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Sample records for global hawk environmental

  1. NASA 3D Models: Global Hawk

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability of the Global Hawk air vehicle to autonomously fly long distances and remain aloft for extended periods of time means that measuring, monitoring, and...

  2. NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    Hall, Phill

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.

  3. Verification of Meteorological Data Reports from the RQ-4A Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Callis, Steven

    2004-01-01

    ... intelligence for military planners. The value of any dataset is directly related to its accuracy and this research determined the accuracy of weather data obtained from a particular UAV, the RQ-4A Global Hawk...

  4. GRIP NOAA GLOBAL HAWK IN-FLIGHT TURBULENCE SENSOR (GHIS) V1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NOAA Global Hawk In-flight Turbulence Sensor (GHIS) instrument measures acceleration at the location of the instrument. Two accelerometers (2g and 5g full scale)...

  5. Anomalies and Hawking radiation from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole with a global monopole

    Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin

    2007-01-01

    We extend the work by Iso, Umetsu and Wilczek (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 151302) to derive the Hawking flux via gauge and gravitational anomalies of a most general two-dimensional non-extremal black hole spacetime with the determinant of its diagonal metric differing from unity √ (-g)1) ≠ 1 and use it to investigate Hawking radiation from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole with a global monopole by requiring the cancellation of anomalies at the horizon. It is shown that the compensating energy-momentum and gauge fluxes required to cancel gravitational and gauge anomalies at the horizon are precisely equivalent to the (1 + 1)-dimensional thermal fluxes associated with Hawking radiation emanating from the horizon at the Hawking temperature. These fluxes are universally determined by the value of anomalies at the horizon

  6. HURRICANE AND SEVERE STORM SENTINEL (HS3) GLOBAL HAWK HIGH ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Global Hawk High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) datasets include measurements gathered by the HAMSR...

  7. HURRICANE AND SEVERE STORM SENTINEL (HS3) GLOBAL HAWK ADVANCED VERTICAL ATMOSPHERIC PROFILING SYSTEM (AVAPS) DROPSONDE SYSTEM V2

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Global Hawk Advanced Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS) Dropsonde System dataset was collected by the...

  8. NASA Global Hawk Project Update and Future Plans: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    Naftel, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Science objectives include: First demonstration of the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) for NASA and NOAA Earth science research and applications; Validation of instruments on-board the Aura satellite; Exploration of trace gases, aerosols, and dynamics of remote upper Troposphere/lower Stratosphere regions; Sample polar vortex fragments and atmospheric rivers; Risk reduction for future missions that will study hurricanes and atmospheric rivers.

  9. When does the Hawking into Unruh mapping for global embeddings work?

    Paston, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss for which smooth global embeddings of a metric into a Minkowskian spacetime the Hawking into Unruh mapping takes place. There is a series of examples of global embeddings into the Minkowskian spacetime (GEMS) with such mapping for physically interesting metrics. These examples use Fronsdal-type embeddings for which timelines are hyperbolas. In the present work we show that for some new embeddings (non Fronsdal-type) of the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström metrics there is no mapping. We give also the examples of hyperbolic and non hyperbolic type embeddings for the de Sitter metric for which there is no mapping. For the Minkowski metric where there is no Hawking radiation we consider a non trivial embedding with hyperbolic timelines, hence in the ambient space the Unruh effect takes place, and it follows that there is no mapping too. The considered examples show that the meaning of the Hawking into Unruh mapping for global embeddings remains still insufficiently clear and requires further investigations.

  10. The High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer on the GLOBAL HAWK: From Technology Development to Science Discovery

    Brown, Shannon; Denning, Richard; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Lim, Boon; Tanabe, Jordan; Tanner, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) during three recent field campaigns on the Global Hawk Unmanned Ariel Vehicles (UAV), focusing on the enabling technology that led to unprecedented observations of significant weather phenomenon, such as thermodynamic evolution of the tropical cyclone core during rapid intensification and the high resolution three dimensional mapping of several atmospheric river events. HAMSR is a 25 channel cross-track scanning microwave sounder with channels near the 60 and 118 GHz oxygen lines and the 183 GHz water vapor line. HAMSR was originally designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a technology demonstrator in 1998. Subsequent to this, HAMSR participated in three NASA hurricane field campaigns, CAMEX-4, TCSP and NAMMA. Beginning in 2008, HAMSR was extensively upgraded to deploy on the NASA Global Hawk (GH) platform and serve as an asset to the NASA sub-orbital program. HAMSR has participated on the Global Hawk during the 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification (GRIP) campaign, the 2011 Winter Storms and Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) campaign and is currently participating in the NASA Ventures Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) campaign (2011-2015).

  11. Oceanic Weather Decision Support for Unmanned Global Hawk Science Missions into Hurricanes with Tailored Satellite Derived Products

    Feltz, Wayne; Griffin, Sarah; Velden, Christopher; Zipser, Ed; Cecil, Daniel; Braun, Scott

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to identify in-flight hazards to high-altitude aircraft, namely the Global Hawk. The Global Hawk was used during Septembers 2012-2016 as part of two NASA funded Hurricane Sentinel-3 field campaigns to over-fly hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean. This talk identifies the cause of severe turbulence experienced over Hurricane Emily (2005) and how a combination of NOAA funded GOES-R algorithm derived cloud top heights/tropical overshooting tops using GOES-13/SEVIRI imager radiances, and lightning information are used to identify areas of potential turbulence for near real-time navigation decision support. Several examples will demonstrate how the Global Hawk pilots remotely received and used real-time satellite derived cloud and lightning detection information to keep the aircraft safely above clouds and avoid regions of potential turbulence.

  12. Re-Occupancy of Breeding Territories by Ferruginous Hawks in Wyoming: Relationships to Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors.

    Wallace, Zachary P; Kennedy, Patricia L; Squires, John R; Oakleaf, Robert J; Olson, Lucretia E; Dugger, Katie M

    2016-01-01

    Grassland and shrubland birds are declining globally due in part to anthropogenic habitat modification. Because population performance of these species is also influenced by non-anthropogenic factors, it is important to incorporate all relevant ecological drivers into demographic models. We used design-based sampling and occupancy models to test relationships of environmental factors that influence raptor demographics with re-occupancy of breeding territories by ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) across Wyoming, USA, 2011-2013. We also tested correlations of territory re-occupancy with oil and gas infrastructure-a leading cause of habitat modification throughout the range of this species of conservation concern. Probability of re-occupancy was not related to any covariates we investigated in 2011, had a strong negative relationship with cover of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) in 2012, was slightly higher for territories with artificial platforms than other nest substrates in 2013, and had a positive relationship with abundance of ground squirrels (Urocitellus spp.) that was strong in 2012 and weak in 2013. Associations with roads were weak and varied by year, road-type, and scale: in 2012, re-occupancy probability had a weak positive correlation with density of roads not associated with oil and gas fields at the territory-scale; however, in 2013 re-occupancy had a very weak negative correlation with density of oil and gas field roads near nest sites (≤500 m). Although our results indicate re-occupancy of breeding territories by ferruginous hawks was compatible with densities of anthropogenic infrastructure in our study area, the lack of relationships between oil and gas well density and territory re-occupancy may have occurred because pre-treatment data were unavailable. We used probabilistic sampling at a broad spatial extent, methods to account for imperfect detection, and conducted extensive prey sampling; nonetheless, future research using before

  13. Hawking and Unruh Effects of a 5-Dimensional Minimal Gauged Supergravity Black Hole by a Global Embedding Approach

    Li-Chun Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the new global embedding approach we investigate Unruh/Hawking temperature of the 5-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity black hole with double rotating parameters in a general (1 + 1 space-time. Our results verify that views of Banerjee and Majhi, and extend this approach to a higher dimension situation.

  14. Hawking Radiation from Horizons of Reissner-Nordstroem de Sitter Black Hole with a Global Monopole via Anomalies

    Chen Shiwu; Liu Xiongwei; Lin Kai; Zeng Xiaoxiong; Yang Shuzheng

    2008-01-01

    Hawking radiation from cosmological horizon and event horizon of the Reissner-Nordstroem de Sitter black hole with a global monopole is studied via a new method that was propounded by Robinson and Wilzek and elaborated by Banerjee and Kulkarni. The results show that the gauge current and energy-momentum tensor fluxes, which required keeping gauge covariance and general coordinate invariance at the quantum level in the effective field theory, are exactly equivalent to those of Hawking radiation from the event horizon and the cosmological horizon, respectively

  15. Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere obtained during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR field campaign

    J. M. Intrieri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to (1 mprove our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2 evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3 demonstrate operational and research applications of a UAS dropsonde system at high latitudes. Dropsondes deployed from the Global Hawk successfully obtained high-resolution profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind information between the stratosphere and surface. The 35 m wingspan Global Hawk, which can soar for ~ 31 h at altitudes up to ~ 20 km, was remotely operated from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB in California. During the 25 h polar flight on 9–10 March 2011, the Global Hawk released 35 sondes between the North Slope of Alaska and 85° N latitude, marking the first UAS Arctic dropsonde mission of its kind. The polar flight transected an unusually cold polar vortex, notable for an associated record-level Arctic ozone loss, and documented polar boundary layer variations over a sizable ocean–ice lead feature. Comparison of dropsonde observations with atmospheric reanalyses reveal that, for this day, large-scale structures such as the polar vortex and air masses are captured by the reanalyses, while smaller-scale features, including low-level jets and inversion depths, are mischaracterized. The successful Arctic dropsonde deployment demonstrates the capability of the Global Hawk to conduct operations in harsh, remote regions. The limited comparison with other measurements and reanalyses highlights the potential value of Arctic atmospheric dropsonde observations where routine in situ measurements are practically nonexistent.

  16. Operational Impact of Data Collected from the Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft During SHOUT

    Wick, G. A.; Dunion, J. P.; Sippel, J.; Cucurull, L.; Aksoy, A.; Kren, A.; Christophersen, H.; Black, P.

    2017-12-01

    The primary scientific goal of the Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT) Project was to determine the potential utility of observations from high-altitude, long-endurance unmanned aircraft systems such as the Global Hawk (GH) aircraft to improve operational forecasts of high-impact weather events or mitigate potential degradation of forecasts in the event of a future gap in satellite coverage. Hurricanes and tropical cyclones are among the most potentially destructive high-impact weather events and pose a major forecasting challenge to NOAA. Major winter storms over the Pacific Ocean, including atmospheric river events, which make landfall and bring strong winds and extreme precipitation to the West Coast and Alaska are also important to forecast accurately because of their societal impact in those parts of the country. In response, the SHOUT project supported three field campaigns with the GH aircraft and dedicated data impact studies exploring the potential for the real-time data from the aircraft to improve the forecasting of both tropical cyclones and landfalling Pacific storms. Dropsonde observations from the GH aircraft were assimilated into the operational Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF) and Global Forecast System (GFS) models. The results from several diverse but complementary studies consistently demonstrated significant positive forecast benefits spanning the regional and global models. Forecast skill improvements within HWRF reached up to about 9% for track and 14% for intensity. Within GFS, track skill improvements for multi-storm averages exceeded 10% and improvements for individual storms reached over 20% depending on forecast lead time. Forecasted precipitation was also improved. Impacts for Pacific winter storms were smaller but still positive. The results are highly encouraging and support the potential for operational utilization of data from a platform like the GH. This presentation summarizes the

  17. Weather Avoidance Guidelines for NASA Global Hawk High-Altitude UAS

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Zipser, Edward J.; Velden, Chris; Monette, Sarah; Heymsfield, Gerry; Braun, Scott; Newman, Paul; Black, Pete; Black, Michael; Dunion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    NASA operates two Global Hawk unmanned aircraft systems for Earth Science research projects. In particular, they are used in the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) project during 2012, 2013, and 2014 to take measurements from the environment around tropical cyclones, and from directly above tropical cyclones. There is concern that strict adherence to the weather avoidance rules used in 2012 may sacrifice the ability to observe important science targets. We have proposed modifications to these weather avoidance rules that we believe will improve the ability to observe science targets without compromising aircraft safety. The previous guidelines, used in 2012, specified: Do not approach thunderstorms within 25 nm during flight at FL500 or below. When flying above FL500: Do not approach reported lightning within 25NM in areas where cloud tops are reported at FL500 or higher. Aircraft should maintain at least 10000 ft vertical separation from reported lightning if cloud tops are below FL500. No over-flight of cumulus tops higher than FL500. No flight into forecast or reported icing conditions. No flight into forecast or reported moderate or severe turbulence Based on past experience with high-altitude flights over tropical cyclones, we have recommended changing this guidance to: Do not approach thunderstorms within 25 nm during flight at FL500 or below. Aircraft should maintain at least 5000 ft vertical separation from significant convective cloud tops except: a) When cloud tops above FL500: In the event of reported significant lightning activity or indicators of significant overshooting tops, do not approach within 10-25 nm, depending on pilot discretion and advice from Mission Scientist. b) When cloud tops are below FL500, maintain 10000 ft separation from reported significant lightning or indicators of significant overshooting tops. No flight into forecasted or reported icing conditions. No flight into forecasted or reported moderate or severe turbulence The

  18. New opportunities for the study of Mediterranean storms: the unique capabilities of the Global Hawk aircraft

    Cairo, F.; Curry, R. E.; Carli, B.

    2009-09-01

    Airborne measurements have often played a pivotal role in unravelling critical processess and improving our understanding of the genesis and development of atmospheric disturbances. The availability of innovative aerial platforms now opens new perspectives for the scientific research. One of these platforms is the high altitude long endurance unmanned aircraft Global Hawk (GH), which has unique capabilities in terms of altitude, range of operation, diurnal coverage and flexibility. The GH has an endurance of 31 hrs, a service ceiling of 20000 m and can host a payload of 680 kg. Since it can operate at altitudes close to the boundary conditions of radiative processes, can follow the diurnal variation of aerosol and clouds, can rapidly deploy new instruments with space-time coverage comparable to space-borne ones, it is a platform which is at the same time complementary and competitive with satellites. In fact it combines the short time deployment of aircraft instruments with the global coverage of satellite instruments, while its flight altitude allows better spatial resolution than a satellite and its endurance provides a sufficiently broad overview at a scale relevant for sinoptic meteorology studies. NASA has recently acquired two of such unmanned high altitude aircraft to address a variety of Earth Science objectives, and Italy has a decade long experience of stratospheric in-situ and remote sensing science missions using the Russian M-55 "Geophysica" high altitude piloted aircraft. There is a common interest in a bilateral cooperative program in climate change science using the GH. The collaboration between NASA and Italian scientific institutions may offer the opportunity of deploying the GH over the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean area is of particular interest under many respects. As instance, it would be of great interest to measure, when possible, the 3-dimensional structure and evolution of the aerosol content over the Mediterranean, with

  19. Hawking radiation

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  20. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences

    Global Journal of Environmental Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Environmental Sciences including waste management, pollution control, and remediation of hazards. The journal is published twice a year. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  1. Global environmental engineering

    Cicerone, RJ; Elliott, S; Turco, RP

    1992-01-01

    All the signs are that global ozone depletion is increasing. Ideas to mitigate the problem that at first glance may seem far-fetched deserve more serious consideration and a scientific process of evaluation. © 1992 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Ferruginous hawk

    Hall, R.S.; Glinski, R.L.; Ellis, D.H.; Ramakka, J.M.; Base, D.L.; Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Millsap, Brian A.; Hoffman, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    In the Southwest, the ferruginous hawk is a local and isolated breeder and an uncommon but consistent winter visitor. Apparently, the breeding range of this species in the Southwest was historically much greater than today. The ferruginous hawk is being considered for listing by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service but remains unclassified by the individual states comprising the Southwest region. Habitat and diet information is summarized. Nest location and structure, breeding, and wintering biology are also discussed. Long-term and seasonal monitoring is conducted annually at several nest locations in New Mexico, while documented reproductive efforts in Arizona, Texas and Oklahoma are extremely rare and isolated. Research and management recommendations include population and habitat surveys, dietary and reproductive investigations, and habitat protection.

  3. Global environmental concerns

    Siddiqi, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Increased concern about global climate change is leading to an examination of options for reducing the emissions of gases believed to be the principal contributors to the Greenhouse Effect. Carbon dioxide is believed to be the largest contributor to such an effect, and the use of fossil fuels is the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions. geothermal energy is likely to receive increased attention in the years ahead as a way to reduce emissions of CO 2 . Several countries in Asia and the Pacific already have active geothermal programs. The Philippines have the second-largest installed geothermal capacity in the world. Japan and New Zealand have used geothermal energy for several decades. The present and future contributions of geothermal energy to the overall energy supply and reductions in carbon dioxide emissions in Asia and the Pacific are discussed in this paper

  4. Thermodynamic Geometry and Hawking Radiation

    Bellucci, S

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the role of thermodynamic fluctuations in the two parameter Hawking radiating black hole configurations. The system is characterized by an ensemble of arbitrary mass and radiation frequency of the black holes. In the due course of the Hawking radiations, we find that the intrinsic geometric description exhibits an intriguing set of exact pair correction functions and global correlation lengths. We investigate the nature of the constant amplitude radiation and find that it's not stable under fluctuations of the mass and frequency. Subsequently, the consideration of the York model decreasing amplitude radiation demonstrates that thermodynamic fluctuations are globally stable in the small frequency region. In connection with quantum gravity refinements, we take an account of the logarithmic correction into the constant amplitude and York amplitude over the Hawking radiation. In both considerations, we notice that the nature of the possible parametric fluctuations may precisely be ascertained w...

  5. Global embedding of D-dimensional black holes with a cosmological constant in Minkowskian spacetimes: Matching between Hawking temperature and Unruh temperature

    Santos, Nuno Loureiro; Dias, Oscar J.C.; Lemos, Jose P.S.

    2004-01-01

    We study the matching between the Hawking temperature of a large class of static D-dimensional black holes and the Unruh temperature of the corresponding higher dimensional Rindler spacetime. In order to accomplish this task we find the global embedding of the D-dimensional black holes into a higher dimensional Minkowskian spacetime, called the global embedding Minkowskian spacetime procedure (GEMS procedure). These global embedding transformations are important on their own, since they provide a powerful tool that simplifies the study of black hole physics by working instead, but equivalently, in an accelerated Rindler frame in a flat background geometry. We discuss neutral and charged Tangherlini black holes with and without cosmological constant, and in the negative cosmological constant case, we consider the three allowed topologies for the horizons (spherical, cylindrical/toroidal, and hyperbolic)

  6. Hawking's acting roles

    Castell, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    In the wake of Stephen Hawking's appearance on the TV show The Big Bang Theory, last month's "Quanta" page (May p3), included a request: "If you think Hawking should appear in any other TV shows, then let us know".

  7. Greenhouse Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST): a novel shortwave infrared spectrometer developed for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle

    Humpage, Neil; Boesch, Hartmut; Palmer, Paul; Parr-Burman, Phil; Vick, Andy; Bezawada, Naidu; Black, Martin; Born, Andy; Pearson, David; Strachan, Jonathan; Wells, Martyn

    2014-05-01

    The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is dependent on surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Errors in assumed atmospheric transport can adversely affect surface flux estimates inferred from surface, aircraft or satellite observations of greenhouse gas concentrations using inverse models. We present a novel, compact shortwave infrared spectrometer (GHOST) for installation on the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle to provide tropospheric column observations of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O and HDO over the ocean to address the need for large-scale, simultaneous, finely resolved measurements of key GHGs. These species cover a range of lifetimes and source processes, and measurements of their tropospheric columns will reflect the vertically integrated signal of their vertical and horizontal transport within the troposphere. The primary science objectives of GHOST are to: 1) provide observations which can be used to test atmospheric transport models; 2) validate satellite observations of GHG column observations over oceans, thus filling a critical gap in current validation capabilities; and 3) complement in-situ tropopause transition layer tracer observations from other instrumentation on board the Global Hawk to provide a link between upper and lower troposphere concentration measurements. The GHOST spectrometer system comprises a target acquisition module (TAM), a fibre slicer and feed system, and a multiple order spectrograph. The TAM design utilises a gimbal behind an optical dome, which is programmed to direct solar radiation reflected by the ocean surface into a fibre optic bundle. The fibre slicer and feed system then splits the light into the four spectral bands using order sorting filters. The fibres corresponding to each band are arranged with a small sideways offset to correctly centre each spectrum on the detector array. The spectrograph design is unique in that a

  8. Peranan Environmental Accounting Terhadap Global Warming

    Martusa, Riki

    2009-01-01

    This article explores about is global warming. The distortion of nature causes global warming. Industrial sector is one of global warming incurred. Some nations create a group to cope this matter. They try to reduce carbon emission as one of global warming causes by controlling industrial carbon emission through financial reporting. This article explores normatively roles of environmental accounting in cope with global warming.  

  9. Hawking radiation from a rotating acoustic black hole

    Zhang Lichun; Li Huaifan; Zhao Ren

    2011-01-01

    Using the new global embedding approach and analytical continuation method of wave function we discuss Hawking radiation of acoustic black holes. Unruh-Hawking temperature of the acoustic black hole is derived. The corresponding relation between these methods calculating Hawking radiation of acoustic black hole is established. The calculation result shows that the contributions of chemical potential to the ingoing wave and the outgoing wave are the same.

  10. Philosophical Aspects of Global Environmental Issues

    Lazutinaa, Tatyana V.; Baksheev, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this paper is determined by understanding of global environmental problems in the context of social ecology. The purpose of this paper is the analysis of main modern environmental global problems created by the equipment representing a public and social basis for the practical transformation of public relations and also the…

  11. Hawking, Stephen W (1942-)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Cosmologist and theoretical astrophysicist, born in Oxford, England, where he studied physics at University College. Moved to Cambridge to take up research in general relativity and cosmology, became Lucasian professor (an appointment earlier held by ISAAC NEWTON, with whom Hawking has been compared). Hawking worked to develop a valid mathematical treatment of the `singularities' in the theor...

  12. Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Patricia L. Kennedy; Rob Yaksich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    The Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) is intermediate in size between the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus), northern North America's other two accipiters. The two sexes are almost alike in plumage, but as in both of the other species, the female is noticeably larger. According to Wheeler and Clark (1995), a...

  13. The Hawking effect

    Saffary, T.

    2001-02-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is the Hawking effect. We study Fredenhagen and Haag's proof of the Hawking radiation in the framework of a semiclassical theory, the quantum field theory in curved spacetime. In particular we give an exact derivation for the short distance behaviour of the two-point function on the Schwarzschild radius

  14. Global issues in environmental medicine.

    Goldstein, B D

    1993-03-01

    This overview will discuss a number of the issues posed by the challenge of international environmental health. The reasons that environmental problems occurring elsewhere in the world are of importance to occupational and environmental physicians in North America include the interconnectedness of the biosphere of our planet so that environmental alterations in one part of the globe can have an adverse outcome on our health and well-being; the often high levels of pollution and environmental degradation elsewhere provide an opportunity to determine and predict adverse consequences of environmental agents pertinent to protecting our own health; and, most importantly, our own ability to provide assistance in helping economic development occur in a setting of low risk of environmental pollution.

  15. Global consequences of US environmental policies

    Sedjo, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Attempts to quantify the financial and social benefits and costs, and their critiques, of habitat protection, have missed a major element: the global environmental consequences. In a global economy linked by international trade a significant reduction in timber harvests in on region will probably precipitate actions in other regions that may be detrimental to the global environment. These reactions would offset most or all of the alleged environmental benefits. The author uses the spotted owl controversy in the Pacific Northwest to illustrate his points. Global aspects of employment, marketing evaluations, fossil fuel implications are all discussed. The author feels that responses from environmentally responsible citizens would be influenced if it was more widely known that in a global system, domestic habitat protection and land-use decisions involved substantial environmental costs elsewhere

  16. Hawking temperature of constant curvature black holes

    Cai Ronggen; Myung, Yun Soo

    2011-01-01

    The constant curvature (CC) black holes are higher dimensional generalizations of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. It is known that these black holes have the unusual topology of M D-1 xS 1 , where D is the spacetime dimension and M D-1 stands for a conformal Minkowski spacetime in D-1 dimensions. The unusual topology and time-dependence for the exterior of these black holes cause some difficulties to derive their thermodynamic quantities. In this work, by using a globally embedding approach, we obtain the Hawking temperature of the CC black holes. We find that the Hawking temperature takes the same form when using both the static and global coordinates. Also, it is identical to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the boundary de Sitter spaces of these CC black holes.

  17. EURO HAWK Project Overview

    2003-01-01

    Briefing charts from presentation on a EURO HAWK project overview; an airborne system with stand-off capability for wide-area intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance meeting European NATO countries' ISR requirements...

  18. Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?

    Mazzatenta, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

  19. Mining and global environmental challenges

    Greeff, J C; Bailey-McEwan, M [Chamber of Mines of South Africa, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1992-04-01

    At least half of South Africa's gold production is presently dependent on CFC11 an CFC12 as refrigerants in water chilling machines used in cooling the underground workings. The South African Government will ratify the revised Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer which will mean CFCs will have to be phased out probably by 1997. HFC134 or HFC22 are possible replacements for CFC but present costs of converting machines are high. The article goes on to discuss the contribution of CFCs and CO{sub 2} to global warming and model simulations and predictions of climate change. Likely effects of growing concern about global warming on the coal mining industry are the possible limitations on the use of coal and the increased need for clean coal technology. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Hawking Radiation As Tunneling

    Parikh, Maulik K.; Wilczek, Frank

    2000-01-01

    We present a short and direct derivation of Hawking radiation as a tunneling process, based on particles in a dynamical geometry. The imaginary part of the action for the classically forbidden process is related to the Boltzmann factor for emission at the Hawking temperature. Because the derivation respects conservation laws, the exact spectrum is not precisely thermal. We compare and contrast the problem of spontaneous emission of charged particles from a charged conductor

  1. It Takes Two: NASA and NOAA's Shared Path of Hurricane Science Flights with the Global Hawk. Time for the Research To Operations (R2O) Transition?

    Emory, A. E.; Wick, G. A.; Dunion, J. P.; McLinden, M.; Schreier, M. M.; Black, P.; Hood, R. E.; Sippel, J.; Tallapragada, V.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of Harvey, Irma, and Maria during the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season re-emphasized the critical need for accurate operational forecasts. The combined NASA East Pacific Origins and Characteristics of Hurricanes (EPOCH) and NOAA UAS field campaign during August 2017 was the fourth campaign in a series of dual agency partnerships between NASA and NOAA to improve forecasting accuracy in tropical cyclogenesis and rapid intensification. A brief history of Global Hawk (GH) hurricane field campaigns, including GRIP (2010), HS3 (2012-2014), NOAA-SHOUT (2015-2016) and EPOCH (2017), will show the incremental steps taken over the last eight years to bring the GH from a research platform to a candidate for operational hurricane reconnaissance. GH dropsondes were assimilated into the ECMWF and HWRF forecast models during the 2015-2016 NOAA SHOUT campaigns. EPOCH marked the first time that GH dropsondes were assimilated in real-time into NOAA's GFS forecast model. Early results show that assimilating dropsonde data significantly increases skill in predicting intensity change, which is game changing since the National Hurricane Center intensity error trend has remained virtually unchanged, particularly at 24 hours, over the last 25 years. The results from the past few years suggest that a paradigm shift of sampling the environment with a high-altitude, long-duration UAS like the GH that is capable of deploying up to 90 dropsondes ahead of and over the top of a developing or strengthening tropical cyclone could produce the best return on hurricane forecast predictions in subsequent years. Recommendations for the future, including lessons learned and the potential for R2O transition will be discussed.

  2. Environmental Upgrading in Global Value Chains

    Poulsen, René Taudal; Ponte, Stefano; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Ports are crucial hubs in the functioning of the global economy, and maritime transport is a major emitter of air pollutants. Ports have considerable potential for promoting environmental upgrading in maritime transport and along global value chains more generally, but so far have been only...... partially successful in doing so. We examine results, limitations and future potential of voluntary initiatives that have been carried out by selected European and North American port authorities, which are considered frontrunners in environmental management. Drawing from the insights of global value chain...... their organizational and physical boundaries: by lowering tool implementation complexity through stronger collaboration within global value chains; and by enhancing emission visibility through alliances with cargo-owners and regulators....

  3. Two autographs: Cecile Dewitt and Robert Hawking (for Steven Hawking)

    Gaina, Alex

    2007-12-01

    Two autographs given to author by professor Cecile Dewitt and Robert Hawking (the son of Steven Hawking for his father) in 1987 during the Quantum Gravity Seminar in Moscow are presented. The first was given during a visit to Physical Institute of the Academy of sciences of the USSR, where a seminar held in the Theoretical department. the second was given during a lunch with Steven Hawking, Andrei Linde and Robert Hawking at the 2-nd floor of the Conference floor.

  4. Global environmental technologies in the future

    Takahashi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines the activities of New Energy and industrial Technology Development Organization's (NEDO) 'Research and Development of Industrial Technology' projects which are related to global environmental technologies. Then, it describes four new material programs and two biotechnology ones, and presents a list of a few environmentally-friendly technologies. These national projects are carried out by private companies which are consigned by NEDO in conformity with MITI's fundamental Research and Development policy. (TEC)

  5. Future generations, environmental ethics, and global environmental change

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-12-31

    The elements of a methodology to be employed by the global community to investigate the consequences of global environmental change upon future generations and global ecosystems are outlined in this paper. The methodology is comprised of two major components: A possible future worlds model; and a formal, citizen-oriented process to judge whether the possible future worlds potentially inheritable by future generations meet obligational standards. A broad array of descriptors of future worlds can be encompassed within this framework, including survival of ecosystems and other species and satisfaction of human concerns. The methodology expresses fundamental psychological motivations and human myths journey, renewal, mother earth, and being-in-nature-and incorporates several viewpoints on obligations to future generations-maintaining options, fairness, humility, and the cause of humanity. The methodology overcomes several severe drawbacks of the economic-based methods most commonly used for global environmental policy analysis.

  6. East Asian perspective on global environmental problems

    Yonehara, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has been conducting active global warming research programs focusing on development of a method to forecast climate change accompanying global warming both globally and in East Asia. A regional climate change forecasting method is being developed and researches are conducted on impacts of climate change on the natural and social environment in East Asia. Researches are also conducted focusing on the relationship between emissions and deposition of acid substances and assessment of the environmental impacts of acid rain in East Asia. 4 figs

  7. Steven Hawking with Robert Aymar

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Steven Hawking is seen meeting with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar. Hawking visited CERN between 24 September and 1 October 2006. During his stay he gave two lectures and toured the LHC, which may provide insights into Hawking's most famous area of study, black holes.

  8. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  9. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves

  10. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  11. Annual report on global environmental monitoring - 1993

    1993-01-01

    In recent decades, scientific evidence from long-term monitoring has revealed the creeping destruction of ecosystems upon which human existence depends. Recognition of this destruction is changing the international policies used to manage our planet. Vast quantities of information regarding the status of the global environment is necessary in order to achieve a solid consensus among nations for environmental policies. To detect global change early, systematic monitoring with coverage of the entire surface of the earth should be implemented under close coordination among countries and researchers from different disciplines. The resulting precise and accurate measurements should be integrated in a timely fashion into an internationally coordinated database which will be available to the decision makers. In view of this concept, the Center for Global Environmental Research was established in 1990 and started work on monitoring, data management, modeling and their integration. CGER's field of monitoring covers the stratosphere, troposphere, fresh water, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Groups of researchers are organized to design and conduct the monitoring. After intensive examination by these researchers, the resulting data are compiled into this report to be used in academic society as well as to serve decision makers. In 1993 two series of monitoring data reached this stage of publishing. This report contains the results of the Ozone Lidar Monitoring Program and the Japan-Korea Marine Biogeochemical Monitoring Program. The Center for Global Environmental Research very much appreciates both the research staff of these programs for their long-term and patient measurements and the advisory members for their valuable recommendations to the staffs. Those researchers who wish to examine and utilize the raw or primary data are strongly encouraged to contact the Monitoring Section of the center

  12. Canadian institute honours Hawking

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-11-01

    The Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada, has announced that a major new extension to its campus will be known as the Stephen Hawking Centre. The extension, which is currently being built, is due to open in 2011 and will double the size of the institute. It will also provide a home for the institute's Masters students, the first of whom joined the Perimeter Institute this autumn as part of its Perimeter Scholars international programme.

  13. Is Hawking radiation physically reasonable?

    Ahmed, M.

    1995-07-01

    Hawking radiation is observed in a general spacetime which includes all the black hole spacetimes as well as various types of other spacetimes which are not interesting form the physical point of view like black hole spacetimes. Even Hawking radiation is observed in NUT spacetime which is sometimes considered as unphysical. So naturally arises the question whether Hawking radiation is physically reasonable. (author). 22 refs

  14. Origin of Hawking radiation

    Hajicek, P.

    1987-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, the possible influence that quantum corrections could have on the existence and position of an event horizon in a spherically symmetric collapse is studied. A counterexample is constructed proving that the small value of near the gravitational radius does not guarantee the formation of an event horizon. In an exactly solvable model of black-hole evaporation, the spacetime structure is manipulated in the Planck neighborhood of the singularity so that the event horizon is shifted arbitrarily to the future or removed completely. This change in the position of the event horizon has no observable consequences until the retarded time of the end of the black-hole evaporation is reached. However, even in the absence of the event horizon, the Hawking radiation survives. In the second part of the paper, its origin is studied. The old idea is adopted that it is coming from a neighborhood of the so-called ergosphere. The concept of the ergosphere is generalized to nonstationary, spherically symmetric spacetimes using the notion of Hawking quasilocal mass. The boundary of such an ergosphere is shown to coincide with the locus of apparent horizons. It seems, therefore, that the Hawking effect is associated with the apparent rather than the event horizon. An extrapolation of some properties of from a neighborhood of the Schwarzschild horizon to that of an apparent horizon forming in a collapse leads to the result that too much energy is radiated away already before the apparent horizon forms, similarly as in the Boulware scenario of gravitational collapse

  15. Environmental health implications of global climate change

    Watson, Robert T.; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J.; Parson, Edward A.; Vincent, James H.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and - associated with all the preceding - the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem. (Author)

  16. GERMON. Global Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network

    1992-01-01

    Between 15-18 December 1987, a meeting of experts of WHO/UNEP met at Le Vesinet, France, to develop the basic principles of a global environmental radiation monitoring network (GERMON) which would have the function of reporting on a regular basis environmental radiation levels, and be positioned to provide rapid and reliable radiation measurements in the event of a major radiation release. To date, some 58 countries have indicated their willingness to become part of GERMON. About 40 of these have technical staff and equipment to meet the minimum requirements for joining the network, and about 30 have designated appropriate organizations within their country to serve as national Liaison Institutions for GERMON. Sixteen countries are now providing data on a regular basis to the CCC at SCPRI in Le Vesinet, France. Thirty-two countries responded to the request of WHO for readiness to take part in a IAEA radiation emergency exercise. The present meeting has been held in Montgomery, Alabama, USA at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory between 27 April 1992 and 30 April 1992, with the purpose of reviewing GERMON. One important topic considered was the implementation of GERMON in the Americas. Particular attention was given to the need for better coordination with IAEA in responding to the Convention on Early Notification, to the role of the CCC, to forms of data transmission, etc

  17. Multiscale Drivers of Global Environmental Health

    Desai, Manish Anil

    In this dissertation, I motivate, develop, and demonstrate three such approaches for investigating multiscale drivers of global environmental health: (1) a metric for analyzing contributions and responses to climate change from global to sectoral scales, (2) a framework for unraveling the influence of environmental change on infectious diseases at regional to local scales, and (3) a model for informing the design and evaluation of clean cooking interventions at community to household scales. The full utility of climate debt as an analytical perspective will remain untapped without tools that can be manipulated by a wide range of analysts, including global environmental health researchers. Chapter 2 explains how international natural debt (IND) apportions global radiative forcing from fossil fuel carbon dioxide and methane, the two most significant climate altering pollutants, to individual entities -- primarily countries but also subnational states and economic sectors, with even finer scales possible -- as a function of unique trajectories of historical emissions, taking into account the quite different radiative efficiencies and atmospheric lifetimes of each pollutant. Owing to its straightforward and transparent derivation, IND can readily operationalize climate debt to consider issues of equity and efficiency and drive scenario exercises that explore the response to climate change at multiple scales. Collectively, the analyses presented in this chapter demonstrate how IND can inform a range of key question on climate change mitigation at multiple scales, compelling environmental health towards an appraisal of the causes and not just the consequences of climate change. The environmental change and infectious disease (EnvID) conceptual framework of Chapter 3 builds on a rich history of prior efforts in epidemiologic theory, environmental science, and mathematical modeling by: (1) articulating a flexible and logical system specification; (2) incorporating

  18. Hawking temperature from tunnelling formalism

    Mitra, P.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the attempt to understand Hawking radiation as tunnelling across black hole horizons produces a Hawking temperature double the standard value. It is explained here how one can obtain the standard value in the same tunnelling approach.

  19. Hawking radiation in string theories

    Sakai, N.

    1986-01-01

    String theories in a uniform gravitational field are studied to examine the Hawking radiation. An upper limit is found for the strength of the possible gravitational field: the corresponding Hawking temperature cannot be larger than the Hagedorn limiting temperature divided by π

  20. Hydroelectric power and global environmental problems: benefits and environmental impacts

    Chabot, B.

    1992-01-01

    The risk of global warming is one of the most serious global environmental problems. It is due to the increase of greenhouse gases emissions, mainly because of the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector, particularly for electricity generation. At an international level, experts now agree that measures are to be taken to reduce this risk. In the energy sector, an improvement of energy efficiency and an increase of nuclear electricity generation are often presented as the best available solutions. Renewable energy sources are often presented as a solution with a negligible potential impact, and sometimes, hydro power is even forgotten, or its coasts and its potential impacts on local environment are presented as an obstacle to its positive contribution to the reduction of global warming risk. Without denying the positive impacts of other solutions, this paper explains the possibilities and the benefits of an increased use of hydroelectric power, when implemented with a minimum impact on local environment and with a synergistic effect with the rational use of generated energy, in order to have access to a sustainable development. 19 refs., 6 figs

  1. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Verburg, P.H.; Ellis, E.C.; Letourneau, A.

    2011-01-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here

  2. Universality of the Hawking effect

    Unruh, William G.; Schuetzhold, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    Addressing the question of whether the Hawking effect depends on degrees of freedom at ultrahigh (e.g., Planckian) energies/momenta, we propose three rather general conditions on these degrees of freedom under which the Hawking effect is reproduced to lowest order. As a generalization of Corley's results, we present a rather general model based on nonlinear dispersion relations satisfying these conditions together with a derivation of the Hawking effect for that model. However, we also demonstrate counter-examples, which do not appear to be unphysical or artificial, displaying strong deviations from Hawking's result. Therefore, whether real black holes emit Hawking radiation remains an open question and could give nontrivial information about Planckian physics

  3. Environmental safety of the global information space

    В’ячеслав Степанович Волошин

    2015-03-01

    Databases of full-text publications – journals, articles, monographs- are surely a means of salvation for science. There already exist a large number of such portals. Besides, advantages and disadvantages of electronic subscriptions to periodicals should certainly be considered. The former include the following most evident ones: aggregation of large data arrays, saving money on a subscription, an opportunity to work with relevant publications, thematic collections of materials, availability of records, simultaneous access of an unlimited number of users and others. Nevertheless, there are many disadvantages that make it difficult to work with full-text publications. They are the following: selective representativeness of publication numbers, complexity of keyword search, occasional presence of obsolete text formats, printed versions, possible psychological barrier, physiological incompatibility with computer equipment, fatigue caused by prolonged work on the computer. The Internet was followed by the appearance of global control networks, their aims ranging from control of a human life support to a unified control of humanity. So, the formed global information space promises the man to get access to almost any information source. Meanwhile, environmental safety of the man, his/her objective biological psyche and abilities in harmonious development are at serious risk

  4. Particle energy and Hawking temperature

    Ding Chikun; Wang Mengjie; Jing Jiliang

    2009-01-01

    Some authors have recently found that the tunneling approach gives a different Hawking temperature for a Schwarzschild black hole in a different coordinate system. In this Letter, we find that to work out the Hawking temperature in a different coordinate system by the tunneling approach, we must use the correct definition of the energy of the radiating particles. By using a new definition of the particle energy, we obtain the correct Hawking temperature for a Schwarzschild black hole in two dynamic coordinate systems, the Kruskal-Szekers and dynamic Lemaitre coordinate systems.

  5. Bayesian inference for Hawkes processes

    Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    The Hawkes process is a practically and theoretically important class of point processes, but parameter-estimation for such a process can pose various problems. In this paper we explore and compare two approaches to Bayesian inference. The first approach is based on the so-called conditional...... intensity function, while the second approach is based on an underlying clustering and branching structure in the Hawkes process. For practical use, MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo) methods are employed. The two approaches are compared numerically using three examples of the Hawkes process....

  6. Bayesian inference for Hawkes processes

    Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2013-01-01

    The Hawkes process is a practically and theoretically important class of point processes, but parameter-estimation for such a process can pose various problems. In this paper we explore and compare two approaches to Bayesian inference. The first approach is based on the so-called conditional...... intensity function, while the second approach is based on an underlying clustering and branching structure in the Hawkes process. For practical use, MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo) methods are employed. The two approaches are compared numerically using three examples of the Hawkes process....

  7. Boltzmann factor and Hawking radiation

    Ryskin, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Hawking radiation has thermal spectrum corresponding to the temperature T H =(8πM) −1 , where M is the mass (energy) of the black hole. Corrections to the Hawking radiation spectrum were discovered by Kraus and Wilczek (1995) and Parikh and Wilczek (2000). Here I show that these corrections follow directly from the basic principles of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. In essence, it is the Boltzmann factor that ought to be corrected; corrections to the Hawking (or any other) radiation spectrum then follow necessarily

  8. Hawking from Catalan

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2016-05-01

    The Virasoro algebra determines all `graviton' matrix elements in AdS3/CFT2. We study the explicit exchange of any number of Virasoro gravitons between heavy and light CFT2 operators at large central charge. These graviton exchanges can be written in terms of new on-shell tree diagrams, organized in a perturbative expansion in h H /c, the heavy operator dimension divided by the central charge. The Virasoro vacuum conformal block, which is the sum of all the tree diagrams, obeys a differential recursion relation generalizing that of the Catalan numbers. We use this recursion relation to sum the on-shell diagrams to all orders, computing the Virasoro vacuum block. Extrapolating to large h H /c determines the Hawking temperature of a BTZ black hole in dual AdS3 theories.

  9. Global Environmental Change: An integrated modelling approach

    Den Elzen, M.

    1993-01-01

    Two major global environmental problems are dealt with: climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion (and their mutual interactions), briefly surveyed in part 1. In Part 2 a brief description of the integrated modelling framework IMAGE 1.6 is given. Some specific parts of the model are described in more detail in other Chapters, e.g. the carbon cycle model, the atmospheric chemistry model, the halocarbon model, and the UV-B impact model. In Part 3 an uncertainty analysis of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion is presented (Chapter 4). Chapter 5 briefly reviews the social and economic uncertainties implied by future greenhouse gas emissions. Chapters 6 and 7 describe a model and sensitivity analysis pertaining to the scientific uncertainties and/or lacunae in the sources and sinks of methane and carbon dioxide, and their biogeochemical feedback processes. Chapter 8 presents an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the carbon cycle model, the halocarbon model, and the IMAGE model 1.6 as a whole. Part 4 presents the risk assessment methodology as applied to the problems of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion more specifically. In Chapter 10, this methodology is used as a means with which to asses current ozone policy and a wide range of halocarbon policies. Chapter 11 presents and evaluates the simulated globally-averaged temperature and sea level rise (indicators) for the IPCC-1990 and 1992 scenarios, concluding with a Low Risk scenario, which would meet the climate targets. Chapter 12 discusses the impact of sea level rise on the frequency of the Dutch coastal defence system (indicator) for the IPCC-1990 scenarios. Chapter 13 presents projections of mortality rates due to stratospheric ozone depletion based on model simulations employing the UV-B chain model for a number of halocarbon policies. Chapter 14 presents an approach for allocating future emissions of CO 2 among regions. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Hawk and Handsaw

    Usher, Peter D.

    2008-05-01

    In Shakespeare's Hamlet, Prince Hamlet states, "I am but mad north-north-west. When the wind is southerly, I know a hawk from a handsaw." This celebrated yet perennially baffling passage is readily understood in the context of the cosmic allegorical interpretation of the play (BAAS 28, 1305, 1996; Hamlet's Universe, 2006). The first direction points from Tycho Brahe's observatory on Hven to the fictional home of the geocentric Pyolemaic worldview at Elsinore, and the second from Hven to the home of Copernican heliocentricism at Wittenberg. The directions correspond to the two influences on Tycho's geo-heliocentric World model. Anyone at Elsinore who advocates the new organon of the New Philosophy is "mad," whereas sanity prevails at Wittenberg. "Hawk" refers to a bird of prey, the leonard, and to Leonard Digges, inventor of the world's first two-element telescope. "Handsaw" refers to the artistic tool necessary to sever the hands depicted in de Gheyn's two quasi-mirror-imaged portraits of Tycho at age 40, which show hands affixed to the wrong arms. Elsewhere in Hamlet, Shakespeare substantiates the New Astronomy through descriptions of planets and stars that could only have been determined telescopically. Therefore, the passage in question contrasts two modes of observing in the early modern era, viz. visual and telescopic. Shakespeare completed writing Hamlet in about 1601 and the Second Quarto appeared in 1604, so the first substantial account of astronomical telescopy is now over 400 years old. In addition, 432 years ago Thomas Digges published the first account of the New Astronomy in a popular almanac. These two means of presentation may seem odd by present standards, but contemporary culture was intolerant of 'natural magic,' and furthermore, it was prudent to minmize the risk of domestic persecution and threats from Continental armies and the European and Spanish Inquisitions.

  11. Development of the Hawk/Nike Hawk sounding rocket vehicles

    Flowers, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    A new sounding rocket family, the Hawk and Nike-Hawk Vehicles, have been developed, flight tested and added to the NASA Sounding Rocket Vehicle Stable. The Hawk is a single-stage vehicle that will carry 35.6 cm diameter payloads weighing 45.5 kg to 91 kg to altitudes of 78 km to 56 km, respectively. The two-stage Nike-Hawk will carry payloads weighing 68 kg to 136 kg to altitudes of 118 km to 113 km, respectively. Both vehicles utilize the XM22E8 Hawk rocket motor which is available in large numbers as a surplus item from the U.S. Army. The Hawk fin and tail can hardware were designed in-house. The Nike tail can and fin hardware are surplus Nike-Ajax booster hardware. Development objectives were to provide a vehicle family with a larger diameter, larger volume payload capability than the Nike-Apache and Nike-Tomahawk vehicles at comparable cost. Both vehicles performed nominally in flight tests.

  12. Perfect simulation of Hawkes processes

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    This article concerns a perfect simulation algorithm for unmarked and marked Hawkes processes. The usual stratihtforward simulation algorithm suffers from edge effects, whereas our perfect simulation algorithm does not. By viewing Hawkes processes as Poisson cluster processes and using...... their branching and conditional independence structure, useful approximations of the distribution function for the length of a cluster are derived. This is used to construct upper and lower processes for the perfect simulation algorithm. Examples of applications and empirical results are presented....

  13. “STRONG” AND “WEAK” GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONCEPTS

    Nikolay Dronin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many global environmental issues being subject of ambitious international environmental politics could look very different in terms of scientific justification. This was revealed during interviews made by the author with some leading American environmental scientists. All interviewed American scientists granted minor confidence to three environmental issues—deforestation, desertification and biodiversity loss, while two issues—the ozone depletion and climate change—were deserved high degree of confidence. The striking difference in evaluation of the global concepts of environmental issues is discussed in the context of the classical epistemological problem of coexistence of “strong” and “weak” theories in modern science. The normative character of epistemology suggests that some ways of raising scientific credibility of the backward environmental concepts can be proposed. Better justification of these global environmental issues can help to move forward the environmental politics which have shown mere stagnation during the last years.

  14. Vacuum polarization and Hawking radiation

    Rahmati, Shohreh

    Quantum gravity is one of the interesting fields in contemporary physics which is still in progress. The purpose of quantum gravity is to present a quantum description for spacetime at 10-33cm or find the 'quanta' of gravitational interaction.. At present, the most viable theory to describe gravitational interaction is general relativity which is a classical theory. Semi-classical quantum gravity or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an approximation to a full quantum theory of gravity. This approximation considers gravity as a classical field and matter fields are quantized. One interesting phenomena in semi-classical quantum gravity is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation was derived by Stephen Hawking as a thermal emission of particles from the black hole horizon. In this thesis we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation using a new method. Vacuum is defined as the possible lowest energy state which is filled with pairs of virtual particle-antiparticle. Vacuum polarization is a consequence of pair creation in the presence of an external field such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. Vacuum polarization in the vicinity of a black hole horizon can be interpreted as the cause of the emission from black holes known as Hawking radiation. In this thesis we try to obtain the Hawking spectrum using this approach. We re-examine vacuum polarization of a scalar field in a quasi-local volume that includes the horizon. We study the interaction of a scalar field with the background gravitational field of the black hole in the desired quasi-local region. The quasi-local volume is a hollow cylinder enclosed by two membranes, one inside the horizon and one outside the horizon. The net rate of particle emission can be obtained as the difference of the vacuum polarization from the outer boundary and inner boundary of the cylinder. Thus we found a new method to derive Hawking emission which is unitary and well defined in quantum field theory.

  15. Environmental health: from global to local

    Frumkin, Howard

    2010-01-01

    .... Also emphasizing a wide variety of issues of global interest, the thoroughly revised second edition contains updated information on such timely topics as toxicology, exposure assessment, climate...

  16. EDITORIAL: Where next with global environmental scenarios? Where next with global environmental scenarios?

    O'Neill, Brian; Pulver, Simone; Van Deveer, Stacy; Garb, Yaakov

    2008-12-01

    Scenarios have become a standard tool in the portfolio of techniques that scientists and policy-makers use to envision and plan for the future. Defined as plausible, challenging and relevant stories about how the future might unfold that integrate quantitative models with qualitative assessments of social and political trends, scenarios are a central component in assessment processes for a range of global issues, including climate change, biodiversity, agriculture, and energy. Yet, despite their prevalence, systematic analysis of scenarios is in its beginning stages. Fundamental questions remain about both the epistemology and scientific credibility of scenarios and their roles in policymaking and social change. Answers to these questions have the potential to determine the future of scenario analyses. Is scenario analysis moving in the direction of earth system governance informed by global scenarios generated through increasingly complex and comprehensive models integrating socio-economic and earth systems? Or will global environmental scenario analyses lose favour compared to more focused, policy-driven, regionally specific modelling? These questions come at an important time for the climate change issue, given that the scenario community, catalyzed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is currently preparing to embark on a new round of scenario development processes aimed at coordinating research and assessment, and informing policy, over the next five to ten years. These and related questions about where next to go with global environmental scenarios animated a workshop held at Brown University (Note1) that brought together leading practitioners and scholars of global environmental change scenarios from research, policy-making, advocacy, and business settings. The workshop aimed to provide an overview of current practices/best practices in scenario production and scenario use across a range of global environmental change arenas. Participants

  17. Environmental variation and population responses to global change

    Lawson, Callum R.; Vindenes, Yngvild; Bailey, Liam; van de Pol, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Species' responses to environmental changes such as global warming are affected not only by trends in mean conditions, but also by natural and human-induced environmental fluctuations. Methods are needed to predict how such environmental variation affects ecological and evolutionary processes, in

  18. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    Visser, Matt [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research,Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2015-07-03

    Is the Hawking flux “thermal”? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word “thermal”. The original 1850’s notions of thermality — based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized “black bodies” or “lamp black surfaces” — when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900’s, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but without any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lump of coal), is only approximately Planck-shaped over an explicitly bounded range of frequencies. Standard physics (phase space and adiabaticity effects) explicitly bound the frequency range over which the Hawking flux is approximately Planck-shaped from both above and below — the Hawking flux is certainly not exactly Planckian, and there is no compelling physics reason to assume the Hawking photons are uncorrelated.

  19. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    Visser, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Is the Hawking flux “thermal”? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word “thermal”. The original 1850’s notions of thermality — based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized “black bodies” or “lamp black surfaces” — when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900’s, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but without any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lump of coal), is only approximately Planck-shaped over an explicitly bounded range of frequencies. Standard physics (phase space and adiabaticity effects) explicitly bound the frequency range over which the Hawking flux is approximately Planck-shaped from both above and below — the Hawking flux is certainly not exactly Planckian, and there is no compelling physics reason to assume the Hawking photons are uncorrelated.

  20. Stephen Hawking: To Understand the Universe

    Hartle, James B.

    2018-01-01

    A brief remembrance of some aspects of the author's scientific interaction with Stephen Hawking contributed to Physics Today's March 14, 2018 article in which Stephen Hawking is remembered by his colleagues.

  1. Global environmental change and sustainable development in Europe

    Jaeger, J.; Liberatore, A.; Grundlach, K. [eds.

    1995-12-31

    The document contains all but two papers presented at the Workshop as well as a summary of the contributions and discussions, a list of socio-economic research priorities identified at the meeting and a policy brief based on the themes woven together at the Workshop. The workshop was organised within the framework of the European Network for Research in Global Change (ENRICH). Papers include: global environmental change and sustainable development in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin, water management and global environmental change policies, human impacts on the nitrogen cycle, the merchandising of biodiversity, environmental performance indicators, urban sustainability indicators and strategies for sustainability.

  2. Global Climate Change as Environmental Megacrisis

    Endter-Wada, Joanna; Ingram, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyze global climate change utilizing insights from the governance and crisis management literatures that seek to understand the prospects, nature, characteristics and the effects of cataclysmic events. They argue that global climate change is a mega-crisis hiding in plain sight yet there has been no proportionate mega-crisis response. People are still grappling with how to make sense of climate change, how to bridge multiple ways of knowing it, and how to negotiate collective c...

  3. Stephen Hawking: An Unfettered Mind

    Ferguson, Kitty

    2012-02-23

    Kitty Ferguson, biographer of physicist Stephen Hawking, will give an informal, nontechnical talk about the experience of writing her two books about the celebrated cosmologist and also of helping Hawking edit his own “The Universe in a Nutshell”. Hawking thinks and works somewhat differently from others because he must work almost entirely in his head, and he has a practice of pulling the rug out from under his own discoveries and assertions. As he has approached his recent 70th birthday, he has devoted an increasing amount of his time in efforts to share his science and particularly the adventure of it with people without a science background and young people who may be scientists of the future. Ferguson will discuss Hawking’s place in the science community (he is not and has never claimed to be on par with Einstein), the unique contributions he is able to make, and what his legacy might be.

  4. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Verburg, Peter H [Institute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam Global Change Institute, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ellis, Erle C [Department of Geography and Environmental Systems, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Letourneau, Aurelien, E-mail: Peter.Verburg@ivm.vu.nl [UMR 5175 Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle and Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2011-07-15

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  5. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Verburg, Peter H.; Ellis, Erle C.; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-07-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  6. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Verburg, Peter H; Ellis, Erle C; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-01-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  7. Second order analysis for spatial Hawkes processes

    Møller, Jesper; Torrisi, Giovanni Luca

    We derive summary statistics for stationary Hawkes processes which can be considered as spatial versions of classical Hawkes processes. Particularly, we derive the intensity, the pair correlation function and the Bartlett spectrum. Our results for Gaussian fertility rates and the extension...... to marked Hawkes processes are discussed....

  8. Graphical Methodology of Global Pollution Index for the Environmental Impact Assessment Using Two Environmental Components

    Corneliu Cojocaru; Diana Mariana Cocârţă; Irina Aura Istrate; Igor Creţescu

    2017-01-01

    One of the applied methods for environmental impact assessment is the index of global pollution (IGP) proposed by Rojanschi in 1991. This methodology enables the global estimation for the ecosystem state affected more or less by human activities. Unfortunately, Rojanschi’s method has a limitation; it can be applied only if at least three environmental components are considered. Frequently, many environmental impact assessment applications rely on analysis of only two environmental components....

  9. Perfect simulation of Hawkes processes

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2005-01-01

    Our objective is to construct a perfect simulation algorithm for unmarked and marked Hawkes processes. The usual straightforward simulation algorithm suffers from edge effects, whereas our perfect simulation algorithm does not. By viewing Hawkes processes as Poisson cluster processes and using...... their branching and conditional independence structures, useful approximations of the distribution function for the length of a cluster are derived. This is used to construct upper and lower processes for the perfect simulation algorithm. A tail-lightness condition turns out to be of importance...... for the applicability of the perfect simulation algorithm. Examples of applications and empirical results are presented....

  10. Transparency in Global Environmental Governance: A Coming of Age?

    Gupta, A.

    2010-01-01

    This introductory article draws on the contributions to this special issue to consider the implications of a transparency turn in global environmental and sustainability governance. Three interrelated aspects are addressed: why transparency now? How is transparency being institutionalized? And what

  11. Study on fusion energy conformity with global environmental issues

    Kurihara, Kenichi

    1998-01-01

    Global environmental conformity has been one of the most important issues discussed recently as being required for all human activities. From this point of view, this report investigates whether nuclear fusion can be a benign energy source for the global environment. First of all, we chose the following global environmental problems: (1) Global warming, (2) Acid rain, (3) Ozonosphere destruction, (4) Air pollution, (5) Environmental hormones, (6) Radiation and radioactive materials, (7) Electromagnetic waves, and (8) Heat drainage from an energy source. Secondly, these problems were fully surveyed in terms of their relationships with proposed nuclear fusion power plant. Finally, as a result of this discussion, it was confirmed that a fusion power plant would not produce any new problems, but would partially contribute to solving some of the environmental problems. (author)

  12. Carbon and environmental footprinting of global biofuel production

    Hammond, Geoff P.; Seth, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon and environmental footprints associated with the global production of biofuels have been computed from a baseline of 2007-2009 out until 2019. Estimates of future global biofuel production were adopted from OECD-FAO and related projections. In order to determine the footprints associated with these (essentially 'first generation') biofuel resources, the overall environmental footprint was disaggregated into bioproductive land, built land, carbon, embodied energy, materials and wast...

  13. Green power and performance in global environmental governance

    Never, Babette

    2013-01-01

    From 10 to 11 June 2013, the Global Green Growth Summit will take place in Seoul. Policymakers, international organizations and experts from various fi elds will once again discuss how the transformation toward a green economy and more sustainable development paths can be managed. Global environmental governance is characterized by a high number of international activities, but actual environmental outcomes vary. The ability to develop green political and economic power that leads to bett er ...

  14. Global Environmental Change : Understanding the Human Dimensions

    Stern, Paul C; Druckman, Daniel; Young, Oran R; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences; Stern, Paul C; Druckman, Daniel

    ... on the Human Dimensions of Global Change Commission on the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files ...

  15. Global environmental change: understanding the human dimensions

    Stern, Paul C; Young, Oran R; Druckman, Daniel

    ... on the Human Dimensions of Global Change Commission on the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files ...

  16. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

  17. Future global ethics: environmental change, embedded ethics, evolving human identity.

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Work on global ethics looks at ethical connections on a global scale. It should link closely to environmental ethics, recognizing that we live in unified social-ecological systems, and to development ethics, attending systematically to the lives and interests of

  18. Global environmental problems, voluntary action and government intervention

    Richter, A.; van Soest, D.P.; Brousseau, E.; Dedeurwaerdere, T.; Jouvet, P.A.; Willonger, M.

    2012-01-01

    The global community faces several very pressing environmental challenges such as climate change, depletion of the high-sea fisheries, and unprecedented rates of biodiversity loss. Governments are in the process of designing environmental policies to address these problems unilaterally, but also

  19. Stephen Hawking's Universe. Teacher's Guide.

    Thompson, Malcolm H.; Rameau, Jonathan D.

    This program guide is meant to help teachers assist their students in viewing the six-part public television series, "Stephen Hawking's Universe." The guide features program summaries that give background information and brief synopses of the programs; previewing activities that familiarize students with the subject; vocabulary that…

  20. Approximate simulation of Hawkes processes

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    This article concerns a simulation algorithm for unmarked and marked Hawkes processes. The algorithm suffers from edge effects but is much faster than the perfect simulation algorithm introduced in our previous work. We derive various useful measures for the error committed when using the algorithm......, and we discuss various empirical results for the algorithm compared with perfect simulations....

  1. Hawking Colloquium Packed CERN Auditoriums

    2006-01-01

    Stephen Hawking's week long visit to CERN included an 'exceptional CERN colloquium' which filled six auditoriums. Stephen Hawking during his visit to the ATLAS experiment. Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Cambridge University, visited the Theory Unit of the Physics Department from 24 September to 1 October 2006. As part of his visit, he gave two lectures in the main auditorium - a theoretical seminar on 'The Semi-Classical Birth of The Universe', attended by about 120 specialists; and a colloquium titled 'The Origin of The Universe'. As a key public figure in theoretical physics, his presence was eagerly awaited on both occasions. Those who wanted to attend the colloquium had to arrive early and be equipped with plenty of patience. An hour before it was due to begin, the 400 capacity of the main auditorium was already full. The lecture, simultaneously broadcast to five other fully packed CERN auditoriums, was attended by an estimated total of 850. Stephen Hawking attracted a large CERN crowd, filling ...

  2. Global environmental impacts of the hydrogen economy

    Derwent, R.; Simmonds, P.; O'Doherty, S.; Manning, A.; Collins, W.; Stevenson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen-based energy systems appear to be an attractive proposition in providing a future replacement for the current fossil-fuel based energy systems. Hydrogen is an important, though little studied, trace component of the atmosphere. It is present at the mixing ratio of about 510 ppb currently and has important man-made and natural sources. Because hydrogen reacts with tropospheric hydroxyl radicals, emissions of hydrogen to the atmosphere perturb the distributions of methane and ozone, the second and third most important greenhouse gases after carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is therefore an indirect greenhouse gas with a global warming potential GWP of 5.8 over a 100-year time horizon. A future hydrogen economy would therefore have greenhouse consequences and would not be free from climate perturbations. If a global hydrogen economy replaced the current fossil fuel-based energy system and exhibited a leakage rate of 1%, then it would produce a climate impact of 0.6% of the current fossil fuel based system. Careful attention must be given to reduce to a minimum the leakage of hydrogen from the synthesis, storage and use of hydrogen in a future global hydrogen economy if the full climate benefits are to be realised. (author)

  3. Baseline scenarios of global environmental change

    Alcamo, J.; Kreileman, G.J.J.; Bollen, J.C.; Born, G.J. van den; Krol, M.S.; Toet, A.M.C.; Vries, H.J.M. de; Gerlagh, R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents three baseline scenarios of no policy action computed by the IMAGE2 model. These scenarios cover a wide range of coupled global change indicators, including: energy demand and consumption; food demand, consumption, and production; changes in land cover including changes in extent of agricultural land and forest; emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors; and climate change and its impacts on sea level rise, crop productivity and natural vegetation. Scenario information is available for the entire world with regional and grid scale detail, and covers from 1970 to 2100. (author)

  4. Rio conference global environmental protection Agenda 21

    Pinchera, G. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Area Energia, Ambiente e Salute)

    1992-10-01

    In reviewing the work packages included in the Rio Earth's Summit Agenda 21, intended as an activities guideline for international cooperation to ensure environmental protection with sustainable growth for all nations, this paper points out the areas which present the greatest obstacles in the establishment of common accords and discusses the directions being taken to surmount these obstacles. A major obstacle concerns uncertaindes in specifying limits on carbon dioxide emissions and their effects on world climate. Another concerns suitable methods to help finance effective technology transfer to developing countries. With regard to the former problem, a 'no regret' approach has been proposed to limit current C02 reduction interventions to those levels which, in all certainty, would not incur any future regrets once scientific knowledge has advanced enough to allow more accurate assessments of greenhouse gas/climate change inter-relationships. With regard to the latter problem, attempts are being made to reduce possible negative impacts on the petroleum industry due to energy surcharges suggested as a source of funding for technology transfer/environmental protection programs.

  5. Environmental protection - global and regional relationships

    Boehnke, B.

    1992-01-01

    In the broadest sense, environmental protection is a task of extraordinary urgency, needed to conserve water, soil and air in a state which preserves the health of flora and fauna. In the foreseeable future, there will be widespread changes leading to the substantial decimation of mankind, unless men themselves, i.e. those in responsible positions in the industrial nations, take immediate serious steps, supported by a high level of resources, to ensure their own survival. The following measures are necessary in order to avert the impending catastrophe: 1. Radical reduction of CO 2 , methane and FCC emissions to stop the greenhouse effect and the growth of the ozone hole. 2. Removal of CO 2 and methane from the atmosphere. 3. Radical reduction of the birth-rate. 4. Prevention of further growth in desert and steppe regions and reclamation of new fertile areas. 5. Development of technical systems for producing large quantities of cheap energy, to stop the greenhouse effect and supply fresh water for the irrigation of steppe and desert areas. Apart from exploitation of alternative energy sources, which will not themselves suffice, nuclear fusion and nuclear power should be extended and developed. (orig.) [de

  6. Approximate simulation of Hawkes processes

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2006-01-01

    Hawkes processes are important in point process theory and its applications, and simulation of such processes are often needed for various statistical purposes. This article concerns a simulation algorithm for unmarked and marked Hawkes processes, exploiting that the process can be constructed...... as a Poisson cluster process. The algorithm suffers from edge effects but is much faster than the perfect simulation algorithm introduced in our previous work Møller and Rasmussen (2004). We derive various useful measures for the error committed when using the algorithm, and we discuss various empirical...... results for the algorithm compared with perfect simulations. Extensions of the algorithm and the results to more general types of marked point processes are also discussed....

  7. HAWKING'S Theory of Quantum Cosmology

    Zhi, Fang Li; Chao, Wu Zhong

    The most important problem in cosmology is the birth of the universe. Recently Hartle and Hawking put forward a ground state proposal for the quantum state of the universe which incorporates the idea that the universe must come from nothing. Many models have been discussed in quantum cosmology with this boundary condition. It has been shown that every model is a step towards to a realistic universe, i.e. a 4-dimensional isotropic universe with a long inflationary stage.

  8. Global Environmental Governance as a Regulatory and Guarantee Criterion for Environmental Justice

    Denise Schmitt Siqueira Garcia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the theme of Global Environmental Governance to the achievement of Environmental Justice, presenting as general objective to analyze the importance of the first in its public, business and civil society spheres for the regulation and guarantee of the second. Noting up at the end that the Environmental Justice, as a common humanitarian problem, presents itself as the main objective of Global Environmental Governance. In the methodology was adopted the inductive method, having been applied the techniques of the referent, category, operational concepts, bibliographical research and file.

  9. Stephen Hawking returns to CERN

    2009-01-01

    Stephen Hawking visiting the CERN Control Centre.If you happened to pass through Building 4 during the first weeks of September, you might have noticed the name of Stephen Hawking on one of the doors on the second floor, which hosts most of CERN theorists’ offices. Three years after his last visit to CERN, Stephen Hawking gladly accepted the invitation from the University of Geneva to hold a public lecture on the occasion of its 450th anniversary and requested an office at CERN for the length of his stay. The "master of the Universe", as the Geneva University journal dubbed him, attracted over 4000 people to his lecture on "The Creation of the Universe" held on 15 September in the Main Auditorium of Uni Dufour. His more technical colloquium on the same subject at CERN a week earlier, was no less popular and quite "provocative" according to some of the physicists in the audience. With his repeated reference to the "non-need" for a "creating agent" for the Universe, mo...

  10. The temperature in Hawking radiation as tunneling

    Zhang Baocheng; Cai Qingyu; Zhan Mingsheng

    2009-01-01

    The quasi-classical method of deriving Hawking radiation under the consideration of canonical invariance is investigated. We find that the horizon should be regarded as a two-way barrier and the ingoing amplitude should be calculated according to the negative energy particles tunneling into the black hole because of the whole space-time interchange and thus the standard Hawking temperature is recovered. We also discuss the advantage of the Painleve coordinates in Hawking radiation as tunneling

  11. Facing global environmental change. Environmental, human, energy, food, health and water security concepts

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); AFES-Press, Mosbach (Germany); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca, MOR (MX). Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidiscipinarias (CRIM); United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Amsterdam School for Social Science Research; Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Economics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). School of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Behera, Navnita Chadha [Jamia Millia Islamia Univ., New Delhi (India). Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution; Chourou, Bechir [Tunis-Carthage Univ., Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Krummenacher, Heinz (eds.) [swisspeace, Bern (Switzerland). FAST International

    2009-07-01

    This policy-focused, global and multidisciplinary security handbook on Facing Global Environmental Change addresses new security threats of the 21st century posed by climate change, desertification, water stress, population growth and urbanization. These security dangers and concerns lead to migration, crises and conflicts. They are on the agenda of the UN, OECD, OSCE, NATO and EU. In 100 chapters, 132 authors from 49 countries analyze the global debate on environmental, human and gender, energy, food, livelihood, health and water security concepts and policy problems. In 10 parts they discuss the context and the securitization of global environmental change and of extreme natural and societal outcomes. They suggest a new research programme to move from knowledge to action, from reactive to proactive policies and to explore the opportunities of environ-mental cooperation for a new peace policy. (orig.)

  12. The policy relevance of global environmental change research

    Yarnal, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Many scientists are striving to identify and promote the policy implications of their global change research. Much basic research on global environmental change cannot advance policy directly, but new projects can determine the relevance of their research to decision makers and build policy-relevant products into the work. Similarly, many ongoing projects can alter or add to the present science design to make the research policy relevant. Thus, this paper shows scientists working on global change how to make their research policy relevant. It demonstrates how research on physical global change relates to human dimensions studies and integrated assessments. It also presents an example of how policy relevance can be fit retroactively into a global change project (in this case, SRBEX-the Susquehanna River Basin Experiment) and how that addition can enhance the project's status and science. The paper concludes that policy relevance is desirable from social and scientific perspectives

  13. Graphical Methodology of Global Pollution Index for the Environmental Impact Assessment Using Two Environmental Components

    Corneliu Cojocaru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the applied methods for environmental impact assessment is the index of global pollution (IGP proposed by Rojanschi in 1991. This methodology enables the global estimation for the ecosystem state affected more or less by human activities. Unfortunately, Rojanschi’s method has a limitation; it can be applied only if at least three environmental components are considered. Frequently, many environmental impact assessment applications rely on analysis of only two environmental components. Therefore, this work aimed to develop a new graphical method to extend Rojanschi’s approach for the case of two environmental components. The proposed method avoids the average value of evaluation grades and uses only the graphical correspondence for calculation of the index of global pollution. A right-angle triangle graph methodology was proposed, where bases represented the values of evaluation grades. Thus, for the case of two environmental components, the index of global pollution was calculated as the relation between the ideal and real ecosystem states represented by the ratio between areas of external and enclosed right triangles. The developed graphical method was tested and validated for real case studies: the environmental impact assessment from a refinery located on the Romanian Black Sea Coast considering Air and Water environmental components and from a coal-fired thermoelectric power plant from Eastern Romania regarding Air and Soil environmental components. In this way, it was provided a reliable and faster tool to be used for the pollution characterization of human-derived chemicals for better decisions in risk management.

  14. Socio-economic data for global environmental change research

    Otto, Ilona; Biewald, Anne; Coumou, Dim

    2015-01-01

    Subnational socio-economic datasets are required if we are to assess the impacts of global environmental changes and to improve adaptation responses. Institutional and community efforts should concentrate on standardization of data collection methodologies, free public access, and geo-referencing....

  15. Transparency Under Scrutiny: Information Disclosure in Global Environmental Governance.

    Gupta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Although transparency is a key concept of our times, it remains a relatively understudied phenomenon in global environmental politics. The link between transparency and accountable, legitimate and effective governance is assumed, yet the nature and workings of this link require further scrutiny.

  16. Role of social science in global environmental change: case of urbanisation

    Njiro, E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available the role of social scientists in global environmental change by examining urbanisation and other environmental changes as suggested in the science plan of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP 2005)...

  17. Issues with choice architecture, environmental ethics, and globalization.

    Sankowski, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Cass R. Sunstein's book The Ethics of Influence appears to have three ideological features notable for purposes of this essay. The book emphasizes choice architecture (and related notions such as nudges and defaults), which should be ethically scrutinized to guard against ethical abuses and to assist us in ethically desirable uses of scientific psychology and behavioral economics. (1) This particular book focuses more on scrutinizing nation-state government than on corporate activities. (2) This book focuses more on domestically directed governmental action than on externally directed governmental action. (3) This book focuses more on certain developed liberal democracies than on the more comprehensive global situation. Sunstein is especially interested in environmental issues, particularly energy policy, global warming, and climate change. This essay argues that Sunstein's conceptual scheme can be fruitfully expanded to progress toward a normative environmental ethics that can be integrated with the insights of global political economy.

  18. Global Hawk Systems Engineering. Case Study

    2010-01-01

    Management Core System ( TBMCS ) (complex software development) • F-111 Fighter (joint program with significant involvement by the Office of the...Software Requirements Specification TACC Tailored Airworthiness Certification Criteria TBMCS Theater Battle Management Core System TEMP Test and

  19. Environmental policy: Meeting the challenge of global warming

    Gotzaman, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Canadian government's overall approach to resolving the environmental problems due to global warming is discussed, with reference to how this approach is related to actions taken by other countries. Canada's environmental strategy is based the need to correct the failure to take into account the environmental consequences of daily actions. One element seen necessary for such correction, better environmental decisionmaking, is underlain by such key factors as the need to provide a strong scientific base on which to make decisions, resolving uncertainties regarding the greenhouse effect, and an environmentally educated population. Direct governmental measures can be taken to factor environmental considerations into decisions, such as regulatory instruments regarding the environment and economic incentives to encourage taking the environment into account. With respect to global warming, Canada has signed the Hague Declaration on international cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. About half the annual world emissions of greenhouse gases come from fossil fuel combustion. Canada is the fourth largest producer per capita of the single most important greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. The transport and industrial sectors each account for ca 25% of Canada's CO 2 emissions, and energy conservation is seen as a first step in reducing these emissions. The greatest scope for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector appears to lie in the development of convenient and economic alternate fuels

  20. Environmental Engineering Curricula assessment in the global world

    Caporali, Enrica; Catelani, Marcantonio; Manfrida, Giampaolo; Valdiserri, Juna

    2014-05-01

    Environmental engineers are technicians with specific expertise on the sustainability of human presence in the environment. Among other global dilemmas, to the environmental engineers it is often demanded to be able in developing systematic, innovative solutions in order to simultaneously meet water and energy needs, to build resilience to natural and technological disasters, to more accurately gauge and manage countries' greenhouse gas emissions. The general objectives of the Environmental Engineers are to establish actions of environmental sustainability as well as to verify progress toward global goals or international commitments. The globalization of challenges and problems to be faced, leads, in general, to the globalization of the engineering profession. In particular, since the environmental issues are without boundaries, and many and different are the involved professions and the competences, the environmental engineer must have a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach to adequately answer to the demand of technical innovative knowledge at global scale. The environmental engineers, more and more, are involved in international projects were the effective collaboration requires not only the capacity to communicate in a common technical language, but also the assurance of an adequate and common level of technical competences, knowledge and understanding. The Europe-based EUR ACE system, currently operated by ENAEE - European Network for Accreditation of Engineering Education, can represent the proper framework and accreditation system in order to provide a set of measures to assess the quality of engineering degree programmes in Europe and abroad. In the global frame of the knowledge triangle: education-innovation-research, the accreditation and quality assurance of engineering curricula in Europe is discussed with reference to the Environmental engineering curricula, of the 1st and 2nd cycle, based on the European Credit Transfer System and in

  1. A strategy for global environmental education at the university

    Hussain, S.T.; Hayes, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's environment is a dynamic system that is affected both by natural phenomena and by human activity. The changes occurring in the global environment are bound to have serious consequences for all its inhabitants. Therefore, the world is rapidly becoming interdependent. Multidisciplinary scientific efforts must be directed toward understanding these global environmental changes. These efforts will require sufficient funds to attract scientists into global environmental research and to disseminate new knowledge to future scholars and to the general public alike. The federal government has a definite role to play in this effort and should allocate sufficient funds to initiate and sustain these programs. Unfortunately, such funds are not currently budgeted. The academic department, as the basic structural and functional unit of the American university system, is most appropriate to ensure environmental educational goals. The authors propose the establishment of a novel Department of Global Environment at every university. That department must be multidisciplinary in nature and must accumulate a critical mass of scholars from all relevant traditional disciplines in the arts and sciences to generate knowledge, to educate students, and to provide advisory services to policy makers. The study product of this department should receive a broad-based education and should emerge as an informed individual who possesses sufficient skills to achieve sustainable communities. That student should also be equipped to assume leadership and to formulate policy about global environmental issues. The investment in education may well be the only way to secure a future for humanity and for the natural world as we now know it

  2. Hawking radiation of black rings from anomalies

    Chen Bin; He Wei

    2008-01-01

    We derive Hawking radiation of five-dimensional black rings from gauge and gravitational anomalies using the method proposed by Robinson and Wilczek. We find, as in the black hole case, that the problem could reduce to a (1+1)-dimensional field theory and the anomalies result in correct Hawking temperature for neutral, dipole and charged black rings

  3. Hawk: A Runtime System for Partitioned Objects

    Ben Hassen, S.; Bal, H.E.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Hawk is a language-independent runtime system for writing data-parallel programs using partitioned objects. A partitioned object is a multidimensional array of elements that can be partitioned and distributed by the programmer. The Hawk runtime system uses the user-defined partitioning of objects

  4. Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus)

    Scott H. Stoleson; Giancarlo Sadoti

    2010-01-01

    The Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus) might well be dubbed "the Great Pretender" because it so closely resembles the ubiquitous Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) in appearance and behavior as to be frequently mistaken for it. In the border regions where it lives, it may be confused as well with another "Mexican" raptor, the Common Black-Hawk (...

  5. Conference | From Newton to Hawking and beyond | 28 May

    2013-01-01

    From Newton to Hawking and beyond: Why disability equality is relevant to the world of particle physics, Dr Tom Shakespeare.    Tuesday, 28 May 2013 - 11.30 am - 1 pm Main Auditorium – Room 500-1-001 Conference organised by the CERN Diversity Programme English with French interpretation According to the recent world report on disability, 15% of the world’s population is disabled.  Among that group could be numbered famous physicists such as Isaac Newton and Paul Dirac, neither of whom could be classed as “neuro-typical”, and Stephen Hawking.  This presentation will provide some basic data about global disability, and the socially imposed barriers which disabled people face.  It will also include some stories about high achieving people with disabilities.  Finally, some practical suggestions will be offered on how to respect and include people with disabilities in the workplace. Tom Shakespeare is a social sci...

  6. Hawking into Unruh mapping for embeddings of hyperbolic type

    Paston, S A

    2015-01-01

    We study the conditions of the existence of Hawking into Unruh mapping for hyperbolic (Fronsdal-type) metric embeddings into the Minkowski space, for which timelines are hyperbolas. Many examples are known for global embeddings into the Minkowskian spacetime (GEMS), with such mapping for physically interesting metrics with some symmetry. However, examples of embeddings, both smooth and hyperbolic, for which there is no mapping, were also given. In the present work we prove that Hawking into Unruh mapping takes place for a hyperbolic embedding of an arbitrary metric with a time-like Killing vector and a Killing horizon if the embedding of such type exists and smoothly covers the horizon. At the same time, we do not assume any symmetry (spherical, for example), except the time translational invariance, which corresponds to the existence of a time-like Killing vector. We show that the known examples of the absence of mapping do not satisfy the formulated conditions of its existence. (paper)

  7. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Global Family Conflict

    Horwitz, Briana N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David

    2010-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on global family conflict. The sample comprised 872 same-sex pairs of twin parents, their spouses/partners and one adolescent child per twin from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS). The twins, spouses and child each reported on the degree of family conflict, and there was significant agreement among the family members’ ratings. These shared perspectives were explained by one common factor, indexing global family conflict. Genetic influences explained 36% of the variance in this common factor, suggesting that twins’ heritable characteristics contribute to family conflict, via genotype-environment correlation. Nonshared environmental effects explained the remaining 64% of this variance, indicating that twins’ unique childhood and/or current family experiences also play an important role. PMID:20438198

  8. Open Data in Global Environmental Research: Findings from the Community

    Van Honk, J.; Calero-Medina, C.; Costas, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents findings from the Belmont Forum’s survey on Open Data which targeted the global environmental research and data infrastructure community (Schmidt, Gemeinholzer & Treloar, 2016). It highlights users’ perceptions of the term “open data”, expectations of infrastructure functionalities, and barriers and enablers for the sharing of data. A wide range of good practice examples was pointed out by the respondents which demonstrates a substantial uptake of data sharing through e-infrastructures and a further need for enhancement and consolidation. Among all policy responses, funder policies seem to be the most important motivator. This supports the conclusion that stronger mandates will strengthen the case for data sharing. The Belmont Forum, a group of high-level representatives from major funding agencies across the globe, coordinates funding for collaborative research to address the challenges and opportunities of global environmental change. In particular, the E-Infrastructure and Data Management Collaborative Research Action has brought together domain scientists, computer and information scientists, legal scholars, social scientists, and other experts from more than 14 countries to establish recommendations on how the Belmont Forum can implement a more coordinated, holistic, and sustainable approach to the funding and support of global environmental change research. (Author)

  9. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional average numbers may lead to biased results. Useful insights can only be obtained if processes like economic globalization can be consistently linked to local environmental conditions and resource constraints (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Spatially explicit modeling of environmental changes at the global scale has a long tradition in the natural sciences (Woodward et al 1995, Alcamo et al 1996, Leemans et al 1996). Socio-economic models with comparable spatial detail, e.g. on grid-based land use change, are much less common (Heistermann et al 2006), but are increasingly being developed (Popp et al 2011, Schneider et al 2011). Spatially explicit models require spatially explicit input data, which often constrains their development and application at the global scale. The amount and quality of available data on environmental conditions is growing fast—primarily due to improved earth observation methods. Moreover, systematic efforts for collecting and linking these data across sectors are on the way (www.earthobservations.org). This has, among others, also helped to provide consistent databases on different land cover and land use types (Erb et al 2007). However, spatially explicit data on specific anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change are still scarce—also because these cannot be collected with satellites or other devices. The basic data on socio-economic driving forces, i.e. population density and wealth (measured as gross domestic product per capita), have been prepared for spatially explicit analyses (CIESIN, IFPRI

  10. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur PJ; Oosterveer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of sociology in a globalised world. It discusses how environmental sociology in the US and Europe differ in their understandings of sociology’s contribution to the study of the environment. Particular stress is placed on how these two regions differ with respect to their use of the tradition of sociological thought, views on what constitutes the environment and ways of institutionalising environmental sociology as a sociological field. In conclusion, the question is raised of whether current versions of environmental sociology are appropriate for analysing a globalised world environment; or whether environmental sociology’s strong roots in European and US cultures make it less relevant when facing an increasingly globalised world. Finally, the article proposes some new rules for a global environmental sociology and describes some of their possible implications for the sociological study of climate change. PMID:25937642

  11. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions.

    Lidskog, Rolf; Mol, Arthur Pj; Oosterveer, Peter

    2015-05-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of sociology in a globalised world. It discusses how environmental sociology in the US and Europe differ in their understandings of sociology's contribution to the study of the environment. Particular stress is placed on how these two regions differ with respect to their use of the tradition of sociological thought, views on what constitutes the environment and ways of institutionalising environmental sociology as a sociological field. In conclusion, the question is raised of whether current versions of environmental sociology are appropriate for analysing a globalised world environment; or whether environmental sociology's strong roots in European and US cultures make it less relevant when facing an increasingly globalised world. Finally, the article proposes some new rules for a global environmental sociology and describes some of their possible implications for the sociological study of climate change.

  12. The pair correlation function of spatial Hawkes processes

    Møller, Jesper; Torrisi, Giovanni Luca

    2007-01-01

    Spatial Hawkes processes can be considered as spatial versions of classical Hawkes processes. We derive the pair correlation function of stationary spatial Hawkes processes and discuss the connection to the Bartlett spectrum and other summary statistics. Particularly, results for Gaussian fertility...... rates and the extension to spatial Hawkes processes with random fertility rates are discussed....

  13. A life history approach to delineating how harsh environments and hawk temperament traits differentially shape children's problem-solving skills.

    Suor, Jennifer H; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante

    2017-08-01

    Harsh environments are known to predict deficits in children's cognitive abilities. Life history theory approaches challenge this interpretation, proposing stressed children's cognition becomes specialized to solve problems in fitness-enhancing ways. The goal of this study was to examine associations between early environmental harshness and children's problem-solving outcomes across tasks varying in ecological relevance. In addition, we utilize an evolutionary model of temperament toward further specifying whether hawk temperament traits moderate these associations. Two hundred and one mother-child dyads participated in a prospective multimethod study when children were 2 and 4 years old. At age 2, environmental harshness was assessed via maternal report of earned income and observations of maternal disengagement during a parent-child interaction task. Children's hawk temperament traits were assessed from a series of unfamiliar episodes. At age 4, children's reward-oriented and visual problem-solving were measured. Path analyses revealed early environmental harshness and children's hawk temperament traits predicted worse visual problem-solving. Results showed a significant two-way interaction between children's hawk temperament traits and environmental harshness on reward-oriented problem-solving. Simple slope analyses revealed the effect of environmental harshness on reward-oriented problem-solving was specific to children with higher levels of hawk traits. Results suggest early experiences of environmental harshness and child hawk temperament traits shape children's trajectories of problem-solving in an environment-fitting manner. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Deformation of contour and Hawking temperature

    Ding Chikun; Jing Jiliang

    2010-01-01

    It was found that, in an isotropic coordinate system, the tunneling approach brings a factor of 1/2 for the Hawking temperature of a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper, we address this kind of problem by studying the relation between the Hawking temperature and the deformation of the integral contour for the scalar and Dirac particles tunneling. We find that the correct Hawking temperature can be obtained exactly as long as the integral contour deformed corresponding to the radial coordinate transform if the transformation is a non-regular or zero function at the event horizon.

  15. Canonising the Hartle-Hawking proposal

    Louko, J.

    1988-01-01

    The canonical formulation of the Hartle-Hawking proposal is discussed in a class of spatially homogeneous minisuperspace models. Relying on arguments of consistency with the classical variational principle, we find a set of canonical variables in which the Hartle-Hawking boundary condition is abtained by fixing in the path integral the final values of the canonical coordinates but the initial values of the canonical momenta. A canonical measure of this kind offers a natural starting point for skeletonising the minisuperspace Hartle-Hawking path integral. (orig.)

  16. Generalized Bekenstein-Hawking system: logarithmic correction

    Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2014-01-01

    The present work is a generalization of the recent work [arXiv.1206.1420] on the modified Hawking temperature on the event horizon. Here the Hawking temperature is generalized by multiplying the modified Hawking temperature by a variable parameter α representing the ratio of the growth rate of the apparent horizon to that of event horizon. It is found that both the first and the generalized second law of thermodynamics are valid on the event horizon for any fluid distribution. Subsequently, the Bekenstein entropy is modified on the event horizon and the thermodynamical laws are examined. Finally, an interpretation of the parameters involved is presented. (orig.)

  17. Entropy Budget for Hawking Evaporation

    Ana Alonso-Serrano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackbody radiation, emitted from a furnace and described by a Planck spectrum, contains (on average an entropy of 3 . 9 ± 2 . 5 bits per photon. Since normal physical burning is a unitary process, this amount of entropy is compensated by the same amount of “hidden information” in correlations between the photons. The importance of this result lies in the posterior extension of this argument to the Hawking radiation from black holes, demonstrating that the assumption of unitarity leads to a perfectly reasonable entropy/information budget for the evaporation process. In order to carry out this calculation, we adopt a variant of the “average subsystem” approach, but consider a tripartite pure system that includes the influence of the rest of the universe, and which allows “young” black holes to still have a non-zero entropy; which we identify with the standard Bekenstein entropy.

  18. Global perspectives of emerging occupational and environmental lung diseases.

    Moitra, Subhabrata; Puri, Rajan; Paul, Devon; Huang, Yuh-Chin T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies continue to be introduced into the workplace and the environment. These novel technologies also bring in new hazards leading to evolving patterns of established occupational and environmental diseases, as well as novel conditions never before encountered. Many of these emerging conditions have appeared in media outlets or in the literature as case reports. These sentinel cases often serve as a warning sign for subsequent outbreaks. This review will discuss environmental and occupational lung diseases and exposures from a global perspective. These diseases and exposures include environmental exposure to asbestos and lung diseases, accelerated silicosis in sandblasting jean workers, coal worker's pneumoconiosis in surface coal miners, health effects of indoor air pollution from burning of biomass fuels and exposures to heavy metals and potential health effects from hydraulic fracturing (fracking). Other emerging conditions are also discussed, including smog in developing countries, sand storms in Asia and the Middle East and respiratory illnesses from nanoparticles and man-made fibres. Clinicians must remain vigilant for potential occupational and environmental exposures, especially when evaluating patients with unusual and unique presentation, so that occupational and environmental risk factors may be identified, and monitoring and preventive measures can be implemented early.

  19. History of global environmental problems. Chikyu kankyo mondai no rekishi

    Matsui, S [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-04-15

    This paper takes general view of the history of global environmental problems. A UN human environment conference was held in Stockholm in 1972, at which the human environment declaration and an action plan were adopted. The most important among the results of the Stockholm Conference were the treaty on international transactions of wild animal and plant species feared of extinction in the 1970's, the international treaty on prevention of pollution caused by ocean vessels, and the treaty on prevention of ocean pollution caused by dumping of wastes and other materials. Also adopted in the 1970's include the action plan to prevent desertification, the action plan on the world population, and the world weather plan. The UN Nairobi Conference in 1982 has sounded the alarm on the delay in tackling with the facing problems and the progress of aggravation in the global environment. In 1987, the ozone layer protection protocol was adopted. The earth summit at Rio de Janeiro in 1992 adopted the Agenda 21, with which the participating nations, autonomous bodies, and civil organizations have prepared their own Agenda 21, and are now about to begin challenging the global environmental problems. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. UH-60M Black Hawk Helicopter (UH-60M Black Hawk)

    2016-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-341 UH-60M Black Hawk Helicopter (UH-60M Black Hawk ) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 21, 2016 18:25:45 UNCLASSIFIED UH-60M Black Hawk December 2015 SAR March 21, 2016 18...Operational Requirements Document OSD - Office of the Secretary of Defense O&S - Operating and Support PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost UH-60M Black Hawk

  1. Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI: The First Global Environmental Assessment of Marine Fish Farming

    Jenna M.S. Stoner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available “Sustainable” is among the most sought after of all seafood product adjectives. Ironically it is also one of the most poorly defined and understood. The Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI is the first tool to assess environmental performance of global marine aquaculture production, permitting direct comparison of disparate species, production methods and jurisdictions. Clear patterns emerge from this analysis; significant variation of environmental performance is driven by the species being farmed, significant room for improvement exists across the entire sector, the worst performing players are also the fastest growing, particularly within Asia, and perhaps most importantly, this work highlights the potential trap awaiting policy makers who focus too narrowly on farm production efficiency alone as a solution to diminishing seafood availability.

  2. Arsenic in Drinking Water—A Global Environmental Problem

    Shaofen Wang, Joanna; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-02-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a global environmental problem affecting a large number of populations, especially in developing countries. The "blackfoot disease"that occurred in Taiwan more than half of a century ago was attributed to drinking arsenic-contaminated water from deep wells containing high concentrations of the trivalent arsenite species. Similar arsenic poisoning cases were reported later in Chinese Inner Mongolia, Bangladesh, and India—all related to drinking groundwater contaminated with arsenic. The maximum contaminant level (MCL) of arsenic in drinking water has been changed recently by the U.S. EPA from 50 ppb to 10 ppb; the compliance date is January 2006. This article summarizes documented global arsenic contamination problems, the regulatory controversy regarding MCL of arsenic in drinking water, and available technologies for removing arsenic from contaminated waters. Methods for analyzing total arsenic and arsenic species in water are also described.

  3. Hawking's Israel boycott sparks heated response

    Dacey, James

    2013-06-01

    The controversial decision by Stephen Hawking to boycott a prominent conference in Jerusalem in protest against the policies of the Israeli government has provoked strong responses from academics and commentators.

  4. On the stringy Hartle-Hawking state

    Ben-Israel, Roy; Giveon, Amit; Itzhaki, Nissan; Liram, Lior

    2016-03-01

    We argue that non-perturbative α' stringy effects render the Hartle-Hawking state associated with the SL(2)/U(1) eternal black hole singular at the horizon. We discuss implications of this observation on firewalls in string theory.

  5. Hawking radiation from quasilocal dynamical horizons

    2016-01-06

    Jan 6, 2016 ... Abstract. In completely local settings, we establish that a dynamically evolving spherically symmetric black hole horizon can be assigned a Hawking temperature and with the emission of flux, radius of the horizon shrinks.

  6. 'Splendeurs et miseres' of Hawking's effect

    Hajicek, P [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with the emission of particles from a black hole, in particular Hawking's effect. Quantum field theory is applied in curved space-time. Spherically symmetrical gravitational collapse is considered.

  7. Mycorrhizas and global environmental change: Research at different scales

    Staddon, P.L.; Heinemeyer, A.; Fitter, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    Global environmental change (GEC), in particular rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature, will affect most ecosystems. The varied responses of plants to these aspects of GEC are well documented. As with other key below-ground components of terrestrial ecosystems, the response...... of the ubiquitous mycorrhizal fungal root symbionts has received limited attention. Most of the research on the effects of GEC on mycorrhizal fungi has been pot-based with a few field (especially monoculture) studies. A major question that arises in all these studies is whether the GEC effects on the mycorrhizal...

  8. Global Patterns in the Implementation of Payments for Environmental Services.

    Driss Ezzine-de-Blas

    Full Text Available Assessing global tendencies and impacts of conditional payments for environmental services (PES programs is challenging because of their heterogeneity, and scarcity of comparative studies. This meta-study systematizes 55 PES schemes worldwide in a quantitative database. Using categorical principal component analysis to highlight clustering patterns, we reconfirm frequently hypothesized differences between public and private PES schemes, but also identify diverging patterns between commercial and non-commercial private PES vis-à-vis their service focus, area size, and market orientation. When do these PES schemes likely achieve significant environmental additionality? Using binary logistical regression, we find additionality to be positively influenced by three theoretically recommended PES 'best design' features: spatial targeting, payment differentiation, and strong conditionality, alongside some contextual controls (activity paid for and implementation time elapsed. Our results thus stress the preeminence of customized design over operational characteristics when assessing what determines the outcomes of PES implementation.

  9. Explaining international co-authorship in global environmental change research

    Jappe, A.

    2006-04-15

    This paper maps the domain of earth and environmental sciences (EES) and investigates the relationship between cognitive problem structures and internationalisation patterns, drawing on the concepts of systemic versus cumulative global environmental change (GEC) and mutual task dependence in scientific fields. We find that scientific output concentration and internationalisation are significantly higher in the systemic GEC fields of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography than in the cumulative GEC fields Ecology and Water Resources. The relationship is explained by stronger mutual task dependence in systemic GEC fields. In contrast, the portion of co-authorships with developing, emerging and transition countries among all international publications is larger for Water Resources than for the three other fields, consistent with the most pressing needs for STI capacity development in these countries. (orig.)

  10. Environmental health risk assessment and management for global climate change

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    This environmental health risk assessment and management approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk management, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing global warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2ºC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5ºC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5ºC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1ºC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed global warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2ºC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5ºC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1ºC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2ºC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2ºC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2ºC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline

  11. Challenges to professionalism: Social accountability and global environmental change.

    Pearson, David; Walpole, Sarah; Barna, Stefi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of professionalism as it relates to social change and social accountability, and expands on them in the light of global environmental changes. Professionalism in medicine includes concepts of altruism, service, professional knowledge, self-regulation and autonomy. Current dialogues around social accountability suggest that medical schools should re-orientate their strategy and desired education, research and service outcomes to the health needs of the communities they serve.This article addresses the following questions: • How do we reconcile ideas of medical professionalism with the demands of creating a more equal, just, sustainable and socially inclusive society? • What new challenges do or will we face in relation to environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, ecosystem health and climate change? • How can medical schools best teach social and environmental responsiveness within a framework of professionalism? • How do medical schools ensure that tomorrow's doctors possess the knowledge, skills and attitude to adapt to the challenges they will face in future roles?We offer ideas about why and how medical educators can change, recommendations to strengthen the teaching of professionalism and social accountability and suggestions about the contribution of an emerging concept, that of "environmental accountability".

  12. Ferruginous hawks on the Yakima Training Center

    Mazaika, R.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1994-07-01

    Habitat quality for ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) is largely determined by availability of nest sites and adequate prey base. A limitation of one of these will limit the number of hawks in an area. In general, ferruginous hawks are adaptable to various nesting substrates and will nest in proximity to other closely related sympatric species (e.g., red-tailed hawk, Swainson`s hawk). This analysis focused on an assessment of prey base availability and habitat disturbance in the vicinity of historic nest sites and small mammal trap sites on the Yakima Training Center (YTC) in Washington State. The primary ground-disturbing activities on the YTC are associated with military training, fire, and grazing. In addition to the direct effect these activities can have on ferruginous hawks, indirect effects may result from changes in composition, density, and structure of vegetation that subsequently alter faunal population numbers and species diversity. A summary of results of small mammal trapping, population estimation, vegetative analysis and disturbance rating at seven trap sites during the time period of June through August of 1993 are presented.

  13. Exploring the agency of global environmental consultancy firms in earth system governance

    Bouteligier, S.

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary global environmental governance, private companies are both recipients of as well as contributors to the development and spread of environmental practices, norms, standards, and legislation. One sector that seems to be of particular significance is the environmental consultancy

  14. Globalization of environmental regulations for offshore E & P operations

    Shannon, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the enduring legacies of the Rio Environmental Summit of 1992 (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UNCED) is Agenda 21 (Chapter 17 - Protection of the Oceans), which among other things called for the assessment of the need for a global authority to regulate offshore Exploration & Production (E&P) discharges, emissions and safety. Despite advice to the contrary from the International Maritime Organization (IMO), interest is building within the European community for the standardization of regulations for offshore E&P activities. Several international of regulations for offshore E&P activities. Several international frameworks or forums have been mentioned as possible candidates. These include the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982 (UNCLOS); London Convention 1972 (LC 1972) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL) 73/78. International offshore oil and gas operators operate within requirements of regional conventions under the United Nations Environmental Program`s (UNEP) - Regional Seas Program. Domestic offshore operations are undertaken under the auspices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Minerals Management Service.

  15. Global environmental ratings as an instrument of environmental policies: what factors determine the rank of Russia?

    Alekseeva, Nina; Arshinova, Marina; Milanova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Systems of global environmental rankings have emerged as a result of the escalating need for revealing the trends of ecological development for the world and for certain countries and regions. Both the environmental indicators and indexes and the ratings made on their basis are important for the assessment and forecast of the ecological situation in order to tackle the global and regional problems of sustainable development and help to translate the research findings into policy developments. Data sources for the global environmental ratings are most often the statistical information accumulated in databases of the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, FAO, WHO, etc.) These data are highly reliable and well-comparable that makes the ratings very objective. There are also good examples of using data of sociological polls, information from social networks, etc. The global environmental ratings are produced by the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Program), non-governmental associations (WWF, Climate Action Network Europe (CAN-E), Germanwatch Nord-Süd-Initiative, Friends of the Earth, World Development Movement), research structures (scientific centers of the Yale and Colombian universities, the Oak-Ridge National Laboratory, the New Economic Foundation), and also individual experts, news agencies, etc. Thematic (sectoral) ratings cover various spheres from availability of resources and anthropogenic impact on environment components to nature protection policies and perception of environmental problems. The environmental indicators cover all parameters important for understanding the current ecological situation and the trajectories of its development (the DPSIR model, i.e. drivers, pressures, state, impact and response). Complex (integral) ratings are based on environmental indexes which are combined measurement tools using a complex of aggregated indicators based on a wide range of

  16. Cooperation of international Research Infrastructures to address environmental global challenges

    Bonet García, Francisco J.; Suárez-Muñoz, María; Conchubhair, Diarmuid O.; Dohna, Tina; Lo Bue, Nadia

    2017-04-01

    Human impact on the planet is causing a set of global environmental problems that threaten the wellbeing of current and future generations. Examples of these environmental problems include climate change, decline of biodiversity, alteration of biogeochemical cycles, ocean acidification, etc. These environmental Global Challenges (GCs) are transnational and complex, combining elements of both natural and social factors. Providing solutions for these challenges can be significantly enhanced through the collaboration of various related institutions, governments and stakeholders. A deeper understanding of the causes and consequences of GCs, as well as the processes which control them is required. Environmental Research Infrastructures (DANUBIUS-RI) are key players in this learning process. Covering many fields of research, it is through RIs collaboration that GCs can be more fully addressed. However, the collaboration among environmental RIs is still limited nationally as well as internationally. Although contact is encouraged and interactions are common practice, there are few cases where RI managers initiate and foster transnational collaborations in order to address specific problems. The COOP+ project aims to explore and strengthen cooperation among global RIs by bringing various RIs together and working on the identification of requirements, strengths, knowledge gaps and other relevant items in regard to the selected GCs. For this purpose, 13 GCs have been selected: coral bleaching, marine debris, noise impact on marine fauna, Arctic sea ice melting, pollinators decline, threatened species, agriculture pollutants, nitrogen cycle, carbon and GHG, geohazards and extreme events, estuaries, global urbanization process, and ozone depletion. These GCs are being analysed and described by multidisciplinary teams of experts composed of scientists, RIs operators and other stakeholders. This assessment will derive a list of tasks and requirements to be fulfilled by the

  17. The potential role of oral pH in the persistence of Trichomonas gallinae in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii).

    Urban, Elizabeth H; Mannan, R William

    2014-01-01

    Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan Trichomonas gallinae, affects a variety of species worldwide including avivorious raptors. Existing information suggests that the disease is most prevalent in young birds, and differential susceptibility to trichomoniasis among individuals in different age groups was documented in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) nesting in Tucson, Arizona. In that population, 85% of nestling Cooper's Hawks had T. gallinae in their oral cavity, compared to only 1% of breeding-age hawks. Trichomonads generally are sensitive to environmental pH and we explored the possibility that differences in oral pH may contribute to the differential prevalence of infection between age groups. We measured the pH of the fluid in the oral cavity in 375 Cooper's Hawks from three age groups (nestlings, fledglings, and breeding age) in Tucson, Arizona, in 2010 and 2011 and clinically tested for T. gallinae in a subsample of hawks. Oral pH of nestlings (∼ 6.8) was 7.3 times less acidic than in fledgling or breeding Cooper's Hawks (∼ 6.1). The incidence of T. gallinae was higher in nestlings (16%) than in either fledglings or breeding hawks (0%). Our findings indicate that oral pH becomes more acidic in Cooper's Hawks soon after they leave the nest. Trichomonas gallinae thrives when pH is between 6.5 and 7.5 (optimum 7.2), but is less viable in more acidic conditions. Higher levels of acidity in the oral cavity of fledglings and breeding Cooper's Hawks may reduce their susceptibility to trichomoniasis, and play a role in the differential prevalence of infection among age groups.

  18. Global environmental costs of China's thirst for milk.

    Bai, Zhaohai; Lee, Michael R F; Ma, Lin; Ledgard, Stewart; Oenema, Oene; Velthof, Gerard L; Ma, Wenqi; Guo, Mengchu; Zhao, Zhanqing; Wei, Sha; Li, Shengli; Liu, Xia; Havlík, Petr; Luo, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Fusuo

    2018-05-01

    China has an ever-increasing thirst for milk, with a predicted 3.2-fold increase in demand by 2050 compared to the production level in 2010. What are the environmental implications of meeting this demand, and what is the preferred pathway? We addressed these questions by using a nexus approach, to examine the interdependencies of increasing milk consumption in China by 2050 and its global impacts, under different scenarios of domestic milk production and importation. Meeting China's milk demand in a business as usual scenario will increase global dairy-related (China and the leading milk exporting regions) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 35% (from 565 to 764 Tg CO 2eq ) and land use for dairy feed production by 32% (from 84 to 111 million ha) compared to 2010, while reactive nitrogen losses from the dairy sector will increase by 48% (from 3.6 to 5.4 Tg nitrogen). Producing all additional milk in China with current technology will greatly increase animal feed import; from 1.9 to 8.5 Tg for concentrates and from 1.0 to 6.2 Tg for forage (alfalfa). In addition, it will increase domestic dairy related GHG emissions by 2.2 times compared to 2010 levels. Importing the extra milk will transfer the environmental burden from China to milk exporting countries; current dairy exporting countries may be unable to produce all additional milk due to physical limitations or environmental preferences/legislation. For example, the farmland area for cattle-feed production in New Zealand would have to increase by more than 57% (1.3 million ha) and that in Europe by more than 39% (15 million ha), while GHG emissions and nitrogen losses would increase roughly proportionally with the increase of farmland in both regions. We propose that a more sustainable dairy future will rely on high milk demanding regions (such as China) improving their domestic milk and feed production efficiencies up to the level of leading milk producing countries. This will decrease the global dairy related

  19. Thermodynamics and Hawking radiation of five-dimensional rotating charged Goedel black holes

    Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin

    2011-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of Goedel-type rotating charged black holes in five-dimensional minimal supergravity. These black holes exhibit some peculiar features such as the presence of closed timelike curves and the absence of a globally spatial-like Cauchy surface. We explicitly compute their energies, angular momenta, and electric charges that are consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. Besides, we extend the covariant anomaly cancellation method, as well as the approach of the effective action, to derive their Hawking fluxes. Both the methods of the anomaly cancellation and the effective action give the same Hawking fluxes as those from the Planck distribution for blackbody radiation in the background of the charged rotating Goedel black holes. Our results further support that Hawking radiation is a quantum phenomenon arising at the event horizon.

  20. Dynamics of radioactive lead isotopes in the global environmental atmosphere

    Koike, Yuya; Kosako, Toshiso

    2006-01-01

    Fundamental information of radioactive lead isotopes, which used as the atmospheric tracer in the global environmental atmosphere, is reviewed. Emanation and exhalation of Rn and Tn, parent nuclide, is stated. Some reports on measurement and application of short-lived lead isotopes are reported. Transfer of radioactive lead isotopes in the atmosphere, vertical profiles of radon, thoron, and short-lived lead isotopes for different turbulent mixing conditions, deposition to aerosol, basic processes of Rn decay product behavior in air defining 'unattached' and 'aerosol-attached' activities, seasonal variation of atmospheric 210 Pb concentration at Beijing and Chengdu, seasonal variation of atmospheric 212 Pb concentration at several observation sites in Japan Islands, and variation in the atmospheric concentration of 212 Pb along with SO 2 are shown. (S.Y.)

  1. 19th Annual conference ampersand exposition: Global strategies for environmental issues

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The 19th Annual conference and exposition on Global Strategies for Environmental Issues was held June 12-15, 1994 in New Orleans, Louisiana. This volume contains abstracts of the oral presentations. They are organized into the following sections: Environmental Management; Biodiversity/sustainable Development; Gulf Regional Issues; Environmental Ethics/Equity; NEPA Symposium; International Environmental Issues; Global Environmental Effects; and, Risk Assessment. Abstracts of poster sessions are also included

  2. Objectives for Stakeholder Engagement in Global Environmental Assessments

    Jennifer Garard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental assessments (GEAs are among the most large-scale, formalized processes for synthesizing knowledge at the science–policy–society interface. The successful engagement of diverse stakeholders in GEAs is often described as a crucial mechanism for increasing their legitimacy, salience and credibility. However, the diversity of perspectives on the more precise objectives for stakeholder engagement remains largely unclear. The aims of this study are to categorize and characterize the diversity of perspectives on objectives for stakeholder engagement in GEAs; to explore differences in perspectives within and between different stakeholder groups and categories; and to test whether the more practical prioritization and selection of objectives in GEAs can be linked to deliberative policy learning as a higher-level rationale for stakeholder engagement. For these purposes, we conduct a grounded theory analysis and a keyword analysis of interview material and official GEA documents relating to two GEAs: UN Environment’s Fifth Global Environment Outlook and the Working Group III contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. Based on the analysis, we identify six categories of objectives and present as hypotheses promising ways forward for prioritizing and characterizing objectives for stakeholder engagement in GEAs, as well as potential reasons for the differences between perspectives on objectives. This study draws attention to the need for future GEA processes to have more explicit discussions on the objectives for stakeholder engagement, as well as the importance of moving towards increasingly deliberative and inclusive assessment processes more broadly.

  3. Putting Environmental Injustice on the Map: Ecotestimonies from the Global South

    Erin S Finzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This introductory essay to STTCL 39.2 discusses the importance of testimony as a flexible literary genre that can tell the stories of environmental injustice in the Global South, which is disproportionately affected by environmental violence and less represented in the growing global environmental movement.

  4. Insufficiencies in solving global environmental problems by specialized scientific expertise

    Hartwig, S.G.; Kra, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The most paradoxical and urgent problem faces the world today. We find ourselves between the horns of a dilemma. One horn represents the accelerating demand for energy, and the other, the irreversible degradation of our natural environment. There are two directions that we can take to solve our growing global crisis. The first step is to encourage scientific specialists to think in broader terms. The second necessary approach is to make decision makers aware of the complexity of the situation as well as the dangers of tunnel vision that experts often fall into. Therefore, to find a long-term holistic solution, decision makers, be they government officials or academics, must be, themselves, solution oriented and capable of directing scientists along broadened problem-solving pathways. Up till now, scientists have been required to research environmental problems, discover causal associations and determine effects. Contemporary scientists, in the truest sense of the meaning, are no longer generalists but are specialists in their own fields with great depth and accuracy of knowledge. However, experts of high standing may have difficulty visualizing adjacent sciences, which causes them to lose sight of topics peripheral to their main field of interest. The consequence of this can be that solutions to a problem will be sought only within particular and specialized areas, but it is, unfortunately, a fact of life that environmental problems do not come neatly packaged in scientific disciplines: they happen in their entirety, with all their synergistic implications. 5 refs., 5 figs

  5. Environmental surveillance for polioviruses in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Asghar, Humayun; Diop, Ousmane M; Weldegebriel, Goitom; Malik, Farzana; Shetty, Sushmitha; El Bassioni, Laila; Akande, Adefunke O; Al Maamoun, Eman; Zaidi, Sohail; Adeniji, Adekunle J; Burns, Cara C; Deshpande, Jagadish; Oberste, M Steve; Lowther, Sara A

    2014-11-01

    This article summarizes the status of environmental surveillance (ES) used by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, provides the rationale for ES, gives examples of ES methods and findings, and summarizes how these data are used to achieve poliovirus eradication. ES complements clinical acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance for possible polio cases. ES detects poliovirus circulation in environmental sewage and is used to monitor transmission in communities. If detected, the genetic sequences of polioviruses isolated from ES are compared with those of isolates from clinical cases to evaluate the relationships among viruses. To evaluate poliovirus transmission, ES programs must be developed in a manner that is sensitive, with sufficiently frequent sampling, appropriate isolation methods, and specifically targeted sampling sites in locations at highest risk for poliovirus transmission. After poliovirus ceased to be detected in human cases, ES documented the absence of endemic WPV transmission and detected imported WPV. ES provides valuable information, particularly in high-density populations where AFP surveillance is of poor quality, persistent virus circulation is suspected, or frequent virus reintroduction is perceived. Given the benefits of ES, GPEI plans to continue and expand ES as part of its strategic plan and as a supplement to AFP surveillance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Electrical and electronic waste: a global environmental problem.

    Ramesh Babu, Balakrishnan; Parande, Anand Kuber; Ahmed Basha, Chiya

    2007-08-01

    The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing global manufacturing activities. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Rapid economic growth, coupled with urbanization and growing demand for consumer goods, has increased both the consumption of EEE and the production of WEEE, which can be a source of hazardous wastes that pose a risk to the environment and to sustainable economic growth. To address potential environmental problems that could stem from improper management of WEEE, many countries and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of material recovery from WEEE to reduce the amount and types of materials disposed in landfills. Recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment is important not only to reduce the amount of waste requiring treatment, but also to promote the recovery of valuable materials. EEE is diverse and complex with respect to the materials and components used and waste streams from the manufacturing processes. Characterization of these wastes is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sound recycling system. This paper offers an overview of electrical and e-waste recycling, including a description of how it is generated and classified, strategies and technologies for recovering materials, and new scientific developments related to these activities. Finally, the e-waste recycling industry in India is also discussed.

  7. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  8. Integrated Decision Support for Global Environmental Change Adaptation

    Kumar, S.; Cantrell, S.; Higgins, G. J.; Marshall, J.; VanWijngaarden, F.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental changes are happening now that has caused concern in many parts of the world; particularly vulnerable are the countries and communities with limited resources and with natural environments that are more susceptible to climate change impacts. Global leaders are concerned about the observed phenomena and events such as Amazon deforestation, shifting monsoon patterns affecting agriculture in the mountain slopes of Peru, floods in Pakistan, water shortages in Middle East, droughts impacting water supplies and wildlife migration in Africa, and sea level rise impacts on low lying coastal communities in Bangladesh. These environmental changes are likely to get exacerbated as the temperatures rise, the weather and climate patterns change, and sea level rise continues. Large populations and billions of dollars of infrastructure could be affected. At Northrop Grumman, we have developed an integrated decision support framework for providing necessary information to stakeholders and planners to adapt to the impacts of climate variability and change at the regional and local levels. This integrated approach takes into account assimilation and exploitation of large and disparate weather and climate data sets, regional downscaling (dynamic and statistical), uncertainty quantification and reduction, and a synthesis of scientific data with demographic and economic data to generate actionable information for the stakeholders and decision makers. Utilizing a flexible service oriented architecture and state-of-the-art visualization techniques, this information can be delivered via tailored GIS portals to meet diverse set of user needs and expectations. This integrated approach can be applied to regional and local risk assessments, predictions and decadal projections, and proactive adaptation planning for vulnerable communities. In this paper we will describe this comprehensive decision support approach with selected applications and case studies to illustrate how this

  9. Evaluation process of global environmental impact: assessment guidelines

    Memon, A.R.; Mahar, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    In developed and developing countries, the EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) is becoming mandatory for the approval of Industrial projects and projects of Environmental hazards. The approving authority of each country has its own guidelines to get projects approved and make project proponents responsible to submit Environmental Impact Statement for the its detailed assessment. In this paper authors have studied an existing EIA Global guidelines and its evaluation process of altogether 40 countries from four continents, Asia, Pacific/Middle East, Europe, Australia and America/Canada. This evaluation process is recorded in the tabulation form and it has been formulated stage wise in which stage one highlights the inception of EIA guidelines of each country and stage two and three gives implementation process. The inception stage of guidelines gives an idea that when EIA was started and an implementation stages provide all information that when EIA become a part of legislation that provide an opportunity to the reader to understand the decision making process for project approvals. The main objective of writing EIA guidelines is to monitor the sustain ability of various types of the projects under different sectoral guidelines, therefore Projects related with different Sectors have been chosen and a detailed record in tabulation form gives an idea to understand the interaction of these guidelines. To make this paper more comprehensive, authors have gone thorough the sectoral guidelines of altogether 64 countries and studied 21 sector oriented project fields. These are of Agriculture/Irrigation, Biodiversity, Coastal/Marine, Community Participation, Extractive industries, Fisheries, Forestry, Hazard Risk, Health, Human settlement, Industry, Multi sectorial, Ports and Harbors, Power, refugees/resettlement, Social, Strategies/Planning, Tourism/Recreational, transportation, Waste Pollution and Wetlands/Water resources. (author)

  10. Breeding ecology of ferruginous hawks, Swainson’s hawks, and northern harriers in south-central North Dakota : Proposal

    Department of the Interior — Project proposal for research survey to document the breeding ecology of ferruginous hawks, Swainson’s hawk, and northern harrier in Kulm Wetland Management District...

  11. Evidence of hawking (falconry) from bird and mammal bones

    Prummel, W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the archaeozoological and archaeological evidence for hawking, or falconry. The methods and history of hawking in Europe are described, after which five types of evidence for hawking are discussed. These are illustrated with material from the Slavonic stronghold of Oldenburg in

  12. Distribution, density, and productivity of accipiter hawks breeding in Oregon

    Richard T. Reynolds; Howard M. Wight

    1978-01-01

    Density of nests and productivity of Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus), Cooper's Hawks (A. cooperii), and Goshawks (A. gentilis) within Oregon are of interest because of recent declines of accipiter hawks in the eastern United States (Schriver 1969, Hackman and Henny 1971, Henny and Wight 1972). One...

  13. Global Sensitivity Analysis of Environmental Models: Convergence, Robustness and Validation

    Sarrazin, Fanny; Pianosi, Francesca; Khorashadi Zadeh, Farkhondeh; Van Griensven, Ann; Wagener, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Global Sensitivity Analysis aims to characterize the impact that variations in model input factors (e.g. the parameters) have on the model output (e.g. simulated streamflow). In sampling-based Global Sensitivity Analysis, the sample size has to be chosen carefully in order to obtain reliable sensitivity estimates while spending computational resources efficiently. Furthermore, insensitive parameters are typically identified through the definition of a screening threshold: the theoretical value of their sensitivity index is zero but in a sampling-base framework they regularly take non-zero values. There is little guidance available for these two steps in environmental modelling though. The objective of the present study is to support modellers in making appropriate choices, regarding both sample size and screening threshold, so that a robust sensitivity analysis can be implemented. We performed sensitivity analysis for the parameters of three hydrological models with increasing level of complexity (Hymod, HBV and SWAT), and tested three widely used sensitivity analysis methods (Elementary Effect Test or method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis, and Variance-Based Sensitivity Analysis). We defined criteria based on a bootstrap approach to assess three different types of convergence: the convergence of the value of the sensitivity indices, of the ranking (the ordering among the parameters) and of the screening (the identification of the insensitive parameters). We investigated the screening threshold through the definition of a validation procedure. The results showed that full convergence of the value of the sensitivity indices is not necessarily needed to rank or to screen the model input factors. Furthermore, typical values of the sample sizes that are reported in the literature can be well below the sample sizes that actually ensure convergence of ranking and screening.

  14. Downscaling drivers of global environmental change: Enabling use of global SRES scenarios at the national and grid levels

    van Vuuren, D.P.; Lucas, P.L.; Hilderink, H.

    2007-01-01

    Global environmental change scenarios typically distinguish between about 10–20 global regions. However, various studies need scenario information at a higher level of spatial detail. This paper presents a set of algorithms that aim to fill this gap by providing downscaled scenario data for

  15. Global megatrends and their implications for environmental assessment practice

    Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Bond, Alan [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny [Integral Sustainability (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Morrison-Saunders, Angus [Murdoch University (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental, Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); King, Nicholas [Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa)

    2016-11-15

    This paper addresses the future of environmental assessment (EA) practice in light of a rapidly changing world. We apply a literature review-based methodology to firstly identify key global megatrends and then reflect upon the implications for EA practice based on some known challenges. The key megatrends identified are synthesised into six categories: i) demographics, ii) urbanization, iii) technological innovation, iv) power shifts, v) resource scarcity and vi) climate change. We then discuss the implications of these megatrends for EA practice against four known EA challenges namely: dealing with i) complexity and uncertainty, ii) efficiency, iii) significance and iv) communication and participation. Our analysis suggests important implications for EA practice such as: increased difficulties with accuracy of prediction; the need for facilitative adaptation; an increase in the occurrence of unexpected events; higher expectations for procedural efficiency; challenges with information and communication management; dealing with significance judgements; and mitigation amidst resource scarcity and increasing pressures on earth systems. The megatrends underscore the need for continued evolution of EA thinking and practice, especially moving away from seeking a predictable single future or outcome towards the possibility of multiple scenarios with associated adaptability and enhanced system resilience capable of responding to rapid change.

  16. Global megatrends and their implications for environmental assessment practice

    Retief, Francois; Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; King, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the future of environmental assessment (EA) practice in light of a rapidly changing world. We apply a literature review-based methodology to firstly identify key global megatrends and then reflect upon the implications for EA practice based on some known challenges. The key megatrends identified are synthesised into six categories: i) demographics, ii) urbanization, iii) technological innovation, iv) power shifts, v) resource scarcity and vi) climate change. We then discuss the implications of these megatrends for EA practice against four known EA challenges namely: dealing with i) complexity and uncertainty, ii) efficiency, iii) significance and iv) communication and participation. Our analysis suggests important implications for EA practice such as: increased difficulties with accuracy of prediction; the need for facilitative adaptation; an increase in the occurrence of unexpected events; higher expectations for procedural efficiency; challenges with information and communication management; dealing with significance judgements; and mitigation amidst resource scarcity and increasing pressures on earth systems. The megatrends underscore the need for continued evolution of EA thinking and practice, especially moving away from seeking a predictable single future or outcome towards the possibility of multiple scenarios with associated adaptability and enhanced system resilience capable of responding to rapid change.

  17. Environmental heterogeneity–species richness relationships from a global perspective

    Anke Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial environmental heterogeneity (EH is considered one of the most important factors promoting species richness, but no general consent about the EH–richness relationship exists so far. This is because research methods and study settings vary widely, and because non-significant and negative associations have also been reported. My thesis provides a comprehensive review of the different measurements and terminologies of EH used in the literature, and presents strong quantitative evidence of a generally positive relationship between biotic and abiotic EH and species richness of terrestrial plants and animals from landscape to global extents. In a meta-analysis and a subsequent case study comparing multiple EH measures and their association with mammal species richness worldwide, I furthermore reveal that the outcome of EH–richness studies depends strongly on study design, including both the EH measure chosen and spatial scale. My research contributes to a better understanding of the EH–richness relationship, while identifying future research needs.

  18. New energy technology cope with global environmental problems

    Tsuchimoto, Tatsuya

    1991-01-01

    At present, the national and private storage of oil is the quantity for about 140 days in total, and it can cope with the temporary fear of oil supply, but if the Gulf War was prolonged, the large effect should be exerted to the energy supply. The reduction of the degree of oil dependence and the increase of the dependence on nonfossil fuel are taken up as the basic idea of the long term energy demand and supply in Japan. Also in the action plan for preventing global warming, the further promotion of energy conservation and the adoption of clean energy were decided to be carried out for decreasing carbon dioxide. In this report, among clean energies, the technology of electric power generation by sun beam, wind force and geotherm is described. The power generation by sun beam has many features, but the energy density is low, and the area for installation becomes large. The cost of power generation is relatively high. The power generation by wind force is superior in its environmental characteristics, and has been already put in practical use in USA and Europe. The problem is the reliability of the system. The geothermal power generation is available also in Japan, and is important for the energy security. The plants of about 270 MW are installed in Japan. (K.I.)

  19. Total spectral distributions from Hawking radiation

    Broda, Boguslaw [University of Lodz, Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, Lodz (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    Taking into account the time dependence of the Hawking temperature and finite evaporation time of the black hole, the total spectral distributions of the radiant energy and of the number of particles have been explicitly calculated and compared to their temporary (initial) blackbody counterparts (spectral exitances). (orig.)

  20. Extraocular muscle architecture in hawks and owls.

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H; Segev, Tamar; Grow, Wade; Hall, Margaret I

    2018-02-06

    A complete and accurate understanding of extraocular muscle function is important to the veterinary care of the avian eye. This is especially true for birds of prey, which rely heavily on vision for survival and yet are prone to ocular injury and disease. To better understand the function of extraocular muscles in birds of prey, we studied extraocular muscle architecture grossly and histologically. This sample was composed of two each of the following species: red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), and barn owl (Tyto alba). All extraocular muscles were dissected and weighed. To analyze muscle fiber architecture, the superior oblique and quadratus muscles were dissected, weighed, and sectioned at 5 μm thickness in the transverse plane. We calculated the physiologic cross-sectional area and the ratio of muscle mass to predicted effective maximum tetanic tension. Hawk and owl extraocular muscles exhibit significant physiological differences that play roles in ocular movements and closure of the nictitating membrane. Owls, which do not exhibit extraocular movement, have muscle architecture suited to stabilize the position of a massive, tubular eye that protrudes significantly from the orbit. Hawks, which have a more globose eye that is largely contained within the orbit, do not require as much muscular stability and instead have muscle architecture that facilitates rapid eye movement. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. On the stringy Hartle-Hawking state

    Ben-Israel, Roy; Giveon, Amit; Itzhaki, Nissan; Liram, Lior

    2016-01-01

    We argue that non-perturbative α"′ stringy effects render the Hartle-Hawking state associated with the SL(2)/U(1) eternal black hole singular at the horizon. We discuss implications of this observation on firewalls in string theory.

  2. On the stringy Hartle-Hawking state

    Ben-Israel, Roy [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan; Liram, Lior [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2016-03-03

    We argue that non-perturbative α{sup ′} stringy effects render the Hartle-Hawking state associated with the SL(2)/U(1) eternal black hole singular at the horizon. We discuss implications of this observation on firewalls in string theory.

  3. Naked singularity, firewall, and Hawking radiation.

    Zhang, Hongsheng

    2017-06-21

    Spacetime singularity has always been of interest since the proof of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorem. Naked singularity naturally emerges from reasonable initial conditions in the collapsing process. A recent interesting approach in black hole information problem implies that we need a firewall to break the surplus entanglements among the Hawking photons. Classically, the firewall becomes a naked singularity. We find some vacuum analytical solutions in R n -gravity of the firewall-type and use these solutions as concrete models to study the naked singularities. By using standard quantum theory, we investigate the Hawking radiation emitted from the black holes with naked singularities. Here we show that the singularity itself does not destroy information. A unitary quantum theory works well around a firewall-type singularity. We discuss the validity of our result in general relativity. Further our result demonstrates that the temperature of the Hawking radiation still can be expressed in the form of the surface gravity divided by 2π. This indicates that a naked singularity may not compromise the Hakwing evaporation process.

  4. Stephen Hawking a life in science

    White, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This biography of the author of "A Brief History of Time", pays particular attention to Hawking's considerable scientific achievement, as well as to the tragic progress of his illnesss and his extraordinary will to survive and to continue working despite major progressive handicap.

  5. Hawking radiation inside a Schwarzschild black hole

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2018-05-01

    The boundary of any observer's spacetime is the boundary that divides what the observer can see from what they cannot see. The boundary of an observer's spacetime in the presence of a black hole is not the true (future event) horizon of the black hole, but rather the illusory horizon, the dimming, redshifting surface of the star that collapsed to the black hole long ago. The illusory horizon is the source of Hawking radiation seen by observers both outside and inside the true horizon. The perceived acceleration (gravity) on the illusory horizon sets the characteristic frequency scale of Hawking radiation, even if that acceleration varies dynamically, as it must do from the perspective of an infalling observer. The acceleration seen by a non-rotating free-faller both on the illusory horizon below and in the sky above is calculated for a Schwarzschild black hole. Remarkably, as an infaller approaches the singularity, the acceleration becomes isotropic, and diverging as a power law. The isotropic, power-law character of the Hawking radiation, coupled with conservation of energy-momentum, the trace anomaly, and the familiar behavior of Hawking radiation far from the black hole, leads to a complete description of the quantum energy-momentum inside a Schwarzschild black hole. The quantum energy-momentum near the singularity diverges as r^{-6}, and consists of relativistic Hawking radiation and negative energy vacuum in the ratio 3 : - 2. The classical back reaction of the quantum energy-momentum on the geometry, calculated using the Einstein equations, serves merely to exacerbate the singularity. All the results are consistent with traditional calculations of the quantum energy-momentum in 1 + 1 spacetime dimensions.

  6. International cooperation as a mechanism for the development of environmental management Theoretical approach to the Global Environmental Management Structure

    Miranda Morales, Paola Maria

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a theoretical study of a global environmental management structure. This structure can be made possible after a new Global Environmental Order (CID) is established. The new order should be supported by the international development politics. It also has to be funded in the understanding of the interaction dynamics: ecosystem- culture. The theoretical studies of this work on global environmental Management allowed identifying the main difficulties to be overcome by the CID in order to fulfill its role as a leading actor in the global environmental transformation. The first issue to be considered by the CID is related to the fact that the actual regulation and follow up politics are insufficient. A second difficulty has to do with the very few results obtained on guaranteeing fair exchange of information and technology between Northern and Southern countries.

  7. What does policy-relevant global environmental knowledge do? The cases of climate and biodiversity

    Turnhout, E.; Dewulf, A.R.P.J.; Hulme, M.

    2016-01-01

    There is a surge in global knowledge-making efforts to inform environmental governance. This article synthesises the current state of the art of social science scholarship about the generation and use of global environmental knowledge. We focus specifically on the issues of scale — providing

  8. Deforestation: Can We Balance Resource Conservation with Economic Growth? Global Environmental Change Series.

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This book is the second installment in the Global Environmental Change Series that links the ecology and biology of global environmental changes with insights and information from other disciplines. This series teaches students how to gather a wide range of information from pertinent areas of study and encourages them to develop their own opinions…

  9. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security: threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    Brauch, H.G.; Oswald Spring, Ú.; Mesjasz, C.; Grin, J.; Kameri-Mbote, P.; Chourou, B.; Dunay, P.; Birkmann, J.

    2011-01-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10

  10. Evolutionary history of lagomorphs in response to global environmental change.

    Deyan Ge

    Full Text Available Although species within Lagomorpha are derived from a common ancestor, the distribution range and body size of its two extant groups, ochotonids and leporids, are quite differentiated. It is unclear what has driven their disparate evolutionary history. In this study, we compile and update all fossil records of Lagomorpha for the first time, to trace the evolutionary processes and infer their evolutionary history using mitochondrial genes, body length and distribution of extant species. We also compare the forage selection of extant species, which offers an insight into their future prospects. The earliest lagomorphs originated in Asia and later diversified in different continents. Within ochotonids, more than 20 genera occupied the period from the early Miocene to middle Miocene, whereas most of them became extinct during the transition from the Miocene to Pliocene. The peak diversity of the leporids occurred during the Miocene to Pliocene transition, while their diversity dramatically decreased in the late Quaternary. Mantel tests identified a positive correlation between body length and phylogenetic distance of lagomorphs. The body length of extant ochotonids shows a normal distribution, while the body length of extant leporids displays a non-normal pattern. We also find that the forage selection of extant pikas features a strong preference for C(3 plants, while for the diet of leporids, more than 16% of plant species are identified as C(4 (31% species are from Poaceae. The ability of several leporid species to consume C(4 plants is likely to result in their size increase and range expansion, most notably in Lepus. Expansion of C(4 plants in the late Miocene, the so-called 'nature's green revolution', induced by global environmental change, is suggested to be one of the major 'ecological opportunities', which probably drove large-scale extinction and range contraction of ochotonids, but inversely promoted diversification and range expansion of

  11. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations

    Aili Pyhälä

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental change (GEC is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC - particularly in small-scale societies - and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014 that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i cognition, (ii culture and knowledge, and (iii possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a "meta-language" around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  12. Factors in the Development of a Global Substantive Environmental Right

    Stephen James Turner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the fact that there is currently no international treaty that provides a globally accepted substantive human right for the protection of the environment (Anton and Shelton, 2011; Turner, 2009 there is a case for considering how such a right could or should be developed. This paper considers certain aspects of the potential development of such a right by focussing on key non-state actors that make decisions, which can affect the environment. Consideration is given to three different types of non-state actors: companies (corporations, the World Trade Organisation (WTO and multilateral development banks (MDBs. It specifically examines their ‘constitutional’ purposes and the overall legal constraints that their decision-makers are bound to comply with, and where applicable, the legal obligations that they impose upon their members.Therefore, this approach to the issue focuses on the legal foundations that determine how such actors make decisions and how that can affect the environment. This paper provides a broad perspective to illustrate the commonalities between the actors that are discussed in relation to their decision-making processes. Ultimately it provides an argument in support of the formal development of an international treaty that would create a global substantive environmental right. However it posits that such a treaty should inter alia be designed and framed in a manner, that would develop reformed legal obligations for the types of non-state actors discussed. Debido al hecho de que actualmente no existe ningún tratado internacional que proporcione un derecho humano globalmente aceptado para la protección del medio ambiente (Anton y Shelton 2011, Turner 2009 hay un argumento para considerar cómo podría o debería desarrollarse tal derecho. Este documento considera algunos aspectos del desarrollo potencial de tal derecho, centrándose en los principales actores no estatales que toman decisiones que pueden afectar el

  13. Formalizing knowledge on international environmental regimes: A first step towards integrating political science in integrated assessments of global environmental change

    de Vos, M.G.; Janssen, P.H.M.; Kok, M.T.J.; Frantzi, S.; Dellas, E.D.; Pattberg, P.H.; Petersen, A.C.; Biermann, F.

    2013-01-01

    International environmental regimes are considered key factors in dealing with global environmental change problems. It is important to understand if and how regimes are effective in tackling these problems, which requires knowledge on their potential impact on these problems as well as on their

  14. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  15. Conformal nature of the Hawking radiation

    Materassi, M.

    2000-01-01

    String theory usually represents quantum black holes as systems whose statistical mechanics reproduces Hawking's thermodynamics in a very satisfactory way. Complicated brane theoretical models are worked out, as quantum versions of Supergravity solutions. These models are then assumed to be in thermal equilibrium: this is a little cheating, because one is looking for an explanation of the seeming thermodynamical nature of black holes, so they cannot be assumed to be finite temperature systems! In the model presented here, the black body spectrum arises with no statistical hypothesis as an approximation of the unitary evolution of microscopic black holes, which are always described by a 1+1 conformal field theory, characterized by some Virasoro algebra. At the end, one can state that the Hawking-thermodynamics of the system is a by-product of the algebraic Virasoro-symmetric nature of the event horizon. This is the central result of the present work. (author)

  16. Thermal hadron production by QCD Hawking radiation

    Satz, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    The QCD counterpart of Hawking radiation from black holes leads to thermal hadron production in high energy collisions, from e + e - annihilation to heavy ion interactions. This hadronic radiation is emitted at a universal temperature T≅(σ/2π) 1/2 , where the string tension σ measures the colour field at the event horizon of confinement. Moreover, the emitted radiation is thermal 'at birth'; since the event horizon prevents all information transfer, no memory has to be destroyed kinetically. (author)

  17. Local Hawking temperature for dynamical black holes

    Hayward, S A; Criscienzo, R Di; Nadalini, M; Vanzo, L; Zerbini, S

    2009-01-01

    A local Hawking temperature is derived for any future outer trapping horizon in spherical symmetry, using a Hamilton-Jacobi variant of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. It is given by a dynamical surface gravity as defined geometrically. The operational meaning of the temperature is that Kodama observers just outside the horizon measure an invariantly redshifted temperature, diverging at the horizon itself. In static, asymptotically flat cases, the Hawking temperature as usually defined by the Killing vector agrees in standard cases, but generally differs by a relative redshift factor between the horizon and infinity, this being the temperature measured by static observers at infinity. Likewise, the geometrical surface gravity reduces to the Newtonian surface gravity in the Newtonian limit, while the Killing definition instead reflects measurements at infinity. This may resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the Hawking temperature for the extremal limit of the charged stringy black hole, namely that it is the local temperature which vanishes. In general, this confirms the quasi-stationary picture of black-hole evaporation in early stages. However, the geometrical surface gravity is generally not the surface gravity of a static black hole with the same parameters. (fast track communication)

  18. Stakeholder successes in global environmental management. Report of workshop

    Welp, M. (ed.)

    2001-04-01

    The workshop had two main objectives: (a) to identify stakeholders who have perspectives and knowledge needed to develop good solutions to global change problems and to create long lasting, stable relationships with them and (b) to learn about the participants' perceptions of global change problems, future expectations and their views on global change research. For this purpose the workshop was organised around 'success stories', which provided a stimulus for discussion. Presentations were given by people from organisations that have a pioneering role, for example in emission trading, in linking paper consumption with forest management by forest certification and in creating sustainable investment mechanisms. (orig.)

  19. Stakeholder successes in global environmental management. Report of workshop

    Welp, M [ed.

    2001-04-01

    The workshop had two main objectives: (a) to identify stakeholders who have perspectives and knowledge needed to develop good solutions to global change problems and to create long lasting, stable relationships with them and (b) to learn about the participants' perceptions of global change problems, future expectations and their views on global change research. For this purpose the workshop was organised around 'success stories', which provided a stimulus for discussion. Presentations were given by people from organisations that have a pioneering role, for example in emission trading, in linking paper consumption with forest management by forest certification and in creating sustainable investment mechanisms. (orig.)

  20. The Influence of “Business World” in Global Environmental Governance

    Adriana Vinholi Rampazo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Rio 92 there has been a constant growth in the participation of non-environmental and the private sector in environmental conferences promoted by United Nations (UN, and therefore in global environmental governance. Thus, norms, rules and procedures governing environmental protection around the world are eventually influenced by organizations like the World Bank, private banks and other private companies in various sectors. In this context, the objective of this study is to discuss the inclusion of environmental nongovernmental organizations and the private sector in global environmental governance in recent years. To this end, we developed a bibliographic and documentary study based on scientific articles, institutional and journalistic, and official documents. At the end of the work it was established that environmental nongovernmental organizations and the private sector, through lobbying, its power structure and the networks that form (business associations, are increasingly inserted in environmental discussions and thus end up to influence the decisions taken.

  1. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion

    Laurance, William F.; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145431843; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834319

    2015-01-01

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such

  2. The European Union's Role in the Development of Global Environmental Law

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the role that the European Union (EU) is playing as a global actor when it is using its 'internal' regulatory power as well as its parallel market power 'externally' to strengthen and to fill out gaps in the global environmental law.......This article is focused on the role that the European Union (EU) is playing as a global actor when it is using its 'internal' regulatory power as well as its parallel market power 'externally' to strengthen and to fill out gaps in the global environmental law....

  3. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk

    Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.

  4. Modulated Hawking radiation and a nonviolent channel for information release

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Unitarization of black hole evaporation requires that quantum information escapes a black hole; an important question is to identify the mechanism or channel by which it does so. Accurate counting of black hole states via the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy would indicate this information should be encoded in radiation with average energy flux matching Hawking's. Information can be encoded with no change in net flux via fine-grained modulation of the Hawking radiation. In an approximate effective ...

  5. Economic and environmental impacts of a hypothetical global GMO ban

    Mahaffey, Harrison H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the global economic and greenhouse gas emission impacts of GMO crops. This is done by modeling two counterfactual scenarios and evaluating them apart and in combination. The first scenario models the impact of a global GMO ban. The second scenario models the impact of increased GMO penetration. The focus is on the price and welfare impacts, and land use change greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with GMO technologies. Much of the prior work on...

  6. Notes on breeding sharp-shinned hawks and Cooper’s hawks in Barnwell County, South Carolina.

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract - Breeding records of Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawks) in the southeastern US are scattered and isolated. We documented a Sharp-shinned Hawk and Accipiter cooperii (Cooper’s Hawk) nest while conducting a telemetry study on Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpeckers) in Barnwell County, SC in 2006 and 2007. We report the first known nest of a Sharp-shinned Hawk in Barnwell County, SC and the first report of Sharp-shinned Hawks preying upon Red-headed Woodpeckers. Thirteen of 93 (13.9 %) woodpeckers were killed by accipiters in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Large, contiguous forests managed for Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers) may be used by breeding Sharp-shinned Hawks. The bright plumage, loud calls, and behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers, particularly during the nestling stage, may make them conspicuous prey for accipiters.

  7. Environmental radiation monitoring system with GPS (global positioning system)

    Komoto, Itsuro

    2000-01-01

    This system combines a radiation monitoring car with GPS and a data processor (personal computer). It distributes the position information acquired through GPS to the data such as measured environmental radiation dose rate and energy spectrum. It also displays and edits the data for each measuring position on a map. Transmitting the data to the power station through mobile phone enables plan managers to easily monitor the environmental radiation dose rate nearby and proper emergency monitoring. (author)

  8. Notes on breeding sharp-shinned hawks and cooper’s hawks in Barnwell County, South Carolina

    Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

    2009-01-01

    Breeding records of Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawks) in the southeastern US are scattered and isolated. We documented a Sharp-shinned Hawk and Accipiter cooperii (Cooper’s Hawk) nest while conducting a telemetry study on Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpeckers) in Barnwell County, SC in 2006 and 2007. We report the first known nest of a Sharp-shinned...

  9. A global study of undergraduate environmental engineering programs

    Abro, Q.M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent analyses of environmental engineering and management (EE and M) field has highlighted its rapidly expanding size and increasingly diverse nature (Hart and Nolan, 1999). The last 30 years have seen growing international recognition that the challenges associated with environmental degradation and sustainable development have important implications for, and connections with, education and research (IUCN, 1970; UNCED, 1992). The concept of environmental education is now widespread in national educational policies, curriculum documents, curriculum development initiatives, and conservation strategies. Reflecting this trend, several universities throughout the world offer a wide range of graduate as well as undergraduate programs in environment. These programs have originated from various academic schools and disciplines (engineering, public policy, business, management, etc) creating considerable diversity of focus, themes emphasized, courses and methods of offerings. The rise of these programs, in part, reflects the growing need for engineers, technologists as well as managers, who are able to understand, contribute to, and manage a wide variety of technology-based programs and organizations. In addition, the large number of environmental engineering research journals, professional associations and international/national conferences point to the rapid growth of this field. This paper will examine the trends in provision, type of program, major curriculum focus of undergraduate environmental engineering and management education and then compare these trends with the emerging trends in the environmental engineering and management research journals of the last decade. (author)

  10. Environmental Harm of Hidden Subsidies: Global Warming and Acidification

    Beers, Cees van (Dept. of Innovation Economics and Management, Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)). E-mail: c.p.vanbeers@tudelft.nl; Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den (Inst. for Environmental Science and Technology, and Dept. of Economics and Economic History, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain))

    2009-10-15

    We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO{sub 2} emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy

  11. Phytoplankton niches, traits and eco-evolutionary responses to global environmental change

    Litchman, Elena; Edwards, Kyle F.; Klausmeier, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton are major primary producers in aquatic ecosystems and are sensitive to various aspects of global environmental change. They can respond through phenotypic plasticity, species sorting, genetic adaptation, or a combination of these processes. Here we present conceptual, experimental...

  12. Marine Socio-Environmental Covariates: queryable global layers of environmental and anthropogenic variables for marine ecosystem studies.

    Yeager, Lauren A; Marchand, Philippe; Gill, David A; Baum, Julia K; McPherson, Jana M

    2017-07-01

    Biophysical conditions, including climate, environmental stress, and habitat availability, are key drivers of many ecological processes (e.g., community assembly and productivity) and associated ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and fishery production). Furthermore, anthropogenic impacts such as coastal development and fishing can have drastic effects on the structure and function of marine ecosystems. Scientists need to account for environmental variation and human impacts to accurately model, manage, and conserve marine ecosystems. Although there are many types of environmental data available from global remote sensing and open-source data products, some are inaccessible to potential end-users because they exist as global layers in high temporal and spatial resolutions which require considerable computational power to process. Additionally, coastal locations often suffer from missing data or data quality issues which limit the utility of some global marine products for coastal sites. Herein we present the Marine Socio-Environmental Covariates dataset for the global oceans, which consists of environmental and anthropogenic variables summarized in ecologically relevant ways. The dataset includes four sets of environmental variables related to biophysical conditions (net primary productivity models corrected for shallow-water reflectance, wave energy including sheltered-coastline corrections) and landscape context (coral reef and land cover within varying radii). We also present two sets of anthropogenic variables, human population density (within varying radii) and distance to large population center, which can serve as indicators of local human impacts. We have paired global, summarized layers available for download with an online data querying platform that allows users to extract data for specific point locations with finer control of summary statistics. In creating these global layers and online platform, we hope to make the data accessible to a

  13. A current global view of environmental and occupational cancers.

    Yang, Mihi

    2011-07-01

    This review is focused on current information of avoidable environmental pollution and occupational exposure as causes of cancer. Approximately 2% to 8% of all cancers are thought to be due to occupation. In addition, occupational and environmental cancers have their own characteristics, e.g., specific chemicals and cancers, multiple factors, multiple causation and interaction, or latency period. Concerning carcinogens, asbestos/silica/wood dust, soot/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a) pyrene], heavy metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), aromatic amines (4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine), organic solvents (benzene or vinyl chloride), radiation/radon, or indoor pollutants (formaldehyde, tobacco smoking) are mentioned with their specific cancers, e.g., lung, skin, and bladder cancers, mesothelioma or leukemia, and exposure routes, rubber or pigment manufacturing, textile, painting, insulation, mining, and so on. In addition, nanoparticles, electromagnetic waves, and climate changes are suspected as future carcinogenic sources. Moreover, the aspects of environmental and occupational cancers are quite different between developing and developed countries. The recent follow-up of occupational cancers in Nordic countries shows a good example for developed countries. On the other hand, newly industrializing countries face an increased burden of occupational and environmental cancers. Developing countries are particularly suffering from preventable cancers in mining, agriculture, or industries without proper implication of safety regulations. Therefore, industrialized countries are expected to educate and provide support for developing countries. In addition, citizens can encounter new environmental and occupational carcinogen nominators such as nanomaterials, electromagnetic wave, and climate exchanges. As their carcinogenicity or involvement in carcinogenesis is not clearly unknown, proper consideration for them should be taken into account. For these purposes, new

  14. Book Review: Jessica F Green, Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance

    Keremis, Anestis

    2017-01-01

    Book review of "Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance" by Jessica F Green. Princeton,NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014.215 pp., £16.95 (p/b), ISBN 9780691157597......Book review of "Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance" by Jessica F Green. Princeton,NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014.215 pp., £16.95 (p/b), ISBN 9780691157597...

  15. Social responsibility standards and global environmental accountability : a developing country perspective

    Bhanu Murthy, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that accountability, responsibility and governance go hand in hand. Evolving standards is a part of governance. Unless such a global perspective is adopted “Social Responsibility and the implications for Developing Countries”, which is the theme for this workshop, cannot be unraveled. The purpose of this paper is to highlight how Social Responsibility Standards and their relation to environmental sustainability cannot be addressed without relating it to Global Environmental ...

  16. The use of 'macro' legal analysis in the development of global environmental governance

    Turner, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This talk will discuss the challenges that are faced by lawyers in assessing the constituent elements of global environmental governance. It takes into account the different and sometimes disparate approaches that have been taken to the subject and the different interpretations of the term ‘global environmental governance’ itself. It suggests that in the face of such challenges an approach which includes ‘macro’ legal analysis should be developed to ensure that all relevant factors are includ...

  17. Environmental-genotype responses in livestock to global warming: A ...

    Global warming will change Southern Africa's environments from grass dominated vegetation to dry woodland and desert with a vegetation of C4 dominated grasses, whereas the grazing capacity is expected to decline by more than 30%. Animals will also be more exposed to parasites and diseases, mainly as a result of an ...

  18. Global environmental controls of diversity in large herbivores

    Olff, Han; Ritchie, Mark E.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2002-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores occupy half of the earth's land surface and are important both ecologically and economically, but their diversity is threatened by human activities. We investigated how the diversity of large herbivores changes across gradients of global precipitation and soil fertility.

  19. Assessing tourism's global environmental impact 1900–2050

    Gössling, Stefan; Peeters, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper pioneers the assessment of tourism's total global resource use, including its fossil fuel consumption, associated CO2 emissions, fresh water, land, and food use. As tourism is a dynamic growth system, characterized by rapidly increasing tourist numbers, understanding its

  20. Cities, Networks, and Global Environmental Governance - Spaces of Innovation, Places of Leadership

    Bouteligier, S.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of global dynamics—the increasing interconnection of people and places—innovations in global environmental governance haved altered the role of cities in shaping the future of the planet. This book is a timely study of the importance of these social transformations in our increasingly

  1. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Global Commons

    2010-07-01

    ... for a particular action. The assessment should be brief and concise but should include sufficient... it significantly harms the environment of the global commons. As a minimum, the assessment should... the global commons, an environmental impact statement, as described below, will be prepared to enable...

  2. The Political Ecology of Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy across Global-National Divides

    Stahelin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study of global and national (Brazilian) Environmental and Sustainability Education (ESE) policies in historical perspectives. My overall objectives are two-fold: First, to understand how global ESE policy frameworks have evolved ideologically over time--a concept I refer to as ESE policy trajectories; and…

  3. The process of developing policy based on global environmental risk assessment

    Fisk, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief presentation is given on developing policy based on a global environmental risk assessment. The author looks at the global warming issue as if it were a formal problem in risk assessment. He uses that framework to make one or two suggestions as to how the interaction of policy and research might evolve as the climate convention progresses

  4. Fair Trade Flowers: Global Certification, Environmental Sustainability, and Labor Standards

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organization of the fair trade flower industry, integration of Ecuadorian enterprises into these networks, and power of certification to address key environmental and social concerns on participating estates. Pursuing a social regulatory approach, I locate fair trade within the field of new institutions that establish and…

  5. Towards a global environmental sociology? Legacies, trends and future directions

    Lidskog, R.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A current debate on environmental sociology involves how the subdiscipline should conceptualise and investigate the environment and whether it should be prescriptive and deliver policy recommendations. Taking this debate as a point of departure this article discusses the current and future role of

  6. When global environmentalism meets local livelihoods: policy and management lessons

    John Schelhas; Max J. Pfeffer

    2009-01-01

    Creation of national parks often imposes immediate livelihood costs on local people, and tensions between park managers and local people are common. Park managers have tried different approaches to managing relationships with local people, but nearly all include efforts to promote environmental values and behaviors. These efforts have had uneven results, and there is a...

  7. Improving global environmental management with standard corporate reporting

    Kareiva, Peter M.; McNally, Brynn W.; McCormick, Steve; Miller, Tom; Ruckelshaus, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Multinational corporations play a prominent role in shaping the environmental trajectory of the planet. The integration of environmental costs and benefits into corporate decision-making has enormous, but as yet unfulfilled, potential to promote sustainable development. To help steer business decisions toward better environmental outcomes, corporate reporting frameworks need to develop scientifically informed standards that consistently consider land use and land conversion, clean air (including greenhouse gas emissions), availability and quality of freshwater, degradation of coastal and marine habitats, and sustainable use of renewable resources such as soil, timber, and fisheries. Standardization by itself will not be enough—also required are advances in ecosystem modeling and in our understanding of critical ecological thresholds. With improving ecosystem science, the opportunity for realizing a major breakthrough in reporting corporate environmental impacts and dependencies has never been greater. Now is the time for ecologists to take advantage of an explosion of sustainability commitments from business leaders and expanding pressure for sustainable practices from shareholders, financial institutions, and consumers. PMID:26082543

  8. Public ecology: an environmental science and policy for global society

    David P. Robertson; R. Bruce Hull

    2003-01-01

    Public ecology exists at the interface of science and policy. Public ecology is an approach to environmental inquiry and decision making that does not expect scientific knowledge to be perfect or complete. Rather, public ecology requires that science be produced in collaboration with a wide variety of stakeholders in order to construct a body of knowledge that will...

  9. Improving global environmental management with standard corporate reporting.

    Kareiva, Peter M; McNally, Brynn W; McCormick, Steve; Miller, Tom; Ruckelshaus, Mary

    2015-06-16

    Multinational corporations play a prominent role in shaping the environmental trajectory of the planet. The integration of environmental costs and benefits into corporate decision-making has enormous, but as yet unfulfilled, potential to promote sustainable development. To help steer business decisions toward better environmental outcomes, corporate reporting frameworks need to develop scientifically informed standards that consistently consider land use and land conversion, clean air (including greenhouse gas emissions), availability and quality of freshwater, degradation of coastal and marine habitats, and sustainable use of renewable resources such as soil, timber, and fisheries. Standardization by itself will not be enough--also required are advances in ecosystem modeling and in our understanding of critical ecological thresholds. With improving ecosystem science, the opportunity for realizing a major breakthrough in reporting corporate environmental impacts and dependencies has never been greater. Now is the time for ecologists to take advantage of an explosion of sustainability commitments from business leaders and expanding pressure for sustainable practices from shareholders, financial institutions, and consumers.

  10. Environmental globalization, organizational form, and expected benefits from protected areas in Central America

    Max J. Pfeffer; John W. Schelhas; Catherine Meola

    2006-01-01

    Environmental globalization has led to the implementation of conservation efforts like the creation of protected areas that often promote the interests of core countries in poorer regions. The creation of protected areas in poor areas frequently creates tensions between human needs like - food and shelter and environmental conservation. Support for such conservation...

  11. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) guidance flagship project of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative aims at providing global guidance and building scientific consensus on environmental LCIA in...

  12. Environmental Globalization, Organizational Form, and Expected Benefits from Protected Areas in Central America

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Schelhas, John W.; Meola, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Environmental globalization has led to the implementation of conservation efforts like the creation of protected areas that often promote the interests of core countries in poorer regions. The creation of protected areas in poor areas frequently creates tensions between human needs like food and shelter and environmental conservation. Support for…

  13. Biomass burning: Its history, use, and distribution and its impact on environmental quality and global climate

    Andreae, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the following topics are discussed: global estimates of amounts of biomass burning; kinds and amounts of emissions to the atmosphere; environmental transport and atmospheric chemistry of these emissions; and environmental impacts. These impacts include acid deposition, climate changes, disruption of nutrient cycles, soil degradation, perturbation of stratospheric chemistry and the ozone layer

  14. Global environmental change effects on plant community composition trajectories depend upon management legacies

    Perring, Michael P.; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Baeten, Lander; Midolo, Gabriele; Blondeel, Haben; Depauw, Leen; Landuyt, Dries; Maes, Sybryn L.; Lombaerde, De Emiel; Carón, Maria Mercedes; Vellend, Mark; Brunet, Jörg; Chudomelová, Markéta; Decocq, Guillaume; Diekmann, Martin; Dirnböck, Thomas; Dörfler, Inken; Durak, Tomasz; Frenne, De Pieter; Gilliam, Frank S.; Hédl, Radim; Heinken, Thilo; Hommel, Patrick; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Kirby, Keith J.; Kopecký, Martin; Lenoir, Jonathan; Li, Daijiang; Máliš, František; Mitchell, Fraser J.G.; Naaf, Tobias; Newman, Miles; Petřík, Petr; Reczyńska, Kamila; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Standovár, Tibor; Świerkosz, Krzysztof; Calster, Van Hans; Vild, Ondřej; Wagner, Eva Rosa; Wulf, Monika; Verheyen, Kris

    2018-01-01

    The contemporary state of functional traits and species richness in plant communities depends on legacy effects of past disturbances. Whether temporal responses of community properties to current environmental changes are altered by such legacies is, however, unknown. We expect global environmental

  15. INTEGRATED MECHANISMS FOR APROACHING PRIORITY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AT GLOBAL LEVEL

    iLDIKO iOAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated mechanisms for approaching priority environmentalissues at global level. At global level, there are considered priorityenvironmental issues two interdependent processes that are essential for thesupport the processes that provide living conditions and wellbeing for the entirehumankind: climate change and loss of biodiversity. Payments of ecosystemservices became already well-known and applied economic instruments, althoughthere are still many uncertainties in the knowledge of eco-economic interdependencies.The paper discusses these aspects in the first part highlighting advantagesand disadvantages, while in the second part there is analyzed an integratedprogram of the United Nations, which was designed for making progress towardboth climate change, and loss of biodiversity. The REDD program – Reduction ofEmissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation – is addressed to developingcountries and it started in 2008. Based on assessment reports we will try toformulate a number of conclusions regarding the program’s effectiveness.

  16. Fiscal federalism approach for controlling global environmental pollution

    Murty, M.N.

    1996-01-01

    It is found that optimal international carbon taxes are country specific and we can decompose a tax on a domestically produced carbon-intensive commodity into a revenue tax, a tax to control local atmospheric pollution and an international carbon tax. It shows that an institutional arrangement for the world economy similar to the fiscal federalism in the federal countries can be useful to internalize the global externalities of atmospheric pollution. 18 refs

  17. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dibari, J.C. [Heritage College, Toppenish, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  18. Hawking radiation and strong gravity black holes

    Qadir, A.; Sayed, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the strong gravity theory of Salam et al. places severe restrictions on black hole evaporation. Two major implications are that: mini blck holes (down to masses approximately 10 -16 kg) would be stable in the present epoch; and that some suggested mini black hole mechanisms to explain astrophysical phenomena would not work. The first result implies that f-gravity appears to make black holes much safer by removing the possibility of extremely violent black hole explosions suggested by Hawking. (Auth.)

  19. ''Splendeurs et miseres'' of Hawking's effect

    Hijicek, P

    1977-01-01

    The Hawking effect, the result that a Schwarzschild black hole will emit particles as if it were a hot body with a given temperature depending upon the mass of the hole and the sun, the Planck, Newton, and Boltzmann constants, and the light velocity, is considered. Restriction is made to the Schwarzschild space-time, in order to suppress the geometrical, purely general relativistic aspects as far as possible. The treatment includes quantum field theory in curved space--times, and spherically symmetric collapse. 23 references. (JFP)

  20. The death of Philosophy: A response to Stephen Hawking | Scott ...

    In his 2010 work, The Grand Design, Stephen Hawking, argues that '… philosophy is dead' (2010: 5). While not a Philosopher, Hawking provides strong argument for his thesis, principally that philosophers have not taken science sufficiently seriously and so Philosophy is no longer relevant to knowledge claims.

  1. Hawking Temperature of Acoustic Black Hole Zhi Kun Xie

    Abstract. Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, the Hawking radiation of the acoustic black hole was discussed by studying the Klein–. Gordon equation of scalar particles in the curve space-time. It was found that the Hawking temperature is connected with time and position on the event horizon. Key words.

  2. Hawking Temperature of an Arbitrarily Accelerating Black Hole Wei ...

    Introduction. In 1974, Hawking (1974) made a striking discovery that black holes could produce thermal radiation. In this paper, we will obtain Hawking temperature of an arbitrarily accelerating black hole based on the Klein–Gordon equation, which is identical to the one obtained by the Hamilton–Jacobi equation under the ...

  3. 3-minute Stephen Hawking. His life, theories and influence

    Parsons, Paul; Dixon, Gail

    2013-01-01

    3-minutes Stephen Hawking offers a compact introduction to life and work of this impressing scientist. This book is devided into three parts: Hawking's life, his theories, his influence. Each part offers fascinating reading material for one hour. The partial themes of this book are served up in practical 3-minute portions.

  4. A global, multi-disciplinary, multi-sectorial initiative to combat leptospirosis: Global Leptospirosis Environmental Action Network (GLEAN).

    Durski, Kara N; Jancloes, Michel; Chowdhary, Tej; Bertherat, Eric

    2014-06-05

    Leptospirosis has emerged as a major public health problem in both animals and humans. The true burden of this epidemic and endemic disease is likely to be grossly under-estimated due to the non-specific clinical presentations of the disease and the difficulty of laboratory confirmation. The complexity that surrounds the transmission dynamics, particularly in epidemic situations, requires a coordinated, multi-disciplinary effort. Therefore, the Global Leptospirosis Environmental Action Network (GLEAN) was developed to improve global and local strategies of how to predict, prevent, detect, and intervene in leptospirosis outbreaks in order to prevent and control leptospirosis in high-risk populations.

  5. Sociology in Global Environmental Governance? Neoliberalism, Protectionism and the Methyl Bromide Controversy in the Montreal Protocol

    Brian J. Gareau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological studies of global agriculture need to pay close attention to the protectionist aspects of neoliberalism at the global scale of environmental governance. With agri-food studies in the social sciences broadening interrogations of the impact of neoliberalism on agri-food systems and their alternatives, investigating global environmental governance (GEG will help reveal its impacts on the global environment, global science/knowledge, and the potential emergence of ecologically sensible alternatives. It is argued here that as agri-food studies of neoliberalism sharpen the focus on these dimensions the widespread consequences of protectionism of US agri-industry in GEG will become better understood, and the solutions more readily identifiable. This paper illustrates how the delayed phase out of the toxic substance methyl bromide in the Montreal Protocol exemplifies the degree to which the US agri-industry may be protected at the global scale of environmental governance, thus prolonging the transition to ozone-friendly alternatives. Additionally, it is clear that protectionism has had a significant impact on the dissemination and interpretation of science/knowledge of methyl bromide and its alternatives. Revealing the role that protectionism plays more broadly in the agriculture/environmental governance interface, and its oftentimes negative impacts on science and potential alternatives, can shed light on how protectionism can be made to serve ends that are at odds with environmental protection.

  6. Addressing global health, economic, and environmental problems through family planning.

    Speidel, J Joseph; Grossman, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    Although obstetrician-gynecologists recognize the importance of managing fertility for the reproductive health of individuals, many are not aware of the vital effect they can have on some of the world's most pressing issues. Unintended pregnancy is a key contributor to the rapid population growth that in turn impairs social welfare, hinders economic progress, and exacerbates environmental degradation. An estimated 215 million women in developing countries wish to limit their fertility but do not have access to effective contraception. In the United States, half of all pregnancies are unplanned. Voluntary prevention of unplanned pregnancies is a cost-effective, humane way to limit population growth, slow environmental degradation, and yield other health and welfare benefits. Family planning should be a top priority for our specialty.

  7. Hawking radiation, the Stefan–Boltzmann law, and unitarization

    Giddings, Steven B., E-mail: giddings@physics.ucsb.edu

    2016-03-10

    Where does Hawking radiation originate? A common picture is that it arises from excitations very near or at the horizon, and this viewpoint has supported the “firewall” argument and arguments for a key role for the UV-dependent entanglement entropy in describing the quantum mechanics of black holes. However, closer investigation of both the total emission rate and the stress tensor of Hawking radiation supports the statement that its source is a near-horizon quantum region, or “atmosphere,” whose radial extent is set by the horizon radius scale. This is potentially important, since Hawking radiation needs to be modified to restore unitarity, and a natural assumption is that the scales relevant to such modifications are comparable to those governing the Hawking radiation. Moreover, related discussion suggests a resolution to questions regarding extra energy flux in “nonviolent” scenarios, that does not spoil black hole thermodynamics as governed by the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.

  8. Hawking radiation, the Stefan–Boltzmann law, and unitarization

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Where does Hawking radiation originate? A common picture is that it arises from excitations very near or at the horizon, and this viewpoint has supported the “firewall” argument and arguments for a key role for the UV-dependent entanglement entropy in describing the quantum mechanics of black holes. However, closer investigation of both the total emission rate and the stress tensor of Hawking radiation supports the statement that its source is a near-horizon quantum region, or “atmosphere,” whose radial extent is set by the horizon radius scale. This is potentially important, since Hawking radiation needs to be modified to restore unitarity, and a natural assumption is that the scales relevant to such modifications are comparable to those governing the Hawking radiation. Moreover, related discussion suggests a resolution to questions regarding extra energy flux in “nonviolent” scenarios, that does not spoil black hole thermodynamics as governed by the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.

  9. Hawking radiation from the cosmological horizon in a FRW universe

    Hu Yapeng

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that there is a Hawking radiation from the cosmological horizon of the de Sitter spacetime, and the de Sitter spacetime can be a special case of a FRW universe. Therefore, there may be a corresponding Hawking radiation in a FRW universe. Indeed, there have been several clues showing that there is a Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of a FRW universe. In our Letter, however, we find that the Hawking radiation may come from the cosmological horizon. Moreover, we also find that the Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of a FRW universe in some previous works can be a special case in our result, and the condition is that the variation rate of cosmological horizon r . H is zero. Note that, this condition is also consistent with the underlying integrable condition in these works from the apparent horizon.

  10. Understanding Hawking radiation in the framework of open quantum systems

    Yu Hongwei; Zhang Jialin

    2008-01-01

    We study the Hawking radiation in the framework of open quantum systems by examining the time evolution of a detector (modeled by a two-level atom) interacting with vacuum massless scalar fields. The dynamics of the detector is governed by a master equation obtained by tracing over the field degrees of freedom from the complete system. The nonunitary effects are studied by analyzing the time behavior of a particular observable of the detector, i.e., its admissible state, in the Unruh, Hartle-Hawking, as well as Boulware vacua outside a Schwarzschild black hole. We find that the detector in both the Unruh and Hartle-Hawking vacua would spontaneously excite with a nonvanishing probability the same as what one would obtain if there is thermal radiation at the Hawking temperature from the black hole, thus reproducing the basic results concerning the Hawking effect in the framework of open quantum systems

  11. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security. Threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; UNU-EHS, Bonn (DE). College of Associated Scientists and Advisors (CASA); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico, Cuernavaca (MX). Regional Multidisciplinary Research Centre (CRIM); Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Exonomics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Political Science; Dutch Knowledge network for Systems Innovations and Transitions (KSI), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Strathmore Univ., Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Chourou, Bechir [Univ. of Tunis-Carthage, Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Dunay, Pal [Geneva Centre for Security Policy (Switzerland). International Training Course in Security Policy; Birkmann, Joern (eds.) [United Nations Univ. (UNU), Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (EHS)

    2011-07-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10 parts concepts of military and political hard security and economic, social, environmental soft security with a regional focus on the Near East, North and Sub-Sahara Africa and Asia and on hazards in urban centres. The major focus is on coping with global environmental change: climate change, desertification, water, food and health and with hazards and strategies on social vulnerability and resilience building and scientific, international, regional and national political strategies, policies and measures including early warning of conflicts and hazards. The book proposes a political geo-ecology and discusses a 'Fourth Green Revolution' for the Anthropocene era of earth history. (orig.)

  12. The Materialist Circuits and the Quest for Environmental Justice in ICT’s Global Expansion

    Sibo Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article builds on and contributes to research on the material impacts of Information and Communication Technology and Consumer Electronics (ICT/CE by proposing a holistic framework addressing labour exploitation and environmental destruction in the production, consumption, and disposal of digital devices. Although the emerging media scholarship on digital labour have critically analyzed the material impacts of ICT/CE in terms of labour issues emerged from the production and consumption stages, relatively little research attention has been paid to the end-of-life issues of digital devices and other environmental issues caused by the ICT industry’s global expansion. Based upon previous research on digital labour, environmental management and ecological justice, this article proposes a political economic understanding of the environmental dimension of the ICT industry and how it has contributed to the escalation of environmental crisis and social injustice in developing coun-tries, especially in terms of the urging situation of the global e-waste challenge. The article argues that the critical standpoints taken by political economy of communication and environmental justice re-search provide valuable and promising theoretical connections between labour activism and ecological struggles; and future inquiries on digital economy, in this regard, should combine both perspectives, pay more attention to the enormous social and ecological tensions in the Global South, and make explicit connections between the regressions in labour rights and global environmental justice and ICT’s aggressive and unsustainable expansion.

  13. Environmental impact of radioactive releases: Addressing global issues

    Linsley, G.

    1996-01-01

    In the decade after the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm in 1972, the IAEA organized a series of international meetings with themes concerned with radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. In the atmosphere of concern for the environment which followed the UN Conference, the IAEA-sponsored meetings provided a focal point for international discussion and served to summarize the state of knowledge on radionuclide behaviour in different environmental media. A considerable amount of research was, at that time, being directed in IAEA Member States towards achieving an understanding of the behavior of radionuclides, and especially of long-lived radionuclides, in the terrestrial and aquatic environments

  14. The Hawking effect in abelian gauge theories

    Stephens, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to compare and contrast gravity with other field theories an investigation is made into whether the Hawking effect is a peculiarly gravitational phenomenon. It is found that the effect exists for a particular background abelian gauge field configuration, as well as certain background gravitational field configurations. Specifically, pair production in a uniform electric field is shown to admit a thermal interpretation. In an effort to find out just what is singular about gravity it is found that the Hawking temperature characteristic of a particular gravitational field configuration is independent of the properties of the quantum fields propagating theorem, in direct contrast to the gauge field case. This implies that if the one loop approximation is to be valid the electric field must be ''cold'' relative to the energy scales set by the quantum fields. In gravity, however, because of the existence of a fundamental scale, the Planck length, the gravitational field can be ''hot'' or ''cold'' and a one loop approximation still remain valid. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  15. Plumage polymorphism and fitness in Swainson's hawks.

    Briggs, C W; Collopy, M W; Woodbridge, B

    2011-10-01

    We examine the maintenance of a plumage polymorphism, variation in plumages among the same age and sex class within a population, in a population of Swainson's Hawks. We take advantage of 32 years of data to examine two prevalent hypotheses used to explain the persistence of morphs: apostatic selection and heterozygous advantage. We investigate differences in fitness among three morph classes of a melanistic trait in Swainson's Hawks: light (7% of the local breeding population), intermediate (57%) and dark (36%). Specifically, we examined morph differences in adult apparent survival, breeding success, annual number of fledglings produced, probability of offspring recruitment into the breeding population and lifetime reproductive success (LRS). If apostatic selection were a factor in maintaining morphs, we would expect that individuals with the least frequent morph would perform best in one or more of these fitness categories. Alternatively, if heterozygous advantage played a role in the maintenance of this polymorphism, we would expect heterozygotes (i.e. intermediate morphs) to have one or more increased rates in these categories. We found no difference in adult apparent survival between morph classes. Similarly, there were no differences in breeding success, nest productivity, LRS or probability of recruitment of offspring between parental morph. We conclude that neither apostatic selection nor heterozygous advantage appear to play a role in maintaining morphs in this population. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Remote sensing strategies for global resource exploration and environmental management

    Henderson, Frederick B.

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing, when integrated with other exploration techniques, has demonstrated operational exploration and engineering cost savings and reduced exploration risks through improved geological mapping. Land and ocean remote sensing satellite systems under development for the 1990's by the United States, France, Japan, Canada, ESA, Russia, China, and others, will significantly increase our ability to explore for, develop, and manage energy and mineral resources worldwide. A major difference between these systems is the "Open Skies" and "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" policies as have been practiced by the U.S. and France and the restrictive nationalistic data policies as have been practiced by Russia and India. Global exploration will use satellite remote sensing to better map regional structural and basin-like features that control the distribution of energy and mineral resources. Improved sensors will better map lithologic and stratigraphic units and identify alteration effects in rocks, soils, and vegetation cover indicative of undiscovered subsurface resources. These same sensors will also map and monitor resource development. The use of satellite remote sensing data will grow substantially through increasing integration with other geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data using improved geographic information systems (GIS). International exploration will focus on underdeveloped countries rather than on mature exploration areas such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Energy and mineral companies and government agencies in these countries and others will utilize available remote sensing data to acquire economic intelligence on global resources. If the "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" principle is observed by satellite producing countries, exploration will remain competitive "on the ground". In this manner, remote sensing technology will continue to be developed to better explore for and manage the world's needed resources

  17. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions

  18. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  19. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  20. Global Environmental Change: What Can Health Care Providers and the Environmental Health Community Do About It Now?

    Schwartz, Brian S.; Parker, Cindy; Glass, Thomas A.; Hu, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The debate about whether global environmental change is real is now over; in its wake is the realization that it is happening more rapidly than predicted. These changes constitute a profound challenge to human health, both as a direct threat and as a promoter of other risks. We call on health care providers to inform themselves about these issues and to become agents of change in their communities. It is our responsibility as clinicians to educate patients and their communities on the connections between regressive policies, unsustainable behaviors, global environmental changes, and threats to health and security. We call on professional organizations to assist in educating their members about these issues, in helping clinicians practice behavior change with their patients, and in adding their voices to this issue in our statehouses and Congress. We call for the development of carbon- and other environmental-labeling of consumer products so individuals can make informed choices; we also call for the rapid implementation of policies that provide tangible economic incentives for choosing environmentally sustainable products and services. We urge the environmental health community to take up the challenge of developing a global environmental health index that will incorporate human health into available “planetary health” metrics and that can be used as a policy tool to evaluate the impact of interventions and document spatial and temporal shifts in the healthfulness of local areas. Finally, we urge our political, business, public health, and academic leaders to heed these environmental warnings and quickly develop regulatory and policy solutions so that the health of populations and the integrity of their environments will be ensured for future generations. PMID:17185267

  1. Global environmental change: what can health care providers and the environmental health community do about it now?

    Schwartz, Brian S; Parker, Cindy; Glass, Thomas A; Hu, Howard

    2006-12-01

    The debate about whether global environmental change is real is now over; in its wake is the realization that it is happening more rapidly than predicted. These changes constitute a profound challenge to human health, both as a direct threat and as a promoter of other risks. We call on health care providers to inform themselves about these issues and to become agents of change in their communities. It is our responsibility as clinicians to educate patients and their communities on the connections between regressive policies, unsustainable behaviors, global environmental changes, and threats to health and security. We call on professional organizations to assist in educating their members about these issues, in helping clinicians practice behavior change with their patients, and in adding their voices to this issue in our statehouses and Congress. We call for the development of carbon and other environmental-labeling of consumer products so individuals can make informed choices; we also call for the rapid implementation of policies that provide tangible economic incentives for choosing environmentally sustainable products and services. We urge the environmental health community to take up the challenge of developing a global environmental health index that will incorporate human health into available "planetary health" metrics and that can be used as a policy tool to evaluate the impact of interventions and document spatial and temporal shifts in the healthfulness of local areas. Finally, we urge our political, business, public health, and academic leaders to heed these environmental warnings and quickly develop regulatory and policy solutions so that the health of populations and the integrity of their environments will be ensured for future generations.

  2. Transnational Urban Spaces and Urban Environmental Reforms : Analyzing Beijing's Environmental Restructuring in the Light of Globalization.

    Melchert Saguas Presas, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this era of globalization, `transnational spaces¿ are being created within urban settings, providing a direct connection between the `local¿ and the `global¿. Corporate headquarters, hotels, shopping malls, and airports are typical examples of such spaces, which while located within an urban

  3. What the White "Squaws" Want from Black Hawk: Gendering the Fan-Celebrity Relationship

    Helton, Tena L.

    2010-01-01

    Americans in the East were great fans of Black Hawk, whose popularity on tour overtook that of Andrew Jackson's parallel tour of the Northeast. Undoubtedly, then, Black Hawk was a celebrity. He remained popular even in 1837, when he attended Catlin's gallery opening in New York, which included his 1832 painting of Black Hawk. Black Hawk may also…

  4. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Wigeland, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President's Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle - in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository - to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  5. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    R.A. Wigeland

    2008-10-01

    Abstract: The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President’s Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle—in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository—to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  6. Tropical deforestation: balancing regional development demands and global environmental concerns

    Wood, A B [US Dept. of State, Washington, DC (USA)

    1990-01-01

    Over half of the world's tropical closed forests, which contain the greatest biodiversity, are found in just three countries: Brazil, Indonesia, and Zaire. Accelerated conversion of tropical forests is occurring because of several interlocking socio-economic and political factors: inequitable land distribution, entrenched rural poverty, and rapidly growing populations which push landless and near-landless peasants on to forest lands that are often infertile. If rates instead of absolute numbers are used to measure the severity of deforestation, Nigeria, Argentina, India, Thailand, Myanmar (Burma), Ecquador, and above all Ivory Coast stand out as countries facing an immediate deforestation crisis. Local management of forest resources, however, can be very contentious and complicated, with overlapping government agencies, competing economic interests, and ambiguous regulations. Without capital investment and entrepreneurial initiatives, residents of forest regions may have no alternative but to farm increasingly infertile soils. Non-governmental organizations, such as the World Wildlife Fund are playing leading roles in innovative debt-for-nature swaps and other forest conservation efforts. International development agencies, such as the World Bank, may play the leading role in conservation and reforestation efforts through their financial assistance programmes. The media, as a global information network, has become a powerful influence on the debate over deforestation. The Third World, bearing an increasingly heavy burden of payments to lending institutions that in 1988 surpassed 50 billion US dollars, will make a strong case that it cannot afford widespread forest conservation.

  7. A General-Purpose Spatial Survey Design for Collaborative Science and Monitoring of Global Environmental Change: The Global Grid

    David M. Theobald

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent guidance on environmental modeling and global land-cover validation stresses the need for a probability-based design. Additionally, spatial balance has also been recommended as it ensures more efficient sampling, which is particularly relevant for understanding land use change. In this paper I describe a global sample design and database called the Global Grid (GG that has both of these statistical characteristics, as well as being flexible, multi-scale, and globally comprehensive. The GG is intended to facilitate collaborative science and monitoring of land changes among local, regional, and national groups of scientists and citizens, and it is provided in a variety of open source formats to promote collaborative and citizen science. Since the GG sample grid is provided at multiple scales and is globally comprehensive, it provides a universal, readily-available sample. It also supports uneven probability sample designs through filtering sample locations by user-defined strata. The GG is not appropriate for use at locations above ±85° because the shape and topological distortion of quadrants becomes extreme near the poles. Additionally, the file sizes of the GG datasets are very large at fine scale (resolution ~600 m × 600 m and require a 64-bit integer representation.

  8. Promoting Science-Policy Education on Global Environmental Issues: The Mercury Game

    Selin, N. E.; Stokes, L. C.; Susskind, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    We present initial results from a project focusing on teaching science and engineering students about global environmental policy, funded by a NSF CAREER grant. Despite decades of growing global concern about issues such as ozone depletion, climate change, and toxic chemicals, linking science to policy is a continuing challenge, and few science students receive formal training for effective participation in global negotiations. The focus of the educational activity presented here is the development of a freely-available, interactive teaching tool in the form of a role-play simulation, called "The Mercury Game" (http://mit.edu/mercurygame). The simulation requires players to consider scientific information on an emerging global issue, mercury pollution, and collectively decide whether global policy action is appropriate and what the scope of such action might entail. Playing the game helps participants to explore the consequences of representing scientific uncertainty in various ways in a policy context. The game focuses on the credibility of various sources of technical information, strategies for representing risk and uncertainty, and the balance between scientific and political considerations. It also requires the players to grapple with political considerations, particularly the dynamic between the global "North" (the developed world) and the global "South" (the developing world) at the heart of most political conflicts. Simulation outcomes from running the simulation at two scientific conferences and as part of a graduate-level course on global environmental science and policy will be presented.

  9. Covariant anomalies and Hawking radiation from charged rotating black strings in anti-de Sitter spacetimes

    Peng Junjin; Wu Shuangqing

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the success of the recently proposed method of anomaly cancellation to derive Hawking fluxes from black hole horizons of spacetimes in various dimensions, we have further extended the covariant anomaly cancellation method shortly simplified by Banerjee and Kulkarni to explore the Hawking radiation of the (3+1)-dimensional charged rotating black strings and their higher dimensional extensions in anti-de Sitter spacetimes, whose horizons are not spherical but can be toroidal, cylindrical or planar, according to their global identifications. It should be emphasized that our analysis presented here is very general in the sense that the determinant of the reduced (1+1)-dimensional effective metric from these black strings need not be equal to one (√(-g)≠1). Our results indicate that the gauge and energy-momentum fluxes needed to cancel the (1+1)-dimensional covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies are compatible with the Hawking fluxes. Besides, thermodynamics of these black strings are studied in the case of a variable cosmological constant

  10. Depictions of global environmental change in science fiction : an overview of educational applications

    Kadonaga, L. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2000-06-01

    This paper examined how the use of science fiction books and movies can be used as a tool to educate the public. Narratives encourage interest in global environmental changes and can help demystify how science works. Although most science fiction depictions of global environmental change are outdated and oversimplified, the genre can encourage discussion of ecological and social impacts. Writers of science fiction consider both natural systems and human societies, anticipating the work of impacts researchers. It was argued that while both science fiction writers and global change researchers require knowledge and creativity to construct realistic extrapolations, a well-written science fiction book is likely to reach a larger audience. Science fiction books emphasize that climate projections are intended as warnings. If properly handled, they can improve public awareness of issues such as global warming and climatic change. It was suggested that collaboration between researchers and science fiction writers could produce some interesting work. 48 refs.

  11. Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures : Causal Thinking in Global Environmental Epidemiology

    Sly, Peter D; Carpenter, David O; Van den Berg, Martin; Stein, Renato T; Landrigan, Philip J; Brune-Drisse, Marie-Noel; Suk, William

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease estimates indicate a trend toward increasing years lived with disability from chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Risk factors examined included smoking, diet, alcohol, drug abuse, and physical inactivity. By contrast, little consideration was given to

  12. Global Climate Change and Environmental Health: Proceedings of the 1997 Annual Conference of the Society for Occupational and Environmental Health

    Kovats, Sari; Patz, Jonathan A.; Dobbins, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the conference was to bring together a diverse group of occupational and environmental health experts to address the potential effects of climate change and ozone depletion on the current and future incidence of disease, heat stress, food and water supplies, and air pollution; to discuss initial strategies for improving R and D, global health surveillance systems, disease prevention, medical and public health community education, international cooperation, and public outreach; to address this international occupational and environmental health problem; and to explore international challenges and opportunities for collaborative projects in addressing these potential effects

  13. How Will Global Environmental Changes Affect the Growth of Alien Plants?

    Jujie Jia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes can create novel habitats, promoting the growth of alien plants that often exhibit broad environmental tolerance and high phenotypic plasticity. However, the mechanisms underlying these growth promotory effects are unknown at present. Here, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis using data from 111 published studies encompassing the responses of 129 alien plants to global warming, increased precipitation, N deposition, and CO2 enrichment. We compared the differences in the responses of alien plants to the four global environmental change factors across six categories of functional traits between woody and non-woody life forms as well as C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Our results showed that all four global change factors promote alien plant growth. Warming had a more positive effect on C4 than C3 plants. Although the effects of the four factors on the functional traits of alien plants were variable, plant growth was mainly promoted via an increase in growth rate and size. Our data suggest that potential future global environmental changes could further facilitate alien plant growth.

  14. Tailoring Global Data to Guide Corporate Investments in Biodiversity, Environmental Assessments and Sustainability

    Joseph Kiesecker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Companies make significant investments in environmental impacts assessments, biodiversity action plans, life-cycle assessments, and environmental management systems, but guidance on where and when these tools can be best used, and how they may scale-up to inform corporation-wide planning, is sorely lacking. A major barrier to informed environmental decision-making within companies, especially in data poor regions of the world, is the difficulty accessing, analyzing, and interpreting biodiversity information. To address this shortcoming, we analyzed nine publicly available environmental datasets, and created five globally-relevant metrics associated with biodiversity: habitat intactness, habitat protection, species richness (globally and biome normalized, and threatened species. We demonstrate how packaging these metrics within an open-source, web-based mapping tool can facilitate corporations in biodiversity prioritization of their sites (or their supply chains, ultimately guiding potential investments in the environment.

  15. The Age of Environmental Impasse? Globalization and Environmental Transformation of Metropolitan Cities

    Melchert Saguas Presas, L.

    2005-01-01

    Metropolitan cities are undergoing a major spatial and environmental transformation. The proliferation of business districts, corporate headquarters and international hotels is prompting a massive verticalization and densification of land use, which is affecting the urban environment and

  16. Priorities in the field of international cooperation with the aim of solving global environmental problems

    Kondrat' ev, K.YA.

    1993-08-01

    Considerations on priorities are presented in connection with the broad development of bilateral and multilateral international cooperation to solve global environmental problems. Emphasis is placed on the problem of global climate change, on optimizing the global climate observation system, and on substantiating the (1) inadequacy of the 'greenhouse' stereotype of global climate warming which has long predominated in Russian cooperation programs, and (2) the need to realize real climatic prorities (the role of biosphere dynamics, the interaction of atmosphere and ocean, cloud cover and radiation, the colloidal nature of the atmosphere, etc.). The thermal balance of the earth and the dynamics of the biosphere are considered as the key problems of global ecodynamics. Particular attention is given to socio-economic aspects of ecology. 62 refs.

  17. Do invasive alien plants benefit more from global environmental change than native plants?

    Liu, Yanjie; Oduor, Ayub M O; Zhang, Zhen; Manea, Anthony; Tooth, Ifeanna M; Leishman, Michelle R; Xu, Xingliang; van Kleunen, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Invasive alien plant species threaten native biodiversity, disrupt ecosystem functions and can cause large economic damage. Plant invasions have been predicted to further increase under ongoing global environmental change. Numerous case studies have compared the performance of invasive and native plant species in response to global environmental change components (i.e. changes in mean levels of precipitation, temperature, atmospheric CO 2 concentration or nitrogen deposition). Individually, these studies usually involve low numbers of species and therefore the results cannot be generalized. Therefore, we performed a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis to assess whether there is a general pattern of differences in invasive and native plant performance under each component of global environmental change. We compiled a database of studies that reported performance measures for 74 invasive alien plant species and 117 native plant species in response to one of the above-mentioned global environmental change components. We found that elevated temperature and CO 2 enrichment increased the performance of invasive alien plants more strongly than was the case for native plants. Invasive alien plants tended to also have a slightly stronger positive response to increased N deposition and increased precipitation than native plants, but these differences were not significant (N deposition: P = 0.051; increased precipitation: P = 0.679). Invasive alien plants tended to have a slightly stronger negative response to decreased precipitation than native plants, although this difference was also not significant (P = 0.060). So while drought could potentially reduce plant invasion, increases in the four other components of global environmental change considered, particularly global warming and atmospheric CO 2 enrichment, may further increase the spread of invasive plants in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Public perception of global warming and related environmental issues in Kano city, Nigeria

    Iliyasu, Z.; Abubakar, I.; Gajida, A.U.

    2010-07-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries are at an increased risk of the effects of global warming. Unfortunately they have the least capacity to adapt to its untoward effects. We studied public awareness of global warming, its perceived causes, effects and prevention in Kano city, northern Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered on a cross section of 181 adults in Kano eliciting their awareness of global warming, as well as perceived causes, effects and ways of prevention. Of the 181 respondents, 132 (72.9%) were aware of global warming mainly from electronic media (44.4%), the Internet (20.5%) and schools (18.7%). They mostly attributed it to air pollution (99.2%), use of fossil fuels (97.7%), toxic waste (78.0%) and chlorofluorocarbons (73.5%). Perceived effects of global warming include extremes of ambient temperature (97.7%), increased disease outbreaks (92.4%), floods (68.2%), droughts (51.5%) and loss of species (50.0%). Respondents opined that global warming could be prevented by using renewable sources of energy such as the sun (53.8%), massive tree planting (44.7%) and phasing out of old automobiles (43.2%). A significantly higher proportion of males, younger and educated respondents were aware of global warming. The high awareness about global warming needs to be reinforced through use of media to encourage advocacy and community action towards preventing global warming and ensuring environmental sustainability.

  19. No Hawking-Page phase transition in three dimensions

    Myung, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate whether or not the Hawking-Page phase transition is possible to occur in three dimensions. Starting with the simplest class of Lanczos-Lovelock action, thermodynamic behavior of all AdS-type black holes without charge falls into two classes: Schwarzschild-AdS black holes in even dimensions and Chern-Simons black holes in odd dimensions. The former class can provide the Hawking-Page transition between Schwarzschild-AdS black holes and thermal AdS space. On the other hand, the latter class is exceptional and thus the Hawking-Page transition is hard to occur. In three dimensions, a second-order phase transition might occur between the non-rotating BTZ black hole and the massless BTZ black hole (thermal AdS space), instead of the first-order Hawking-Page transition between the non-rotating BTZ black hole and thermal AdS space

  20. Hawk-I - First results from science verification

    Kissler-Patig, M.; Larsen, S.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833347; Wehner, E.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314114688

    2008-01-01

    The VLT wide-field near-infrared imager HAWK-I was commissioned in 2007 and Science Verification (SV) programmes were conducted in August 2007. A selection of results from among the twelve Science Verfication proposals are summarised.

  1. Analogue Hawking radiation from astrophysical black-hole accretion

    Das, Tapas K

    2004-01-01

    We show that spherical accretion onto astrophysical black holes can be considered as a natural example of an analogue system. We provide, for the first time, an exact analytical scheme for calculating the analogue Hawking temperature and surface gravity for general relativistic accretion onto astrophysical black holes. Our calculation may bridge the gap between the theory of transonic astrophysical accretion and the theory of analogue Hawking radiation. We show that the domination of the analogue Hawking temperature over the actual Hawking temperature may be a real astrophysical phenomenon, though observational tests of this fact will at best be difficult and at worst might prove to be impossible. We also discuss the possibilities of the emergence of analogue white holes around astrophysical black holes. Our calculation is general enough to accommodate accreting black holes with any mass

  2. Hawking radiation due to photon and gravitino tunneling

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav

    2010-01-01

    Applying the Hamilton-Jacobi method we investigate the tunneling of photon across the event horizon of a static spherically symmetric black hole. The necessity of the gauge condition on the photon field, to derive the semiclassical Hawking temperature, is explicitly shown. Also, the tunneling of photon and gravitino beyond this semiclassical approximation are presented separately. Quantum corrections of the action for both cases are found to be proportional to the semiclassical contribution. Modifications to the Hawking temperature and Bekenstein-Hawking area law are thereby obtained. Using this corrected temperature and Hawking's periodicity argument, the modified metric for the Schwarzschild black hole is given. This corrected version of the metric, up to h order is equivalent to the metric obtained by including one loop back reaction effect. Finally, the coefficient of the leading order correction of entropy is shown to be related to the trace anomaly.

  3. Hawking radiation of a vector field and gravitational anomalies

    Murata, Keiju; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the relation between Hawking radiation and gravitational anomalies has been used to estimate the flux of Hawking radiation for a large class of black objects. In this paper, we extend the formalism, originally proposed by Robinson and Wilczek, to the Hawking radiation of vector particles (photons). It is explicitly shown, with the Hamiltonian formalism, that the theory of an electromagnetic field on d-dimensional spherical black holes reduces to one of an infinite number of massive complex scalar fields on 2-dimensional spacetime, for which the usual anomaly-cancellation method is available. It is found that the total energy emitted from the horizon for the electromagnetic field is just (d-2) times that for a scalar field. The results support the picture that Hawking radiation can be regarded as an anomaly eliminator on horizons. Possible extensions and applications of the analysis are discussed

  4. Hawking radiation of an apparent horizon in a FRW universe

    Cai Ronggen; Cao Liming; Hu Yapeng

    2009-01-01

    Hawking radiation is an important quantum phenomenon of a black hole, which is closely related to the existence of an event horizon of a black hole. The cosmological event horizon of de Sitter space is also of Hawking radiation with a thermal spectrum. By use of the tunneling approach, we show that there is indeed a Hawking radiation with temperature, T=1/(2πr-tilde A , for a locally defined apparent horizon of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with any spatial curvature, where r-tilde A is the apparent horizon radius. Thus we fill in the gap existing in the literature investigating the relation between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equations; there the apparent horizon is assumed to have such a temperature without any proof. In addition, we stress the implication of the Hawking temperature associated with the apparent horizon.

  5. Regional variation in diets of breeding Red-shouldered hawks

    Strobel, Bradley N.; Boal, Clint W.

    2010-01-01

    We collected data on breeding season diet composition of Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus) in south Texas and compared these data, and those reported from studies elsewhere to examine large scale spatial variation in prey use in eastern North America. Red-shouldered Hawk diets aligned into two significantly different groups, which appear to correlate with latitude. The diets of Red-shouldered Hawks in group 1, which are of more northern latitudes, had significantly more mammalian prey and significantly less amphibian prey than those in group 2, which are at more southerly latitudes. Our meta-analysis demonstrated the dietary flexibility of Red-shouldered Hawks, which likely accounts for their broad distribution by exploiting regional variations in taxon-specific prey availability.

  6. Swainson's Hawk Survey Grid - DFG Region 2 [ds697

    California Natural Resource Agency — 5 km x 5 km landscape blocks used for Ca. Dept. of Fish and Game central valley Swainson's hawk nest surveys since 2000, edited for 2009 surveys using the following...

  7. Influence of poisoned prey on foraging behavior of ferruginous hawks

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Kuncir, Frank; Clinton, Criss C.

    2017-01-01

    We recorded 19 visits by ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) over 6 d at two black–tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) subcolonies poisoned with the rodenticide Rozol® Prairie Dog Bait (0.005% chlorophacinone active ingredient) and at an adjacent untreated subcolony. Before Rozol® application ferruginous hawks foraged in the untreated and treated subcolonies but after Rozol® application predation by ferruginous hawks was only observed in the treated subcolonies. We suggest that ferruginous hawks' preference for hunting in the treated subcolonies after Rozol® application was influenced by the availability of easy-to-capture prey, presumably due to Rozol® poisoning. The energetically beneficial behavior of favoring substandard prey may increase raptor encounters with rodenticide exposed animals if prey vulnerability has resulted from poisoning.

  8. Stephen Hawking ja tema kuulsad kihlveod / Andi Hektor

    Hektor, Andi, 1975-

    2010-01-01

    Ratastooli aheldatud füüsikaikoon Hawking armastab sõlmida kihlvedusid. Viimane kihlvedu, mis puudutab gravitatsioonilainete ja inflatsiooni olemasolu, on taas päevakorda tõusnud, sest eelmisel aastal alustas mõõtmisi Plancki satelliit

  9. National Institute for Global Environmental Change, July 1, 1994-- June 30, 1995

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the report from the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the period July 1, 1994 to June 30, 1995. Separate sections for the Great Plains, Midwestern, Norhteast, South Central, Southeast and Western regions are present. Each section contains project descriptions and abstracts for projects managed by the respective regional offices.

  10. 32 CFR Enclosure 2 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Foreign Nations and Protected Global Resources

    2010-07-01

    ... a serious public health risk; or (2) a physical project that is prohibited or strictly regulated in... of global importance designated for protection by the President or, in the case of such a resource... studies—bilateral or multilateral environmental studies, relevant or related to the proposed action, by...

  11. Global environmental change and the biology of arbuscular mycorrhizas: gaps and challenges

    Fitter, A.H.; Heinemeyer, A.; Husband, R.

    2004-01-01

    Our ability to make predictions about the impact of global environmental change on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and on their role in regulating biotic response to such change is seriously hampered by our lack of knowledge of the basic biology of these ubiquitous organisms. Current information...

  12. The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions and Vygotsky: Fostering Ecological Action and Environmental Citizenship

    Lysack, Mishka

    2009-01-01

    The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions is part of a larger socio-environmental movement concerned with combating climate change. Highlighting the history and elements of the teach-in as a model of learning, the article examines the teach-in movement, using a local event at the University of Calgary as an illustration. Conceptual resources from…

  13. 78 FR 45010 - In the Matter of Camelot Entertainment Group, Inc., Cavico Corp., Global 8 Environmental...

    2013-07-25

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Camelot Entertainment Group, Inc., Cavico Corp., Global 8 Environmental Technologies, Inc., GTC Telecom Corp., ICF Corporation, and... Entertainment Group, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended September 30...

  14. Multilevel governance of global environmental change: perspectives from science, sociology and the law

    Winter, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    ...-regulation, of horizontal transfer of national policies, of regional integration, and of improved coordination between international environmental organisations, as well as basic principles for sustainable use of resources. Addressing both academics and politicians, this book will stimulate the debate about the means of improving global governance. ...

  15. Data and models for exploring sustainability of human well-being in global environmental change

    Deffuant, G.; Alvarez, I.; Barreteau, O.; Vries, de B.; Edmonds, B.; Gilbert, N.; Gotts, N.; Jabot, F.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Hilden, M.; Kolditz, O.; Murray-Rust, D.; Rouge, C.; Smits, P.

    2012-01-01

    This position paper proposes a vision for the research activity about sustainability in global environmental change (GEC) taking place in the FuturICT flagship project. This activity will be organised in an "Exploratory", gathering a core network of European scientists from ICT, social simulation,

  16. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  17. Local versus Global Environmental Performance of Dairying and Their Link to Economic Performance: A Case Study of Swiss Mountain Farms

    Nina Repar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complying with the carrying capacity of local and global ecosystems is a prerequisite to ensure environmental sustainability. Based on the example of Swiss mountain dairy farms, the goal of our research was firstly to investigate the relationship between farm global and local environmental performance. Secondly, we aimed to analyse the relationship between farm environmental and economic performance. The analysis relied on a sample of 56 Swiss alpine dairy farms. For each farm, the cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment was calculated, and the quantified environmental impacts were decomposed into their on- and off-farm parts. We measured global environmental performance as the digestible energy produced by the farm per unit of global environmental impact generated from cradle-to-farm-gate. We assessed local environmental performance by dividing farm-usable agricultural area by on-farm environmental impact generation. Farm economic performance was measured by work income per family work unit, return on equity and output/input ratio. Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed no significant relationship, trade-offs or synergies between global and local environmental performance indicators. Interestingly, trade-offs were observed far more frequently than synergies. Furthermore, we found synergies between global environmental and economic performance and mostly no significant relationship between local environmental and economic performance. The observed trade-offs between global and local environmental performance mean that, for several environmental issues, any improvement in global environmental performance will result in deterioration of local environmental performance and vice versa. This finding calls for systematic consideration of both dimensions when carrying out farm environmental performance assessments.

  18. Hawking receives top US award at White House

    Banks, Michael

    2009-09-01

    The Cambridge physicist Stephen Hawking has been awarded the highest US civilian honour - the presidential medal of freedom. At a ceremony at the White House last month, Hawking, together with 15 other recipients, received the 2009 award from President Barack Obama. The medal is given to individuals who make a contribution "to the security or national interests of the US, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavours".

  19. Street Hawking: Oppressing the Girl Child or Family Economic Supplement?

    Umar, Fatima M.

    2009-01-01

    Street hawking in its simplest form is the selling of things along the roads and from one place to the other. In Nigeria this is done almost all the time by young children both males and females. The girl hawkers come to the cities in groups and then go in different directions of the city to hawk their goods. They remain in the city from the early…

  20. Environmental and radiological remediation under Canada's global partnership program 2004-11 - 59185

    Washer, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Following the '911' attack on the USA in 2001 the international community under Canada's G8 leadership established a $20 billion Global Partnership initiative in 2002 to collaboratively address threats to global security posed by the proliferation and potential terrorist use of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction (WMMD) and related materials and knowledge. This major international initiative addressed four priority areas: (1) Chemical Weapon Destruction (2) Nuclear powered submarine eliminations (3) Nuclear and radiological security; and (4) Employment for former weapon scientists. Additionally the initiative has addressed Biological Non- Proliferation. Canada's execution of all these program areas has resulted in substantial environmental benefits aside from the eradication and securing of WMMD. This paper reviews the environmental and radiological remediation achievements of the four primary Global Partnership program areas addressed under Canadian funding 2004 through 2011. (author)

  1. Ward identities in the derivation of Hawking radiation from anomalies

    Umetsu, Koichiro

    2008-01-01

    Robinson and Wilczek suggested a new method of deriving Hawking radiation by the consideration of anomalies. The basic idea of their approach is that the flux of Hawking radiation is determined by anomaly cancellation conditions in the Schwarzschild black hole (BH) background. Iso et al. extended the method to a charged Reissner-Nordstroem BH and a rotating Kerr BH, and they showed that the flux of Hawking radiation can also be determined by anomaly cancellation conditions and regularity conditions of currents at the horizon. Their formulation gives the correct Hawking flux for all the cases at infinity and thus provides a new attractive method of understanding Hawking radiation. We present some arguments clarifying for this derivation. We show that the Ward identities and boundary conditions for covariant currents without referring to the Wess-Zumino terms and the effective action are sufficient to derive Hawking radiation. Our method, which does not use step functions, thus simplifies some of the technical aspects of the original formulation. (author)

  2. Pathways of understanding: The interactions of humanity and global environmental change

    Jacobson, H.K.; Katzenberger, J.; Lousma, J.; Mooney, H.A.; Moss, R.H.; Kuhn, W.; Luterbacher, U.; Wiegandt, E.

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram

  3. Pathways of Understanding: the Interactions of Humanity and Global Environmental Change

    Jacobson, Harold K.; Katzenberger, John; Lousma, Jack; Mooney, Harold A.; Moss, Richard H.; Kuhn, William; Luterbacher, Urs; Wiegandt, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram.

  4. Invited review: A position on the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM).

    MacLeod, M J; Vellinga, T; Opio, C; Falcucci, A; Tempio, G; Henderson, B; Makkar, H; Mottet, A; Robinson, T; Steinfeld, H; Gerber, P J

    2018-02-01

    The livestock sector is one of the fastest growing subsectors of the agricultural economy and, while it makes a major contribution to global food supply and economic development, it also consumes significant amounts of natural resources and alters the environment. In order to improve our understanding of the global environmental impact of livestock supply chains, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has developed the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM). The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of GLEAM. Specifically, it explains the model architecture, methods and functionality, that is the types of analysis that the model can perform. The model focuses primarily on the quantification of greenhouse gases emissions arising from the production of the 11 main livestock commodities. The model inputs and outputs are managed and produced as raster data sets, with spatial resolution of 0.05 decimal degrees. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model v1.0 consists of five distinct modules: (a) the Herd Module; (b) the Manure Module; (c) the Feed Module; (d) the System Module; (e) the Allocation Module. In terms of the modelling approach, GLEAM has several advantages. For example spatial information on livestock distributions and crops yields enables rations to be derived that reflect the local availability of feed resources in developing countries. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model also contains a herd model that enables livestock statistics to be disaggregated and variation in livestock performance and management to be captured. Priorities for future development of GLEAM include: improving data quality and the methods used to perform emissions calculations; extending the scope of the model to include selected additional environmental impacts and to enable predictive modelling; and improving the utility of GLEAM output.

  5. Hélène Mialet, Hawking Incorporated. Stephen Hawking and the Anthropology of the Knowing subject

    Popescu, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Situé dans la tradition de recherche développée autour de la théorie de l’acteur-réseau (actor-network theory), le livre de Hélène Mialet choisit d’explorer la figure particulière du physicien anglais Stephen Hawking. À travers sept chapitres complémentaires, le lecteur découvre à la fois « Hawking l’individu » et « Hawking le génie en physique ». C’est une distinction qui ne paraît pas toute de suite évidente au non-initié, mais, nous allons le comprendre rapidement, le Hawking des médias, n...

  6. Global Environmental Leadership and Sustainability: High School Students Teaching Environmental Science to Policymakers

    Wilson, S.; Tamsitt, V. M.

    2016-02-01

    A two week high school course for high-achieving 10th-12th graders was developed through the combined efforts of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) Graduate Students and UC San Diego Academic Connections. For the high school students involved, one week was spent at SIO learning basic climate science and researching climate-related topics, and one week was spent in Washington D.C. lobbying Congress for an environmental issue of their choosing. The specific learning goals of the course were for students to (1) collect, analyze and interpret scientific data, (2) synthesize scientific research for policy recommendations, (3) craft and deliver a compelling policy message, and (4) understand and experience change. In this first year, 10 students conducted research on two scientific topics; sea level rise using pier temperature data and California rainfall statistics using weather stations. Simultaneous lessons on policy messaging helped students learn how to focus scientific information for non-scientists. In combining the importance of statistics from their Science lessons with effective communication from their Policy lessons, the students developed issue papers which highlighted an environmental problem, the solution, and the reason their solution is most effective. The course culminated in two days of meetings on Capitol Hill, where they presented their solutions to their Congressional and Senate Members, conversed with policymakers, and received constructive feedback. Throughout the process, the students effectively defined arguments for an environmental topic in a program developed by SIO Graduate Students.

  7. Hawking Incorporated Stephen Hawking and the Anthropology of the Knowing Subject

    Mialet, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    These days, the idea of the cyborg is less the stuff of science fiction and more a reality, as we are all, in one way or another, constantly connected, extended, wired, and dispersed in and through technology. One wonders where the individual, the person, the human, and the body are-or, alternatively, where they stop. These are the kinds of questions Hélène Mialet explores in this fascinating volume, as she focuses on a man who is permanently attached to assemblages of machines, devices, and collectivities of people: Stephen Hawking. Drawing on an extensive and in-depth series of interviews wi

  8. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae): multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification

    do Amaral, Fabio S Raposo; Miller, Matthew J; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Wajntal, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures) represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6), we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotro...

  9. Globalization and environmental challenges. Reconceptualizing security in the 21{sup st} century

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (MX). Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias (CRIM); Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Economics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Political Science; Dunay, Pal [Geneva Centre for Security Policy (Switzerland); Chadha Behera, Navnita [Jamia Millia Islamia Univ., New Delhi (India). Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution; Chourou, Bechir [Univ. of Tunis-Carthage, Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya), Dept. of Private Law; Liotta, P.H. (eds.) [Salve Regina Univ., Newport, RI (United States). Pell Center for International Relations and Public Policy

    2008-07-01

    Put quite simply, the twin impacts of globalization and environmental degradation pose new security dangers and concerns. In this comprehensive new work on global security thinking, 91 authors from five continents and many disciplines, from science and practice, assess the worldwide reassessment of the meaning of security triggered by the end of the Cold War and globalization, as well as the multifarious impacts of global environmental change in the early 21st century. Chapters address the theoretical, philosophical, ethical and religious and spatial context of security. They analyze the relationship between security, peace, development and environment. The authors move on to review the rethinking of security in international law, economics and political science, as well as in the key political, military and economic milieux. The book also examines the environmental security dimension and the adaptation of the institutional security concepts of the UN, EU and NATO, and analyzes the effect of change on regional security. Finally, it posits alternative security futures and draws conclusions for future research and action. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of environmental impact produced by different economic activities with the global pollution index.

    Zaharia, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    The paper analyses the environment pollution state in different case studies of economic activities (i.e. co-generation electric and thermal power production, iron profile manufacturing, cement processing, waste landfilling, and wood furniture manufacturing), evaluating mainly the environmental cumulative impacts (e.g. cumulative impact against the health of the environment and different life forms). The status of the environment (air, water resources, soil, and noise) is analysed with respect to discharges such as gaseous discharges in the air, final effluents discharged in natural receiving basins or sewerage system, and discharges onto the soil together with the principal pollutants expressed by different environmental indicators corresponding to each specific productive activity. The alternative methodology of global pollution index (I (GP)*) for quantification of environmental impacts is applied. Environmental data analysis permits the identification of potential impact, prediction of significant impact, and evaluation of cumulative impact on a commensurate scale by evaluation scores (ES(i)) for discharge quality, and global effect to the environment pollution state by calculation of the global pollution index (I (GP)*). The I (GP)* values for each productive unit (i.e. 1.664-2.414) correspond to an 'environment modified by industrial/economic activity within admissible limits, having potential of generating discomfort effects'. The evaluation results are significant in view of future development of each productive unit and sustain the economic production in terms of environment protection with respect to a preventive environment protection scheme and continuous measures of pollution control.

  11. A new kind of sharing: Why we can't ignore global environmental change

    Hall, J.D.; Hanson, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Aspects of three broad topics are discussed to illustrate the interdependence of Canada and environmental problems in the developing countries: global atmospheric change, forests, and the rights of people (especially indigenous peoples) affected by changes in their natural environment. These concerns are placed, whenever possible, in the wider context of development in general. In an introduction, some of the manifestations of environmental change in the developing world are discussed along with the underlying causes. The science of global warming and ozone depletion is outlined and some impacts that these phenomena may have on the developing world and on Canada are examined. Although the North has been rseponsible for most past emissions of gases implicated in global climate change, industrial growth, deforestation, and other factors are likely to tip the balance toward the South over the next 1-2 decades. The topics of the politics, economics, and policy dimensions of climate change are then introduced. Forests are discussed since they illustrate the relationship of Canada to deforestation; trade in tropical timber and other commodities grown on cleared-forest lands is examined in the context of Canada's own forest industry. Canada's wider involvement in tropical forest issues and conservation concerns are also noted. The human face of environmental degradation is examined for the case studies of El Salvador and Ethiopia, and the increasing involvement of indigenous peoples in environmental management is recognized. 409 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  12. Information management for global environmental change, including the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1994-06-01

    The issue of global change is international in scope. A body of international organizations oversees the worldwide coordination of research and policy initiatives. In the US the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in November of 1993 to provide coordination of science, space, and technology policies throughout the federal government. NSTC is organized into nine proposed committees. The Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (CERN) oversees the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). As part of the USGCRP, the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program aims to improve the understanding of Earth systems and to strengthen the scientific basis for the evaluation of policy and government action in response to potential global environmental changes. This paper examines the information and data management roles of several international and national programs, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) global change information programs. An emphasis will be placed on the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which also serves as the World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases.

  13. The future role of nuclear power in addressing global environmental problems

    Stumpf, W.

    1995-01-01

    Decision makers have to increasingly balance the costs versus benefits of various energy choices against a background of global environmental deterioration. This is particularly so in the choice of long term electricity production strategies where these have to be balanced against the potential of a very severe disruption of the world's climate due to global warming. In this presentation, the threat of global warming is quantified and scenarios are developed of future predicted energy consumption patterns and their impact on international policies to curb global warming, are analyzed. The conclusion is reached that the threat of global warming is so severe that, on the macro level, an international accepted strategy of utilising a proper balance between all forms of electricity production, is a matter of priority and that all national energy choices should be taken against this framework. Such strategic decisions on the macro level must, however, also translate into the micro level of energy production on topics which include: - more efficient plant utilisation; - more effective risk management; correct choice and application of technology; and - better understanding of issues concerning safety, quality and environmental impact. (author)

  14. Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy and Strange Metals

    Subir Sachdev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine models of fermions with infinite-range interactions that realize non-Fermi liquids with a continuously variable U(1 charge density Q and a nonzero entropy density S at vanishing temperature. Real-time correlators of operators carrying U(1 charge q at a low temperature T are characterized by a Q-dependent frequency ω_{S}=(qT/ℏ(∂S/∂Q, which determines a spectral asymmetry. We show that the correlators match precisely with those of the two-dimensional anti–de Sitter (AdS_{2} horizons of extremal charged black holes. On the black hole side, the matching employs S as the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy density and the laws of black hole thermodynamics that relate (∂S/∂Q/(2π to the electric field strength in AdS_{2}. The fermion model entropy is computed using the microscopic degrees of freedom of a UV complete theory without supersymmetry.

  15. Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater thermal pollution from global power generation in LCA.

    Raptis, Catherine E; Boucher, Justin M; Pfister, Stephan

    2017-02-15

    Freshwater heat emissions from power plants with once-through cooling systems constitute one of many environmental pressures related to the thermoelectric power industry. The objective of this work was to obtain high resolution, operational characterization factors (CF) for the impact of heat emissions on ecosystem quality, and carry out a comprehensive, spatially, temporally and technologically differentiated damage-based environmental assessment of global freshwater thermal pollution. The aggregation of CFs on a watershed level results in 12.5% lower annual impacts globally and even smaller differences for the most crucial watersheds and months, so watershed level CFs are recommended when the exact emission site within the basin is unknown. Long-range impacts account for almost 90% of the total global impacts. The Great Lakes, several Mississippi subbasins, the Danube, and the Yangtze are among the most thermally impacted watersheds globally, receiving heat emissions from predominantly coal-fuelled and nuclear power plants. Globally, over 80% of the global annual impacts come from power plants constructed during or before the 1980s. While the impact-weighted mean age of the power plants in the Mississippi ranges from 38 to 51years, in Chinese watersheds including the Yangtze, the equivalent range is only 15 to 22years, reflecting a stark contrast in thermal pollution mitigation approaches. With relatively high shares of total capacity from power plants with once-through freshwater cooling, and tracing a large part of the Danube, 1kWh of net electricity mix is the most impactful in Hungary, Bulgaria and Serbia. Monthly CFs are provided on a grid cell level and on a watershed level for use in Life Cycle Assessment. The impacts per generating unit are also provided, as part of our effort to make available a global dataset of thermoelectric power plant emissions and impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations

    Bruckmeier, K.

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  17. The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability

    Turner II, B.L.; Lambin, E.F.; Reenberg, Anette

    2007-01-01

      Land change science has emerged as a fundamental component of global environmental change and sustainability research.  This interdisciplinary field seeks to understand the dynamics of land-cover and land-use as a coupled human-environment system in order to address theory, concepts, models......, and applications relevant to environmental and societal problems, including the intersection of the two.  The major components and advances in land change are addressed: observation and monitoring; understanding the coupled system-causes, impacts, and consequences; modeling; and synthesis issues.  The six articles...

  18. The globalization and environmental sustainability of LNG: Is LNG a fuel for the 21st century?

    Sakmar, Susan

    2010-09-15

    As the world enters the 21st Century, policy makers around the world are grappling with issues related to energy security, energy poverty, global climate change, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while meeting an expected increase in demand for all energy sources. As a clean burning fuel, many policy leaders have suggested that LNG can play an important role as the world struggles to develop a more environmental sustainable energy future. Others claim that the safety and environmental impact of LNG, including life-cycle emissions, may nullify any clean burning benefit LNG might otherwise provide.

  19. Basic principles of the WHO/UNEP global environmental radiation network

    1988-01-01

    After the accident at Chernobyl, attempts were made to improve radiation monitoring capabilities and the exchange of information at both national and international levels. As part of these efforts it is proposed to establish a Global Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (GERMON). This report contains an overview of existing national and international programmes, and makes suggestions about the structure and operational requirements of GERMON. Annexes present the existing WHO environmental radioactivity monitoring network; give the measured CS-137 activities in milk samples in France, Sweden, Canada and the USA from 1974 to 1985; and reproduce the text of the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident

  20. Trends in Global Agricultural Land Use: Implications for Environmental Health and Food Security.

    Ramankutty, Navin; Mehrabi, Zia; Waha, Katharina; Jarvis, Larissa; Kremen, Claire; Herrero, Mario; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2018-04-29

    The eighteenth-century Malthusian prediction of population growth outstripping food production has not yet come to bear. Unprecedented agricultural land expansions since 1700, and technological innovations that began in the 1930s, have enabled more calorie production per capita than was ever available before in history. This remarkable success, however, has come at a great cost. Agriculture is a major cause of global environmental degradation. Malnutrition persists among large sections of the population, and a new epidemic of obesity is on the rise. We review both the successes and failures of the global food system, addressing ongoing debates on pathways to environmental health and food security. To deal with these challenges, a new coordinated research program blending modern breeding with agro-ecological methods is needed. We call on plant biologists to lead this effort and help steer humanity toward a safe operating space for agriculture.

  1. Differential responses of Miocene rodent metacommunities to global climatic changes were mediated by environmental context.

    Blanco, Fernando; Gómez Cano, Ana Rosa; Cantalapiedra, Juan L; Domingo, M Soledad; Domingo, Laura; Menéndez, Iris; Flynn, Lawrence J; Hernández Fernández, Manuel

    2018-02-06

    The study of how long-term changes affect metacommunities is a relevant topic, that involves the evaluation of connections among biological assemblages across different spatio-temporal scales, in order to fully understand links between global changes and macroevolutionary patterns. We applied multivariate statistical analyses and diversity tests using a large data matrix of rodent fossil sites in order to analyse long-term faunal changes. Late Miocene rodent faunas from southwestern Europe were classified into metacommunities, presumably sharing ecological affinities, which followed temporal and environmental non-random assembly and disassembly patterns. Metacommunity dynamics of these faunas were driven by environmental changes associated with temperature variability, but there was also some influence from the aridity shifts described for this region during the late Miocene. Additionally, while variations in the structure of rodent assemblages were directly influenced by global climatic changes in the southern province, the northern sites showed a pattern of climatic influence mediated by diversity-dependent processes.

  2. Environmental Progression: The Psychological Justification for Reframing Climate Change and Global Warming

    Veldey, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    On-going research in climate science communication through environmental media has uncovered critical barriers to reducing denial and increasing agency in addressing the threat of climate change. Similar to framing of our changing environment as "global warming", the term "climate change" also fails to properly frame the most critical challenge our species has faced. In a set of preliminary studies, significant changes in climate crisis denial, both positive and negative, have resulted from different media messaging. Continuation of this research utilizes social judgement theory (SJT) to classify a broader spectrum of effective avenues for environmental communication. The specificity of the terms global warming and climate change limit inclusion of issues critical to understanding their impacts. Now that the masses know what climate change is, it's time to teach them what it means.

  3. Determinants of Environmental Degradation under the Perspective of Globalization: A Panel Analysis of Selected MENA Nations

    Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad

    2018-01-01

    This paper has examined the determinants of environmental degradation under the perspective of globalization in the case of selected MENA nations (Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Qatar, Lebanon, Egypt, Bahrain, Iran, Morocco, Israel, Kuwait, Oman and Tunisia) over the period of 1980 to 2013. ADF - Fisher Chi-square, Im, Pesaran and Shin W-stat, Levin, Lin & Chu t*, and PP-Fisher Chi-square unit root tests are used for analyzing the stationarity of the variables. This stud...

  4. Cooperation in Global Environmental Governance for Building A Conflict Prevention Architecture in Natural Resources Torno

    Padilha, Norma Sueli; Cardoso, Simone Alves

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the effectiveness and the importance of cooperation in global environmental governance arrangements to prevent conflicts and promote pea- cebuilding through analysis the partnership between the European Union (EU) and the United Nations (UN) around the natural resources and conflict prevention. The problem to be addressed and the challenge to overcome by the international community is the fra- gility of some countries in creating and maintaining institutions t...

  5. National Institute for Global Environmental Change. Semi-annual report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  6. Non-state global environmental governance : the emergence and effectiveness of forest and fisheries certification schemes

    Gulbrandsen, Lars H.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing scholarly interest in the role and function of non-state actors in global governance. A number of non-state governance schemes have been created in recent years to set environmental and social standards for the certification of private companies and producers. This thesis focuses on certification schemes in the forestry and fisheries sectors, as initiatives in these two sectors arguably represent the most advanced cases of non-state rulemaking and governance in the environmen...

  7. Impact of Environmental Changes and Global Warming on Temperature in Pakistan

    Ishtiaq Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes and global warming have direct impact on human life. Estimation of these changes in various parameters of hydrologic cycle is necessary for future planning and development of a country. In this paper the impact of environmental changes and global warming on temperatures of Pakistan has been studied. The temperature changes in Pakistan have been extracted from simulations made using EdGCM model developed at Columbia University. Simulation study to the end of 21st century is executed using the model for GHG (Greenhouse Gases scenario with doubled_CO2 and scenario of Modern_Predicted SST (Sea Surface Temperature. The model analysis has been carried out for seasonal and annual changes for an average of last 5 years period from 2096-2100. Maps are generated to depict global temperature variations. The study divides Pakistan into five (05 main areas for twenty six (26 stations. A part-plan of globe focusing Pakistan is generated showing the five divisions for twenty six (26 data stations of Pakistan. This part plan is made compatible with grid-box resolution of EdGCM. Eagle-Point Engineering software has been used to generate isohyets of interval (0.5oC for downscaling GCM (Global Climate Model grid data to data stations. The station values of different seasons and annual changes are then compared with the values of base period data to determine changes in temperature. It is observed that impact of global environmental changes on temperature are higher (i.e. there is an increase in annual temperature for double_CO2 experiment at places near the Arabian Sea than areas located away from this sea. It is also observed that the temperature increase will be more in winter than that in other seasons for Pakistan.

  8. Hawking radiation, the Stefan–Boltzmann law, and unitarization

    Steven B. Giddings

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Where does Hawking radiation originate? A common picture is that it arises from excitations very near or at the horizon, and this viewpoint has supported the “firewall” argument and arguments for a key role for the UV-dependent entanglement entropy in describing the quantum mechanics of black holes. However, closer investigation of both the total emission rate and the stress tensor of Hawking radiation supports the statement that its source is a near-horizon quantum region, or “atmosphere,” whose radial extent is set by the horizon radius scale. This is potentially important, since Hawking radiation needs to be modified to restore unitarity, and a natural assumption is that the scales relevant to such modifications are comparable to those governing the Hawking radiation. Moreover, related discussion suggests a resolution to questions regarding extra energy flux in “nonviolent” scenarios, that does not spoil black hole thermodynamics as governed by the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.

  9. Hawking's bid to save quantum theory from black holes

    Cho, Adrian

    2018-03-01

    When Albert Einstein died in 1955, he had spent lonely decades trying in vain to unify the theories of gravity and electromagnetism. Stephen Hawking, the great British physicist who died last week at age 76, also worked until the end. But he focused on perhaps the most important problem in his area of physics, one his own work had posed: How do black holes preserve information encoded in the material that falls into them? Hawking realized in 1974 that through a subtle quantum effect a black hole can radiate energy and evaporate. But then a black hole should destroy any infalling information, which cannot come back out in the random radiation. Such information loss would wreck quantum mechanics, and Hawking spent much of his later years trying to figure out how a black hole could preserve information after all, even as the degenerative nerve disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis rendered him immobile and able to speak only through a computerized voice synthesizer. Ironically, Hawking's disability may have helped him avoid the isolation that enveloped Einstein, as Hawking had to rely on collaborators to flesh out his ideas and so remained connected to his peers.

  10. Global environmental issues and electric power in the twenty-first century

    Hidy, G.M.; Spencer, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Development of the electric utility industry in the 21st Century will be central to the well-being of mankind. Electricity worldwide is still likely to be produced mainly from fossil fuel combustion for the foreseeable future. On a global scale, this energy sector will contribute to growing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions through most of the next century. A potential for global climate alteration has been identified with accumulation of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the Earth's atmosphere. If climate changes, adverse environmental effects are possible, acting on human systems, as well as on managed and natural ecosystems. Projected rates of increase in atmospheric CO 2 levels for the next century have motivated decision makers to consider early strategies for beginning to aggressively manage GHG emissions. The objective of this paper is to review the global issues associated with expected increases in gaseous emissions, particularly carbon dioxide from increased energy use, indicating the nature and significance of the issue. The authors emphasize a methodology integrating information on environmental issues with social and economic factors to develop informed international policies. The paper summarizes the technological choices available worldwide that could minimize the environmental impact of increasing energy use, particularly with respect to enhanced electricity production

  11. Environmental sociology as the broadest framework for a research of the globalizing social reality

    Pušić Ljubinko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The all-encompassing processes of globalization have contributed in a large measure to the confusion within scholarly attempts to decode its comprehensiveness, its causes, and its scope. The premise of this article is that the environment is a relevant sociological concept and a tool for the most complex and the most complete understanding of the impact that global processes have on social reality. We can also see that environmental sociology, as a distinct and very young - though well established - sub-discipline of sociology is a very suitable epistemological framework for testing the elements of globalization. This article considers the relationship between environmental sociology and the five common foundational sub-processes that define globalization and sustainable development. Those sub-processes are defined as political, economic, ecological, technological, and cultural. Furthermore, this article articulates the basis of the quest for the lowest common denominator within both theoretical and practical aspects of these sub-processes. In that sense, the question of the plausibility of the idea of sustainable development - as the intersection of the aforementioned sub-processes - is addressed.

  12. A synthesis of convergent reflections, tensions and silences in linking gender and global environmental change research.

    Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Ravera, Federica; Buechler, Stephanie; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Fernández-Giménez, María E; Reed, Maureen G; Thompson-Hall, Mary; Wilmer, Hailey; Aregu, Lemlem; Cohen, Philippa; Djoudi, Houria; Lawless, Sarah; Martín-López, Berta; Smucker, Thomas; Villamor, Grace B; Wangui, Elizabeth Edna

    2016-12-01

    This synthesis article joins the authors of the special issue "Gender perspectives in resilience, vulnerability and adaptation to global environmental change" in a common reflective dialogue about the main contributions of their papers. In sum, here we reflect on links between gender and feminist approaches to research in adaptation and resilience in global environmental change (GEC). The main theoretical contributions of this special issue are threefold: emphasizing the relevance of power relations in feminist political ecology, bringing the livelihood and intersectionality approaches into GEC, and linking resilience theories and critical feminist research. Empirical insights on key debates in GEC studies are also highlighted from the nine cases analysed, from Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa and the Pacific. Further, the special issue also contributes to broaden the gender approach in adaptation to GEC by incorporating research sites in the Global North alongside sites from the Global South. This paper examines and compares the main approaches adopted (e.g. qualitative or mixed methods) and the methodological challenges that derive from intersectional perspectives. Finally, key messages for policy agendas and further research are drawn from the common reflection.

  13. Global climate change: US-Japan cooperative leadership for environmental protection

    Gray, J.E.; Fri, R.W.; Ikuta, Toyoaki; Guertin, D.L.; Tomitate, Takao.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decade the Atlantic Council of the United States has engaged in continuing dialogue with the Committee for Energy Policy Promotion (Japan), The Institute of Energy Economics (Japan) and the Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute (Japan) on a range of energy issues, including environmentally related considerations. Cooperation on environmental issues is the subject of this joint US-Japanese policy paper on global climate change. The Japanese and US participants who prepared this paper agreed on a number of conclusions, principles to guide action, and common recommendations on how best to address global climate change issues. The agreed upon principles include development of strategies in a long-term time frame (50-100 years); aggressive action to increase efficiency or reduce pollution when economically and technologically justified; utilization of market forces to the maximum extent possible; and assistance to developing countries in reducing pollution and increasing energy efficiency. The key recommendations include: The need to strengthen research to better understand global climate change, its implications and appropriate response strategies; The importance of involving as many nations as possible in formulating a framework agreement on global climate change; Recognition that, given economic and technical capabilities, each country should develop its own response strategies; Additional public and private sector efforts to increase the efficient use of resources and the use of alternate, less polluting energy resources when economically justified; Actions to address obstacles to technology cooperation with developing countries; and Increased flow of information to opinion leaders and the general public on global climate change

  14. Reaping Environmental Benefits of a Global Hydrogen Economy: How Large, Fow Soon, and at What Risks?

    Dubey, M. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Rahn, T. A.; Kinnison, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    The Western world has taken an aggressive posture to transition to a global hydrogen economy. While numerous technical challenges need to be addressed to achieve this it is timely to examine the environmental benefits and risks of this transition. Hydrogen provides an efficient energy carrier that promises to enhance urban and regional air quality that will benefit human health. It could also reduce risks of climate change if large-scale hydrogen production by renewable or nuclear energy sources becomes viable. While it is well known that the byproduct of energy produced from hydrogen is water vapor, it is not well known that the storage and transfer of hydrogen is inevitably accompanied by measurable leakage of hydrogen. Unintended consequences of hydrogen leakage include reduction in global oxidative capacity, changes in tropospheric ozone, and increase in stratospheric water that would exacerbate halogen induced ozone losses as well as impact the earth's radiation budget and climate. We construct plausible global hydrogen energy use and leak scenarios and assess their impacts using global 3-D simulations by the Model for Ozone And Related Trace species (MOZART). The hydrogen fluxes and photochemistry in our model successfully reproduce the contemporary hydrogen cycle as observed by a network of remote global stations. Our intent is to determine environmentally tolerable leak rates and also facilitate a gradual phasing in of a hydrogen economy over the next several decades as the elimination of the use of halocarbons gradually reduces halogen induced stratospheric ozone loss rates. We stress that the leak rates in global hydrogen infrastructure and the future evolution of microbial soil sink of hydrogen that determines its current lifetime (about 2 years) are principal sources of uncertainty in our assessment.

  15. Networks of European cities in worlds of global economic and environmental change

    Ben Derudder

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Geographers use a variety of economic, social, and demographic data to measure the importance of global cities and the linkages between cities. We analyze the importance and connectedness of European cities using hyperlinks, or the electronic information provided by the Google Search engine. Hyperlinks are Web sites representing information that is produced; they are especially useful in measuring the impact of contemporary crises. We use the phrases economic slowdown and global financial crisis to derive a Global Financial Score (GFS for 16 core, semiperiphery and peripheral European cities and global warming and climate change to derive a Global Environmental Score (GES. London and Paris are in the European core; Rome, Dublin, Madrid and Prague are in the semiperiphery; while Tallinn, Riga, and Belgrade are in the periphery. A strong positive relationship exists between the GES and GFS. We examine the linkages of the 16 cities to the 100 largest world cities and illustrate, with “clockgrams,” the linkages London, Brussels and Athens have with other world cities. We calculated the number of linkages each of the 16 cities had with other world cities to identify Europe’s urban cores, semiperipheries, peripheries, and deep peripheries. New York is in the core of both the economic and environmental maps. Some world cities are in the semiperiphery of one category and periphery of another. Milan, Istanbul, and Delhi are in the deep periphery for the GFS while Toronto and Athens are for the GES. Hyperlinks represent valuable databases to measure the impact of crises and regional and global urban linkages.

  16. Hawking radiation of five-dimensional charged black holes with scalar fields

    Yan-Gang Miao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the Hawking radiation cascade from the five-dimensional charged black hole with a scalar field coupled to higher-order Euler densities in a conformally invariant manner. We give the semi-analytic calculation of greybody factors for the Hawking radiation. Our analysis shows that the Hawking radiation cascade from this five-dimensional black hole is extremely sparse. The charge enhances the sparsity of the Hawking radiation, while the conformally coupled scalar field reduces this sparsity.

  17. Performance updates of HAWK-I and preparation for the commissioning of the system GRAAL+HAWK-I

    Hibon, Pascale; Paufique, Jerome; Kuntschner, Harald; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Le Louarn, Miska; Valenti, Elena; Neeser, Mark; Pompei, Emanuela; Arsenault, Robin; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Petr-Gotzens, Monika; La Fuente, Carlos; Urrutia, Josefina; Valenzuela, Javier; Castillo, Roberto; Baksai, Pedro; Garcia Dabo, Cesar Enrique; Jost, Andreas; Argomedo, Javier; Kolb, Johann; Kiekebusch, Mario; Hubin, Norbert; Duhoux, Philippe; Conzelmann, Ralf Dieter; Donaldson, Robert; Tordo, Sebastien; Huber, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    The High Acuity Wide field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) instrument is a cryogenic wide field imager operating in the wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 microns. It has been in operations since 2007 on the UT4 at the Very Large Telescope Observatory in seeing-limited mode. In 2017-2018, GRound Layer Adaptive optics Assisted by Lasers module (GRAAL) will be in operation and the system GRAAL+HAWK-I will be commissioned. It will allow: deeper exposures for nearly point-source objects, or shorter exposure times for reaching the same magnitude, and/or deeper detection limiting magnitude. With GRAAL, HAWK-I will operate more than 80% of the time with an equivalent K-band seeing of 0.55" (instead of 0.7" without GRAAL). GRAAL is already installed and the operations without adaptive optics were commissioned in 2015. We discuss here the latest updates on performance from HAWK-I without Adaptive Optics (AO) and the preparation for the commissioning of the system GRAAL+HAWK-I.

  18. Hawking radiation from dilatonic black holes via anomalies

    Jiang Qingquan; Cai Xu; Wu Shuangqing

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Hawking radiation from a Schwarzschild-type black hole via a gravitational anomaly at the horizon has been derived by Robinson and Wilczek. Their result shows that, in order to demand general coordinate covariance at the quantum level to hold in the effective theory, the flux of the energy-momentum tensor required to cancel the gravitational anomaly at the horizon of the black hole is exactly equal to that of (1+1)-dimensional blackbody radiation at the Hawking temperature. In this paper, we attempt to apply the analysis to derive Hawking radiation from the event horizons of static, spherically symmetric dilatonic black holes with arbitrary coupling constant α, and that from the rotating Kaluza-Klein (α=√(3)) as well as the Kerr-Sen (α=1) black holes via an anomalous point of view. Our results support Robinson and Wilczek's opinion. In addition, the properties of the obtained physical quantities near the extreme limit are qualitatively discussed

  19. Habitat segregation in two congeric hawk-eagles (Spizaetus bartelsi abd S. cirrhatus) in Java, Indonesia

    Nijman, V.

    2004-01-01

    On the island of Java, Indonesia, two congeneric hawk-eagles occur, i.e. the endemic Javan hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi and the wide-ranging changeable hawk-eagle S. cirrhatus. Comparisons with similar species-pairs in South East Asia suggest that these species may be competitors both in habitat

  20. A 38-year Summary of Raptor Banding at Hawk Ridge, Duluth, Minnesota, USA

    Consistent banding of raptors at Hawk Ridge was initiated in 1972 and has continued for 38 years to the present. A total of 99,505 raptors or 2,619 per year have been banded at Hawk Ridge including 23 different species. The majority of birds banded were Sharp-shinned Hawks (Acci...

  1. Hawking radiation of a high-dimensional rotating black hole

    Zhao, Ren; Zhang, Lichun; Li, Huaifan; Wu, Yueqin [Shanxi Datong University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Datong (China)

    2010-01-15

    We extend the classical Damour-Ruffini method and discuss Hawking radiation spectrum of high-dimensional rotating black hole using Tortoise coordinate transformation defined by taking the reaction of the radiation to the spacetime into consideration. Under the condition that the energy and angular momentum are conservative, taking self-gravitation action into account, we derive Hawking radiation spectrums which satisfy unitary principle in quantum mechanics. It is shown that the process that the black hole radiates particles with energy {omega} is a continuous tunneling process. We provide a theoretical basis for further studying the physical mechanism of black-hole radiation. (orig.)

  2. Fairness and Reciprocity in the Hawk-Dove Game

    Poulsen, Anders; Neugebauer, Tibor; Schram, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    We study fairness and reciprocity in a Hawk-Dove game, using an experimental approach. This allows us to test various models in one framework. We observe a large extent of selfish and rational behavior. Our results are inconsistent with leading models in this field.......We study fairness and reciprocity in a Hawk-Dove game, using an experimental approach. This allows us to test various models in one framework. We observe a large extent of selfish and rational behavior. Our results are inconsistent with leading models in this field....

  3. Hawking radiation, the Stefan-Boltzmann law, and unitarization

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Where does Hawking radiation originate? A common picture is that it arises from excitations very near or at the horizon, and this viewpoint has supported the “firewall” argument and arguments for a key role for the UV-dependent entanglement entropy in describing the quantum mechanics of black holes. However, closer investigation of both the total emission rate and the stress tensor of Hawking radiation supports the statement that its source is a near-horizon quantum region, or “atmosphere,” w...

  4. Quantum Signature of Analog Hawking Radiation in Momentum Space.

    Boiron, D; Fabbri, A; Larré, P-É; Pavloff, N; Westbrook, C I; Ziń, P

    2015-07-10

    We consider a sonic analog of a black hole realized in the one-dimensional flow of a Bose-Einstein condensate. Our theoretical analysis demonstrates that one- and two-body momentum distributions accessible by present-day experimental techniques provide clear direct evidence (i) of the occurrence of a sonic horizon, (ii) of the associated acoustic Hawking radiation, and (iii) of the quantum nature of the Hawking process. The signature of the quantum behavior persists even at temperatures larger than the chemical potential.

  5. Hawking temperatures of Myers-Perry black holes from tunneling

    Ma Zhengze

    2009-01-01

    Using the tunneling method of Parikh and Wilczek, we derive the Hawking temperature of a general higher-dimensional rotating black hole which is equal to its surface gravity on the horizon divided by 2π. In order to eliminate the motion on the rotating degrees of freedom of a tunneling particle from a higher-dimensional rotating black hole, we choose a reference system that is co-rotating with the black hole horizon. Then, we apply the obtained result to the Myers-Perry higher-dimensional asymptotically flat black holes and reproduce their Hawking temperatures using the tunneling approach.

  6. Multivariate Hawkes process models of the occurrence of regulatory elements

    Carstensen, L; Sandelin, A; Winther, Ole

    2010-01-01

    distribution of the occurrences of these TREs along the genome. RESULTS: We present a model of TRE occurrences known as the Hawkes process. We illustrate the use of this model by analyzing two different publically available data sets. We are able to model, in detail, how the occurrence of one TRE is affected....... For each of the two data sets we provide two results: first, a qualitative description of the dependencies among the occurrences of the TREs, and second, quantitative results on the favored or avoided distances between the different TREs. CONCLUSIONS: The Hawkes process is a novel way of modeling the joint...

  7. Hawking radiation, effective actions and covariant boundary conditions

    Banerjee, Rabin; Kulkarni, Shailesh

    2008-01-01

    From an appropriate expression for the effective action, the Hawking radiation from charged black holes is derived, using only covariant boundary conditions at the event horizon. The connection of our approach with the Unruh vacuum and the recent analysis [S.P. Robinson, F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 011303, (gr-qc/0502074); S. Iso, H. Umetsu, F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 151302, (hep-th/0602146); R. Banerjee, S. Kulkarni, (arXiv: 0707.2449 [hep-th])] of Hawking radiation using anomalies is established

  8. Cyanide poisoning of a Cooper’s hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Franson, J. Christian

    2017-01-01

    A Cooper’s hawk (Accipiter cooperii) was found dead in a ditch leading from a heap leach pad at a gold mine in Nevada. Observations at autopsy included an absence of external lesions, traces of subcutaneous and coronary fat, no food in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and no lesions in the viscera. Cyanide concentrations (µg/g ww) were 5.04 in blood, 3.88 in liver, and 1.79 in brain. No bacteria or viruses were isolated from tissues, and brain cholinesterase activity was within the normal range for a Cooper’s hawk.

  9. Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability to global environmental change: challenges and pathways for an action-oriented research agenda for middle-income and low-income countries

    Lahsen, M.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, R.; Lankao, P.R.; Dube, P.; Leemans, R.; Gaffney, O.; Mirza, M.; Pinho, P.; Osman-Elasha, B.; Smith, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The socio-economic impacts of environmental stresses associated with global environmental change depend to a large extent on how societies organize themselves. Research on climate-related societal impacts, vulnerability and adaptation is currently underdeveloped, prompting international global

  10. A global perspective on the influence of environmental exposures on the nervous system

    Tshala-Katumbay, Desire; Mwanza, Jean-Claude; Rohlman, Diane S.; Maestre, Gladys; Oriá, Reinaldo B.

    2016-01-01

    Economic and social transitions in the era of globalization warrant a fresh look at the neurological risks associated with environmental change. These are driven by industrial expansion, transfer and mobility of goods, climate change and population growth. In these contexts, risk of both infectious and non-infectious diseases are shared across geographical boundaries. In low- and middle-income countries, the risk of environmentally mediated brain disease is augmented several-fold by lack of infrastructure, poor health and safety regulations, and limited measures for environmental protection. Neurological disorders may occur as a result of direct exposure to chemical and/or non-chemical stressors such as ultrafine particulate matters. Individual susceptibilities to exposure-related diseases are modified by genetic, epigenetic and metagenomic factors. The existence of several uniquely exposed populations, including those in the areas surrounding the Niger Delta or north western Amazon oil operations; those working in poorly regulated environments, such as artisanal mining industries; or those, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, relying on cassava as a staple food, offers invaluable opportunities to advance the current understanding of brain responses to environmental challenges. Increased awareness of the brain disorders that are prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and investments in capacity for further environmental health-related research are positive steps towards improving human health. PMID:26580326

  11. Energy efficiency as a unifying principle for human, environmental, and global health

    Fontana, Luigi; Atella, Vincenzo; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    A strong analogy exists between over/under consumption of energy at the level of the human body and of the industrial metabolism of humanity. Both forms of energy consumption have profound implications for human, environmental, and global health. Globally, excessive fossil-fuel consumption, and individually, excessive food energy consumption are both responsible for a series of interrelated detrimental effects, including global warming, extreme weather conditions, damage to ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, widespread pollution, obesity, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and other lethal chronic diseases. In contrast, data show that the efficient use of energy—in the form of food as well as fossil fuels and other resources—is vital for promoting human, environmental, and planetary health and sustainable economic development. While it is not new to highlight how efficient use of energy and food can address some of the key problems our world is facing, little research and no unifying framework exists to harmonize these concepts of sustainable system management across diverse scientific fields into a single theoretical body. Insights beyond reductionist views of efficiency are needed to encourage integrated changes in the use of the world’s natural resources, with the aim of achieving a wiser use of energy, better farming systems, and healthier dietary habits. This perspective highlights a range of scientific-based opportunities for cost-effective pro-growth and pro-health policies while using less energy and natural resources. PMID:24555053

  12. Global justice and environmental governance: an analysis of the Paris Agreement

    Marcelo Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the major normative political theory contributions on global climate justice, the present paper analyzes the new international agreement on climate change, adopted at COP 21 in Paris (2015. Therefore, a literary review of the extensive normative theoretical discussion about global climate justice is made, with special attention to the two approaches that have permeated multilateral political negotiations - historical responsibility and equal per capita emissions. From this normative discussion, this paper recalls the global climate change negotiation process, focusing on the Kyoto Protocol. Next, the analysis emphasizes on the Paris Agreement in an effort to evaluate the normative questions on justice and equity within the environmental governance regime. Finally, the set of conclusions indicates that, although the flexibility of the Agreement has encompassed some dimensions of responsibility, necessity and ability to bear the costs, the most complex dimensions of justice and equity has not been completely solved, which may hinder the operation of environmental governance in a near future.

  13. Environmental impact assessment caused by global warming. Chikyu ondanka no eikyoryo hyoka to sono taisaku

    Oshima, K [Geological Survey of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-09-01

    This paper describes the considerations on the influence of the global warming on the environment, and the discussions on the measures against the climatic changes. With respect to the environmental effects by the global warming, the considerations were given based on the studies on the effects of mainly the Quaternary climatic changes on the surface sea water temperatures, sea level and animal flocks. If the magnitude of the climatic changes anticipated to occur during the 21st century is lower than that have taken place in the past 10,000 years during which the agricultural production has developed to a full-scale, there would be no fear of drastically changing the ecology on earth. If the estimation of future climatic and environmental changes becomes possible, then four basic positions could be selected for establishing the contermeasure plans. That is, the first is the measures to correspond to birth-rebirth transmigration; the second is the measures to carbon dioxide disposition upon concluding that the cause for the global warming is the atmospheric increase of carbon dioxide concentration, measures for conservation and international cooperation; the third is to deal with the warming environments; and the fourth is the means to reconstruct the earth. While a number of countermeasures may be prepared, Which of them should be selected will be decided by the amount of effects. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Global estimation of areas with suitable environmental conditions for mariculture species.

    Muhammed A Oyinlola

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has grown rapidly over the last three decades expanding at an average annual growth rate of 5.8% (2005-2014, down from 8.8% achieved between 1980 and 2010. The sector now produces 44% of total food fish production. Increasing demand and consumption from a growing global population are driving further expansion of both inland and marine aquaculture (i.e., mariculture, including marine species farmed on land. However, the growth of mariculture is dependent on the availability of suitable farming areas for new facilities, particularly for open farming practices that rely on the natural oceanic environmental parameters such as temperature, oxygen, chlorophyll etc. In this study, we estimated the marine areas within the exclusive economic zones of all countries that were suitable for potential open ocean mariculture activities. To this end, we quantify the environmental niche and inferred the global habitat suitability index (HSI of the 102 most farmed marine species using four species distribution models. The average weighted HSI across the four models suggests that 72,000,000 km2 of ocean are to be environmentally suitable to farm one or more species. About 92% of the predicted area (66,000,000 km2 is environmentally suitable for farming finfish, 43% (31,000,000 km2 for molluscs and 54% (39,000,000 km2 for crustaceans. These predictions do not consider technological feasibility that can limit crustaceans farming in open waters. Suitable mariculture areas along the Atlantic coast of South America and West Africa appear to be most under-utilized for farming. Our results suggest that factors other than environmental considerations such as the lack of socio-economic and technological capacity, as well as aqua feed supply are currently limiting the potential for mariculture expansion in many areas.

  15. Confronting ecological futures: global environmental crises in contemporary survival quests for young adults

    Yvonne Hammer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines representations of societal concern in the futuristic ecological disaster fictions of three British authors: Julie Bertagna (Exodus; Zenith, Jan Mark (Riding Tycho; Voyager and Marcus Sedgwick Floodland. The depicted refugee journeys in these futuristic worlds speak into a growing global disquiet that surrounds current historic events. Environmental crises that ground the emergent world orders of depicted future societies set the scene in each coming of age frame: each survival quest embeds social and cultural issues recognisable to contemporary audiences in futuristic representations of changed world orders, limited resources, and isolated communities. Authors resist the mythic frame of a traditional quest journey − a call to journey, the engagement with growth through a road of trials and then celebrations in a return to home territory: their conclusions offer limited resolutions, the struggle to survive entrenched as a linear path. Because authors link depictions of the refugee subject with environmental degradation, apocalyptic scenarios that signify the devastating consequences of global environmental crises provide an ecocritical platform from which each author situates a discourse of protest. Interrogating contemporary political positions of ambiguity and denial their novels profile social justice issues experienced by refugee populations in contemporary society.

  16. Understanding students visions about environmental global problems. Experience and lessons learned of teaching in Lithuania.

    Pereira, Paulo; Siarova, Hanna; Misiūnė, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, environment is accepted to be an important element of our welfare. Our activities and societal status are strongly related with the quality of the environment where we live. On the other hand historical and cultural backgrounds shape importantly our views about the environment and how we act towards it in our daily life. In a context of globalization and increase of competition at international level, knowledge appears to be one of the key components for the advance of the word. Most of the knowledge produced comes from high level education institutions and research centres, which have responsibility to create and encourage critical thinking. Individuals aware of the problems can be more active and can push things forward. We think that environmental knowledge and awareness are fundamental for the future of the society. In order to develop better methodologies are developed if we have a better perception of students understanding of environmental problems. The objective of this work is to study the Lithuanian university level student's perception about some environmental challenges of our society. We selected several questions for the students rate according the relevance of the question, as "Air Pollution", "Waste Management", "Resources overexplotation", "Biodiversity reduction", "Human Overpopulation" "Poverty", "Global Warming/Climate change", Natural disasters", "Terrorism", "Economical crisis", "War and armed conflicts" and the "Spread of infectious diseases". We ask to the respondents to rate the importance using a likert scale (1=Not Important, 2= not so important, 3=important, 4=very important, 5=the most important). Among all the questions, the most rated where the Water pollution, the Spread of infectious diseases and Air Pollution and the less important where Biodiversity Reduction, Human overpopulation and climate change. These results helped us to identify where some efforts should be taken to raise student's awareness about global

  17. Environmental and Health Benefits and Risks of a Global Hydrogen Economy

    Dubey, M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Rahn, T. A.; Kinnison, D. E.

    2003-12-01

    Rapid development in hydrogen fuel-cell technologies will create a strong impetus for a massive hydrogen supply and distribution infrastructure in the coming decades. Hydrogen provides an efficient energy carrier that promises to enhance urban and regional air quality that will benefit human health. It could also reduce risks of climate change if large-scale hydrogen production by renewable or nuclear energy sources becomes viable. While it is well known that the byproduct of energy produced from hydrogen is water vapor, it is not well known that the storage and transfer of hydrogen is inevitably accompanied by measurable leakage of hydrogen. Unintended consequences of hydrogen leakage include reduction in global oxidative capacity, changes in tropospheric ozone, and increase in stratospheric water that would exacerbate halogen induced ozone losses as well as impact the earth's radiation budget and climate. Stratospheric ozone depletion would increase exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation and increased risk to melanoma. We construct plausible global hydrogen energy use and leak scenarios and assess their impacts using global 3-D simulations by the Model for Ozone And Related Trace species (MOZART). The hydrogen fluxes and photochemistry in our model successfully reproduce the contemporary hydrogen cycle as observed by a network of remote global stations. Our intent is to determine environmentally tolerable leak rates and also facilitate a gradual phasing in of a hydrogen economy over the next several decades as the elimination of the use of halocarbons gradually reduces halogen induced stratospheric ozone loss rates. We stress that the future evolution of microbial soil sink of hydrogen that determines its current lifetime (about 2 years) is the principal source of uncertainty in our assessment. We propose global monitoring of hydrogen and its deuterium content to define a baseline and track its budget to responsibly prepare for a global hydrogen economy.

  18. Social Roots of Global Environmental Change: A World-Systems Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    J. Timmons Roberts

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide is understood to be the most important greenhouse gas believed to be altering the global climate. This article applies world-system theory to environmental damage. An analysis of 154 countries examines the contribution of both position in the world economy and internal class and political forces in determining a nation's CO, intensity. CO, intensity is defined here as the amount of carbon dioxide released per unit of economic output. An inverted U distribution of CO, intensity across the range of countries in the global stratification system is identified and discussed. Ordinary Least Squares regression suggests that the least efficient consumers of fossil fuels are some countries within the semi-periphery and upper periphery, spe-cifically those nations which are high exporters, those highly in debt, nations with higher military spending, and those with a repressive social structure.

  19. STUDENTS’ SCIENCE LITERACY ABILITY PROFILE IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND GLOBAL WARMING MATERIAL

    Laela Ulfa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research head for measure profile of students’ science literacy ability in environmental pollution and global warming material. The study was conducted in one of SMP Negeri Semarang with samples of 70 students from grade VII D and VII E. The profile of literacy science of students from the highest percentage till the lowest was science as a body of a knowledge was 70,36%, science as a way of thinking was 61,71%, the interaction between science, technology, and society was 61,43% categorized enough level, and science as a way for investigating was 38,21 categorized too less. keywords: science literacy, scince literacy ability

  20. Elucidation of the fluctuation history of cosmic radiation and global environmental using AMS

    Horiuchi, Kazuho

    2008-01-01

    Recently, accuracy of AMS has further been raised in trace amounts of sample. Besides application of 14 C to the age estimation, it has been able to restore in detail the past fluctuation of cosmic radiation strength using the other radioactive isotopes ( 10 Be, 36 Cl etc) in environmental samples and to elucidate the correlation of this with the fluctuation of climate and environment. In this report, the attempts to elucidate the fluctuation history of cosmic radiation and global environment with ice cores using AMS are presented. (M.H.)

  1. Open Data in Global Environmental Research: The Belmont Forum’s Open Data Survey

    Schmidt, Birgit; Gemeinholzer, Birgit; Treloar, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the Belmont Forum’s survey on Open Data which targeted the global environmental research and data infrastructure community. It highlights users’ perceptions of the term “open data”, expectations of infrastructure functionalities, and barriers and enablers for the sharing of data. A wide range of good practice examples was pointed out by the respondents which demonstrates a substantial uptake of data sharing through e-infrastructures and a further need for enhancement and consolidation. Among all policy responses, funder policies seem to be the most important motivator. This supports the conclusion that stronger mandates will strengthen the case for data sharing. PMID:26771577

  2. Environmental radioactivity. Global transport, distribution and its long-term variation

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, which occurred as a result of huge earthquake and resulting tsunami, had a severe impact on world communities as did Japanese, because of cause of serious radioactivity contamination in the environment. Long-term effects of radioactivity contamination from F1NPP are concerned. To assess the long-term environmental effects of the F1NPP accident, it is important to review the history of global radioactivity contamination, which started from Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear explosions in Aug. 1945. Radionuclides released in the environment as a result of atmospheric nuclear explosions, nuclear reactor accident and others are migrated between atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere according to natural processes. We describe long-term environmental behaviors of anthropogenic radionuclides derived from the atmospheric nuclear explosions and others, which is useful to predict the behaviors and fate of the F1NPP-derived radionuclides. (author)

  3. Extinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility.

    Fischer, Valentin; Bardet, Nathalie; Benson, Roger B J; Arkhangelsky, Maxim S; Friedman, Matt

    2016-03-08

    Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current hypotheses for this early demise involve relatively minor biotic events, but are at odds with recent understanding of the ichthyosaur fossil record. Here, we show that ichthyosaurs maintained high but diminishing richness and disparity throughout the Early Cretaceous. The last ichthyosaurs are characterized by reduced rates of origination and phenotypic evolution and their elevated extinction rates correlate with increased environmental volatility. In addition, we find that ichthyosaurs suffered from a profound Early Cenomanian extinction that reduced their ecological diversity, likely contributing to their final extinction at the end of the Cenomanian. Our results support a growing body of evidence revealing that global environmental change resulted in a major, temporally staggered turnover event that profoundly reorganized marine ecosystems during the Cenomanian.

  4. Global measure for energy + environmental problems by thorium molten-salt nuclear energy synergetics

    Furukawa, K.; Lecocq, A.; Mitachi, K.; Kato, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The new global fission industry as a measure for energy and environmental problems of the next century should keep a strong public acceptance, which means to ensure an enough rational safety feature not only in the engineering issue but also in the all issues of integral fuel-cycle system. In these sense, the rational characteristics of the Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System (THORIMS-NES) is widely explained relating with a) resources and environmental problems, b) safety, c) nuclear-proliferation and -terrorism, d) breeding fuel-cycle, chemical processing and radio-wastes, and e) social acceptability and economy, including 'North-South' problems. The basic technology of Molten-Salt Reactor system has been established, and the practical and economical development program of THORIMS-NES is also proposed. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs

  5. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Higher curvature self-interaction corrections to Hawking radiation

    Fairoos, C.; Sarkar, Sudipta; Yogendran, K. P.

    2017-07-01

    The purely thermal nature of Hawking radiation from evaporating black holes leads to the information loss paradox. A possible route to its resolution could be if (enough) correlations are shown to be present in the radiation emitted from evaporating black holes. A reanalysis of Hawking's derivation including the effects of self-interactions in general relativity shows that the emitted radiation does deviate from pure thermality; however no correlations exist between successively emitted Hawking quanta. We extend the calculations to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and investigate if higher curvature corrections to the action lead to some new correlations in the Hawking spectra. The effective trajectory of a massless shell is determined by solving the constraint equations and the semiclassical tunneling probability is calculated. As in the case of general relativity, the radiation is no longer thermal and there is no correlation between successive emissions. The absence of any extra correlations in the emitted radiations even in Gauss-Bonnet gravity suggests that the resolution of the paradox is beyond the scope of semiclassical gravity.

  7. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  8. Ambiguity of the equivalence principle and Hawking's temperature

    Hooft, G. 't

    1984-01-01

    There are two inequivalent ways in which the laws of physics in a gravitational field can be related to the laws in an inertial frame, when quantum mechanical effects are taken into account. This leads to an ambiguity in the derivation of Hawking's radiation temperature for a black hole: it could be

  9. Red-shouldered hawk nesting habitat preference in south Texas

    Strobel, Bradley N.; Boal, Clint W.

    2010-01-01

    We examined nesting habitat preference by red-shouldered hawks Buteo lineatus using conditional logistic regression on characteristics measured at 27 occupied nest sites and 68 unused sites in 2005–2009 in south Texas. We measured vegetation characteristics of individual trees (nest trees and unused trees) and corresponding 0.04-ha plots. We evaluated the importance of tree and plot characteristics to nesting habitat selection by comparing a priori tree-specific and plot-specific models using Akaike's information criterion. Models with only plot variables carried 14% more weight than models with only center tree variables. The model-averaged odds ratios indicated red-shouldered hawks selected to nest in taller trees and in areas with higher average diameter at breast height than randomly available within the forest stand. Relative to randomly selected areas, each 1-m increase in nest tree height and 1-cm increase in the plot average diameter at breast height increased the probability of selection by 85% and 10%, respectively. Our results indicate that red-shouldered hawks select nesting habitat based on vegetation characteristics of individual trees as well as the 0.04-ha area surrounding the tree. Our results indicate forest management practices resulting in tall forest stands with large average diameter at breast height would benefit red-shouldered hawks in south Texas.

  10. Comment on 'Hawking radiation from fluctuating black holes'

    Khavkine, I.

    2010-01-01

    Takahashi and Soda (2010 Class. Quantum Grav. 27 175008) have recently considered the effect (at lowest non-trivial order) of dynamical, quantized gravitational fluctuations on the spectrum of scalar Hawking radiation from a collapsing Schwarzschild black hole. However, due to an unfortunate choice

  11. Remarks on Hawking radiation as tunneling from a uniformly ...

    Abstract. Motivated by the Hamilton–Jacobi method of Angheben et al, we investigate the Hawking tunneling radiation from a uniformly accelerating rectilinear black hole for which the horizons and entropy are functions of θ. After several coordinate transforma- tions, we conclude that when the self-gravitational interaction ...

  12. Hawking Radiations from an Arbitrarily Accelerating Kerr Black Hole ...

    Introduction. In 1976, Damour & Ruffini (1976) presented a method proving Hawking radiation. Zhao et al. (1994) improved the method of Damour and Ruffini, and calculated the location of the event horizon and the temperature of the varying black holes at the same time. It is a pivotal step to introduce a tortoise coordinate ...

  13. Kas inimkond näeb aastat 2106? / Stephen Hawking

    Hawking, Stephen W., 1942-

    2006-01-01

    Briti füüsik Stephen Hawking avas Yahoo! internetifoorumis debati, küsides foorumikasutajatelt: "Maailmas valitseb poliitiline, sotsiaalne ja ökoloogiline kaos - kuidas suudab inimkond järgmised sada aastat üle elada?". Kommenteerivad julgeolekuekspert Eerik-Niiles Kross, meditsiiniteaduste doktor Mari Järvelaid ja keskkonnaekspert Marek Strandberg

  14. Spizaetus hawk-eagles as predators of arboreal colobines.

    Fam, S D; Nijman, V

    2011-04-01

    The predation pressure put on primates by diurnal birds of prey differs greatly between continents. Africa and South America have specialist raptors (e.g. crowned hawk-eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus and harpy eagle Harpia harpyja) whereas in Asia the only such specialist's (Philippine eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi) distribution is largely allopatric with primates. The almost universal absence of polyspecific groups in Asia (common in Africa and South America) may indicate reduced predation pressure. As such there is almost no information on predation pressures on primates in Asia by raptors. Here we report successful predation of a juvenile banded langur Presbytis femoralis (~2 kg) by a changeable hawk-eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus. The troop that was attacked displayed no signs of being alarmed, and no calls were made before the event. We argue that in insular Southeast Asia, especially, large Spizaetus hawk-eagles (~2 kg) are significant predators of arboreal colobines. Using data on the relative size of sympatric Spizaetus hawk-eagles and colobines we make predictions on where geographically we can expect the highest predation pressure (Thai-Malay Peninsula) and which colobines are least (Nasalis larvatus, Trachypithecus auratus, P. thomasi) and most (P. femoralis, T. cristatus) affected.

  15. Larry Echo Hawk: A Rising Star from Idaho.

    Wisecarver, Charmaine

    1993-01-01

    Larry Echo Hawk, Idaho attorney general and former state legislator, discusses success factors in college and law school; early experiences as an Indian lawyer; first election campaign; and his views on tribal sovereignty, state-tribal relationship, gambling, and his dual responsibility to the general public and Native American issues. (SV)

  16. E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts.

    Robinson, Brett H

    2009-12-20

    E-waste comprises discarded electronic appliances, of which computers and mobile telephones are disproportionately abundant because of their short lifespan. The current global production of E-waste is estimated to be 20-25 million tonnes per year, with most E-waste being produced in Europe, the United States and Australasia. China, Eastern Europe and Latin America will become major E-waste producers in the next ten years. Miniaturisation and the development of more efficient cloud computing networks, where computing services are delivered over the internet from remote locations, may offset the increase in E-waste production from global economic growth and the development of pervasive new technologies. E-waste contains valuable metals (Cu, platinum group) as well as potential environmental contaminants, especially Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, Ni, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Burning E-waste may generate dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), and hydrogen chloride. The chemical composition of E-waste changes with the development of new technologies and pressure from environmental organisations on electronics companies to find alternatives to environmentally damaging materials. Most E-waste is disposed in landfills. Effective reprocessing technology, which recovers the valuable materials with minimal environmental impact, is expensive. Consequently, although illegal under the Basel Convention, rich countries export an unknown quantity of E-waste to poor countries, where recycling techniques include burning and dissolution in strong acids with few measures to protect human health and the environment. Such reprocessing initially results in extreme localised contamination followed by migration of the contaminants into receiving waters and food chains. E-waste workers suffer negative health effects through skin contact and inhalation, while the wider community are exposed

  17. E-waste: An assessment of global production and environmental impacts

    Robinson, Brett H., E-mail: brett.robinson@lincoln.ac.nz [Department of Soil and Physical Sciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Canterbury (New Zealand)

    2009-12-20

    E-waste comprises discarded electronic appliances, of which computers and mobile telephones are disproportionately abundant because of their short lifespan. The current global production of E-waste is estimated to be 20-25 million tonnes per year, with most E-waste being produced in Europe, the United States and Australasia. China, Eastern Europe and Latin America will become major E-waste producers in the next ten years. Miniaturisation and the development of more efficient cloud computing networks, where computing services are delivered over the internet from remote locations, may offset the increase in E-waste production from global economic growth and the development of pervasive new technologies. E-waste contains valuable metals (Cu, platinum group) as well as potential environmental contaminants, especially Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, Ni, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Burning E-waste may generate dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), and hydrogen chloride. The chemical composition of E-waste changes with the development of new technologies and pressure from environmental organisations on electronics companies to find alternatives to environmentally damaging materials. Most E-waste is disposed in landfills. Effective reprocessing technology, which recovers the valuable materials with minimal environmental impact, is expensive. Consequently, although illegal under the Basel Convention, rich countries export an unknown quantity of E-waste to poor countries, where recycling techniques include burning and dissolution in strong acids with few measures to protect human health and the environment. Such reprocessing initially results in extreme localised contamination followed by migration of the contaminants into receiving waters and food chains. E-waste workers suffer negative health effects through skin contact and inhalation, while the wider community are exposed

  18. E-waste: An assessment of global production and environmental impacts

    Robinson, Brett H.

    2009-01-01

    E-waste comprises discarded electronic appliances, of which computers and mobile telephones are disproportionately abundant because of their short lifespan. The current global production of E-waste is estimated to be 20-25 million tonnes per year, with most E-waste being produced in Europe, the United States and Australasia. China, Eastern Europe and Latin America will become major E-waste producers in the next ten years. Miniaturisation and the development of more efficient cloud computing networks, where computing services are delivered over the internet from remote locations, may offset the increase in E-waste production from global economic growth and the development of pervasive new technologies. E-waste contains valuable metals (Cu, platinum group) as well as potential environmental contaminants, especially Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, Ni, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Burning E-waste may generate dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), and hydrogen chloride. The chemical composition of E-waste changes with the development of new technologies and pressure from environmental organisations on electronics companies to find alternatives to environmentally damaging materials. Most E-waste is disposed in landfills. Effective reprocessing technology, which recovers the valuable materials with minimal environmental impact, is expensive. Consequently, although illegal under the Basel Convention, rich countries export an unknown quantity of E-waste to poor countries, where recycling techniques include burning and dissolution in strong acids with few measures to protect human health and the environment. Such reprocessing initially results in extreme localised contamination followed by migration of the contaminants into receiving waters and food chains. E-waste workers suffer negative health effects through skin contact and inhalation, while the wider community are exposed

  19. The environmental roots of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the epigenetic impacts of globalization.

    Vineis, Paolo; Stringhini, Silvia; Porta, Miquel

    2014-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing worldwide. We hypothesize that environmental factors (including social adversity, diet, lack of physical activity and pollution) can become "embedded" in the biology of humans. We also hypothesize that the "embedding" partly occurs because of epigenetic changes, i.e., durable changes in gene expression patterns. Our concern is that once such factors have a foundation in human biology, they can affect human health (including NCDs) over a long period of time and across generations. To analyze how worldwide changes in movements of goods, persons and lifestyles (globalization) may affect the "epigenetic landscape" of populations and through this have an impact on NCDs. We provide examples of such changes and effects by discussing the potential epigenetic impact of socio-economic status, migration, and diet, as well as the impact of environmental factors influencing trends in age at puberty. The study of durable changes in epigenetic patterns has the potential to influence policy and practice; for example, by enabling stratification of populations into those who could particularly benefit from early interventions to prevent NCDs, or by demonstrating mechanisms through which environmental factors influence disease risk, thus providing compelling evidence for policy makers, companies and the civil society at large. The current debate on the '25 × 25 strategy', a goal of 25% reduction in relative mortality from NCDs by 2025, makes the proposed approach even more timely. Epigenetic modifications related to globalization may crucially contribute to explain current and future patterns of NCDs, and thus deserve attention from environmental researchers, public health experts, policy makers, and concerned citizens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Three Global Land Cover and Use Stage considering Environmental Condition and Economic Development

    Lee, W. K.; Song, C.; Moon, J.; Ryu, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Mid-Latitude zone can be broadly defined as part of the hemisphere between around 30° - 60° latitude. This zone is a home to over more than 50% of the world population and encompasses about 36 countries throughout the principal regions which host most of the global problems related to development and poverty. Mid-Latitude region and its ecotone demands in-depth analysis, however, latitudinal approach has not been widely recognized, considering that many of natural resources and environment indicators, as well as social and economic indicators are based on administrative basis or by country and regional boundaries. This study sets the land cover change and use stage based on environmental condition and economic development. Because various land cover and use among the regions, form vegetated parts of East Asia and Mediterranean to deserted parts of Central Asia, the forest area was varied between countries. In addition, some nations such as North Korea, Afghanistan, Pakistan showed decreasing trends in forest area whereas some nations showed increasing trends in forest area. The economic capacity for environmental activities and policies for restoration were different among countries. By adopting the standard from IMF or World Bank, developing and developed counties were classified. Based on the classification, this study suggested the land cover and use stages as degradation, restoration, and sustainability. As the degradation stage, the nations which had decreasing forest area with less environmental restoration capacity based on economic size were selected. As the restoration stage, the nation which had increasing forest area or restoration capacity were selected. In the case of the sustainability, the nation which had enough restoration capacity with increasing forest area or small ratio in forest area decreasing were selected. In reviewing some of the past and current major environmental challenges that regions of Mid-Latitudes are facing, grouping by

  1. Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas

    Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  2. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili@bnu.edu.cn; Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-15

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field.

  3. Compatibility of global environmental assessment methods of buildings with an Egyptian energy code

    Amal Kamal Mohamed Shamseldin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental assessment methods of buildings had emerged over the world to set environmental classifications for buildings, such as the American method “Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design” (LEED the most widespread one. Several countries decided to put their own assessment methods to catch up with the previous orientation, such as Egypt. The main goal of putting the Egyptian method was to impose the voluntary local energy efficiency codes. Through a local survey, it was clearly noted that many of the construction makers in Egypt do not even know the local method, and whom are interested in the environmental assessment of buildings seek to apply LEED rather than anything else. Therefore, several questions appear about the American method compatibility with the Egyptian energy codes – that contain the most exact characteristics and requirements and give the outmost credible energy efficiency results for buildings in Egypt-, and the possibility of finding another global method that gives closer results to those of the Egyptian codes, especially with the great variety of energy efficiency measurement approaches used among the different assessment methods. So, the researcher is trying to find the compatibility of using non-local assessment methods with the local energy efficiency codes. Thus, if the results are not compatible, the Egyptian government should take several steps to increase the local building sector awareness of the Egyptian method to benefit these codes, and it should begin to enforce it within the building permits after a proper guidance and feedback.

  4. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field

  5. Environmental satisfaction and adaptability : the Physical Ambience Rose as a global comfort representation

    Demers, C.M.H.; Potvin, A.; Dubois, M.C. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). GRAP Groupe de recherche en ambiances physiques; Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). School of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a new graphical tool for architects. The Physical Ambience Rose (PAR) provides a record of the occupants' global environmental satisfaction and adaptability. A PAR representation takes into account all senses commonly at play in spatial perception, namely thermal, visual, acoustical and olfactory. Each of these 4 environmental stimuli can be qualified by the user to provide a representation of the perceived environmental satisfaction of a building. PAR can be generated for either individuals or groups of occupants and their interaction with the building. The satisfaction scale therefore varies from very pleasant, to neutral, and intolerable according to the level of quality, scale and duration of the thermal, luminous, visual and olfactory stimuli. The paper presents the methodology that led to the development of this representation tool. The tool was used in a post-occupancy evaluation of a bioclimatic administrative building in Montreal. The overall environmental conditions at the building were highly praised, ranging from neutral to very pleasant. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Global gradients of coral exposure to environmental stresses and implications for local management.

    Joseph Maina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums, stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication, and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia. The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of

  7. Hawking radiation in the Swiss-cheese universe

    Saida, Hiromi

    2002-01-01

    The Hawking radiation forms the essential basis of black-hole thermodynamics. Black-hole thermodynamics denotes a good correspondence between black-hole kinematics and the laws of ordinary thermodynamics, but has so far been considered only in an asymptotically flat case. Does such correspondence rely strongly on the feature of gravity vanishing at infinity? In order to resolve this question, extending the Hawking radiation to a case with a dynamical boundary condition like an expanding universe should be considered. Therefore, the Hawking radiation in an expanding universe is discussed in this paper. As a concrete model of a black hole in an expanding universe, we use the 'Swiss-cheese' universe which is a spacetime including a Schwarzschild black hole in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. Further, for simplicity, our calculation is performed in two dimensions. The resultant spectrum of the Hawking radiation measured by a comoving observer is generally different from a thermal one. We find that the qualitative behaviour of the non-thermal spectrum is of dumping oscillation as a function of the frequency measured by the observer, and that the intensity of the Hawking radiation is enhanced by the presence of a cosmological expansion. It is appropriate to say that a black hole with an asymptotically flat boundary condition stays in a lowest energy thermal equilibrium state, and that once a black hole is put into an expanding universe, it is excited to a non-equilibrium state and emits its mass energy with stronger intensity than a thermal one

  8. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks.

    Björklund, Heidi; Valkama, Jari; Tomppo, Erkki; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100-4000 m) around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992-2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists.

  9. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks.

    Heidi Björklund

    Full Text Available Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, common buzzard (Buteo buteo and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus. We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100-4000 m around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992-2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists.

  10. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  11. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  12. Human response to environmental change in the perspective of future, global climate

    Butzer, Karl W.

    1983-05-01

    Human response to severe environmental stress is conceived and implemented by individuals, but must be approved by the group. These decisions are made with respect to perceived circumstances. Societies are enmeshed within adaptive systems that provide a matrix of opportunities and constraints for a wide range of potential behavioral variability. Such systems repeatedly readjust to short-term crises, e.g., droughts, but persistent and severe environmental stress may require substantial revision of adaptive strategies. The Sahel drought of 1968-1973 is an example of a brief but severe crisis, recurring along the Saharan margins perhaps once every 30 years. Closer inspection shows links between intensified intertribal warfare and ecological stress in the lower Omo Valley. The decline of the Egyptian New Kingdom during the 12th century B.C., in response to economic stagnation, sociopolitical instability, dynastic weakness, foreign pressures, and poor Nile floods over 50-70 years, represents a more complex and fundamental modification, with systemic simplification lasting 450 years. Such insights can be applied to future, global climatic change due to increasing atmospheric CO 2. Simulation and paleoclimatic experience suggest a drier climate for the North American and Soviet breadbaskets, to threaten world food supplies at a time of maximum demographic pressures and declining resources. Public perception and remedial planning should receive the attention of Quaternary scientists, in order to preempt an involuntary, global, systemic simplification.

  13. Nuclear energy: Between global electricity demand, worldwide decarbonisation imperativeness, and planetary environmental implications.

    Prăvălie, Remus; Bandoc, Georgeta

    2018-03-01

    For decades, nuclear energy has been considered an important option for ensuring global energy security, and it has recently started being promoted as a solution for climate change mitigation. However, nuclear power remains highly controversial due to its associated risks - nuclear accidents and problematic radioactive waste management. This review aims to assess the viability of global nuclear energy economically (energy-wise), climatically and environmentally. To this end, the nuclear sector's energy- and climate-related advantages were explored alongside the downsides that mainly relate to radioactive pollution. Economically, it was found that nuclear energy is still an important power source in many countries around the world. Climatically, nuclear power is a low-carbon technology and can therefore be a viable option for the decarbonization of the world's major economies over the following decades, if coupled with other large-scale strategies such as renewable energies. These benefits are however outweighed by the radioactive danger associated to nuclear power plants, either in the context of the nuclear accidents that have already occurred or in that of the large amounts of long-lived nuclear waste that have been growing for decades and that represent a significant environmental and societal threat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Agro forestry systems and food security among smallholder farmers of the Brazilian Amazon: A strategy for environmental global crisis

    Abreu, Dr. Santiago de Lucimar; Watanabe, Dr. Maria Aico

    2008-01-01

    The Amazon is known for its environmental importance for the climatic equilibrium, for its abundance and richness in biodiversity and its preservation is important to reduce global heating. Nevertheless, little research has analysed the possible positive role of the local farm population for environmental conservation. The paper investigates the possibility to conciliate the environmental conservation with the small farming expansion in the Amazon, to build agrobiodiversity, and at the same t...

  15. Global change impacts on wheat production along an environmental gradient in south Australia.

    Reyenga, P J; Howden, S M; Meinke, H; Hall, W B

    2001-09-01

    Crop production is likely to change in the future as a result of global changes in CO2 levels in the atmosphere and climate. APSIM, a cropping system model, was used to investigate the potential impact of these changes on the distribution of cropping along an environmental transect in south Australia. The effects of several global change scenarios were studied, including: (1) historical climate and CO2 levels, (2) historic climate with elevated CO2 (700 ppm), (3) warmer climate (+2.4 degrees C) +700 ppm CO2, (4) drier climate (-15% summer, -20% winter rainfall) +2.4 degrees C +700 ppm CO2, (5) wetter climate (+10% summer rainfall) +2.4 degrees C +700 ppm CO2 and (6) most likely climate changes (+1.8 degrees C, -8% annual rainfall) +700 ppm CO2. Based on an analysis of the current cropping boundary, a criterion of 1 t/ha was used to assess potential changes in the boundary under global change. Under most scenarios, the cropping boundary moved northwards with a further 240,000 ha potentially being available for cropping. The exception was the reduced rainfall scenario (4), which resulted in a small retreat of cropping from its current extent. However, the impact of this scenario may only be small (in the order of 10,000-20,000 ha reduction in cropping area). Increases in CO2 levels over the current climate record have resulted in small but significant increases in simulated yields. Model limitations are discussed.

  16. Data interoperabilty between European Environmental Research Infrastructures and their contribution to global data networks

    Kutsch, W. L.; Zhao, Z.; Hardisty, A.; Hellström, M.; Chin, Y.; Magagna, B.; Asmi, A.; Papale, D.; Pfeil, B.; Atkinson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental Research Infrastructures (ENVRIs) are expected to become important pillars not only for supporting their own scientific communities, but also a) for inter-disciplinary research and b) for the European Earth Observation Program Copernicus as a contribution to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) or global thematic data networks. As such, it is very important that data-related activities of the ENVRIs will be well integrated. This requires common policies, models and e-infrastructure to optimise technological implementation, define workflows, and ensure coordination, harmonisation, integration and interoperability of data, applications and other services. The key is interoperating common metadata systems (utilising a richer metadata model as the `switchboard' for interoperation with formal syntax and declared semantics). The metadata characterises data, services, users and ICT resources (including sensors and detectors). The European Cluster Project ENVRIplus has developed a reference model (ENVRI RM) for common data infrastructure architecture to promote interoperability among ENVRIs. The presentation will provide an overview of recent progress and give examples for the integration of ENVRI data in global integration networks.

  17. Biofuels and their by-products: Global economic and environmental implications

    Taheripour, Farzad; Hertel, Thomas W.; Tyner, Wallace E.; Beckman, Jayson F.; Birur, Dileep K.

    2010-01-01

    Recently a number of papers have used general equilibrium models to study the economy-wide and environmental consequences of the first generation of biofuels (FGB). In this paper, we argue that nearly all of these studies have overstated the impacts of FGB on global agricultural and land markets due to the fact that they have ignored the role of biofuel by-products. Feed by-products of FGB, such as dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and oilseed meals (VOBP), are used in the livestock industry as protein and energy sources. Their presence mitigates the price impacts of biofuel production. More importantly, they reduce the demand for cropland and moderate the indirect land use consequences of FGB. This paper explicitly introduces DDGS and VOBP into a global computational general equilibrium (CGE) model, developed at the Center for Global Trade Analysis at Purdue University, to examine the economic and environmental impacts of regional and international mandate policies designed to stimulate bioenergy production and use. We show that models with and without by-products reveal different portraits of the economic impacts of the US and EU biofuel mandates for the world economy in 2015. While both models demonstrate significant changes in the agricultural production pattern across the world, the model with by-products shows smaller changes in the production of cereal grains and larger changes for oilseeds products in the US and EU, and the reverse for Brazil. Models that omit by-products are found to overstate cropland conversion from US and EU mandates by about 27%. (author)

  18. A Preliminary Evaluation of the GFS Physics in the Navy Global Environmental Model

    Liu, M.; Langland, R.; Martini, M.; Viner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Global extended long-range weather forecast is a goal in the near future at Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC). In an effort to improve the performance of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) operated at FNMOC, and to gain more understanding of the impact of atmospheric physics in the long-range forecast, the physics package of the Global Forecast System (GFS) of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction is being evaluated in the framework of NAVGEM. That is GFS physics being transported by NAVGEM Semi-Lagrangian Semi-Implicit advection, and update-cycled by the 4D-variational data assimilation along with the assimilated land surface data of NASA's Land Information System. The output of free long runs of 10-day GFS physics forecast in a summer and a winter season are evaluated through the comparisons with the output of NAVGEM physics long forecast, and through the validations with observations and with the European Center's analyses data. It is found that the GFS physics is able to effectively reduce some of the modeling biases of NAVGEM, especially wind speed of the troposphere and land surface temperature that is an important surface boundary condition. The bias corrections increase with forecast leads, reaching maximum at 240 hours. To further understand the relative roles of physics and dynamics in extended long-range forecast, the tendencies of physics components and advection are also calculated and analyzed to compare their forces of magnitudes in the integration of winds, temperature, and moisture. The comparisons reveal the strength and limitation of GFS physics in the overall improvement of NAVGEM prediction system.

  19. Global health and development: conceptualizing health between economic growth and environmental sustainability.

    Borowy, Iris

    2013-07-01

    After World War II, health was firmly integrated into the discourse about national development. Transition theories portrayed health improvements as part of an overall development pattern based on economic growth as modeled by the recent history of industrialization in high-income countries. In the 1970s, an increasing awareness of the environmental degradation caused by industrialization challenged the conventional model of development. Gradually, it became clear that health improvements depended on poverty-reduction strategies including industrialization. Industrialization, in turn, risked aggravating environmental degradation with its negative effects on public health. Thus, public health in low-income countries threatened to suffer from lack of economic development as well as from the results of global economic development. Similarly, demands of developing countries risked being trapped between calls for global wealth redistribution, a political impossibility, and calls for unrestricted material development, which, in a world of finite land, water, air, energy, and resources, increasingly looked like a physical impossibility, too. Various international bodies, including the WHO, the Brundtland Commission, and the World Bank, tried to capture the problem and solution strategies in development theories. Broadly conceived, two models have emerged: a "localist model," which analyzes national health data and advocates growth policies with a strong focus on poverty reduction, and a "globalist" model, based on global health data, which calls for growth optimization, rather than maximization. Both models have focused on different types of health burdens and have received support from different institutions. In a nutshell, the health discourse epitomized a larger controversy regarding competing visions of development.

  20. Participation of the radiation hygiene laboratories to the WHO/UNEP global environmental radiation network

    Milu, C.; Gheorghe, R.

    2003-01-01

    In December 1987, a WHO-UNEP meeting held at SCPRI (Service Central de protection canter Les Rayonnements Ionisantes - Le Vesinet, France) set up the basis of the international network GERMON (Global Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network) as an extension of existing network 'Global Environment Monitoring Systems' (GEMS). The accident from Chernobyl certainly was the important nuclear event influencing this decision. The aim of the GERMON network is to initiate programmes for the routine monitoring of the environmental radioactivity and to ensure a quick interchange of credible data in case of major accidental radioactive releases, as well as the development of intervention devices in the member states running such programmes. The responsibility of the Co-ordinating Collaborating Centre (CCC) has been given to the French Service Central de Protection Centre les Rayonnements Ionisants (SCPRI). In 1994, this Service became the Office de Protection Centre les Rayonnements Ionisants (OPRI). The Ministry of Health has a national network consisting of 23 radiation hygiene laboratories; 19 of these are included in the framework of county divisions of public health , and the other 4 are compartments of the regional institutes of public health. WHO designated the Institute of Public Health from Bucharest as National Contact Centre, in charge with communicating the results obtained by the national laboratories on the indicators of environmental radioactivity, according to the established methodologies. The main indicators considered are: ambient gamma dose, radioactivity of the air, of the precipitation, and of the milk. Following the measurement and transmission protocols of the CCC, the Radiation Hygiene Laboratory from the Institute of Public Health has established a methodology to be followed by the laboratories of the national network. (authors)

  1. Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Global Comparative Assessment and Implications for Governance

    Laura German

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2000s witnessed the rapid expansion of biofuel plantations in the global South in the context of a growing trend of crop plantation expansion. This trend has been spurred by policies in the European Union, United States, Brazil, and other countries favoring the use of biofuels in the transport sector to enhance energy security and reduce carbon emissions, as well as by the desire of governments in developing countries to harness the stimulus that new commercial investments provide to the agricultural sector and to national economies. Despite these potential benefits, a number of concerns have been raised about the local social and environmental impacts of biofuel feedstock expansion. We shed light on this debate through a synthesis of findings from case studies in six biofuel producer countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, and a seventh paper exploring the implications of the land-use changes observed in these case studies for the climate mitigation potential of biofuels. We also explore the implications for governing the environmental impacts of biofuel feedstock production, protecting the rights of customary land users, and enabling smallholder-inclusive business models. Our analysis suggests that better governance of the sector's impacts is not the exclusive preserve of unitary sets of actors, but instead requires concerted and coordinated efforts by governments of producer and consumer countries, investors, civil society, and the financial sector to better capture the sector's potential while minimizing its social and environmental costs.

  2. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  3. 3-minute Stephen Hawking. His life, theories and influence; Stephen Hawking im 3-Minuten-Takt. Sein Leben, sein Werk, sein Einfluss

    Parsons, Paul; Dixon, Gail

    2013-09-01

    3-minutes Stephen Hawking offers a compact introduction to life and work of this impressing scientist. This book is devided into three parts: Hawking's life, his theories, his influence. Each part offers fascinating reading material for one hour. The partial themes of this book are served up in practical 3-minute portions.

  4. The impact of environmental policy on economic indicators. Moving from global to sectoral and regional perspectives

    Voigt, Sebastian

    2013-07-01

    In recent times, environmental, energy and climate policies have gained tremendously in importance. Not least, this is due to the latest research findings related to climate change and the resulting growing environmental awareness among people. However, policy approaches to combat environmental pollution and climate change differ both in their intention and in their economic impacts. For instance, command-and-control instruments such as performance or technology standards have different implications than market-based mechanisms such as permit trading of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, sectoral and regional characteristics play an important role when implementing and assessing policy measures. This applies both to the attainability of the targets and to the available instruments. The present doctoral thesis addresses this point and analyzes in several essays different policy instruments and their economic effects from global, regional and sectoral perspectives. In this respect, it deals with various, often very heterogeneous question: How are specific policy types implemented in different countries? What is the CO2 abatement potential in specific regions and sectors? What policy measures can be plausibly used to exploit this potential? How can technological developments and technology-directed policy interventions contribute to improve energy efficiency? Does the promotion of certain energy sources necessarily create positive production and employment effects? To answer these and further questions, different economic methods are applied that accommodate the particular problem, where special emphasis is put on computable general equilibrium modeling. The aim of this work is to contribute to the academic and political debate on measures to combat environmental and climate problems.

  5. The impact of environmental policy on economic indicators. Moving from global to sectoral and regional perspectives

    Voigt, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, environmental, energy and climate policies have gained tremendously in importance. Not least, this is due to the latest research findings related to climate change and the resulting growing environmental awareness among people. However, policy approaches to combat environmental pollution and climate change differ both in their intention and in their economic impacts. For instance, command-and-control instruments such as performance or technology standards have different implications than market-based mechanisms such as permit trading of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, sectoral and regional characteristics play an important role when implementing and assessing policy measures. This applies both to the attainability of the targets and to the available instruments. The present doctoral thesis addresses this point and analyzes in several essays different policy instruments and their economic effects from global, regional and sectoral perspectives. In this respect, it deals with various, often very heterogeneous question: How are specific policy types implemented in different countries? What is the CO2 abatement potential in specific regions and sectors? What policy measures can be plausibly used to exploit this potential? How can technological developments and technology-directed policy interventions contribute to improve energy efficiency? Does the promotion of certain energy sources necessarily create positive production and employment effects? To answer these and further questions, different economic methods are applied that accommodate the particular problem, where special emphasis is put on computable general equilibrium modeling. The aim of this work is to contribute to the academic and political debate on measures to combat environmental and climate problems.

  6. Environmental degradation, global food production, and risk for large-scale migrations

    Doeoes, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate to what extent global food production is affected by the ongoing environmental degradation through processes, such as soil erosion, salinization, chemical contamination, ultraviolet radiation, and biotic stress. Estimates have also been made of available opportunities to improve food production efficiency by, e.g., increased use of fertilizers, irrigation, and biotechnology, as well as improved management. Expected losses and gains of agricultural land in competition with urbanization, industrial development, and forests have been taken into account. Although estimated gains in food production deliberately have been overestimated and losses underestimated, calculations indicate that during the next 30-35 years the annual net gain in food production will be significantly lower than the rate of world population growth. An attempt has also been made to identify possible scenarios for large-scale migrations, caused mainly by rapid population growth in combination with insufficient local food production and poverty. 18 refs, 7 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Gender perspectives in resilience, vulnerability and adaptation to global environmental change.

    Ravera, Federica; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Martín-López, Berta; Pascual, Unai; Bose, Purabi

    2016-12-01

    The main goal of this special issue is to offer a room for interdisciplinary and engaged research in global environmental change (GEC), where gender plays a key role in building resilience and adaptation pathways. In this editorial paper, we explain the background setting, key questions and core approaches of gender and feminist research in vulnerability, resilience and adaptation to GEC. Highlighting the interlinkages between gender and GEC, we introduce the main contributions of the collection of 11 papers in this special issue. Nine empirical papers from around the globe allow to understand how gendered diversity in knowledge, institutions and everyday practices matters in producing barriers and options for achieving resilience and adaptive capacity in societies. Additionally, two papers contribute to the theoretical debate through a systematic review and an insight on the relevance of intersectional framings within GEC research and development programming.

  8. Theorizing Environmental Governance of the World System: Global Political Economy Theory and Some Applications to Stratospheric Ozone Politics

    Brian J. Gareau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates world-systems perspectives into an analysis of global environmental politics, thus adjoining a political economic analysis of scale with studies of global environmental policy. It is the ability of some social groups and institutions to jump scale that determines how global environmental policies are shaped. The United States’ carbon-intensive economy is seen to face larger short-term costs from global environmental agreements than many other countries in the core of the world-system, but what remains unexplored in the environmental politics literature is the question of why the United States sees its long-term economic condition hindered by these agreements. This analysis points to the ways industry actors intervene at multiple scales of global environmental negotiations to affect national policy positions as well as larger discourses about science and risk. The article reviews the methyl bromide controversy in the Montreal Protocol to explain why this agreement has recently failed to live up to expectations in removing ozone-depleting substances. The United States is particularly responsible for this impediment: rather than innovate in response to new information and changing international contexts, industry actors have drawn upon US hegemony to enforce their dominant market positions. As the parties to the Montreal Protocol remain polarized over questions of methyl bromide use, this analysis calls for attention to the ways capital, states, and other social institutions are embedded in international environmental agreements and how they use such arrangements to obstruct successful multilateral agreements. I conclude by suggesting that environmental and other social movements might strategize in two ways: 1 by helping support an emergent ‘green hegemony’ (most apparent in Chinese policy as a counterhegemonic alternative, and 2 by developing strategies that account for the ways industry interests overlap with declining

  9. Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change.

    Anthony, Kenneth R N; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas A J; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on

  10. Hawk-Eyes on Science and in Space

    Durow, Lillie

    2017-08-01

    For more than ten years the successful and well received outreach programs, Hawk-Eyes On Science and Hawk-Eyes in Space, have brought the excitement of science demonstrations to Iowans of all ages. However, the creation of a successful, sustainable outreach program requires the coordination of many aspects. In many respects, the demonstrations and hands-on activities are of secondary importance when weighed against the problems of funding, transportation, staffing, etc. In addition to showing examples of demonstrations that we use, I will also focus on a few of the problems and some of the solutions that we have found while coordinating our long running outreach programs at the University of Iowa Department of Physics and Astronomy.

  11. Testing the causality of Hawkes processes with time reversal

    Cordi, Marcus; Challet, Damien; Muni Toke, Ioane

    2018-03-01

    We show that univariate and symmetric multivariate Hawkes processes are only weakly causal: the true log-likelihoods of real and reversed event time vectors are almost equal, thus parameter estimation via maximum likelihood only weakly depends on the direction of the arrow of time. In ideal (synthetic) conditions, tests of goodness of parametric fit unambiguously reject backward event times, which implies that inferring kernels from time-symmetric quantities, such as the autocovariance of the event rate, only rarely produce statistically significant fits. Finally, we find that fitting financial data with many-parameter kernels may yield significant fits for both arrows of time for the same event time vector, sometimes favouring the backward time direction. This goes to show that a significant fit of Hawkes processes to real data with flexible kernels does not imply a definite arrow of time unless one tests it.

  12. Soft hair of dynamical black hole and Hawking radiation

    Chu, Chong-Sun; Koyama, Yoji

    2018-04-01

    Soft hair of black hole has been proposed recently to play an important role in the resolution of the black hole information paradox. Recent work has emphasized that the soft modes cannot affect the black hole S-matrix due to Weinberg soft theorems. However as soft hair is generated by supertranslation of geometry which involves an angular dependent shift of time, it must have non-trivial quantum effects. We consider supertranslation of the Vaidya black hole and construct a non-spherical symmetric dynamical spacetime with soft hair. We show that this spacetime admits a trapping horizon and is a dynamical black hole. We find that Hawking radiation is emitted from the trapping horizon of the dynamical black hole. The Hawking radiation has a spectrum which depends on the soft hair of the black hole and this is consistent with the factorization property of the black hole S-matrix.

  13. A remark on the energy conditions for Hawking's area theorem

    Lesourd, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Hawking's area theorem is a fundamental result in black hole theory that is universally associated with the null energy condition. That this condition can be weakened is illustrated by the formulation of a strengthened version of the theorem based on an energy condition that allows for violations of the null energy condition. With the semi-classical context in mind, some brief remarks pertaining to the suitability of the area theorem and its energy condition are made.

  14. Top scientists join Stephen Hawking at Perimeter Institute

    Banks, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Nine leading researchers are to join Stephen Hawking as visiting fellows at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Ontario, Canada. The researchers, who include string theorists Leonard Susskind from Stanford University and Asoka Sen from the Harisch-Chandra Research Institute in India, will each spend a few months of the year at the institute as "distinguished research chairs". They will be joined by another 30 scientists to be announced at a later date.

  15. Kajian Kritis Terhadap Praanggapan Metafisis-Epistemologis Kosmologi Stephen Hawking

    Sindung Tjahyadi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini pada dasarnya merupakan kajian filosofis terhadap suatu "kosmologi ilmiah".Dengan demikian terdapat dua pendekatan yang digunakan,yakni,pertama,hampiran filsafatilmu, terkait dengan aspek-aspek metodologis dari kosmologi ilmiah;dan kedua, hampirankosmologi filsafat, terkait dengan evaluasi kritis atas kosmologi Hawking dalam dimensikosmologi filsafati, terutama berkenaan dengan posisi yang diambinya terhadap unsur hakikipembangun realitas dan peran pengkosmos di dalamnya khususnya terkait dengan konsepruang-wakru, prinsip determinisme, dan hukum kekekalan energi.

  16. Steven Hawking to visit Texas A&M in spring

    Xavier, D

    2002-01-01

    Stephen Hawking will visit Texas A&M University from Feb. 24 to March 21 2003 to participate in the inaugural meeting of the George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics. This institute will bring several of the world's top physicists to A&M for a month-long exploration of the latest ideas on topics ranging from superstrings to M-theory and supergravity (1/2 page).

  17. PRS and POS/PRS coupling experiments on Hawk

    Peterson, G G; Apruzese, J P; Commisso, R J [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div.; and others

    1997-12-31

    Experiments are being conducted on Hawk to investigate the electrical coupling of a plasma opening switch (POS) to a neon plasma radiation source (PRS) and to evaluate the K SHELL x-ray yield scaling of implosions with different initial radii, mass, and implosion times. Understanding the coupling and scaling is important for optimizing the performance of more powerful inductive-storage generators that rely on POS technology. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 7 refs.

  18. Ecology of a nesting red-shouldered hawk population

    Stewart, R.E.

    1949-01-01

    An ecological study of a nesting Red-shouldered Hawk population was made over a 185 square mile area on the Coastal Plain of Maryland in 1947. The courting and nesting season extended from late February until late June.....During the nesting season a combination of fairly extensive flood-plain forest with adjacent clearings appears to meet the major ecological requirements of the Red-shouldered Hawk in this region. A total of 51 pairs was found in the study area, occupying about 42 square miles or 23% of the total area studied. The population density on the land that was suitable for this species was about 1 pair per .8 of a square mile, while the density for the entire study area would be only about 1 pair per 3.6 square miles.....Nests were spaced fairly evenly over most of the flood-plain forests, especially in areas where the width.of the flood plain was relatively constant. There was an inverse correlation between the width of the flood plain and the distances between nests in adjacent territories. The nests were all situated in fairly large trees and were from 28 feet to 77 feet above the ground, averaging 50. They were found in 14 different species of trees, all deciduous.....The Barred Owl and Red-shouldered Hawk were commonly associated together in the same lowland habitats. Other raptores were all largely restricted to upland habitats....The average number of young in 47 occupied nests following the hatching period was 2.7 with extremes of 1 and 4. Only 3 out of 52 nests (6%) were found deserted at this time....The food habits of nestling Red-shouldered Hawks are very diversified. They feed on many types of warm-blooded and cold-blooded vertebrates as well as invertebrates.

  19. U.S. national issues on environmental hydrology and hydrogeology - Local and emerging global perspectives

    Sharp, J.M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In the US, hydrologic considerations have risen to the forefront of a number of important national issues. These issues focus on aspects of water availability and quality, but also impact other environmental, economic, and social situations. Surface-water resources in the US are essentially allocated and new socioenvironmental concerns may limit further surface-water exploitation. Ground-water use is increasing, but availability is not uniform. Some areas suffer from ground-water depletion and associated social and economic hardships. The quality of US coastal waters, rivers, lakes, and ground-water resources has seriously deteriorated in the last fifty years. Pollution is ubiquitous; vast sums of money have been spent in attempts at remediation. New methods for the disposal of sewage, industrial wastes, and nuclear wastes and for water treatment must be developed. Furthermore, the widespread agricultural contamination of ground water is just now being documented. This is leading to development of well-head protection criteria, a small but important venture into land-use planning. It is in comprehensive land-use planning that hydrology and hydrogeology should be of greatest value. The loss of prime agricultural lands and wildlife habitat as well as localized problems, such as flooding, subsidence, and pollution of water resources are problems which require vigorous emerging global issues will place great reliance on hydrologists and hydrogeologists of the future. Potential climate changes may alter our water resources base; population growth and third-world development will stress global water resources; aerosols are polluting water resources; and pollution does not stop at national boundaries. How to solve these newly emerging global problems is also an important US national issue

  20. Classification of Global Urban Centers Using ASTER Data: Preliminary Results From the Urban Environmental Monitoring Program

    Stefanov, W. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2001-05-01

    Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of global ecologic and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of these changes are part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument, and comprise the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program. The UEM program will acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared ASTER data twice per year for 100 global urban centers over the duration of the mission (6 years). Data are currently available for a number of these urban centers and allow for initial comparison of global city structure using spatial variance texture analysis of the 15 m/pixel visible to near infrared ASTER bands. Variance texture analysis highlights changes in pixel edge density as recorded by sharp transitions from bright to dark pixels. In human-dominated landscapes these brightness variations correlate well with urbanized vs. natural land cover and are useful for characterizing the geographic extent and internal structure of cities. Variance texture analysis was performed on twelve urban centers (Albuquerque, Baghdad, Baltimore, Chongqing, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Lisbon, Madrid, Phoenix, Puebla, Riyadh, Vancouver) for which cloud-free daytime ASTER data are available. Image transects through each urban center produce texture profiles that correspond to urban density. These profiles can be used to classify cities into centralized (ex. Baltimore), decentralized (ex. Phoenix), or intermediate (ex. Madrid) structural types. Image texture is one of the primary data inputs (with vegetation indices and visible to thermal infrared image spectra) to a knowledge-based land cover classifier currently under development for application to ASTER UEM data as it is acquired. Collaboration with local investigators is sought to both verify the accuracy of the knowledge-based system and to develop more sophisticated classification models.

  1. Hawking radiation from a spherical loop quantum gravity black hole

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    We introduce quantum field theory on quantum space-times techniques to characterize the quantum vacua as a first step toward studying black hole evaporation in spherical symmetry in loop quantum gravity and compute the Hawking radiation. We use as quantum space-time the recently introduced exact solution of the quantum Einstein equations in vacuum with spherical symmetry and consider a spherically symmetric test scalar field propagating on it. The use of loop quantum gravity techniques in the background space-time naturally regularizes the matter content, solving one of the main obstacles to back-reaction calculations in more traditional treatments. The discreteness of area leads to modifications of the quantum vacua, eliminating the trans-Planckian modes close to the horizon, which in turn eliminates all singularities from physical quantities, like the expectation value of the stress–energy tensor. Apart from this, the Boulware, Hartle–Hawking and Unruh vacua differ little from the treatment on a classical space-time. The asymptotic modes near scri are reproduced very well. We show that the Hawking radiation can be computed, leading to an expression similar to the conventional one but with a high frequency cutoff. Since many of the conclusions concern asymptotic behavior, where the spherical mode of the field behaves in a similar way as higher multipole modes do, the results can be readily generalized to non spherically symmetric fields. (paper)

  2. Modulated Hawking radiation and a nonviolent channel for information release

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Unitarization of black hole evaporation requires that quantum information escapes a black hole; an important question is to identify the mechanism or channel by which it does so. Accurate counting of black hole states via the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy would indicate this information should be encoded in radiation with average energy flux matching Hawking's. Information can be encoded with no change in net flux via fine-grained modulation of the Hawking radiation. In an approximate effective field theory description, couplings to the stress tensor of the black hole atmosphere that depend on the internal state of the black hole are a promising alternative for inducing such modulation. These can be picturesquely thought of as due to state-dependent metric fluctuations in the vicinity of the horizon. Such couplings offer the prospect of emitting information without extra energy flux, and can be shown to do so at linear order in the couplings, with motivation given for possible extension of this result to higher orders. The potential advantages of such couplings to the stress tensor thus extend beyond their universality, which is helpful in addressing constraints from black hole mining

  3. Hawking radiation from AdS black holes

    Hubeny, Veronika E; Rangamani, Mukund; Marolf, Donald

    2010-01-01

    We study Hartle-Hawking-like states of quantum field theories on asymptotically AdS black hole backgrounds, with particular regard to the phase structure of interacting theories. By a suitable analytic continuation we show that the equilibrium dynamics of field theories on large asymptotically AdS black holes can be related to the low-temperature states of the same field theory on the AdS soliton (or pure AdS) background. This allows us to gain insight into Hartle-Hawking-like states on large-radius Schwarzschild- or rotating-AdS black holes. Furthermore, we exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to explore the physics of strongly coupled large N theories on asymptotically AdS black holes. In particular, we exhibit a plausibly complete set of phases for the M2-brane world-volume superconformal field theory on a BTZ black hole background. Our analysis partially resolves puzzles previously raised in connection with Hawking radiation on large AdS black holes.

  4. Modulated Hawking radiation and a nonviolent channel for information release

    Giddings, Steven B., E-mail: giddings@physics.ucsb.edu

    2014-11-10

    Unitarization of black hole evaporation requires that quantum information escapes a black hole; an important question is to identify the mechanism or channel by which it does so. Accurate counting of black hole states via the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy would indicate this information should be encoded in radiation with average energy flux matching Hawking's. Information can be encoded with no change in net flux via fine-grained modulation of the Hawking radiation. In an approximate effective field theory description, couplings to the stress tensor of the black hole atmosphere that depend on the internal state of the black hole are a promising alternative for inducing such modulation. These can be picturesquely thought of as due to state-dependent metric fluctuations in the vicinity of the horizon. Such couplings offer the prospect of emitting information without extra energy flux, and can be shown to do so at linear order in the couplings, with motivation given for possible extension of this result to higher orders. The potential advantages of such couplings to the stress tensor thus extend beyond their universality, which is helpful in addressing constraints from black hole mining.

  5. The Hawking cascade from a black hole is extremely sparse

    Gray, Finnian; Schuster, Sebastian; Van–Brunt, Alexander; Visser, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The average time between emission of subsequent quanta in the Hawking process is extremely large. While this sparsity result has been known for a long time, it is neither well-known, nor do (semi-)analytic results currently exist, the prior focus being placed on numerical results. We define several ways of quantifying this sparsity, and starting from a black body approximation for the Schwarzschild case, we derive analytic expressions for a lower bound on this average time. We also check the validity of the results in presence of greybody factors by numerical analysis. Furthermore, we show how to separate the super-radiance in the low-frequency regime from the genuine Hawking effect itself. This enables us to extend the previous lower bounds to Reissner–Nordström, Kerr and dirty black holes in addition to different particle species. Lastly, we want to draw attention to some of the physical consequences of this under-appreciated fact of the Hawking process. (paper)

  6. Hawking radiation from black holes in de Sitter spaces

    Jiang Qingquan

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Hawking radiation has been treated, by Robinson and Wilczek (2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 011303), as a compensating flux of the energy-momentum tensor required to cancel a gravitational anomaly at the event horizon (EH) of a Schwarzschild-type black hole. In this paper, motivated by this work, Hawking radiation from the event horizon (EH) and the de Sitter cosmological horizon (CH) of black holes in de Sitter spaces, specifically including the purely de Sitter black hole and the static, spherically symmetric Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole as well as the rotating Kerr-de Sitter black hole, have been studied by anomalies. The results show that the gauge-current and energy-momentum tensor fluxes, required to restore gauge invariance and general coordinate covariance at the EH and the CH, are precisely equal to those of Hawking radiation from the EH and the CH, respectively. It should be noted that gauge and gravitational anomalies taking place at the CH arise from the fact that the effective field theory is formulated inside the CH to integrate out the classically irrelevant outgoing modes at the CH, which are different from those at the black hole horizon

  7. Black hole state evolution, final state and Hawking radiation

    Ahn, D

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a black hole state evolution on the Hawking radiation is studied using the final state boundary condition. It is found that the thermodynamic or statistical mechanical properties of a black hole depend strongly on the unitary evolution operator S, which determines the black hole state evolution. When the operator S is random unitary or pseudo-random unitary, a black hole emits thermal radiation as predicted by Hawking three decades ago. In particular, when the black hole mass of the final state vanishes, Hawking’s original result is retrieved. On the other hand, it is found that the emission of the Hawking radiation could be suppressed when the evolution of a black hole state is determined by the generator of the coherent state. Such a case can occur for some primordial black holes with Planck scale mass formed by primordial density fluctuations through the process of squeezing the zero-point quantum fluctuation of a scalar field. Those primordial black holes can survive until the present time and can contribute to cold dark matter. (paper)

  8. Critical reflexivity in financial markets: a Hawkes process analysis

    Hardiman, Stephen J.; Bercot, Nicolas; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2013-10-01

    We model the arrival of mid-price changes in the E-mini S&P futures contract as a self-exciting Hawkes process. Using several estimation methods, we find that the Hawkes kernel is power-law with a decay exponent close to -1.15 at short times, less than ≈ 103 s, and crosses over to a second power-law regime with a larger decay exponent ≈-1.45 for longer times scales in the range [ 103,106 ] seconds. More importantly, we find that the Hawkes kernel integrates to unity independently of the analysed period, from 1998 to 2011. This suggests that markets are and have always been close to criticality, challenging a recent study which indicates that reflexivity (endogeneity) has increased in recent years as a result of increased automation of trading. However, we note that the scale over which market events are correlated has decreased steadily over time with the emergence of higher frequency trading.

  9. A convenient truth? The spectre of global environmental catastrophe and sustainable development in China

    Murat Arsel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Through a critical point of view, this article analyses the debates on the sustainability of China’s development. Specifically, it tackles the dual argument that development in China is not sustainable, and that it represents a direct threat to the environmental security of the rest of the world. Thus, the study argues that calling for “sustainable development” as a solution to theenvironmental problem being faced by China (and, by implication, the whole world is being used to de-politicise what is essentially a very controversial political issue that reflects certain very old concerns linked with the sustainability of modern capitalism and North-South relations. Significantly, the article does not claim that China is not facing grave environmental problems which are intensifying quickly in terms of both scope and magnitude, and that these problems do not have regional and global consequences. Instead, it attempts to unravel the underlying reasons why China has become the paradigmatic example of unsustainable development, and what implications this has for China’s future economic development. Studying China in this context is instructive, given that China is not only the country leading the pack of a large group of Asian economies that are developing very quickly, economically speaking. China is also one of the most important of the developing nations, and its stance on policies for sustainable development marks – in many cases – the guideline that other developing countries will have to follow.

  10. Global energy and environmental issues, reflected in Toyota's advanced powertrain development

    Tanaka, Toshiaki [Toyota Motor Corporation, Aichi (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    Energy diversification is proceeding due to environmental issues and need for energy security. At the same time, the environmental challenges for the automobile are becoming more and more severe due to the requirement for low fuel consumption and air pollution. While the alternative fuels are expanding due to concerns on future oil supply, automakers need to promote multi-directional developments. However it is considered that oil will remain as the main fuel source in the next few decades. Thus, the development of internal combustion engine (ICE) and of high efficiency vehicle systems will remain an important challenge. Furthermore hybrid vehicle (HV) technology and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology are expected to be one effective technology to save oil usage. For that purpose, promoting electricity production which emits low CO{sub 2} and the development of a high energy density battery is important. In addition to the energy issue, air pollution issue is also an important matter. Although the emission regulations are continuously becoming more stringent to respond to the air pollution issue, many areas have a mismatch between emission regulation and suitable fuel quality. Therefore automakers are taking action for resolving the contradiction. Since it will take time until fuel quality meets the required specification, developing the technologies to prevent the major matters for consumers can't be avoided. Coordination of fuel properties and quality over a wide area is essential for improving air quality locally and globally. (orig.)

  11. Environmental Defects And Economic Impact On Global Market Of Rare Earth Metals

    Charalampides, G.; Vatalis, K.; Karayannis, V.; Baklavaridis, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rare earth elements include the 14 lanthanides as well as lanthanium and often yttrium. Actually, most of them are not very rare and occur widely dispersed in a variety of rocks. Rare earth metals are vital to some of the world's faster growing industries: catalysts, Nd-magnets, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, battery alloys, electronics and phosphors. Worldwide, the main countries for distribution of rare earths deposits include China, USA, Russia, Brasil, India, Australia, Greenland and Malaysia. The mining and processing of rare earth metals usually result in significant environmental defects. Many deposits are associated with high concentrations of radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium, which requires separate treatment and disposal. The accumulation of rare earth elements in soils has occurred due to pollution caused by the exploitation of rare earth resources and the wide use of rare earths as fertilizers in agriculture. This accumulation has a toxic effect on the soil microfauna community. However, there are large differences in market prices due to the degree of purity determined by the specifications in the applications. The main focus of this article is to overview Rare Earth Metals’ overall impact on global economy and their environmental defects on soils during processing techniques and as they are used as fertilizers.

  12. World environmental policy. Conceptual approaches of German political science in response to the challenges of Global Change; Weltumweltpolitik - Global Change als Herausforderung fuer die deutsche Politikwissenschaft

    Biermann, F. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Dingwerth, K. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Politik- und Sozialwissenschaften

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes, first, the international community of social scientists working on global change, and elaborates on possible contributions to this community by German political scientists. Second, the paper examines three new conceptual approaches to analysing global change, namely the Syndromes of Global Change approach, Earth System Analysis, and Sustainability Science. The paper then elaborates on a number of ways in which German political science could respond to the academic and political challenges posed by global change. It concludes by emphasizing the need for a new approach, focusing on 'world environmental policy analysis' that would bridge traditional (environmental) policy analysis, international relations research, and comparative politics. (orig.) [German] Der Aufsatz beschreibt die Wissenschaftslandschaft der internationalen sozialwissenschaftlichen Global-Change-Forschung mit besonderem Augenmerk auf moegliche Beitraege der deutschen Politologie. Mit den 'Syndromen des Globalen Wandels', der 'Erdsystemanalyse' und der 'Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaft' werden drei neuere konzeptionelle Innovationen vorgestellt, mit denen der Herausforderung des Globalen Wandels begegnet werden soll. Anschliessend werden Wege skizziert, wie die Politikwissenschaft auf die neuen gesellschaftlichen und wissenschaftlichen Probleme des Globalen Wandels reagieren koennte. Eine Schlussfolgerung ist ein Plaedoyer fuer die Entwicklung einer eigenstaendigen Weltumweltpolitik-Analyse an der Schnittstelle von traditioneller Policy-Analyse, Internationalen Beziehungen/Aussenpolitik sowie Komparatistik. (orig./CB)

  13. Numerical observation of Hawking radiation from acoustic black holes in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates

    Carusotto, Iacopo; Recati, Alessio; Fagnocchi, Serena; Balbinot, Roberto; Fabbri, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    We report numerical evidence of Hawking emission of Bogoliubov phonons from a sonic horizon in a flowing one-dimensional atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. The presence of Hawking radiation is revealed from peculiar long-range patterns in the density-density correlation function of the gas. Quantitative agreement between our fully microscopic calculations and the prediction of analog models is obtained in the hydrodynamic limit. New features are predicted and the robustness of the Hawking signal against a finite temperature discussed.

  14. Global change. Taking stock of a catastrophe. The use of satellite data for environmental protection and in developing countries

    Anon.

    1993-10-01

    The individual contributions deal primarily with the development of the climate; they want to render environmental processes transparent. Satellite data play an important part in forecasts of climate development: only satellites permit to realize the global dimension of climate. The numerous illustrations in the form of satellite images are to aid thinking in global dimensions. The use of environment satellites is a step beyond climate research. Further contributions discuss the uses of environment satellites during nature disasters, for the detection of environmental polluters and for the analysis of forest die-back in industrialized countries or rainforest clearfelling in the Amazon region. (KW) [de

  15. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations. Strategien globaler Umweltpolitik. ''Umwelt und Entwicklung'' in den Nord-Sued-Beziehungen

    Bruckmeier, K

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA)

  16. Microelectronic Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the HAWK Weapon System

    Maddux, Gary

    2000-01-01

    The MT Division, Engineering Directorate (ED), RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the HAWK weapon system...

  17. Microelectronic Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the HAWK Weapon System

    Maddux, Gary

    1999-01-01

    The Industrial Operations Division (IOD), SEPD, RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the HAWK weapon system...

  18. Hawking radiation temperatures in non-stationary Kerr black holes with different tortoise coordinate transformations

    Lan, X.G. [Southwest Jiaotong University, Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, Chengdu (China); China West Normal University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanchong (China); Jiang, Q.Q. [China West Normal University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanchong (China); Wei, L.F. [Southwest Jiaotong University, Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, Chengdu (China); Sun Yat-Sen University, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-04-15

    We apply the Damour-Ruffini-Sannan method to study the Hawking radiations of scalar and Dirac particles in non-stationary Kerr black holes under different tortoise coordinate transformations. We found that all the relevant Hawking radiation spectra show still the blackbody ones, while the Hawking temperatures are strongly related to the used tortoise coordinate transformations. The properties of these dependences are discussed analytically and numerically. Our results imply that proper selections of tortoise coordinate transformations should be important in the studies of Hawking radiations and the correct selection would be given by the experimental observations in the future. (orig.)

  19. Hawkes process as a model of social interactions: a view on video dynamics

    Mitchell, Lawrence; Cates, Michael E, E-mail: lawrence.mitchell@ed.ac.u [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, JCMB Kings Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-29

    We study by computer simulation the 'Hawkes process' that was proposed in a recent paper by Crane and Sornette (2008 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105 15649) as a plausible model for the dynamics of YouTube video viewing numbers. We test the claims made there that robust identification is possible for classes of dynamic response following activity bursts. Our simulated time series for the Hawkes process indeed fall into the different categories predicted by Crane and Sornette. However, the Hawkes process gives a much narrower spread of decay exponents than the YouTube data, suggesting limits to the universality of the Hawkes-based analysis.

  20. The Hawking evaporation process of rapidly-rotating black holes: an almost continuous cascade of gravitons

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emek Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-07-15

    It is shown that rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by the dimensionless ratio τ{sub gap}/τ{sub emission} = O(1), where τ{sub gap} is the average time gap between the emissions of successive Hawking quanta and τ{sub emission} is the characteristic timescale required for an individual Hawking quantum to be emitted from the black hole. This relation implies that the Hawking cascade from rapidly-rotating black holes has an almost continuous character. Our results correct some inaccurate claims that recently appeared in the literature regarding the nature of the Hawking black-hole evaporation process. (orig.)

  1. Observing Hawking radiation in Bose-Einstein condensates via correlation measurements

    Fabbri, A.

    2013-01-01

    Observing quantum particle creation by black holes (Hawking radiation) in the astrophysical context is, in ordinary situations, hopeless. Nevertheless the Hawking effect, which depends only on kinematical properties of wave propagation in the presence of horizons, is present also in the non gravitational contexts, for instance in stationary fluids undergoing supersonic flow. We present results on how to observe the analog Hawking radiation in Bose-Einstein condensates by a direct measurement of the density correlations due to the phonon pairs (Hawking-quanta– partner) created by the acoustic horizon.

  2. The Hawking evaporation process of rapidly-rotating black holes: an almost continuous cascade of gravitons

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by the dimensionless ratio τ gap /τ emission = O(1), where τ gap is the average time gap between the emissions of successive Hawking quanta and τ emission is the characteristic timescale required for an individual Hawking quantum to be emitted from the black hole. This relation implies that the Hawking cascade from rapidly-rotating black holes has an almost continuous character. Our results correct some inaccurate claims that recently appeared in the literature regarding the nature of the Hawking black-hole evaporation process. (orig.)

  3. Hawkes process as a model of social interactions: a view on video dynamics

    Mitchell, Lawrence; Cates, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    We study by computer simulation the 'Hawkes process' that was proposed in a recent paper by Crane and Sornette (2008 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105 15649) as a plausible model for the dynamics of YouTube video viewing numbers. We test the claims made there that robust identification is possible for classes of dynamic response following activity bursts. Our simulated time series for the Hawkes process indeed fall into the different categories predicted by Crane and Sornette. However, the Hawkes process gives a much narrower spread of decay exponents than the YouTube data, suggesting limits to the universality of the Hawkes-based analysis.

  4. Hawkes process as a model of social interactions: a view on video dynamics

    Mitchell, Lawrence; Cates, Michael E, E-mail: lawrence.mitchell@ed.ac.u [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, JCMB Kings Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-29

    We study by computer simulation the 'Hawkes process' that was proposed in a recent paper by Crane and Sornette (2008 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105 15649) as a plausible model for the dynamics of YouTube video viewing numbers. We test the claims made there that robust identification is possible for classes of dynamic response following activity bursts. Our simulated time series for the Hawkes process indeed fall into the different categories predicted by Crane and Sornette. However, the Hawkes process gives a much narrower spread of decay exponents than the YouTube data, suggesting limits to the universality of the Hawkes-based analysis.

  5. A review of global environmental mercury processes in response to human and natural perturbations: Changes of emissions, climate, and land use

    Obrist, Daniel; Zhang, Lei; Jiskra, Martin; Kirk, Jane L.; Sunderland, Elsie M.; Selin, Noelle E

    2018-01-01

    We review recent progress in our understanding of the global cycling of mercury (Hg), including best estimates of Hg concentrations and pool sizes in major environmental compartments and exchange processes within and between these reservoirs. Recent advances include the availability of new global datasets covering areas of the world where environmental Hg data were previously lacking; integration of these data into global and regional models is continually improving estimates of global Hg cyc...

  6. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  7. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  8. Recent changes in aquatic biota in subarctic Fennoscandia - the role of global and local environmental variables

    Weckström, Jan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Sorvari, Sanna; Kaukolehto, Marjut; Weckström, Kaarina; Korhola, Atte

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic, representing a fifth of the earth's surface, is highly sensitive to the predicted future warming and it has indeed been warming up faster than most other regions. This makes the region critically important and highlights the need to investigate the earliest signals of global warming and its impacts on the arctic and subarctic aquatic ecosystems and their biota. It has been demonstrated that many Arctic freshwater ecosystems have already experienced dramatic and unpreceded regime shifts during the last ca. 150 years, primarily driven by climate warming. However, despite the indisputable impact of climate-related variables on freshwater ecosystems other, especially local-scale catchment related variables (e.g. geology, vegetation, human activities) may override the climate signal and become the primary factor in shaping the structure of aquatic ecosystems. Although many studies have contributed to an improved understanding of limnological and hydrobiological features of Artic and subarctic lakes, much information is still needed especially on the interaction between the biotic and abiotic components, i.e. on factors controlling the food web dynamics in these sensitive aquatic ecosystems. This is of special importance as these lakes are of great value in water storage, flood prevention, and maintenance of biodiversity, in addition to which they are vital resources for settlement patterns, food production, recreation, and tourism. In this study we compare the pre-industrial sediment assemblages of primary producers (diatoms and Pediastrum) and primary consumers (cladoceran and chironomids) with their modern assemblages (a top-bottom approach) from 50 subarctic Fennoscandian lakes. We will evaluate the recent regional pattern of changes in aquatic assemblages, and assess how coherent the lakes' responses are across the subarctic area. Moreover, the impact of global (e.g. climate, precipitation) and local (e.g. lake and its catchment characteristics) scale

  9. Global versus local environmental impacts of grazing and confined beef production systems

    Modernel, P; Astigarraga, L; Picasso, V

    2013-01-01

    Carbon footprint is a key indicator of the contribution of food production to climate change and its importance is increasing worldwide. Although it has been used as a sustainability index for assessing production systems, it does not take into account many other biophysical environmental dimensions more relevant at the local scale, such as soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and pesticide contamination. We estimated carbon footprint, fossil fuel energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and risk of pesticide contamination for five real beef background-finishing systems with increasing levels of intensification in Uruguay, which were combinations of grazing rangelands (RL), seeded pastures (SP), and confined in feedlot (FL). Carbon footprint decreased from 16.7 (RL–RL) to 6.9 kg (SP–FL) CO 2 eq kg body weight −1 (BW; ‘eq’: equivalent). Energy use was zero for RL–RL and increased up to 17.3 MJ kg BW −1 for SP–FL. Soil erosion values varied from 7.7 (RL–RL) to 14.8 kg of soil kg BW −1 (SP–FL). Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient balances showed surpluses for systems with seeded pastures and feedlots while RL–RL was deficient. Pesticide contamination risk was zero for RL–RL, and increased up to 21.2 for SP–FL. For the range of systems studied with increasing use of inputs, trade-offs were observed between global and local environmental problems. These results demonstrate that several indicators are needed to evaluate the sustainability of livestock production systems. (letter)

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from Swiss agriculture since 1990: implications for environmental policies to mitigate global warming

    Leifeld, Jens [AGROSCOPE, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: jens.leifeld@fal.admin.ch; Fuhrer, Juerg [AGROSCOPE, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-08-01

    Agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contribute significantly to global warming, and environmental protection strategies have thus to integrate emission reduction measures from this source. In Switzerland, legislation together with monetary incentives has forced primarily integrated, and to a lesser extend organic farming, both covering nowadays more than 95% of the agriculturally useful area. Though reducing greenhouse gas emissions was not a primary intention of this reorganisation, the measures were successful in reducing the overall emissions of nitrous oxide and methane by 10% relative to 1990. A reduction of the animal herd, namely of dairy cattle, non-dairy cattle and swine, and decreasing inputs of mineral N are the main contributors to the achieved emission reduction. Crop productivity was not negatively affected and milk productivity even increased, referring to the ecological potential of agricultural reorganisation that has been tapped. Total meat production declined proportional to the animal herd. Stabilised animal numbers and fertiliser use during the last 4 years refer to an exhaustion of future reduction potentials without further legislative action because this stabilisation is most likely due to the adaptation to the production guidelines. A comparison of emission trends and carbon sequestration potentials in the broader context of the EU15 reveals that nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) have been reduced more efficiently most probably due to the measures taken, but that sequestration potentials are smaller than in the EU15 mainly because of differences in the agricultural structure. The change from an intensified towards a more environmental sound integrated production has a significant reduction potential, but in any case, agriculture will remain a net GHG source in spite of emission mitigation and carbon sequestration.

  11. The Role of Reconciling Values in Efforts to Build Community Resilience to Global Environmental Change

    Rainie, S. C.; Ferguson, D. B.; Martinez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Global environmental change has increasingly forced researchers and policy makers to reckon with the practical and philosophical need to integrate Indigenous knowledge with western science to support sustainable, resilient communities. Despite the recognition that integration of different ways of knowing offers a compelling approach for building long-term resilience, balancing the power dynamic that favors mainstream epistemologies over other ways of knowing remains elusive. Indigenous scholars themselves often speak of "walking in two worlds," acknowledging the distinction between Indigenous knowledge and western science and the difficulty of weaving together the two approaches. Central to the distinction between different ways of knowing are the core values that drive development and application of new knowledge. The DIKW pyramid describes the hierarchical relationships between wisdom, knowledge, information, and data. In these relationships, values drive how one turns data into information, then knowledge and wisdom. Thus, if building community resilience relies on integrating Indigenous science and Western science, a central point of focus must be on establishing which of the core values from these different knowledge systems can contribute and which may impede the goal of supporting community resilience. For example, does the absence of Western science data collection protocols (a core value of empirical science) eliminate the utility of community observations of environmental change from efforts to understand system change? Indigenous data sovereignty, an emerging framework, asserts Indigenous rights to information and promotes the role of community knowledge in creating metrics, outcomes, and ultimately actions toward resilient communities. Indigenous data sovereignty acknowledges that context and values shape data in addition to providing a lens for interpreting data. Can principles for the governance of Indigenous data, such as recognizing and supporting

  12. Education, Globalization and Sustainable Futures: Struggles Over Educational Aims and Purposes in a Period of Environmental and Ecological Challenge.

    Farrell, R. V.; Papagiannis, George

    This study examines the advocacy of education for sustainability in a contemporary world driven by the powerful forces of globalization and development. A brief overview of the current ecological crisis in the world is presented, and concerns about environmental degradation, social injustice, and social inequalities are discussed. The vision of…

  13. Ecopedagogy and Citizenship in the Age of Globalisation: Connections between Environmental and Global Citizenship Education to Save the Planet

    Misiaszek, Greg William

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the connections between environmentally-harmful acts and social conflict is essential but is often ignored in education. This article presents two ways in which these are not taught because of the policies of those who benefit from the ignorance of these connections: first, the avoidance of teaching global-local connectivity and second,…

  14. Governance of agro-pesticide through private environmental and social standards in the global cut flower chain from Ethiopia.

    Mengistie, Belay T; Mol, Arthur P J; Oosterveer, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The international cut flower industry is strongly criticized because of its environmental impacts and unsafe working conditions. Increasing certification of cut flowers is used to improve the growers' environmental and social performance. But what is the impact of this private governance instrument on regulating the use of pesticides? This paper assesses the potential of private certification on governing the environmental and social problems from pesticide use along the global cut flower supply chain. We use detailed farm-level data to analyse the environmental and social impacts of flower certification in Ethiopia by comparing different national and international certification schemes. Our analysis does not show significant differences between these different private standards for most environmental and health and safety variables. The Ethiopian cut flower industry remains far from improving its sustainability performance through private certification. However, certification schemes may enable farmers to have access to international markets and keep up their reputation.

  15. A new prospect on global environmental problems in the case of climate change: the impacts of strategic complementarity between countries

    Heugues, M.

    2009-06-01

    Among global environmental problems, climate change is one of the most serious. According to nearly all scientists, the roots of the problem is related to the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere and linked with human activities. The global character of this problem turns it into a big challenge. Within a framework of international trade liberalization, the analysis emphasizes the consequences of the inter-dependencies between economic agents, i.e. States, and of their strategic behaviours - when implementing national environmental policy - on natural environment. Starting with a deliberately conventional model and considering that countries' strategy can be complementary when emitting GHG, we bring new results in many respects and with regard to the existing ones. The thesis includes four chapters. The study highlights the impacts of the nature of the inter-dependencies between countries i) on the existence and the properties of equilibrium solutions - first, when no country cooperates and then from a globally optimal point of view -, ii) on the sequence of decisions, i.e. the circumstances under which a leader endogenously emerges when initiating its national environmental policy, iii) on profitability and stability of an international environmental agreement (IEA), iv) on the level of participation to an IEA and on the environmental impact of such a cooperation. A distinct feature of this research is to rely on the theorems of super-modular game theory. (author)

  16. Global Warming Mitigation through the Local Action of Environmental Education in the Plantation Area of Palm Oil

    Siti Badriyah Rushayati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is a strategic mainstay product with a crucial role in the national economy, and it can also be carbon sink to mitigate the negative impact of global warming when managed in environmentally friendly manner. Therefore, management and surrounding community need to have an understanding of the environment, and pro-environmental attitude and behaviour. Action research, which aimed at mitigating global warming through the local action of environmental education (EE, was conducted toward oil palm plantation employee and surrounding community. The EE programme was expected to be able to shape understanding and pro-environmental attitude and behaviour in the target group.  Rapid observation and interview were carried out in collecting data for EE programme development.  A needs assessment was conducted in developing the EE subject; based on local environmental problems and gap of target group’s perception of the problems.  Global warming-related environmental problems found in the location included air temperature increase, drought and difficulty in determining planting season.  Spatial analysis based on 1989 and 2014 satellite imagery showed a decrease of the water body, tree vegetated land and open areas, and an increase in non-tree vegetated land and built land, accompanied by an increase in areas with higher temperature range.  Both employees and the community had a good knowledge of the environment, but less in conservation. The environmental education provided for them had been able to increase their perception on environmental conservation. However, repetition and intensive assistance are still needed to strengthen the perception

  17. Environmental policy and public health: air pollution, global climate change, and wilderness

    Rom, William N

    2012-01-01

    .... It scrutinizes the sources of pollution and threats to environmental integrity, the consequences of pollution on the environment and health and explains the legal basis for environmental action...

  18. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE

    Mark ADAMS

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS. The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains on-board satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC Weather Office for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE. The goal of the GEMSTONE project was to build and field-test a small system of prototype probes in the Earth’s atmosphere. This paper summarizes the 9-month GEMSTONE project (Sep 2006 – May 2007 including probe and system engineering as well as experiment design and data analysis from laboratory and field tests. These tests revealed issues with reliability, sensor accuracy, electronics miniaturization, and sub-system optimization. Nevertheless, the success of the third and final free flight test provides a solid foundation to move forward in follow on projects addressing these issues as highlighted in the technology roadmap for future GEMS development.

  19. Images of climate change in the news: Visual framing of a global environmental issue

    Rebich Hespanha, S.; Rice, R. E.; Montello, D. R.; Retzloff, S.; Tien, S.

    2012-12-01

    News media play a powerful role in disseminating and framing information and shaping public opinion on environmental issues. Choices of text and images that are made by the creators and distributors of news media not only influence public perception about which issues are important, but also surreptitiously lead consumers of these media to perceive certain aspects or perspectives on an issue while neglecting to consider others. Our research was motivated by a desire to obtain comprehensive quantitative and qualitative understanding of the types of information - both textual and visual -- that have been provided to the U.S. public over the past several decades through news reports about climate change. As part of this project, we documented and examined 118 themes in 19 categories presented in 350 randomly-selected visual images from U.S. news coverage of global climate change between 1969 and late 2009. This study examines how the use of imagery in print news positions climate change within public and private arenas and how it emphasizes particular geographic, political, scientific, technological, sociological, and ideological aspects of the issue.

  20. Vagrant western red-shouldered hawks: origins, natal dispersal patterns, and survival

    Bloom, Peter H.; Scott, J. Michael; Papp, Joseph M.; Thomas, Scott E.; Kidd, Jeff W.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a 40-year study of the western Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus elegans) involving the banding of 2742 nestlings in southern California from 1970 to 2009 (this study) plus 127 nestlings banded in other California studies (1956–2008) and the analyses of 119 records of subsequent recovery from the Bird Banding Laboratory (1957–2009). Of the Red-shouldered Hawks recovered, 109 (91.6%) moved 100 km (long-distance dispersers). Three (2.5%), all long-distance dispersers, were vagrants (recovered outside the species' range of residency), and were found 374 to 843 km northeast and south of their banding locations in the Mojave, Great Basin, and Vizcaino deserts. The distribution of directions of short-distance dispersal was bipolar, closely corresponding with the northwest—southeast orientation of the species' range in southern California, while that of long-distance dispersers was mainly to the north. One of 10 long-distance dispersers, a nonvagrant, survived well into the age of breeding (103.0 months), whereas eight of the other nine perished before 14.5 months. The implications of vagrancy for conservation of this resident subspecies are that a relatively small source area can contribute genetic material over a vastly larger receiving area but rarely does so because of high mortality rates. Nonetheless, the movements of vagrants we documented provide evidence for the species' potential to populate new landscapes in response to changing environmental conditions and to maintain genetic heterogeneity within existing populations.

  1. Spin One Hawking Radiation from Dirty Black Holes

    Petarpa Boonserm; Tritos Ngampitipan; Matt Visser

    2013-01-01

    A “clean” black hole is a black hole in vacuum such as the Schwarzschild black hole. However in real physical systems, there are matter fields around a black hole. Such a black hole is called a “dirty black hole”. In this paper, the effect of matter fields on the black hole and the greybody factor is investigated. The results show that matter fields make a black hole smaller. They can increase the potential energy to a black hole to obstruct Hawking radiation to propagate. This causes the gre...

  2. Lorentz Invariance Violation and Modified Hawking Fermions Tunneling Radiation

    Shu-Zheng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently the modified Dirac equation with Lorentz invariance violation has been proposed, which would be helpful to resolve some issues in quantum gravity theory and high energy physics. In this paper, the modified Dirac equation has been generalized in curved spacetime, and then fermion tunneling of black holes is researched under this correctional Dirac field theory. We also use semiclassical approximation method to get correctional Hamilton-Jacobi equation, so that the correctional Hawking temperature and correctional black hole’s entropy are derived.

  3. Recent trends in counts of migrant hawks from northeastern North America

    Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Using simple regression, pooled-sites route-regression, and nonparametric rank-trend analyses, we evaluated trends in counts of hawks migrating past 6 eastern hawk lookouts from 1972 to 1987. The indexing variable was the total count for a season. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), merlin (F. columbarius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) counts increased using route-regression and nonparametric methods (P 0.10). We found no consistent trends (P > 0.10) in counts of sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), northern goshawks (A. gentilis) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), red-tailed hawks (B. jamaicensis), rough-legged hawsk (B. lagopus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius). Broad-winged hawk (B. platypterus) counts declined (P < 0.05) based on the route-regression method. Empirical comparisons of our results with those for well-studied species such as the peregrine falcon, bald eagle, and osprey indicated agreement with nesting surveys. We suggest that counts of migrant hawks are a useful and economical method for detecting long-term trends in species across regions, particularly for species that otherwise cannot be easily surveyed.

  4. Low prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in urban and migratory Cooper's Hawks in northcentral North America

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Taft, Stephen J.; Stout, William E.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Evans, David L.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is a digestive tract disease caused by ingestion of the protozoan Trichomonas gallinae. This disease can be a significant source of mortality. No deaths of nestlings could be attributed to trichomoniasis in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) breeding in urban and rural environs in Wisconsin, North Dakota, and British Columbia. We detected T. gallinae in four (5.2%) of 77 nestling Cooper's Hawks during 2006 and 2007 among 42 urban nests on new study areas in southeast Wisconsin and eastern North Dakota/western Minnesota. All four infected young fledged. We did not detect T. gallinae in 52 breeding adult Cooper's Hawks on two urban study sites, nor in 28 migrant hatching year (n  =  24) and adult (n  =  4) Cooper's Hawks at Hawk Ridge Nature Reserve, Duluth, Minnesota in 2006–2007. Overall, we detected T. gallinae in only 2.5% of 157 Cooper's Hawks in northcentral North America. These results suggest a low prevalence of T. gallinae in Cooper's Hawks in the northern part of this hawk's breeding range.

  5. Hawking temperature and scalar field fluctuations in the de-Sitter space

    Rozhanskij, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that diffusion equation for scalar field fluctuations in the de-Sitter space corresponds to Hawking temperature. The relationship between stationary solution of the equation and Hartle-Hawking instanton at random space dimensionality and any type of gravitational effect has been established

  6. Health evaluation of Galapagos Hawks (Buteo galapagoensis) on Santiago Island, Galapagos.

    Deem, Sharon L; Rivera-Parra, Jose Luis; Parker, Patricia G

    2012-01-01

    Galapagos Hawks (Buteo galapagoensis), the only endemic, diurnal raptor species in Galapagos, are currently distributed on eight Galapagos Islands having been extirpated from three of the human-inhabited islands. In January 2009, we performed health assessments of 89 Galapagos Hawks on Santiago Island, Galapagos. Four of the 89 Galapagos Hawks (4%) evaluated had physical abnormalities. Blood parameters did not differ between males and females, except for aspartate transaminase values, which were significantly higher in females than males. No Galapagos Hawks tested positive for antibodies to avian encephalitis virus, Marek virus, and paramyxovirus-1 or to haemosporidian antigen. Chlamydophila psittaci antigen was detected in 2 of 86 Galapagos Hawks (2%), with 24 of 43 Galapagos Hawks (56%) antibody-positive for avian adenovirus-1 and 1 of 48 Galapagos Hawks (2%) antibody positive for Toxoplasma gondii. There were no significant differences in infectious disease results based on sex. This study contributes to the understanding of the health status of the Galapagos Hawk and to the establishment of baseline information for the species.

  7. Bogoliubov theory of the Hawking effect in Bose-Einstein condensates

    Leonhardt, U; Kiss, T; Oehberg, P

    2003-01-01

    Artificial black holes may demonstrate some of the elusive quantum properties of the event horizon, in particular Hawking radiation. One promising candidate is a sonic hole in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We clarify why Hawking radiation emerges from the condensate and how this condensed-matter analogue reflects some of the intriguing aspects of quantum black holes

  8. Autumn raptor banding at hawk Ridge, Duluth, Minnesota USA, 1972-2009: An overview

    This manuscript is targeted to a specialized audience: ornithologists who work specifically on raptors (hawks and owls). The goal of the paper is to describe the last 38 years of banding at Hawk Ridge Bird Observatory and to put out some preliminary results on species’ annual dy...

  9. Is Earth F**ked? Dynamical Futility of Global Environmental Management and Possibilities for Sustainability via Direct Action Activism

    wErnEr, B.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental challenges are dynamically generated within the dominant global culture principally by the mismatch between short-time-scale market and political forces driving resource extraction/use and longer-time-scale accommodations of the Earth system to these changes. Increasing resource demand is leading to the development of two-way, nonlinear interactions between human societies and environmental systems that are becoming global in extent, either through globalized markets and other institutions or through coupling to global environmental systems such as climate. These trends are further intensified by dissipation-reducing technological advances in transactions, communication and transport, which suppress emergence of longer-time-scale economic and political levels of description and facilitate long-distance connections, and by predictive environmental modeling, which strengthens human connections to a short-time-scale virtual Earth, and weakens connections to the longer time scales of the actual Earth. Environmental management seeks to steer fast scale economic and political interests of a coupled human-environmental system towards longer-time-scale consideration of benefits and costs by operating within the confines of the dominant culture using a linear, engineering-type connection to the system. Perhaps as evidenced by widespread inability to meaningfully address such global environmental challenges as climate change and soil degradation, nonlinear connections reduce the ability of managers to operate outside coupled human-environmental systems, decreasing their effectiveness in steering towards sustainable interactions and resulting in managers slaved to short-to-intermediate-term interests. In sum, the dynamics of the global coupled human-environmental system within the dominant culture precludes management for stable, sustainable pathways and promotes instability. Environmental direct action, resistance taken from outside the dominant culture, as in

  10. Review of global environmental-transport models for 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I

    Kocher, D.C.; Killough, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Global environmental transport models for the long-lived and mobile radionuclides 3 H, 14 C, 85 Kr, and 129 I are reviewed from the perspective of their application to collective dose assessments following releases, e.g., from the nuclear fuel cycle. Contributions to the collective dose commitment from first-pass local and regional exposures are compared. Current global models for 14 C and 85 Kr appear to be satisfactory for dose assessment purposes. Global modeling for 3 H is more difficult than for 14 C and 85 Kr, because of the different physico-chemical forms in which atmospheric releases occur. Global models for 129 I models indicate the primary importance of retention in surface soils for collective doses during the first 10 4 years following atmospheric releases and the importance of long-term transport to ocean sediments for reducing the dose commitment

  11. Ecopedagogy as an element of citizenship education: The dialectic of global/local spheres of citizenship and critical environmental pedagogies

    Misiaszek, Greg William

    2016-10-01

    Emerging from popular education movements in Latin America, ecopedagogy is a critical environmental pedagogy which focuses on understanding the connections between social conflict and environmentally harmful acts carried out by humans. These connections are often politically hidden in education. Ecopedagogy, while being pluralistic, is in its essence defined as a critical, transformative environmental pedagogy centred on increasing social and environmental justice. Its ultimate aim is to find a sustainable balance between the conflicting goals of diverse notions of human progress and environmental wellbeing. This article is based on two comparative research projects. The first was a qualitative study on ecopedagogical models involving 31 expert ecopedagogues in Argentina, Brazil and the Appalachian region of the United States. They were asked for their perspectives on how successful ecopedagogy can be defined within the contexts in which they taught and conducted research. The second study analysed how 18 international expert scholars of citizenship and/or environmental pedagogy from six world continents regarded the ways in which citizenship intersects with environmental issues and the pedagogies of both in an increasingly globalised world, with specific focus on Global Citizenship Education. Results from the first study indicate the following two needs for effective environmental pedagogies: (1) for there to be an ecopedagogical paradigm shift in environmental teaching and research; and (2) for ecopedagogy to be an essential element of citizenship education (and vice versa). This article examines how conflicting processes of globalisation both help and hinder in achieving such a paradigm shift by decentring traditional nation-state citizenship. Results from the second study indicate how critical teaching within and between different spheres of citizenship (e.g. local, national, global, and planetary citizenship) is essential for ecopedagogy (and the

  12. Hawking radiation, entanglement, and teleportation in the background of an asymptotically flat static black hole

    Pan Qiyuan; Jing Jiliang

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the Hawking temperature on the entanglement and teleportation for the scalar field in a most general, static, and asymptotically flat black hole with spherical symmetry has been investigated. It has been shown that the same 'initial entanglement' for the state parameter α and its 'normalized partners'√(1-α 2 ) will be degraded by the Hawking effect with increasing Hawking temperature along two different trajectories except for the maximally entangled state. In the infinite Hawking temperature limit, corresponding to the case of the black hole evaporating completely, the state no longer has distillable entanglement for any α. It is interesting to note that the mutual information in this limit is equal to just half of the 'initially mutual information'. It has also been demonstrated that the fidelity of teleportation decreases as the Hawking temperature increases, which indicates the degradation of entanglement.

  13. Environmental 14C and 3H activities: global trends and local contamination

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Obelic, B.; Horvatincic, N.

    2000-01-01

    The anthropogenic disturbance of natural distributions of radiocarbon ( 14 C) and tritium ( 3 H) due to the release of bomb-produced isotopes occurred after the World War II and at the same time the monitoring of these isotopes started at several stations in the world. Radioactive isotopes 14 C and 3 H, together with the stable isotopes 2 H and 18 O, are very important tracers in environmental, climatological and hydrological studies. Monitoring of environmental levels of 14 C and 3 H in Croatia started more then 20 years ago, while that of the stable isotopes somewhat later. The monitoring was performed at the three types of stations: a) 'clean-air' sites, which are supposed to reflect only the global disturbance of the atmospheric isotope concentrations, b) in a densely populated industrial center, where the effect of intense fossil-fuel combustion is expected, and local contamination from institutions using radioactive-labeled material is also possible, and c) at locations around the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko. The mean yearly 3 H activities in precipitation continuously decrease since the beginning of monitoring approaching slowly the natural equilibrium. The monthly 3 H activities show seasonal variations, with maximum in early summer and minimum in early winter. Both seasonal variations and the decrease of the mean yearly values are typical for continental stations of the Northern Hemisphere. At the sampling site located at the Institute, several periods of higher 3 H activities were observed, due to the local contamination with the tritium-labeled material. The 14 C concentration in the atmosphere shows also the continuous decrease of the mean yearly values and superposed seasonal fluctuations, with higher activity during summer. Seasonal peak-to-peak variations are higher in the area of the city of Zagreb than at the clean-air site on the mountain (about 1000 m a.s.l.). This difference is caused by the introduction of CO 2 (containing no 14 C isotope

  14. D-PLACE: A Global Database of Cultural, Linguistic and Environmental Diversity

    Kirby, Kathryn R.; Gray, Russell D.; Greenhill, Simon J.; Jordan, Fiona M.; Gomes-Ng, Stephanie; Bibiko, Hans-Jörg; Blasi, Damián E.; Botero, Carlos A.; Bowern, Claire; Ember, Carol R.; Leehr, Dan; Low, Bobbi S.; McCarter, Joe; Divale, William; Gavin, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    From the foods we eat and the houses we construct, to our religious practices and political organization, to who we can marry and the types of games we teach our children, the diversity of cultural practices in the world is astounding. Yet, our ability to visualize and understand this diversity is limited by the ways it has been documented and shared: on a culture-by-culture basis, in locally-told stories or difficult-to-access repositories. In this paper we introduce D-PLACE, the Database of Places, Language, Culture, and Environment. This expandable and open-access database (accessible at https://d-place.org) brings together a dispersed corpus of information on the geography, language, culture, and environment of over 1400 human societies. We aim to enable researchers to investigate the extent to which patterns in cultural diversity are shaped by different forces, including shared history, demographics, migration/diffusion, cultural innovations, and environmental and ecological conditions. We detail how D-PLACE helps to overcome four common barriers to understanding these forces: i) location of relevant cultural data, (ii) linking data from distinct sources using diverse ethnonyms, (iii) variable time and place foci for data, and (iv) spatial and historical dependencies among cultural groups that present challenges for analysis. D-PLACE facilitates the visualisation of relationships among cultural groups and between people and their environments, with results downloadable as tables, on a map, or on a linguistic tree. We also describe how D-PLACE can be used for exploratory, predictive, and evolutionary analyses of cultural diversity by a range of users, from members of the worldwide public interested in contrasting their own cultural practices with those of other societies, to researchers using large-scale computational phylogenetic analyses to study cultural evolution. In summary, we hope that D-PLACE will enable new lines of investigation into the major drivers

  15. Environmental supportiveness for physical activity in English schoolchildren: a study using Global Positioning Systems

    Griffin Simon J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that the environment plays a role in influencing physical activity in children and adults. As children have less autonomy in their behavioural choices, neighbourhood environment supportiveness may be an important determinant of their ability to be active. Yet we know rather little about the types of environment that children use for bouts of physical activity. This study uses accelerometery and global positioning system technologies to identify the charactieristics of environments being used for bouts of continuous moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA in a sample of English schoolchildren. Methods The study used a convenience sample of 100 children from SPEEDY (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people, a cohort of 2064 9–10 year-olds from Norfolk, England, recruited in 2007. Children wore an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer and a Garmin Forerunner 205 GPS unit over four consecutive days. Accelerometery data points were matched to GPS locations and bouts (5 minutes or more of MVPA were identified. Bout locations were overlaid with a detailed landcover dataset developed in a GIS to identify the types of environment supporting MVPA. Findings are presented using descriptive statistics. Results Boys were also more active than girls, spending an average of 20 (SD 23 versus 11 (SD 15 minutes per day in MVPA bouts. Children who spent more time outside the home were more active (p = 0.002, especially girls and children living in rural locations (both p Conclusion The study has developed a new methodology for the identification of environments in which bouts of continuous physical activity are undertaken. The results highlight the importance of the provision of urban gardens and greenspaces, and the maintenance of safe street environments as places for children to be active.

  16. D-PLACE: A Global Database of Cultural, Linguistic and Environmental Diversity.

    Kirby, Kathryn R; Gray, Russell D; Greenhill, Simon J; Jordan, Fiona M; Gomes-Ng, Stephanie; Bibiko, Hans-Jörg; Blasi, Damián E; Botero, Carlos A; Bowern, Claire; Ember, Carol R; Leehr, Dan; Low, Bobbi S; McCarter, Joe; Divale, William; Gavin, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    From the foods we eat and the houses we construct, to our religious practices and political organization, to who we can marry and the types of games we teach our children, the diversity of cultural practices in the world is astounding. Yet, our ability to visualize and understand this diversity is limited by the ways it has been documented and shared: on a culture-by-culture basis, in locally-told stories or difficult-to-access repositories. In this paper we introduce D-PLACE, the Database of Places, Language, Culture, and Environment. This expandable and open-access database (accessible at https://d-place.org) brings together a dispersed corpus of information on the geography, language, culture, and environment of over 1400 human societies. We aim to enable researchers to investigate the extent to which patterns in cultural diversity are shaped by different forces, including shared history, demographics, migration/diffusion, cultural innovations, and environmental and ecological conditions. We detail how D-PLACE helps to overcome four common barriers to understanding these forces: i) location of relevant cultural data, (ii) linking data from distinct sources using diverse ethnonyms, (iii) variable time and place foci for data, and (iv) spatial and historical dependencies among cultural groups that present challenges for analysis. D-PLACE facilitates the visualisation of relationships among cultural groups and between people and their environments, with results downloadable as tables, on a map, or on a linguistic tree. We also describe how D-PLACE can be used for exploratory, predictive, and evolutionary analyses of cultural diversity by a range of users, from members of the worldwide public interested in contrasting their own cultural practices with those of other societies, to researchers using large-scale computational phylogenetic analyses to study cultural evolution. In summary, we hope that D-PLACE will enable new lines of investigation into the major drivers

  17. A new international environmental order? An assessment of the impact of the global warming epistemic community

    Smith, H.A.

    1993-12-01

    Global warming is a problem which ignores national boundaries, making international cooperation essential. The role of epistemic communities, or those composed of professionals who share a commitment to a common causal model and a set of political values, in affecting the international response to the global warming problem is examined. It is claimed that the epistemic global warming community can affect the policy process, both domestically and internationally, and facilitate cooperation in an era of ecological interdependence. This claim is explored and eventually supported through the examination of two case studies: the responses of Canada and Britain to the issue of global warming between 1988 and November 1990. The case studies are supplemented with a more general discussion of the issues surrounding the international politics of global warming through the same period. Through these studies, it is found that a global warming community can be identified and that its efforts have played a significant role in framing the global warming issue. 121 refs

  18. Integrating scientific argumentation to improve undergraduate writing and learning in a global environmental change course

    Kreutz, K. J.; Koffman, B. G.; Trenbath, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    What makes a good scientific argument? We began ERS201: Global Environmental Change by asking students to reflect on the mechanics of a strong scientific argument. At the same time, we asked them to evaluate global CO2 and sea level data from different time periods in Earth's history to answer the question, 'Is there a relationship between atmospheric CO2 and sea level, and if so, why?' This question formed the theme for the course, a mid-level, inquiry-based class of about 20 students. Each week, students target specific aspects of the climate system through problem sets, which include experimental and laboratory work, basic statistical analyses of paleoclimate datasets, and the development of simple systems models using STELLA software. Every 2-4 weeks, we challenge students to write short (1500 word) data-driven scientific arguments, which require a synthesis of information from their problem sets and from the scientific literature. Students have to develop a clear, testable hypothesis related to each writing prompt, and then make their case using figures they have generated during the weekly problem sets. We evaluate student writing using a rubric that focuses on the structure and clarity of the argument, relevance of the data included, and integration and quality of the graphics, with a lesser emphasis placed on voice and style. In 2013, student scores improved from a median value of 86 × 9% to 94 × 8% over the course of the semester. More importantly, we found that incorporation of scientific argumentation served to increase student understanding of important and sometimes abstract scientific concepts. For example, on pre- and post-course assessments we asked the question, 'What would happen if a significant portion of the sea ice floating in the Arctic Ocean were to melt?' On the pre-assessment, 80% of students said that it would lead to more coastal flooding, while only 20% correctly stated that a decrease in the reflection of solar energy would lead to

  19. The road to Rio or the global environmental crisis and the emergence of different agendas for rich and poor countries

    White, R R [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    1992-01-01

    The industrialised countries of the North have become increasingly concerned about the impact of human activities on the environment, especially increased ultra-violet radiation, global warming and a rise in sea level. These changes are global problems, so the cooperation of the South is needed. The South is more concerned with the immediate environmental problems of soil erosion, droughts, poverty and rapid population growth. This paper examines the possibilities of meshing these contrasting priorities to the mutual benefit of both parties. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Comparative morphology among northern populations of breeding Cooper's Hawks

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Bielefeldt, John; Murphy, Robert K.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Stout, William E.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies at a broad geographical scale have characterized intraspecific variation in morphology of woodland hawks in the genus Accipiter. From 1999 to 2007 we investigated morphological variation in large samples of live Cooper's Hawks (A. cooperii) nesting in four study areas: coniferous woodland around Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, isolated deciduous woodlands in short-grass prairies of northwestern North Dakota, towns and rural deciduous woodlands along the border of North Dakota and Minnesota, and urban and rural mixed deciduous and coniferous landscapes of Wisconsin. These sites span 2660 km across the northern part of the species' breeding range. We measured body mass (i.e., size), wing chord, tail length, tarsus diameter, hallux length, and culmen length of breeding adults, finding significant and clinal variation in body mass (or size). The smallest and most similar-sized birds occurred in British Columbia and western North Dakota, larger birds along the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, and the largest birds in Wisconsin. Several other characters varied significantly when mass was used as a covariate. Variation by study site in mean indices of sexual size dimorphism was negligible and not significant. We speculate that the morphological differences we found, in part, are the result of geographic isolation, where diets, migratory behavior, and structural characteristics of nesting habitats vary across landscape types.

  1. Nesting habitat and productivity of Swainson's Hawks in southeastern Arizona

    Nishida, Catherine; Boal, Clint W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Hobbs, Royden J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) in southeastern Arizona to assess the status of the local breeding population. Nest success (≥1 young fledged) was 44.4% in 1999 with an average of 1.43 ± 0.09 (SE) young produced per successful pair. Productivity was similar in 2000, with 58.2% nesting success and 1.83 ± 0.09 fledglings per successful pair. Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) and cottonwood (Populus fremontii) accounted for >50% of 167 nest trees. Nest trees were taller than surrounding trees and random trees, and overall there was more vegetative cover at nest sites than random sites. This apparent requirement for cover around nest sites could be important for management of the species in Arizona. However, any need for cover at nest sites must be balanced with the need for open areas for foraging. Density of nesting Swainson's Hawks was higher in agriculture than in grasslands and desert scrub. Breeding pairs had similar success in agricultural and nonagricultural areas, but the effect of rapid and widespread land-use change on breeding distribution and productivity continues to be a concern throughout the range of the species.

  2. Mean-field inference of Hawkes point processes

    Bacry, Emmanuel; Gaïffas, Stéphane; Mastromatteo, Iacopo; Muzy, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    We propose a fast and efficient estimation method that is able to accurately recover the parameters of a d-dimensional Hawkes point-process from a set of observations. We exploit a mean-field approximation that is valid when the fluctuations of the stochastic intensity are small. We show that this is notably the case in situations when interactions are sufficiently weak, when the dimension of the system is high or when the fluctuations are self-averaging due to the large number of past events they involve. In such a regime the estimation of a Hawkes process can be mapped on a least-squares problem for which we provide an analytic solution. Though this estimator is biased, we show that its precision can be comparable to the one of the maximum likelihood estimator while its computation speed is shown to be improved considerably. We give a theoretical control on the accuracy of our new approach and illustrate its efficiency using synthetic datasets, in order to assess the statistical estimation error of the parameters. (paper)

  3. Lessons for South Africa from global trends in environmental labelling of buildings and construction products

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This chapter examines the international state-of-the-art of environmental labelling of buildings and construction products; and discusses ways in which the emerging South African framework for environmental labelling could benefit from the lessons...

  4. Globalization of the energy sector: Environmental challenges and options for future actions

    Benavides, Pablo

    1998-12-01

    This publication relates to environmental challenges of the energy sector and options for future action. Following themes are discussed: Globalisation of the energy sector; environmental challenges; the challenge of climate change; options for future action

  5. The use of ‘macro’ legal analysis in the understanding and development of global environmental governance

    Turner, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the manner in which ‘macro’ legal analysis can potentially assist in overcoming some of the issues that are faced in the understanding and development of global environmental governance (GEG). It argues that the analysis of law through separate and distinct disciplines such as environmental law, trade law, corporate law, and human rights law, results in what this article refers to as ‘micro’ legal analysis. As such, it contends that this can have the effect of creating o...

  6. State environmental law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use environmental statutes to fight global warming?

    Sautter, John A.

    2010-10-15

    In many states environmental statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)

  7. Hawking radiation and tunneling mechanism for a new class of black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Muneyuki, Kenji; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    We study Hawking radiation in a new class of black hole solutions in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory. The black hole has been argued to have vanishing mass and entropy, but finite Hawking temperature. To check if it really emits radiation, we analyze Hawking radiation using the original method of quantization of a scalar field in the black hole background and with the quantum tunneling method, and confirm that it emits radiation at the Hawking temperature. A general formula is derived for the Hawking temperature and backreaction in the tunneling approach. Physical implications of these results are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Stephen Hawking's Community-Bound Voice A Functional Investigation of Self-Mentions in Stephen Hawking's Scientific Prose

    Davud Kuhi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the development of the concept of metadiscourse, it is now widely acknowledged that academic/scientific writing is not only concerned with communicating purely propositional meanings: what is communicated through academic/scientific communication is seen to be intertwined with the negotiation of social and interpersonal meanings. While a large number of so called metadiscoursal resources contribute to the simultaneous negotiation of propositional and interpersonal meanings, the present study aimed at investigating the functions self-mention forms can fulfill in academic/scientific communication. Two of Stephen Hawking's scientific books were selected as the corpus of the research, and based on Tang and John's (1999 model, the constructed corpus was analyzed in terms of the functions self-mention forms can fulfill in academic/scientific writing. The findings revealed that from among the different roles identified by Tang and John, the representative role constituted the most frequent self-mention function in the corpus. The remarkably heavy presence of representative role in Hawking's scientific prose was interpreted as a further evidence for the claim that scientists are more likely to persuade readers of their ideas if they frame their messages in ways which appeal to appropriate community-recognized relationships.

  9. The Environmental, Social, Governance, and Financial Performance Effects on Companies that Adopt the United Nations Global Compact

    Eduardo Ortas; Igor Álvarez; Ainhoa Garayar

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate companies’ environmental, social, governance (ESG), and financial implications of their commitment to the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC). The focus is placed on companies operating in the three countries with the highest number of UNGC participants: Spain, France, and Japan. The results clearly reveal that adoption of the UNGC often requires an organizational change that fosters stakeholder engagement, ultimately resulting in improvements in companies’ ESG...

  10. Achieving global environmental benefits through local development of clean energy? The case of small hilly hydel in India

    Reddy, V. Ratna; Uitto, Juha I.; Frans, Dirk R.; Matin, Nilufar

    2006-01-01

    Energy and development are closely intertwined. Yet, increasing fossil fuel-based energy consumption contributes significantly to environmental problems both locally and globally. This article explores the interlinkages between local livelihood and environmental benefits from the provision of energy to remote rural households through small hydropower development. The analysis is based on research carried out around a large development project designed to assist the Government of India in the optimum utilization of small hydropower resources in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions. There are about 100,000 villages in India that are not connected to electricity supply, many of them in the hilly regions with ample hydropower potential. The project aimed to demonstrate the utility of and options for providing electricity to such villages through clean mini-hydro. The article addresses the nature of the impacts of the demonstration small hydel schemes on the local communities, to what extent they translate into environmental benefits both locally and globally, and the perceptions and participation of the local communities in these small hydro schemes. The study explores the impacts of the schemes on financial capital, natural capital, social capital, physical capital, human capital, and gender equity in the local communities. It further provides a discussion on the links between local and global environmental benefits. Overall, it is found that the schemes' impacts both on the local communities and the environment are mostly marginally positive or neutral, although achieving clearly demonstrable benefits would require major upscaling of the effort involving broader changes than possible under this project. Furthermore, it is argued that some of the assumptions behind the project design were faulty. Involvement of the local communities and direct livelihood benefits to them are essential for the long-term sustainability of the small hydro schemes. The discussion and

  11. Backreaction of Hawking radiation on a gravitationally collapsing star I: Black holes?

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Particle creation leading to Hawking radiation is produced by the changing gravitational field of the collapsing star. The two main initial conditions in the far past placed on the quantum field from which particles arise, are the Hartle–Hawking vacuum and the Unruh vacuum. The former leads to a time-symmetric thermal bath of radiation, while the latter to a flux of radiation coming out of the collapsing star. The energy of Hawking radiation in the interior of the collapsing star is negative and equal in magnitude to its value at future infinity. This work investigates the backreaction of Hawking radiation on the interior of a gravitationally collapsing star, in a Hartle–Hawking initial vacuum. It shows that due to the negative energy Hawking radiation in the interior, the collapse of the star stops at a finite radius, before the singularity and the event horizon of a black hole have a chance to form. That is, the star bounces instead of collapsing to a black hole. A trapped surface near the last stage of the star's collapse to its minimum size may still exist temporarily. Its formation depends on the details of collapse. Results for the case of Hawking flux of radiation with the Unruh initial state, will be given in a companion paper II

  12. Hawking fluxes and anomalies in rotating regular black holes with a time-delay

    Takeuchi, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Based on the anomaly cancellation method we compute the Hawking fluxes (the Hawking thermal flux and the total flux of energy-momentum tensor) from a four-dimensional rotating regular black hole with a time-delay. To this purpose, in the three metrics proposed in [1], we try to perform the dimensional reduction in which the anomaly cancellation method is feasible at the near-horizon region in a general scalar field theory. As a result we can demonstrate that the dimensional reduction is possible in two of those metrics. Hence we perform the anomaly cancellation method and compute the Hawking fluxes in those two metrics. Our Hawking fluxes involve three effects: (1) quantum gravity effect regularizing the core of the black holes, (2) rotation of the black hole, (3) time-delay. Further in this paper toward the metric in which the dimensional could not be performed, we argue that it would be some problematic metric, and mention its cause. The Hawking fluxes we compute in this study could be considered to correspond to more realistic Hawking fluxes. Further what Hawking fluxes can be obtained from the anomaly cancellation method would be interesting in terms of the relation between a consistency of quantum field theories and black hole thermodynamics. (paper)

  13. Potential Environmental and Ecological Effects of Global Climate Change on Venomous Terrestrial Species in the Wilderness.

    Needleman, Robert K; Neylan, Isabelle P; Erickson, Timothy

    2018-06-01

    Climate change has been scientifically documented, and its effects on wildlife have been prognosticated. We sought to predict the overall impact of climate change on venomous terrestrial species. We hypothesize that given the close relationship between terrestrial venomous species and climate, a changing global environment may result in increased species migration, geographical redistribution, and longer seasons for envenomation, which would have repercussions on human health. A retrospective analysis of environmental, ecological, and medical literature was performed with a focus on climate change, toxinology, and future modeling specific to venomous terrestrial creatures. Species included venomous reptiles, snakes, arthropods, spiders, and Hymenoptera (ants and bees). Animals that are vectors of hemorrhagic infectious disease (eg, mosquitos, ticks) were excluded. Our review of the literature indicates that changes to climatic norms will have a potentially dramatic effect on terrestrial venomous creatures. Empirical evidence demonstrates that geographic distributions of many species have already shifted due to changing climatic conditions. Given that most terrestrial venomous species are ectotherms closely tied to ambient temperature, and that climate change is shifting temperature zones away from the equator, further significant distribution and population changes should be anticipated. For those species able to migrate to match the changing temperatures, new geographical locations may open. For those species with limited distribution capabilities, the rate of climate change may accelerate faster than species can adapt, causing population declines. Specifically, poisonous snakes and spiders will likely maintain their population numbers but will shift their geographic distribution to traditionally temperate zones more often inhabited by humans. Fire ants and Africanized honey bees are expected to have an expanded range distribution due to predicted warming trends

  14. Management strategies for coral reefs and people under global environmental change: 25 years of scientific research.

    Comte, Adrien; Pendleton, Linwood H

    2018-03-01

    Coral reef ecosystems and the people who depend on them are increasingly exposed to the adverse effects of global environmental change (GEC), including increases in sea-surface temperature and ocean acidification. Managers and decision-makers need a better understanding of the options available for action in the face of these changes. We refine a typology of actions developed by Gattuso et al. (2015) that could serve in prioritizing strategies to deal with the impacts of GEC on reefs and people. Using the typology we refined, we investigate the scientific effort devoted to four types of management strategies: mitigate, protect, repair, adapt that we tie to the components of the chain of impact they affect: ecological vulnerability or social vulnerability. A systematic literature review is used to investigate quantitatively how scientific effort over the past 25 years is responding to the challenge posed by GEC on coral reefs and to identify gaps in research. A growing literature has focused on these impacts and on management strategies to sustain coral reef social-ecological systems. We identify 767 peer reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2016 that address coral reef management in the context of GEC. The rate of publication of such studies has increased over the years, following the general trend in climate research. The literature focuses on protect strategies the most, followed by mitigate and adapt strategies, and finally repair strategies. Developed countries, particularly Australia and the United States, are over-represented as authors and locations of case studies across all types of management strategies. Authors affiliated in developed countries play a major role in investigating case studies across the globe. The majority of articles focus on only one of the four categories of actions. A gap analysis reveals three directions for future research: (1) more research is needed in South-East Asia and other developing countries where the impacts of

  15. Global and Mexican analytical review of the state of the art on Ecosystem and Environmental services: A geographical approach

    Maria Perevochtchikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The term Ecosystem Services (ES was introduced in the Rio Declaration in 1992, within a strong international movement for sustainable natural resource management. Back then, the innovative principle concerned the environmental functions that maintain life support systems. To illustrate this further, pollination, oxygen production, temperature regulation, water storage, filtering and distribution, among others, were listed and previously taken for granted until human action contested them. The first compensation schemes for Environmental Services were proposed in 1997 as one of the tools of the new environmental policy directed towards the principles of sustainable development. Since then, the topic of ES has received remarkable global response, which is reflected by the implementation of payment programs and by the development of research in many countries worldwide. This paper analyses the state of the art of the research carried out so far on ES and Environmental Services from the global and the Mexican perspectives. It is based upon the review of 1,781 scientific papers published in international peer reviewed journals between 1992 and 2012. Furthermore, the present study provides a sound geographical overview of the main ES topics studied and of the relative emission of papers per region, country or state. Results are finally presented and discussed in the light of their deficits and of the challenges ahead.

  16. Super Global Projects and Environmentally Friendly Technologies Used in Space Exploration: Realities and Prospects of the Space Age

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The 60th anniversary of the Space Age is an important intermediate finishing point on the way of a man and the whole humanity to space. Along with the outstanding achievements, there are a number of challenges and contradictions in space exploration due to the aggravation of the global crisis on Earth, low efficiency and the backlog of space research in the transition to a new technology based reality and clean technologies. Both the international astronautics and the space exploration area nowadays face difficulties in choosing a new paradigm and a development strategy that is becoming even more complicated due to the current unstable and turbulent situation on Earth. The article reveals the optimistic scenario of further space exploration, as well as the methodological and practical aspects of new projects and technologies. The periodization of the Space Age history has been conducted. It has been also proposed a new classification of the “space” phenomenon due to concretizing the concept of “global” in the form of a three-scale structure encompassing the following levels: 1 planetary global; 2 super global; 3 universally global. The notion of “super global space exploration project” has been introduced. The concept of further space exploration is proposed, which includes four interrelated super global projects:1 Earth Protection System from Asteroid and Comet Threat; 2 Moon Exploration; 3 Mars Exploration; 4 Cosmic Humanity. Since the humanity is embarking on the practical implementation of these super global projects, it is urgent to make a transition towards a new technology based order, as well as up-to-date technologies. A couple of ecological projects and space exploration technologies of the 20th and 21st centuries have been exemplified and analyzed. It has been also worked out the list of new environmentally friendly space technologies and projects. The research makes an emphasis upon a great potential of clean and green

  17. Connecting anomaly and tunneling methods for the Hawking effect through chirality

    Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    The role of chirality is discussed in unifying the anomaly and the tunneling formalisms for deriving the Hawking effect. Using the chirality condition and starting from the familiar form of the trace anomaly, the chiral (gravitational) anomaly, manifested as a nonconservation of the stress tensor, near the horizon of a black hole, is derived. Solution of this equation yields the stress tensor whose asymptotic infinity limit gives the Hawking flux. Finally, use of the same chirality condition in the tunneling formalism gives the Hawking temperature that is compatible with the flux obtained by anomaly method.

  18. Hawking radiation of Dirac particles in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime

    Ahmed, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Hawking radiation of charged Dirac particles on the horizons of the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime is studied in this paper. To this end, we obtain the radial decoupled Dirac equation for the electron in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime. Next we solve the Dirac equation near the horizons. Finally, by analytic continuation, the Hawking thermal spectrum formula of Dirac particles is obtained. The problem of the Hawking evaporation of Dirac particles in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman background is thus solved. (orig.)

  19. Migration and habitat preferences of Swainson's Hawks at an autumn stopover site in northwestern Texas

    Littlefield, Carroll D.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most raptors, the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) migrates long distances between breeding and wintering ranges, which elevates the importance of stopover sites for foraging. We conducted three years of fall surveys in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Migrant Swainson's Hawks moved through the area mostly between July and mid-October, peaking in September. Subadults tended to migrate earlier than adults, and light morphs before dark morphs. Favored foraging habitats included silage corn, green beans, and alfalfa, but the hawks foraged primarily where ongoing agricultural activities disturbed prey and made them more available.

  20. New coordinates for BTZ black hole and Hawking radiation via tunnelling

    Liu Wenbiao

    2006-01-01

    Hawking radiation can usefully be viewed as a semi-classical tunnelling process that originates at the black hole horizon. For the stationary axisymmetric BTZ black hole, a generalized Painleve coordinate system (Painleve-BTZ coordinates) is introduced, and Hawking radiation as tunnelling under the effect of self-gravitation is investigated. The corrected radiation is obtained which is not precise thermal spectrum. The result is consistent with the underlying unitary theory. Moreover, Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of BTZ black hole is not necessarily corrected when we choose appropriate coordinate system to study the tunnelling effect