summary; Global Knowledge Partnership ExCo Meeting, May 26th, Paris. 41221. Papers. GKP Task-Force inputs study : the outlook for using Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) in international development assistance - issues, trends and opportunities.

  10. School students' knowledge and understanding of the Global Solar ...

    Background. The Global Solar Ultraviolet Index (UVI) is a health communication tool used to inform the public about the health risks of excess solar UV radiation and encourage appropriate sun-protection behaviour. Knowledge and understanding of the UVI has been evaluated among adult populations but not among ...

  11. Globalization and loss of plant knowledge: challenging the paradigm.

    Vandebroek, Ina; Balick, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The erosion of cultural knowledge and traditions as a result of globalization and migration is a commonly reported phenomenon. We compared one type of cultural knowledge about medicinal plants (number of plants reported to treat thirty common health conditions) among Dominican laypersons who self-medicate with plants and live in rural or urban areas of the Dominican Republic (DR), and those who have moved to New York City (NYC). Many plants used as medicines were popular Dominican food plants. These plants were reported significantly more often by Dominicans living in NYC as compared to the DR, and this knowledge was not age-dependent. These results contradict the popular paradigm about loss of cultural plant knowledge and is the first study to report a statistically measurable increase in this type of knowledge associated with migration.

  12. Globalization and Loss of Plant Knowledge: Challenging the Paradigm

    Vandebroek, Ina; Balick, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The erosion of cultural knowledge and traditions as a result of globalization and migration is a commonly reported phenomenon. We compared one type of cultural knowledge about medicinal plants (number of plants reported to treat thirty common health conditions) among Dominican laypersons who self-medicate with plants and live in rural or urban areas of the Dominican Republic (DR), and those who have moved to New York City (NYC). Many plants used as medicines were popular Dominican food plants. These plants were reported significantly more often by Dominicans living in NYC as compared to the DR, and this knowledge was not age-dependent. These results contradict the popular paradigm about loss of cultural plant knowledge and is the first study to report a statistically measurable increase in this type of knowledge associated with migration. PMID:22662184

  13. Global bike share: What the data tells us about road safety.

    Fishman, Elliot; Schepers, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Bike share has emerged as a rapidly growing mode of transport in over 800 cities globally, up from just a handful in the 1990s. Some analysts had forecast a rise in the number of bicycle crashes after the introduction of bike share, but empirical research on bike share safety is rare. The goal of this study is to examine the impact of bike share programs on cycling safety. The paper has two substudies. Study 1 was a secondary analysis of longitudinal hospital injury data from the Graves et al. (2014) study. It compared cycling safety in cities that introduced bike share programs with cities that did not. Study 2 combined ridership data with crash data of selected North American and European cities to compare bike share users to other cyclists. Study 1 indicated that the introduction of a bike share system was associated with a reduction in cycling injury risk. Study 2 found that bike share users were less likely than other cyclists to sustain fatal or severe injuries. On a per kilometer basis, bike share is associated with decreased risk of both fatal and non-fatal bicycle crashes when compared to private bike riding. The results of this study suggest that concerns of decreased levels of cycling safety are unjustified and should not prevent decision makers from introducing public bike share schemes, especially if combined with other safety measures like traffic calming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding the Influence of knowledge-sharing in Project Portfolio Management in professional services

    Møller, Mads Lyngsø; Horsager, Betina; Tambo, Torben

    2016-01-01

    that combine the entire project-, program and portfolio life-cycle. The information processing must facilitate controlled knowledge flows and learnings, while helping the project managers to reduce non-productive knowledge acquisition. This is accomplished with a balance between the need for knowledge....... As critical findings of the paper are observations, characterization of knowledge-sharing and -management processes between clients, consultants, consultants-as-a-community, and senior management with information systems often in a retrospective position according to the immediate needs of PPM....... As such there is found knowledge-based deficit in the precision of the PPM system. The originality of this paper relates to knowledge management studies in small professional services organization at the tipping point where KM changes from person-based to be institutionalized in information systems with having...

  15. Effects of Information Technologies, Department Characteristics and Individual Roles on Improving Knowledge Sharing Visibility: A Qualitative Case Study

    Zhang, Xi; Vogel, Douglas R.; Zhou, Zhongyun

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge sharing visibility (KSV) is a critical environmental factor which can reduce social loafing in knowledge sharing (KS). This is especially true in ICT [information and communication technology]-based KS in learning organisations. As such, it is imperative that we better understand how to design technology enabled knowledge management…

  16. From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in Cai Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies

    Tuan, Luu Trong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of Cai Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…

  17. Can Universities Encourage Students' Continued Motivation for Knowledge Sharing and How Can This Help Organizations?

    Shoemaker, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Both practitioners and researchers recognize the increasing importance of knowledge sharing in organizations (Bock, Zmud, Kim, & Lee, 2005; Vera-Muñoz, Ho, & Chow, 2006). Knowledge sharing influences a firm's knowledge creation, organizational learning, performance achievement, growth, and competitive advantage (Bartol &…

  18. Employee Determinants to Share Knowledge in a U.S. Federal Government Environment

    White, Kenneth C.

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature indicates that knowledge sharing (KS) research is prevalent in the private sector, there is scant empirical research data about KS in the public sector. Moreover, organizations lack an understanding of employee KS behavior. This study investigated two research questions: First, how does the perceived importance of five…

  19. Transformational Leadership and Knowledge Sharing: Mediating Roles of Employee's Empowerment, Commitment, and Citizenship Behaviors

    Han, Seung Hyun; Seo, Gaeun; Yoon, Seung Won; Yoon, Dong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the fundamental process through which transformational leaders play a significant role in employees' knowledge sharing by investigating mediating roles of individual affects, particularly psychological empowerment, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).…

  20. Sharing skills and knowledge to confront real-world problems | CRDI ...

    Sharing skills and knowledge to confront real-world problems ... because 1.3 billion people cannot read English, and only 163 million people (a fraction ... childhood obesity in urban areas, caused by increases in junk food and lack of exercise.

  1. Knowledge sharing behavior and intensive care nurse innovation: the moderating role of control of care quality

    Li-Ying, Jason; Paunova, Minna; Egerod, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study investigates the influence of intensive care unit nurses’ knowledge sharing behaviour on nurse innovation, given different conditions of care quality control. Background Health-care organisations face an increasing pressure to innovate while controlling care quality. We have littl...

  2. PENGARUH EMOTIONAL INTELLEGENCE, KNOWLEDGE SHARING DAN TEAM CONFLICT TERHADAP TEAM PERFORMANCE DI RUMAH SAKIT UNDATA PALU

    Lukman Setiawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to: (1 analyze the influence of emotional intellegence to performance team at Undata Hospital, (2 to analyze the influence of Knowledge Sharing to the performance team at Undata Hospital, (3 to analyze the influence of  team conflict to the team Performance at Undata Hospital, (4 to analyze the influence of emotional intellegence, Knowledge Sharing and team Conflict to the team Performance at Undata Hospital, (5 to know the dominant variable affecting the performance team at Undata Hospital. This study uses primary data through survey as many as 31 employees of the leadership element as a sample, the survey conducted for 2 (two months of May s.d July 2017. Data were analyzed using the program SPSS.22 The results showed that: (1 Emotional Intelligence and knowledge sharing have positive and significant influence on performance team at Undata Hospital, (2 Emotional Intellegence dominant influence to performance team at Undata Hospital. This means that emotional intellegence, knowledge sharing and team conflict can improve team performance at Undata Hospital with scientific facts found in this study indicate that emotional intellegence is the dominant variable of influence on team performance at Undata Hospital

  3. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  4. Analysing the Role of Business Intelligence, Knowledge Sharing and Organisational Innovation on Gaining Competitive Advantage

    Eidizadeh, Rosa; Salehzadeh, Reza; Chitsaz Esfahani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to study the role of business intelligence, knowledge sharing and organisational innovation on gaining competitive advantage. Design/Methodology/Approach: The statistical population of the study was the managers and the specialists of some export companies of which 213 persons participated in this research. Path analysis…

  5. Exploration of Social Capital and Knowledge Sharing: An Empirical Study on Student Virtual Teams

    Liu, Ying Chieh; Li, FengChia

    2012-01-01

    Although research on virtual teams is becoming more popular, there is a gap in the understanding of how social capital affects knowledge sharing and creating, and their impacts on virtual team performance. To fill in this gap, this study establishes a framework by incorporating social capital with the SECI model and further examines it with an…

  6. The Role of Motivators in Improving Knowledge-Sharing among Academics

    Tan, Christine Nya-Ling; Ramayah, T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This research addresses a primary issue that involves motivating academics to share knowledge. Adapting the theory of reasoned action, this study examines the role of motivation that consists of intrinsic motivators (commitment; enjoyment in helping others) and extrinsic motivators (reputation; organizational rewards) to determine…

  7. Knowledge Sharing, Control of Care Quality, and Innovation in Intensive Care Nursing

    Paunova, Minna; Li-Ying, Jason; Egerod, Ingrid Eugenie

    This study investigates the influence of nurse knowledge sharing behavior on nurse innovation, given different conditions of control of care quality within the intensive care unit (ICU). After conducting a number of interviews and a pilot study, we carried out a multi-source survey study of more...... control of care quality and innovate may be conflicting, unless handled properly....

  8. The Ecosystem Factor in Supporting Wiki Initiative for Knowledge Sharing in Malaysian Public Organisation

    Khuzaimah, Khairil Hizar Md; Affandi, Haryanti Mohd; Hassan, Fadzil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significance of considering the organizational ecosystem in implementing wikis for knowledge sharing.The findings suggest that a prerequisite of an effective wiki is the appreciation of the factors that make up the organizational ecosystem; technical and organizational factors are variable elements of…

  9. Knowledgesharing in academic libraries: A study of the Balme ...

    This paper examines the extent to which the staff of the Balme Library, University of Ghana, Legon share knowledge among themselves, so as to enhance efficiency and productivity. A total number of forty-six members of staff of the library were sampled, with forty completing the questionnaire). Interviews were also ...

  10. Modelling Knowledge Sharing Behaviour Using Self-Efficacy as a Mediator

    Brooke, Jenefer; Mohd Rasdi, Roziah; Abu Samah, Bahaman

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and indirect relationships between individual-related factors and environmental-related factors with the knowledge sharing behaviour through the mediating role of self-efficacy among successful farmers in selected states in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The research used survey…

  11. Intergenerational Sharing of Knowledge as Means of Deepening the Organisational Learning Culture in Schools

    Klein, Joseph; Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2016-01-01

    Learning organisations promote the transfer of insights to new personnel (vertical dimension) and the development of shared team knowledge (horizontal dimension). Educational research focuses mainly on the horizontal dimension. This study examined a theoretical framework combining both dimensions and its contribution to teachers' work. Three…

  12. Asynchronous Knowledge Sharing and Conversation Interaction Impact on Grade in an Online Business Course

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2011-01-01

    Student knowledge sharing and conversation theory interactions were coded from asynchronous discussion forums to measure the effect of learning-oriented utterances on academic performance. The sample was 3 terms of an online business course (in an accredited MBA program) at a U.S.-based university. Correlation, stepwise regression, and multiple…

  13. Digital Tools to Support Knowledge Sharing and Cooperation in High-Investment Product-Services

    Aromaa, S.; Leino, S.P.; Reyes-Lecuona, A.; Frangakis, N.; Berglund, J.; Bosch, T.; Rhijn, G. van; Granholm, G.

    2018-01-01

    The manufacturing industry needs to adapt their product-services to meet customer requirements in today’s rapidly changing markets. This paper presents how technologies can support knowledge sharing and collaboration during product-service processes. This work was part of the European Union

  14. An Agent-mediated Approach to Promote Knowledge Sharing Through Enterprise Social Networks

    Van Splunter, S.; Sedighi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Broadening adoption of social network tools within the enterprise suggests a new and valuable source for insight into the social structure through organizations. While online social media tools are being evolved by enterprises in recent years, the social media are used much for knowledge sharing.

  15. Bridging the science-management divide: moving from unidirectional knowledge transfer to knowledge interfacing and sharing

    Roux, DJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Roux_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 71170 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Roux_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Copyright © 2006 by the author(s... concept if they are to be successful in resource management. Improve scientist credibility There is a positive relationship between a knowledge supplier’s credibility in the eyes of a potential adopter, and the successful transfer of knowledge...

  16. UNDERLYING FACTORS OF ATTITUDE AND INTENTION TOWARDS KNOWLEDGE SHARING AMONG EMPLOYEES: THE CASE OF THE HOTEL BUSINESS IN AMBON, INDONESIA

    Join Rachel Luturmas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies into knowledge sharings’ attitudes and intentions, in the context of the hotel industry, have received relatively little attention. This current study is intended to fill that void and contribute to the existing discussion of knowledge sharing studies of hotel businesses. The main objective of the current study is to examine: 1 the effect of extrinsic motivation, absorptive capacity, channel richness and sense of self-worth on people’s attitude towards knowledge sharing, and 2 the effect of people’s attitudes towards knowledge sharing and the intention to share knowledge. The study mainly uses the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA as the point of departure to understand the attitude and intention of knowledge sharing. It also proposes six hypotheses. We conducted a survey among 300 employees from various hotels in the city of Ambon, Indonesia. The data are tested using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM techniques. The findings substantiate theoretical discussions and previous studies. The extrinsic motivation, absorptive capacity, and in-role behaviour have a positive effect on the attitude towards sharing knowledge. In addition, the attitude to knowledge sharing has a positive influence on the intention to share knowledge. Meanwhile, the effect of channel richness and the sense of self-worth on the attitude to knowledge sharing are not supported. The study also provides suggestions for hotel businesses to offer extrinsic rewards and improve their employees’ skills in order to enhance the employees’ absorptive capacities.

  17. Global property rights. The Kyoto protocol and the knowledge revolution

    Chichilnisky, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is about the origin of today's global environmental problems, and how to resolve them. At stake are catastrophic risks from global warming and damage to the world's biodiversity that ranks as the planet' sixth great extinction. The origin of today's global environmental problems is a historic difference in property rights regimes between industrial and developing countries, the North and the South. The solutions we suggest involve redefining property rights in the use of the global environment as well as in knowledge. We discuss the Kyoto Protocol's new systems of property rights on the use of the planet's atmosphere, and propose a parallel system of property rights on knowledge. Resources such as forests and oil and other mineral deposits are owned as private property in industrial countries but they are treated as common or government property in developing countries. Ill-defined protected property rights lead to the over-extraction of resources in the South, such as timber and oil. They are exported at low prices to the North that over-consumes them. The international market amplifies the tragedy of the commons, leading to inferior solutions for the world economy as a whole (Chichilnisky 1994). Updating property rights on resources in developing countries would face formidable opposition. The lack of property rights in inputs to production, such as timber and oil, could be compensated by assigning property rights on by-products of outputs. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol provides an example as it limits the countries' rights to emit carbon, a by-product of burning fossil fuels. Our suggestions for trading emissions rights (Chichilnisky 1995, 96) was adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, yet the atmosphere's carbon concentration is a global public good, which makes trading tricky. Trading rights to forests' carbon sequestration services or to genetic blueprints would also be trading global public goods. Markets that trade public goods have been shown to require a

  18. Networking Knowledge. Considering Alexander von Humboldt’s Legacy in a New Shared Space in Education

    Karin Lundberg

    2015-05-01

    . Nevertheless, true globality, as represented through diverse discourses and perspectives of the world, still seems neglected in curricula and course assignments. This article explores the possibilities offered through a new shared space in education where different forms of networked knowledge and multifaceted perspectives can build a global platform of exchange in a diverse student population. The universal science concept described by Alexander von Humboldt at the beginning of the 19th Century illuminates this intertwined approach to knowledge of the world, which has the potential to positively impact contemporary curricula and course design. Von Humboldt’s writings emphasize inclusion and interplay among cultures and natural phenomena. By inviting our students to be active representatives of diverse discourses, these interconnecting links will become more transparent. In turn, productive forms of knowing about the world may enrich current learning objectives and thereby reflect a true global citizenship as it evolves in a new shared space of education. Keywords: global citizenship, plurality, diverse discourses, multicultural education. Résumé La citoyenneté mondiale et la diversité figurent aujourd’hui parmi les concepts les plus représentés dans les études supérieures. Les résultats de l’apprentissage et les compétences sont conçus pour rendre les étudiants sensibles aux nombreuses origines culturelles des établissements d’instruction des États-Unis. Néanmoins, la vraie globalité, représentée à travers des perspectives et des discours divers, semble être toujours négligée dans les programmes scolaires et les attributions de cours. Dans cet article l’auteur explore les possibilités offertes par un nouvel espace partagé dans le domaine de l’éducation -- une éducation caractérisée d’ailleurs par des formes variées de connaissances atteintes dans des réseaux différents et en des perspectives multiples qui peuvent contribuer

  19. Significant factors for enabling knowledge sharing between government agencies within South Africa

    Avain Mannie

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to validate the significant factors that influence the effectiveness of KM between government agencies in South Africa. The commonly identified pillars of KM in the extant literature served as a primary framework in establishing these factors. Method: Data were gathered using an electronic survey made available to different national government agencies within the security cluster. Responses were analysed using structural equation modelling. Main findings: Existing literature highlighted organisational culture, learning organisation, collaboration, subject matter experts and trust as being determinants for knowledge management. The first two were identified as the most significant factors for knowledge sharing to succeed. Conclusion: Whilst there is universal consent as to the strategic importance of KM, actionable implementation of knowledge sharing initiatives appears to be lacking. This study emphasised the fact that leaders must instil a knowledge sharing culture either through employee performance contracts or methods such as the balanced score card. The study also showed that it is imperative for leaders to acknowledge that KM is a multi-faceted discipline that offers strategic advantages. Leaders of developing countries should note that they are on a developmental journey. This requires their organisations to be learning organisations, which necessitates a change in the organisational culture and knowledge interventions through their academies of learning.

  20. Collaborative work and medical talk: opportunities for learning through knowledge sharing.

    Nilsen, Line Lundvoll; Ludvigsen, Sten R

    2010-01-01

    Teleconsultations provide new opportunities for learning in medical settings. This study explores the conditions under which learning among physicians takes place. The empirical context is 47 real-time video conferences carried out to examine collaborative work and the medical talk involved. Sixteen of the observations were consultations wherein general practitioners (GPs) and specialists shared knowledge with the purpose of solving a medical problem related to a patient under treatment. In this exploratory study, the learning opportunities are seen as what medical practitioners with different types of expertise achieve through interaction while working with patients over periods of time. The analysis of medical talk in consultations shows that collaborative work among GPs and specialists creates a shared understanding of the patient's clinical history and treatment trajectory. As knowledge is demanded and attributed and gaps of knowledge become shared, consultations create a work tool that expands the medical work and talk. Collaborative work in and between different levels of the health care service expands knowledge, creates opportunities for learning in everyday settings, and improves the quality of knowledge distribution in the health care system.

  1. The Knowledge Sharing Based on PLIB Ontology and XML for Collaborative Product Commerce

    Ma, Jun; Luo, Guofu; Li, Hao; Xiao, Yanqiu

    Collaborative Product Commerce (CPC) has become a brand-new commerce mode for manufacture. In order to promote information communication with each other more efficiently in CPC, a knowledge-sharing framework based on PLIB (ISO 13584) ontology and XML was presented, and its implementation method was studied. At first, according to the methodology of PLIB (ISO 13584), a common ontology—PLIB ontology was put forward which provide a coherent conceptual meaning within the context of CPC domain. Meanwhile, for the sake of knowledge intercommunion via internet, the PLIB ontology formalization description by EXPRESS mode was converted into XML Schema, and two mapping methods were presented: direct mapping approach and meta-levels mapping approach, while the latter was adopted. Based on above work, a parts resource knowledge-sharing framework (CPC-KSF) was put forward and realized, which has been applied in the process of automotive component manufacturing collaborative product commerce.

  2. Tacit knowledge in action: basic notions of knowledge sharing in computer supported work environments

    Mackenzie Owen, John

    2001-01-01

    An important characteristic of most computer supported work environments is the distribution of work over individuals or teams in different locations. This leads to what we nowadays call `virtual' environments. In these environments communication between actors is to a large degree mediated, i.e. established through communications media (telephone, fax, computer networks) rather in a face-to-face way. Unfortunately, mediated communication limits the effectiveness of knowledge exchange in virt...

  3. Sharing tools and best practice in Global Sensitivity Analysis within academia and with industry

    Wagener, T.; Pianosi, F.; Noacco, V.; Sarrazin, F.

    2017-12-01

    We have spent years trying to improve the use of global sensitivity analysis (GSA) in earth and environmental modelling. Our efforts included (1) the development of tools that provide easy access to widely used GSA methods, (2) the definition of workflows so that best practice is shared in an accessible way, and (3) the development of algorithms to close gaps in available GSA methods (such as moment independent strategies) and to make GSA applications more robust (such as convergence criteria). These elements have been combined in our GSA Toolbox, called SAFE (www.safetoolbox.info), which has up to now been adopted by over 1000 (largely) academic users worldwide. However, despite growing uptake in academic circles and across a wide range of application areas, transfer to industry applications has been difficult. Initial market research regarding opportunities and barriers for uptake revealed a large potential market, but also highlighted a significant lack of knowledge regarding state-of-the-art methods and their potential value for end-users. We will present examples and discuss our experience so far in trying to overcome these problems and move beyond academia in distributing GSA tools and expertise.

  4. Global warming: knowledge and views of Iranian students.

    Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Salehpour, Sousan; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Attarchi, Mirsaeed

    2013-04-06

    Study of students' knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students' knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed "if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter" and "incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming". 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought "the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide" and "presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect". 68.4% believed "not using cars so much is a cure for global warming". While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P<0.01) and grade 1 students (P<0.001) but there was no statistically significant difference between students of different regions (P>0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students' mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.

  5. Global Warming: Knowledge and Views of Iranian Students

    Taraneh Yazdanparast, Sousan Salehpour, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi, Eddie Boyes, Martin Stanisstreet, Mirsaeed Attarchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of students’ knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students’ knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed “if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter” and “incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming”. 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought “the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide” and “presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect”. 68.4% believed “not using cars so much is a cure for global warming”. While a student’s ‘cognitive score’ could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P0.05. In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students’ mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.

  6. Assessing the Cost of Global Biodiversity and Conservation Knowledge.

    Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Brooks, Thomas M; Butchart, Stuart H M; Jenkins, Richard B; Boe, Kaia; Hoffmann, Michael; Angulo, Ariadne; Bachman, Steve; Böhm, Monika; Brummitt, Neil; Carpenter, Kent E; Comer, Pat J; Cox, Neil; Cuttelod, Annabelle; Darwall, William R T; Di Marco, Moreno; Fishpool, Lincoln D C; Goettsch, Bárbara; Heath, Melanie; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hutton, Jon; Johnson, Tim; Joolia, Ackbar; Keith, David A; Langhammer, Penny F; Luedtke, Jennifer; Nic Lughadha, Eimear; Lutz, Maiko; May, Ian; Miller, Rebecca M; Oliveira-Miranda, María A; Parr, Mike; Pollock, Caroline M; Ralph, Gina; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rondinini, Carlo; Smart, Jane; Stuart, Simon; Symes, Andy; Tordoff, Andrew W; Woodley, Stephen; Young, Bruce; Kingston, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge products comprise assessments of authoritative information supported by standards, governance, quality control, data, tools, and capacity building mechanisms. Considerable resources are dedicated to developing and maintaining knowledge products for biodiversity conservation, and they are widely used to inform policy and advise decision makers and practitioners. However, the financial cost of delivering this information is largely undocumented. We evaluated the costs and funding sources for developing and maintaining four global biodiversity and conservation knowledge products: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, Protected Planet, and the World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas. These are secondary data sets, built on primary data collected by extensive networks of expert contributors worldwide. We estimate that US$160 million (range: US$116-204 million), plus 293 person-years of volunteer time (range: 278-308 person-years) valued at US$ 14 million (range US$12-16 million), were invested in these four knowledge products between 1979 and 2013. More than half of this financing was provided through philanthropy, and nearly three-quarters was spent on personnel costs. The estimated annual cost of maintaining data and platforms for three of these knowledge products (excluding the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems for which annual costs were not possible to estimate for 2013) is US$6.5 million in total (range: US$6.2-6.7 million). We estimated that an additional US$114 million will be needed to reach pre-defined baselines of data coverage for all the four knowledge products, and that once achieved, annual maintenance costs will be approximately US$12 million. These costs are much lower than those to maintain many other, similarly important, global knowledge products. Ensuring that biodiversity and conservation knowledge products are sufficiently up to date, comprehensive and accurate is fundamental to inform decision-making for

  7. Knowledge brokerage - potential for increased capacities and shared power in impact assessment

    Rosario Partidario, Maria, E-mail: mrp@civil.ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon, Portugal, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 LISBOA (Portugal); Sheate, William R., E-mail: w.sheate@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Collingwood Environmental Planning Ltd, London, 1E, The Chandlery, 50 Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7QY (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning

  8. Knowledge brokerage - potential for increased capacities and shared power in impact assessment

    Rosario Partidario, Maria; Sheate, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: ► Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation ► We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making ► Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange ► Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments ► The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning platforms as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA.

  9. Multicentre knowledge sharing and planning/dose audit on flattening filter free beams for SBRT lung

    Hansen, C. R.; Sykes, J. R.; Barber, J.; West, K.; Bromley, R.; Szymura, K.; Fisher, S.; Sim, J.; Bailey, M.; Chrystal, D.; Deshpande, S.; Franji, I.; Nielsen, T. B.; Brink, C.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2015-01-01

    When implementing new technology into clinical practice, there will always be a need for large knowledge gain. The aim of this study was twofold, (I) audit the treatment planning and dose delivery of Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beam technology for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) of lung tumours across a range of treatment planning systems compared to the conventional Flatting Filter (FF) beams, (II) investigate how sharing knowledge between centres of different experience can improve plan quality. All vendor/treatment planning system (TPS) combinations investigated were able to produce acceptable treatment plans and the dose accuracy was clinically acceptable for all plans. By sharing knowledge between the different centres, the minor protocol violations (MPV) could be significantly reduced, from an average of 1.9 MPV per plan to 0.6 after such sharing of treatment planning knowledge. In particular, for the centres with less SBRT and/or volumetric- modulated arc therapy (VMAT) experience the MPV average per plan improved. All vendor/TPS combinations were also able to successfully deliver the FF and FFF SBRT VMAT plans. The plan quality and dose accuracy were found to be clinically acceptable.

  10. Multicentre knowledge sharing and planning/dose audit on flattening filter free beams for SBRT lung

    Hansen, C R; Nielsen, T B; Brink, C; Sykes, J R; Barber, J; West, K; Bromley, R; Szymura, K; Fisher, S; Sim, J; Bailey, M; Chrystal, D; Deshpande, S; Franji, I; Thwaites, D I

    2015-01-01

    When implementing new technology into clinical practice, there will always be a need for large knowledge gain. The aim of this study was twofold, (I) audit the treatment planning and dose delivery of Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beam technology for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) of lung tumours across a range of treatment planning systems compared to the conventional Flatting Filter (FF) beams, (II) investigate how sharing knowledge between centres of different experience can improve plan quality. All vendor/treatment planning system (TPS) combinations investigated were able to produce acceptable treatment plans and the dose accuracy was clinically acceptable for all plans. By sharing knowledge between the different centres, the minor protocol violations (MPV) could be significantly reduced, from an average of 1.9 MPV per plan to 0.6 after such sharing of treatment planning knowledge. In particular, for the centres with less SBRT and/or volumetric- modulated arc therapy (VMAT) experience the MPV average per plan improved. All vendor/TPS combinations were also able to successfully deliver the FF and FFF SBRT VMAT plans. The plan quality and dose accuracy were found to be clinically acceptable

  11. Expertise dissimilarity and creativity: the contingent roles of tacit and explicit knowledge sharing.

    Huang, Xu; Hsieh, J J Po-An; He, Wei

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigated whether team-level knowledge sharing moderates the effects of individual-level expertise dissimilarity on individual employees' creativity in research and development (R&D) project teams. Expertise dissimilarity--defined as the difference in expertise and knowledge between a focal team member and her or his fellow team members--was operationalized in terms of the research department to which each member belonged. In Study 1, multilevel analyses of data collected from 200 members of 40 R&D project teams in a telecommunications company revealed that a team member with expertise dissimilar to that of her or his teammates was more likely to exhibit creativity when the project team as a whole engaged in higher levels of tacit, rather than explicit, knowledge sharing. In contrast, a member whose expertise was similar to that of her or his teammates was more likely to exhibit creative behavior when the team engaged in higher levels of explicit, rather than tacit, knowledge sharing. These findings were largely replicated in Study 2 using data collected from 82 members of 25 project teams from another telecommunications company. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Understanding Knowledge Sharing Behavior: An Examination of the Extended Model of Theory of Planned Behavior

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Knowledge is recognized as one valuable asset for many organizations. Thus, knowledge-sharing is one of important activities in many organizations, including university. Knowledge sharing is defined as activities of transferring or disseminating organizationally relevant information, ideas, suggestions, and expertise with one another. This research applied Christian values as a moderating variable in the framework of theory of planned behavior. The aims of this research to assess applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict knowledge sharing and to examine the effects of Christian values in the relationship between attitude and intention to share knowledge. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data for this study. The data was then analyzed using structural equation modeling. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  13. Knowledge-Sharing Networks in Hunter-Gatherers and the Evolution of Cumulative Culture.

    Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Thompson, James; Grace, Olwen Megan; van der Burgt, Xander M; Dyble, Mark; Page, Abigail E; Smith, Daniel; Lewis, Jerome; Mace, Ruth; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-09-26

    Humans possess the unique ability for cumulative culture [1, 2]. It has been argued that hunter-gatherer's complex social structure [3-9] has facilitated the evolution of cumulative culture by allowing information exchange among large pools of individuals [10-13]. However, empirical evidence for the interaction between social structure and cultural transmission is scant [14]. Here we examine the reported co-occurrence of plant uses between individuals in dyads (which we define as their "shared knowledge" of plant uses) in BaYaka Pygmies from Congo. We studied reported uses of 33 plants of 219 individuals from four camps. We show that (1) plant uses by BaYaka fall into three main domains: medicinal, foraging, and social norms/beliefs; (2) most medicinal plants have known bioactive properties, and some are positively associated with children's BMI, suggesting that their use is adaptive; (3) knowledge of medicinal plants is mainly shared between spouses and biological and affinal kin; and (4) knowledge of plant uses associated with foraging and social norms is shared more widely among campmates, regardless of relatedness, and is important for camp-wide activities that require cooperation. Our results show the interdependence between social structure and knowledge sharing. We propose that long-term pair bonds, affinal kin recognition, exogamy, and multi-locality create ties between unrelated families, facilitating the transmission of medicinal knowledge and its fitness implications. Additionally, multi-family camps with low inter-relatedness between camp members provide a framework for the exchange of functional information related to cooperative activities beyond the family unit, such as foraging and regulation of social life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Examining intellectual stimulation, idealised influence and individualised consideration as an antecedent to knowledge sharing: Evidence from Ghana

    Franklin Gyamfi Agyemang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformational leadership and its relationship with knowledge sharing have been well noted in knowledge management literature. However, how the individual dimensions within Transformational leadership theory contribute to knowledge sharing has been scarcely investigated. This paper explores whether Intellectual stimulation, Idealised Influence and individualised consideration affect knowledge sharing among employees in Ghana. A cross–sectional survey design was employed. The study employed a convenience sampling technique to select a sample size of 500. However, out of the 500 questionnaires distributed, 283 were used in the final analysis; thus, those that were correctly filled. Data was analyzed using multiple regression. The study found that there is a significant positive relationship between idealised influence and knowledge sharing. However, the relationship between intellectual stimulation and individualised consideration and knowledge sharing was found to be insignificant.

  15. Universities in the global knowledge economy: the eclectic paradigm

    Denys Ilnytskyy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As institutions of knowledge generation and diffusion, in the course of their activities universities should take into account not only the level of an organization or a country but also that of individual knowledge transformation, whereby creating favorable conditions for developing creativity of both graduates and academic staff who form the basis of the intellectual capital of the university and the country. While functioning in the global competitive climate, the national intellectual capital is a factor of socio-economic development and international competitive status of individual countries. During decades the concept of university has been evolving toward determining the operation mode of a university as that of an institution providing mass education, carrying out fundamental and applied researches as well as largely participating in local, national and global development. However, the university operation paradigm remains eclectic. Equal relationships between universities, government and industry in a knowledge-based society are well-defined by the concept of triple helix innovation systems engaging NGOs. World-class universities tend ever more to incorporate the feature of an entrepreneurial university actively competing in the global academic domain.

  16. Closing global knowledge gaps : Producing generalized knowledge from case studies of social-ecological systems

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Ellis, Erle C.; Allington, Ginger R.H.; de Bremond, Ariane; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; Mertz, Ole; Messerli, Peter; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Seppelt, Ralf; Verburg, Peter H.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over rapid widespread changes in social-ecological systems and their consequences for biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, food security, and human livelihoods are driving demands for globally comprehensive knowledge to support decision-making and policy development. Claims of regional or

  17. Effects of office space and colour on knowledge sharing and work stress

    Luke Hsiao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aid of empirical research, this study aims to verify the effects of the variables Office Space and Colour on Knowledge Sharing and Work Stress. Taking the domestic technology industry as the research sample, purposive sampling was applied in a questionnaire survey. Three hundred and sixty-eight questionnaires were distributed to a total of 14 technology companies in the Hsinchu and Southern Taiwan Science Parks. After 21 invalid responses had been removed, 347 valid copies were retrieved. Reliability analysis, factor analysis and hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. The research outcomes show the significant effects of Office Space and Colour on Knowledge Sharing and Work Stress among employees. Based on the outcomes, certain conclusions and suggestions are proposed.

  18. Knowledge capabilities for sustainable development in global classrooms - local challenges

    Elise Anderberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Young Masters Programme provides young people around the worldwith a net–based global–local learning environment for sustainable development. The present study investigates certain aspects of the implementation of this programme in the secondary schools of a Swedish municipality, in the context of the Lund Calling project. The research focuses on critical abilities to act globally, referred to as “knowledge capabilities”, and how they relate to the implementation process of initiating global learning for sustainabledevelopment (GLSD. A phenomenographic approach and semi–structuredinterviews were used in the investigation of the experiences of secondary school pupils, teachers and headmasters who participated in the project. Participants’ experiences of the changes carried out are described in relation to examples of knowledge capabilities needed for GLSD. Critical knowledge capabilities found to have been developed through the implementation were: to take command, and to collaborate. Critical knowledge capabilities perceived asnecessary, but not developed through the programme were: to be prepared, to act in a transdisciplinary manner, and to lead for a holistic understanding.

  19. Multicentre knowledge sharing and planning/dose audit on flattening filter free beams for SBRT lung

    Hansen, C. R.; Sykes, J. R.; Barber, J.

    2015-01-01

    When implementing new technology into clinical practice, there will always be a need for large knowledge gain. The aim of this study was twofold, (I) audit the treatment planning and dose delivery of Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beam technology for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) of lung...... tumours across a range of treatment planning systems compared to the conventional Flatting Filter (FF) beams, (II) investigate how sharing knowledge between centres of different experience can improve plan quality. All vendor/treatment planning system (TPS) combinations investigated were able to produce...

  20. Problem based learning: enhancing constructivist activities and engagement by fostering online knowledge sharing

    Malik, Manish

    2009-01-01

    PBL was first introduced in medical education as a pure constructivist activity. This was popularly known as the McMaster approach [1]. Later, as can be seen in the literature [2], [4]-[10], there were several different implementations of PBL. There is no single definition of what is classed as a PBL activity. Similarly, there is no one approach reported to be the only successful approach. Sharing of knowledge and discussions based on this knowledge are the hall mark of any successful PBL bas...

  1. Sharing Wisdom(s) to Enrich Knowledge: Working in a Transdisciplinary Research Team in Medical Anthropology.

    Carceller-Maicas, Natalia

    2015-06-01

    This paper explains our experience working in a transdisciplinary research team focused on adolescence mental health. It introduces briefly the two key theoretical concepts: participation and transdisciplinarity. In order to be followed with a deep description of the methodology and the creation of the two principal materials resulting from our research: a guide of best practices in adolescent mental health, and a documentary film. Showing in a practical way how the research could be enhanced by the sharing of knowledge.

  2. A Conceptual Model of Knowledge Sharing and Market Orientation in the Tourism Sector

    Chien M. Yeh; Han N. Hu; Shu H. Tsai

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Marketing scholars have emphasized the importance of market orientation. While a number of studies discover the positive influence of market orientation on a variety of organizations phenomena, the understanding of factors that facilitate market orientation is limited. This study develops a conceptual model in which knowledge sharing is proposed to be the antecedent to three perspectives of market orientation-customer orientation, competitor orientation ...

  3. Information sharing and organizational knowledge production in two Finnish firms: an exploration using activity theory

    Gunilla Widén-Wulff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this paper, we discuss the link between information sharing and organizational knowledge production in two very different organizations - a company that handles insurance claims and a small entrepreneurial hi-tech company. We suggest that this link has not been adequately addressed by studies of information behaviour, though a number of recent papers (e.g. Wilson, 2005; Bartlett and Toms, 2005 have proposed that human information behaviour research should appropriate methods from workplace studies and CSCW to provide a richer account of organizational information and knowledge work. Method. Two case studies of sharing practices in Finnish firms were carried out. Analysis. The version of activity theory that has been developed by Engeström (1999 and other Finnish researchers (Kuutti, 1996 was used to analyse the data. This has provided highly specific accounts of information sharing as a constituent of the varied processes that contribute to the development of organizational knowledge. Results. The overall analysis has allowed us to explain how and why organizational information sharing happens in terms that go beyond the cognitive and descriptive accounts (e.g. Widen-Wulff and Ginman, 2004; Widen-Wulff and Davenport, 2005; ; Widen-Wulff, 2006 of our earlier studies. Conclusion. . Information behaviour is a repertoire of actions and operations and judgements about timing and ethics that are brought into play across work cycles and routines. From this perspective, the duality of organizational knowledge becomes clear: it is both individual and collective judgements about how to behave, and the incremental outcome of these judgements, embedded in decisions that support the objects of activity systems.

  4. Trust and Work Place Spirituality on Knowledge Sharing Behaviour: Perspective from Non-Academic Staff of Higher Learning Institutions

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Osmangani, Aahad M; Daud, Nuraihan Mat; Chowdhury, Abdul Hannan; Hassan, Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This empirical research aims to add value in the existing research on knowledge sharing, investigate the antecedents of knowledge-sharing behaviour by embedding trust and workplace spirituality variable on non-academic staff from higher learning institution in Malaysia. The role of trust, perceived risk and workplace spirituality towards…

  5. The more the better…or is it? The contradictory effects of HR practices on knowledge sharing motivation and behavior

    Andreeva, T.; Sergeeva, A.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how individual-level antecedents such as motivation and ability to share knowledge mediate the relationship between HR practices and knowledge-sharing behaviour. The results of a survey of 329 secondary school teachers reveal the contradictory effects of different HR practices

  6. Shared cultural knowledge: Effects of music on young children's social preferences.

    Soley, Gaye; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2016-03-01

    Adults use cultural markers to discern the structure of the social landscape. Such markers may also influence the social preferences of young children, who tend to conform to their own group and prefer others who do so. However, the forces that propel these preferences are unknown. Here, we use social preferences based on music to investigate these forces in four- and five-year-old children. First, we establish that children prefer other children whose favorite songs are familiar to them. Then we show that this effect depends on shared knowledge: children both prefer others who know songs they themselves know, and avoid others who know songs they do not know, irrespective of the target children's liking of the songs. These results suggest that young children have a remarkably selective sensitivity to shared cultural knowledge. Shared knowledge may be a powerful determinant of children's social preferences, both because it underpins effective communication and because it is conveyed by others through social interactions and therefore can serve as a marker of social group identity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of knowledge-sharing web-based portal in gross and microscopic anatomy.

    Durosaro, Olayemi; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2008-12-01

    Changes in worldwide healthcare delivery require review of current medical school curricula structure to develop learning outcomes that ensures mastery of knowledge and clinical competency. In the last 3 years, Mayo Medical School implemented outcomes-based curriculum to encompass new graduate outcomes. Standard courses were replaced by 6-week clinically-integrated didactic blocks separated by student-self selected academic enrichment activities. Gross and microscopic anatomy was integrated with radiology and genetics respectively. Laboratory components include virtual microscopy and anatomical dissection. Students assigned to teams utilise computer portals to share learning experiences. High-resolution computed tomographic (CT) scans of cadavers prior to dissection were made available for correlative learning between the cadaveric material and radiologic images. Students work in teams on assigned presentations that include histology, cell and molecular biology, genetics and genomic using the Nexus Portal, based on DrupalEd, to share their observations, reflections and dissection findings. New generation of medical students are clearly comfortable utilising web-based programmes that maximise their learning potential of conceptually difficult and labor intensive courses. Team-based learning approach emphasising the use of knowledge-sharing computer portals maximises opportunities for students to master their knowledge and improve cognitive skills to ensure clinical competency.

  8. Sharing Data to Build a Medical Information Commons: From Bermuda to the Global Alliance.

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; Ankeny, Rachel A; Maxson Jones, Kathryn

    2017-08-31

    The Human Genome Project modeled its open science ethos on nematode biology, most famously through daily release of DNA sequence data based on the 1996 Bermuda Principles. That open science philosophy persists, but daily, unfettered release of data has had to adapt to constraints occasioned by the use of data from individual people, broader use of data not only by scientists but also by clinicians and individuals, the global reach of genomic applications and diverse national privacy and research ethics laws, and the rising prominence of a diverse commercial genomics sector. The Global Alliance for Genomics and Health was established to enable the data sharing that is essential for making meaning of genomic variation. Data-sharing policies and practices will continue to evolve as researchers, health professionals, and individuals strive to construct a global medical and scientific information commons.

  9. The Impact Of In-Groups And Out-Groups On Knowledge Sharing In Russia And China

    Michailova, Snejina; Hutchings, Kate

    2003-01-01

    been suggested that people intransition economies such as Russia and China have a propensity not to shareknowledge. We proffer that Russians' and Chinese' willingness to share knowledge ishighly influenced by group membership. By examining the extent to which groupmembership influences the processes......Management researchers have suggested that knowledge sharing has an importantrole to play in developing competitive advantage for organisations. It could be arguedthat the need to build advantage is even greater in the transition economies that areincreasingly internationally oriented. Yet, it has...... of knowledge sharing in the Chinese andRussian cultural and institutional environments, we theoretically explore how in-groupsand out-groups facilitate and impede knowledge sharing.Key Words: China, In-groups, Knowledge Sharing, Out-groups, Russia...

  10. Theory of planned behavior and knowledge sharing among nurses in patient computer management system: The role of distributive justice

    Sarminah Samad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between Theory of Planned Behavior and knowledge sharing among nurses in Patient Computer Management System. Consequently, it determined the moderating effect of distributive justice on the relationship between Theory Planned Behavior and knowledge sharing. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. The research was based on a correlational and cross-sectional study which involved a total of 336 nurses. Data was collected based on random sampling via self-administered questionnaires. Partial Least Squares (PLS (Version 3.0 analysis was used to analyze the data. The study revealed that Theory of Plan Behavior components were significantly related to knowledge sharing. These components were also found to have a significant and positive influence on knowledge sharing. The study revealed that distributive justice had significantly moderated the relationship between two components of Theory Planned Behavior (attitude and subjective norm and knowledge sharing.

  11. Creating the sustainable conditions for knowledge information sharing in virtual community.

    Wang, Jiangtao; Yang, Jianmei; Chen, Quan; Tsai, Sang-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Encyclopedias are not a new platform for the distribution of knowledge, but they have recently drawn a great deal of attention in their online iteration. Peer production in particular has emerged as a new mode of providing information with value and offering competitive advantage in information production. Large numbers of volunteers actively share their knowledge by continuously editing articles in Baidu encyclopedias. Most articles in the online communities are the cumulative and integrated products of the contributions of many coauthors. Email-based surveys and objective data mining were here used to collect analytical data. Critical mass theory is here used to analyze the characteristics of these collective actions and to explain the emergence and sustainability of these actions in the Baidu Encyclopedia communities. These results show that, based on the collective action framework, the contributors group satisfied the two key characteristics that ensure the collective action of knowledge contribution will both take place and become self-sustaining. This analysis not only facilitates the identification of collective actions related to individuals sharing knowledge in virtual communities, but also can provide an insight for other similar virtual communities' management and development.

  12. Assessing the Cost of Global Biodiversity and Conservation Knowledge.

    Diego Juffe-Bignoli

    Full Text Available Knowledge products comprise assessments of authoritative information supported by standards, governance, quality control, data, tools, and capacity building mechanisms. Considerable resources are dedicated to developing and maintaining knowledge products for biodiversity conservation, and they are widely used to inform policy and advise decision makers and practitioners. However, the financial cost of delivering this information is largely undocumented. We evaluated the costs and funding sources for developing and maintaining four global biodiversity and conservation knowledge products: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, Protected Planet, and the World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas. These are secondary data sets, built on primary data collected by extensive networks of expert contributors worldwide. We estimate that US$160 million (range: US$116-204 million, plus 293 person-years of volunteer time (range: 278-308 person-years valued at US$ 14 million (range US$12-16 million, were invested in these four knowledge products between 1979 and 2013. More than half of this financing was provided through philanthropy, and nearly three-quarters was spent on personnel costs. The estimated annual cost of maintaining data and platforms for three of these knowledge products (excluding the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems for which annual costs were not possible to estimate for 2013 is US$6.5 million in total (range: US$6.2-6.7 million. We estimated that an additional US$114 million will be needed to reach pre-defined baselines of data coverage for all the four knowledge products, and that once achieved, annual maintenance costs will be approximately US$12 million. These costs are much lower than those to maintain many other, similarly important, global knowledge products. Ensuring that biodiversity and conservation knowledge products are sufficiently up to date, comprehensive and accurate is fundamental to inform

  13. Capturing information needs of care providers to support knowledge sharing and distributed decision making.

    Rogers, M; Zach, L; An, Y; Dalrymple, P

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on work carried out to elicit information needs at a trans-disciplinary, nurse-managed health care clinic that serves a medically disadvantaged urban population. The trans-disciplinary model provides a "one-stop shop" for patients who can receive a wide range of services beyond traditional primary care. However, this model of health care presents knowledge sharing challenges because little is known about how data collected from the non-traditional services can be integrated into the traditional electronic medical record (EMR) and shared with other care providers. There is also little known about how health information technology (HIT) can be used to support the workflow in such a practice. The objective of this case study was to identify the information needs of care providers in order to inform the design of HIT to support knowledge sharing and distributed decision making. A participatory design approach is presented as a successful technique to specify requirements for HIT applications that can support a trans-disciplinary model of care. Using this design approach, the researchers identified the information needs of care providers working at the clinic and suggested HIT improvements to integrate non-traditional information into the EMR. These modifications allow knowledge sharing among care providers and support better health decisions. We have identified information needs of care providers as they are relevant to the design of health information systems. As new technology is designed and integrated into various workflows it is clear that understanding information needs is crucial to acceptance of that technology.

  14. Information technologies and the sharing of disaster knowledge: the critical role of professional culture.

    Marincioni, Fausto

    2007-12-01

    A comparative survey of a diverse sample of 96 US and Italian emergency management agencies shows that the diffusion of new information technologies (IT) has transformed disaster communications. Although these technologies permit access to and the dissemination of massive amounts of disaster information with unprecedented speed and efficiency, barriers rooted in the various professional cultures still hinder the sharing of disaster knowledge. To be effective the available IT must be attuned to the unique settings and professional cultures of the local emergency management communities. Findings show that available technology, context, professional culture and interaction are key factors that affect the knowledge transfer process. Cultural filters appear to influence emergency managers' perceptions of their own professional roles, their vision of the applicability of technology to social issues, and their perspective on the transferability of disaster knowledge. Four cultural approaches to the application of IT to disaster communications are defined: technocentric; geographic,; anthropocentric; and ecocentric.

  15. Users Ability to Share Knowledge when Integrated in New Product Development - Evidence from the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Smed, Marie; Salomo, Søren; Schultz, Carsten

    their professional experiences, but also concerningissues, which go beyond their pre-defined role. The overall research question for this paper is therefore: Can usersability to share their knowledge obtained in product development integration be differentiated by topic area? Are topicareas related to their own......In technological intensive industries knowledge input from both internal and external sources is crucial (Ahuja 2000,Gulati ét al. 2000, Von Hippel 2005; Thompson 2005). A highly well informed and increasingly recognized source ofknowledge is users of these technological products. By establishing...... and maintaining a close network with key users,firms can tap into unique knowledge, which can be useful in product development processes (Urban and von Hippel1988, Shah 2000, Rothwell 1994). Previous studies have here pointed to the professional capabilities of users, whichmay generate a community of common...

  16. Key principles for a national clinical decision support knowledge sharing framework: synthesis of insights from leading subject matter experts.

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Wright, Adam; Lewis, Janet; Bell, Douglas S; Middleton, Blackford

    2013-01-01

    To identify key principles for establishing a national clinical decision support (CDS) knowledge sharing framework. As part of an initiative by the US Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) to establish a framework for national CDS knowledge sharing, key stakeholders were identified. Stakeholders' viewpoints were obtained through surveys and in-depth interviews, and findings and relevant insights were summarized. Based on these insights, key principles were formulated for establishing a national CDS knowledge sharing framework. Nineteen key stakeholders were recruited, including six executives from electronic health record system vendors, seven executives from knowledge content producers, three executives from healthcare provider organizations, and three additional experts in clinical informatics. Based on these stakeholders' insights, five key principles were identified for effectively sharing CDS knowledge nationally. These principles are (1) prioritize and support the creation and maintenance of a national CDS knowledge sharing framework; (2) facilitate the development of high-value content and tooling, preferably in an open-source manner; (3) accelerate the development or licensing of required, pragmatic standards; (4) acknowledge and address medicolegal liability concerns; and (5) establish a self-sustaining business model. Based on the principles identified, a roadmap for national CDS knowledge sharing was developed through the ONC's Advancing CDS initiative. The study findings may serve as a useful guide for ongoing activities by the ONC and others to establish a national framework for sharing CDS knowledge and improving clinical care.

  17. The earth knowledge base and the global information society

    A Martynenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Today many countries have applied the strategy of developing an information-oriented society and data infrastructure. Although varying it their details and means of realization, all these policies have the same aim - to build a global information society. Here in Russia this crucial role belongs to the Electronic (Digital Earth initiative, which integrates geoinformation technologies in the Earth Knowledge Base (EKB. It i designed to promote the economic, social and scientific progress. An analysis of the problem has been done in the article.

  18. A snapshot of students’ blogging profiles in Taiwan: From the viewpoint of knowledge sharing

    Stephen J.H. Yang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this era of Web 2.0, many young people are keeping blogs sharing their ideas, their feelings or their hobbies as a way of showing themselves. Taiwan, as a leading area of information technology, is not an exception. To explore the characteristics of blogging profiles of student bloggers in Taiwan, this study conducted a content analysis on a popular blog website. 157 student bloggers of three educational levels were recruited as participants. The results showed that there were both significant gender and educational level differences in knowledge sharing levels among participants, while blogroll links, posting categories, and blogging purposes also showed some interesting facts. These findings provide some insights of students’ blogging and may give educators or sociologists some implications.

  19. Study of knowledge sharing and university libraries website management in Tehran City

    Mohaddeseh Dokhtesmati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing (KS is a process through which individuals mutually exchange their knowledge with each other and potentially through this process, opportunity for learning new experiences, training and implementing experience, skills and abilities are provided. Therefore, KS is important for various organizations. Accordingly, and because of the importance of KS, this research studies the status of KS and management of public universities’ central libraries websites in Tehran city. Survey method is pilot-descriptive and research tool is a questionnaire. Research community is staffs and stakeholders who are working or commenting on websites. Results of research show that sharing knowledge and influencing factors (including individual factors, organizational and information technology in the study population have a more favorable situation. Findings indicate that among the above three factors, organizational factors than other factors are more barriers on KS. Website management does not have good situation and website management by libraries and good condition, by a library is limited to content part and other parts of technical and structural are managed by the University’s IT Section. Employee’s capabilities and skills that could be effective on working with the website and KS do not have good situation, especially in website’s structural and technical parts and staffs have more skill for working with the content of website. In all, although KS has a good situation among staffs, but KS and management of website is not coherent, dynamic and efficient.

  20. Traditional Knowledge and Benefit Sharing After the Nagoya Protocol: Three Cases from South Africa

    Roger Chennells

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD has finally produced a negotiated framework intended to significantly advance the achievement of its core objectives, chief amongst them benefit sharing with indigenous and local communities who are holders of traditional knowledge related to genetic resources. The interpretation, in particular of central concepts contained in the Protocol, namely traditional knowledge (TK, community, and ownership of TK, and the practical application thereof by governments, are key to the success of the emerging access and benefit sharing regime. This article examines the manner in which the South African Biodiversity Act deals with these concepts. Three recent case studies are described, namely the Hoodia, Sceletium and Pelargonium cases, in which a range of issues relating to holders of TK were resolved, including the question of who the indigenous knowledge holders are. Moreover the debate on the question as to whether the intellectual property rights of TK holders are property rights as such, leads to the author’s suggestion that TK rights are a sui generis form of property rights, and that the legal principles contained in the law of equity provide useful and accessible guidance towards resolution of potentially competing claims of TK rights by indigenous peoples.

  1. AIDS: Ushering in a new era of shared responsibility for global health

    Buse Kent

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the first time since AIDS erupted as worldwide emergency, global leaders, the scientific community, activists and people living with HIV are venturing to speak about the end to the pandemic. Signs of hope abound: over 8 million people are receiving life-saving treatment, the number of new infections is on significant decline, the remarkable evidence of treatment’s impact on preventing new infections and the aspiration of zero new HIV infections among children is firmly within grasp. This progress, won by people living with HIV and countries with support from partners such as the US programme PEPFAR, the Clinton Health Access Initiative and untold more, embodies global solidarity to bring about an AIDS-free generation. Shared responsibility and global solidarity represents a normative ideal to which both individual stakeholders and the global community must subscribe and embrace if our collective vision of an AIDS-free world is to be realised. The idea of shared responsibility and global solidarity needs to goes further than raising and investing resources and extend to the level of control countries take of their AIDS response. This editorial explores five areas that require further attention.

  2. Geospatial patterns in traditional knowledge serve in assessing intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing in northwest South America

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Svenning, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    medicinal palm (Arecaceae) uses is unique and how much is shared across (i) four countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia), (ii) two cultural groups (Amerindian and non-Amerindian), (iii) 52 Amerindian tribes, (iv) six non-Amerindian groups, (v) 41 communities, and (vi) individuals in the 41 communities...... in the number of unshared and shared uses accounted for by the five birth cohorts. Results We found that most knowledge was not shared among countries, cultural groups, tribes, communities, or even individuals within them. Still, a minor knowledge component was widely shared, even across countries. General...

  3. Review and determine the factors influencing knowledge sharing using grounded theory and techniques using Dematel-ISM Fuzzy

    Peyman Akhavan

    2016-12-01

    The results show that components of culture as a social and technological factors as mainly Most influential and knowledge sharing are factors before any activity in knowledge management, investment culture should be discussed, as well as factors other than cultural factors such as leadership and management, interpersonal, motivational and other factors affecting job or are due for knowledge sharingprocess.

  4. An implementation of TPB method for learning important factors influencing knowledge sharing

    Shahrzad Karampour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management incorporates the systematic management of vital knowledge resources and the associated processes of creating, organizing, gathering, utilizing, diffusion and exploiting data. A key challenge emerging is learn to encourage knowledge sharing (KS within firms because knowledge is an organization’s intellectual capital and plays an important role in gaining a competitive advantage. Isolated initiatives for promoting KS and team collaboration without taking into consideration the limitations and constraints of KS can halt any further development in the KM culture of an operation. In this paper, in addition to individual and social factors, an effect of individual perception, which is an important factor for any behavior, is studied. We first identify effective factors in KS behavior through the theory of planned behavior, six factors of trust, knowledge power, organizational motivation, organizational culture, IT and Communities of Practice (COP as effective factors in three categories of behavioral beliefs, subjective norms and perceived behaviors are analyzed for an Iranian research center. The results of this research helps develop KS behavior and enhance performance and creativity of research in this center.

  5. Turkish Women's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors on Wet-Nursing, Milk Sharing and Human Milk Banking.

    Ergin, Ahmet; Uzun, S Utku

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine Turkish women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing, and human milk banking in a primary care setting located in a semi-rural area. Description Donated human milk is a feasible option for feeding infants and children. Currently, there is a debate on the topic starts with the preparations to launch a human milk bank in a large city in Turkey. Several previous papers reported women's opinions in large hospital based studies. Little is known about women's views and practice on donated human milk in the rural areas of Turkey. Assessment The study sample was recruited among married women aged 15-49 years who had given birth within the past 5 years and who were in a family health center for any reason in Honaz, Denizli, Turkey. A total of 240 women were included in the study. The data were collected by questionnaire created by the researchers and consisting of two parts: sociodemographic characteristics, and women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing and human milk banking. Results Thirty women (12.5%) had had a wet-nurse; 20 women (8.7%) wet-nursed babies before; and 17 (7.2%) of the women's children had a wet-nurse. If necessary, 80.9 and 78.3% were willing to accept to do wet-nursing and milk sharing, respectively. 150 (62.5%) heard of human milk banks; 55 (22.9%) approved of the establishment of milk banks. However, only 46 women (19.1%) were willing to donate to the bank. Possibility of marriages between milk siblings (76.8%) was the main reason for not considering the donation. Women's education was another factor affecting their opinion on breast milk sharing and donation to human milk banks. Less educated women were sympathetic to milk sharing (p = 0.02), however, more educated mothers had a propensity to donate to milk banks (p = 0.02). Conclusion Wet-nursing decreased over the years in Turkey, but still an ongoing small child feeding method

  6. Exploratory study of the role of knowledge brokers in translating knowledge to action following global maternal and newborn health technical meetings.

    Norton, T C; Howell, C; Reynolds, C

    2016-11-01

    There have been increasing calls for more research on interventions to successfully translate evidence-based knowledge into improved health policy and practices. This paper reports on an exploratory study of knowledge translation interventions conducted with participants of global health meetings held in Bangladesh in 2012 and in South Africa in 2013. We measured stakeholders' uptake of evidence-based knowledge in terms of their translation of this knowledge into actions around public health policy and practice. The research sought to determine whether participants shared and used knowledge from the meetings to improve health policy and practices in their settings and the factors influencing sharing and use. An exploratory study employed quantitative and qualitative methods of online surveys and in-depth interviews to collect data from all meeting participants. All participants in the Bangladesh and South Africa meetings were invited to complete an online survey during the meetings and over the following six weeks. Of 411 participants in the 2012 Bangladesh meeting, 148 participants from 22 countries completed the survey. Eleven of these respondents (from eight countries) were interviewed. Of the 436 participants in the 2013 South Africa meeting, 126 respondents from 33 countries completed an online survey; none of these respondents were interviewed. The analysis revealed that most respondents used new knowledge to advocate for policy change (2012: 65.5%; 2013: 67.5%) or improve service quality (2012: 60.1%; 2013: 70.6%). The type of knowledge that respondents most commonly shared was clinical or scientific information (2012: 79.1%; 2013: 66.7%) and country-specific information (2012: 73.0%; 2013: 71.4%). Most 2012 respondents shared knowledge because they thought it would be useful to a co-worker or colleague (79.7%). Findings on knowledge use and sharing suggest that most respondents saw themselves as knowledge brokers or intermediaries in a position to influence

  7. Governance of global health research consortia: Sharing sovereignty and resources within Future Health Systems.

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-02-01

    Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia that conduct programs of research in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). An ethical framework has been developed that describes how the governance of consortia comprised of institutions from high-income countries and LMICs should be structured to promote health equity. It encompasses initial guidance for sharing sovereignty in consortia decision-making and sharing consortia resources. This paper describes a first effort to examine whether and how consortia can uphold that guidance. Case study research was undertaken with the Future Health Systems consortium, performs research to improve health service delivery for the poor in Bangladesh, China, India, and Uganda. Data were thematically analysed and revealed that proposed ethical requirements for sharing sovereignty and sharing resources are largely upheld by Future Health Systems. Facilitating factors included having a decentralised governance model, LMIC partners with good research capacity, and firm budgets. Higher labour costs in the US and UK and the funder's policy of allocating funds to consortia on a reimbursement basis prevented full alignment with guidance on sharing resources. The lessons described in this paper can assist other consortia to more systematically link their governance policy and practice to the promotion of health equity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Network computing infrastructure to share tools and data in global nuclear energy partnership

    Kim, Guehee; Suzuki, Yoshio; Teshima, Naoya

    2010-01-01

    CCSE/JAEA (Center for Computational Science and e-Systems/Japan Atomic Energy Agency) integrated a prototype system of a network computing infrastructure for sharing tools and data to support the U.S. and Japan collaboration in GNEP (Global Nuclear Energy Partnership). We focused on three technical issues to apply our information process infrastructure, which are accessibility, security, and usability. In designing the prototype system, we integrated and improved both network and Web technologies. For the accessibility issue, we adopted SSL-VPN (Security Socket Layer - Virtual Private Network) technology for the access beyond firewalls. For the security issue, we developed an authentication gateway based on the PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) authentication mechanism to strengthen the security. Also, we set fine access control policy to shared tools and data and used shared key based encryption method to protect tools and data against leakage to third parties. For the usability issue, we chose Web browsers as user interface and developed Web application to provide functions to support sharing tools and data. By using WebDAV (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning) function, users can manipulate shared tools and data through the Windows-like folder environment. We implemented the prototype system in Grid infrastructure for atomic energy research: AEGIS (Atomic Energy Grid Infrastructure) developed by CCSE/JAEA. The prototype system was applied for the trial use in the first period of GNEP. (author)

  9. Continuous quality improvement: a shared governance model that maximizes agent-specific knowledge.

    Burkoski, Vanessa; Yoon, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Motivate, Innovate, Celebrate: an innovative shared governance model through the establishment of continuous quality improvement (CQI) councils was implemented across the London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC). The model leverages agent-specific knowledge at the point of care and provides a structure aimed at building human resources capacity and sustaining enhancements to quality and safe care delivery. Interprofessional and cross-functional teams work through the CQI councils to identify, formulate, execute and evaluate CQI initiatives. In addition to a structure that facilitates collaboration, accountability and ownership, a corporate CQI Steering Committee provides the forum for scaling up and spreading this model. Point-of-care staff, clinical management and educators were trained in LEAN methodology and patient experience-based design to ensure sufficient knowledge and resources to support the implementation.

  10. Teaching & Learning for International Students in a 'Learning Community': Creating, Sharing and Building Knowledge

    Linzi Kemp, PhD

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the culture of learning communities for effective teaching. A learning community is defined here as an environment where learners are brought together to share information, to learn from each other, and to create new knowledge. The individual student develops her/his own learning by building on learning from others. In a learning community approach to teaching, educators can ensure that students gain workplace skills such as collaboration, creativity, critical thinking, and problem solving. In this case study, it is shown how an active learning community, introduced into a blended teaching environment (face-to-face and virtual, effectively supported international undergraduates in the building of knowledge and workplace skills.

  11. Managing cultural diversity and the process of knowledge sharing: A case from Denmark

    Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Ideas of linking cultural diversity and knowledge resources have recently gained momentum in organizational literature, however, little is known about actual knowledge-sharing processes in culturally diverse organizations. This paper contributes to mending such limitations by first reviewing three...... dominant perspectives in the literature relevant to understanding these processes. It is then argued that these perspectives contribute focusing on different aspects of human diversity in organizations and, therefore, that they should not be separated in the analysis of the complex settings that culturally...... diverse organizations represent. This is illustrated with data from an ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish multicultural organization. The final section reflects on implications of using a combination of different theories in analyzing the results, and suggests other possibilities for future research....

  12. KNOWLEDGE SHARING CULTURE: A STUDY ON THE OMANI COMMERCIAL BANKING SECTOR

    Tareq Alhousary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector is one that is characterized by the high need of management experience and agility to cope with the fast-paced competition raised by the international alliances in this business. The Omani banking sector in general is one of the infrastructure businesses that has essential role in the realization of the Omani Renaissance. This sector has achieved remarkable improvements in terms of the cutting edge technology it has adopted. To reach the Omani aspiration in its economic renaissance, various soft issues beyond technology are to be tuned well to reach of the required competitiveness. Softer issues such as knowledge management are one of the critical soft issues that forms the aim of the study presented, and in particular, to explore how organizational knowledge is shared and nurtured in the sector. Questionnaire-based survey and semi-structured interviews were used to collect both qualitative and quantitative data from over 300 hundred banking employees from five different banks. Clustered sampling was used for the survey and interviews were selective; targeting senior administrator in the sector. The qualitative data was analyzed using SPSS descriptive statistics and thematic analysis was used for analyzing the qualitative data. The study found that the sector has built a competitive cutting edge banking technology over relatively short span of time; however there is still vast room for improvement at the administrative side of the work. Among the recommendations, is having a conscious systematic effort by the sector administration to build physical and virtual facilities for exchanging knowledge among its employees and to provide work stability and an effective reward system for knowledge sharing behavior.

  13. Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia

    Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  14. Involvement, knowledge sharing and proactive improvement as antecedents of logistics outsourcing performance

    Andreja Križman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the research results of a study on the impact of the drivers of logistics outsourcing performance: involvement, knowledge sharing, and innovation. The sample was derived from companies in the Slovenian market who choose to outsource their logistics services to logistics service providers. The article also attempts to contribute to the theoretical and methodological findings and managerial implications in logistics outsourcing discussions. On the basis of the existing literature and some new arguments derived from in-depth interviews with logistics experts, the measurement and structural models were empirically analysed on a sample of manufacturing and retail companies involved in an ongoing relationship with a logistics service provider. Measurement scales for the constructs, their development, refinement and measurement for validity and reliability were performed. Multivariate statistical methods (EFA, CFA and SEM – Partial Least Squares were utilised. Five hypotheses were tested and confirmed. The logistics outsourcing performance (the goal achievement and the goal exceedance is well explained by involvement, knowledge sharing, and innovation.

  15. Pengaruh Job Involvement dan Job Satisfaction terhadap Organizational Citizenship Behaviour serta Dampaknya pada Knowledge Sharing di PT Indolift Sukses Abadi

    Tinjung Desy Nursanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted at PT Indolift Sukses Abadi, a folklift distributor that sells and distributes all heavy equipment products. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is any influence of job involvement and job satisfaction on organizational citizenship behavior that impact to knowledge sharing. Data were obtained by distributing a questionnaire to 100 respondents of the company; and then were processed using Path Analysis Technique. Based on this research, job involvement and job satisfaction partially and simultaneously have influence on organizational citizenship behaviour. Then, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviour partially have influence on knowledge sharing. However, job involvement partially has no influence on knowledge sharing. Nevertheless, job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior simultaneously have influence on knowledge sharing.

  16. Sharing of information and knowledge among staff in King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) library

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes strategies and initiatives undertaken by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) library in sharing information and knowledge among its staff. KAUST Library adopted several IT platforms to enable staff

  17. Reducing the Threat of Terrorism through Knowledge Sharing in a Virtual Environment Between Law Enforcement and the Private Security Industry

    Gallagher, Jerry P

    2008-01-01

    ... between private security and the KCPD. To empower this resource as a terrorism prevention force multiplier the development of a web based virtual knowledge sharing initiative was explored in this study as a solution to provide "one stop...

  18. Collective knowledge sharing as a social justice strategy: the difference it made in a service project about preterm birth disparity.

    Boutain, Doris M

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about how health disparities are created and sustained from those affected is needed. Collective knowledge sharing is one way to redefine and revalue dialogue and critique processes with the aim of promoting just relationships of knowledge production. This article describes how a community service project focused on using collective knowledge sharing as a social justice strategy with health ministry volunteers produced insights about preterm birth disparity issues. Project insights related to (1) the connection between faith and health, (2) the significance of family and congregational stories, and (3) the importance of praising assets in the context of disparity recognition.

  19. Review and determine the factors influencing knowledge sharing using grounded theory and techniques using Dematel-ISM Fuzzy

    Peyman Akhavan; Sanaz Imani

    2016-01-01

    In today's competitive world, knowledge and use of knowledge is a competitive advantage that it makes the administration more efficient and effective management of a true knowledge. Therefore, this study attempted to collect and identify the factors influencing knowledge sharing. In the present study in terms of purpose and using grounded theory methodology classified in nine categories including cultural, leadership, social, personal, business, motivational, organizational, technological,...

  20. Production and sharing of the nuclear knowledge: knowledge management at the Radiopharmaceutical Division of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear of Brazilian CNEN

    Bettencourt, Marcia Pires da Luz

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian nuclear area made great progress in recent years, bringing many benefits to society, not only in producing electric power, but also in agriculture, industry and medicine. One of the problems in this area, nowadays, is the risk losing nuclear knowledge. Although it is difficult to understand how knowledge is created and used, can be seen that the sharing and production are influenced by some factors that provide favorable conditions. This research focused its attention on identifying actions that contribute to the production and sharing of knowledge and information at the Divisão de Radiofármacos of Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear of Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN). Knowledge management was chosen as a tool to study the problem identified, because it has methodologies aimed at stimulating the knowledge production process and knowledge and information sharing, both in private companies and public institutions, such as IEN/CNEN. Knowledge management is an interdisciplinary relatively new discipline, and although it had not been born in Information Science, there has been seeking theoretical support and legitimacy at this interdisciplinary science. This research conceptualizes, historically contextualizes and analyzes developments and trends in knowledge management. The study discourses on the peculiarities and aspects in common between the knowledge management and information management and identifies factors that influence the sharing of information and knowledge such as: social networks, communities of practice, collaborative spaces, organizational culture, organizational learning, and storytelling. In reviewing the literature and after data analysis of interviews, some actions have been identified, and it was possible to make some suggestions. It is concluded that institutional incentive for collaboration and knowledge sharing can influence positive results and increase the production of new knowledge. (author)

  1. Knowledge Sharing Through Virtual Mode: The Influenced Factors for KM Development Among the Researchers in Nuclear Malaysia

    Adnan, H.; Sulaiman, M.S.; Yusof, M.H.; Ali, I.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: • The primary contribution of this study is to assess the influence of virtual mode as a KM medium in Nuclear Malaysia. • Direct relationship between the researchers and the used of virtual mode in the knowledge sharing process. • Finding reveals that virtual mode contributes significant factors in influencing researchers’ knowledge sharing behaviour. • The findings from the study may be used by the management of Nuclear Malaysia to improve or enhance the capacity of virtual mode provided by the organisation

  2. ATLAS Global Shares Implementation in the PanDA Workload Management System

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) is the workload management system for ATLAS across the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. While analysis tasks are submitted to PanDA by over a thousand users following personal schedules (e.g. PhD or conference deadlines), production campaigns are scheduled by a central Physics Coordination group based on the organization’s calendar. The Physics Coordination group needs to allocate the amount of Grid resources dedicated to each activity, in order to manage sharing of CPU resources among various parallel campaigns and to make sure that results can be achieved in time for important deadlines. While dynamic and static shares on batch systems have been around for a long time, we are trying to move away from local resource partitioning and manage shares at a global level in the PanDA system. The global solution is not straightforward, given different requirements of the activities (number of cores, memory, I/O and CPU intensity), the heterogeneity of Grid resources (site/H...

  3. Knowledge sharing behaviour among non-academic staff in higher learning institutes: The role of trust and perceived risk

    Muhammad Sabbir Rahman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyse knowledge sharing behaviour among non-academic staff of higher learning institutions. This research focuses on the mediation impact of perceived risk on trust and knowledge sharing behaviour. The research also proposes actions that can be taken by higher learning institutions to enhance trust among the staff in order to create a knowledge sharing environment at the workplace. This research applied confirmatory factor analysis and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM to evaluate the proposed measurement model and proved the research hypotheses. The findings from the research show that perceived risk plays a strong mediating role between trust and knowledge sharing behaviour among the non-academic staff of higher learning institutions. The SEM analysis also confirmed that the research model shows a good fit. This research highlights issues concerning knowledge sharing practices among non-academic staff and provides some recommendations to the managers to address these issues. The researchers agreed that more research needs to be done in this area as there are aspects that are yet to be explored. The findings of this research serve to add to the literature on knowledge sharing focussing on non-academic staff of higher learning institutions.

  4. Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Faeda Mohsam

    2011-11-01

    Objectives: Effective knowledge sharing and consequent knowledge management (KM have been identified as definite approaches to enhancing competitive advantage. The research therefore aimed to establish to what extent small enterprises embrace their knowledge sharing activities and whether their knowledge sharing activities are managed at all. Furthermore, it examined how their knowledge sharing can contribute to their competitive advantage. Method: A case study approach was followed for this research. Selected SMEs from the engineering sector were the subject of the case study and SME owners, directors and managers of consulting civil engineering firms were interviewed to determine whether there are mechanisms in place to ensure better knowledge sharing within SMEs. Results: In general, respondents had stated that they possessed special factors that set them above their competitors: • The company strategy and good reputation of completing projects within the required timeframe. In other words, they were well known for their track record in terms of service delivery. • Their specialty in terms of different focus areas, namely structural and civil engineering, water supply and storm water design, transportation, sewer design and storm water traffic. • The fact that they operated in silos. This means that the specialists in their specific fields operated independently in groups, separately from everyone else in the company. • Their good relationship with local authorities and other companies in the field. • Their multidisciplinary approach in incorporating all spheres of civil engineering, which gave them a niche in the market. • The vast knowledge and experience of the owners and directors. Conclusion: Each of the companies interviewed had unique skills that they can apply to their advantage. They were also found to be implementing KM processes such as sharing, creating and leveraging of information and knowledge, albeit in the absence of formal policies

  5. Buy-back and Revenue-Sharing Contracts in Global Supply Chain

    Yang Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main propose of this study is to investigate how exchange rate risk affects the buy-back and revenue-sharing contracts in the global supply chain, hence to improve the performance of global supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a two-echelon global supply chain, with the model equilibrium, this paper studies the difference between the buy-back contract and the revenue-sharing contract. By the transmitting of the exchange rate risk, it discusses the node-enterprises’ optimal strategies. Findings: The result shows that: (1 Both these two contracts can diminish the inefficiency caused by demand risk, but none of them can manage the exchange rate risk. (2 No matter which currency is used to settle the payment, both these two contracts will lead to the transmitting of exchange rate risk from one node-enterprise to another. (3 When the currency of the supplier’s country in the relatively appreciating, it is better to use the buy-back contract; when the currency of the supplier’s country in the relatively depreciating, the revenue-sharing contract will lead to a better result. Research limitations/implications: Though this study analyzes how the exchange rate risk affects these two contracts, it based on the assumption that node-enterprises’ goal is maximizing theirs expected profit. In fact, many firms not only focus on maximizing theirs expected profit; the risk-taking is also an important concern. For future researches, how firms’ risk-preferences affects theirs decisions in the global supply chain will be an interesting question. Also, will there be any difference if consider the node-enterprises’ utility functions instead of the expected profit. Originality/value: Existing literature about the global supply chain mainly focus on the exchange rate risk management, few of them considers the double marginalization effect caused by the demand risk. Therefore, with the exchange rate fluctuation, we discuss the

  6. Maximizing the knowledge base: Knowledge Base+ and the Global Open Knowledgebase

    Liam Earney

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for the two projects discussed in this article is the simple premise that the current inaccuracies of data in the library supply chain are detrimental to the user experience, limit the ability of institutions to effectively manage their collections and that resolving them is increasingly unsustainable at the institutional level. Two projects, Knowledge Base+ (KB+ in the UK and Global Open Knowledgebase (GOKb in the USA, are working in cooperation with a range of other partners, and adopting a communitycentric approach to address these issues and broaden the scope and utility of knowledge bases more generally. The belief is that only through collaboration at a wide range of levels and on a number of fronts can these challenges be overcome.

  7. Understanding primary school science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge: The case of teaching global warming

    Chordnork, Boonliang; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This aim of this research was to investigate primary school science teachers understanding and teaching practice as well as the influence on teaching and learning a topic like global warming. The participants were four primary science teachers, who were not graduated in science education. Methodology was the case study method, which was under the qualitative research regarded from interpretive paradigm. Data were collected by openended questionnaire, semi-structure interview, and document colleting. The questionnaire examined teachers' background, teachers' understanding of problems and threats of science teaching, desiring of development their PCK, sharing the teaching approaches, and their ideas of strength and weakness. a semi-structured interview was conducted based on the approach for capturing PCK of Loughran [23] content representation (CoRe). And, the document was collected to clarify what evidence which was invented to effect on students' learning. These document included lesson plan, students' task, and painting about global warming, science projects, the picture of activities of science learning, the exercise and test. Data analysis employed multiple approach of evidence looking an issue from each primary science teachers and used triangulation method to analyze the data with aiming to make meaning of teachers' representation of teaching practice. These included descriptive statistics, CoRe interpretation, and document analysis. The results show that teachers had misunderstanding of science teaching practice and they has articulated the pedagogical content knowledge in terms of assessment, goal of teaching and linking to the context of socio cultural. In contrast, knowledge and belief of curriculum, students' understanding of content global warming, and strategies of teaching were articulated indistinct by non-graduate science teacher. Constructing opportunities for personal development, the curiosity of the student learning center, and linking context

  8. Assessing the effectiveness of a longitudinal knowledge dissemination intervention: Sharing research findings in rural South Africa

    Rhian Twine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge dissemination interventions (KDIs are integral to knowledge brokerage activities in research as part of the ethics of practice, but are seldom evaluated. In this case study, we critically reflect on an annual KDI as part of knowledge brokerage activities in the MRC/Wits-Agincourt Unit health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS in rural South Africa from 2001 to 2015. The HDSS findings on births, deaths and migrations, as well as nested research project results, were shared with villagers, village leaders and service providers. The data used for this case study comprised secondary analysis of 13 reports and 762 evaluation forms of annual village-based meetings; records of requests for data from stakeholders; and qualitative analysis of 15 individual and five focus group interviews with local leaders and service providers involving 60 people. Over time, the KDI evolved from taking place over one week a year to being extended over six months, and to include briefings with service providers and local leaders. Attendance at village-level meetings remained low at an average of 3 per cent of the total adult population. Since 2011, the KDI village-based meetings have developed into an embedded community forum for discussion of topical village issues. There has been a decrease in requests for health-care and other services from the research unit, with a concurrent increase in research-related questions and requests for data from service providers, village leaders and political representatives. We conclude that, in this setting, the dissemination of research findings is not a linear exchange of information from the researchers to village residents and their leadership, but is increasingly multi-directional. KDIs are a key component of knowledge brokerage activities and involve, influence and are influenced by other aspects of knowledge brokerage, such as identifying, engaging and connecting with stakeholders and supporting sustainability.

  9. The PREVIEW Global Risk Data Platform: a geoportal to serve and share global data on risk to natural hazards

    G. Giuliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With growing world population and concentration in urban and coastal areas, the exposure to natural hazards is increasing and results in higher risk of human and economic losses. Improving the identification of areas, population and assets potentially exposed to natural hazards is essential to reduce the consequences of such events. Disaster risk is a function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Modelling risk at the global level requires accessing and processing a large number of data, from numerous collaborating centres.

    These data need to be easily updated, and there is a need for centralizing access to this information as well as simplifying its use for non GIS specialists. The Hyogo Framework for Action provides the mandate for data sharing, so that governments and international development agencies can take appropriate decision for disaster risk reduction.

    Timely access and easy integration of geospatial data are essential to support efforts in Disaster Risk Reduction. However various issues in data availability, accessibility and integration limit the use of such data. In consequence, a framework that facilitate sharing and exchange of geospatial data on natural hazards should improve decision-making process. The PREVIEW Global Risk Data Platform is a highly interactive web-based GIS portal supported by a Spatial Data Infrastructure that offers free and interoperable access to more than 60 global data sets on nine types of natural hazards (tropical cyclones and related storm surges, drought, earthquakes, biomass fires, floods, landslides, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions and related exposure and risk. This application portrays an easy-to-use online interactive mapping interface so that users can easily work with it and seamlessly integrate data in their own data flow using fully compliant OGC Web Services (OWS.

  10. The PREVIEW Global Risk Data Platform: a geoportal to serve and share global data on risk to natural hazards

    Giuliani, G.; Peduzzi, P.

    2011-01-01

    With growing world population and concentration in urban and coastal areas, the exposure to natural hazards is increasing and results in higher risk of human and economic losses. Improving the identification of areas, population and assets potentially exposed to natural hazards is essential to reduce the consequences of such events. Disaster risk is a function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Modelling risk at the global level requires accessing and processing a large number of data, from numerous collaborating centres. These data need to be easily updated, and there is a need for centralizing access to this information as well as simplifying its use for non GIS specialists. The Hyogo Framework for Action provides the mandate for data sharing, so that governments and international development agencies can take appropriate decision for disaster risk reduction. Timely access and easy integration of geospatial data are essential to support efforts in Disaster Risk Reduction. However various issues in data availability, accessibility and integration limit the use of such data. In consequence, a framework that facilitate sharing and exchange of geospatial data on natural hazards should improve decision-making process. The PREVIEW Global Risk Data Platform is a highly interactive web-based GIS portal supported by a Spatial Data Infrastructure that offers free and interoperable access to more than 60 global data sets on nine types of natural hazards (tropical cyclones and related storm surges, drought, earthquakes, biomass fires, floods, landslides, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions) and related exposure and risk. This application portrays an easy-to-use online interactive mapping interface so that users can easily work with it and seamlessly integrate data in their own data flow using fully compliant OGC Web Services (OWS).

  11. Preparing for motherhood: authoritative knowledge and the undercurrents of shared experience in two childbirth education courses in Cagliari, Italy.

    Ketler, S K

    2000-06-01

    This article compares the social settings and teaching organization of two differently structured childbirth education courses in Cagliari, Italy, in order to understand how social processes and contexts work to negotiate authoritative knowledge. Although the explicit goal of both courses was to transmit biomedical knowledge, knowledge based in women's experience nonetheless dominated some course sessions. Thus, I examine the social processes and interactions that enabled women's experiential knowledge to dominate discussions and subsequently share in the authority of biomedical knowledge in some situations. Because few existing studies do so, this article also addresses a gap in our current understanding by exploring not only how experiential knowledge comes to share authority with biomedical knowledge, but also, why it is important that it does. Focusing on the efficacy of differently structured courses, this article informs the planning of future childbirth education courses in similar settings.

  12. Shared decision making and patient decision aids: knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Hawai'i physicians.

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John; Chun, Maria B J

    2013-11-01

    As the health care field moves toward patient-centered care (PCC), increasing emphasis has been placed on the benefits of patient decision aids for promoting shared decision making (SDM). This study provides a baseline measure of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among Hawai'i's physicians with respect to patient decision aids (DAs). Physicians throughout the State of Hawai'i were invited to complete a survey assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to the clinical use of DAs. One hundred and seventy four valid surveys were analyzed. Reported awareness and use of DAs were low, but recognition of the benefits of SDM and openness to the use of DAs were very high. The leading perceived barriers to the implementation of DAs were lack of awareness, lack of resources, and limited physician time to learn about DA technology. However, a significant majority of the respondents reported that DAs could empower patients by improving knowledge (88%), increasing satisfaction with the consultation process (81%), and increasing compliance (74%). Among physicians currently employing DAs, use of brochures or options matrix sheets was the most common aid tool. However, leading recommended DA formats were paper-based brochures for clinic use (75%) and interactive online website programs for outside clinic use (73.5%). Given growing emphasis on the PCC model and the recognized desire of many patients to participate in the medical decision making process, positive responses toward SDM and the use of DAs by Hawai'i physicians are promising.

  13. The Effective Contributing Factors in Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Transfer among Academic Staff at Tehran University of Medical Sciences: A Qualitative Study

    Narges Ghodsian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge transfer is known as a core process in knowledge management. Its decent and influential function in organizations would result in regeneration and innovation of knowledge.Due to this importance, the most recent research in knowledge management has been inclined toward knowledge transfer concept. We aimed to investigate the most influencing contributing factors in knowledge transfer and knowledge sharing within the faculty members at Tehran University of Medical Sciences.Method: This investigation has been conducted with a qualitative approach using grounded theory. Data were collected using semi- structured interview with 17 faculty members of ten distinct departments of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The data has been transcribed and analyzed.Results: By carefully analyzing the interviews from 272 preliminary open codes after sequential analogies and induction, 54 concepts have been extracted that were categorized into one of eleven classes constituting the effective items and factors in knowledge transfer among faculty members,respectively. These categories could be placed into , non-communication factors and communication factors. The non-communication factors were knowledge actors (professors, organization (university, the knowledge, and surroundings. The communication factors are the factors that are formed in the dual relationships between the relevant factors.Conclusion: A decent knowledge flow in working groups and collaborative societies of faculty members within a department or through different university departments would lead to a better research and education management. This could also bring about some advantages: the research in each department falls in a well-defined, pre-missioned channel, avoiding scattered research works, and enhancing the training and research. The awareness of university senior managers about influencing contributing factors of knowledge transfer and their functions provide a

  14. Knowledge sharing in intercultural team work : what factors can influence knowledge sharing process in intercultural team work? the case of Finnish and Vietnamese team

    Truong, Minh Chau

    2010-01-01

    The transition from an industrial to a post industrial knowledge economy provides and increases in the proportion of jobs that are knowledge intensive. There are statistical analyses typically show that managerial and professional work regarding to knowledge intensive becoming one of the fastest growing occupational groups since the 1980s. Elias and Gregory; Fleming et al. (1994, cited in Hislop 2013:7). Knowledge management, therefore is a contemporary field which provides many interesting ...

  15. Identifying Knowledge Sharing Barriers in the Collaboration of Traditional and Western Medicine Professionals in Chinese Hospitals: A Case Study

    Zhou, Lihong; Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project that aims at identifying knowledge sharing (KS) barriers between traditional and western medicine practitioners co-existing and complementing each other in Chinese healthcare organisations. The study focuses on the tacit aspects of patient knowledge, rather than the traditional technical information shared…

  16. Seeking and Sharing Knowledge Using Social Media in an Organization: The Impact of Social Influence, Organization Structure and Social Capital

    Schutz, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    The prolific use of social media tools such as blogs and wikis is leading several organizations to adopt these tools. However, success of social media depends on its use by employees to share and seek knowledge. Based on a unique data set obtained from a large multi-national corporation, I examined three different aspects of knowledge seeking and…

  17. Quality management as knowledge sharing: experiences of the Napa County Health and Human Services Agency.

    Harrison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Lacking a coordinated effort in utilizing data and tracking program outcomes, one agency developed a Quality Management (QM) division to facilitate and manage more effective data use. To support this process, the agency sought to develop a collective, agency-wide understanding and investment in improving and measuring client outcomes. Similarly, the agency also focused efforts on creating a culture of transparency and accountability, with goals of improving service, increasing agency integrity, meeting regulatory compliance, and engaging in effective risk management. Operationalizing the QM initiative involved developing procedures, systems, and guidelines that would facilitate the generation of reliable and accurate data that could be used to inform program change and decision-making. This case study describes this agency's experience in successfully creating and implementing a QM initiative aimed at engaging in greater knowledge sharing. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  18. Work in the virtual enterprise-creating identities, building trust, and sharing knowledge

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Wangel, Arne

    2006-01-01

    for an exploratory, sociotechnical research approach combining the dimensions of context, subject and action with the twin objectives of contributing to the enhancement of collaborative capabilities in virtual teams as well as improving the insights into the nature of virtual work....... of the network must be integrated across the barriers of missing face-to-face clues and cultural differences. The social integration of the virtual network involves the creation of identities of the participating nodes, the building of trust between them, and the sharing of tacit and explicit knowledge among...... them. The conventional organisation already doing well in these areas seems to have an edge when going virtual. The paper argues that the whole question of management and control must be reconsidered due to the particular circumstances in the ‘Network Society’. The paper outlines a suggestion...

  19. Integrating genome-based informatics to modernize global disease monitoring, information sharing, and response

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Brown, Eric W; Detter, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of genome technologies holds great promise for improving the quality and speed of clinical and public health laboratory investigations and for decreasing their cost. The latest generation of genome DNA sequencers can provide highly detailed and robust information on disease...... typing methods to provide point-of-care clinical diagnosis and other essential information for quicker and better treatment of patients. Provided there is free-sharing of information by all clinical and public health laboratories, these genomic tools could spawn a global system of linked databases......-causing microbes, and in the near future these technologies will be suitable for routine use in national, regional, and global public health laboratories. With additional improvements in instrumentation, these next- or third-generation sequencers are likely to replace conventional culture-based and molecular...

  20. A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways – Part 1: Water use

    N. Hanasaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, the IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and the climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect not only quantitative socio-economic factors, such as population and electricity production, but also key qualitative concepts such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigated area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, and withdrawal-based potential industrial and municipal water demands. The first three factors are used to estimate the potential irrigation water demand. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century in five-year intervals. Each factor shows wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigated area in 2085 varies between 2.7 × 106 and 4.5 × 106 km2, withdrawal-based potential industrial water demand between 246 and 1714 km3 yr−1, and municipal water between 573 and 1280 km3 yr−1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments that identify the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyze the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

  1. Knowledge sharing and organizational learning in the context of hospital infection prevention.

    Rangachari, Pavani

    2010-01-01

    Recently, hospitals that have been successful in preventing infections have labeled their improvement approaches as either the Toyota Production System (TPS) approach or the Positive Deviance (PD) approach. PD has been distinguished from TPS as being a bottom-up approach to improvement, as against top-down. Facilities that have employed both approaches have suggested that PD may be more effective than TPS for infection prevention. This article integrates organizational learning, institutional, and knowledge network theories to develop a theoretical framework for understanding the structure and evolution of effective knowledge-sharing networks in health care organizations, that is, networks most conducive to learning and improvement. Contrary to arguments put forth by hospital success stories, the framework suggests that networks rich in brokerage and hierarchy (ie, top-down, "TPS-like" structures) may be more effective for learning and improvement in health care organizations, compared with a networks rich in density (ie, bottom-up, "PD-like" structures). The theoretical framework and ensuing analysis help identify several gaps in the literature related to organization learning and improvement in the infection prevention context. This, in turn, helps put forth recommendations for health management research and practice.

  2. Shared function knowledge: infants' attention to function information in communicative contexts.

    Träuble, Birgit; Bätz, Johannes

    2014-08-01

    Humans are specifically adapted to knowledge acquisition and transfer by social communication. According to natural pedagogy theory, infants are highly sensitive to signals that indicate a teacher's communicative intention and are biased to interpret communicative contexts as conveying relevant and generalizable knowledge that is also shared by other conspecifics. We investigated whether infants as young as 12 months interpret ostensively communicated object-directed emotion expressions as generalizable and shareable with others. Given that young infants pay particular attention to information about objects' functions, we were interested in whether the shareability assumption also holds for emotional attitudes toward functional features of unfamiliar objects. The results suggest that 12-month-olds (N=80) flexibly interpret another person's emotion displays toward unfamiliar artifacts either as object-centered and generalizable attitudes or as person-centered subjective attitudes, depending on the communicative characteristics of the learning context. Furthermore, the transfer of ostensively communicated information about the artifacts depended on their functional usability, which is consistent with infants' early sensitivity to function information in various areas of cognitive development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An approach to medical knowledge sharing in a hospital information system using MCLink.

    Shibuya, Akiko; Inoue, Ryusuke; Nakayama, Masaharu; Kasahara, Shin; Maeda, Yukihiro; Umesato, Yoshimasa; Kondo, Yoshiaki

    2013-08-01

    Clinicians often need access to electronic information resources that answer questions that occur in daily clinical practice. This information generally comes from publicly available resources. However, clinicians also need knowledge on institution-specific information (e.g., institution-specific guidelines, choice of drug, choice of laboratory test, information on adverse events, and advice from professional colleagues). This information needs to be available in real time. This study characterizes these needs in order to build a prototype hospital information system (HIS) that can help clinicians get timely answers to questions. We previously designed medical knowledge units called Medical Cells (MCs). We developed a portal server of MCs that can create and store medical information such as institution-specific information. We then developed a prototype HIS that embeds MCs as links (MCLink); these links are based on specific terms (e.g., drug, laboratory test, and disease). This prototype HIS presents clinicians with institution-specific information. The HIS clients (e.g., clinicians, nurses, pharmacists, and laboratory technicians) can also create an MCLink in the HIS using the portal server in the hospital. The prototype HIS allowed efficient sharing and use of institution-specific information to clinicians at the point of care. This study included institution-specific information resources and advice from professional colleagues, both of which might have an important role in supporting good clinical decision making.

  4. AgShare Open Knowledge: Improving Rural Communities through University Student Action Research

    Geith, Christine; Vignare, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of AgShare is to create a scalable and sustainable collaboration of existing organizations for African publishing, localizing, and sharing of science-based teaching and learning materials that fill critical resource gaps in African MSc agriculture curriculum. Shared innovative practices are emerging through the AgShare projects, not only…

  5. Protocol for an exploration of knowledge sharing for improved discharge from a mental health ward.

    Rowley, Emma; Wright, Nicola; Waring, Justin; Gregoriou, Kyri; Chopra, Arun

    2014-10-01

    Strategies to reduce hospital admissions for mental health service users have received vast amounts of attention, yet the transfer of care from hospital to the community has been ignored. The discharge process is complex, messy, disjointed and inefficient, relying on cross-agency and organisational working. Focusing on one acute mental health admission ward, we will investigate whether the discharge process for people with severe mental health problems can be enhanced through the creation, implementation and utilisation of a knowledge sharing proforma that is used on their admission to the ward. The project uses qualitative interviews to understand the complex processes associated with being admitted and discharged from inpatient mental health wards. Practitioners will be asked to identify and map the relevant stakeholders involved in admission and discharge, and discuss any problems with the process. The study team will work with clinicians to develop a knowledge collection proforma, which will be piloted for 2 months. Qualitative interviews will be carried out to collect reflections on the experiences of using the tool, with data used for further refinement of the intervention. Baseline and repeat quantitative measures will be taken to illustrate any changes to length of stay and readmission rates achieved as a result of the study. A key issue is that participants are able to comment frankly on something that is a core part of their work, without fear or reprise. It is equally important that all participants are offered the opportunity to develop and coproduce the knowledge collection proforma, in order that the intervention produced is fit for purpose and usable in the real world, away from a research environment. The study has received ethical approval from Nottingham University Business School ethics committee, and has all appropriate National Health Service research governance clearances. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  6. Examining Structural Relationships between Work Engagement, Organizational Procedural Justice, Knowledge Sharing, and Innovative Work Behavior for Sustainable Organizations

    Woocheol Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the human/social dimension of organizational sustainability, this area of scholastic endeavor has received relatively little attention when compared to the economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability. On the basis of social exchange theory, this study posited the important role that employee work engagement is a key component for improving human performance for organizational sustainability. In order to do so, it suggests the important role that employee work engagement has on the relationships among various factors in the organization, including organizational procedural justice, knowledge sharing, and innovative work behaviors. A total of 400 complete responses from full-time employees in Korean organizations were used for the purpose of data analysis with structural equation modeling (SEM. The results demonstrated that organizational procedural justice is positively related with employee work engagement, knowledge sharing, and innovative work behavior. In addition, work engagement enhances employee knowledge sharing and innovative work behavior, and knowledge sharing enhances innovative work behavior. With regard to the mechanisms of these relationships, work engagement and knowledge sharing acted as significant mediators. Based on the findings, we suggested relevant research implications and recommendations for future research on sustainable organizations.

  7. The effect of dimensions of knowledge sharing on a variety of strategic mind map of managers and employees

    Pegah Azema

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on cognitive school of strategic management, the mental (intellectual map of managers and employees is highly effective on survival and development of their companies. The number of mental maps that managers and employees of a company have on situations and categories (quantity and the quality (accuracy and precision of mind maps can be decisive factors in the success of their companies. One of the most important factors affecting the mind map is knowledge sharing. This study seeks to explain the dimensions of this impact. Based on objective, this is a descriptive - explanatory study, while it is an applied one according to the result. It is cross-sectional research based on time, and a surveying according to the methodology. The target population members included the managers and employees of a large industrial complex in the North West of Iran. The sampling method was a stratified randomized approach, and the sample size was calculated using the Cochran formula as 237 subjects. The data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire containing 36 questions. The results showed that knowledge sharing affects the formation of a strategic map of managers and employees significantly and differently through each of the three categories of organizational factors, personal factors, and knowledge factors. This means that each of these knowledge sharing approaches affects each of the eight mind maps with different quality and quantity. Also, knowledge sharing is not a universal current among all managers and employees; in addition, it is unclear that sharing of knowledge will essentially boost more useful and functional mental maps, and perhaps, it would act otherwise. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct the process of knowledge-sharing to continuously integrate and improve mind maps of decision-takers and decision-makers.

  8. Linking regional stakeholder scenarios and shared socioeconomic pathways: Quantified West African food and climate futures in a global context

    Palazzo, Amanda; Vervoort, Joost M.; Mason-D’Croz, Daniel; Rutting, Lucas; Havlík, Petr; Islam, Shahnila; Bayala, Jules; Valin, Hugo; Kadi Kadi, Hamé Abdou; Thornton, Philip; Zougmore, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The climate change research community’s shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are a set of alternative global development scenarios focused on mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. To use these scenarios as a global context that is relevant for policy guidance at regional and national

  9. Water within the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways: Constraints and the Impact on Future Global Change Scenarios

    Graham, N. T.; Hejazi, M. I.; Davies, E. G.; Calvin, K. V.; Kim, S. H.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) represent the next generation of future global change scenarios and their inclusion in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) scenarios reinforces the importance of a complete understanding of the SSPs. This study uses the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to investigate the effects of limited water supplies on future withdrawals at regional and water basin scales across all SSPs in combination with various climate mitigation scenarios. Water supply is calculated using a global hydrologic model and water data from five ISI-MIP models across the four RCP scenarios. When water constraints are incorporated, our results show that water withdrawals are reduced by as much as 40% across all SSP scenarios without climate policies. As climate policies are imposed and become more stringent, water withdrawals increase in regions already affected by water stress in order to allow for greater biomass production. The results of this research show the importance of including water resource constraints within the SSP scenarios for establishing water withdrawal scenarios under a wide range of scenarios including different climate policies. The results will also provide data products - such as gridded land use and water demand estimates - of potential interest to the impact, adaptation, and vulnerability community following the SSP scenarios.

  10. Traditional Knowledge in the Time of Neo-Liberalism: Access and Benefit-Sharing Regimes in India and Bhutan

    Indrani Barpujari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In a neoliberal world, traditional knowledge (TK of biodiversity possessed by Indigenous and Local Communities (ILCs in the global South has become a valuable "commodity" or "bio-resource," necessitating the setting up of harmonized ground rules (international and national in the form of an access and benefitsharing regime to facilitate its exchange in the world market. Despite criticisms that a regime with a neo-liberal orientation is antithetical to the normative ethos of ILCs, it could also offer a chance for developing countries and ILCs to generate revenue for socioeconomic development—to which they are gradually becoming open, but only under fair and equitable terms. Based on this context, this article proposes to look into the legal and policy frameworks and institutional regimes governing access and benefit sharing of TK associated with biological resources in two countries of South Asia: India and Bhutan. The article seeks to examine how such regimes are reconciling the imperatives of a neo-liberal economy with providing a just and equitable framework for ILCs and TK holders, which is truly participatory and not top-down.

  11. The effect of the order in which episodic autobiographical memories versus autobiographical knowledge are shared on feelings of closeness.

    Brandon, Nicole R; Beike, Denise R; Cole, Holly E

    2017-07-01

    Autobiographical memories (AMs) can be used to create and maintain closeness with others [Alea, N., & Bluck, S. (2003). Why are you telling me that? A conceptual model of the social function of autobiographical memory. Memory, 11(2), 165-178]. However, the differential effects of memory specificity are not well established. Two studies with 148 participants tested whether the order in which autobiographical knowledge (AK) and specific episodic AM (EAM) are shared affects feelings of closeness. Participants read two memories hypothetically shared by each of four strangers. The strangers first shared either AK or an EAM, and then shared either AK or an EAM. Participants were randomly assigned to read either positive or negative AMs from the strangers. Findings suggest that people feel closer to those who share positive AMs in the same way they construct memories: starting with general and moving to specific.

  12. A New World of Knowledge: Canadian Universities and Globalization

    But what of our system of education,and particularly our universities? ... to position the university to cope with budget reductions through the sale of educational services? ... Sharing opportunities for innovation in climate change adaptation.

  13. Local-global knowledge sourcing in the context of an open innovation knowledge platform : the case of Amsterdam Denim City

    DiVito, Lori; Ingen-Housz, Zita

    2016-01-01

    Our paper investigates the inherent tensions between the local embeddedness of highly tacit knowledge and the global sourcing of ‘open’ knowledge or innovation. A single case study design enabled us to perform a thorough and detailed analysis of inter-firm collaboration and open innovation within

  14. A Visual Approach to Investigating Shared and Global Memory Behavior of CUDA Kernels

    Rosen, Paul

    2013-06-01

    We present an approach to investigate the memory behavior of a parallel kernel executing on thousands of threads simultaneously within the CUDA architecture. Our top-down approach allows for quickly identifying any significant differences between the execution of the many blocks and warps. As interesting warps are identified, we allow further investigation of memory behavior by visualizing the shared memory bank conflicts and global memory coalescence, first with an overview of a single warp with many operations and, subsequently, with a detailed view of a single warp and a single operation. We demonstrate the strength of our approach in the context of a parallel matrix transpose kernel and a parallel 1D Haar Wavelet transform kernel. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. A Visual Approach to Investigating Shared and Global Memory Behavior of CUDA Kernels

    Rosen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We present an approach to investigate the memory behavior of a parallel kernel executing on thousands of threads simultaneously within the CUDA architecture. Our top-down approach allows for quickly identifying any significant differences between the execution of the many blocks and warps. As interesting warps are identified, we allow further investigation of memory behavior by visualizing the shared memory bank conflicts and global memory coalescence, first with an overview of a single warp with many operations and, subsequently, with a detailed view of a single warp and a single operation. We demonstrate the strength of our approach in the context of a parallel matrix transpose kernel and a parallel 1D Haar Wavelet transform kernel. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. A Service Oriented Web Application for Learner Knowledge Representation, Management and Sharing Conforming to IMS LIP

    Lazarinis, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    iLM is a Web based application for representation, management and sharing of IMS LIP conformant user profiles. The tool is developed using a service oriented architecture with emphasis on the easy data sharing. Data elicitation from user profiles is based on the utilization of XQuery scripts and sharing with other applications is achieved through…

  17. A Case of Quality Prediction of Architecture Knowledge Sharing through Model Mapping

    Liang, Peng; Jansen, Anton; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    In this report, we introduce the AK sharing activity with a query-based scenario, and the motivation for the prediction of AK sharing quality prediction. In the end, a concrete case of quality prediction of AK sharing through model mapping was presented with assumptions.

  18. Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Faeda Mohsam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change and to excel.Objectives: Effective knowledge sharing and consequent knowledge management (KM have been identified as definite approaches to enhancing competitive advantage. The research therefore aimed to establish to what extent small enterprises embrace their knowledge sharing activities and whether their knowledge sharing activities are managed at all. Furthermore, it examined how their knowledge sharing can contribute to their competitive advantage.Method: A case study approach was followed for this research. Selected SMEs from the engineering sector were the subject of the case study and SME owners, directors and managers of consulting civil engineering firms were interviewed to determine whether there are mechanisms in place to ensure better knowledge sharing within SMEs.Results: In general, respondents had stated that they possessed special factors that set them above their competitors:• The company strategy and good reputation of completing projects within the required timeframe. In other words, they were well known for their track record in terms of service delivery. • Their specialty in terms of different focus areas, namely structural and civil engineering, water supply and storm water design, transportation, sewer design and storm water traffic. • The fact that they operated in silos. This means that the specialists in their specific fields operated independently in groups, separately from everyone else in the company. • Their good relationship with local authorities

  19. Awareness and use of Web 2.0 technologies in sharing of agricultural knowledge in Tanzania

    Wulystan P. Mtega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the extent to which agricultural researchers and extension workers were aware of Web 2.0 technologies and put them into practice in their daily work. The study involved 107 respondents in the first phase and 148 in the second phase. Respondents were from agricultural research and training institutions as well as agricultural extension departments from selected districts across the country. Structured questionnaires were administered to selected respondents. Findings show that 43.9% of the respondents were aware of Web 2.0 while 56.1% knew nothing about this concept. Facebook and Wikipedia were found to be the most used Web 2.0 tools by many respondents while Delicious, Pbworks, Picasa and Digg were identified as among the less commonly used tools by majority of the respondents. The study recommends the need for providing appropriate Web 2.0 training packages to agricultural extension workers, researchers, trainers and other stakeholders in order to enhance knowledge sharing among them for improved agricultural productivity in the country.

  20. Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction

    Fredlund, Tobias; Airey, John; Linder, Cedric

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that interactive engagement enhances student learning outcomes. A growing body of research suggests that the representations we use in physics are important in such learning environments. In this paper we draw on a number of sources in the literature to explore the role of representations in interactive engagement in physics. In particular we are interested in the potential for sharing disciplinary knowledge inherent in so-called persistent representations (such as equations, diagrams and graphs), which we use in physics. We use selected extracts from a case study, where a group of senior undergraduate physics students are asked to explain the phenomenon of refraction, to illustrate implications for interactive engagement. In this study the ray diagram that was initially introduced by the students did not appear to sufficiently support their interactive engagement. However, the introduction of a wavefront diagram quickly led their discussion to an agreed conclusion. From our analysis we conclude that in interactive engagement it is important to choose appropriate persistent representations to coordinate the use of other representations such as speech and gestures. Pedagogical implications and future research are proposed. (paper)

  1. Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean, CERN, Geneva, 6-7 May 2004

    2004-01-01

    Back in April 2002, AFAS and the "Club de Marseille" jointly convened "World-Med 2002". That meeting was about sharing knowledge between the North and the South of the Mediterranean. The purpose was to show how concrete projects, born from within the civil society, could advance cooperation between countries belonging to different cultures, thereby providing a much-needed stimulus to the political intergovernmental process. The meeting was attended by 850 people, of which 150 came from North Africa. We were delighted to hear that several important projects were indeed born as a result of contacts initiated among the participants. In order to follow-up on that success, AFAS is convening on 6 and 7 May at CERN, Geneva, a smaller meeting (limited to 100 participants) during which we will revisit some of the topics that appeared as promising during "World-Med 2002". This should be seen as the beginning of a series and we will therefore propose that subsequent meetings deal with those important themes that we will...

  2. One NASA: Sharing Knowledge Through an Agency-wide Process Asset Library (PAL)

    Truss, Baraka J.

    2006-01-01

    This poster session will cover the key purpose and components behind implementing the NASA PAL website. This session will present the current results, describing the process used to create the website, the current usage measure, and will demonstrate how NASA is truly becoming ONE. The target audience for the poster session includes those currently implementing the CMMI model and looking for PAL adoption techniques. To continue to be the leader in space, science and technology, NASA is using this agency-wide PAL to share knowledge, work products and lessons learned through this website. Many organizations have failed to recognize how the efforts of process improvement fit into overall organizational effort. However, NASA as an agency has adopted the benefits of process improvement by the creation of this website to foster communication between its ten centers. The poster session will cover the following, topics outlined below: 1) Website purpose; 2) Characteristics of the website; 3) User accounts status; 4) Website content size; and 5) Usage percentages.

  3. Leadership = Communication? The Relations of Leaders' Communication Styles with Leadership Styles, Knowledge Sharing and Leadership Outcomes.

    de Vries, Reinout E; Bakker-Pieper, Angelique; Oostenveld, Wyneke

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between leaders' communication styles and charismatic leadership, human-oriented leadership (leader's consideration), task-oriented leadership (leader's initiating structure), and leadership outcomes. METHODOLOGY: A survey was conducted among 279 employees of a governmental organization. The following six main communication styles were operationalized: verbal aggressiveness, expressiveness, preciseness, assuredness, supportiveness, and argumentativeness. Regression analyses were employed to test three main hypotheses. FINDINGS: In line with expectations, the study showed that charismatic and human-oriented leadership are mainly communicative, while task-oriented leadership is significantly less communicative. The communication styles were strongly and differentially related to knowledge sharing behaviors, perceived leader performance, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate's team commitment. Multiple regression analyses showed that the leadership styles mediated the relations between the communication styles and leadership outcomes. However, leader's preciseness explained variance in perceived leader performance and satisfaction with the leader above and beyond the leadership style variables. IMPLICATIONS: This study offers potentially invaluable input for leadership training programs by showing the importance of leader's supportiveness, assuredness, and preciseness when communicating with subordinates. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although one of the core elements of leadership is interpersonal communication, this study is one of the first to use a comprehensive communication styles instrument in the study of leadership.

  4. Barriers to knowledge sharing in Chinese healthcare referral services: an emergent theoretical model

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a research study that aims to identify and explain barriers to knowledge sharing (KS) in the provision of healthcare referral services in Chinese healthcare organisations. Design An inductive case study approach was employed, in which 24 healthcare professionals and workers from four healthcare organisations in the province of Hubei, Central China, were interviewed using semi-structured scripts. Results Through data analysis, 14 KS barriers emerged in four main themes: interpersonal trust barriers, communication barriers, management and leadership barriers, and inter-institutional barriers. A cause–consequence analysis of the identified barriers revealed that three of them are at the core of the majority of problems, namely, the absence of national and local policies for inter-hospital KS, lack of a specific hospital KS requirement, and lack of mutual acquaintance. Conclusions To resolve KS problems, it is of great importance that healthcare governance agencies, both at the national and regional levels, take leadership in the process of KS implementation by establishing specific and strong policies for inter-institutional KS in the referral process. This paper raises important issues that exceed academic interests and are important to healthcare professionals, hospital managers, and Information communication technology (ICT) managers in hospitals, as well as healthcare politicians and policy makers. PMID:26895146

  5. Knowledge Web Concept and Tools: Use, Utility, and Usability During the Global 2001 War Game

    Oonk, H

    2002-01-01

    .... One goal of the Command 21 project is the development and operational evaluation of the Knowledge Web concept and technologies to support shared situation awareness, to facilitate group interaction...

  6. THE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR BEST PRACTICES SHARING IN A DATABASE AT THE TRIBUNAL REGIONAL FEDERAL DA PRIMEIRA REGIÃO

    Márcia Mazo Santos de Miranda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A quick, effective and powerful alternative for knowledge management is the systematic sharing of best practices. This study identified in the literature recommendations for structuring a best practices database and summarized the benefits of its deployment to the Tribunal Regional Federal da Primeira Região TRF - 1ª Região. A It was conducted a quantitative research was then carried out, with the distribuition of where questionnaires were distributed to federal judges of the TRF- 1ª Região, which was divided into 4 parts: magistrate profile, flow of knowledge / information, internal environment, organizational facilitator. As a result, we identified the need to have a best practices database in the Institution for the organizational knowledge identification, transfer and sharing. The conclusion presents recommendations for the development of the database and highlights its importance for knowledge management in an organization.

  7. Discourses of knowledge across global networks: What can be learnt about knowledge leadership from the ATLAS collaboration?

    Mabey, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Writing on knowledge management (KM) and leadership studies tends to take place in parallel; both fields are prolific yet they rarely inform each other. A KM view tends to take a positional view of leaders and a functionalist view of firms: so it regards those with the ascription or status of leaders as pivotal, and knowledge as a commodity to be leveraged with the help of leaders to improve firm performance. But as the global reach of organizations in the knowledge-based economy become more stretched, as their operations become more networked and as their workforces become more mobile, the task of deploying and deriving value from knowledge becomes ever more challenging and calls for a qualitatively different approach which is termed knowledge leadership. In contrast to the instrumentalist approach of KM we offer some alternative discourses of knowledge and explore the implications of these for knowledge leadership. We then use interpretive discourse to examine the way knowledge activists enact and experienc...

  8. Information security knowledge sharing in organizations : Investigating the effect of behavioral information security governance and national culture

    Rocha Flores, Waldo; Antonsen, Egil; Ekstedt, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation on what behavioral information security governance factors drives the establishment of information security knowledge sharing in organizations. Data was collected from organizations located in different geographic regions of the world, and the amount of data collected from two countries – namely, USA and Sweden – allowed us to investigate if the effect of behavioral information security governance factors on the establishment of security knowledg...

  9. Assessing future reactive nitrogen inputs into global croplands based on the shared socioeconomic pathways

    Mogollón, J. M.; Lassaletta, L.; Beusen, A. H. W.; van Grinsven, H. J. M.; Westhoek, H.; Bouwman, A. F.

    2018-04-01

    Reactive nitrogen (N) inputs in agriculture strongly outpace the outputs at the global scale due to inefficiencies in cropland N use. While improvement in agricultural practices and environmental legislation in developed regions such as Western Europe have led to a remarkable increase in the N use efficiency since 1985, this lower requirement for reactive N inputs via synthetic fertilizers has yet to occur in many developing and transition regions. Here, we explore future N input requirements and N use efficiency in agriculture for the five shared socioeconomic pathways. Results show that under the most optimistic sustainability scenario, the global synthetic fertilizer use in croplands stabilizes and even shrinks (85 Tg N yr‑1 in 2050) regardless of the increase in crop production required to feed the larger estimated population. This scenario is highly dependent on projected increases in N use efficiency, particularly in South and East Asia. In our most pessimistic scenario, synthetic fertilization application rates are expected to increase almost threefold by 2050 (260 Tg N yr‑1). Excepting the sustainability scenario, all other projected scenarios reveal that the areal N surpluses will exceed acceptable limits in most of the developing regions.

  10. Orchestration of Globally Distributed Knowledge within MNC Network

    Sajadirad, Solmaz; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Søberg, Peder Veng

    2017-01-01

    distributed knowledge in multinational companies. The findings also indicate that adoption of different knowledge orchestration approaches by companies can be influenced by headquarter-subsidiaries relationship, type of products, knowledge relevance between headquarter and subsidiaries, and level...... on knowledge orchestration in multinational companies. By introducing a dynamic view of the use of inter-firm objects, facilitating collaboration between headquarters and subsidiaries, our findings would help multinational companies improve headquarter-subsidiaries relationship in favor of the efficiency......This paper explores how the use of inter-firm objects within different knowledge orchestration processes affects collaboration between headquarter and distributed subsidiaries. The discussion focuses on different approaches to knowledge orchestration based on combinations of the use of inter...

  11. What does policy-relevant global environmental knowledge do? The cases of climate and biodiversity

    Turnhout, E.; Dewulf, A.R.P.J.; Hulme, M.

    2016-01-01

    There is a surge in global knowledge-making efforts to inform environmental governance. This article synthesises the current state of the art of social science scholarship about the generation and use of global environmental knowledge. We focus specifically on the issues of scale — providing

  12. Fostering Local Knowledge and Human Development in Globalization of Education

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    2004-01-01

    Since there are increasing international concerns with both the positive and negative impacts of globalization on indigenous and national development, how to manage the realities and practices of globalization and localization in education for maximizing the benefits and minimizing the disadvantages for the development of individuals and their…

  13. Chains of (dis)trust : Exploring the underpinnings of knowledge-sharing and quality care across mental health services

    Brown, P.R.; Calnan, M.W.

    Quality and safety in healthcare settings are underpinned by organisational cultures, which facilitate or impede the refinement, sharing and application of knowledge. Avoiding the use of the term culture as a residual category, we focus specifically on describing chains of (dis)trust, analysing

  14. Analyzing the Relationship of Organizational Trust and Organizational Culture with Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Teachers of Second Intermediate Period

    Shahhosseini, Sakineh; Nadi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the relationship of organizational trust, organizational culture with knowledge sharing behavior among teachers of Second Intermediate Period in the City of Isfahan. Research method was correlation and statistical population included all teachers of Second Intermediate Period of Isfahan in academic year 2013-2014 (N…

  15. ACTIVE SHARING KNOWLEDGE UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN GURU- GURU MATEMATIKA SMA/SMK BINAAN MELALUI PENDAMPINGAN DI KULON PROGO

    Giyarsih Giyarsih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is meant to explain the problem solving efford which is found in academic supervision toward teachers of Mathematics in some guided schools, explains the problem solving steps by the supervisor in guided schools, and shows the teaching quality improvement by the Mathematics teachers in those guded schools. This research was done to some guded schools where ten Mathematics teachers of Senior High Schools or Vocational High School in Kulon Progo District are the subject. The strategy for improving the quality of Mathematics teaching application is through treatment of companion teaching in active sharing knowledge for instance through planning, the step of treatment in the teaching, teaching procedures and class management. The result of acompaniying the teachers of Mathematics shows that Mathematics teachers in Kulon Progo Distric still need some guidance from the supervisors especially in term of innovative teaching process, where most teachers lack of motivation, the Active Sharing Knowledge method can improve the activism of the teachers through out the whole teaching activities, improve the quality of teaching process, students’ activism, concept mastery and teacher’s skills in teaching process as can be seen as followed: the teaching quality of Mathematics teachers using Active Sharing Knowledge is 5%, student’s participations is 46%, while teachers’ mastery of the concept is 14%, and positive reflection as a result of Mathematics Teachers guided teaching implementation using Active Sharing Knowledge where 84% stated agree and totally agree.

  16. The Role of Knowledge Sharing in Enhancing Innovation: A Comparative Study of Public and Private Higher Education Institutions in Iraq

    Al-Husseini, Sawasn; Elbeltagi, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on an examination of the impact of knowledge sharing on product and process innovation. In it we try to identify the similarities and differences between these impacts in public and private Higher Education (HE) Institutions in Iraq. A mixed methods approach was conducted using 486 valid responses to test the causal…

  17. Impacts of Organizational Knowledge Sharing Practices on Employees' Job Satisfaction: Mediating Roles of Learning Commitment and Interpersonal Adaptability

    Malik, Muhammad Shaukat; Kanwal, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate empirically impacts of organizational knowledge-sharing practices (KSP) on employees' job satisfaction (JS), interpersonal adaptability (IA) and learning commitment (LC). Indirect effects of KSP on JS are also confirmed through mediating factors (LC and IA). Design/methodology/approach:…

  18. The Association between Attitude towards the Implementation of Staff Development Training and the Practice of Knowledge Sharing among Lecturers

    Kassim, Abd. Latif; Raman, Arumugam; Don, Yahya; Daud, Yaakob; Omar, Mohd Sofian

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify the association of teachers' attitude towards the implementation of Staff Development Training with Knowledge Sharing Practices among the lecturers of the Teacher Training Institution (TTI). In addition, this study was also to examine the differences in attitudes towards the implementation of Staff Development…

  19. Management of technical knowledge in strengthening the global nuclear safety regime

    Kang, C.-S.

    2006-01-01

    The management of technical knowledge is becoming one of the key issues and challenges in strengthening global nuclear safety. The success of the industry depends on how to optimize knowledge acquisition, transfer and deployment. In this presentation, joint conduct of large-scale R and D work, assurance of free flow of safety-related knowledge from developed to developing nations, and potential imposition of a trade agreement between nuclear exporting and importing nations are discussed. The introduction of a 'Global Nuclear Safety Treaty' could be an excellent mechanism for achieving effective knowledge management and eventually enforcing a global safety regime. (author)

  20. From Risks to Shared Value? Corporate Strategies in Building a Global Water Accounting and Disclosure Regime

    Marco A. Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The current debate on water accounting and accountability among transnational actors such as corporations and NGOs is likely to contribute to the emergence of a global water governance regime. Corporations within the food and beverage sector (F-B are especially vulnerable to water risks; therefore, in this article we analyse motivations and strategies of the major F-B corporations participating in the debate and developing different water accounting, disclosure and risk-assessment tools. Neo-institutionalism and neo-Gramscian regime theory provide the basis for our framework to analyse the discursive, material and organisational corporate water strategies. Findings based on an analysis of the chosen F-B corporations’ sustainability reports and interviews with key informants suggest that the corporations share similar goals and values with regard to the emerging regime. They seek a standardisation that is practical and supportive in improving their water efficiency and communication with stakeholders. This indicates that some harmonisation has taken place over time and new actors have been pursuing the path of the pioneering companies, but the lead corporations are also differentiating their strategies, thus engaging in hegemonic positioning. However, so far the plethora of NGO-driven accountability initiatives and tools has fragmented the field more than 'war of position' amongst the corporations. Furthermore, several companies claim to have proceeded from internal water-risk management to reducing risks throughout their value chains and watersheds. As a result they are 'creating shared value' with stakeholders, and potentially manifesting an emergent paradigm that goes beyond a private regime framework. Nevertheless, in the absence of verification schemes, questions of sustainability and legitimacy of such actions on the ground prevail and remain a topic for further research.

  1. Globalization: an open door for the knowledge economy

    Andreea MARIN-PANTELESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization refers to an emphasized process of global integration and spreading a set of ideas related to the economical activity and goods’ production, the premises being the liberalization of international commerce and the capital flows, the speeding up of the technological progress and informational society. The cognitive society is more and more obvious and unanimously accepted, which actually proves its efficiency. If traditional, conservative communities, which are not open to change and reject from the start anything new on the horizon, still exist today, they are isolated cases that will eventually be "converted" by this wave of information that has become indispensable to any development because in its absence resources could not be used efficiently. Taking into consideration these elements, this paper wishes to give arguments to the fact that globalization can be seen as being an open door for the cognitive society.

  2. Advances in the Knowledge of Transboundary Aquifers Shared by Canada and the USA, through the UNESCO's IHP ISARM Initiative

    Rivera, A.

    2015-12-01

    Canada's involvement in the UNESCO IHP ISARM initiative prompted an accrued analysis on the knowledge and state of transboundary aquifers located along the Canada-USA border. As a result, 10 Transboundary Aquifer Systems (TAS) were identified and some have been assessed in cooperation with the United States. This study is a review of the current state of the 10 TAS. Documentation of scientifically-based knowledge on TAS is an important step in identifying potential issues in policies that might be adopted to address shared water-resource issues. The newly acquired hydrological insights for this very long international border emphasizes the need for more scientific data, widespread communication and information sharing between Canadian and American organizations, and a more clearly defined governments' role to manage groundwater at the international level. The study reviews the legal frameworks and summarises the current scientific knowledge for the TAS with respect to the hydrologic and geologic framework as well as some of the major drivers for supply and demand. It also describes the links, approach and relevance of studies on the TAS to the UN Law of Transboundary Aquifers and on how these might fit in the ISARM's regional strategy for the assessment and management of the TAS. Clear communication, shared knowledge and common objectives in the management of TAS will prepare the countries for future negotiations and cooperative binational programs. Encouraged by the ISARM approach of the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO, Canada is now looking forward to playing a key regional role in improving water management, facilitating transboundary water sharing, and enhancing water research and data sharing in future relations between these two nations.

  3. Building collaboration through shared actions: The experience of the Global Network for Disaster Reduction

    Terry Gibson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article asks how the emergent Global Network for Disaster Reduction has built collaboration and impact. Observation of the network’s journey nuanced the researcher’s initial hypothesis in marked ways. A ‘reflective practitioner’ perspective is adopted, locating action within two relevant theoretical frameworks to aid understanding and define future progress. Development showed an early emphasis on a ‘community of practice’ model. However, this appeared ineffective in creating the intended collaboration and led to the recognition of the power of shared action. This observation is framed within the thinking of Freire (1996 on action and reflection as a means of empowerment. The political dimension of the network’s activity is recognised, and is related to Gaventa’s (1980 thinking on the creation of political space. The article attempts to show that combining cycles of action and reflection in the network’s activity (i.e. creating a practitioner focus with a wider investigation of relevant literature and thinking can be helpful in framing understanding and determining future strategy. It concludes by suggesting that a proposed framework of ‘communities of praxis’ may have a broader application in the development of networks.

  4. Knowledge Sharing, Communities of Practice, and Learning Asset Integration - DAU's Major Initiatives

    Hickok, John

    2005-01-01

    The concepts of Knowledge Management (KM) and knowledge communities have matured over the past decade and are being recognized as major enablers for personal learning and job performance in achieving organizational business objectives...

  5. Watch: Current knowledge of the terrestrial Global Water Cycle"

    Harding, R.; Best, M.; Hagemann, S.; Kabat, P.; Tallaksen, L.M.; Warnaars, T.; Wiberg, D.; Weedon, G.P.; Lanen, van H.A.J.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.

    2011-01-01

    Water-related impacts are among the most important consequences of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Changes in the global water cycle will also impact the carbon and nutrient cycles and vegetation patterns. There is already some evidence of increasing severity of floods and droughts and

  6. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  7. Finding the right answer: an information retrieval approach supporting knowledge sharing

    Gomes Ludermir, P.; Guizzardi-Silva Souza, R.; Sona, D.; Dignum, F.; Dignum, V.; Koenig, S.; Kraus, S.; Singh, M.P.; Wooldridge, M.

    Knowledge Management can be defined as the effective strategies to get the right piece of knowledge to the right person in the right time. Having the main purpose of providing users with information items of their interest, recommender systems seem to be quite valuable for organizational knowledge

  8. Scientific publications in XML - towards a global knowledge base

    Peter Murray-Rust

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments on the World-Wide Web provide an unparalleled opportunity to revolutionise scientific, technical and medical publication. The technology exists for the scientific world to use primary publication to create a knowledge base, or Semantic Web, with a potential greatly beyond the paper archives and electronic databases of today.

  9. Impacts of Leadership on Project-Based Organizational Innovation Performance: The Mediator of Knowledge Sharing and Moderator of Social Capital

    Junwei Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing importance of leadership in project-based organizations, innovation is essential for the sustainable development of construction projects. Since few studies have explored the relationship between leadership and innovation in construction projects, this study fills this research gap and makes a significant theoretical contribution to the existing body of literature. Based on a knowledge-rated and resource-based view, this study aims to investigate various effects of different types of leadership on innovation performance in a construction project-based organization. Therefore, a theoretical model was constructed to explore the mediation mechanism and boundary condition of different types of leadership to improve innovation. The theoretical model was validated with empirical data covering project managers and engineers from the project-based organization in China via regression analysis and path analysis. The results show that transformational leadership and transactional leadership have some positively significant effects on knowledge sharing and innovation performance. Meanwhile, knowledge sharing partially mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and/or transactional leadership and innovation performance. Additionally, by considering different levels of social capital, transformational leadership is likely to have a strong positive impact on innovation performance through knowledge sharing. Our findings ensure a better understanding of the role of leadership, knowledge management, and social capital in the innovation process of construction projects. Therefore, project managers should promote a higher stimulation of a leadership behavior, encouraging knowledge management, and establishing the social capital, thus improving the innovation performance in the project-based organizations in construction projects.

  10. International knowledge mobility and urban development in rapidly globalizing areas: building global hubs for talent in Dubai and Abu Dhabi

    Ewers, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the processes through which the United Arab Emirates’ (UAE) cities of Abu Dhabi and Dubai attract and integrate knowledge workers into their labor markets. It focuses on how the UAE has acquired the human capital to create post-oil economies, deploying its oil windfalls into massive urban development strategies in order to create global hubs for talent. More significantly, it analyzes how the UAE’s strategies and frameworks for attracting global knowle...

  11. Looking Through a Social Lens: Conceptualising Social Aspects of Knowledge Management for Global Health Practitioners.

    Limaye, Rupali J; Sullivan, Tara M; Dalessandro, Scott; Jenkins, Ann Hendrix

    2017-04-13

    Knowledge management plays a critical role in global health. Global health practitioners require knowledge in every aspect of their jobs, and in resource-scarce contexts, practitioners must be able to rely on a knowledge management system to access the latest research and practice to ensure the highest quality of care. However, we suggest that there is a gap in the way knowledge management is primarily utilized in global health, namely, the systematic incorporation of human and social factors. In this paper, we briefly outline the evolution of knowledge management and then propose a conceptualization of knowledge management that incorporates human and social factors for use within a global health context. Our conceptualization of social knowledge management recognizes the importance of social capital, social learning, social software and platforms, and social networks , all within the context of a larger social system and driven by social benefit . We then outline the limitations and discuss future directions of our conceptualization, and suggest how this new conceptualization is essential for any global health practitioner in the business of managing knowledge.

  12. A Method of Extracting Ontology Module Using Concept Relations for Sharing Knowledge in Mobile Cloud Computing Environment

    Keonsoo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile cloud computing environment, the cooperation of distributed computing objects is one of the most important requirements for providing successful cloud services. To satisfy this requirement, all the members, who are employed in the cooperation group, need to share the knowledge for mutual understanding. Even if ontology can be the right tool for this goal, there are several issues to make a right ontology. As the cost and complexity of managing knowledge increase according to the scale of the knowledge, reducing the size of ontology is one of the critical issues. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting ontology module to increase the utility of knowledge. For the given signature, this method extracts the ontology module, which is semantically self-contained to fulfill the needs of the service, by considering the syntactic structure and semantic relation of concepts. By employing this module, instead of the original ontology, the cooperation of computing objects can be performed with less computing load and complexity. In particular, when multiple external ontologies need to be combined for more complex services, this method can be used to optimize the size of shared knowledge.

  13. A method of extracting ontology module using concept relations for sharing knowledge in mobile cloud computing environment.

    Lee, Keonsoo; Rho, Seungmin; Lee, Seok-Won

    2014-01-01

    In mobile cloud computing environment, the cooperation of distributed computing objects is one of the most important requirements for providing successful cloud services. To satisfy this requirement, all the members, who are employed in the cooperation group, need to share the knowledge for mutual understanding. Even if ontology can be the right tool for this goal, there are several issues to make a right ontology. As the cost and complexity of managing knowledge increase according to the scale of the knowledge, reducing the size of ontology is one of the critical issues. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting ontology module to increase the utility of knowledge. For the given signature, this method extracts the ontology module, which is semantically self-contained to fulfill the needs of the service, by considering the syntactic structure and semantic relation of concepts. By employing this module, instead of the original ontology, the cooperation of computing objects can be performed with less computing load and complexity. In particular, when multiple external ontologies need to be combined for more complex services, this method can be used to optimize the size of shared knowledge.

  14. Global knowledge, local implications: a community college's response

    Valentin, Marjorie R.; Stroup, Margaret H.; Donnelly, Judith F.

    2005-10-01

    Three Rivers Community College (TRCC), with federal funding, provided a customized laser program for Joining Technologies in Connecticut, which offers world-class resources for welding and joining applications. This program addresses the shortage of skilled labor in the laser arena, lack of knowledge of fundamental science of applied light, and an increase in nonperforming product. Hiring and retraining a skilled workforce are important and costly issues facing today's small manufacturing companies.

  15. Social Justice and Lower Attainers in a Global Knowledge Economy

    Sally Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    National governments believe that higher levels of educational attainments and training are necessary for successful competition in knowledge-driven economies and all young people are urged to invest in their own human capital and learn new skills. Moves towards inclusive education have brought into mainstream schools and colleges many who would formerly have been segregated in special schooling or otherwise given minimum education, joining those simply regarded as lower attainers. More resea...

  16. Agricultural biotechnology and its contribution to the global knowledge economy.

    Aerni, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    The theory of neoclassical welfare economics largely shaped international and national agricultural policies during the Cold War period. It treated technology as an exogenous factor that could boost agricultural productivity but not necessarily sustainable agriculture. New growth theory, the economic theory of the new knowledge economy, treats technological change as endogenous and argues that intangible assets such as human capital and knowledge are the drivers of sustainable economic development. In this context, the combined use of agricultural biotechnology and information technology has a great potential, not just to boost economic growth but also to empower people in developing countries and improve the sustainable management of natural resources. This article outlines the major ideas behind new growth theory and explains why agricultural economists and agricultural policy-makers still tend to stick to old welfare economics. Finally, the article uses the case of the Cassava Biotechnology Network (CBN) to illustrate an example of how new growth theory can be applied in the fight against poverty. CBN is a successful interdisciplinary crop research network that makes use of the new knowledge economy to produce new goods that empower the poor and improve the productivity and nutritional quality of cassava. It shows that the potential benefits of agricultural biotechnology go far beyond the already known productivity increases and pesticide use reductions of existing GM crops.

  17. Pengaruh Job Involvement dan Job Satisfaction terhadap Organizational Citizenship Behaviour serta Dampaknya pada Knowledge Sharing di PT Indolift Sukses Abadi

    Tinjung Desy Nursanti; Ebenhaezer Samudera; Fajar Widiansyah

    2015-01-01

    The research was conducted at PT Indolift Sukses Abadi, a folklift distributor that sells and distributes all heavy equipment products. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is any influence of job involvement and job satisfaction on organizational citizenship behavior that impact to knowledge sharing. Data were obtained by distributing a questionnaire to 100 respondents of the company; and then were processed using Path Analysis Technique. Based on this research, job inv...

  18. The effect of dimensions of knowledge sharing on a variety of strategic mind map of managers and employees

    Azema, Pegah; Jafari, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Based on cognitive school of strategic management, the mental (intellectual) map of managers and employees is highly effective on survival and development of their companies. The number of mental maps that managers and employees of a company have on situations and categories (quantity) and the quality (accuracy and precision) of mind maps can be decisive factors in the success of their companies. One of the most important factors affecting the mind map is knowledge sharing. This study seeks t...

  19. Semantics-enabled knowledge management for global Earth observation system of systems

    King, Roger L.; Durbha, Surya S.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation efforts among existing Earth observing and processing systems. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate, reliable Earth Observation data, information, products, and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. One of the critical components in the development of such systems is the ability to obtain seamless access of data across geopolitical boundaries. In order to gain support and willingness to participate by countries around the world in such an endeavor, it is necessary to devise mechanisms whereby the data and the intellectual capital is protected through procedures that implement the policies specific to a country. Earth Observations (EO) are obtained from a multitude of sources and requires coordination among different agencies and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain. It is envisaged that the data and information in a GEOSS context will be unprecedented and the current data archiving and delivery methods need to be transformed into one that allows realization of seamless interoperability. Thus, EO data integration is dependent on the resolution of conflicts arising from a variety of areas. Modularization is inevitable in distributed environments to facilitate flexible and efficient reuse of existing ontologies. Therefore, we propose a framework for modular ontologies based knowledge management approach for GEOSS and present methods to enable efficient reasoning in such systems.

  20. Locating ethics in data science: responsibility and accountability in global and distributed knowledge production systems.

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2016-12-28

    The distributed and global nature of data science creates challenges for evaluating the quality, import and potential impact of the data and knowledge claims being produced. This has significant consequences for the management and oversight of responsibilities and accountabilities in data science. In particular, it makes it difficult to determine who is responsible for what output, and how such responsibilities relate to each other; what 'participation' means and which accountabilities it involves, with regard to data ownership, donation and sharing as well as data analysis, re-use and authorship; and whether the trust placed on automated tools for data mining and interpretation is warranted (especially as data processing strategies and tools are often developed separately from the situations of data use where ethical concerns typically emerge). To address these challenges, this paper advocates a participative, reflexive management of data practices. Regulatory structures should encourage data scientists to examine the historical lineages and ethical implications of their work at regular intervals. They should also foster awareness of the multitude of skills and perspectives involved in data science, highlighting how each perspective is partial and in need of confrontation with others. This approach has the potential to improve not only the ethical oversight for data science initiatives, but also the quality and reliability of research outputs.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'. © 2015 The Authors.