Global gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furnish, G.; Horton, W.; Kishimoto, Y.; LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.
1998-10-01
A kinetic simulation code based on the gyrokinetic ion dynamics in global general metric (including a tokamak with circular or noncircular cross-section) has been developed. This gyrokinetic simulation is capable of examining the global and semi-global driftwave structures and their associated transport in a tokamak plasma. The authors investigate the property of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) or η i (η i ≡ ∂ ell nT i /∂ ell n n i ) driven drift waves in a tokamak plasma. The emergent semi-global drift wave modes give rise to thermal transport characterized by the Bohm scaling
Global gyrokinetic simulations of TEM microturbulence
Vernay, T.; Brunner, S.; Villard, L.; McMillan, B. F.; Jolliet, S.; Bottino, A.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.
2013-07-01
Global gyrokinetic simulations of electrostatic temperature-gradient-driven trapped-electron-mode (TEM) turbulence using the δf particle-in-cell code ORB5 are presented. The electron response is either fully kinetic or hybrid, i.e. considering kinetic trapped and adiabatic passing electrons. A linear benchmark in the TEM regime against the Eulerian-based code GENE is presented. Two different methods for controlling the numerical noise, based, respectively, on a Krook operator and a so-called coarse-graining approach, are discussed and successfully compared. Both linear and non-linear studies are carried out for addressing the issue of finite-ρ*-effects and finite electron collisionality on TEM turbulence. Electron collisions are found to damp TEMs through the detrapping process, while finite-ρ*-effects turn out to be important in the non-linear regime but very small in the linear regime. Finally, the effects of zonal flows on TEM turbulence are briefly considered as well and shown to be unimportant in the temperature-gradient-driven TEM regime. Consistently, basically no difference is found between linear and non-linear critical electron temperature gradients in the TEM regime.
Global gyrokinetic and fluid hybrid simulations of tokamaks and stellarators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cole, Michael David John
2016-07-15
Achieving commercial production of electricity by magnetic confinement fusion requires improvements in energy and particle confinement. In order to better understand and optimise confinement, numerical simulations of plasma phenomena are useful. One particularly challenging regime is that in which long wavelength MHD phenomena interact with kinetic phenomena. In such a regime, global electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations are necessary. In this regime, computational requirements have been excessive for Eulerian methods, while Particle-in-Cell (PIC) methods have been particularly badly affected by the 'cancellation problem', a numerical problem resulting from the structure of the electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations. A number of researchers have been working on mitigating this problem with some significant successes. Another alternative to mitigating the problem is to move to a hybrid system of fluid and gyrokinetic equations. At the expense of reducing the physical content of the numerical model, particularly electron kinetic physics, it is possible in this way to perform global electromagnetic PIC simulations retaining ion gyrokinetic effects but eliminating the cancellation problem. The focus of this work has been the implementation of two such hybrid models into the gyrokinetic code EUTERPE. The two models treat electrons and the entire bulk plasma respectively as a fluid. Both models are additionally capable of considering the self-consistent interaction of an energetic ion species, described gyrokinetically, with the perturbed fields. These two models have been successfully benchmarked in linear growth rate and frequency against other codes for a Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) case in both the linear and non-linear regimes. The m=1 internal kink mode, which is particularly challenging in terms of the fully gyrokinetic cancellation problem, has also been successfully benchmarked using the hybrid models with the MHD eigenvalue code CKA. Non
Global gyrokinetic and fluid hybrid simulations of tokamaks and stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cole, Michael David John
2016-01-01
Achieving commercial production of electricity by magnetic confinement fusion requires improvements in energy and particle confinement. In order to better understand and optimise confinement, numerical simulations of plasma phenomena are useful. One particularly challenging regime is that in which long wavelength MHD phenomena interact with kinetic phenomena. In such a regime, global electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations are necessary. In this regime, computational requirements have been excessive for Eulerian methods, while Particle-in-Cell (PIC) methods have been particularly badly affected by the 'cancellation problem', a numerical problem resulting from the structure of the electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations. A number of researchers have been working on mitigating this problem with some significant successes. Another alternative to mitigating the problem is to move to a hybrid system of fluid and gyrokinetic equations. At the expense of reducing the physical content of the numerical model, particularly electron kinetic physics, it is possible in this way to perform global electromagnetic PIC simulations retaining ion gyrokinetic effects but eliminating the cancellation problem. The focus of this work has been the implementation of two such hybrid models into the gyrokinetic code EUTERPE. The two models treat electrons and the entire bulk plasma respectively as a fluid. Both models are additionally capable of considering the self-consistent interaction of an energetic ion species, described gyrokinetically, with the perturbed fields. These two models have been successfully benchmarked in linear growth rate and frequency against other codes for a Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) case in both the linear and non-linear regimes. The m=1 internal kink mode, which is particularly challenging in terms of the fully gyrokinetic cancellation problem, has also been successfully benchmarked using the hybrid models with the MHD eigenvalue code CKA. Non-linear simulations
Global gyrokinetic simulation of Tokamak edge pedestal instabilities.
Wan, Weigang; Parker, Scott E; Chen, Yang; Yan, Zheng; Groebner, Richard J; Snyder, Philip B
2012-11-02
Global electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations show the existence of near threshold conditions for both a high-n kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) and an intermediate-n kinetic version of peeling-ballooning mode (KPBM) in the edge pedestal of two DIII-D H-mode discharges. When the magnetic shear is reduced in a narrow region of steep pressure gradient, the KPBM is significantly stabilized, while the KBM is weakly destabilized and hence becomes the most-unstable mode. Collisions decrease the KBM's critical β and increase the growth rate.
Gyrokinetic Simulation of Global Turbulent Transport Properties in Tokamak Experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, W.X.; Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Rewoldt, G.; Hahm, T.S.; Manickam, J.
2006-01-01
A general geometry gyro-kinetic model for particle simulation of plasma turbulence in tokamak experiments is described. It incorporates the comprehensive influence of noncircular cross section, realistic plasma profiles, plasma rotation, neoclassical (equilibrium) electric fields, and Coulomb collisions. An interesting result of global turbulence development in a shaped tokamak plasma is presented with regard to nonlinear turbulence spreading into the linearly stable region. The mutual interaction between turbulence and zonal flows in collisionless plasmas is studied with a focus on identifying possible nonlinear saturation mechanisms for zonal flows. A bursting temporal behavior with a period longer than the geodesic acoustic oscillation period is observed even in a collisionless system. Our simulation results suggest that the zonal flows can drive turbulence. However, this process is too weak to be an effective zonal flow saturation mechanism.
Global full-f gyrokinetic simulations of plasma turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grandgirard, V [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sarazin, Y [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Angelino, P [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bottino, A [Max Plank Institut fr Plasmaphysik, IPP-EURATOM AssociationGarching (Germany); Crouseilles, N [IRMA, Universite Louis Pasteur, 7, rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Darmet, G [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dif-Pradalier, G [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Garbet, X [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ghendrih, Ph [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Jolliet, S [CRPP, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Latu, G [LaBRI, 341 Cours Liberation, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Sonnendruecker, E [IRMA, Universite Louis Pasteur, 7, rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Villard, L [CRPP, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2007-12-15
Critical physical issues can be specifically tackled with the global full-f gyrokinetic code GYSELA. Three main results are presented. First, the self-consistent treatment of equilibrium and fluctuations highlights the competition between two compensation mechanisms for the curvature driven vertical charge separation, namely, parallel flow and polarization. The impact of the latter on the turbulent transport is discussed. In the non-linear regime, the benchmark with the Particle-In-Cell code ORB5 looks satisfactory. Second, the transport scaling with {rho}{sub *} is found to depend both on {rho}{sub *} itself and on the distance to the linear threshold. Finally, a statistical steady-state turbulent regime is achieved in a reduced version of GYSELA by prescribing a constant heat source.
Global full-f gyrokinetic simulations of plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandgirard, V; Sarazin, Y; Angelino, P; Bottino, A; Crouseilles, N; Darmet, G; Dif-Pradalier, G; Garbet, X; Ghendrih, Ph; Jolliet, S; Latu, G; Sonnendruecker, E; Villard, L
2007-01-01
Critical physical issues can be specifically tackled with the global full-f gyrokinetic code GYSELA. Three main results are presented. First, the self-consistent treatment of equilibrium and fluctuations highlights the competition between two compensation mechanisms for the curvature driven vertical charge separation, namely, parallel flow and polarization. The impact of the latter on the turbulent transport is discussed. In the non-linear regime, the benchmark with the Particle-In-Cell code ORB5 looks satisfactory. Second, the transport scaling with ρ * is found to depend both on ρ * itself and on the distance to the linear threshold. Finally, a statistical steady-state turbulent regime is achieved in a reduced version of GYSELA by prescribing a constant heat source
Parker, Jeffrey B.; LoDestro, Lynda L.; Told, Daniel; Merlo, Gabriele; Ricketson, Lee F.; Campos, Alejandro; Jenko, Frank; Hittinger, Jeffrey A. F.
2018-05-01
The vast separation dividing the characteristic times of energy confinement and turbulence in the core of toroidal plasmas makes first-principles prediction on long timescales extremely challenging. Here we report the demonstration of a multiple-timescale method that enables coupling global gyrokinetic simulations with a transport solver to calculate the evolution of the self-consistent temperature profile. This method, which exhibits resiliency to the intrinsic fluctuations arising in turbulence simulations, holds potential for integrating nonlocal gyrokinetic turbulence simulations into predictive, whole-device models.
GYSELA, a full-f global gyrokinetic Semi-Lagrangian code for ITG turbulence simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Crouseilles, N.; Latu, G.; Sonnendruecker, E.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.
2006-01-01
This work addresses non-linear global gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence with the GYSELA code. The particularity of GYSELA code is to use a fixed grid with a Semi-Lagrangian (SL) scheme and this for the entire distribution function. The 4D non-linear drift-kinetic version of the code already showns the interest of such a SL method which exhibits good properties of energy conservation in non-linear regime as well as an accurate description of fine spatial scales. The code has been upgrated to run 5D simulations of toroidal ITG turbulence. Linear benchmarks and non-linear first results prove that semi-lagrangian codes can be a credible alternative for gyrokinetic simulations
Finite element approach to global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations using magnetic coordinate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fivaz, M.; Brunner, S.; Ridder, G. de; Sauter, O.; Tran, T.M.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.; Appert, K.
1997-08-01
We present a fully-global linear gyrokinetic simulation code (GYGLES) aimed at describing the instable spectrum of the ion-temperature-gradient modes in toroidal geometry. We formulate the Particle-In-Cell method with finite elements defined in magnetic coordinates, which provides excellent numerical convergence properties. The poloidal mode structure corresponding to k // =0 is extracted without approximation from the equations, which reduces drastically the numerical resolution needed. The code can simulate routinely modes with both very long and very short toroidal wavelengths, can treat realistic (MHD) equilibria of any size and runs on a massively parallel computer. (author) 10 figs., 28 refs
Parker, Jeffrey; Lodestro, Lynda; Told, Daniel; Merlo, Gabriele; Ricketson, Lee; Campos, Alejandro; Jenko, Frank; Hittinger, Jeffrey
2017-10-01
Predictive whole-device simulation models will play an increasingly important role in ensuring the success of fusion experiments and accelerating the development of fusion energy. In the core of tokamak plasmas, a separation of timescales between turbulence and transport makes a single direct simulation of both processes computationally expensive. We present the first demonstration of a multiple-timescale method coupling global gyrokinetic simulations with a transport solver to calculate the self-consistent, steady-state temperature profile. Initial results are highly encouraging, with the coupling method appearing robust to the difficult problem of turbulent fluctuations. The method holds potential for integrating first-principles turbulence simulations into whole-device models and advancing the understanding of global plasma behavior. Work supported by US DOE under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and the Exascale Computing Project (17-SC-20-SC).
Global gyrokinetic simulations of the H-mode tokamak edge pedestal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wan, Weigang; Parker, Scott E.; Chen, Yang [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Groebner, Richard J. [General Atomics, Post Office Box 85068, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Yan, Zheng [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Pankin, Alexei Y.; Kruger, Scott E. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Ave., Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)
2013-05-15
Global gyrokinetic simulations of DIII-D H-mode edge pedestal show two types of instabilities may exist approaching the onset of edge localized modes: an intermediate-n, high frequency mode which we identify as the “kinetic peeling ballooning mode (KPBM),” and a high-n, low frequency mode. Our previous study [W. Wan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 185004 (2012)] has shown that when the safety factor profile is flattened around the steep pressure gradient region, the high-n mode is clearly kinetic ballooning mode and becomes the dominant instability. Otherwise, the KPBM dominates. Here, the properties of the two instabilities are studied by varying the density and temperature profiles. It is found that the KPBM is destabilized by density and ion temperature gradient, and the high-n mode is mostly destabilized by electron temperature gradient. Nonlinear simulations with the KPBM saturate at high levels. The equilibrium radial electric field (E{sub r}) reduces the transport. The effect of the parallel equilibrium current is found to be weak.
Gyrokinetic simulation of microtearing turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doerk, Hauke
2013-01-01
radially global implementation of collisions is successfully benchmarked against the PIC code Orb5. Validation of the collision operator is of relevance for microturbulence simulations as well, since collisional effects, for example, play an important role in the instability mechanism of microtearing modes. Considering plasma parameters that are realistic for the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade, a standard tokamak device, microtearing modes are found in Gene simulations. These parameters are also relevant for certain ITER scenarios. The most unstable toroidal wavelength lies somewhat above the ion gyroradius, but much finer radial scales are developed. Although this inherent multiscale feature causes nonlinear simulations to be extremely challenging, such gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing turbulence succeed for the first time in the coarse of this work. An outstanding feature of these simulations is that the radial transport of (electron) heat is well described by a simple diffusivity model, as long as the magnetic field fluctuations exceed a certain threshold. The employed Rechester-Rosenbluth type of model crucially relies on magnetic field stochasticity. To show that this condition is fulfilled, the value for the magnetic field diffusivity is computed from the simulation data. Since the resulting transport level is found to be experimentally relevant, our simulations establish microtearing turbulence as an additional candidate to explain enhanced electron thermal transport in standard tokamaks.
Merlo, G.; Brunner, S.; Huang, Z.; Coda, S.; Görler, T.; Villard, L.; Bañón Navarro, A.; Dominski, J.; Fontana, M.; Jenko, F.; Porte, L.; Told, D.
2018-03-01
Axisymmetric (n = 0) density fluctuations measured in the TCV tokamak are observed to possess a frequency f 0 which is either varying (radially dispersive oscillations) or a constant over a large fraction of the plasma minor radius (radially global oscillations) as reported in a companion paper (Z Huang et al, this issue). Given that f 0 scales with the sound speed and given the poloidal structure of density fluctuations, these oscillations were interpreted as Geodesic Acoustic Modes, even though f 0 is in fact smaller than the local linear GAM frequency {f}{GAM}. In this work we employ the Eulerian gyrokinetic code GENE to simulate TCV relevant conditions and investigate the nature and properties of these oscillations, in particular their relation to the safety factor profile. Local and global simulations are carried out and a good qualitative agreement is observed between experiments and simulations. By varying also the plasma temperature and density profiles, we conclude that a variation of the edge safety factor alone is not sufficient to induce a transition from global to radially inhomogeneous oscillations, as was initially suggested by experimental results. This transition appears instead to be the combined result of variations in the different plasma profiles, collisionality and finite machine size effects. Simulations also show that radially global GAM-like oscillations can be observed in all fluxes and fluctuation fields, suggesting that they are the result of a complex nonlinear process involving also finite toroidal mode numbers and not just linear global GAM eigenmodes.
Gyrokinetic simulations of ETG Turbulence*
Nevins, William
2005-10-01
Recent gyrokinetic simulations of electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence [1,2] produced different results despite similar plasma parameters. Ref.[1] differs from Ref.[2] in that [1] eliminates magnetically trapped particles ( r/R=0 ), while [2] retains magnetically trapped particles ( r/R 0.18 ). Differences between [1] and [2] have been attributed to insufficient phase-space resolution and novel physics associated with toroidicity and/or global simulations[2]. We have reproduced the results reported in [2] using a flux-tube, particle-in-cell (PIC) code, PG3EQ[3], thereby eliminating global effects as the cause of the discrepancy. We observe late-time decay of ETG turbulence and the steady-state heat transport in agreement with [2], and show this results from discrete particle noise. Discrete particle noise is a numerical artifact, so both the PG3EQ simulations reported here and those reported in Ref.[2] have little to say about steady-state ETG turbulence and the associated anomalous electron heat transport. Our attempts to benchmark PIC and continuum[4] codes at the plasma parameters used in Ref.[2] produced very large, intermittent transport. We will present an alternate benchmark point for ETG turbulence, where several codes reproduce the same transport levels. Parameter scans about this new benchmark point will be used to investigate the parameter dependence of ETG transport and to elucidate saturation mechanisms proposed in Refs.[1,2] and elsewhere[5-7].*In collaboration with A. Dimits (LLNL), J. Candy, C. Estrada-Mila (GA), W. Dorland (U of MD), F. Jenko, T. Dannert (Max-Planck Institut), and G. Hammett (PPPL). Work at LLNL performed for US DOE under Contract W7405-ENG-48.[1] F. Jenko and W. Dorland, PRL 89, 225001 (2002).[2] Z. Lin et al, 2004 Sherwood Mtg.; 2004 TTF Mtg.; Fusion Energy 2004 (IAEA, Vienna, 2005); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (November, 2004); 2005 TTF Mtg.; 2005 Sherwood Mtg.; Z. Lin, et al, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056125 (2005). [3] A.M. Dimits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapillonne, X.
2010-04-01
In magnetically confined fusion devices, the energy and particle transport is significantly larger than expected from purely collisional processes. This degraded confinement mostly results from small-scale turbulence and prevents from reaching self-sustained burning plasma conditions in present day experiments. A better understanding of these nonlinear phenomena is therefore of key importance on the way towards controlled fusion. The small-scale microinstabilities and associated turbulence are investigated for Tokamak plasmas by means of numerical simulations in the frame of the gyrokinetic theory. This model describes the evolution of the particle distribution functions in phase space together with self-consistent electromagnetic fields, while neglecting the fast motion associated with the Larmor orbit of particles around the magnetic field lines. In the course of this thesis work, substantial modifications to the existing Eulerian gyrokinetic code GENE have been carried out in collaboration with the Max-Planck- Institute f¨ur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The code has been extended from a local approximation, which only considers a reduced volume of a fusion plasma, to a global version which fully includes radial temperature and density profiles as well as radial magnetic equilibrium variations. To this end, the gyrokinetic equations have been formulated for general magnetic geometry, keeping radial variations of equilibrium quantities, and considering field aligned coordinates, suitable for their numerical implementation. The numerical treatment of the radial direction has been modified from a Fourier representation in the local approach to real space in the global code. This has in particular required to adapt the radial derivatives, the field solver, and to implement a real space dealiasing scheme for the treatment of the nonlinearity. A heat source was in addition introduced to allow for steady state global nonlinear simulations. An important part of
Neoclassical equilibrium in gyrokinetic simulations
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Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nguyen, C.; Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Ghendrih, Ph.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a set of model collision operators, which reproduce the neoclassical equilibrium and comply with the constraints of a full-f global gyrokinetic code. The assessment of these operators is based on an entropy variational principle, which allows one to perform a fast calculation of the neoclassical diffusivity and poloidal velocity. It is shown that the force balance equation is recovered at lowest order in the expansion parameter, the normalized gyroradius, hence allowing one to calculate correctly the radial electric field. Also, the conventional neoclassical transport and the poloidal velocity are reproduced in the plateau and banana regimes. The advantages and drawbacks of the various model operators are discussed in view of the requirements for neoclassical and turbulent transport.
Global gyrokinetic simulations of intrinsic rotation in ASDEX Upgrade Ohmic L-mode plasmas
Hornsby, W. A.; Angioni, C.; Lu, Z. X.; Fable, E.; Erofeev, I.; McDermott, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Lebschy, A.; Peeters, A. G.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team
2018-05-01
Non-linear, radially global, turbulence simulations of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) plasmas are performed and the nonlinear generated intrinsic flow shows agreement with the intrinsic flow gradients measured in the core of Ohmic L-mode plasmas at nominal parameters. Simulations utilising the kinetic electron model show hollow intrinsic flow profiles as seen in a predominant number of experiments performed at similar plasma parameters. In addition, significantly larger flow gradients are seen than in a previous flux-tube analysis (Hornsby et al 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 046008). Adiabatic electron model simulations can show a flow profile with opposing sign in the gradient with respect to a kinetic electron simulation, implying a reversal in the sign of the residual stress due to kinetic electrons. The shaping of the intrinsic flow is strongly determined by the density gradient profile. The sensitivity of the residual stress to variations in density profile curvature is calculated and seen to be significantly stronger than to neoclassical flows (Hornsby et al 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 046008). This variation is strong enough on its own to explain the large variations in the intrinsic flow gradients seen in some AUG experiments. Analysis of the symmetry breaking properties of the turbulence shows that profile shearing is the dominant mechanism in producing a finite parallel wave-number, with turbulence gradient effects contributing a smaller portion of the parallel wave-vector.
Gyrokinetic simulations of turbulent transport: size scaling and chaotic behaviour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villard, L; Brunner, S; Casati, A; Aghdam, S Khosh; Lapillonne, X; McMillan, B F; Bottino, A; Dannert, T; Goerler, T; Hatzky, R; Jenko, F; Merz, F; Chowdhury, J; Ganesh, R; Garbet, X; Grandgirard, V; Latu, G; Sarazin, Y; Idomura, Y; Jolliet, S
2010-01-01
Important steps towards the understanding of turbulent transport have been made with the development of the gyrokinetic framework for describing turbulence and with the emergence of numerical codes able to solve the set of gyrokinetic equations. This paper presents some of the main recent advances in gyrokinetic theory and computing of turbulence. Solving 5D gyrokinetic equations for each species requires state-of-the-art high performance computing techniques involving massively parallel computers and parallel scalable algorithms. The various numerical schemes that have been explored until now, Lagrangian, Eulerian and semi-Lagrangian, each have their advantages and drawbacks. A past controversy regarding the finite size effect (finite ρ * ) in ITG turbulence has now been resolved. It has triggered an intensive benchmarking effort and careful examination of the convergence properties of the different numerical approaches. Now, both Eulerian and Lagrangian global codes are shown to agree and to converge to the flux-tube result in the ρ * → 0 limit. It is found, however, that an appropriate treatment of geometrical terms is necessary: inconsistent approximations that are sometimes used can lead to important discrepancies. Turbulent processes are characterized by a chaotic behaviour, often accompanied by bursts and avalanches. Performing ensemble averages of statistically independent simulations, starting from different initial conditions, is presented as a way to assess the intrinsic variability of turbulent fluxes and obtain reliable estimates of the standard deviation. Further developments concerning non-adiabatic electron dynamics around mode-rational surfaces and electromagnetic effects are discussed.
Efficient Eulerian gyrokinetic simulations with block-structured grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarema, Denis
2017-01-01
Gaining a deep understanding of plasma microturbulence is of paramount importance for the development of future nuclear fusion reactors, because it causes a strong outward transport of heat and particles. Gyrokinetics has proven itself as a valid mathematical model to simulate such plasma microturbulence effects. In spite of the advantages of this model, nonlinear radially extended (or global) gyrokinetic simulations are still extremely computationally expensive, involving a very large number of computational grid points. Hence, methods that reduce the number of grid points without a significant loss of accuracy are a prerequisite to be able to run high-fidelity simulations. At the level of the mathematical model, the gyrokinetic approach achieves a reduction from six to five coordinates in comparison to the fully kinetic models. This reduction leads to an important decrease in the total number of computational grid points. However, the velocity space mixed with the radial direction still requires a very fine resolution in grid based codes, due to the disparities in the thermal speed, which are caused by a strong temperature variation along the radial direction. An attempt to address this problem by modifying the underlying gyrokinetic set of equations leads to additional nonlinear terms, which are the most expensive parts to simulate. Furthermore, because of these modifications, well-established and computationally efficient implementations developed for the original set of equations can no longer be used. To tackle such issues, in this thesis we introduce an alternative approach of blockstructured grids. This approach reduces the number of grid points significantly, but without changing the underlying mathematical model. Furthermore, our technique is minimally invasive and allows the reuse of a large amount of already existing code using rectilinear grids, modifications being necessary only on the block boundaries. Moreover, the block-structured grid can be
Efficient Eulerian gyrokinetic simulations with block-structured grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jarema, Denis
2017-01-20
Gaining a deep understanding of plasma microturbulence is of paramount importance for the development of future nuclear fusion reactors, because it causes a strong outward transport of heat and particles. Gyrokinetics has proven itself as a valid mathematical model to simulate such plasma microturbulence effects. In spite of the advantages of this model, nonlinear radially extended (or global) gyrokinetic simulations are still extremely computationally expensive, involving a very large number of computational grid points. Hence, methods that reduce the number of grid points without a significant loss of accuracy are a prerequisite to be able to run high-fidelity simulations. At the level of the mathematical model, the gyrokinetic approach achieves a reduction from six to five coordinates in comparison to the fully kinetic models. This reduction leads to an important decrease in the total number of computational grid points. However, the velocity space mixed with the radial direction still requires a very fine resolution in grid based codes, due to the disparities in the thermal speed, which are caused by a strong temperature variation along the radial direction. An attempt to address this problem by modifying the underlying gyrokinetic set of equations leads to additional nonlinear terms, which are the most expensive parts to simulate. Furthermore, because of these modifications, well-established and computationally efficient implementations developed for the original set of equations can no longer be used. To tackle such issues, in this thesis we introduce an alternative approach of blockstructured grids. This approach reduces the number of grid points significantly, but without changing the underlying mathematical model. Furthermore, our technique is minimally invasive and allows the reuse of a large amount of already existing code using rectilinear grids, modifications being necessary only on the block boundaries. Moreover, the block-structured grid can be
Parallel magnetic field perturbations in gyrokinetic simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joiner, N.; Hirose, A.; Dorland, W.
2010-01-01
At low β it is common to neglect parallel magnetic field perturbations on the basis that they are of order β 2 . This is only true if effects of order β are canceled by a term in the ∇B drift also of order β[H. L. Berk and R. R. Dominguez, J. Plasma Phys. 18, 31 (1977)]. To our knowledge this has not been rigorously tested with modern gyrokinetic codes. In this work we use the gyrokinetic code GS2[Kotschenreuther et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995)] to investigate whether the compressional magnetic field perturbation B || is required for accurate gyrokinetic simulations at low β for microinstabilities commonly found in tokamaks. The kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) demonstrates the principle described by Berk and Dominguez strongly, as does the trapped electron mode, in a less dramatic way. The ion and electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven modes do not typically exhibit this behavior; the effects of B || are found to depend on the pressure gradients. The terms which are seen to cancel at long wavelength in KBM calculations can be cumulative in the ion temperature gradient case and increase with η e . The effect of B || on the ETG instability is shown to depend on the normalized pressure gradient β ' at constant β.
COMPREHENSIVE GYROKINETIC SIMULATION OF TOKAMAK TURBULENCE AT FINITE RELATIVE GYRORADIUS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
WALTZ, R.E.; CANDY, J.; ROSENBLUTH, M.N.
2002-01-01
OAK B202 COMPREHENSIVE GYROKINETIC SIMULATION OF TOKAMAK TURBULENCE AT FINITE RELATIVE GYRORADIUS. A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and allow direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite beta, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius (ρ*) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization effects which break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in a cyclic flux tube limit which allows only gyroBohm scaling and a noncyclic radial annulus with physical profile variation. The later requires an adaptive source to maintain equilibrium profiles. Simple ITG simulations demonstrate the broken gyroBohm scaling depends on the actual rotational velocity shear rates competing with mode growth rates, direct comprehensive simulations of the DIII-D ρ*-scaled L-mode experiments are presented as a quantitative test of gyrokinetics and the paradigm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chowdhury, J.; Wan, Weigang; Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott E. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Groebner, Richard J. [General Atomics, Post Office Box 85068, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Howard, N. T. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)
2014-11-15
The δ f particle-in-cell code GEM is used to study the transport “shortfall” problem of gyrokinetic simulations. In local simulations, the GEM results confirm the previously reported simulation results of DIII-D [Holland et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 052301 (2009)] and Alcator C-Mod [Howard et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 123011 (2013)] tokamaks with the continuum code GYRO. Namely, for DIII-D the simulations closely predict the ion heat flux at the core, while substantially underpredict transport towards the edge; while for Alcator C-Mod, the simulations show agreement with the experimental values of ion heat flux, at least within the range of experimental error. Global simulations are carried out for DIII-D L-mode plasmas to study the effect of edge turbulence on the outer core ion heat transport. The edge turbulence enhances the outer core ion heat transport through turbulence spreading. However, this edge turbulence spreading effect is not enough to explain the transport underprediction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jolliet, S.
2009-02-01
-Maxwell system is solved in the electrostatic and collisionless limit with the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) ORB5 code in global tokamak geometry. This Monte-Carlo approach suffers from statistical noise which unavoidably degrades the quality of the simulation. Consequently, the first part of this work has been devoted to the optimization of the code with a view to reduce the numerical noise. The code has been rewritten in a new coordinate system which takes advantage of the anisotropy of turbulence, which is mostly aligned with the magnetic field lines. The overall result of the optimization is that for a given accuracy, the CPU time has been decreased by a factor two thousand, the total memory has been decreased by a factor ten and the numerical noise has been reduced by a factor two hundred. In addition, the scaling of the code with respect to plasma size is presently optimal, suggesting that ORB5 could compute heat transport for future fusion devices such as ITER. The second part of this thesis presents the validation of the code with numerical convergence tests, linear (including dispersion relations) and nonlinear benchmarks. Furthermore, the code has been applied to important issues in gyrokinetic theory. It is shown for the first time that a 5D global delta-f PIC code can achieve a thermodynamic steady state on the condition that some dissipation is present. This is a fundamental result as the main criticism against delta-f PIC codes is their inability to deal with long time simulations. Next, the role of the parallel nonlinearity is studied and it is demonstrated in this work that this term has no real influence on turbulence, provided the numerical noise is sufficiently low. This result should put an end to the controversy that recently occurred, in which gyrokinetic simulations using different numerical approaches yielded contradictory results. Finally, thanks to the optimization of the code, the gyrokinetic model has been extended to include the kinetic response of trapped
Gyrokinetic simulation of internal kink modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naitou, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Kenji; Lee, W.W.; Sydora, R.D.
1995-05-01
Internal disruption in a tokamak has been simulated using a three-dimensional magneto-inductive gyrokinetic particle code. The code operates in both the standard gyrokinetic mode (total-f code) and the fully nonlinear characteristic mode (δf code). The latter, a recent addition, is a quiet low noise algorithm. The computational model represents a straight tokamak with periodic boundary conditions in the toroidal direction. The plasma is initially uniformly distributed in a square cross section with perfectly conducting walls. The linear mode structure of an unstable m = 1 (poloidal) and n = 1 (toroidal) kinetic internal kink mode is clearly observed, especially in the δf code. The width of the current layer around the x-point, where magnetic reconnection occurs, is found to be close to the collisionless electron skin depth. This is consistent with the theory in which electron inertia has a dominant role. The nonlinear behavior of the mode is found to be quite similar for both codes. Full reconnection in the Alfven time scale is observed along with the electrostatic potential structures created during the full reconnection phase. The E x B drift due to this electrostatic potential dominates the nonlinear phase of the development after the full reconnection
Partially linearized algorithms in gyrokinetic particle simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dimits, A.M.; Lee, W.W.
1990-10-01
In this paper, particle simulation algorithms with time-varying weights for the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson system have been developed. The primary purpose is to use them for the removal of the selected nonlinearities in the simulation of gradient-driven microturbulence so that the relative importance of the various nonlinear effects can be assessed. It is hoped that the use of these procedures will result in a better understanding of the transport mechanisms and scaling in tokamaks. Another application of these algorithms is for the improvement of the numerical properties of the simulation plasma. For instance, implementations of such algorithms (1) enable us to suppress the intrinsic numerical noise in the simulation, and (2) also make it possible to regulate the weights of the fast-moving particles and, in turn, to eliminate the associated high frequency oscillations. Examples of their application to drift-type instabilities in slab geometry are given. We note that the work reported here represents the first successful use of the weighted algorithms in particle codes for the nonlinear simulation of plasmas.
Partially linearized algorithms in gyrokinetic particle simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimits, A.M.; Lee, W.W.
1990-10-01
In this paper, particle simulation algorithms with time-varying weights for the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson system have been developed. The primary purpose is to use them for the removal of the selected nonlinearities in the simulation of gradient-driven microturbulence so that the relative importance of the various nonlinear effects can be assessed. It is hoped that the use of these procedures will result in a better understanding of the transport mechanisms and scaling in tokamaks. Another application of these algorithms is for the improvement of the numerical properties of the simulation plasma. For instance, implementations of such algorithms (1) enable us to suppress the intrinsic numerical noise in the simulation, and (2) also make it possible to regulate the weights of the fast-moving particles and, in turn, to eliminate the associated high frequency oscillations. Examples of their application to drift-type instabilities in slab geometry are given. We note that the work reported here represents the first successful use of the weighted algorithms in particle codes for the nonlinear simulation of plasmas
Gyrokinetic particle simulation of neoclassical transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.
1995-01-01
A time varying weighting (δf ) scheme for gyrokinetic particle simulation is applied to a steady-state, multispecies simulation of neoclassical transport. Accurate collision operators conserving momentum and energy are developed and implemented. Simulation results using these operators are found to agree very well with neoclassical theory. For example, it is dynamically demonstrated that like-particle collisions produce no particle flux and that the neoclassical fluxes are ambipolar for an ion--electron plasma. An important physics feature of the present scheme is the introduction of toroidal flow to the simulations. Simulation results are in agreement with the existing analytical neoclassical theory. The poloidal electric field associated with toroidal mass flow is found to enhance density gradient-driven electron particle flux and the bootstrap current while reducing temperature gradient-driven flux and current. Finally, neoclassical theory in steep gradient profile relevant to the edge regime is examined by taking into account finite banana width effects. In general, in the present work a valuable new capability for studying important aspects of neoclassical transport inaccessible by conventional analytical calculation processes is demonstrated. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Comprehensive gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak turbulence at finite relative gyroradius
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waltz, R.E.; Candy, J.; Rosenbluth, M.N.
2003-01-01
A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and allow direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite beta, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius (ρ*) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization effects which break gyro Bohm scaling. The code operates in a cyclic flux tube limit which allows only gyro Bohm scaling and a noncylic radial annulus with physical profile variation. The later requires an adaptive source to maintain equilibrium profiles. Simple ITG simulations demonstrate the broken gyro Bohm scaling paradigm of Garbet and Waltz [Phys. Plasmas 3, 1898 (1996)]. Since broken gyro Bohm scaling depends on the actual rotational velocity shear rates competing with mode growth rates, direct comprehensive simulations of the DIII-D ρ*-scaled L-mode experiments are presented as a quantitative test of gyrokinetics and the paradigm. (author)
ADVANCES IN COMPREHENSIVE GYROKINETIC SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT IN TOKAMAKS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
WALTZ, R. E; CANDY, J; HINTON, F. L; ESTRADA-MILA, C; KINSEY, J.E
2004-01-01
A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate core turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and enable direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite β, equilibrium ExB shear stabilization, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius (ρ * ) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization and nonlocal effects which can break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in either a cyclic flux-tube limit (which allows only gyroBohm scaling) or globally with physical profile variation. Bohm scaling of DIII-D L-mode has been simulated with power flows matching experiment within error bars on the ion temperature gradient. Mechanisms for broken gyroBohm scaling, neoclassical ion flows embedded in turbulence, turbulent dynamos and profile corrugations, are illustrated
Visual interrogation of gyrokinetic particle simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, Chad; Ma, K-L; Sanderson, Allen; Myers, Lee Roy Jr
2007-01-01
Gyrokinetic particle simulations are critical to the study of anomalous energy transport associated with plasma microturbulence in magnetic confinement fusion experiments. The simulations are conducted on massively parallel computers and produce large quantities of particles, variables, and time steps, thus presenting a formidable challenge to data analysis tasks. We present two new visualization techniques for scientists to improve their understanding of the time-varying, multivariate particle data. One technique allows scientists to examine correlations in multivariate particle data with tightly coupled views of the data in both physical space and variable space, and to visually identify and track features of interest. The second technique, built into SCIRun, allows scientists to perform range-based queries over a series of time slices and visualize the resulting particles using glyphs. The ability to navigate the multiple dimensions of the particle data, as well as query individual or a collection of particles, enables scientists to not only validate their simulations but also discover new phenomena in their data
Gyrokinetic simulation of finite-β plasmas on parallel architectures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynders, J.V.W.
1993-01-01
Much research exists on the linear and non-linear properties of plasma microinstabilities induced by density and temperature gradients. There has been an interest in the electromagnetic or finite-β effects on these microinstabilities. This thesis focuses on the finite-β modification of an ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven microinstability in a two-dimensional shearless and sheared-slab geometries. A gyrokinetic model is employed in the numerical and analytic studies of this instability. Chapter 1 introduces the electromagnetic gyrokinetic model employed in the numerical and analytic studies of the ITG instability. Some discussion of the Klimontovich particle representation of the gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and a multiple scale model of the background plasma gradient is presented. Chapter 2 details the computational issues facing an electromagnetic gyrokinetic particle simulation of the ITG mode. An electromagnetic extension of the partially linearized algorithm is presented with a comparison of quiet particle initialization routines. Chapter 3 presents and compares algorithms for the gyrokinetic particle simulation technique on SIMD and MIMD computing platforms. Chapter 4 discusses electromagnetic gyrokinetic fluctuation theory and provides a comparison of analytic and numerical results. Chapter 5 contains a linear and a non-linear three-wave coupling analysis of the finite-β modified ITG mode in a shearless slab geometry. Comparisons are made with linear and partially linearized gyrokinetic simulation results. Chapter 6 presents results from a finite-β modified ITG mode in a sheared slab geometry. The linear dispersion relation is derived and results from an integral eigenvalue code are presented. Comparisons are made with the gyrokinetic particle code in a variety of limits with both adiabatic and non-adiabatic electrons. Evidence of ITG driven microtearing is presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Dongjian; Zhang, Wenlu; McClenaghan, Joseph; Wang, Jiaqi; Lin, Zhihong
2014-01-01
Global gyrokinetic particle simulation of resistive tearing modes has been developed and verified in the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC). GTC linear simulations in the fluid limit of the kink-tearing and resistive tearing modes in the cylindrical geometry agree well with the resistive magnetohydrodynamic eigenvalue and initial value codes. Ion kinetic effects are found to reduce the radial width of the tearing modes. GTC simulations of the resistive tearing modes in the toroidal geometry find that the toroidicity reduces the growth rates
Verification of Gyrokinetic Particle of Turbulent Simulation of Device Size Scaling Transport
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Zhihong; S. ETHIER; T. S. HAHM; W. M. TANG
2012-01-01
Verification and historical perspective are presented on the gyrokinetic particle simulations that discovered the device size scaling of turbulent transport and indentified the geometry model as the source of the long-standing disagreement between gyrokinetic particle and continuum simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, John A.
2007-01-01
The present state of the theory of fluctuations in gyrokinetic (GK) plasmas and especially its application to sampling noise in GK particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations is reviewed. Topics addressed include the Δf method, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for both classical and GK many-body plasmas, the Klimontovich formalism, sampling noise in PIC simulations, statistical closure for partial differential equations, the theoretical foundations of spectral balance in the presence of arbitrary noise sources, and the derivation of Kadomtsev-type equations from the general formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
John A. Krommes
2007-10-09
The present state of the theory of fluctuations in gyrokinetic GK plasmas and especially its application to sampling noise in GK particle-in-cell PIC simulations is reviewed. Topics addressed include the Δf method, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for both classical and GK many-body plasmas, the Klimontovich formalism, sampling noise in PIC simulations, statistical closure for partial differential equations, the theoretical foundations of spectral balance in the presence of arbitrary noise sources, and the derivation of Kadomtsev-type equations from the general formalism.
ADVANCES IN COMPREHENSIVE GYROKINETIC SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT IN TOKAMAKS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
WALTZ, RE; CANDY, J; HINTON, FL; ESTRADA-MILA, C; KINSEY, JE.
2004-01-01
A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate core turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and enable direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite β, equilibrium ExB shear stabilization, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius (ρ * ) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization and nonlocal effects which can break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in either a cyclic flux-tube limit (which allows only gyroBohm scaling) or a globally with physical profile variation. Rohm scaling of DIII-D L-mode has been simulated with power flows matching experiment within error bars on the ion temperature gradient. Mechanisms for broken gyroBohm scaling, neoclassical ion flows embedded in turbulence, turbulent dynamos and profile corrugations, plasma pinches and impurity flow, and simulations at fixed flow rather than fixed gradient are illustrated and discussed
Advances in comprehensive gyrokinetic simulations of transport in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waltz, R.E.; Candy, J.; Hinton, F.L.; Estrada-Mila, C.; Kinsey, J.E.
2005-01-01
A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate core turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and enable direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite β, equilibrium ExB shear stabilization, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius (ρ*) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization and nonlocal effects which can break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in either a cyclic flux-tube limit (which allows only gyroBohm scaling) or globally with physical profile variation. Bohm scaling of DIII-D L-mode has been simulated with power flows matching experiment within error bars on the ion temperature gradient. Mechanisms for broken gyroBohm scaling, neoclassical ion flows embedded in turbulence, turbulent dynamos and profile corrugations, are illustrated. (author)
Flux tube gyrokinetic simulations of the edge pedestal
Parker, Scott; Wan, Weigang; Chen, Yang
2011-10-01
The linear instabilities of DIII-D H-mode pedestal are studied with gyrokinetic micro-turbulence simulations. The simulation code GEM is an electromagnetic δf code with global tokamak geometry in the form of Miller equilibrium. Local flux tube simulations are carried out for multiple positions of two DIII-D profiles: shot #98889 and shot #131997. Near the top of the pedestal, the instability is clearly ITG. The dominant instability of the pedestal appears at the steep gradient region, and it is identified as a low frequency mode mostly driven by electron temperature gradient. The mode propagates along the electron diamagnetic direction for low n and may propagate along the ion direction for high n. At some positions near the steep gradient region, an ion instability is found which shows some characteristics of kinetic ballooning mode (KBM). These results will be compared to the results of E. Wang et al. and D. Fulton et al. in the same session. We thank R. Groebner and P. Snyder for providing experimental profiles and helpful discussions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McClenaghan, J.; Lin, Z.; Holod, I.; Deng, W.; Wang, Z. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)
2014-12-15
The gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) capability has been extended for simulating internal kink instability with kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. The global simulation domain covers the magnetic axis, which is necessary for simulating current-driven instabilities. GTC simulation in the fluid limit of the kink modes in cylindrical geometry is verified by benchmarking with a magnetohydrodynamic eigenvalue code. Gyrokinetic simulations of the kink modes in the toroidal geometry find that ion kinetic effects significantly reduce the growth rate even when the banana orbit width is much smaller than the radial width of the perturbed current layer at the mode rational surface.
Controlling fluctuations in an ITB and comparison with gyrokinetic simulations
Ernst, D. R.; Fiore, C. L.; Dominguez, A.; Podpaly, Y.; Reinke, M. L.; Terry, J. L.; Tsujii, N.; Bespamyatnov, I.; Churchill, M.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Lee, J.; Ma, Y.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.
2011-10-01
We have modulated on-axis ICRF minority heating to trigger fluctuations and core electron transport in Alcator C-Mod Internal Transport Barriers (ITB's). Temperature swings of 50% produced strong bursts of density fluctuations, measured by phase contrast imaging (PCI), while edge fluctuations from reflectometry, Mirnov coils, and gas puff imaging (GPI) simultaneously diminished. The PCI fluctuations are in phase with sawteeth, further evidence that they originate within the ITB foot. Linear gyrokinetic analysis with GS2 shows TEMs are driven unstable in the ITB by the on-axis heating, as in Refs.,. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of turbulence in the ITB are compared with fluctuation data using a synthetic diagnostic. Strong ITB's were produced with high quality ion and electron profile data. Supported by U.S. DoE awards DE-FC02-99ER54512, DE-FG02-91ER54109, DE-FC02-08ER54966.
Non-Maxwellian fast particle effects in gyrokinetic GENE simulations
Di Siena, A.; Görler, T.; Doerk, H.; Bilato, R.; Citrin, J.; Johnson, T.; Schneider, M.; Poli, E.; JET Contributors
2018-04-01
Fast ions have recently been found to significantly impact and partially suppress plasma turbulence both in experimental and numerical studies in a number of scenarios. Understanding the underlying physics and identifying the range of their beneficial effect is an essential task for future fusion reactors, where highly energetic ions are generated through fusion reactions and external heating schemes. However, in many of the gyrokinetic codes fast ions are, for simplicity, treated as equivalent-Maxwellian-distributed particle species, although it is well known that to rigorously model highly non-thermalised particles, a non-Maxwellian background distribution function is needed. To study the impact of this assumption, the gyrokinetic code GENE has recently been extended to support arbitrary background distribution functions which might be either analytical, e.g., slowing down and bi-Maxwellian, or obtained from numerical fast ion models. A particular JET plasma with strong fast-ion related turbulence suppression is revised with these new code capabilities both with linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. It appears that the fast ion stabilization tends to be less strong but still substantial with more realistic distributions, and this improves the quantitative power balance agreement with experiments.
Interaction between the neoclassical equilibrium and microturbulence in gyrokinetic simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oberparleiter, Michael
2015-07-10
For the application of the nuclear fusion of hydrogen as a heat source for electricity generation understanding of the magnetic fuel confinement is crucial. Most of the cross-field transport in modern-day tokamaks is carried by turbulence driven by steep pressure gradients. Background neoclassical transport, however, provides a steady level of cross-field flux even in cases when turbulence becomes weak or suppressed. The goal of this work is to quantify how neoclassical (NC) effects and turbulence can influence each other. For this purpose the nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence code GENE is employed. Firstly, its ability to self-consistently calculate the NC radial electric field is successfully benchmarked against the radial force balance equation and NC transport in the plasma region close to the center of a tokamak is studied. In the next step a model system where a long-wavelength external potential is imposed on ion temperature gradient-driven (ITG) turbulence is investigated. It is found that the self-generated shear flow pattern of the turbulence adapts to the imposed pattern and a small external shear is sufficient to notably reduce turbulent transport. Motivated by this global ITG simulations with fixed pressure gradient profiles are performed with and without inclusion of NC effects. Their comparison reveals that the NC field enhances turbulent transport by 20-30 % for a ratio of ion gyroradius and device radius larger than 1/300. An explanation is that the NC field aligns a region of low shear with the maximum of the gradient profile where the turbulent drive is strongest. Further investigation reveals that NC effects also change the dependence of the system on collisionality or safety factor. Finally, in physically more comprehensive simulations with fixed power input and a self-consistently evolving temperature profile, the additional NC transport channel is found to reduce the frequency and amplitude of intermittent turbulent transport bursts.
Progress in gyrokinetic simulations of toroidal ITG turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nevins, W.M.; Dimits, A.M.; Cohen, B.I.; Shumaker, D.E.
2001-01-01
The 3-D nonlinear toroidal gyrokinetic simulation code PG3EQ is used to study toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence - a key cause of the anomalous transport that limits tokamak plasma performance. Systematic studies of the dependence of ion thermal transport on various parameters and effects are presented, including dependence on E-vectorxB-vector and toroidal velocity shear, sensitivity to the force balance in simulations with radial temperature gradient variation, and the dependences on magnetic shear and ion temperature gradient. (author)
Fluid and gyrokinetic simulations of impurity transport at JET
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nordman, H; Skyman, A; Strand, P
2011-01-01
Impurity transport coefficients due to ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) mode and trapped-electron mode turbulence are calculated using profile data from dedicated impurity injection experiments at JET. Results obtained with a multi-fluid model are compared with quasi-linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic...... simulation results obtained with the code GENE. The sign of the impurity convective velocity (pinch) and its various contributions are discussed. The dependence of the impurity transport coefficients and impurity peaking factor −∇nZ/nZ on plasma parameters such as impurity charge number Z, ion logarithmic...
Optimized Loading for Particle-in-cell Gyrokinetic Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewandowski, J.L.V.
2004-01-01
The problem of particle loading in particle-in-cell gyrokinetic simulations is addressed using a quadratic optimization algorithm. Optimized loading in configuration space dramatically reduces the short wavelength modes in the electrostatic potential that are partly responsible for the non-conservation of total energy; further, the long wavelength modes are resolved with good accuracy. As a result, the conservation of energy for the optimized loading is much better that the conservation of energy for the random loading. The method is valid for any geometry and can be coupled to optimization algorithms in velocity space
Direct identification of predator-prey dynamics in gyrokinetic simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kobayashi, Sumire, E-mail: sumire.kobayashi@lpp.polytechnique.fr; Gürcan, Özgür D [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR7648, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Diamond, Patrick H. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0319 (United States)
2015-09-15
The interaction between spontaneously formed zonal flows and small-scale turbulence in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations is explored in a shearless closed field line geometry. It is found that when clear limit cycle oscillations prevail, the observed turbulent dynamics can be quantitatively captured by a simple Lotka-Volterra type predator-prey model. Fitting the time traces of full gyrokinetic simulations by such a reduced model allows extraction of the model coefficients. Scanning physical plasma parameters, such as collisionality and density gradient, it was observed that the effective growth rates of turbulence (i.e., the prey) remain roughly constant, in spite of the higher and varying level of primary mode linear growth rates. The effective growth rate that was extracted corresponds roughly to the zonal-flow-modified primary mode growth rate. It was also observed that the effective damping of zonal flows (i.e., the predator) in the parameter range, where clear predator-prey dynamics is observed, (i.e., near marginal stability) agrees with the collisional damping expected in these simulations. This implies that the Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instability may be negligible in this range. The results imply that when the tertiary instability plays a role, the dynamics becomes more complex than a simple Lotka-Volterra predator prey.
Effects of the magnetic equilibrium on gyrokinetic simulations of tokamak microinstabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wan, Weigang; Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott E. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Groebner, Richard J. [General Atomics, Post Office Box 85068, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)
2015-06-15
The general geometry of the experimental tokamak magnetic equilibrium is implemented in the global gyrokinetic simulation code GEM. Compared to the general geometry, the well used Miller parameterization of the magnetic equilibrium is a good approximation in the core region and up to the top of the pedestal. Linear simulations indicate that results with the two geometries agree for r/a ≤ 0.9. However, in the edge region, the instabilities are sensitive to the magnetic equilibrium in both the L-mode and the H-mode plasmas. A small variation of the plasma shaping parameters leads to large changes to the edge instability.
Gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of plasma microturbulence on advanced computing platforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ethier, S; Tang, W M; Lin, Z
2005-01-01
Since its introduction in the early 1980s, the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) method has been very successfully applied to the exploration of many important kinetic stability issues in magnetically confined plasmas. Its self-consistent treatment of charged particles and the associated electromagnetic fluctuations makes this method appropriate for studying enhanced transport driven by plasma turbulence. Advances in algorithms and computer hardware have led to the development of a parallel, global, gyrokinetic code in full toroidal geometry, the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC), developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. It has proven to be an invaluable tool to study key effects of low-frequency microturbulence in fusion plasmas. As a high-performance computing applications code, its flexible mixed-model parallel algorithm has allowed GTC to scale to over a thousand processors, which is routinely used for simulations. Improvements are continuously being made. As the US ramps up its support for the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER), the need for understanding the impact of turbulent transport in burning plasma fusion devices is of utmost importance. Accordingly, the GTC code is at the forefront of the set of numerical tools being used to assess and predict the performance of ITER on critical issues such as the efficiency of energy confinement in reactors
Benchmark test of drift-kinetic and gyrokinetic codes through neoclassical transport simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satake, S.; Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Idomura, Yasuhiro
2009-09-01
Two simulation codes that solve the drift-kinetic or gyrokinetic equation in toroidal plasmas are benchmarked by comparing the simulation results of neoclassical transport. The two codes are the drift-kinetic δf Monte Carlo code (FORTEC-3D) and the gyrokinetic full- f Vlasov code (GT5D), both of which solve radially-global, five-dimensional kinetic equation with including the linear Fokker-Planck collision operator. In a tokamak configuration, neoclassical radial heat flux and the force balance relation, which relates the parallel mean flow with radial electric field and temperature gradient, are compared between these two codes, and their results are also compared with the local neoclassical transport theory. It is found that the simulation results of the two codes coincide very well in a wide rage of plasma collisionality parameter ν * = 0.01 - 10 and also agree with the theoretical estimations. The time evolution of radial electric field and particle flux, and the radial profile of the geodesic acoustic mode frequency also coincide very well. These facts guarantee the capability of GT5D to simulate plasma turbulence transport with including proper neoclassical effects of collisional diffusion and equilibrium radial electric field. (author)
Gyrokinetic continuum simulations of turbulence in the Texas Helimak
Bernard, T. N.; Shi, E. L.; Hammett, G. W.; Hakim, A.; Taylor, E. I.
2017-10-01
We have used the Gkeyll code to perform 3x-2v full-f gyrokinetic continuum simulations of electrostatic plasma turbulence in the Texas Helimak. The Helimak is an open field-line experiment with magnetic curvature and shear. It is useful for validating numerical codes due to its extensive diagnostics and simple, helical geometry, which is similar to the scrape-off layer region of tokamaks. Interchange and drift-wave modes are the main turbulence mechanisms in the device, and potential biasing is applied to study the effect of velocity shear on turbulence reduction. With Gkeyll, we varied field-line pitch angle and simulated biased and unbiased cases to study different turbulent regimes and turbulence reduction. These are the first kinetic simulations of the Helimak and resulting plasma profiles agree fairly well with experimental data. This research demonstrates Gkeyll's progress towards 5D simulations of the SOL region of fusion devices. Supported by the U.S. DOE SCGSR program under contract DE-SC0014664, the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Database-driven web interface automating gyrokinetic simulations for validation
Ernst, D. R.
2010-11-01
We are developing a web interface to connect plasma microturbulence simulation codes with experimental data. The website automates the preparation of gyrokinetic simulations utilizing plasma profile and magnetic equilibrium data from TRANSP analysis of experiments, read from MDSPLUS over the internet. This database-driven tool saves user sessions, allowing searches of previous simulations, which can be restored to repeat the same analysis for a new discharge. The website includes a multi-tab, multi-frame, publication quality java plotter Webgraph, developed as part of this project. Input files can be uploaded as templates and edited with context-sensitive help. The website creates inputs for GS2 and GYRO using a well-tested and verified back-end, in use for several years for the GS2 code [D. R. Ernst et al., Phys. Plasmas 11(5) 2637 (2004)]. A centralized web site has the advantage that users receive bug fixes instantaneously, while avoiding the duplicated effort of local compilations. Possible extensions to the database to manage run outputs, toward prototyping for the Fusion Simulation Project, are envisioned. Much of the web development utilized support from the DoE National Undergraduate Fellowship program [e.g., A. Suarez and D. R. Ernst, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2005.DPP.GP1.57.
Full-f gyrokinetic simulation over a confinement time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idomura, Yasuhiro, E-mail: idomura.yasuhiro@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan)
2014-02-15
A long time ion temperature gradient driven turbulence simulation over a confinement time is performed using the full-f gyrokinetic Eulerian code GT5D. The convergence of steady temperature and rotation profiles is examined, and it is shown that the profile relaxation can be significantly accelerated when the simulation is initialized with linearly unstable temperature profiles. In the steady state, the temperature profile and the ion heat diffusivity are self-consistently determined by the power balance condition, while the intrinsic rotation profile is sustained by complicated momentum transport processes without momentum input. The steady turbulent momentum transport is characterized by bursty non-diffusive fluxes, and the resulting turbulent residual stress is consistent with the profile shear stress theory [Y. Camenen et al., “Consequences of profile shearing on toroidal momentum transport,” Nucl. Fusion 51, 073039 (2011)] in which the residual stress depends not only on the profile shear and the radial electric field shear but also on the radial electric field itself. Based on the toroidal angular momentum conservation, it is found that in the steady null momentum transport state, the turbulent residual stress is cancelled by the neoclassical counterpart, which is greatly enhanced in the presence of turbulent fluctuations.
Including collisions in gyrokinetic tokamak and stellarator simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kauffmann, Karla
2012-01-01
Particle and heat transport in fusion devices often exceed the neoclassical prediction. This anomalous transport is thought to be produced by turbulence caused by microinstabilities such as ion and electron-temperature-gradient (ITG/ETG) and trapped-electron-mode (TEM) instabilities, the latter ones known for being strongly influenced by collisions. Additionally, in stellarators, the neoclassical transport can be important in the core, and therefore investigation of the effects of collisions is an important field of study. Prior to this thesis, however, no gyrokinetic simulations retaining collisions had been performed in stellarator geometry. In this work, collisional effects were added to EUTERPE, a previously collisionless gyrokinetic code which utilizes the δf method. To simulate the collisions, a pitch-angle scattering operator was employed, and its implementation was carried out following the methods proposed in [Takizuka and Abe 1977, Vernay Master's thesis 2008]. To test this implementation, the evolution of the distribution function in a homogeneous plasma was first simulated, where Legendre polynomials constitute eigenfunctions of the collision operator. Also, the solution of the Spitzer problem was reproduced for a cylinder and a tokamak. Both these tests showed that collisions were correctly implemented and that the code is suited for more complex simulations. As a next step, the code was used to calculate the neoclassical radial particle flux by neglecting any turbulent fluctuations in the distribution function and the electric field. Particle fluxes in the neoclassical analytical regimes were simulated for tokamak and stellarator (LHD) configurations. In addition to the comparison with analytical fluxes, a successful benchmark with the DKES code was presented for the tokamak case, which further validates the code for neoclassical simulations. In the final part of the work, the effects of collisions were investigated for slab and toroidal ITGs and
Including collisions in gyrokinetic tokamak and stellarator simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kauffmann, Karla
2012-04-10
Particle and heat transport in fusion devices often exceed the neoclassical prediction. This anomalous transport is thought to be produced by turbulence caused by microinstabilities such as ion and electron-temperature-gradient (ITG/ETG) and trapped-electron-mode (TEM) instabilities, the latter ones known for being strongly influenced by collisions. Additionally, in stellarators, the neoclassical transport can be important in the core, and therefore investigation of the effects of collisions is an important field of study. Prior to this thesis, however, no gyrokinetic simulations retaining collisions had been performed in stellarator geometry. In this work, collisional effects were added to EUTERPE, a previously collisionless gyrokinetic code which utilizes the {delta}f method. To simulate the collisions, a pitch-angle scattering operator was employed, and its implementation was carried out following the methods proposed in [Takizuka and Abe 1977, Vernay Master's thesis 2008]. To test this implementation, the evolution of the distribution function in a homogeneous plasma was first simulated, where Legendre polynomials constitute eigenfunctions of the collision operator. Also, the solution of the Spitzer problem was reproduced for a cylinder and a tokamak. Both these tests showed that collisions were correctly implemented and that the code is suited for more complex simulations. As a next step, the code was used to calculate the neoclassical radial particle flux by neglecting any turbulent fluctuations in the distribution function and the electric field. Particle fluxes in the neoclassical analytical regimes were simulated for tokamak and stellarator (LHD) configurations. In addition to the comparison with analytical fluxes, a successful benchmark with the DKES code was presented for the tokamak case, which further validates the code for neoclassical simulations. In the final part of the work, the effects of collisions were investigated for slab and toroidal
HPC parallel programming model for gyrokinetic MHD simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naitou, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yusuke; Tokuda, Shinji; Ishii, Yasutomo; Yagi, Masatoshi
2011-01-01
The 3-dimensional gyrokinetic PIC (particle-in-cell) code for MHD simulation, Gpic-MHD, was installed on SR16000 (“Plasma Simulator”), which is a scalar cluster system consisting of 8,192 logical cores. The Gpic-MHD code advances particle and field quantities in time. In order to distribute calculations over large number of logical cores, the total simulation domain in cylindrical geometry was broken up into N DD-r × N DD-z (number of radial decomposition times number of axial decomposition) small domains including approximately the same number of particles. The axial direction was uniformly decomposed, while the radial direction was non-uniformly decomposed. N RP replicas (copies) of each decomposed domain were used (“particle decomposition”). The hybrid parallelization model of multi-threads and multi-processes was employed: threads were parallelized by the auto-parallelization and N DD-r × N DD-z × N RP processes were parallelized by MPI (message-passing interface). The parallelization performance of Gpic-MHD was investigated for the medium size system of N r × N θ × N z = 1025 × 128 × 128 mesh with 4.196 or 8.192 billion particles. The highest speed for the fixed number of logical cores was obtained for two threads, the maximum number of N DD-z , and optimum combination of N DD-r and N RP . The observed optimum speeds demonstrated good scaling up to 8,192 logical cores. (author)
Gyrokinetic global analysis of ion temperature gradient driven mode in reversed shear tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idomura, Y.; Tokuda, S.; Kishimoto, Y.
2003-01-01
A new toroidal gyrokinetic particle code has been developed to study the ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence in reactor relevant tokamak parameters. We use a new method based on a canonical Maxwellian distribution F CM (P φ , ε, μ), which is defined by three constants of motion in the axisymmetric toroidal system, the canonical angular momentum P φ , the energy ε, and the magnetic moment μ. A quasi-ballooning representation enables linear and nonlinear high-m,n global calculations with a good numerical convergence. Conservation properties are improved by using the optimized loading method. From comprehensive linear global analyses over a wide range of an unstable toroidal mode number spectrum (n=0∼100) in large tokamak parameters (a/ρ ti =320∼460), properties of the ITG modes in reversed shear tokamaks are discussed. In the nonlinear simulation, it is found that a new method based on F CM can simulate a zonal flow damping correctly, and spurious zonal flow oscillations, which are observed in a conventional method based on a local Maxwellian distribution F LM (ψ, ε, μ), do not appear in the nonlinear regime. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunner, S.
1997-08-01
Ion temperature gradient (ITG)-related instabilities are studied in tokamak-like plasmas with the help of a new global eigenvalue code. Ions are modelled in the frame of gyrokinetic theory so that finite Larmor radius effects of these particles are retained to all orders. Non-adiabatic trapped electron dynamics is taken into account through the bounce-averaged drift kinetic equation. Assuming electrostatic perturbations, the system is closed with the quasineutrality relation. Practical methods are presented which make this global approach feasible. These include a non-standard wave decomposition compatible with the curved geometry as well as adapting an efficient root finding algorithm for computing the unstable spectrum. These techniques are applied to a low pressure configuration given by a large aspect ratio torus with circular, concentric magnetic surfaces. Simulations from a linear, time evolution, particle in cell code provide a useful benchmark. Comparisons with local ballooning calculations for different parameter scans enable further validation while illustrating the limits of that representation at low toroidal wave numbers or for non-interchange-like instabilities. The stabilizing effect of negative magnetic shear is also considered, in which case the global results show not only an attenuation of the growth rate but also a reduction of the radial extent induced by a transition from the toroidal- to the slab-ITG mode. Contributions of trapped electrons to the ITG instability as well as the possible coupling to the trapped electron mode are clearly brought to the fore. (author) figs., tabs., 69 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.W.
2003-01-01
Particle simulation has played an important role for the recent investigations on turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas. In this paper, theoretical and numerical properties of a gyrokinetic plasma as well as its relationship with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are discussed with the ultimate aim of simulating microturbulence in transport time scale using massively parallel computers
A 3D gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulation of fusion plasma microturbulence on parallel computers
Williams, T. J.
1992-12-01
One of the grand challenge problems now supported by HPCC is the Numerical Tokamak Project. A goal of this project is the study of low-frequency micro-instabilities in tokamak plasmas, which are believed to cause energy loss via turbulent thermal transport across the magnetic field lines. An important tool in this study is gyrokinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. Gyrokinetic, as opposed to fully-kinetic, methods are particularly well suited to the task because they are optimized to study the frequency and wavelength domain of the microinstabilities. Furthermore, many researchers now employ low-noise delta(f) methods to greatly reduce statistical noise by modelling only the perturbation of the gyrokinetic distribution function from a fixed background, not the entire distribution function. In spite of the increased efficiency of these improved algorithms over conventional PIC algorithms, gyrokinetic PIC simulations of tokamak micro-turbulence are still highly demanding of computer power--even fully-vectorized codes on vector supercomputers. For this reason, we have worked for several years to redevelop these codes on massively parallel computers. We have developed 3D gyrokinetic PIC simulation codes for SIMD and MIMD parallel processors, using control-parallel, data-parallel, and domain-decomposition message-passing (DDMP) programming paradigms. This poster summarizes our earlier work on codes for the Connection Machine and BBN TC2000 and our development of a generic DDMP code for distributed-memory parallel machines. We discuss the memory-access issues which are of key importance in writing parallel PIC codes, with special emphasis on issues peculiar to gyrokinetic PIC. We outline the domain decompositions in our new DDMP code and discuss the interplay of different domain decompositions suited for the particle-pushing and field-solution components of the PIC algorithm.
A minimal collision operator for implementing neoclassical transport in gyrokinetic simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nguyen, C.; Angelino, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Ghendrih, P.; Samain, A.
2008-01-01
This paper presents a class of collision operators, which reproduce neoclassical transport and comply with the constraints of a full-f global gyrokinetic code. The assessment of these operators is based on a variational entropy method, which allows a fast calculation of the neoclassical diffusivity and poloidal velocity.
Gyrokinetic simulations of neoclassical transport using a minimal collision operator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dif-Pradalier, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Angelino, P.
2008-01-01
Conventional neoclassical predictions are successfully recovered within a gyrokinetic framework using a minimal Fokker-Planck collision operator. This operator is shown to accurately describe some essential features of neoclassical theory, namely the neoclassical transport, the poloidal rotation and the linear damping of axisymmetric flows while interestingly preserving a high numerical efficiency. Its form makes it especially adapted to Eulerian or Semi-Lagrangian schemes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fahey, Mark R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Candy, Jeff [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
2013-11-07
This project initiated the development of TGYRO - a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale GYRO turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of conventional tokamaks as well as future reactors. Using a lightweight master transport code, multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations are coordinated. The capability to evolve profiles using the TGLF model was also added to TGYRO and represents a more typical use-case for TGYRO. The goal of the project was to develop a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale gyrokinetic turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of a burning plasma core ? the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in particular. This multi-scale simulation capability will be used to predict the performance (the fusion energy gain, Q) given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. At present, projections of this type rely on transport models like GLF23, which are based on rather approximate fits to the results of linear and nonlinear simulations. Our goal is to make these performance projections with precise nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The method of approach is to use a lightweight master transport code to coordinate multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code. This project targets the practical multi-scale simulation of a reactor core plasma in order to predict the core temperature and density profiles given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. A master transport code will provide feedback to O(16) independent gyrokinetic simulations (each massively parallel). A successful feedback scheme offers a novel approach to predictive modeling of an important national and international problem. Success in this area of fusion simulations will allow US scientists to direct the research path of ITER over the next two
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villard, L.; Allfrey, S.J.; Bottino, A.
2003-01-01
The aim of this paper is to report on recent advances made on global gyrokinetic simulations of Ion Temperature Gradient modes (ITG) and other microinstabilities. The nonlinear development and saturation of ITG modes and the role of E x B zonal flows are studied with a global nonlinear δ f formulation that retains parallel nonlinearity and thus allows for a check of the energy conservation property as a means to verify the quality of the numerical simulation. Due to an optimised loading technique the conservation property is satisfied with an unprecedented quality well into the nonlinear stage. The zonal component of the perturbation establishes a quasi-steady state with regions of ITG suppression, strongly reduced radial energy flux and steepened effective temperature profile alternating with regions of higher ITG mode amplitudes, larger radial energy flux and flattened effective temperature profile. A semi-Lagrangian approach free of statistical noise is proposed as an alternative to the nonlinear δf formulation. An ASDEX-Upgrade experiment with an Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) is analysed with a global gyrokinetic code that includes trapped electron dynamics. The weakly destabilizing effect of trapped electron dynamics on ITG modes in an axisymmetric bumpy configuration modelling W7-X is shown in global linear simulations that retain the full electron dynamics. Finite β effects on microinstabilities are investigated with a linear global spectral electromagnetic gyrokinetic formulation. The radial global structure of electromagnetic modes shows a resonant behaviour with rational q values. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z; Rewoldt, G; Ethier, S; Hahm, T S; Lee, W W; Lewandowski, J L V; Nishimura, Y; Wang, W X
2005-01-01
Recent progress in gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of turbulent plasmas using the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) is surveyed. In particular, recent results for electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes and their resulting transport are presented. Also, turbulence spreading, and the effects of the parallel nonlinearity, are described. The GTC code has also been generalized for non-circular plasma cross-section, and initial results are presented. In addition, two distinct methods of generalizing the GTC code to be electromagnetic are described, along with preliminary results. Finally, a related code, GTC-Neo, for calculating neoclassical fluxes, electric fields, and velocities, are described
Development of a global toroidal gyrokinetic Vlasov code with new real space field solver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obrejan, Kevin; Imadera, Kenji; Li, Ji-Quan; Kishimoto, Yasuaki
2015-01-01
This work introduces a new full-f toroidal gyrokinetic (GK) Vlasov simulation code that uses a real space field solver. This solver enables us to compute the gyro-averaging operators in real space to allow proper treatment of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects without requiring any particular hypothesis and in any magnetic field configuration (X-point, D-shaped etc). The code was well verified through benchmark tests such as toroidal Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) instability and collisionless damping of zonal flow. (author)
Nature of turbulent transport across sheared zonal flows: insights from gyrokinetic simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, R; Newman, D E; Leboeuf, J-N; Decyk, V K
2011-01-01
The traditional view regarding the reduction of turbulence-induced transport across a stable sheared flow invokes a reduction of the characteristic length scale in the direction perpendicular to the flow as a result of the shearing and stretching of eddies caused by the differential pull exerted in the direction of the flow. A reduced effective transport coefficient then suffices to capture the reduction, that can then be readily incorporated into a transport model. However, recent evidence from gyrokinetic simulations of the toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode suggests that the dynamics of turbulent transport across sheared flows changes in a more fundamental manner, and that the use of reduced effective transport coefficients fails to capture the full dynamics that may exhibit both subdiffusion and non-Gaussian statistics. In this contribution, after briefly reviewing these results, we propose some candidates for the physical mechanisms responsible for endowing transport with such non-diffusive characteristics, backing these proposals with new numerical gyrokinetic data.
Neoclassical simulation of tokamak plasmas using the continuum gyrokinetic code TEMPEST.
Xu, X Q
2008-07-01
We present gyrokinetic neoclassical simulations of tokamak plasmas with a self-consistent electric field using a fully nonlinear (full- f ) continuum code TEMPEST in a circular geometry. A set of gyrokinetic equations are discretized on a five-dimensional computational grid in phase space. The present implementation is a method of lines approach where the phase-space derivatives are discretized with finite differences, and implicit backward differencing formulas are used to advance the system in time. The fully nonlinear Boltzmann model is used for electrons. The neoclassical electric field is obtained by solving the gyrokinetic Poisson equation with self-consistent poloidal variation. With a four-dimensional (psi,theta,micro) version of the TEMPEST code, we compute the radial particle and heat fluxes, the geodesic-acoustic mode, and the development of the neoclassical electric field, which we compare with neoclassical theory using a Lorentz collision model. The present work provides a numerical scheme for self-consistently studying important dynamical aspects of neoclassical transport and electric field in toroidal magnetic fusion devices.
The spectral problem of global microinstabilities in tokamak-like plasmas using a gyrokinetic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Fivaz, M.; Appert, K.
1996-01-01
Tokamak-like plasmas are modeled by a periodic cylindrical system with magnetic shear and realistic density and temperature profiles. Linear electrostatic microinstabilities in such plasmas are studied by solving the eigenvalue problem starting from gyrokinetic theory. The actual eigenvalue equation is then of integral type. With this approach, finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects to all orders are taken into account. FLR effects provide for the only radial coupling in a cylinder and to lowest order correspond to polarization drift. This effectively one-dimensional problem helped us to gain useful knowledge for solving gyrokinetic equations in a curved system. When searching for the eigenfrequencies of the global modes, two different methods have been tested and compared. Either the true eigenvalue problem is solved by finding the zeros of the characteristic equation, or one considers a system driven by an antenna and looks for resonances in the power response of the plasma. In addition, mode structures were computed as well in direct as in Fourier space. The advantages and disadvantages of these various approaches are discussed. Ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities are studied over a wide range of parameters and for wavelengths perpendicular to the magnetic field down to the scale of ion Larmor radii. Flute instabilities driven by magnetic curvature drifts are also considered. Some of these results are compared with a time evolution PIC code. Such comparisons are valuable as the convergence of PIC results is often questioned. Work considering true toroidal geometry is in progress
SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Zhihong [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
2013-12-18
During the first year of the SciDAC gyrokinetic particle simulation (GPS) project, the GPS team (Zhihong Lin, Liu Chen, Yasutaro Nishimura, and Igor Holod) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) studied the tokamak electron transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence, and by trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with kinetic electron effects, extended our studies of ITG turbulence spreading to core-edge coupling. We have developed and optimized an elliptic solver using finite element method (FEM), which enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models (split-weight scheme and hybrid model) in the SciDAC GPS production code GTC. The GTC code has been ported and optimized on both scalar and vector parallel computer architectures, and is being transformed into objected-oriented style to facilitate collaborative code development. During this period, the UCI team members presented 11 invited talks at major national and international conferences, published 22 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 10 papers in conference proceedings. The UCI hosted the annual SciDAC Workshop on Plasma Turbulence sponsored by the GPS Center, 2005-2007. The workshop was attended by about fifties US and foreign researchers and financially sponsored several gradual students from MIT, Princeton University, Germany, Switzerland, and Finland. A new SciDAC postdoc, Igor Holod, has arrived at UCI to initiate global particle simulation of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence driven by energetic particle modes. The PI, Z. Lin, has been promoted to the Associate Professor with tenure at UCI.
Gyrokinetic simulations in general geometry and applications to collisional damping of zonal flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z.; Hahm, T.S.; Lee, W.W.; Tang, W.M.; White, R.B.
2000-01-01
A fully three-dimensional gyrokinetic particle code using magnetic coordinates for general geometry has been developed and applied to the investigation of zonal flows dynamics in toroidal ion-temperature-gradient turbulence. Full torus simulation results support the important conclusion that turbulence-driven zonal flows significantly reduce the turbulent transport. Linear collisionless simulations for damping of an initial poloidal flow perturbation exhibit an asymptotic residual flow. The collisional damping of this residual causes the dependence of ion thermal transport on the ion-ion collision frequency even in regimes where the instabilities are collisionless
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, A. E., E-mail: whitea@mit.edu; Howard, N. T.; Creely, A. J.; Chilenski, M. A.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Marmar, E.; Rice, J. E.; Sierchio, J. M.; Sung, C.; Walk, J. R.; Whyte, D. G. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mikkelsen, D. R.; Edlund, E. M.; Kung, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California, San Diego (UCSD) San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Candy, J.; Petty, C. C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Reinke, M. L. [York University, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); and others
2015-05-15
For the first time, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of I-mode plasmas are performed and compared with experiment. I-mode is a high confinement regime, featuring energy confinement similar to H-mode, but without enhanced particle and impurity particle confinement [D. G. Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)]. As a consequence of the separation between heat and particle transport, I-mode exhibits several favorable characteristics compared to H-mode. The nonlinear gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] is used to explore the effects of E × B shear and profile stiffness in I-mode and compare with L-mode. The nonlinear GYRO simulations show that I-mode core ion temperature and electron temperature profiles are more stiff than L-mode core plasmas. Scans of the input E × B shear in GYRO simulations show that E × B shearing of turbulence is a stronger effect in the core of I-mode than L-mode. The nonlinear simulations match the observed reductions in long wavelength density fluctuation levels across the L-I transition but underestimate the reduction of long wavelength electron temperature fluctuation levels. The comparisons between experiment and gyrokinetic simulations for I-mode suggest that increased E × B shearing of turbulence combined with increased profile stiffness are responsible for the reductions in core turbulence observed in the experiment, and that I-mode resembles H-mode plasmas more than L-mode plasmas with regards to marginal stability and temperature profile stiffness.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Yang
2012-01-01
At Colorado University-Boulder the primary task is to extend our gyrokinetic Particle-in-Cell simulation of tokamak micro-turbulence and transport to the area of energetic particle physics. We have implemented a gyrokinetic ion/massless fluid electron hybrid model in the global δf-PIC code GEM, and benchmarked the code with analytic results on the thermal ion radiative damping rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and with mode frequency and spatial structure from eigenmode analysis. We also performed nonlinear simulations of both a single-n mode (n is the toroidal mode number) and multiple-n modes, and in the case of single-n, benchmarked the code on the saturation amplitude vs. particle collision rate with analytical theory. Most simulations use the f method for both ions species, but we have explored the full-f method for energetic particles in cases where the burst amplitude of the excited instabilities is large as to cause significant re-distribution or loss of the energetic particles. We used the hybrid model to study the stability of high-n TAEs in ITER. Our simulations show that the most unstable modes in ITER lie in the rage of 10 α (0) = 0.7% for the fully shaped ITER equilibrium. We also carried nonlinear simulations of the most unstable n = 15 mode and found that the saturation amplitude for the nominal ITER discharge is too low to cause large redistribution or loss of alpha particles. To include kinetic electron effects in the hybrid model we have studied a kinetic electron closure scheme for the fluid electron model. The most important element of the closure scheme is a complete Ohm's law for the parallel electric field E || , derived by combining the quasi-neutrality condition, the Ampere's equation and the v || moment of the gyrokinetic equations. A discretization method for the closure scheme is studied in detail for a three-dimensional shear-less slab plasma. It is found that for long-wavelength shear Alfven waves the kinetic closure scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibrahim, Khaled Z.; Madduri, Kamesh; Williams, Samuel; Wang, Bei; Oliker, Leonid
2013-01-01
The Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) uses the particle-in-cell method to efficiently simulate plasma microturbulence. This paper presents novel analysis and optimization techniques to enhance the performance of GTC on large-scale machines. We introduce cell access analysis to better manage locality vs. synchronization tradeoffs on CPU and GPU-based architectures. Finally, our optimized hybrid parallel implementation of GTC uses MPI, OpenMP, and NVIDIA CUDA, achieves up to a 2× speedup over the reference Fortran version on multiple parallel systems, and scales efficiently to tens of thousands of cores.
Chang, C S; Ku, S; Tynan, G R; Hager, R; Churchill, R M; Cziegler, I; Greenwald, M; Hubbard, A E; Hughes, J W
2017-04-28
Transport barrier formation and its relation to sheared flows in fluids and plasmas are of fundamental interest in various natural and laboratory observations and of critical importance in achieving an economical energy production in a magnetic fusion device. Here we report the first observation of an edge transport barrier formation event in an electrostatic gyrokinetic simulation carried out in a realistic diverted tokamak edge geometry under strong forcing by a high rate of heat deposition. The results show that turbulent Reynolds-stress-driven sheared E×B flows act in concert with neoclassical orbit loss to quench turbulent transport and form a transport barrier just inside the last closed magnetic flux surface.
A comprehensive gyrokinetic description of global electrostatic microinstabilities in a tokamak
Chowdhury, J.; Ganesh, R.; Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.; Angelino, P.
2009-05-01
It is believed that low frequency microinstabilities such as ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven modes and trapped electron modes (TEMs) are largely responsible for the experimentally observed anomalous transport via the ion and electron channels in a tokamak. In the present work, a comprehensive global linear gyrokinetic model incorporating fully kinetic (trapped and passing) electrons and ions, actual ion to electron mass ratio, radial coupling, and profile variation is used to investigate the ITG driven modes and pure TEMs. These modes are found to exhibit multiscale structures in the presence of nonadiabatic passing electrons. The multiscale structure is related to the large nonadiabaticity of electrons in the vicinity of mode rational magnetic surfaces and leads to reduced mixing length estimates of transport compared to those obtained from adiabatic electron models.
Waltz, R. E.; Waelbroeck, F. L.
2012-03-01
Static external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have been added to the δf gyrokinetic code GYRO. This allows nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the nonambipolar radial current flow jr and the corresponding plasma torque (density) R[jrBθ/c], induced by islands that break the toroidal symmetry of a tokamak. This extends previous GYRO simulations for the transport of toroidal angular momentum (TAM) [1,2]. The focus is on full torus radial slice electrostatic simulations of induced q=m/n=6/3 islands with widths 5% of the minor radius. The island torque scales with the radial electric field Er the island width w, and the intensity I of the high-n micro-turbulence, as wErI^1/2. The net island torque is null at zero Er rather than at zero toroidal rotation. This means that there is a small co-directed magnetic acceleration to the small diamagnetic co-rotation corresponding to the zero Er which can be called the residual stress [2] from an externally induced island. Finite-beta GYRO simulations of a core radial slice demonstrate island unlocking and the RMP screening. 6pt[1] R.E. Waltz, et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007). [2] R.E. Waltz, et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 042504 (2011).
A generalized gyrokinetic Poisson solver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z.; Lee, W.W.
1995-03-01
A generalized gyrokinetic Poisson solver has been developed, which employs local operations in the configuration space to compute the polarization density response. The new technique is based on the actual physical process of gyrophase-averaging. It is useful for nonlocal simulations using general geometry equilibrium. Since it utilizes local operations rather than the global ones such as FFT, the new method is most amenable to massively parallel algorithms
Hakim, Ammar; Shi, Eric; Juno, James; Bernard, Tess; Hammett, Greg
2017-10-01
For weakly collisional (or collisionless) plasmas, kinetic effects are required to capture the physics of micro-turbulence. We have implemented solvers for kinetic and gyrokinetic equations in the computational plasma physics framework, Gkeyll. We use a version of discontinuous Galerkin scheme that conserves energy exactly. Plasma sheaths are modeled with novel boundary conditions. Positivity of distribution functions is maintained via a reconstruction method, allowing robust simulations that continue to conserve energy even with positivity limiters. We have performed a large number of benchmarks, verifying the accuracy and robustness of our code. We demonstrate the application of our algorithm to two classes of problems (a) Vlasov-Maxwell simulations of turbulence in a magnetized plasma, applicable to space plasmas; (b) Gyrokinetic simulations of turbulence in open-field-line geometries, applicable to laboratory plasmas. Supported by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Gyrokinetic Electron and Fully Kinetic Ion Particle Simulation of Collisionless Plasma Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu Lin; Xueyi Wang; Liu Chen; Zhihong Lin
2009-08-11
Fully kinetic-particle simulations and hybrid simulations have been utilized for decades to investigate various fundamental plasma processes, such as magnetic reconnection, fast compressional waves, and wave-particle interaction. Nevertheless, due to disparate temporal and spatial scales between electrons and ions, existing fully kinetic-particle codes have to employ either unrealistically high electron-to-ion mass ratio, me/mi, or simulation domain limited to a few or a few ten's of the ion Larmor radii, or/and time much less than the global Alfven time scale in order to accommodate available computing resources. On the other hand, in the hybrid simulation, the ions are treated as fully kinetic particles but the electrons are treated as a massless fluid. The electron kinetic effects, e.g., wave-particle resonances and finite electron Larmor radius effects, are completely missing. Important physics, such as the electron transit time damping of fast compressional waves or the triggering mechanism of magnetic reconnection in collisionless plasmas is absent in the hybrid codes. Motivated by these considerations and noting that dynamics of interest to us has frequencies lower than the electron gyrofrequency, we planned to develop an innovative particle simulation model, gyrokinetic (GK) electrons and fully kinetic (FK) ions. In the GK-electron and FK-ion (GKe/FKi) particle simulation model, the rapid electron cyclotron motion is removed, while keeping finite electron Larmor radii, realistic me/mi ratio, wave-particle interactions, and off-diagonal components of electron pressure tensor. The computation power can thus be significantly improved over that of the full-particle codes. As planned in the project DE-FG02-05ER54826, we have finished the development of the new GK-electron and FK-ion scheme, finished its benchmark for a uniform plasma in 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D systems against linear waves obtained from analytical theories, and carried out a further convergence
Gyrokinetic Electron and Fully Kinetic Ion Particle Simulation of Collisionless Plasma Dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Chen, Liu; Lin, Zhihong
2009-01-01
Fully kinetic-particle simulations and hybrid simulations have been utilized for decades to investigate various fundamental plasma processes, such as magnetic reconnection, fast compressional waves, and wave-particle interaction. Nevertheless, due to disparate temporal and spatial scales between electrons and ions, existing fully kinetic-particle codes have to employ either unrealistically high electron-to-ion mass ratio, me/mi, or simulation domain limited to a few or a few ten's of the ion Larmor radii, or/and time much less than the global Alfven time scale in order to accommodate available computing resources. On the other hand, in the hybrid simulation, the ions are treated as fully kinetic particles but the electrons are treated as a massless fluid. The electron kinetic effects, e.g., wave-particle resonances and finite electron Larmor radius effects, are completely missing. Important physics, such as the electron transit time damping of fast compressional waves or the triggering mechanism of magnetic reconnection in collisionless plasmas is absent in the hybrid codes. Motivated by these considerations and noting that dynamics of interest to us has frequencies lower than the electron gyrofrequency, we planned to develop an innovative particle simulation model, gyrokinetic (GK) electrons and fully kinetic (FK) ions. In the GK-electron and FK-ion (GKe/FKi) particle simulation model, the rapid electron cyclotron motion is removed, while keeping finite electron Larmor radii, realistic me/mi ratio, wave-particle interactions, and off-diagonal components of electron pressure tensor. The computation power can thus be significantly improved over that of the full-particle codes. As planned in the project DE-FG02-05ER54826, we have finished the development of the new GK-electron and FK-ion scheme, finished its benchmark for a uniform plasma in 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D systems against linear waves obtained from analytical theories, and carried out a further convergence test
Full-f gyrokinetic simulation of edge pedestal in Textor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiviniemi, Timo [Aalto Univ. (Finland)
2016-11-01
In ongoing simulations we have noticed that change phase angle between electric field and density oscillation may be important for changes in particle transport for different isotopes which could explain part of the so-called isotope-effect. Even the present database from the PRACE simulation (about 20 cases and some 4 TB of data) can still be further explored for this as the 3D data for both electric field and density exists. After finishing the PRACE project the code has been updated to include scrape-off-layer (SOL) which has opened several possibilities for future research.
Recent advances in gyrokinetic full-f particle simulation of medium sized Tokamaks with ELMFIRE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janhunen, S.J.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Korpio, T.; Leerink, S.; Nora, M.; Heikkinen, J.A.; Ogando, F.
2010-01-01
Large-scale kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas based on first principles are called for in studies of transition from low to high confinement mode and internal transport barrier formation in the core plasma. Such processes are best observed and diagnosed in detached plasma conditions in mid-sized tokamaks, so gyrokinetic simulations for these conditions are warranted. A first principles test-particle based kinetic model ELMFIRE[1] has been developed and used in interpretation[1,2] of FT-2 and DIII-D experiments. In this work we summarize progress in Cyclone (DIII-D core) and ASDEX Upgrade pedestal region simulations, and show that in simulations the choice of adiabatic electrons results in quenching of turbulence (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Recent advances in gyrokinetic full-f particle simulation of medium sized Tokamaks with ELMFIRE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janhunen, S.J.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Korpio, T.; Leerink, S.; Nora, M. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, J.A. [VTT, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Ogando, F. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain)
2010-05-15
Large-scale kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas based on first principles are called for in studies of transition from low to high confinement mode and internal transport barrier formation in the core plasma. Such processes are best observed and diagnosed in detached plasma conditions in mid-sized tokamaks, so gyrokinetic simulations for these conditions are warranted. A first principles test-particle based kinetic model ELMFIRE[1] has been developed and used in interpretation[1,2] of FT-2 and DIII-D experiments. In this work we summarize progress in Cyclone (DIII-D core) and ASDEX Upgrade pedestal region simulations, and show that in simulations the choice of adiabatic electrons results in quenching of turbulence (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Gyrokinetics Simulation of Energetic Particle Turbulence and Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, Patrick H.
2011-09-21
Progress in research during this year elucidated the physics of precession resonance and its interaction with radial scattering to form phase space density granulations. Momentum theorems for drift wave-zonal flow systems involving precession resonance were derived. These are directly generalizable to energetic particle modes. A novel nonlinear, subcritical growth mechanism was identified, which has now been verified by simulation. These results strengthen the foundation of our understanding of transport in burning plasmas
Gyrokinetics Simulation of Energetic Particle Turbulence and Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, Patrick H.
2011-01-01
Progress in research during this year elucidated the physics of precession resonance and its interaction with radial scattering to form phase space density granulations. Momentum theorems for drift wave-zonal flow systems involving precession resonance were derived. These are directly generalizable to energetic particle modes. A novel nonlinear, subcritical growth mechanism was identified, which has now been verified by simulation. These results strengthen the foundation of our understanding of transport in burning plasmas
SciDAC GSEP: Gyrokinetic Simulation of Energetic Particle Turbulence and Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Zhihong [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
2017-12-30
Energetic particle (EP) confinement is a key physics issue for burning plasma experiment ITER, the crucial next step in the quest for clean and abundant energy, since ignition relies on self-heating by energetic fusion products (α-particles). Due to the strong coupling of EP with burning thermal plasmas, plasma confinement property in the ignition regime is one of the most uncertain factors when extrapolating from existing fusion devices to the ITER tokamak. EP population in current tokamaks are mostly produced by auxiliary heating such as neutral beam injection (NBI) and radio frequency (RF) heating. Remarkable progress in developing comprehensive EP simulation codes and understanding basic EP physics has been made by two concurrent SciDAC EP projects GSEP funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Science (OFES), which have successfully established gyrokinetic turbulence simulation as a necessary paradigm shift for studying the EP confinement in burning plasmas. Verification and validation have rapidly advanced through close collaborations between simulation, theory, and experiment. Furthermore, productive collaborations with computational scientists have enabled EP simulation codes to effectively utilize current petascale computers and emerging exascale computers. We review here key physics progress in the GSEP projects regarding verification and validation of gyrokinetic simulations, nonlinear EP physics, EP coupling with thermal plasmas, and reduced EP transport models. Advances in high performance computing through collaborations with computational scientists that enable these large scale electromagnetic simulations are also highlighted. These results have been widely disseminated in numerous peer-reviewed publications including many Phys. Rev. Lett. papers and many invited presentations at prominent fusion conferences such as the biennial International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fusion Energy Conference and the annual meeting of the
Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.
2011-09-21
The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.
Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.
2011-01-01
The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.
Gyrokinetic Simulations of Solar Wind Turbulence from Ion to Electron Scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.; Dorland, W.; Numata, R.; Quataert, E.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Tatsuno, T.
2011-01-01
A three-dimensional, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence resolving scales from the ion to electron gyroradius with a realistic mass ratio is presented, where all damping is provided by resolved physical mechanisms. The resulting energy spectra are quantitatively consistent with a magnetic power spectrum scaling of k -2.8 as observed in in situ spacecraft measurements of the 'dissipation range' of solar wind turbulence. Despite the strongly nonlinear nature of the turbulence, the linear kinetic Alfven wave mode quantitatively describes the polarization of the turbulent fluctuations. The collisional ion heating is measured at subion-Larmor radius scales, which provides evidence of the ion entropy cascade in an electromagnetic turbulence simulation.
Freethy, S. J.; Görler, T.; Creely, A. J.; Conway, G. D.; Denk, S. S.; Happel, T.; Koenen, C.; Hennequin, P.; White, A. E.; ASDEX Upgrade Team
2018-05-01
Measurements of turbulent electron temperature fluctuation amplitudes, δTe ⊥/Te , frequency spectra, and radial correlation lengths, Lr(Te ⊥) , have been performed at ASDEX Upgrade using a newly upgraded Correlation ECE diagnostic in the range of scales k⊥scale non-linear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations of the outer core (ρtor = 0.75) of a low density, electron heated L-mode plasma, performed using the gyrokinetic simulation code, GENE. The ion and electron temperature gradients were scanned within uncertainties. It is found that gyrokinetic simulations are able to match simultaneously the electron and ion heat flux at this radius within the experimental uncertainties. The simulations were performed based on a reference discharge for which δTe ⊥/Te measurements were available, and Lr(Te ⊥) and αnT were then predicted using synthetic diagnostics prior to measurements in a repeat discharge. While temperature fluctuation amplitudes are overestimated by >50% for all simulations within the sensitivity scans performed, good quantitative agreement is found for Lr(Te ⊥) and αnT. A validation metric is used to quantify the level of agreement of individual simulations with experimental measurements, and the best agreement is found close to the experimental gradient values.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sung, C., E-mail: csung@physics.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); White, A. E.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mikkelsen, D. R.; Churchill, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Theiler, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, SPC, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland)
2016-04-15
Long wavelength turbulent electron temperature fluctuations (k{sub y}ρ{sub s} < 0.3) are measured in the outer core region (r/a > 0.8) of Ohmic L-mode plasmas at Alcator C-Mod [E. S. Marmar et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104014 (2009)] with a correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic. The relative amplitude and frequency spectrum of the fluctuations are compared quantitatively with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] in two different confinement regimes: linear Ohmic confinement (LOC) regime and saturated Ohmic confinement (SOC) regime. When comparing experiment with nonlinear simulations, it is found that local, electrostatic ion-scale simulations (k{sub y}ρ{sub s} ≲ 1.7) performed at r/a ∼ 0.85 reproduce the experimental ion heat flux levels, electron temperature fluctuation levels, and frequency spectra within experimental error bars. In contrast, the electron heat flux is robustly under-predicted and cannot be recovered by using scans of the simulation inputs within error bars or by using global simulations. If both the ion heat flux and the measured temperature fluctuations are attributed predominantly to long-wavelength turbulence, then under-prediction of electron heat flux strongly suggests that electron scale turbulence is important for transport in C-Mod Ohmic L-mode discharges. In addition, no evidence is found from linear or nonlinear simulations for a clear transition from trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient turbulence across the LOC/SOC transition, and also there is no evidence in these Ohmic L-mode plasmas of the “Transport Shortfall” [C. Holland et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 052301 (2009)].
Continuum Gyrokinetic Simulations of Turbulence in a Helical Model SOL with NSTX-type parameters
Hammett, G. W.; Shi, E. L.; Hakim, A.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.
2017-10-01
We have developed the Gkeyll code to carry out 3D2V full- F gyrokinetic simulations of electrostatic plasma turbulence in open-field-line geometries, using special versions of discontinuous-Galerkin algorithms to help with the computational challenges of the edge region. (Higher-order algorithms can also be helpful for exascale computing as they reduce the ratio of communications to computations.) Our first simulations with straight field lines were done for LAPD-type cases. Here we extend this to a helical model of an SOL plasma and show results for NSTX-type parameters. These simulations include the basic elements of a scrape-off layer: bad-curvature/interchange drive of instabilities, narrow sources to model plasma leaking from the core, and parallel losses with model sheath boundary conditions (our model allows currents to flow in and out of the walls). The formation of blobs is observed. By reducing the strength of the poloidal magnetic field, the heat flux at the divertor plate is observed to broaden. Supported by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in TCV electron internal transport barriers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lapillonne, X; Brunner, S; Sauter, O; Villard, L [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Fable, E; Goerler, T; Jenko, F; Merz, F, E-mail: stephan.brunner@epfl.ch [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2011-05-15
Using the local (flux-tube) version of the Eulerian code GENE (Jenko et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 1904), gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence were carried out considering parameters relevant to electron-internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) in the TCV tokamak (Sauter et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 105002), generated under conditions of low or negative shear. For typical density and temperature gradients measured in such barriers, the corresponding simulated fluctuation spectra appears to simultaneously contain longer wavelength trapped electron modes (TEMs, for typically k{sub p}erpendicular{rho}{sub i} < 0.5, k{sub p}erpendicular being the characteristic perpendicular wavenumber and {rho}{sub i} the ion Larmor radius) and shorter wavelength ion temperature gradient modes (ITG, k{sub p}erpendicular{rho}{sub i} > 0.5). The contributions to the electron particle flux from these two types of modes are, respectively, outward/inward and may cancel each other for experimentally realistic gradients. This mechanism may partly explain the feasibility of e-ITBs. The non-linear simulation results confirm the predictions of a previously developed quasi-linear model (Fable et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 015007), namely that the stationary condition of zero particle flux is obtained through the competitive contributions of ITG and TEM. A quantitative comparison of the electron heat flux with experimental estimates is presented as well.
Non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in TCV electron internal transport barriers
Lapillonne, X.; Brunner, S.; Sauter, O.; Villard, L.; Fable, E.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Merz, F.
2011-05-01
Using the local (flux-tube) version of the Eulerian code GENE (Jenko et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 1904), gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence were carried out considering parameters relevant to electron-internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) in the TCV tokamak (Sauter et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 105002), generated under conditions of low or negative shear. For typical density and temperature gradients measured in such barriers, the corresponding simulated fluctuation spectra appears to simultaneously contain longer wavelength trapped electron modes (TEMs, for typically k⊥ρi 0.5). The contributions to the electron particle flux from these two types of modes are, respectively, outward/inward and may cancel each other for experimentally realistic gradients. This mechanism may partly explain the feasibility of e-ITBs. The non-linear simulation results confirm the predictions of a previously developed quasi-linear model (Fable et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 015007), namely that the stationary condition of zero particle flux is obtained through the competitive contributions of ITG and TEM. A quantitative comparison of the electron heat flux with experimental estimates is presented as well.
Waltz, R. E.; Waelbroeck, F. L.
2012-03-01
Static external resonant magnetic field perturbations (RMPs) have been added to the gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. This allows nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the nonambipolar radial current flow jr, and the corresponding j→×B→ plasma torque (density) R[jrBp/c], induced by magnetic islands that break the toroidal symmetry of a tokamak. This extends the previous GYRO formulation for the transport of toroidal angular momentum (TAM) [R. E. Waltz, G. M. Staebler, J. Candy, and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007); errata 16, 079902 (2009)]. The focus is on electrostatic full torus radial slice simulations of externally induced q =m/n=6/3 islands with widths 5% of the minor radius or about 20 ion gyroradii. Up to moderately strong E ×B rotation, the island torque scales with the radial electric field at the resonant surface Er, the island width w, and the intensity I of the high-n micro-turbulence, as Erw√I . The radial current inside the island is carried (entirely in the n =3 component) and almost entirely by the ion E ×B flux, since the electron E ×B and magnetic flutter particle fluxes are cancelled. The net island torque is null at zero Er rather than at zero toroidal rotation. This means that while the expected magnetic braking of the toroidal plasma rotation occurs at strong co- and counter-current rotation, at null toroidal rotation, there is a small co-directed magnetic acceleration up to the small diamagnetic (ion pressure gradient driven) co-rotation corresponding to the zero Er and null torque. This could be called the residual stress from an externally induced island. At zero Er, the only effect is the expected partial flattening of the electron temperature gradient within the island. Finite-beta GYRO simulations demonstrate almost complete RMP field screening and n =3 mode unlocking at strong Er.
Comparisons of 'Identical' Simulations by the Eulerian Gyrokinetic Codes GS2 and GYRO
Bravenec, R. V.; Ross, D. W.; Candy, J.; Dorland, W.; McKee, G. R.
2003-10-01
A major goal of the fusion program is to be able to predict tokamak transport from first-principles theory. To this end, the Eulerian gyrokinetic code GS2 was developed years ago and continues to be improved [1]. Recently, the Eulerian code GYRO was developed [2]. These codes are not subject to the statistical noise inherent to particle-in-cell (PIC) codes, and have been very successful in treating electromagnetic fluctuations. GS2 is fully spectral in the radial coordinate while GYRO uses finite-differences and ``banded" spectral schemes. To gain confidence in nonlinear simulations of experiment with these codes, ``apples-to-apples" comparisons (identical profile inputs, flux-tube geometry, two species, etc.) are first performed. We report on a series of linear and nonlinear comparisons (with overall agreement) including kinetic electrons, collisions, and shaped flux surfaces. We also compare nonlinear simulations of a DIII-D discharge to measurements of not only the fluxes but also the turbulence parameters. [1] F. Jenko, et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 1904 (2000) and refs. therein. [2] J. Candy, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003).
Smoniewski, J.; Faber, B. J.; Sánchez, E.; Calvo, I.; Pueschel, M. J.; Likin, K. M.; Deng, C. B.; Talmadge, J. N.
2017-10-01
The Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX) has demonstrated reduced neoclassical transport in the plasma core with quasi-symmetry [Lore Thesis 2010], while outside this region the electron thermal diffusivity is well above the neoclassical level, likely due to the Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) [Weir PoP 2015, Faber PoP 2015]. We compare gyrokinetic simulations of the TEM to experimental heat flux and density fluctuation measurements for two configurations: Quasi-Helical Symmetry (QHS) and broken symmetry (Mirror). Both experiment and simulation show that the heat flux for Mirror is larger than for QHS by about a factor of two. Initial interferometer measurements provide evidence that density-gradient-driven TEMs are driving turbulence. Calculations of the collisionless damping of zonal flows provide another perspective into the difference between geometries. Similar to other stellarators [Monreal PPCF 2016], the zonal flow residual goes to zero at long wavelengths in both configurations. Additionally, the very short time decay of the zonal flow due to neoclassical polarization is constant between configurations. However, the collisionless damping time is longer and the zonal flow oscillation frequency is smaller in QHS than Mirror, consistent with reduced radial particle drifts. Work supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-93ER54222.
Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decyk, Viktor K.
2008-01-01
The UCLA work on this grant was to design and help implement an object-oriented version of the GTC code, which is written in Fortran90. The GTC code is the main global gyrokinetic code used in this project, and over the years multiple, incompatible versions have evolved. The reason for this effort is to allow multiple authors to work together on GTC and to simplify future enhancements to GTC. The effort was designed to proceed incrementally. Initially, an upper layer of classes (derived types and methods) was implemented which called the original GTC code 'under the hood.' The derived types pointed to data in the original GTC code, and the methods called the original GTC subroutines. The original GTC code was modified only very slightly. This allowed one to define (and refine) a set of classes which described the important features of the GTC code in a new, more abstract way, with a minimum of implementation. Furthermore, classes could be added one at a time, and at the end of the each day, the code continued to work correctly. This work was done in close collaboration with Y. Nishimura from UC Irvine and Stefan Ethier from PPPL. Ten classes were ultimately defined and implemented: gyrokinetic and drift kinetic particles, scalar and vector fields, a mesh, jacobian, FLR, equilibrium, interpolation, and particles species descriptors. In the second state of this development, some of the scaffolding was removed. The constructors in the class objects now allocated the data and the array data in the original GTC code was removed. This isolated the components and now allowed multiple instantiations of the objects to be created, in particular, multiple ion species. Again, the work was done incrementally, one class at a time, so that the code was always working properly. This work was done in close collaboration with Y. Nishimura and W. Zhang from UC Irvine and Stefan Ethier from PPPL. The third stage of this work was to integrate the capabilities of the various versions of
A new hybrid-Lagrangian numerical scheme for gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak edge plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ku, S., E-mail: sku@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Hager, R.; Chang, C.S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kwon, J.M. [National Fusion Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Parker, S.E. [University of Colorado Boulder (United States)
2016-06-15
In order to enable kinetic simulation of non-thermal edge plasmas at a reduced computational cost, a new hybrid-Lagrangian δf scheme has been developed that utilizes the phase space grid in addition to the usual marker particles, taking advantage of the computational strengths from both sides. The new scheme splits the particle distribution function of a kinetic equation into two parts. Marker particles contain the fast space-time varying, δf, part of the distribution function and the coarse-grained phase-space grid contains the slow space-time varying part. The coarse-grained phase-space grid reduces the memory-requirement and the computing cost, while the marker particles provide scalable computing ability for the fine-grained physics. Weights of the marker particles are determined by a direct weight evolution equation instead of the differential form weight evolution equations that the conventional delta-f schemes use. The particle weight can be slowly transferred to the phase space grid, thereby reducing the growth of the particle weights. The non-Lagrangian part of the kinetic equation – e.g., collision operation, ionization, charge exchange, heat-source, radiative cooling, and others – can be operated directly on the phase space grid. Deviation of the particle distribution function on the velocity grid from a Maxwellian distribution function – driven by ionization, charge exchange and wall loss – is allowed to be arbitrarily large. The numerical scheme is implemented in the gyrokinetic particle code XGC1, which specializes in simulating the tokamak edge plasma that crosses the magnetic separatrix and is in contact with the material wall.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waltz, R. E.; Candy, J.; Fahey, M.
2007-01-01
Electron temperature gradient (ETG) transport is conventionally defined as the electron energy transport at high wave number (high-k) where ions are adiabatic and there can be no ion energy or plasma transport. Previous gyrokinetic simulations have assumed adiabatic ions (ETG-ai) and work on the small electron gyroradius scale. However such ETG-ai simulations with trapped electrons often do not have well behaved nonlinear saturation unless fully kinetic ions (ki) and proper ion scale zonal flow modes are included. Electron energy transport is separated into ETG-ki at high-k and ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode (ITG/TEM) at low-k. Expensive (more computer-intensive), high-resolution, large-ion-scale flux-tube simulations coupling ITG/TEM and ETG-ki turbulence are presented. These require a high effective Reynolds number R≡[k(max)/k(min)] 2 =μ 2 , where μ=[ρ si /ρ si ] is the ratio of ion to electron gyroradii. Compute times scale faster than μ 3 . By comparing the coupled expensive simulations with (1) much cheaper (less compute-intensive), uncoupled, high-resolution, small, flux-tube ETG-ki and with (2) uncoupled low-resolution, large, flux-tube ITG/TEM simulations, and also by artificially turning ''off'' the low-k or high-k drives, it appears that ITG/TEM and ETG-ki transport are not strongly coupled so long as ETG-ki can access some nonadiabatic ion scale zonal flows and both high-k and low-k are linearly unstable. However expensive coupled simulations are required for physically accurate k-spectra of the transport and turbulence. Simulations with μ≥30 appear to represent the physical range μ>40. ETG-ki transport measured in ion gyro-Bohm units is weakly dependent on μ. For the mid-radius core tokamak plasma parameters studied, ETG-ki is about 10% of the electron energy transport, which in turn is about 30% of the total energy transport (with negligible ExB shear). However at large ExB shear sufficient to quench the low-k ITG
Alfven Waves in Gyrokinetic Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.W.; Qin, H.
2003-01-01
A brief comparison of the properties of Alfven waves that are based on the gyrokinetic description with those derived from the MHD equations is presented. The critical differences between these two approaches are the treatment of the ion polarization effects. As such, the compressional Alfven waves in a gyrokinetic plasma can be eliminated through frequency ordering, whereas geometric simplifications are needed to decouple the shear Alfven waves from the compressional Alfven waves within the context of MHD. Theoretical and numerical procedures of using gyrokinetic particle simulation for studying microturbulence and kinetic-MHD physics including finite Larmor radius effects are also presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikkelsen, D. R., E-mail: dmikkelsen@pppl.gov; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Reinke, M. L. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Podpaly, Y. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); AAAS S and T Fellow placed in the Directorate for Engineering, NSF, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Virginia 22230 (United States); Ma, Y. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)
2015-06-15
Peaked density profiles in low-collisionality AUG and JET H-mode plasmas are probably caused by a turbulently driven particle pinch, and Alcator C-Mod experiments confirmed that collisionality is a critical parameter. Density peaking in reactors could produce a number of important effects, some beneficial, such as enhanced fusion power and transport of fuel ions from the edge to the core, while others are undesirable, such as lower beta limits, reduced radiation from the plasma edge, and consequently higher divertor heat loads. Fundamental understanding of the pinch will enable planning to optimize these impacts. We show that density peaking is predicted by nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations based on measured profile data from low collisionality H-mode plasma in Alcator C-Mod. Multiple ion species are included to determine whether hydrogenic density peaking has an isotope dependence or is influenced by typical levels of low-Z impurities, and whether impurity density peaking depends on the species. We find that the deuterium density profile is slightly more peaked than that of hydrogen, and that experimentally relevant levels of boron have no appreciable effect on hydrogenic density peaking. The ratio of density at r/a = 0.44 to that at r/a = 0.74 is 1.2 for the majority D and minority H ions (and for electrons), and increases with impurity Z: 1.1 for helium, 1.15 for boron, 1.3 for neon, 1.4 for argon, and 1.5 for molybdenum. The ion temperature profile is varied to match better the predicted heat flux with the experimental transport analysis, but the resulting factor of two change in heat transport has only a weak effect on the predicted density peaking.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decyk, Viktor K.
2011-01-01
computational complexity, such as electromagnetic or gyrokinetic codes should perform better. We therefore implemented an 2-1/2D electromagnetic, relativistic code, which used the same algorithms and data structures as the electrostatic code. Typical speedup achieved on the Tesla C1060 was about 40. The Fermi C2050, a newer GPU, achieved a speedup of 55, with a particle processing time of 2.2 nsec/particle/time step. These results were reported at the APS Division of Plasma Physics Meeting and the US-Japan Workshop on Development of Simulation Science in Plasma Physics.
Conservation Laws for Gyrokinetic Equations for Large Perturbations and Flows
Dimits, Andris
2017-10-01
Gyrokinetic theory has proved to be very useful for the understanding of magnetized plasmas, both to simplify analytical treatments and as a basis for efficient numerical simulations. Gyrokinetic theories were previously developed in two extended orderings that are applicable to large fluctuations and flows as may arise in the tokamak edge and scrapeoff layer. In the present work, we cast the resulting equations in a field-theoretical variational form, and derive, up to second order in the respective orderings, the associated global and local energy and (linear and toroidal) momentum conservation relations that result from Noether's theorem. The consequences of these for the various possible choices of numerical discretization used in gyrokinetic simulations are considered. Prepared for US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by the U.S. DOE, OFES.
Bao, J.; Liu, D.; Lin, Z.
2017-10-01
A conservative scheme of drift kinetic electrons for gyrokinetic simulations of kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic processes in toroidal plasmas has been formulated and verified. Both vector potential and electron perturbed distribution function are decomposed into adiabatic part with analytic solution and non-adiabatic part solved numerically. The adiabatic parallel electric field is solved directly from the electron adiabatic response, resulting in a high degree of accuracy. The consistency between electrostatic potential and parallel vector potential is enforced by using the electron continuity equation. Since particles are only used to calculate the non-adiabatic response, which is used to calculate the non-adiabatic vector potential through Ohm's law, the conservative scheme minimizes the electron particle noise and mitigates the cancellation problem. Linear dispersion relations of the kinetic Alfvén wave and the collisionless tearing mode in cylindrical geometry have been verified in gyrokinetic toroidal code simulations, which show that the perpendicular grid size can be larger than the electron collisionless skin depth when the mode wavelength is longer than the electron skin depth.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ernst, D.R.; Basse, N.; Bonoli, P.T.; Catto, P.J.; Fiore, C.L.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A.E.; Marmar, E.S.; Porkolab, M.; Rice, J.E.; Zeller, K.; Zhurovich, K.; Dorland, W.
2005-01-01
Internal particle and thermal energy transport barriers are produced in Alcator C-Mod with off-axis ICRF heating, with core densities exceeding 10 21 m -3 , without core fueling, and with little change in the temperature profile. Applying on-axis ICRF heating controls the core density gradient and rate of rise. The present study employs linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence to explore mechanisms for ITB formation and control in Alcator C-Mod ITB experiments. Anomalous pinches are found to be negligible in our simulations; further, the collisional Ware pinch is sufficient to account for the slow density rise, lasting many energy confinement times. The simulations have revealed new nonlinear physics of TEM turbulence. The critical density gradient for onset of TEM turbulent transport is nonlinearly up-shifted by zonal flows. As the density profile peaks, during ITB formation, this nonlinear critical gradient is eventually exceeded, and the turbulent particle diffusivity from GS2 gyrokinetic simulations matches the particle diffusivity from transport analysis, within experimental errors. A stable equilibrium is then established when the TEM turbulent diffusion balances the Ware pinch in the ITB. This equilibrium is sensitive to temperature through gyroBohm scaling of the TEM turbulent transport, and the collisionality dependence of the neoclassical pinch, providing for control of the density rate of rise with on-axis RF heating. With no core particle fueling, and ∼1 mm between density spatial channels, the C-Mod experiments provide a nearly ideal test bed for particle transport studies. The pure TEM is the only unstable drift mode in the ITB, producing particle transport driven by the density gradient. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J
2009-01-01
We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ku, S [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Chang, C-S [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Adams, M [Columbia University (United States); Cummings, J [California Institute of Technology (United States); Hinton, F [Hinton Associates (United States); Keyes, D [Columbia University (United States); Klasky, S [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Lee, W [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Lin, Z [University of California at Irvine (United States); Parker, S [University of Colorado at Boulder (United States)
2006-09-15
A gyrokinetic neoclassical solution for a diverted tokamak edge plasma has been obtained for the first time using the massively parallel Jaguar XT3 computer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The solutions show similar characteristics to the experimental observations: electric potential is positive in the scrape-off layer and negative in the H-mode layer, and the parallel rotation is positive in the scrape-off layer and at the inside boundary of the H-mode layer. However, the solution also makes a new physical discovery that there is a strong ExB convective flow in the scrape-off plasma. A general introduction to the edge simulation problem is also presented.
White, A E; Schmitz, L; Peebles, W A; Carter, T A; Rhodes, T L; Doyle, E J; Gourdain, P A; Hillesheim, J C; Wang, G; Holland, C; Tynan, G R; Austin, M E; McKee, G R; Shafer, M W; Burrell, K H; Candy, J; DeBoo, J C; Prater, R; Staebler, G M; Waltz, R E; Makowski, M A
2008-10-01
A correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) diagnostic has been used to measure local, turbulent fluctuations of the electron temperature in the core of DIII-D plasmas. This paper describes the hardware and testing of the CECE diagnostic and highlights the importance of measurements of multifield fluctuation profiles for the testing and validation of nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. The process of testing and validating such codes is critical for extrapolation to next-step fusion devices. For the first time, the radial profiles of electron temperature and density fluctuations are compared to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The CECE diagnostic at DIII-D uses correlation radiometry to measure the rms amplitude and spectrum of the electron temperature fluctuations. Gaussian optics are used to produce a poloidal spot size with w(o) approximately 1.75 cm in the plasma. The intermediate frequency filters and the natural linewidth of the EC emission determine the radial resolution of the CECE diagnostic, which can be less than 1 cm. Wavenumbers resolved by the CECE diagnostic are k(theta) < or = 1.8 cm(-1) and k(r) < or = 4 cm(-1), relevant for studies of long-wavelength turbulence associated with the trapped electron mode and the ion temperature gradient mode. In neutral beam heated L-mode plasmas, core electron temperature fluctuations in the region 0.5 < r/a < 0.9, increase with radius from approximately 0.5% to approximately 2%, similar to density fluctuations that are measured simultaneously with beam emission spectroscopy. After incorporating "synthetic diagnostics" to effectively filter the code output, the simulations reproduce the characteristics of the turbulence and transport at one radial location r/a = 0.5, but not at a second location, r/a = 0.75. These results illustrate that measurements of the profiles of multiple fluctuating fields can provide a significant constraint on the turbulence models employed by the code.
Kwon, Jae-Min; Ku, S.; Choi, M. J.; Chang, C. S.; Hager, R.; Yoon, E. S.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, H. S.
2018-05-01
We perform gyrokinetic simulations to study the effects of a stationary magnetic island on neoclassical flow and micro-instability in a realistic KSTAR plasma condition. Through the simulations, we aim to analyze a recent KSTAR experiment, which was to measure the details of poloidal flow and fluctuation around a stationary (2, 1) magnetic island [M. J. Choi et al., Nucl. Fusion 57, 126058 (2017)]. From the simulations, it is found that the magnetic island can significantly enhance the equilibrium E × B flow. The corresponding flow shearing is strong enough to suppress a substantial portion of ambient micro-instabilities, particularly ∇Te -driven trapped electron modes. This implies that the enhanced E × B flow can sustain a quasi-internal transport barrier for Te in an inner region neighboring the magnetic island. The enhanced E × B flow has a (2, 1) mode structure with a finite phase shift from the mode structure of the magnetic island. It is shown that the flow shear and the fluctuation suppression patterns implied from the simulations are consistent with the observations on the KSTAR experiment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byers, J.A.; Williams, T.J.; Cohen, B.I.; Dimits, A.M.
1994-01-01
One of the programs of the Magnetic fusion Energy (MFE) Theory and computations Program is studying the anomalous transport of thermal energy across the field lines in the core of a tokamak. We use the method of gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulation in this study. For this LDRD project we employed massively parallel processing, new algorithms, and new algorithms, and new formal techniques to improve this research. Specifically, we sought to take steps toward: researching experimentally-relevant parameters in our simulations, learning parallel computing to have as a resource for our group, and achieving a 100 x speedup over our starting-point Cray2 simulation code's performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugama, H.
1999-08-01
The Lagrangian formulation of the gyrokinetic theory is generalized in order to describe the particles' dynamics as well as the self-consistent behavior of the electromagnetic fields. The gyrokinetic equation for the particle distribution function and the gyrokinetic Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic fields are both derived from the variational principle for the Lagrangian consisting of the parts of particles, fields, and their interaction. In this generalized Lagrangian formulation, the energy conservation property for the total nonlinear gyrokinetic system of equations is directly shown from the Noether's theorem. This formulation can be utilized in order to derive the nonlinear gyrokinetic system of equations and the rigorously conserved total energy for fluctuations with arbitrary frequency. (author)
Improvements on nonlinear gyrokinetic particle simulations based on δf-discretization scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zorat, R.; Tessarotto, M.
1998-01-01
In this work various issues regarding the definition of improved theoretical models appropriate to describe the dynamics of confined magnetoplasmas by particle simulation methods are proposed. These concern in particular an improved non linear δf discretization scheme and the treatment of binary, i.e. Coulomb, and collective interactions. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rastović Danilo
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In earlier Rastovic's papers [1] and [2], the effort was given to analyze the stochastic control of tokamaks. In this paper, the deterministic control of tokamak turbulence is investigated via fractional variational calculus, particle in cell simulations, and fuzzy logic methods. Fractional integrals can be considered as approximations of integrals on fractals. The turbulent media could be of the fractal structure and the corresponding equations should be changed to include the fractal features of the media.
Fully-kinetic Ion Simulation of Global Electrostatic Turbulent Transport in C-2U
Fulton, Daniel; Lau, Calvin; Bao, Jian; Lin, Zhihong; Tajima, Toshiki; TAE Team
2017-10-01
Understanding the nature of particle and energy transport in field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas is a crucial step towards an FRC-based fusion reactor. The C-2U device at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) achieved macroscopically stable plasmas and electron energy confinement time which scaled favorably with electron temperature. This success led to experimental and theoretical investigation of turbulence in C-2U, including gyrokinetic ion simulations with the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC). A primary objective of TAE's new C-2W device is to explore transport scaling in an extended parameter regime. In concert with the C-2W experimental campaign, numerical efforts have also been extended in A New Code (ANC) to use fully-kinetic (FK) ions and a Vlasov-Poisson field solver. Global FK ion simulations are presented. Future code development is also discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhodes, T.L.; Doyle, E.J.; Hillesheim, J.C.; Peebles, W.A.; Schmitz, L.; Holland, C.; Smith, S.P.; Burrell, K.H.; Candy, J.; DeBoo, J.C.; Kinsey, J.E.; Petty, C.C.; Prater, R.; Staebler, G.M.; Waltz, R.E.; White, A.E.; McKee, G.R.; Mikkelsen, D.; Parker, S.; Chen, Y.
2011-01-01
A series of carefully designed experiments on DIII-D have taken advantage of a broad set of turbulence and profile diagnostics to rigorously test gyrokinetic turbulence simulations. In this paper the goals, tools and experiments performed in these validation studies are reviewed and specific examples presented. It is found that predictions of transport and fluctuation levels in the mid-core region (0.4 < ρ < 0.75) are in better agreement with experiment than those in the outer region (ρ ≥ 0.75) where edge coupling effects may become increasingly important and multiscale simulations may also be necessary. Validation studies such as these are crucial in developing confidence in a first-principles based predictive capability for ITER.
Global simulation of edge pedestal micro-instabilities
Wan, Weigang; Parker, Scott; Chen, Yang
2011-10-01
We study micro turbulence of the tokamak edge pedestal with global gyrokinetic particle simulations. The simulation code GEM is an electromagnetic δf code. Two sets of DIII-D experimental profiles, shot #131997 and shot #136051 are used. The dominant instabilities appear to be two kinds of modes both propagating in the electron diamagnetic direction, with comparable linear growth rates. The low n mode is at the Alfven frequency range and driven by density and ion temperature gradients. The high n mode is driven by electron temperature gradient and has a low real frequency. A β scan shows that the low n mode is electromagnetic. Frequency analysis shows that the high n mode is sometimes mixed with an ion instability. Experimental radial electric field is applied and its effects studied. We will also show some preliminary nonlinear results. We thank R. Groebner, P. Snyder and Y. Zheng for providing experimental profiles and helpful discussions.
Beyond scale separation in gyrokinetic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Darmet, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Angelino, P.; Bertrand, P.; Besse, N.; Gravier, E.; Morel, P.; Sonnendruecker, E.; Crouseilles, N.; Dischler, J.-M.; Latu, G.; Violard, E.; Brunetti, M.; Brunner, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Tran, T.-M.; Villard, L.; Boulet, M.
2007-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained with a set of gyrokinetic codes based on a semi-Lagrangian scheme. Several physics issues are addressed, namely, the comparison between fluid and kinetic descriptions, the intermittent behaviour of flux driven turbulence and the role of large scale flows in toroidal ITG turbulence. The question of the initialization of full-F simulations is also discussed
Nonlinear gyrokinetic Maxwell-Vlasov equations using magnetic coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brizard, A.
1988-09-01
A gyrokinetic formalism using magnetic coordinates is used to derive self-consistent, nonlinear Maxwell-Vlasov equations that are suitable for particle simulation studies of finite-β tokamak microturbulence and its associated anomalous transport. The use of magnetic coordinates is an important feature of this work as it introduces the toroidal geometry naturally into our gyrokinetic formalism. The gyrokinetic formalism itself is based on the use of the Action-variational Lie perturbation method of Cary and Littlejohn, and preserves the Hamiltonian structure of the original Maxwell-Vlasov system. Previous nonlinear gyrokinetic sets of equations suitable for particle simulation analysis have considered either electrostatic and shear-Alfven perturbations in slab geometry, or electrostatic perturbations in toroidal geometry. In this present work, fully electromagnetic perturbations in toroidal geometry are considered. 26 refs
A quasi-linear gyrokinetic transport model for tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casati, A.
2009-10-01
After a presentation of some basics around nuclear fusion, this research thesis introduces the framework of the tokamak strategy to deal with confinement, hence the main plasma instabilities which are responsible for turbulent transport of energy and matter in such a system. The author also briefly introduces the two principal plasma representations, the fluid and the kinetic ones. He explains why the gyro-kinetic approach has been preferred. A tokamak relevant case is presented in order to highlight the relevance of a correct accounting of the kinetic wave-particle resonance. He discusses the issue of the quasi-linear response. Firstly, the derivation of the model, called QuaLiKiz, and its underlying hypotheses to get the energy and the particle turbulent flux are presented. Secondly, the validity of the quasi-linear response is verified against the nonlinear gyro-kinetic simulations. The saturation model that is assumed in QuaLiKiz, is presented and discussed. Then, the author qualifies the global outcomes of QuaLiKiz. Both the quasi-linear energy and the particle flux are compared to the expectations from the nonlinear simulations, across a wide scan of tokamak relevant parameters. Therefore, the coupling of QuaLiKiz within the integrated transport solver CRONOS is presented: this procedure allows the time-dependent transport problem to be solved, hence the direct application of the model to the experiment. The first preliminary results regarding the experimental analysis are finally discussed
Hager, Robert; Yoon, E. S.; Ku, S.; D'Azevedo, E. F.; Worley, P. H.; Chang, C. S.
2015-11-01
We describe the implementation, and application of a time-dependent, fully nonlinear multi-species Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operator based on the single-species work of Yoon and Chang [Phys. Plasmas 21, 032503 (2014)] in the full-function gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 [Ku et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 115021 (2009)] and XGCa. XGC simulations include the pedestal and scrape-off layer, where significant deviations of the particle distribution function from a Maxwellian can occur. Thus, in order to describe collisional effects on neoclassical and turbulence physics accurately, the use of a non-linear collision operator is a necessity. Our collision operator is based on a finite volume method using the velocity-space distribution functions sampled from the marker particles. Since the same fine configuration space mesh is used for collisions and the Poisson solver, the workload due to collisions can be comparable to or larger than the workload due to particle motion. We demonstrate that computing time spent on collisions can be kept affordable by applying advanced parallelization strategies while conserving mass, momentum, and energy to reasonable accuracy. We also show results of production scale XGCa simulations in the H-mode pedestal and compare to conventional theory. Work supported by US DOE OFES and OASCR.
Merlo, G.; Brunner, S.; Sauter, O.; Camenen, Y.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Marinoni, A.; Told, D.; Villard, L.
2015-05-01
The experimental observation made on the TCV tokamak of a significant confinement improvement in plasmas with negative triangularity (δ TEMs) and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes are the dominant microinstabilities, with the latter providing a significant contribution to the non-linear electron heat fluxes near the plasma edge. Two series of simulations with different levels of realism are performed, addressing the question of profile stiffness at various radial locations. Retaining finite collisionality, impurities and electromagnetic effects, as well as the physical electron-to-ion mass ratio are all necessary in order to approach the experimental flux measurements. However, flux-tube simulations are unable to fully reproduce the TCV results, pointing towards the need to carry out radially nonlocal (global) simulations, i.e. retaining finite machine size effects, in a future study. Some conclusions about the effect of triangularity can nevertheless be drawn based on the flux-tube results. In particular, the importance of considering the sensitivity to both temperature and density gradient is shown. The flux tube results show an increase of the critical gradients towards the edge, further enhanced when δ < 0, and they also appear to indicate a reduction of profile stiffness towards plasma edge.
Transport of momentum in full f gyrokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I.; Catto, Peter J.
2010-01-01
Full f electrostatic gyrokinetic formulations employ two gyrokinetic equations, one for ions and the other for electrons, and quasineutrality to obtain the ion and electron distribution functions and the electrostatic potential. We demonstrate with several examples that the long wavelength radial electric field obtained with full f approaches is extremely sensitive to errors in the ion and electron density since small deviations in density give rise to large, nonphysical deviations in the conservation of toroidal angular momentum. For typical tokamak values, a relative error of 10 -7 in the ion or electron densities is enough to obtain the incorrect toroidal rotation. Based on the insights gained with the examples considered, three simple tests to check transport of toroidal angular momentum in full f simulations are proposed.
Kim, Kyuho; Kwon, Jae-Min; Chang, C. S.; Seo, Janghoon; Ku, S.; Choe, W.
2017-06-01
Flux-driven full-f gyrokinetic simulations are performed to study carbon impurity effects on the ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence and ion thermal transport in a toroidal geometry. Employing the full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1, both main ions and impurities are evolved self-consistently including turbulence and neoclassical physics. It is found that the carbon impurity profile self-organizes to form an inwardly peaked density profile, which weakens the ITG instabilities and reduces the overall fluctuations and ion thermal transport. A stronger reduction appears in the low frequency components of the fluctuations. The global structure of E × B flow also changes, resulting in the reduction of global avalanche like transport events in the impure plasma. Detailed properties of impurity transport are also studied, and it is revealed that both the inward neoclassical pinch and the outward turbulent transport are equally important in the formation of the steady state impurity profile.
Global Simulation of Aviation Operations
Sridhar, Banavar; Sheth, Kapil; Ng, Hok Kwan; Morando, Alex; Li, Jinhua
2016-01-01
The simulation and analysis of global air traffic is limited due to a lack of simulation tools and the difficulty in accessing data sources. This paper provides a global simulation of aviation operations combining flight plans and real air traffic data with historical commercial city-pair aircraft type and schedule data and global atmospheric data. The resulting capability extends the simulation and optimization functions of NASA's Future Air Traffic Management Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) to global scale. This new capability is used to present results on the evolution of global air traffic patterns from a concentration of traffic inside US, Europe and across the Atlantic Ocean to a more diverse traffic pattern across the globe with accelerated growth in Asia, Australia, Africa and South America. The simulation analyzes seasonal variation in the long-haul wind-optimal traffic patterns in six major regions of the world and provides potential time-savings of wind-optimal routes compared with either great circle routes or current flight-plans if available.
Study of no-man's land physics in the total-f gyrokinetic code XGC1
Ku, Seung Hoe; Chang, C. S.; Lang, J.
2014-10-01
While the ``transport shortfall'' in the ``no-man's land'' has been observed often in delta-f codes, it has not yet been observed in the global total-f gyrokinetic particle code XGC1. Since understanding the interaction between the edge and core transport appears to be a critical element in the prediction for ITER performance, understanding the no-man's land issue is an important physics research topic. Simulation results using the Holland case will be presented and the physics causing the shortfall phenomenon will be discussed. Nonlinear nonlocal interaction of turbulence, secondary flows, and transport appears to be the key.
Global optimization and simulated annealing
Dekkers, A.; Aarts, E.H.L.
1988-01-01
In this paper we are concerned with global optimization, which can be defined as the problem of finding points on a bounded subset of Rn in which some real valued functionf assumes its optimal (i.e. maximal or minimal) value. We present a stochastic approach which is based on the simulated annealing
Intrinsic rotation with gyrokinetic models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Catto, Peter J.; Calvo, Iván
2012-01-01
The generation of intrinsic rotation by turbulence and neoclassical effects in tokamaks is considered. To obtain the complex dependences observed in experiments, it is necessary to have a model of the radial flux of momentum that redistributes the momentum within the tokamak in the absence of a preexisting velocity. When the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation is used, a symmetry of the model precludes this possibility, making small effects in the gyroradius over scale length expansion necessary. These effects that are usually small become important for momentum transport because the symmetry of the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation leads to the cancellation of the lowest order momentum flux. The accuracy to which the gyrokinetic equation needs to be obtained to retain all the physically relevant effects is discussed.
Turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum in low flow gyrokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J
2010-01-01
We derive a self-consistent equation for the turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks in the low flow ordering that only requires solving gyrokinetic Fokker-Planck and quasineutrality equations correct to second order in an expansion on the gyroradius over scale length. We also show that according to our orderings the long wavelength toroidal rotation and the long wavelength radial electric field satisfy the neoclassical relation that gives the toroidal rotation as a function of the radial electric field and the radial gradients of pressure and temperature. Thus, the radial electric field can be solved for once the toroidal rotation is calculated from the transport of toroidal angular momentum. Unfortunately, even though this methodology only requires a gyrokinetic model correct to second order in gyroradius over scale length, current gyrokinetic simulations are only valid to first order. To overcome this difficulty, we exploit the smallish ratio B p /B, where B is the total magnetic field and B p is its poloidal component. When B p /B is small, the usual first order gyrokinetic equation provides solutions that are accurate enough to employ for our expression for the transport of toroidal angular momentum. We show that current δf and full f simulations only need small corrections to achieve this accuracy. Full f simulations, however, are still unable to determine the long wavelength, radial electric field from the quasineutrality equation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heikkinen, J.A.; Henriksson, S.; Janhunen, S.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Ogando, F.
2006-01-01
A full f nonlinear 5D gyrokinetic electrostatic particle-in-cell code ELMFIRE using an implicit direct solution method for ion polarization drift and electron parallel velocity response to electric field and its validation are described. The developed code is applied for transport analysis in a tokamak plasma at steep pressure gradient. The role of turbulence and neoclassical equilibrium in determining the flux surface averaged radial electric field component are investigated, as well as the role of the latter in affecting the saturation level of the turbulence. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Gyrokinetic linearized Landau collision operator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens
2013-01-01
, which is important in multiple ion-species plasmas. Second, the equilibrium operator describes drag and diffusion of the magnetic field aligned component of the vorticity associated with the E×B drift. Therefore, a correct description of collisional effects in turbulent plasmas requires the equilibrium......The full gyrokinetic electrostatic linearized Landau collision operator is calculated including the equilibrium operator, which represents the effect of collisions between gyrokinetic Maxwellian particles. First, the equilibrium operator describes energy exchange between different plasma species...... operator, even for like-particle collisions....
Gyrokinetic magnetohydrodynamics and the associated equilibria
Lee, W. W.; Hudson, S. R.; Ma, C. H.
2017-12-01
The gyrokinetic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, related to the recent paper by W. W. Lee ["Magnetohydrodynamics for collisionless plasmas from the gyrokinetic perspective," Phys. Plasmas 23, 070705 (2016)], and their associated equilibria properties are discussed. This set of equations consists of the time-dependent gyrokinetic vorticity equation, the gyrokinetic parallel Ohm's law, and the gyrokinetic Ampere's law as well as the equations of state, which are expressed in terms of the electrostatic potential, ϕ, and the vector potential, A , and support both spatially varying perpendicular and parallel pressure gradients and the associated currents. The corresponding gyrokinetic MHD equilibria can be reached when ϕ→0 and A becomes constant in time, which, in turn, gives ∇.(J∥+J⊥)=0 and the associated magnetic islands, if they exist. Examples of simple cylindrical geometry are given. These gyrokinetic MHD equations look quite different from the conventional MHD equations, and their comparisons will be an interesting topic in the future.
Pullback Transformations in Gyrokinetic Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.
2003-01-01
The Pullback transformation of the distribution function is a key component of the gyrokinetic theory. In this paper, a systematic treatment of this subject is presented, and results from applications of the uniform framework developed are reviewed. The focus is on providing a clear exposition of the basic formalism which arises from the existence of three distinct coordinate systems in gyrokinetic theory. The familiar gyrocenter coordinate system, where the gyromotion is decoupled from the rest of particle's dynamics, is non-canonical and non-fabric. On the other hand, Maxwell's equations, which are needed to complete a kinetic system, are initially only defined in the fabric laboratory phase space coordinate system. The pullback transformations provide a rigorous connection between the distribution functions in gyrocenter coordinates and Maxwell's equations in laboratory phase space coordinates. This involves the generalization of the usual moment integrals originally defined on the cotangent fiber of the phase space to the moment integrals on a general 6D symplectic manifold, is shown to be an important step in the proper formulation of gyrokinetic theory. The resultant systematic treatment of the moment integrals enabled by the pullback transformation. Without this vital element, a number of prominent physics features, such as the presence of the compressional Alfven wave and a proper description of the gyrokinetic equilibrium, cannot be readily recovered
Visualizing Gyrokinetic Turbulence in a Tokamak
Stantchev, George
2005-10-01
Multi-dimensional data output from gyrokinetic microturbulence codes are often difficult to visualize, in part due to the non-trivial geometry of the underlying grids, in part due to high irregularity of the relevant scalar field structures in turbulent regions. For instance, traditional isosurface extraction methods are likely to fail for the electrostatic potential field whose level sets may exhibit various geometric pathologies. To address these issues we develop an advanced interactive 3D gyrokinetic turbulence visualization framework which we apply in the study of microtearing instabilities calculated with GS2 in the MAST and NSTX geometries. In these simulations GS2 uses field-line-following coordinates such that the computational domain maps in physical space to a long, twisting flux tube with strong cross-sectional shear. Using statistical wavelet analysis we create a sparse multiple-scale volumetric representation of the relevant scalar fields, which we visualize via a variation of the so called splatting technique. To handle the problem of highly anisotropic flux tube configurations we adapt a geometry-driven surface illumination algorithm that places local light sources for effective feature-enhanced visualization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leerink, S.; Heikkinen, J. A.; Janhunen, S. J.; Kiviniemi, T. P.; Nora, M.; Ogando, F.
2008-01-01
The ELMFIRE gyrokinetic simulation code has been used to perform full f simulations of the FT-2 tokamak. The dynamics of the radial electric field and the creation of poloidal velocity in the presence of turbulence are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, W. X.; Hahm, T. S.; Ethier, S.; Rewoldt, G.; Lee, W. W.; Tang, W. M.; Kaye, S. M.; Diamond, P. H.
2009-01-01
A significant inward flux of toroidal momentum is found in global gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient turbulence, leading to core plasma rotation spin-up. The underlying mechanism is identified to be the generation of residual stress due to the k parallel symmetry breaking induced by global quasistationary zonal flow shear. Simulations also show a significant off-diagonal element associated with the ion temperature gradient in the neoclassical momentum flux, while the overall neoclassical flux is small. In addition, the residual turbulence found in the presence of strong ExB flow shear may account for neoclassical-level ion heat and anomalous momentum transport widely observed in experiments
Metriplectic Gyrokinetics and Discretization Methods for the Landau Collision Integral
Hirvijoki, Eero; Burby, Joshua W.; Kraus, Michael
2017-10-01
We present two important results for the kinetic theory and numerical simulation of warm plasmas: 1) We provide a metriplectic formulation of collisional electrostatic gyrokinetics that is fully consistent with the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. 2) We provide a metriplectic temporal and velocity-space discretization for the particle phase-space Landau collision integral that satisfies the conservation of energy, momentum, and particle densities to machine precision, as well as guarantees the existence of numerical H-theorem. The properties are demonstrated algebraically. These two result have important implications: 1) Numerical methods addressing the Vlasov-Maxwell-Landau system of equations, or its reduced gyrokinetic versions, should start from a metriplectic formulation to preserve the fundamental physical principles also at the discrete level. 2) The plasma physics community should search for a metriplectic reduction theory that would serve a similar purpose as the existing Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reduction theories do in gyrokinetics. The discovery of metriplectic formulation of collisional electrostatic gyrokinetics is strong evidence in favor of such theory and, if uncovered, the theory would be invaluable in constructing reduced plasma models. Supported by U.S. DOE Contract Nos. DE-AC02-09-CH11466 (EH) and DE-AC05-06OR23100 (JWB) and by European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation Grant No. 708124 (MK).
Momentum transport in gyrokinetic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchholz, Rico
2016-07-01
In this thesis, the gyrokinetic-Vlasov code GKW is used to study turbulent transport, with a focus on radial transport of toroidal momentum. To support the studies on turbulent transport an eigenvalue solver has been implemented into GKW. This allows to find, not only the most unstable mode, but also subdominant modes. Furthermore it is possible to follow the modes in parameter scans. Furthermore, two fundamental mechanisms that can generate an intrinsic rotation have been investigated: profile shearing and the velocity nonlinearity. The study of toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak due to profile shearing reveals that the momentum flux can not be accurately described by the gradient in the turbulent intensity. Consequently, a description using the profile variation is used. A linear model has been developed that is able to reproduce the variations in the momentum flux as the profiles of density and temperature vary, reasonably well. It uses, not only the gradient length of density and temperature profile, but also their derivative, i.e. the second derivative of the logarithm of the temperature and the density profile. It is shown that both first as well as second derivatives contribute to the generation of a momentum flux. A difference between the linear and nonlinear simulations has been found with respect to the behaviour of the momentum flux. In linear simulations the momentum flux is independent of the normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}, whereas it is linear in ρ{sub *} for nonlinear simulations, provided ρ{sub *} is small enough (≤4.10{sup -3}). Nonlinear simulations reveal that the profile shearing can generate an intrinsic rotation comparable to that of current experiments. Under reactor conditions, however, the intrinsic rotation from the profile shearing is expected to be small due to the small normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}
Nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations for rotating axisymmetric plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.
1994-03-01
The influence of sheared equilibrium flows on the confinement properties of tokamak plasmas is a topic of much current interest. A proper theoretical foundation for the systematic kinetic analysis of this important problem has been provided here by presented the derivation of a set of nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations applicable to low frequency microinstabilities in a rotating axisymmetric plasma. The subsonic rotation velocity considered is in the direction of symmetry with the angular rotation frequency being a function of the equilibrium magnetic flux surface. In accordance with experimental observations, the rotation profile is chosen to scale with the ion temperature. The results obtained represent the shear flow generalization of the earlier analysis by Frieman and Chen where such flows were not taken into account. In order to make it readily applicable to gyrokinetic particle simulations, this set of equations is cast in a phase-space-conserving continuity equation form
Burby, Joshua; Brizard, Alain
2017-10-01
Test-particle gyrocenter equations of motion play an essential role in the diagnosis of turbulent strongly-magnetized plasmas, and are playing an increasingly-important role in the formulation of kinetic-gyrokinetic hybrid models. Previous gyrocenter models required the knowledge of the perturbed electromagnetic potentials, which are not directly observable quantities (since they are gauge-dependent). A new gauge-free formulation of gyrocenter motion is presented, which enables gyrocenter trajectories to be determined using only measured values of the directly-observable electromagnetic field. Our gauge-free gyrokinetic theory is general enough to allow for gyroradius-scale fluctuations in both the electric and magnetic field. In addition, we provide gauge-free expressions for the charge and current densities produced by a distribution of gyrocenters, which explicitly include guiding-center and gyrocenter polarization and magnetization effects. This research was supported by the U.S. DOE Contract Nos. DE-SC0014032 (AB) and DE-AC05-06OR23100 (JB).
Limitations, insights and improvements to gyrokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catto, Peter J.; Parra, Felix I.; Kagan, Grigory; Simakov, Andrei N.
2009-01-01
We first consider gyrokinetic quasineutrality limitations when evaluating the axisymmetric radial electric field in a non-turbulent tokamak by an improved examination of intrinsic ambipolarity. We next prove that the background ions in a pedestal of poloidal ion gyroradius scale must be Maxwellian and nearly isothermal in Pfirsch-Schlueter and banana regime tokamak plasmas, and then consider zonal flow behaviour in a pedestal. Finally, we focus on a simplifying procedure for our transport time scale hybrid gyrokinetic-fluid treatment that removes the limitations of gyrokinetic quasineutrality and remains valid in the pedestal.
Testing Gyrokinetics on C-Mod and NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redi, M.H.; Dorland, W.; Fiore, C.L.; Stutman, D.; Baumgaertel, J.A.; Davis, B.; Kaye, S.M.; McCune, D.C.; Menard, J.; Rewoldt, G.
2005-01-01
Quantitative benchmarks of computational physics codes against experiment are essential for the credible application of such codes. Fluctuation measurements can provide necessary critical tests of nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, but such require extraordinary computational resources. Linear micro-stability calculations with the GS2 [1] gyrokinetic code have been carried out for tokamak and ST experiments which exhibit internal transport barriers (ITB) and good plasma confinement. Qualitative correlation is found for improved confinement before and during ITB plasmas on Alcator C-Mod [2] and NSTX [3], with weaker long wavelength micro-instabilities in the plasma core regions. Mixing length transport models are discussed. The NSTX L-mode is found to be near marginal stability for kinetic ballooning modes. Fully electromagnetic, linear, gyrokinetic calculations of the Alcator C-Mod ITB during off-axis rf heating, following four plasma species and including the complete electron response show ITG/TEM microturbulence is suppressed in the plasma core and in the barrier region before barrier formation, without recourse to the usual requirements of velocity shear or reversed magnetic shear [4-5]. No strongly growing long or short wavelength drift modes are found in the plasma core but strong ITG/TEM and ETG drift wave turbulence is found outside the barrier region. Linear microstability analysis is qualitatively consistent with the experimental transport analysis, showing low transport inside and high transport outside the ITB region before barrier formation, without consideration of ExB shear stabilization
Equilibrium fluctuation energy of gyrokinetic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Lee, W.W.; Oberman, C.
1985-11-01
The thermal equilibrium electric field fluctuation energy of the gyrokinetic model of magnetized plasma is computed, and found to be smaller than the well-known result (k)/8π = 1/2T/[1 + (klambda/sub D/) 2 ] valid for arbitrarily magnetized plasmas. It is shown that, in a certain sense, the equilibrium electric field energy is minimum in the gyrokinetic regime. 13 refs., 2 figs
Toward 10-km mesh global climate simulations
Ohfuchi, W.; Enomoto, T.; Takaya, K.; Yoshioka, M. K.
2002-12-01
An atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) that runs very efficiently on the Earth Simulator (ES) was developed. The ES is a gigantic vector-parallel computer with the peak performance of 40 Tflops. The AGCM, named AFES (AGCM for ES), was based on the version 5.4.02 of an AGCM developed jointly by the Center for Climate System Research, the University of Tokyo and the Japanese National Institute for Environmental Sciences. The AFES was, however, totally rewritten in FORTRAN90 and MPI while the original AGCM was written in FORTRAN77 and not capable of parallel computing. The AFES achieved 26 Tflops (about 65 % of the peak performance of the ES) at resolution of T1279L96 (10-km horizontal resolution and 500-m vertical resolution in middle troposphere to lower stratosphere). Some results of 10- to 20-day global simulations will be presented. At this moment, only short-term simulations are possible due to data storage limitation. As ten tera flops computing is achieved, peta byte data storage are necessary to conduct climate-type simulations at this super-high resolution global simulations. Some possibilities for future research topics in global super-high resolution climate simulations will be discussed. Some target topics are mesoscale structures and self-organization of the Baiu-Meiyu front over Japan, cyclogenecsis over the North Pacific and typhoons around the Japan area. Also improvement in local precipitation with increasing horizontal resolution will be demonstrated.
A hybrid gyrokinetic ion and isothermal electron fluid code for astrophysical plasma
Kawazura, Y.; Barnes, M.
2018-05-01
This paper describes a new code for simulating astrophysical plasmas that solves a hybrid model composed of gyrokinetic ions (GKI) and an isothermal electron fluid (ITEF) Schekochihin et al. (2009) [9]. This model captures ion kinetic effects that are important near the ion gyro-radius scale while electron kinetic effects are ordered out by an electron-ion mass ratio expansion. The code is developed by incorporating the ITEF approximation into AstroGK, an Eulerian δf gyrokinetics code specialized to a slab geometry Numata et al. (2010) [41]. The new code treats the linear terms in the ITEF equations implicitly while the nonlinear terms are treated explicitly. We show linear and nonlinear benchmark tests to prove the validity and applicability of the simulation code. Since the fast electron timescale is eliminated by the mass ratio expansion, the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition is much less restrictive than in full gyrokinetic codes; the present hybrid code runs ∼ 2√{mi /me } ∼ 100 times faster than AstroGK with a single ion species and kinetic electrons where mi /me is the ion-electron mass ratio. The improvement of the computational time makes it feasible to execute ion scale gyrokinetic simulations with a high velocity space resolution and to run multiple simulations to determine the dependence of turbulent dynamics on parameters such as electron-ion temperature ratio and plasma beta.
'Disaster day': global health simulation teaching.
Mohamed-Ahmed, Rayan; Daniels, Alex; Goodall, Jack; O'Kelly, Emily; Fisher, James
2016-02-01
As society diversifies and globalisation quickens, the importance of teaching global health to medical undergraduates increases. For undergraduates, the majority of exposure to 'hands-on' teaching on global health occurs during optional elective periods. This article describes an innovative student-led initiative, 'Disaster Day', which used simulation to teach global health to undergraduates. The teaching day began with an introduction outlining the work of Médecins Sans Frontières and the basic principles of resuscitation. Students then undertook four interactive simulation scenarios: Infectious Diseases in a Refugee Camp, Natural Disaster and Crush Injury, Obstetric Emergency in a Low-Income Country, and Warzone Gunshot Wound. Sessions were facilitated by experienced doctors and fourth-year students who had been trained in the delivery of the scenarios. Students completed pre- and post-session evaluation forms that included the self-rating of confidence in eight learning domains (using a five-point Likert scale). Twenty-seven students voluntarily attended the session, and all provided written feedback. Analysis of the pre- and post-session evaluations demonstrated statistically significant improvements in confidence across all but one domains (Wilcoxon signed rank test). Free-text feedback was overwhelmingly positive, with students appreciating the practical aspect of the scenarios. For undergraduates, the majority of exposure to 'hands-on' teaching on global health occurs during optional elective periods Simulation-based teaching can provide students with 'hands-on' exposure to global health in a controlled, reproducible fashion and appears to help develop their confidence in a variety of learning domains. The more widespread use of such teaching methods is encouraged: helping tomorrow's doctors develop insight into global health challenges may produce more rounded clinicians capable of caring for more culturally diverse populations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons
Gyrokinetic Magnetohydrodynamics and the Associated Equilibrium
Lee, W. W.; Hudson, S. R.; Ma, C. H.
2017-10-01
A proposed scheme for the calculations of gyrokinetic MHD and its associated equilibrium is discussed related a recent paper on the subject. The scheme is based on the time-dependent gyrokinetic vorticity equation and parallel Ohm's law, as well as the associated gyrokinetic Ampere's law. This set of equations, in terms of the electrostatic potential, ϕ, and the vector potential, ϕ , supports both spatially varying perpendicular and parallel pressure gradients and their associated currents. The MHD equilibrium can be reached when ϕ -> 0 and A becomes constant in time, which, in turn, gives ∇ . (J|| +J⊥) = 0 and the associated magnetic islands. Examples in simple cylindrical geometry will be given. The present work is partially supported by US DoE Grant DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu
2014-01-01
A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete
Gyrokinetic energy conservation and Poisson-bracket formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brizard, A.
1989-01-01
An integral expression for the gyrokinetic total energy of a magnetized plasma, with general magnetic field configuration perturbed by fully electromagnetic fields, was recently derived through the use of a gyrocenter Lie transformation. It is shown that the gyrokinetic energy is conserved by the gyrokinetic Hamiltonian flow to all orders in perturbed fields. An explicit demonstration that a gyrokinetic Hamiltonian containing quadratic nonlinearities preserves the gyrokinetic energy up to third order is given. The Poisson-bracket formulation greatly facilitates this demonstration with the help of the Jacobi identity and other properties of the Poisson brackets
A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence
Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.
2014-10-01
An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches.
A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.
2014-01-01
An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches
A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2014-10-15
An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches.
Transport modelling and gyrokinetic analysis of advanced high performance discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinsey, J.E.; Imbeaux, F.; Staebler, G.M.; Budny, R.; Bourdelle, C.; Fukuyama, A.; Garbet, X.; Tala, T.; Parail, V.
2005-01-01
Predictive transport modelling and gyrokinetic stability analyses of demonstration hybrid (HYBRID) and advanced tokamak (AT) discharges from the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) profile database are presented. Both regimes have exhibited enhanced core confinement (above the conventional ITER reference H-mode scenario) but differ in their current density profiles. Recent contributions to the ITPA database have facilitated an effort to study the underlying physics governing confinement in these advanced scenarios. In this paper, we assess the level of commonality of the turbulent transport physics and the relative roles of the transport suppression mechanisms (i.e. E x B shear and Shafranov shift (α) stabilization) using data for select HYBRID and AT discharges from the DIII-D, JET and AUG tokamaks. GLF23 transport modelling and gyrokinetic stability analysis indicate that E x B shear and Shafranov shift stabilization play essential roles in producing the improved core confinement in both HYBRID and AT discharges. Shafranov shift stabilization is found to be more important in AT discharges than in HYBRID discharges. We have also examined the competition between the stabilizing effects of E x B shear and Shafranov shift stabilization and the destabilizing effects of higher safety factors and parallel velocity shear. Linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of idealized low and high safety factor cases reveal some interesting consequences. A low safety factor (i.e. HYBRID relevant) is directly beneficial in reducing the transport, and E x B shear stabilization can dominate parallel velocity shear destabilization allowing the turbulence to be quenched. However, at low-q/high current, Shafranov shift stabilization plays less of a role. Higher safety factors (as found in AT discharges), on the other hand, have larger amounts of Shafranov shift stabilization, but parallel velocity shear destabilization can prevent E x B shear quenching of the turbulent
Transport modeling and gyrokinetic analysis of advanced high performance discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinsey, J.; Imbeaux, F.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.; Staebler, G.; Budny, R.; Fukuyama, A.; Tala, T.; Parail, V.
2005-01-01
Predictive transport modeling and gyrokinetic stability analyses of demonstration hybrid (HYBRID) and Advanced Tokamak (AT) discharges from the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) profile database are presented. Both regimes have exhibited enhanced core confinement (above the conventional ITER reference H-mode scenario) but differ in their current density profiles. Recent contributions to the ITPA database have facilitated an effort to study the underlying physics governing confinement in these advanced scenarios. In this paper, we assess the level of commonality of the turbulent transport physics and the relative roles of the transport suppression mechanisms (i.e. ExB shear and Shafranov shift (α) stabilization) using data for select HYBRID and AT discharges from the DIII-D, JET, and AUG tokamaks. GLF23 transport modeling and gyrokinetic stability analysis indicates that ExB shear and Shafranov shift stabilization play essential roles in producing the improved core confinement in both HYBRID and AT discharges. Shafranov shift stabilization is found to be more important in AT discharges than in HYBRID discharges. We have also examined the competition between the stabilizing effects of ExB shear and Shafranov shift stabilization and the destabilizing effects of higher safety factors and parallel velocity shear. Linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of idealized low and high safety factor cases reveals some interesting consequences. A low safety factor (i.e. HYBRID relevant) is directly beneficial in reducing the transport, and ExB shear stabilization can win out over parallel velocity shear destabilization allowing the turbulence to be quenched. However, at low-q/high current, Shafranov shift stabilization plays less of a role. Higher safety factors (as found in AT discharges), on the other hand, have larger amounts of Shafranov shift stabilization, but parallel velocity shear destabilization can prevent ExB shear quenching of the turbulent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapillonne, X.; Brunner, S.; Dannert, T.; Jolliet, S.; Marinoni, A.; Villard, L.; Goerler, T.; Jenko, F.; Merz, F.
2009-01-01
In the context of gyrokinetic flux-tube simulations of microturbulence in magnetized toroidal plasmas, different treatments of the magnetic equilibrium are examined. Considering the Cyclone DIII-D base case parameter set [Dimits et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 969 (2000)], significant differences in the linear growth rates, the linear and nonlinear critical temperature gradients, and the nonlinear ion heat diffusivities are observed between results obtained using either an s-α or a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium. Similar disagreements have been reported previously [Redd et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1162 (1999)]. In this paper it is shown that these differences result primarily from the approximation made in the standard implementation of the s-α model, in which the straight field line angle is identified to the poloidal angle, leading to inconsistencies of order ε (ε=a/R is the inverse aspect ratio, a the minor radius and R the major radius). An equilibrium model with concentric, circular flux surfaces and a correct treatment of the straight field line angle gives results very close to those using a finite ε, low β MHD equilibrium. Such detailed investigation of the equilibrium implementation is of particular interest when comparing flux tube and global codes. It is indeed shown here that previously reported agreements between local and global simulations in fact result from the order ε inconsistencies in the s-α model, coincidentally compensating finite ρ * effects in the global calculations, where ρ * =ρ s /a with ρ s the ion sound Larmor radius. True convergence between local and global simulations is finally obtained by correct treatment of the geometry in both cases, and considering the appropriate ρ * →0 limit in the latter case.
Experimental and gyrokinetic investigation of core impurity transport in Alcator C-mod
Howard, N.; Greenwald, M.; Podpaly, Y.; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J. E.; White, A. E.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Puetterich, T.
2010-11-01
A new multiple pulse laser blow-off system coupled with an upgraded high resolution x-ray spectrometer with spatial resolution allow for the most detailed studies of impurity transport on Alcator C-mod to date. Trace impurity injections created by the laser blow-off technique were introduced into plasmas with a wide range of parameters and time evolving profiles of He-like calcium were measured. The unique measurement of a single charge state profile and line integrated emission measurements from spectroscopic diagnostics were compared with the simulated emission from the impurity transport code STRAHL. A nonlinear least squares fitting routine was coupled with STRAHL, allowing for core impurity transport coefficients with errors to be determined. With this method, experimental data from trace calcium injections were analyzed and radially dependent, core values (< r/a ˜.6) of the diffusive and convective components of the impurity flux were obtained. The STRAHL results are compared with linear and global, nonlinear simulations from the gyrokinetic code GYRO. Results of this comparison and an investigation of the underlying physics associated with turbulent impurity transport will be presented.
Gyrokinetic Calculations of Microinstabilities and Transport During RF H-Modes on Alcator C-Mod
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redi, M.H.; Fiore, C.; Bonoli, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Budny, R.; Dorland, W.D.; Ernst, D.; Hammett, G.; Mikkelsen, D.; Rice, J.; Wukitch, S.
2002-01-01
Physics understanding for the experimental improvement of particle and energy confinement is being advanced through massively parallel calculations of microturbulence for simulated plasma conditions. The ultimate goal, an experimentally validated, global, non-local, fully nonlinear calculation of plasma microturbulence is still not within reach, but extraordinary progress has been achieved in understanding microturbulence, driving forces and the plasma response in recent years. In this paper we discuss gyrokinetic simulations of plasma turbulence being carried out to examine a reproducible, H-mode, RF heated experiment on the Alcator CMOD tokamak3, which exhibits an internal transport barrier (ITB). This off axis RF case represents the early phase of a very interesting dual frequency RF experiment, which shows density control with central RF heating later in the discharge. The ITB exhibits steep, spontaneous density peaking: a reduction in particle transport occurring without a central particle source. Since the central temperature is maintained while the central density is increasing, this also suggests a thermal transport barrier exists. TRANSP analysis shows that ceff drops inside the ITB. Sawtooth heat pulse analysis also shows a localized thermal transport barrier. For this ICRF EDA H-mode, the minority resonance is at r/a * 0.5 on the high field side. There is a normal shear profile, with q monotonic
Global solutions through simulation for better decommissioning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scoto Di Suoccio, Ines; Testard, Vincent
2016-01-01
Decommissioning is a new activity in sense that it only exists a limited experience. Moreover, each facility is different due to their own history and there is no rule about choosing a decommissioning strategy. There are three major decommissioning strategies. First, 'immediate dismantling', which means the action of decommissioning begins immediately after the transfer of waste and nuclear material. Second, 'deferred dismantling strategy', which means that the facility is maintained into a containment zone from thirty to one hundred years before being decommissioned. Finally, 'entombment', means the facility is placed into a reinforced containment until the radionuclides decay and reach a level allowing the site release. When a strategy is decided many factors have to be taken into account. Into a major project such as a reactor decommissioning, there are many smaller projects. The decommissioning strategy can be different among these smaller projects. For some reasons, some entry data are not perfectly known. For example, dosimetric activity has not been updated through time or after specific events. Indeed, because of uncertainties and/or hypothesis existing around projects and their high level of interdependency, global solutions are a good way to choose the best decommissioning strategy. Actually, each entry data has consequences on output results whether it is on costs, cumulated dose, waste or delays. These output data are interdependent and cannot be taken apart from each other. Whether the dose, delays or waste management, all have impact on costs. To obtain an optimal scenario into a special environment, it is necessary to deal with all these items together. This global solution can be implemented thanks to simulation in dedicated software which helps to define the global strategy, to optimize the scenario, and to prevent contingencies. As a complete scenario simulation can be done quickly and efficiently, many strategies can
Global simulations of aerosol processing in clouds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Hoose
2008-12-01
Full Text Available An explicit and detailed representation of in-droplet and in-crystal aerosol particles in stratiform clouds has been introduced in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The new scheme allows an evaluation of the cloud cycling of aerosols and an estimation of the relative contributions of nucleation and collision scavenging, as opposed to evaporation of hydrometeors in the global aerosol processing by clouds. On average an aerosol particle is cycled through stratiform clouds 0.5 times. The new scheme leads to important changes in the simulated fraction of aerosol scavenged in clouds, and consequently in the aerosol wet deposition. In general, less aerosol is scavenged into clouds with the new prognostic treatment than what is prescribed in standard ECHAM5-HAM. Aerosol concentrations, size distributions, scavenged fractions and cloud droplet concentrations are evaluated and compared to different observations. While the scavenged fraction and the aerosol number concentrations in the marine boundary layer are well represented in the new model, aerosol optical thickness, cloud droplet number concentrations in the marine boundary layer and the aerosol volume in the accumulation and coarse modes over the oceans are overestimated. Sensitivity studies suggest that a better representation of below-cloud scavenging, higher in-cloud collision coefficients, or a reduced water uptake by seasalt aerosols could reduce these biases.
Global and kinetic MHD simulation by the Gpic-MHD code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naitou, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yusuke; Kajiwara, Kenji; Lee, Wei-li; Tokuda, Shinji; Yagi, Masatoshi
2011-01-01
In order to implement large-scale and high-beta tokamak simulation, a new algorithm of the electromagnetic gyrokinetic PIC (particle-in-cell) code was proposed and installed on the Gpic-MHD code [Gyrokinetic PIC code for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation]. In the new algorithm, the vortex equation and the generalized ohm's law along the magnetic field are derived from the basic equations of the gyrokinetic Vlasov, Poisson, and Ampere system and are used to describe the spatio-temporal evolution of the field quantities of the electrostatic potential φ and the longitudinal component of the vector potential A z . Particle information is mainly used to estimate second order moments in the generalized ohm's law. Because the lower order moments of the charge density and the longitudinal current density are not used explicitly to determine φ and A z , the numerical noise induced by the discreteness of particle quantities reduces drastically. Another advantage of the algorithm is that the longitudinal induced electric field, E Tz =-∂A z /∂t, is explicitly estimated by the generalized ohm's law and used in the equations of motion. The particle velocities along the magnetic field are used (v z -formulation) instead of generalized momentums (p z -formulation), hence there is no problem of 'cancellation', which appear when estimating A z from the Ampere's law in the p z -formulation. The successful simulation of the collisionless internal kink mode by new Gpic-MHD with the realistic values of the large-scale and high-beta, revealed the usefulness of the new algorithm. (author)
Gyrokinetic statistical absolute equilibrium and turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Jianzhou; Hammett, Gregory W.
2010-01-01
A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: a finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N+1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.
Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Jian-Zhou; Hammett, Gregory W.
2011-01-01
A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence (T.-D. Lee, 'On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields,' Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)) is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.
Global Information Enterprise (GIE) Modeling and Simulation (GIESIM)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bell, Paul
2005-01-01
... AND S) toolkits into the Global Information Enterprise (GIE) Modeling and Simulation (GIESim) framework to create effective user analysis of candidate communications architectures and technologies...
Non-physical momentum sources in slab geometry gyrokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J
2010-01-01
We investigate momentum transport in the Hamiltonian electrostatic gyrokinetic formulation of Dubin et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524). We prove that the long wavelength electric field obtained from the gyrokinetic quasineutrality introduces a non-physical momentum source in the low flow ordering.
The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Howard, N. T. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)
2016-06-15
The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the threshold for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. The zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ion-scale gyrokinetic simulations.
Effective assimilation of global precipitation: simulation experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo-Yuan Lien
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Past attempts to assimilate precipitation by nudging or variational methods have succeeded in forcing the model precipitation to be close to the observed values. However, the model forecasts tend to lose their additional skill after a few forecast hours. In this study, a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF is used to effectively assimilate precipitation by allowing ensemble members with better precipitation to receive higher weights in the analysis. In addition, two other changes in the precipitation assimilation process are found to alleviate the problems related to the non-Gaussianity of the precipitation variable: (a transform the precipitation variable into a Gaussian distribution based on its climatological distribution (an approach that could also be used in the assimilation of other non-Gaussian observations and (b only assimilate precipitation at the location where at least some ensemble members have precipitation. Unlike many current approaches, both positive and zero rain observations are assimilated effectively. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs are conducted using the Simplified Parametrisations, primitivE-Equation DYnamics (SPEEDY model, a simplified but realistic general circulation model. When uniformly and globally distributed observations of precipitation are assimilated in addition to rawinsonde observations, both the analyses and the medium-range forecasts of all model variables, including precipitation, are significantly improved as compared to only assimilating rawinsonde observations. The effect of precipitation assimilation on the analyses is retained on the medium-range forecasts and is larger in the Southern Hemisphere (SH than that in the Northern Hemisphere (NH because the NH analyses are already made more accurate by the denser rawinsonde stations. These improvements are much reduced when only the moisture field is modified by the precipitation observations. Both the Gaussian transformation and
Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Theory With Polarization Drift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, L.; Hahm, T.S.
2010-01-01
A set of the electrostatic toroidal gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and the Poisson equation, which explicitly includes the polarization drift, is derived systematically by using Lie-transform method. The polarization drift is introduced in the gyrocenter equations of motion, and the corresponding polarization density is derived. Contrary to the wide-spread expectation, the inclusion of the polarization drift in the gyrocenter equations of motion does not affect the expression for the polarization density significantly. This is due to modification of the gyrocenter phase-space volume caused by the electrostatic potential [T. S. Hahm, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4658 (1996)].
A statistical-dynamical downscaling procedure for global climate simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frey-Buness, A.; Heimann, D.; Sausen, R.; Schumann, U.
1994-01-01
A statistical-dynamical downscaling procedure for global climate simulations is described. The procedure is based on the assumption that any regional climate is associated with a specific frequency distribution of classified large-scale weather situations. The frequency distributions are derived from multi-year episodes of low resolution global climate simulations. Highly resolved regional distributions of wind and temperature are calculated with a regional model for each class of large-scale weather situation. They are statistically evaluated by weighting them with the according climate-specific frequency. The procedure is exemplarily applied to the Alpine region for a global climate simulation of the present climate. (orig.)
Promoting Simulation Globally: Networking with Nursing Colleagues Across Five Continents.
Alfes, Celeste M; Madigan, Elizabeth A
Simulation education is gaining momentum internationally and may provide the opportunity to enhance clinical education while disseminating evidence-based practice standards for clinical simulation and learning. There is a need to develop a cohesive leadership group that fosters support, networking, and sharing of simulation resources globally. The Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University has had the unique opportunity to establish academic exchange programs with schools of nursing across five continents. Although the joint and mutual simulation activities have been extensive, each international collaboration has also provided insight into the innovations developed by global partners.
Global field experiments for potato simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raymundo, Rubí; Asseng, Senthold; Prasad, Rishi
2018-01-01
A large field potato experimental dataset has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels, tempera......A large field potato experimental dataset has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels...
Numerical Simulation of Hydrogen Combustion: Global Reaction Model and Validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yun [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an (China); Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Liu, Yinhe, E-mail: yinheliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an (China)
2017-11-20
Due to the complexity of modeling the combustion process in nuclear power plants, the global mechanisms are preferred for numerical simulation. To quickly perform the highly resolved simulations with limited processing resources of large-scale hydrogen combustion, a method based on thermal theory was developed to obtain kinetic parameters of global reaction mechanism of hydrogen–air combustion in a wide range. The calculated kinetic parameters at lower hydrogen concentration (C{sub hydrogen} < 20%) were validated against the results obtained from experimental measurements in a container and combustion test facility. In addition, the numerical data by the global mechanism (C{sub hydrogen} > 20%) were compared with the results by detailed mechanism. Good agreement between the model prediction and the experimental data was achieved, and the comparison between simulation results by the detailed mechanism and the global reaction mechanism show that the present calculated global mechanism has excellent predictable capabilities for a wide range of hydrogen–air mixtures.
Numerical Simulation of Hydrogen Combustion: Global Reaction Model and Validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Yun; Liu, Yinhe
2017-01-01
Due to the complexity of modeling the combustion process in nuclear power plants, the global mechanisms are preferred for numerical simulation. To quickly perform the highly resolved simulations with limited processing resources of large-scale hydrogen combustion, a method based on thermal theory was developed to obtain kinetic parameters of global reaction mechanism of hydrogen–air combustion in a wide range. The calculated kinetic parameters at lower hydrogen concentration (C hydrogen < 20%) were validated against the results obtained from experimental measurements in a container and combustion test facility. In addition, the numerical data by the global mechanism (C hydrogen > 20%) were compared with the results by detailed mechanism. Good agreement between the model prediction and the experimental data was achieved, and the comparison between simulation results by the detailed mechanism and the global reaction mechanism show that the present calculated global mechanism has excellent predictable capabilities for a wide range of hydrogen–air mixtures.
Global Responses to Potential Climate Change: A Simulation.
Williams, Mary Louise; Mowry, George
This interdisciplinary five-day unit provides students with an understanding of the issues in the debate on global climate change. Introductory lessons enhance understanding of the "greenhouse gases" and their sources with possible global effects of climate change. Students then roleplay negotiators from 10 nations in a simulation of the…
Global field experiments for potato simulations
Raymundo, Rubi; Asseng, Senthold; Prasad, Rishi; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Condori, Bruno; Bowen, Walter; Wolf, Joost; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Dong, Qiaoxue; Zotarelli, Lincoln; Gastelo, Manuel; Alva, Ashok; Travasso, Maria; Arora, Vijay
2018-01-01
A large field potato experimental data set has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels,
Conditional simulation for efficient global optimization
Kleijnen, Jack P.C.; Mehdad, E.; Pasupathy, R.; Kim, S.-H.; Tolk, A.; Hill, R.; Kuhl, M.E.
2013-01-01
A classic Kriging or Gaussian process (GP) metamodel estimates the variance of its predictor by plugging-in the estimated GP (hyper)parameters; namely, the mean, variance, and covariances. The problem is that this predictor variance is biased. To solve this problem for deterministic simulations, we
Gyrokinetic theory and dynamics of the tokamak edge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)
2016-08-15
The validity of modern gyrokinetic field theory is assessed for the tokamak edge. The basic structure of the Lagrangian and resulting equations and their conservation laws is reviewed. The conventional microturbulence ordering for expansion is small potential/arbitrary wavelength. The equilibrium ordering for expansion is long wavelength/arbitrary amplitude. The long-wavelength form of the conventional Lagrangian is derived in detail. The two Lagrangians are shown to match at long wavelength if the E x B Mach number is small enough for its corrections to the gyroaveraging to be neglected. Therefore, the conventional derivation and its Lagrangian can be used at all wavelengths if these conditions are satisfied. Additionally, dynamical compressibility of the magnetic field can be neglected if the plasma beta is small. This allows general use of a shear-Alfven Lagrangian for edge turbulence and self consistent equilibrium-scale phenomena for flows, currents, and heat fluxes for conventional tokamaks without further modification by higher-order terms. Corrections in polarisation and toroidal angular momentum transport due to these higher-order terms for global edge turbulence computations are shown to be small. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Stabilising the global greenhouse. A simulation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michaelis, P.
1993-01-01
This paper investigates the economic implications of a comprehensive approach to greenhouse policies that strives to stabilise the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases at an ecolocially determined threshold level. In a theoretical optimisation model conditions for an efficient allocation of abatement effort among pollutants and over time are derived. The model is empirically specified and adapted to a dynamic Gams-algorithm. By various simulation runs for the period of 1990 to 2110, the economics of greenhouse gas accumulation are explored. In particular, the long-run cost associated with the above stabilisation target are evaluated for three different policy scenarios: i) A comprehensive approach that covers all major greenhouse gases simultaneously, ii) a piecemeal approach that is limited to reducing CO 2 emissions, and iii) a ten-year moratorium that postpones abatement effort until new scientific evidence on the greenhouse effect will become available. Comparing the simulation results suggests that a piecemeal approach would considerably increase total cost, whereas a ten-year moratorium might be reasonable even if the probability of 'good news' is comparatively small. (orig.)
Citrin, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Casson, F. J.; Angioni, C.; Bonanomi, N.; Camenen, Y.; Garbet, X.; Garzotti, L.; Görler, T.; Gürcan, O.; Koechl, F.; Imbeaux, F.; Linder, O.; van de Plassche, K.; Strand, P.; Szepesi, G.; Contributors, JET
2017-12-01
Quasilinear turbulent transport models are a successful tool for prediction of core tokamak plasma profiles in many regimes. Their success hinges on the reproduction of local nonlinear gyrokinetic fluxes. We focus on significant progress in the quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model QuaLiKiz (Bourdelle et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 014036), which employs an approximated solution of the mode structures to significantly speed up computation time compared to full linear gyrokinetic solvers. Optimisation of the dispersion relation solution algorithm within integrated modelling applications leads to flux calculations × {10}6-7 faster than local nonlinear simulations. This allows tractable simulation of flux-driven dynamic profile evolution including all transport channels: ion and electron heat, main particles, impurities, and momentum. Furthermore, QuaLiKiz now includes the impact of rotation and temperature anisotropy induced poloidal asymmetry on heavy impurity transport, important for W-transport applications. Application within the JETTO integrated modelling code results in 1 s of JET plasma simulation within 10 h using 10 CPUs. Simultaneous predictions of core density, temperature, and toroidal rotation profiles for both JET hybrid and baseline experiments are presented, covering both ion and electron turbulence scales. The simulations are successfully compared to measured profiles, with agreement mostly in the 5%-25% range according to standard figures of merit. QuaLiKiz is now open source and available at www.qualikiz.com.
Self-consistent gyrokinetic modeling of neoclassical and turbulent impurity transport
Estève, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Breton, S.; Donnel, P.; Asahi, Y.; Bourdelle, C.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ehrlacher, C.; Emeriau, C.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Gillot, C.; Latu, G.; Passeron, C.
2018-03-01
Trace impurity transport is studied with the flux-driven gyrokinetic GYSELA code (Grandgirard et al 2016 Comput. Phys. Commun. 207 35). A reduced and linearized multi-species collision operator has been recently implemented, so that both neoclassical and turbulent transport channels can be treated self-consistently on an equal footing. In the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime that is probably relevant for tungsten, the standard expression for the neoclassical impurity flux is shown to be recovered from gyrokinetics with the employed collision operator. Purely neoclassical simulations of deuterium plasma with trace impurities of helium, carbon and tungsten lead to impurity diffusion coefficients, inward pinch velocities due to density peaking, and thermo-diffusion terms which quantitatively agree with neoclassical predictions and NEO simulations (Belli et al 2012 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 54 015015). The thermal screening factor appears to be less than predicted analytically in the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime, which can be detrimental to fusion performance. Finally, self-consistent nonlinear simulations have revealed that the tungsten impurity flux is not the sum of turbulent and neoclassical fluxes computed separately, as is usually assumed. The synergy partly results from the turbulence-driven in-out poloidal asymmetry of tungsten density. This result suggests the need for self-consistent simulations of impurity transport, i.e. including both turbulence and neoclassical physics, in view of quantitative predictions for ITER.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Besse, Nicolas, E-mail: Nicolas.Besse@oca.eu [Laboratoire J.-L. Lagrange, UMR CNRS/OCA/UCA 7293, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Bd de l’Observatoire CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS/UL 7198, Université de Lorraine, BP 70239 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Coulette, David, E-mail: David.Coulette@ipcms.unistra.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS/UL 7198, Université de Lorraine, BP 70239 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR CNRS/US 7504, Université de Strasbourg, 23 Rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France)
2016-08-15
Achieving plasmas with good stability and confinement properties is a key research goal for magnetic fusion devices. The underlying equations are the Vlasov–Poisson and Vlasov–Maxwell (VPM) equations in three space variables, three velocity variables, and one time variable. Even in those somewhat academic cases where global equilibrium solutions are known, studying their stability requires the analysis of the spectral properties of the linearized operator, a daunting task. We have identified a model, for which not only equilibrium solutions can be constructed, but many of their stability properties are amenable to rigorous analysis. It uses a class of solution to the VPM equations (or to their gyrokinetic approximations) known as waterbag solutions which, in particular, are piecewise constant in phase-space. It also uses, not only the gyrokinetic approximation of fast cyclotronic motion around magnetic field lines, but also an asymptotic approximation regarding the magnetic-field-induced anisotropy: the spatial variation along the field lines is taken much slower than across them. Together, these assumptions result in a drastic reduction in the dimensionality of the linearized problem, which becomes a set of two nested one-dimensional problems: an integral equation in the poloidal variable, followed by a one-dimensional complex Schrödinger equation in the radial variable. We show here that the operator associated to the poloidal variable is meromorphic in the eigenparameter, the pulsation frequency. We also prove that, for all but a countable set of real pulsation frequencies, the operator is compact and thus behaves mostly as a finite-dimensional one. The numerical algorithms based on such ideas have been implemented in a companion paper [D. Coulette and N. Besse, “Numerical resolution of the global eigenvalue problem for gyrokinetic-waterbag model in toroidal geometry” (submitted)] and were found to be surprisingly close to those for the original
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, W.M.
2005-01-01
The present lecture provides an introduction to the subject of gyrokinetic theory with applications in the area of magnetic confinement research in plasma physics--the research arena from which this formalism was originally developed. It was presented as a component of the ''Short Course in Kinetic Theory within the Thematic Program in Partial Differential Equations'' held at the Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Science (24 March 2004). This lecture also discusses the connection between the gyrokinetic formalism and powerful modern numerical simulations. Indeed, simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential modern tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. Progress has been stimulated in particular by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was enabled by two key factors: (i) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (ii) access to powerful new computational resources
Fluid and gyrokinetic modelling of particle transport in plasmas with hollow density profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tegnered, D; Oberparleiter, M; Nordman, H; Strand, P
2016-01-01
Hollow density profiles occur in connection with pellet fuelling and L to H transitions. A positive density gradient could potentially stabilize the turbulence or change the relation between convective and diffusive fluxes, thereby reducing the turbulent transport of particles towards the center, making the fuelling scheme inefficient. In the present work, the particle transport driven by ITG/TE mode turbulence in regions of hollow density profiles is studied by fluid as well as gyrokinetic simulations. The fluid model used, an extended version of the Weiland transport model, Extended Drift Wave Model (EDWM), incorporates an arbitrary number of ion species in a multi-fluid description, and an extended wavelength spectrum. The fluid model, which is fast and hence suitable for use in predictive simulations, is compared to gyrokinetic simulations using the code GENE. Typical tokamak parameters are used based on the Cyclone Base Case. Parameter scans in key plasma parameters like plasma β, R/L T , and magnetic shear are investigated. It is found that β in particular has a stabilizing effect in the negative R/L n region, both nonlinear GENE and EDWM show a decrease in inward flux for negative R/L n and a change of direction from inward to outward for positive R/L n . This might have serious consequences for pellet fuelling of high β plasmas. (paper)
Kinetic simulations of neoclassical and anomalous transport processes in helical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugama, Hideo; Watanabe, Tomohiko; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Matsuoka, Seikichi; Tanaka, Kenji
2012-01-01
Drift kinetic and gyrokinetic theories and simulations are powerful means for quantitative predictions of neoclassical and anomalous transport fluxes in helical systems such as the Large Helical Device (LHD). The δf Monte Carlo particle simulation code, FORTEC-3D, is used to predict radial profiles of the neoclassical particle and heat transport fluxes and the radial electric field in helical systems. The radial electric field profiles in the LHD plasmas are calculated from the ambipolarity condition for the neoclassical particle fluxes obtained by the global simulations using the FORTEC-3D code, in which effects of ion or electron finite orbit widths are included. Gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations using the GKV code verify the theoretical prediction that the neoclassical optimization of helical magnetic configuration enhances the zonal flow generation which leads to the reduction of the turbulent heat diffusivity χ i due to the ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence. Comparisons between results for the high ion temperature LHD experiment and the gyrokinetic simulations using the GKV-X code show that the χ i profile and the poloidal wave number spectrum of the density fluctuation obtained from the simulations are in reasonable agreements with the experimental results. It is predicted theoretically and confirmed by the linear GKV simulations that the E × B rotation due to the background radial electric field E r can enhance the zonal-flow response to a given source. Thus, in helical systems, the turbulent transport is linked to the neoclassical transport through E r which is determined from the ambipolar condition for neoclassical particle fluxes and influences the zonal flow generation leading to reduction of the turbulent transport. In order to investigate the E r effect on the regulation of the turbulent transport by the zonal flow generation, the flux-tube bundle model is proposed as a new method for multiscale gyrokinetic simulations. (author)
Simulation analysis of globally integrated logistics and recycling strategies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, S.J.; Hiroshi, K. [Hiroshima Inst. of Tech., Graduate School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Dept. of In formation and Intelligent Systems Engineering, Hiroshima (Japan)
2004-07-01
This paper focuses on the optimal analysis of world-wide recycling activities associated with managing the logistics and production activities in global manufacturing whose activities stretch across national boundaries. Globally integrated logistics and recycling strategies consist of the home country and two free trading economic blocs, NAFTA and ASEAN, where significant differences are found in production and disassembly cost, tax rates, local content rules and regulations. Moreover an optimal analysis of globally integrated value-chain was developed by applying simulation optimization technique as a decision-making tool. The simulation model was developed and analyzed by using ProModel packages, and the results help to identify some of the appropriate conditions required to make well-performed logistics and recycling plans in world-wide collaborated manufacturing environment. (orig.)
Variational principle for nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov--Maxwell equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brizard, Alain J.
2000-01-01
A new variational principle for the nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov--Maxwell equations is presented. This Eulerian variational principle uses constrained variations for the gyrocenter Vlasov distribution in eight-dimensional extended phase space and turns out to be simpler than the Lagrangian variational principle recently presented by H. Sugama [Phys. Plasmas 7, 466 (2000)]. A local energy conservation law is then derived explicitly by the Noether method. In future work, this new variational principle will be used to derive self-consistent, nonlinear, low-frequency Vlasov--Maxwell bounce-gyrokinetic equations, in which the fast gyromotion and bounce-motion time scales have been eliminated
How to simulate global cosmic strings with large string tension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klaer, Vincent B.; Moore, Guy D., E-mail: vklaer@theorie.ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de, E-mail: guy.moore@physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, Darmstadt, D-64289 Germany (Germany)
2017-10-01
Global string networks may be relevant in axion production in the early Universe, as well as other cosmological scenarios. Such networks contain a large hierarchy of scales between the string core scale and the Hubble scale, ln( f {sub a} / H ) ∼ 70, which influences the network dynamics by giving the strings large tensions T ≅ π f {sub a} {sup 2} ln( f {sub a} / H ). We present a new numerical approach to simulate such global string networks, capturing the tension without an exponentially large lattice.
Global Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Mercury's Magnetosphere
Schriver, D.; Travnicek, P. M.; Lapenta, G.; Amaya, J.; Gonzalez, D.; Richard, R. L.; Berchem, J.; Hellinger, P.
2017-12-01
Spacecraft observations of Mercury's magnetosphere have shown that kinetic ion and electron particle effects play a major role in the transport, acceleration, and loss of plasma within the magnetospheric system. Kinetic processes include reconnection, the breakdown of particle adiabaticity and wave-particle interactions. Because of the vast range in spatial scales involved in magnetospheric dynamics, from local electron Debye length scales ( meters) to solar wind/planetary magnetic scale lengths (tens to hundreds of planetary radii), fully self-consistent kinetic simulations of a global planetary magnetosphere remain challenging. Most global simulations of Earth's and other planet's magnetosphere are carried out using MHD, enhanced MHD (e.g., Hall MHD), hybrid, or a combination of MHD and particle in cell (PIC) simulations. Here, 3D kinetic self-consistent hybrid (ion particle, electron fluid) and full PIC (ion and electron particle) simulations of the solar wind interaction with Mercury's magnetosphere are carried out. Using the implicit PIC and hybrid simulations, Mercury's relatively small, but highly kinetic magnetosphere will be examined to determine how the self-consistent inclusion of electrons affects magnetic reconnection, particle transport and acceleration of plasma at Mercury. Also the spatial and energy profiles of precipitating magnetospheric ions and electrons onto Mercury's surface, which can strongly affect the regolith in terms of space weathering and particle outflow, will be examined with the PIC and hybrid codes. MESSENGER spacecraft observations are used both to initiate and validate the global kinetic simulations to achieve a deeper understanding of the role kinetic physics play in magnetospheric dynamics.
Bao, Jian; Lau, Calvin; Kuley, Animesh; Lin, Zhihong; Fulton, Daniel; Tajima, Toshiki; Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. Team
2017-10-01
Collisional and turbulent transport in a field reversed configuration (FRC) is studied in global particle simulation by using GTC (gyrokinetic toroidal code). The global FRC geometry is incorporated in GTC by using a field-aligned mesh in cylindrical coordinates, which enables global simulation coupling core and scrape-off layer (SOL) across the separatrix. Furthermore, fully kinetic ions are implemented in GTC to treat magnetic-null point in FRC core. Both global simulation coupling core and SOL regions and independent SOL region simulation have been carried out to study turbulence. In this work, the ``logical sheath boundary condition'' is implemented to study parallel transport in the SOL. This method helps to relax time and spatial steps without resolving electron plasma frequency and Debye length, which enables turbulent transports simulation with sheath effects. We will study collisional and turbulent SOL parallel transport with mirror geometry and sheath boundary condition in C2-W divertor.
Grid-based Parallel Data Streaming Implemented for the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klasky, S.; Ethier, S.; Lin, Z.; Martins, K.; McCune, D.; Samtaney, R.
2003-01-01
We have developed a threaded parallel data streaming approach using Globus to transfer multi-terabyte simulation data from a remote supercomputer to the scientist's home analysis/visualization cluster, as the simulation executes, with negligible overhead. Data transfer experiments show that this concurrent data transfer approach is more favorable compared with writing to local disk and then transferring this data to be post-processed. The present approach is conducive to using the grid to pipeline the simulation with post-processing and visualization. We have applied this method to the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC), a 3-dimensional particle-in-cell code used to study microturbulence in magnetic confinement fusion from first principles plasma theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hager, Robert, E-mail: rhager@pppl.gov; Chang, C. S., E-mail: cschang@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2016-04-15
As a follow-up on the drift-kinetic study of the non-local bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal of tokamak plasma by Koh et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 072505 (2012)], a gyrokinetic neoclassical study is performed with gyrokinetic ions and drift-kinetic electrons. Besides the gyrokinetic improvement of ion physics from the drift-kinetic treatment, a fully non-linear Fokker-Planck collision operator—that conserves mass, momentum, and energy—is used instead of Koh et al.'s linearized collision operator in consideration of the possibility that the ion distribution function is non-Maxwellian in the steep pedestal. An inaccuracy in Koh et al.'s result is found in the steep edge pedestal that originated from a small error in the collisional momentum conservation. The present study concludes that (1) the bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal is generally smaller than what has been predicted from the small banana-width (local) approximation [e.g., Sauter et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2834 (1999) and Belli et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 095010 (2008)], (2) the plasma flow evaluated from the local approximation can significantly deviate from the non-local results, and (3) the bootstrap current in the edge pedestal, where the passing particle region is small, can be dominantly carried by the trapped particles in a broad trapped boundary layer. A new analytic formula based on numerous gyrokinetic simulations using various magnetic equilibria and plasma profiles with self-consistent Grad-Shafranov solutions is constructed.
Global simulation of interactions between groundwater and terrestrial ecosystems
Braakhekke, M. C.; Rebel, K.; Dekker, S. C.; Smith, B.; Van Beek, L. P.; Sutanudjaja, E.; van Kampenhout, L.; Wassen, M. J.
2016-12-01
In many places in the world ecosystems are influenced by the presence of a shallow groundwater table. In these regions upward water flux due to capillary rise increases soil moisture availability in the root zone, which has strong positive effect on evapotranspiration. Additionally it has important consequences for vegetation dynamics and fluxes of carbon and nitrogen. Under water limited conditions shallow groundwater stimulates vegetation productivity, and soil organic matter decomposition while under saturated conditions groundwater may have a negative effect on these processes due to lack of oxygen. Furthermore, since plant species differ with respect to their root distribution, preference for moisture conditions, and resistance to oxygen stress, shallow groundwater also influences vegetation type. Finally, processes such as denitrification and methane production occur under strictly anaerobic conditions and are thus strongly influenced by moisture availability. Most global hydrological models and several land surface models simulate groundwater table dynamics and their effects on land surface processes. However, these models typically have relatively simplistic representation of vegetation and do not consider changes in vegetation type and structure and are therefore less suitable to represent effects of groundwater on biogeochemical fluxes. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), describe land surface from an ecological perspective, combining detailed description of vegetation dynamics and structure and biogeochemical processes. These models are thus more appropriate to simulate the ecological and biogeochemical effects of groundwater interactions. However, currently virtually all DGVMs ignore these effects, assuming that water tables are too deep to affect soil moisture in the root zone. We have implemented a tight coupling between the dynamic global ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS and the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. Using this coupled model we aim to
Hamiltonian reductions in plasma physics about intrinsic gyrokinetic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guillebon de Resnes, L. de
2013-01-01
Gyrokinetic is a key model for plasma micro-turbulence, commonly used for fusion plasmas or small-scale astrophysical turbulence, for instance. The model still suffers from several issues, which could imply to reconsider the equations. This thesis dissertation clarifies three of them. First, one of the coordinates caused questions, both from a physical and from a mathematical point of view; a suitable constrained coordinate is introduced, which removes the issues from the theory and explains the intrinsic structures underlying the questions. Second, the perturbative coordinate transformation for gyrokinetic was computed only at lowest orders; explicit induction relations are obtained to go arbitrary order in the expansion. Third, the introduction of the coupling between the plasma and the electromagnetic field was not completely satisfactory; using the Hamiltonian structure of the dynamics, it is implemented in a more appropriate way, with strong consequences on the gyrokinetic equations, especially about their Hamiltonian structure. In order to address these three main points, several other results are obtained, for instance about the origin of the guiding-center adiabatic invariant, about a very efficient minimal guiding center transformation, or about an intermediate Hamiltonian model between Vlasov-Maxwell and gyrokinetic, where the characteristics include both the slow guiding-center dynamics and the fast gyro-angle dynamics. In addition, various reduction methods are used, introduced or developed, e.g. a Lie-transform of the equations of motion, a lifting method to transfer particle reductions to the corresponding Hamiltonian field dynamics, or a truncation method related both to Dirac's theory of constraints and to a projection onto a Lie-subalgebra. Besides gyrokinetic, this is useful to clarify other Hamiltonian reductions in plasma physics, for instance for incompressible or electrostatic dynamics, for magnetohydrodynamics, or for fluid closures including
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weir, G. M.; Faber, B. J.; Likin, K. M.; Talmadge, J. N.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B. [HSX Plasma Laboratory, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2015-05-15
Stiffness measurements are presented in the quasi-helically symmetric experiment (HSX), in which the neoclassical transport is comparable to that in a tokamak and turbulent transport dominates throughout the plasma. Electron cyclotron emission is used to measure the local electron temperature response to modulated electron cyclotron resonant heating. The amplitude and phase of the heat wave through the steep electron temperature gradient (ETG) region of the plasma are used to determine a transient electron thermal diffusivity that is close to the steady-state diffusivity. The low stiffness in the region between 0.2 ≤ r/a ≤ 0.4 agrees with the scaling of the steady-state heat flux with temperature gradient in this region. These experimental results are compared to gyrokinetic calculations in a flux-tube geometry using the gyrokinetic electromagnetic numerical experiment code with two kinetic species. Linear simulations show that the ETG mode may be experimentally relevant within r/a ≤ 0.2, while the Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) is the dominant long-wavelength microturbulence instability across most of the plasma. The TEM is primarily driven by the density gradient. Non-linear calculations of the saturated heat flux driven by the TEM and ETG bracket the experimental heat flux.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cottier, Pierre
2013-01-01
The magnetic confinement in tokamaks is for now the most advanced way towards energy production by nuclear fusion. Both theoretical and experimental studies showed that rotation generation can increase its performance by reducing the turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas. The rotation influence on the heat and particle fluxes is studied along with the angular momentum transport with the quasi-linear gyro-kinetic eigenvalue code QuaLiKiz. For this purpose, the QuaLiKiz code is modified in order to take the plasma rotation into account and compute the angular momentum flux. It is shown that QuaLiKiz framework is able to correctly predict the angular momentum flux including the E*B shear induced residual stress as well as the influence of rotation on the heat and particle fluxes. The major approximations of QuaLiKiz formalisms are reviewed, in particular the ballooning representation at its lowest order and the eigenfunctions calculated in the hydrodynamic limit. The construction of the quasi-linear fluxes is also reviewed in details and the quasi-linear angular momentum flux is derived. The different contributions to the turbulent momentum flux are studied and successfully compared both against non-linear gyro-kinetic simulations and experimental data. (author) [fr
Benchmark studies of the gyro-Landau-fluid code and gyro-kinetic codes on kinetic ballooning modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, T. F. [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Ma, C. H. [Fusion Simulation Center, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Bass, E. M.; Candy, J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States)
2016-03-15
A Gyro-Landau-Fluid (GLF) 3 + 1 model has been recently implemented in BOUT++ framework, which contains full Finite-Larmor-Radius effects, Landau damping, and toroidal resonance [Ma et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 055903 (2015)]. A linear global beta scan has been conducted using the JET-like circular equilibria (cbm18 series), showing that the unstable modes are kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs). In this work, we use the GYRO code, which is a gyrokinetic continuum code widely used for simulation of the plasma microturbulence, to benchmark with GLF 3 + 1 code on KBMs. To verify our code on the KBM case, we first perform the beta scan based on “Cyclone base case parameter set.” We find that the growth rate is almost the same for two codes, and the KBM mode is further destabilized as beta increases. For JET-like global circular equilibria, as the modes localize in peak pressure gradient region, a linear local beta scan using the same set of equilibria has been performed at this position for comparison. With the drift kinetic electron module in the GYRO code by including small electron-electron collision to damp electron modes, GYRO generated mode structures and parity suggest that they are kinetic ballooning modes, and the growth rate is comparable to the GLF results. However, a radial scan of the pedestal for a particular set of cbm18 equilibria, using GYRO code, shows different trends for the low-n and high-n modes. The low-n modes show that the linear growth rate peaks at peak pressure gradient position as GLF results. However, for high-n modes, the growth rate of the most unstable mode shifts outward to the bottom of pedestal and the real frequency of what was originally the KBMs in ion diamagnetic drift direction steadily approaches and crosses over to the electron diamagnetic drift direction.
The implementation of a toroidal limiter model into the gyrokinetic code ELMFIRE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leerink, S.; Janhunen, S.J.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Nora, M. [Euratom-Tekes Association, Helsinki University of Technology (Finland); Heikkinen, J.A. [Euratom-Tekes Association, VTT, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Ogando, F. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain)
2008-03-15
The ELMFIRE full nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation code has been developed for calculations of plasma evolution and dynamics of turbulence in tokamak geometry. The code is applicable for calculations of strong perturbations in particle distribution function, rapid transients and steep gradients in plasma. Benchmarking against experimental reflectometry data from the FT2 tokamak is being discussed and in this paper a model for comparison and studying poloidal velocity is presented. To make the ELMFIRE code suitable for scrape-off layer simulations a simplified toroidal limiter model has been implemented. The model is be discussed and first results are presented. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Gyrokinetic Vlasov code including full three-dimensional geometry of experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunami, Masanori; Watanabe, Tomohiko; Sugama, Hideo
2010-03-01
A new gyrokinetic Vlasov simulation code, GKV-X, is developed for investigating the turbulent transport in magnetic confinement devices with non-axisymmetric configurations. Effects of the magnetic surface shapes in a three-dimensional equilibrium obtained from the VMEC code are accurately incorporated. Linear simulations of the ion temperature gradient instabilities and the zonal flows in the Large Helical Device (LHD) configuration are carried out by the GKV-X code for a benchmark test against the GKV code. The frequency, the growth rate, and the mode structure of the ion temperature gradient instability are influenced by the VMEC geometrical data such as the metric tensor components of the Boozer coordinates for high poloidal wave numbers, while the difference between the zonal flow responses obtained by the GKV and GKV-X codes is found to be small in the core LHD region. (author)
Global Vlasov simulation on magnetospheres of astronomical objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Umeda, Takayuki; Ito, Yosuke; Fukazawa, Keiichiro
2013-01-01
Space plasma is a collisionless, multi-scale, and highly nonlinear medium. There are various types of self-consistent computer simulations that treat space plasma according to various approximations. We develop numerical schemes for solving the Vlasov (collisionless Boltzmann) equation, which is the first-principle kinetic equation for collisionless plasma. The weak-scaling benchmark test shows that our parallel Vlasov code achieves a high performance and a high scalability. Currently, we use more than 1000 cores for parallel computations and apply the present parallel Vlasov code to various cross-scale processes in space plasma, such as a global simulation on the interaction between solar/stellar wind and magnetospheres of astronomical objects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
T.S. Hahm; Z. Lin; P.H. Diamond; G. Rewoldt; W.X. Wang; S. Ethier; O. Gurcan; W.W. Lee; W.M. Tang
2004-12-21
An integrated program of gyrokinetic particle simulation and theory has been developed to investigate several outstanding issues in both turbulence and neoclassical physics. Gyrokinetic particle simulations of toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence spreading using the GTC code and its related dynamical model have been extended to the case with radially increasing ion temperature gradient, to study the inward spreading of edge turbulence toward the core. Due to turbulence spreading from the edge, the turbulence intensity in the core region is significantly enhanced over the value obtained from simulations of the core region only. Even when the core gradient is within the Dimits shift regime (i.e., self-generated zonal flows reduce the transport to a negligible value), a significant level of turbulence and transport is observed in the core due to spreading from the edge. The scaling of the turbulent front propagation speed is closer to the prediction from our nonlinear diffusion model than one based on linear toroidal coupling. A calculation of ion poloidal rotation in the presence of sharp density and toroidal angular rotation frequency gradients from the GTC-Neo particle simulation code shows that the results are significantly different from the conventional neoclassical theory predictions. An energy conserving set of a fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to edge turbulence, is being derived via the phase-space action variational Lie perturbation method. Our generalized ordering takes the ion poloidal gyroradius to be on the order of the radial electric field gradient length.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.; Diamond, P.H.; Gurcan, O.; Rewoldt, G.; Wang, W.X.; Ethier, S.; Lee, W.W.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Tang, W.M.
2005-01-01
An integrated program of gyrokinetic particle simulation and theory has been developed to investigate several outstanding issues in both turbulence and neoclassical physics. Gyrokinetic particle simulations of toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence spreading using the GTC code and its related dynamical model have been extended to the case with radially increasing ion temperature gradient, to study the inward spreading of edge turbulence toward the core. Due to turbulence spreading from the edge, the turbulence intensity in the core region is significantly enhanced over the value obtained from simulations of the core region only. Even when the core gradient is within the Dimits shift regime (i.e., self-generated zonal flows reduce the transport to a negligible value), a significant level of turbulence and transport is observed in the core due to spreading from the edge. The scaling of the turbulent front propagation speed is closer to the prediction from our nonlinear diffusion model than one based on linear toroidal coupling. A calculation of ion poloidal rotation in the presence of sharp density and toroidal angular rotation frequency gradients from the GTC-Neo particle simulation code shows that the results are significantly different from the conventional neoclassical theory predictions. An energy conserving set of a fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to edge turbulence, is being derived via the phase-space action variational Lie perturbation method. Our generalized ordering takes the ion poloidal gyroradius to be on the order of the radial electric field gradient length. (author)
Gyrokinetic theory for particle and energy transport in fusion plasmas
Falessi, Matteo Valerio; Zonca, Fulvio
2018-03-01
A set of equations is derived describing the macroscopic transport of particles and energy in a thermonuclear plasma on the energy confinement time. The equations thus derived allow studying collisional and turbulent transport self-consistently, retaining the effect of magnetic field geometry without postulating any scale separation between the reference state and fluctuations. Previously, assuming scale separation, transport equations have been derived from kinetic equations by means of multiple-scale perturbation analysis and spatio-temporal averaging. In this work, the evolution equations for the moments of the distribution function are obtained following the standard approach; meanwhile, gyrokinetic theory has been used to explicitly express the fluctuation induced fluxes. In this way, equations for the transport of particles and energy up to the transport time scale can be derived using standard first order gyrokinetics.
A Numerical Instability in an ADI Algorithm for Gyrokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belli, E.A.; Hammett, G.W.
2004-01-01
We explore the implementation of an Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) algorithm for a gyrokinetic plasma problem and its resulting numerical stability properties. This algorithm, which uses a standard ADI scheme to divide the field solve from the particle distribution function advance, has previously been found to work well for certain plasma kinetic problems involving one spatial and two velocity dimensions, including collisions and an electric field. However, for the gyrokinetic problem we find a severe stability restriction on the time step. Furthermore, we find that this numerical instability limitation also affects some other algorithms, such as a partially implicit Adams-Bashforth algorithm, where the parallel motion operator v parallel ∂/∂z is treated implicitly and the field terms are treated with an Adams-Bashforth explicit scheme. Fully explicit algorithms applied to all terms can be better at long wavelengths than these ADI or partially implicit algorithms
Global Dynamic Numerical Simulations of Plate Tectonic Reorganizations
Morra, G.; Quevedo, L.; Butterworth, N.; Matthews, K. J.; Müller, D.
2010-12-01
We use a new numerical approach for global geodynamics to investigate the origin of present global plate motion and to identify the causes of the last two global tectonic reorganizations occurred about 50 and 100 million years ago (Ma) [1]. While the 50 Ma event is the most well-known global plate-mantle event, expressed by the bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain, a prominent plate reorganization at about 100 Ma, although presently little studied, is clearly indicated by a major bend in the fracture zones in the Indian Ocean and by a change in Pacific plate motion [2]. Our workflow involves turning plate reconstructions into surface meshes that are subsequently employed as initial conditions for global Boundary Element numerical models. The tectonic setting that anticipates the reorganizations is processed with the software GPlates, combining the 3D mesh of the paleo-plate morphology and the reconstruction of paleo-subducted slabs, elaborated from tectonic history [3]. All our models involve the entire planetary system, are fully dynamic, have free surface, are characterized by a spectacular computational speed due to the simultaneous use of the multi-pole algorithm and the Boundary Element formulation and are limited only by the use of sharp material property variations [4]. We employ this new tool to unravel the causes of plate tectonic reorganizations, producing and comparing global plate motion with the reconstructed ones. References: [1] Torsvik, T., Müller, R.D., Van der Voo, R., Steinberger, B., and Gaina, C., 2008, Global Plate Motion Frames: Toward a unified model: Reviews in Geophysics, VOL. 46, RG3004, 44 PP., 2008 [2] Wessel, P. and Kroenke, L.W. Pacific absolute plate motion since 145 Ma: An assessment of the fixed hot spot hypothesis. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 113, B06101, 2008 [3] L. Quevedo, G. Morra, R. D. Mueller. Parallel Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method for Crustal Dynamics, Proceeding 9th World Congress and 4th Asian
Linear relativistic gyrokinetic equation in general magnetically confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsai, S.T.; Van Dam, J.W.; Chen, L.
1983-08-01
The gyrokinetic formalism for linear electromagnetic waves of arbitrary frequency in general magnetic-field configurations is extended to include full relativistic effects. The derivation employs the small adiabaticity parameter rho/L 0 where rho is the Larmor radius and L 0 the equilibrium scale length. The effects of the plasma and magnetic field inhomogeneities and finite Larmor-radii effects are also contained
Real-time Global Illumination by Simulating Photon Mapping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Bent Dalgaard
2004-01-01
This thesis introduces a new method for simulating photon mapping in realtime. The method uses a variety of both CPU and GPU based algorithms for speeding up the different elements in global illumination. The idea behind the method is to calculate each illumination element individually in a progr......This thesis introduces a new method for simulating photon mapping in realtime. The method uses a variety of both CPU and GPU based algorithms for speeding up the different elements in global illumination. The idea behind the method is to calculate each illumination element individually...... in a progressive and efficient manner. This has been done by analyzing the photon mapping method and by selecting efficient methods, either CPU based or GPU based, which replaces the original photon mapping algorithms. We have chosen to focus on the indirect illumination and the caustics. In our method we first...... divide the photon map into several photon maps in order to make local updates possible. Then indirect illumination is added using light maps that are selectively updated by using selective photon tracing on the CPU. The final gathering step is calculated by using fragment programs and GPU based...
Physical Processes for Driving Ionospheric Outflows in Global Simulations
Moore, Thomas Earle; Strangeway, Robert J.
2009-01-01
We review and assess the importance of processes thought to drive ionospheric outflows, linking them as appropriate to the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field, and to the spatial and temporal distribution of their magnetospheric internal responses. These begin with the diffuse effects of photoionization and thermal equilibrium of the ionospheric topside, enhancing Jeans' escape, with ambipolar diffusion and acceleration. Auroral outflows begin with dayside reconnexion and resultant field-aligned currents and driven convection. These produce plasmaspheric plumes, collisional heating and wave-particle interactions, centrifugal acceleration, and auroral acceleration by parallel electric fields, including enhanced ambipolar fields from electron heating by precipitating particles. Observations and simulations show that solar wind energy dissipation into the atmosphere is concentrated by the geomagnetic field into auroral regions with an amplification factor of 10-100, enhancing heavy species plasma and gas escape from gravity, and providing more current carrying capacity. Internal plasmas thus enable electromagnetic driving via coupling to the plasma, neutral gas and by extension, the entire body " We assess the Importance of each of these processes in terms of local escape flux production as well as global outflow, and suggest methods for their implementation within multispecies global simulation codes. We complete 'he survey with an assessment of outstanding obstacles to this objective.
Linear and nonlinear verification of gyrokinetic microstability codes
Bravenec, R. V.; Candy, J.; Barnes, M.; Holland, C.
2011-12-01
Verification of nonlinear microstability codes is a necessary step before comparisons or predictions of turbulent transport in toroidal devices can be justified. By verification we mean demonstrating that a code correctly solves the mathematical model upon which it is based. Some degree of verification can be accomplished indirectly from analytical instability threshold conditions, nonlinear saturation estimates, etc., for relatively simple plasmas. However, verification for experimentally relevant plasma conditions and physics is beyond the realm of analytical treatment and must rely on code-to-code comparisons, i.e., benchmarking. The premise is that the codes are verified for a given problem or set of parameters if they all agree within a specified tolerance. True verification requires comparisons for a number of plasma conditions, e.g., different devices, discharges, times, and radii. Running the codes and keeping track of linear and nonlinear inputs and results for all conditions could be prohibitive unless there was some degree of automation. We have written software to do just this and have formulated a metric for assessing agreement of nonlinear simulations. We present comparisons, both linear and nonlinear, between the gyrokinetic codes GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] and GS2 [W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B. N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. We do so at the mid-radius for the same discharge as in earlier work [C. Holland, A. E. White, G. R. McKee, M. W. Shafer, J. Candy, R. E. Waltz, L. Schmitz, and G. R. Tynan, Phys. Plasmas 16, 052301 (2009)]. The comparisons include electromagnetic fluctuations, passing and trapped electrons, plasma shaping, one kinetic impurity, and finite Debye-length effects. Results neglecting and including electron collisions (Lorentz model) are presented. We find that the linear frequencies with or without collisions agree well between codes, as do the time averages of
Effects of collisions on conservation laws in gyrokinetic field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugama, H.; Nunami, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Watanabe, T.-H. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)
2015-08-15
Effects of collisions on conservation laws for toroidal plasmas are investigated based on the gyrokinetic field theory. Associating the collisional system with a corresponding collisionless system at a given time such that the two systems have the same distribution functions and electromagnetic fields instantaneously, it is shown how the collisionless conservation laws derived from Noether's theorem are modified by the collision term. Effects of the external source term added into the gyrokinetic equation can be formulated similarly with the collisional effects. Particle, energy, and toroidal momentum balance equations including collisional and turbulent transport fluxes are systematically derived using a novel gyrokinetic collision operator, by which the collisional change rates of energy and canonical toroidal angular momentum per unit volume in the gyrocenter space can be given in the conservative forms. The ensemble-averaged transport equations of particles, energy, and toroidal momentum given in the present work are shown to include classical, neoclassical, and turbulent transport fluxes which agree with those derived from conventional recursive formulations.
On push-forward representations in the standard gyrokinetic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyato, N.; Yagi, M.; Scott, B. D.
2015-01-01
Two representations of fluid moments in terms of a gyro-center distribution function and gyro-center coordinates, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the representation conventionally used to derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function contains effects of the gyro-center transformation and therefore electrostatic potential fluctuations, which is described by the Poisson brackets between the distribution function and scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually, only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered to explicitly derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. One also recovers the particle diamagnetic flux at this order because it is associated with the guiding-center transformation. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization drift flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation, in which the gyro-center transformation part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear
On push-forward representations in the standard gyrokinetic model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyato, N., E-mail: miyato.naoaki@jaea.go.jp; Yagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-116 Omotedate, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Scott, B. D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2015-01-15
Two representations of fluid moments in terms of a gyro-center distribution function and gyro-center coordinates, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the representation conventionally used to derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function contains effects of the gyro-center transformation and therefore electrostatic potential fluctuations, which is described by the Poisson brackets between the distribution function and scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually, only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered to explicitly derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. One also recovers the particle diamagnetic flux at this order because it is associated with the guiding-center transformation. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization drift flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation, in which the gyro-center transformation part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear.
Verification of gyrokinetic microstability codes with an LHD configuration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikkelsen, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Nunami, M. [National Inst. for Fusion Science (Japan); Watanabe, T. -H. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Sugama, H. [National Inst. for Fusion Science (Japan); Tanaka, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science (Japan)
2014-11-01
We extend previous benchmarks of the GS2 and GKV-X codes to verify their algorithms for solving the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson equations for plasma microturbulence. Code benchmarks are the most complete way of verifying the correctness of implementations for the solution of mathematical models for complex physical processes such as those studied here. The linear stability calculations reported here are based on the plasma conditions of an ion-ITB plasma in the LHD configuration. The plasma parameters and the magnetic geometry differ from previous benchmarks involving these codes. We find excellent agreement between the independently written pre-processors that calculate the geometrical coefficients used in the gyrokinetic equations. Grid convergence tests are used to establish the resolution and domain size needed to obtain converged linear stability results. The agreement of the frequencies, growth rates and eigenfunctions in the benchmarks reported here provides additional verification that the algorithms used by the GS2 and GKV-X codes are correctly finding the linear eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson equations.
Considering fluctuation energy as a measure of gyrokinetic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plunk, G G; Tatsuno, T; Dorland, W
2012-01-01
In gyrokinetic theory, there are two quadratic measures of fluctuation energy, left invariant under nonlinear interactions, that constrain turbulence. In a recent work (Plunk and Tatsuno 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 165003) we reported on the novel consequences that this constraint has for the direction and locality of spectral energy transfer. This paper builds on that previous work. We provide a detailed analysis in support of the results of Plunk and Tatsuno (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 165003), but significantly broaden the scope and use additional methods to address the problem of energy transfer. The perspective taken here is that the fluctuation energies are not merely formal invariants of an idealized model (two-dimensional gyrokinetics (Plunk et al 2010 J. Fluid Mech. 664 407–35)) but also general measures of gyrokinetic turbulence, i.e. quantities that can be used to predict the behavior of turbulence. Although many questions remain open, this paper collects evidence in favor of this perspective by demonstrating in several contexts that constrained spectral energy transfer governs the dynamics. (paper)
Nonlinear Simulations of Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence in Low Magnetic Shear Stellarators
Faber, B. J.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hegna, C. C.
2017-10-01
Optimized stellarators, like the Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX), often operate with small global magnetic shear to avoid low-order rational surfaces and magnetic islands. Nonlinear, flux-tube gyrokinetic simulations of density-gradient-driven Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) turbulence in HSX shows two distinct spectral fluctuation regions: long-wavelength slab-like TEMs localized by global magnetic shear that extend along field lines and short-wavelength TEMs localized by local magnetic shear to a single helical bad curvature region. The slab-like TEMs require computational domains significantly larger than one poloidal turn and are computationally expensive, making turbulent optimization studies challenging. A computationally more efficient, zero-average-magnetic-shear approximation is shown to sufficiently describe the relevant nonlinear physics and replicate finite-shear computations, and can be exploited in quasilinear models based on linear gyrokinetics as a feasible optimization tool. TEM quasilinear heat fluxes are computed with the zero-shear approximation and compared to experimentally-relevant nonlinear gyrokinetic TEM heat fluxes for HSX. Research supported by U.S. DoE Grants DE-FG02-99ER54546, DE-FG02-93ER54222 and DE-FG02-89ER53291.
Korte, M. C.; Wardinski, I.; Brown, M. C.
2016-12-01
Paleomagnetic results from sediments and lava flows provide observational evidence of numerous geomagnetic excursions throughout Earth's history. Two new spherical harmonic geomagnetic field models covering 50-30 ka, including the Laschamp ( 41ka) and Mono Lake ( 32-35 ka) excursions allow us to characterize the global behaviour of these events, both at Earth's surface and the core-mantle boundary. We investigate the evolution of dipole and large-scale non-dipole power throughout the duration of the model and the morphology of the large-scale radial field at the core-mantle boundary. The models suggest clear differences in both the decrease in axial dipole strength and dipole tilt between the two excursions and unlike the previously published model by Leonhardt et al. (2009), they suggest some increase of non-dipole power during the early and late stages of the Laschamp excursion. Global characteristics from the models can be directly compared with results from numerical simulations. We do so for several excursions generated by a numerical simulation driven by purely compositional convection, which appears Earth-like in terms of excursion and reversal occurrence frequency. Excursions from this simulation show differing characteristics, including differences in spectral power evolution. Some cases show similarities to the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions in the spherical harmonic models. In particular they all indicate that excursions are mainly governed by the axial dipole term and equatorial dipole terms play a minor role.
Gyrokinetic Calculations of Microturbulence and Transport for NSTX and Alcator-CMOD H-modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redi, M.H.; Dorland, W.; Bell, R.; Bonoli, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Candy, J.; Ernst, D.; Fiore, C.; Gates, D.; Hammett, G.; Hill, K.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Menard, J.; Mikkelsen, D.; Rewoldt, G.; Rice, J.; Waltz, R.; Wukitch, S.
2003-01-01
Recent H-mode experiments on NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] and experiments on Alcator-CMOD, which also exhibit internal transport barriers (ITB), have been examined with gyrokinetic simulations with the GS2 and GYRO codes to identify the underlying key plasma parameters for control of plasma performance and, ultimately, the successful operation of future reactors such as ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor]. On NSTX the H-mode is characterized by remarkably good ion confinement and electron temperature profiles highly resilient in time. On CMOD, an ITB with a very steep electron density profile develops following off-axis radio-frequency heating and establishment of H-mode. Both experiments exhibit ion thermal confinement at the neoclassical level. Electron confinement is also good in the CMOD core
Managing locality in grand challenge applications: a case study of the gyrokinetic toroidal code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marin, G; Jin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J [Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)
2008-07-15
Achieving high performance with grand challenge applications on today's large-scale parallel systems requires tailoring applications for the characteristics of the modern microprocessor architectures. As part of the US Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, we studied and tuned the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC), a particle-in-cell code for simulating turbulent transport of particles and energy in burning plasma, developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. In this paper, we present a performance study of the application that revealed several opportunities for improving performance by enhancing its data locality. We tuned GTC by performing three kinds of transformations: static data structure reorganization to improve spatial locality, loop nest restructuring for better temporal locality, and dynamic data reordering at run-time to enhance both spatial and temporal reuse. Experimental results show that these changes improve execution time by more than 20% on large parallel systems, including a Cray XT4.
Managing locality in grand challenge applications: a case study of the gyrokinetic toroidal code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marin, G; Jin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J
2008-01-01
Achieving high performance with grand challenge applications on today's large-scale parallel systems requires tailoring applications for the characteristics of the modern microprocessor architectures. As part of the US Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, we studied and tuned the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC), a particle-in-cell code for simulating turbulent transport of particles and energy in burning plasma, developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. In this paper, we present a performance study of the application that revealed several opportunities for improving performance by enhancing its data locality. We tuned GTC by performing three kinds of transformations: static data structure reorganization to improve spatial locality, loop nest restructuring for better temporal locality, and dynamic data reordering at run-time to enhance both spatial and temporal reuse. Experimental results show that these changes improve execution time by more than 20% on large parallel systems, including a Cray XT4
Nonlinear Gyrokinetics: A Powerful Tool for the Description of Microturbulence in Magnetized Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, John E.
2010-01-01
Gyrokinetics is the description of low-frequency dynamics in magnetized plasmas. In magnetic-confinement fusion, it provides the most fundamental basis for numerical simulations of microturbulence; there are astrophysical applications as well. In this tutorial, a sketch of the derivation of the novel dynamical system comprising the nonlinear gyrokinetic (GK) equation (GKE) and the coupled electrostatic GK Poisson equation will be given by using modern Lagrangian and Lie perturbation methods. No background in plasma physics is required in order to appreciate the logical development. The GKE describes the evolution of an ensemble of gyrocenters moving in a weakly inhomogeneous background magnetic field and in the presence of electromagnetic perturbations with wavelength of the order of the ion gyroradius. Gyrocenters move with effective drifts, which may be obtained by an averaging procedure that systematically, order by order, removes gyrophase dependence. To that end, the use of the Lagrangian differential one-form as well as the content and advantages of Lie perturbation theory will be explained. The electromagnetic fields follow via Maxwell's equations from the charge and current density of the particles. Particle and gyrocenter densities differ by an important polarization effect. That is calculated formally by a 'pull-back' (a concept from differential geometry) of the gyrocenter distribution to the laboratory coordinate system. A natural truncation then leads to the closed GK dynamical system. Important properties such as GK energy conservation and fluctuation noise will be mentioned briefly, as will the possibility (and diffculties) of deriving nonlinear gyro fluid equations suitable for rapid numerical solution - although it is probably best to directly simulate the GKE. By the end of the tutorial, students should appreciate the GKE as an extremely powerful tool and will be prepared for later lectures describing its applications to physical problems.
Nonlinear gyrokinetics: a powerful tool for the description of microturbulence in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, John A
2010-01-01
Gyrokinetics is the description of low-frequency dynamics in magnetized plasmas. In magnetic-confinement fusion, it provides the most fundamental basis for numerical simulations of microturbulence; there are astrophysical applications as well. In this tutorial, a sketch of the derivation of the novel dynamical system comprising the nonlinear gyrokinetic (GK) equation (GKE) and the coupled electrostatic GK Poisson equation will be given by using modern Lagrangian and Lie perturbation methods. No background in plasma physics is required in order to appreciate the logical development. The GKE describes the evolution of an ensemble of gyrocenters moving in a weakly inhomogeneous background magnetic field and in the presence of electromagnetic perturbations with wavelength of the order of the ion gyroradius. Gyrocenters move with effective drifts, which may be obtained by an averaging procedure that systematically, order by order, removes gyrophase dependence. To that end, the use of the Lagrangian differential one-form as well as the content and advantages of Lie perturbation theory will be explained. The electromagnetic fields follow via Maxwell's equations from the charge and current density of the particles. Particle and gyrocenter densities differ by an important polarization effect. That is calculated formally by a 'pull-back' (a concept from differential geometry) of the gyrocenter distribution to the laboratory coordinate system. A natural truncation then leads to the closed GK dynamical system. Important properties such as GK energy conservation and fluctuation noise will be mentioned briefly, as will the possibility (and difficulties) of deriving nonlinear gyrofluid equations suitable for rapid numerical solution-although it is probably best to directly simulate the GKE. By the end of the tutorial, students should appreciate the GKE as an extremely powerful tool and will be prepared for later lectures describing its applications to physical problems.
Simulation of spontaneous and variable global dust storms with the GFDL Mars GCM
Basu, Shabari; Wilson, John; Richardson, Mark; Ingersoll, Andrew
2006-01-01
We report on the successful simulation of global dust storms in a general circulation model. The simulated storms develop spontaneously in multiyear simulations and exhibit significant interannual variability. The simulated storms produce dramatic increases in atmospheric dustiness, global-mean air temperatures, and atmospheric circulation intensity, in accord with observations. As with observed global storms, spontaneous initiation of storms in the model occurs in southern spring and summer,...
Nonlinear hybrid simulation of toroidicity-induced alfven eigenmode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, G.Y.; Park, W.
1994-11-01
Gyrokinetic/Magnetohydrodynamics hybrid simulations have been carried out using MH3D-K code to study the nonlinear saturation of the toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmode driven by energetic particles in a tokamak plasma. It is shown that the wave particle trapping is the nonlinear saturation mechanism for the parameters considered. The corresponding density profile flattening of hot particles is observed. The saturation amplitude is proportional to the square of linear growth rate. In addition to TAE modes, a new n = 1, m = 0 global Alfven eigenmode is shown to be excited by the energetic particles
Global Monte Carlo Simulation with High Order Polynomial Expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
William R. Martin; James Paul Holloway; Kaushik Banerjee; Jesse Cheatham; Jeremy Conlin
2007-01-01
The functional expansion technique (FET) was recently developed for Monte Carlo simulation. The basic idea of the FET is to expand a Monte Carlo tally in terms of a high order expansion, the coefficients of which can be estimated via the usual random walk process in a conventional Monte Carlo code. If the expansion basis is chosen carefully, the lowest order coefficient is simply the conventional histogram tally, corresponding to a flat mode. This research project studied the applicability of using the FET to estimate the fission source, from which fission sites can be sampled for the next generation. The idea is that individual fission sites contribute to expansion modes that may span the geometry being considered, possibly increasing the communication across a loosely coupled system and thereby improving convergence over the conventional fission bank approach used in most production Monte Carlo codes. The project examined a number of basis functions, including global Legendre polynomials as well as 'local' piecewise polynomials such as finite element hat functions and higher order versions. The global FET showed an improvement in convergence over the conventional fission bank approach. The local FET methods showed some advantages versus global polynomials in handling geometries with discontinuous material properties. The conventional finite element hat functions had the disadvantage that the expansion coefficients could not be estimated directly but had to be obtained by solving a linear system whose matrix elements were estimated. An alternative fission matrix-based response matrix algorithm was formulated. Studies were made of two alternative applications of the FET, one based on the kernel density estimator and one based on Arnoldi's method of minimized iterations. Preliminary results for both methods indicate improvements in fission source convergence. These developments indicate that the FET has promise for speeding up Monte Carlo fission source convergence
Numerical simulation of global formation of auroral arcs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miura, A.; Sato, T.
1980-01-01
Global simulation of auroral arcs is performed, based on the feedback theory of auroral arcs (Sato, 1978), for a three-dimensionally coupled ionosphere-magnetosphere system which includes two pairs of large-scale Birkeland currents, large-scale polar cap electric fields, and a day-night asymmetry of the electron density distribution. Simulation results have shown that auroral arcs are formed in the dark sector of the auroral oval, more preferentially in the evening sector. They usually appear in multiples with a shape elongating in the east-west direction, each arc being a couple of thousand kilometers in length and 10 to 40 km in width. A pair of small-scale, upward and downward, Birkeland currents is associated with each arc, the density of which becomes 10 to 200 μA/m 2 at 110-km height, and the intensity of the associated electrojet reaches 5 to 20 kA. Each arc is strongly polarized in the direction of the large-scale northsouth current so that the electric field inside the arc is reduced considerably from its ambient value. What controls the formation of auroral arcs (growing speed, locations, arc width, etc.) is examined in detail. For example, the arc width becomes sharper, as the bounce time of the Alfven wave decreases. The overall structure of auroras is largely dependent upon the large-scale Birkeland current, the electric field, and the electron density distribution in the auroral oval
Simulated Annealing-Based Krill Herd Algorithm for Global Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gai-Ge Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, Gandomi and Alavi proposed a novel swarm intelligent method, called krill herd (KH, for global optimization. To enhance the performance of the KH method, in this paper, a new improved meta-heuristic simulated annealing-based krill herd (SKH method is proposed for optimization tasks. A new krill selecting (KS operator is used to refine krill behavior when updating krill’s position so as to enhance its reliability and robustness dealing with optimization problems. The introduced KS operator involves greedy strategy and accepting few not-so-good solutions with a low probability originally used in simulated annealing (SA. In addition, a kind of elitism scheme is used to save the best individuals in the population in the process of the krill updating. The merits of these improvements are verified by fourteen standard benchmarking functions and experimental results show that, in most cases, the performance of this improved meta-heuristic SKH method is superior to, or at least highly competitive with, the standard KH and other optimization methods.
Global-Scale Hydrology: Simple Characterization of Complex Simulation
Koster, Randal D.
1999-01-01
Atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMS) are unique and valuable tools for the analysis of large-scale hydrology. AGCM simulations of climate provide tremendous amounts of hydrological data with a spatial and temporal coverage unmatched by observation systems. To the extent that the AGCM behaves realistically, these data can shed light on the nature of the real world's hydrological cycle. In the first part of the seminar, I will describe the hydrological cycle in a typical AGCM, with some emphasis on the validation of simulated precipitation against observations. The second part of the seminar will focus on a key goal in large-scale hydrology studies, namely the identification of simple, overarching controls on hydrological behavior hidden amidst the tremendous amounts of data produced by the highly complex AGCM parameterizations. In particular, I will show that a simple 50-year-old climatological relation (and a recent extension we made to it) successfully predicts, to first order, both the annual mean and the interannual variability of simulated evaporation and runoff fluxes. The seminar will conclude with an example of a practical application of global hydrology studies. The accurate prediction of weather statistics several months in advance would have tremendous societal benefits, and conventional wisdom today points at the use of coupled ocean-atmosphere-land models for such seasonal-to-interannual prediction. Understanding the hydrological cycle in AGCMs is critical to establishing the potential for such prediction. Our own studies show, among other things, that soil moisture retention can lead to significant precipitation predictability in many midlatitude and tropical regions.
Seo, Janghoon; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Kwon, J. M.; Yoon, E. S.
2013-10-01
The Full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1 is used to study the details of toroidal momentum generation in H-mode plasma. Diverted DIII-D geometry is used, with Monte Carlo neutral particles that are recycled at the limiter wall. Nonlinear Coulomb collisions conserve particle, momentum, and energy. Gyrokinetic ions and adiabatic electrons are used in the present simulation to include the effects from ion gyrokinetic turbulence and neoclassical physics, under self-consistent radial electric field generation. Ion orbit loss physics is automatically included. Simulations show a strong co-Ip flow in the H-mode layer at outside midplane, similarly to the experimental observation from DIII-D and ASDEX-U. The co-Ip flow in the edge propagates inward into core. It is found that the strong co-Ip flow generation is mostly from neoclassical physics. On the other hand, the inward momentum transport is from turbulence physics, consistently with the theory of residual stress from symmetry breaking. Therefore, interaction between the neoclassical and turbulence physics is a key factor in the spontaneous momentum generation.
A 20-year simulated climatology of global dust aerosol deposition.
Zheng, Yu; Zhao, Tianliang; Che, Huizheng; Liu, Yu; Han, Yongxiang; Liu, Chong; Xiong, Jie; Liu, Jianhui; Zhou, Yike
2016-07-01
Based on a 20-year (1991-2010) simulation of dust aerosol deposition with the global climate model CAM5.1 (Community Atmosphere Model, version 5.1), the spatial and temporal variations of dust aerosol deposition were analyzed using climate statistical methods. The results indicated that the annual amount of global dust aerosol deposition was approximately 1161±31Mt, with a decreasing trend, and its interannual variation range of 2.70% over 1991-2010. The 20-year average ratio of global dust dry to wet depositions was 1.12, with interannual variation of 2.24%, showing the quantity of dry deposition of dust aerosol was greater than dust wet deposition. High dry deposition was centered over continental deserts and surrounding regions, while wet deposition was a dominant deposition process over the North Atlantic, North Pacific and northern Indian Ocean. Furthermore, both dry and wet deposition presented a zonal distribution. To examine the regional changes of dust aerosol deposition on land and sea areas, we chose the North Atlantic, Eurasia, northern Indian Ocean, North Pacific and Australia to analyze the interannual and seasonal variations of dust deposition and dry-to-wet deposition ratio. The deposition amounts of each region showed interannual fluctuations with the largest variation range at around 26.96% in the northern Indian Ocean area, followed by the North Pacific (16.47%), Australia (9.76%), North Atlantic (9.43%) and Eurasia (6.03%). The northern Indian Ocean also had the greatest amplitude of interannual variation in dry-to-wet deposition ratio, at 22.41%, followed by the North Atlantic (9.69%), Australia (6.82%), North Pacific (6.31%) and Eurasia (4.36%). Dust aerosol presented a seasonal cycle, with typically strong deposition in spring and summer and weak deposition in autumn and winter. The dust deposition over the northern Indian Ocean exhibited the greatest seasonal change range at about 118.00%, while the North Atlantic showed the lowest seasonal
Simulation Of Microtearing Turbulence In NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guttenfelder, W.; Candy, J.; Kaye, S.M.; Nevins, W.M.; Wanag, E.; Zhang, J.; Bell, R.E.; Crocker, N.A.; Hammett, G.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Ren, Y.; Yuh, H.
2012-01-01
Thermal energy confinement times in NSTX dimensionless parameter scans increase with decreasing collisionality. While ion thermal transport is neoclassical, the source of anomalous electron thermal transport in these discharges remains unclear, leading to considerable uncertainty when extrapolating to future ST devices at much lower collisionality. Linear gyrokinetic simulations find microtearing modes to be unstable in high collisionality discharges. First non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing turbulence in NSTX show they can yield experimental levels of transport. Magnetic flutter is responsible for almost all the transport (∼98%), perturbed field line trajectories are globally stochastic, and a test particle stochastic transport model agrees to within 25% of the simulated transport. Most significantly, microtearing transport is predicted to increase with electron collisionality, consistent with the observed NSTX confinement scaling. While this suggests microtearing modes may be the source of electron thermal transport, the predictions are also very sensitive to electron temperature gradient, indicating the scaling of the instability threshold is important. In addition, microtearing turbulence is susceptible to suppression via sheared E-B flows as experimental values of E-B shear (comparable to the linear growth rates) dramatically reduce the transport below experimental values. Refinements in numerical resolution and physics model assumptions are expected to minimize the apparent discrepancy. In cases where the predicted transport is strong, calculations suggest that a proposed polarimetry diagnostic may be sensitive to the magnetic perturbations associated with the unique structure of microtearing turbulence.
Global options for biofuels from plantations according to IMAGE simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battjes, J.J.
1994-07-01
In this report the contribution of biofuels to the renewable energy supply and the transition towards it are discussed for the energy crops miscanthus, eucalyptus, poplar, wheat and sugar cane. Bio-electricity appears to be the most suitable option regarding energetic and financial aspects and in terms of avoided CO 2 emissions. The IMAGE 2.0 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system, and mainly used here for making more realistic estimates. Dynamic calculations are performed to the year 2100. An IMAGE 2.0-based Conventional Wisdom scenario simulates, among other things, future energy demand and supply, future food production, future land cover patterns and future greenhouse gas emissions. Two biofuel scenarios are described in this report. The first consists of growing energy crops on set asides. According to a 'Conventional Wisdom' scenario, Canada, the U.S. and Europe and to a lesser extent Latin America will experience set asides due to a declining demand in agricultural area. The second biofuel scenario consists of growing energy crops on set asides and on 10% of the agricultural area in the developing countries. Growing energy crops on all of the areas listed above leads to an energy production that consists of about 12% of the total non-renewable energy use in 2050, according to the 'Conventional Wisdom' scenario. Furthermore, the energy related CO 2 emissions are reduced with about 15% in 2050, compared to the Conventional Wisdom scenario. Financial aspects will have great influence on the success of growing energy crops. However, energy generated from biomass derived from plantations is currently more expensive than generating it from traditional fuels. Levying taxes on CO 2 emissions and giving subsidies to biofuels will reduce the cost price difference between fossil fuels and biofuels
Biancalani, A.; Bottino, A.; Ehrlacher, C.; Grandgirard, V.; Merlo, G.; Novikau, I.; Qiu, Z.; Sonnendrücker, E.; Garbet, X.; Görler, T.; Leerink, S.; Palermo, F.; Zarzoso, D.
2017-06-01
The linear properties of the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in tokamaks are investigated by means of the comparison of analytical theory and gyrokinetic numerical simulations. The dependence on the value of the safety factor, finite-orbit-width of the ions in relation to the radial mode width, magnetic-flux-surface shaping, and electron/ion mass ratio are considered. Nonuniformities in the plasma profiles (such as density, temperature, and safety factor), electro-magnetic effects, collisions, and the presence of minority species are neglected. Also, only linear simulations are considered, focusing on the local dynamics. We use three different gyrokinetic codes: the Lagrangian (particle-in-cell) code ORB5, the Eulerian code GENE, and semi-Lagrangian code GYSELA. One of the main aims of this paper is to provide a detailed comparison of the numerical results and analytical theory, in the regimes where this is possible. This helps understanding better the behavior of the linear GAM dynamics in these different regimes, the behavior of the codes, which is crucial in the view of a future work where more physics is present, and the regimes of validity of each specific analytical dispersion relation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohana, N; Lanti, E; Tran, T M; Brunner, S; Hariri, F; Villard, L; Jocksch, A; Gheller, C
2016-01-01
With the aim of enabling state-of-the-art gyrokinetic PIC codes to benefit from the performance of recent multithreaded devices, we developed an application from a platform called the “PIC-engine” [1, 2, 3] embedding simplified basic features of the PIC method. The application solves the gyrokinetic equations in a sheared plasma slab using B-spline finite elements up to fourth order to represent the self-consistent electrostatic field. Preliminary studies of the so-called Particle-In-Fourier (PIF) approach, which uses Fourier modes as basis functions in the periodic dimensions of the system instead of the real-space grid, show that this method can be faster than PIC for simulations with a small number of Fourier modes. Similarly to the PIC-engine, multiple levels of parallelism have been implemented using MPI+OpenMP [2] and MPI+OpenACC [1], the latter exploiting the computational power of GPUs without requiring complete code rewriting. It is shown that sorting particles [3] can lead to performance improvement by increasing data locality and vectorizing grid memory access. Weak scalability tests have been successfully run on the GPU-equipped Cray XC30 Piz Daint (at CSCS) up to 4,096 nodes. The reduced time-to-solution will enable more realistic and thus more computationally intensive simulations of turbulent transport in magnetic fusion devices. (paper)
Hydrological simulation of the Brahmaputra basin using global datasets
Bhattacharya, Biswa; Conway, Crystal; Craven, Joanne; Masih, Ilyas; Mazzolini, Maurizio; Shrestha, Shreedeepy; Ugay, Reyne; van Andel, Schalk Jan
2017-04-01
Brahmaputra River flows through China, India and Bangladesh to the Bay of Bengal and is one of the largest rivers of the world with a catchment size of 580K km2. The catchment is largely hilly and/or forested with sparse population and with limited urbanisation and economic activities. The catchment experiences heavy monsoon rainfall leading to very high flood discharges. Large inter-annual variation of discharge leading to flooding, erosion and morphological changes are among the major challenges. The catchment is largely ungauged; moreover, limited availability of hydro-meteorological data limits the possibility of carrying out evidence based research, which could provide trustworthy information for managing and when needed, controlling, the basin processes by the riparian countries for overall basin development. The paper presents initial results of a current research project on Brahmaputra basin. A set of hydrological and hydraulic models (SWAT, HMS, RAS) are developed by employing publicly available datasets of DEM, land use and soil and simulated using satellite based rainfall products, evapotranspiration and temperature estimates. Remotely sensed data are compared with sporadically available ground data. The set of models are able to produce catchment wide hydrological information that potentially can be used in the future in managing the basin's water resources. The model predications should be used with caution due to high level of uncertainty because the semi-calibrated models are developed with uncertain physical representation (e.g. cross-section) and simulated with global meteorological forcing (e.g. TRMM) with limited validation. Major scientific challenges are seen in producing robust information that can be reliably used in managing the basin. The information generated by the models are uncertain and as a result, instead of using them per se, they are used in improving the understanding of the catchment, and by running several scenarios with varying
Fully Electromagnetic Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Equations for Tokamak Edge Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Wang, Lu; Madsen, J.
2008-01-01
An energy conserving set of the fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to both L-mode turbulence with large amplitude and H-mode turbulence in the presence of high E x B shear has been derived. The phase-space action variational Lie perturbation method ensures the preservation of the conservation laws of the underlying Vlasov-Maxwell system. Our generalized ordering takes ρ i θi ∼ L E ∼ L p i is the thermal ion Larmor radius and ρ θi = B/B θ ρ i ), as typically observed in the tokamak H-mode edge, with L E and L p being the radial electric field and pressure gradient lengths. We take k # perpendicular# ρ i ∼ 1 for generality, and keep the relative fluctuation amplitudes e(delta)φ/T i ∼ (delta)B/B up to the second order. Extending the electrostatic theory in the presence of high E x B shear [Hahm, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4658 (1996)], contributions of electromagnetic fluctuations to the particle charge density and current are explicitly evaluated via pull-back transformation from the gyrocenter distribution function in the gyrokinetic Maxwell's equation
Global simulation of aromatic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere
Cabrera Perez, David; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Pozzer, Andrea
2015-04-01
Among the large number of chemical compounds in the atmosphere, the organic group plays a key role in the tropospheric chemistry. Specifically the subgroup called aromatics is of great interest. Aromatics are the predominant trace gases in urban areas due to high emissions, primarily by vehicle exhausts and fuel evaporation. They are also present in areas where biofuel is used (i.e residential wood burning). Emissions of aromatic compounds are a substantial fraction of the total emissions of the volatile organic compounds (VOC). Impact of aromatics on human health is very important, as they do not only contribute to the ozone formation in the urban environment, but they are also highly toxic themselves, especially in the case of benzene which is able to trigger a range of illness under long exposure, and of nitro-phenols which cause detrimental for humans and vegetation even at very low concentrations. The aim of this work is to assess the atmospheric impacts of aromatic compounds on the global scale. The main goals are: lifetime and budget estimation, mixing ratios distribution, net effect on ozone production and OH loss for the most emitted aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene and trimethylbenzenes). For this purpose, we use the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model to build the global atmospheric budget for the most emitted and predominant aromatic compounds in the atmosphere. A set of emissions was prepared in order to include biomass burning, vegetation and anthropogenic sources of aromatics into the model. A chemical mechanism based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) was developed to describe the chemical oxidation in the gas phase of these aromatic compounds. MCM have been reduced in terms of number of chemical equation and species in order to make it affordable in a 3D model. Additionally other features have been added, for instance the production of HONO via ortho
Cross-separatrix Coupling in Nonlinear Global Electrostatic Turbulent Transport in C-2U
Lau, Calvin; Fulton, Daniel; Bao, Jian; Lin, Zhihong; Binderbauer, Michl; Tajima, Toshiki; Schmitz, Lothar; TAE Team
2017-10-01
In recent years, the progress of the C-2/C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiments at Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. has pushed FRCs to transport limited regimes. Understanding particle and energy transport is a vital step towards an FRC reactor, and two particle-in-cell microturbulence codes, the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) and A New Code (ANC), are being developed and applied toward this goal. Previous local electrostatic GTC simulations find the core to be robustly stable with drift-wave instability only in the scrape-off layer (SOL) region. However, experimental measurements showed fluctuations in both regions; one possibility is that fluctuations in the core originate from the SOL, suggesting the need for non-local simulations with cross-separatrix coupling. Current global ANC simulations with gyrokinetic ions and adiabatic electrons find that non-local effects (1) modify linear growth-rates and frequencies of instabilities and (2) allow instability to move from the unstable SOL to the linearly stable core. Nonlinear spreading is also seen prior to mode saturation. We also report on the progress of the first turbulence simulations in the SOL. This work is supported by the Norman Rostoker Fellowship.
Global sensitivity analysis in stochastic simulators of uncertain reaction networks
Navarro, Marí a; Le Maitre, Olivier; Knio, Omar
2016-01-01
sources are independent, and considers the Poisson processes in the random-time-change representation of the state dynamics as the fundamental objects governing the inherent stochasticity. A sampling algorithm is proposed to perform the global sensitivity
Simulation of microtearing turbulence in national spherical torus experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Bell, R. E.; Hammett, G. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Ren, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton New Jersey 08543 (United States); Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Nevins, W. M.; Wang, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 04551 (United States); Zhang, J.; Crocker, N. A. [University of California Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2012-05-15
Thermal energy confinement times in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) dimensionless parameter scans increase with decreasing collisionality. While ion thermal transport is neoclassical, the source of anomalous electron thermal transport in these discharges remains unclear, leading to considerable uncertainty when extrapolating to future spherical tokamak (ST) devices at much lower collisionality. Linear gyrokinetic simulations find microtearing modes to be unstable in high collisionality discharges. First non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing turbulence in NSTX show they can yield experimental levels of transport. Magnetic flutter is responsible for almost all the transport ({approx}98%), perturbed field line trajectories are globally stochastic, and a test particle stochastic transport model agrees to within 25% of the simulated transport. Most significantly, microtearing transport is predicted to increase with electron collisionality, consistent with the observed NSTX confinement scaling. While this suggests microtearing modes may be the source of electron thermal transport, the predictions are also very sensitive to electron temperature gradient, indicating the scaling of the instability threshold is important. In addition, microtearing turbulence is susceptible to suppression via sheared E Multiplication-Sign B flows as experimental values of E Multiplication-Sign B shear (comparable to the linear growth rates) dramatically reduce the transport below experimental values. Refinements in numerical resolution and physics model assumptions are expected to minimize the apparent discrepancy. In cases where the predicted transport is strong, calculations suggest that a proposed polarimetry diagnostic may be sensitive to the magnetic perturbations associated with the unique structure of microtearing turbulence.
Osherenko, Alexander
2014-01-01
This thorough, multidisciplinary study discusses the findings of social interaction and social simulation using understandable global examples. Shows the reader how to acquire intercultural data, illustrating each step with descriptive comments and program code.
Field Simulation of Global Change: Transplanting Northern Bog Mesocosms Southward
Breeuwer, A.J.G.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Berendse, F.
2010-01-01
A large proportion of northern peatlands consists of Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic bogs. In these bogs, peat mosses (Sphagnum) and vascular plants occur in an apparent stable equilibrium, thereby sustaining the carbon sink function of the bog ecosystem. How global warming and increased nitrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tolabi, H.B.; Ayob, S.M.
2014-01-01
In this paper, a novel approach based on simulated annealing algorithm as a meta-heuristic method is implemented in MATLAB software to estimate the monthly average daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface for six different climate cities of Iran. A search method based on genetic algorithm is applied to accelerate problem solving. Results show that simulated annealing based on genetic algorithm search is a suitable method to find the global solar radiation. (author)
Memory-efficient optimization of Gyrokinetic particle-to-grid interpolation for multicore processors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madduri, Kamesh [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shalf, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Strohmaier, Erich [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yelicky, Katherine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2009-01-01
We present multicore parallelization strategies for the particle-to-grid interpolation step in the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC), a 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) application to study turbulent transport in magnetic-confinement fusion devices. Particle-grid interpolation is a known performance bottleneck in several PIC applications. In GTC, this step involves particles depositing charges to a 3D toroidal mesh, and multiple particles may contribute to the charge at a grid point. We design new parallel algorithms for the GTC charge deposition kernel, and analyze their performance on three leading multicore platforms. We implement thirteen different variants for this kernel and identify the best-performing ones given typical PIC parameters such as the grid size, number of particles per cell, and the GTC-specific particle Larmor radius variation. We find that our best strategies can be 2x faster than the reference optimized MPI implementation, and our analysis provides insight into desirable architectural features for high-performance PIC simulation codes.
Neoclassical and gyrokinetic analysis of time-dependent helium transport experiments on MAST
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henderson, S.S.; O'Mullane, M.; Summers, H.P.; Garzotti, L.; Casson, F.J.; Dickinson, D.; Fox, M.F.J.; Patel, A.; Roach, C.M.; Valovič, M.
2014-01-01
Time-dependent helium gas puff experiments have been performed on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) during a two point plasma current scan in L-mode and a confinement scan at 900 kA. An evaluation of the He II (n = 4 → 3) spectrum line induced by charge exchange suggests anomalous rates of diffusion and inward convection in the outer regions of both L-mode plasmas. Similar rates of diffusion are found in the H-mode plasma, however these rates are consistent with neoclassical predictions. The anomalous inward pinch found in the core of L-mode plasmas is also not apparent in the H-mode core. Linear gyrokinetic simulations of one flux surface in L-mode using the GS2 and GKW codes find that equilibrium flow shear is sufficient to stabilize ITG modes, consistent with beam emission spectroscopy (BES) observations, and suggest that collisionless TEMs may dominate the anomalous helium particle transport. A quasilinear estimate of the dimensionless peaking factor associated with TEMs is in good agreement with experiment. Collisionless TEMs are more stable in H-mode because the electron density gradient is flatter. The steepness of this gradient is therefore pivotal in determining the inward neoclassical particle pinch and the particle flux associated with TEM turbulence. (paper)
Neoclassical and gyrokinetic analysis of time-dependent helium transport experiments on MAST
Henderson, S. S.; Garzotti, L.; Casson, F. J.; Dickinson, D.; Fox, M. F. J.; O'Mullane, M.; Patel, A.; Roach, C. M.; Summers, H. P.; Valovič, M.; The MAST Team
2014-09-01
Time-dependent helium gas puff experiments have been performed on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) during a two point plasma current scan in L-mode and a confinement scan at 900 kA. An evaluation of the He II (n = 4 → 3) spectrum line induced by charge exchange suggests anomalous rates of diffusion and inward convection in the outer regions of both L-mode plasmas. Similar rates of diffusion are found in the H-mode plasma, however these rates are consistent with neoclassical predictions. The anomalous inward pinch found in the core of L-mode plasmas is also not apparent in the H-mode core. Linear gyrokinetic simulations of one flux surface in L-mode using the GS2 and GKW codes find that equilibrium flow shear is sufficient to stabilize ITG modes, consistent with beam emission spectroscopy (BES) observations, and suggest that collisionless TEMs may dominate the anomalous helium particle transport. A quasilinear estimate of the dimensionless peaking factor associated with TEMs is in good agreement with experiment. Collisionless TEMs are more stable in H-mode because the electron density gradient is flatter. The steepness of this gradient is therefore pivotal in determining the inward neoclassical particle pinch and the particle flux associated with TEM turbulence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences} [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Wang, Dali [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL; Kang, Shujiang [ORNL
2014-01-01
Contemporary global assessments of the deployment potential and sustainability aspects of biofuel crops lack quantitative details. This paper describes an analytical framework capable of meeting the challenges associated with global scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed a modeling platform for bioenergy crops, consisting of five major components: (i) standardized global natural resources and management data sets, (ii) global simulation unit and management scenarios, (iii) model calibration and validation, (iv) high-performance computing (HPC) modeling, and (v) simulation output processing and analysis. A case study with the HPC- Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (HPC-EPIC) to simulate a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and global biomass feedstock analysis on grassland demonstrates the application of this platform. The results illustrate biomass feedstock variability of switchgrass and provide insights on how the modeling platform can be expanded to better assess sustainable production criteria and other biomass crops. Feedstock potentials on global grasslands and within different countries are also shown. Future efforts involve developing databases of productivity, implementing global simulations for other bioenergy crops (e.g. miscanthus, energycane and agave), and assessing environmental impacts under various management regimes. We anticipated this platform will provide an exemplary tool and assessment data for international communities to conduct global analysis of biofuel biomass feedstocks and sustainability.
The comparison of observed global mean surface air temperature (GMT) change to the mean change simulated by climate models has received much attention. For a given global warming signal produced by a climate model ensemble, there exists an envelope of GMT values representing the range of possible un...
Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.; Hager, R.; Churchill, R. M.; Tynan, G. R.; Cziegler, I.; Greenwald, M.; Hughes, J.; Parker, S. E.; Adams, M. F.; D'Azevedo, E.; Worley, P.
2018-05-01
A fast edge turbulence suppression event has been simulated in the electrostatic version of the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code XGC1 in a realistic diverted tokamak edge geometry under neutral particle recycling. The results show that the sequence of turbulent Reynolds stress followed by neoclassical ion orbit-loss driven together conspire to form the sustaining radial electric field shear and to quench turbulent transport just inside the last closed magnetic flux surface. The main suppression action is located in a thin radial layer around ψN≃0.96 -0.98 , where ψN is the normalized poloidal flux, with the time scale ˜0.1 ms.
Klein, R.; Gravier, E.; Morel, P.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.
2009-08-01
Describing turbulent transport in fusion plasmas is a major concern in magnetic confinement fusion. It is now widely known that kinetic and fluid descriptions can lead to significantly different properties. Although more accurate, the kinetic calculation of turbulent transport is much more demanding of computer resources than fluid simulations. An alternative approach is based on a water-bag representation of the distribution function that is not an approximation but rather a special class of initial conditions, allowing one to reduce the full kinetic Vlasov equation into a set of hydrodynamics equations while keeping its kinetic character [P. Morel, E. Gravier, N. Besse et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)]. In this paper, the water-bag concept is used in a gyrokinetic context to study finite Larmor radius effects with the possibility of using the full Larmor radius distribution instead of an averaged Larmor radius. The resulting model is used to study the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability.
Computational Approaches to Simulation and Optimization of Global Aircraft Trajectories
Ng, Hok Kwan; Sridhar, Banavar
2016-01-01
This study examines three possible approaches to improving the speed in generating wind-optimal routes for air traffic at the national or global level. They are: (a) using the resources of a supercomputer, (b) running the computations on multiple commercially available computers and (c) implementing those same algorithms into NASAs Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) and compares those to a standard implementation run on a single CPU. Wind-optimal aircraft trajectories are computed using global air traffic schedules. The run time and wait time on the supercomputer for trajectory optimization using various numbers of CPUs ranging from 80 to 10,240 units are compared with the total computational time for running the same computation on a single desktop computer and on multiple commercially available computers for potential computational enhancement through parallel processing on the computer clusters. This study also re-implements the trajectory optimization algorithm for further reduction of computational time through algorithm modifications and integrates that with FACET to facilitate the use of the new features which calculate time-optimal routes between worldwide airport pairs in a wind field for use with existing FACET applications. The implementations of trajectory optimization algorithms use MATLAB, Python, and Java programming languages. The performance evaluations are done by comparing their computational efficiencies and based on the potential application of optimized trajectories. The paper shows that in the absence of special privileges on a supercomputer, a cluster of commercially available computers provides a feasible approach for national and global air traffic system studies.
Visualization and analysis of eddies in a global ocean simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, Sean J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hecht, Matthew W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Petersen, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Strelitz, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maltrud, Mathew E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hlawitschka, Mario [UC DAVIS; Hamann, Bernd [UC DAVIS
2010-10-15
Eddies at a scale of approximately one hundred kilometers have been shown to be surprisingly important to understanding large-scale transport of heat and nutrients in the ocean. Due to difficulties in observing the ocean directly, the behavior of eddies below the surface is not very well understood. To fill this gap, we employ a high-resolution simulation of the ocean developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Using large-scale parallel visualization and analysis tools, we produce three-dimensional images of ocean eddies, and also generate a census of eddy distribution and shape averaged over multiple simulation time steps, resulting in a world map of eddy characteristics. As expected from observational studies, our census reveals a higher concentration of eddies at the mid-latitudes than the equator. Our analysis further shows that mid-latitude eddies are thicker, within a range of 1000-2000m, while equatorial eddies are less than 100m thick.
Global sensitivity analysis in stochastic simulators of uncertain reaction networks.
Navarro Jimenez, M; Le Maître, O P; Knio, O M
2016-12-28
Stochastic models of chemical systems are often subjected to uncertainties in kinetic parameters in addition to the inherent random nature of their dynamics. Uncertainty quantification in such systems is generally achieved by means of sensitivity analyses in which one characterizes the variability with the uncertain kinetic parameters of the first statistical moments of model predictions. In this work, we propose an original global sensitivity analysis method where the parametric and inherent variability sources are both treated through Sobol's decomposition of the variance into contributions from arbitrary subset of uncertain parameters and stochastic reaction channels. The conceptual development only assumes that the inherent and parametric sources are independent, and considers the Poisson processes in the random-time-change representation of the state dynamics as the fundamental objects governing the inherent stochasticity. A sampling algorithm is proposed to perform the global sensitivity analysis, and to estimate the partial variances and sensitivity indices characterizing the importance of the various sources of variability and their interactions. The birth-death and Schlögl models are used to illustrate both the implementation of the algorithm and the richness of the proposed analysis method. The output of the proposed sensitivity analysis is also contrasted with a local derivative-based sensitivity analysis method classically used for this type of systems.
KEYNOTE: Simulation, computation, and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership
Reis, Victor, Dr.
2006-01-01
Dr. Victor Reis delivered the keynote talk at the closing session of the conference. The talk was forward looking and focused on the importance of advanced computing for large-scale nuclear energy goals such as Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Dr. Reis discussed the important connections of GNEP to the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program and the SciDAC research portfolio. In the context of GNEP, Dr. Reis talked about possible fuel leasing configurations, strategies for their implementation, and typical fuel cycle flow sheets. A major portion of the talk addressed lessons learnt from ‘Science Based Stockpile Stewardship’ and the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) initiative and how they can provide guidance for advancing GNEP and SciDAC goals. Dr. Reis’s colorful and informative presentation included international proverbs, quotes and comments, in tune with the international flavor that is part of the GNEP philosophy and plan. He concluded with a positive and motivating outlook for peaceful nuclear energy and its potential to solve global problems. An interview with Dr. Reis, addressing some of the above issues, is the cover story of Issue 2 of the SciDAC Review and available at http://www.scidacreview.org This summary of Dr. Reis’s PowerPoint presentation was prepared by Institute of Physics Publishing, the complete PowerPoint version of Dr. Reis’s talk at SciDAC 2006 is given as a multimedia attachment to this summary.
Global sensitivity analysis in stochastic simulators of uncertain reaction networks
Navarro, María
2016-12-26
Stochastic models of chemical systems are often subjected to uncertainties in kinetic parameters in addition to the inherent random nature of their dynamics. Uncertainty quantification in such systems is generally achieved by means of sensitivity analyses in which one characterizes the variability with the uncertain kinetic parameters of the first statistical moments of model predictions. In this work, we propose an original global sensitivity analysis method where the parametric and inherent variability sources are both treated through Sobol’s decomposition of the variance into contributions from arbitrary subset of uncertain parameters and stochastic reaction channels. The conceptual development only assumes that the inherent and parametric sources are independent, and considers the Poisson processes in the random-time-change representation of the state dynamics as the fundamental objects governing the inherent stochasticity. A sampling algorithm is proposed to perform the global sensitivity analysis, and to estimate the partial variances and sensitivity indices characterizing the importance of the various sources of variability and their interactions. The birth-death and Schlögl models are used to illustrate both the implementation of the algorithm and the richness of the proposed analysis method. The output of the proposed sensitivity analysis is also contrasted with a local derivative-based sensitivity analysis method classically used for this type of systems.
Simulation of global warming effect on outdoor thermal comfort conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roshan, G.R.; Ranjbar, F. [Univ. of Tehran (IR). Dept. of Physical Geography; Orosa, J.A. [Univ. of A Coruna (Spain). Dept. of Energy
2010-07-01
In the coming decades, global warming and increase in temperature, in different regions of the world, may change indoor and outdoor thermal comfort conditions and human health. The aim of this research was to study the effects of global warming on thermal comfort conditions in indoor ambiences in Iran. To study the increase in temperature, model for assessment of greenhouse-gas induced climate change scenario generator compound model has been used together with four scenarios and to estimate thermal comfort conditions, adaptive model of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers has been used. In this study, Iran was divided into 30 zones, outdoor conditions were obtained using meteorological data of 80 climatological stations and changes in neutral comfort conditions in 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2100 were predicted. In accordance with each scenario, findings from this study showed that temperature in the 30 zones will increase by 2100 to between 3.4 C and 5.6 C. In the coming decades and in the 30 studied zones, neutral comfort temperature will increase and be higher and more intense in the central and desert zones of Iran. The low increase in this temperature will be connected to the coastal areas of the Caspian and Oman Sea in southeast Iran. This increase in temperature will be followed by a change in thermal comfort and indoor energy consumption from 8.6 % to 13.1 % in air conditioning systems. As a result, passive methods as thermal inertia are proposed as a possible solution.
An Efficient Method for Verifying Gyrokinetic Microstability Codes
Bravenec, R.; Candy, J.; Dorland, W.; Holland, C.
2009-11-01
Benchmarks for gyrokinetic microstability codes can be developed through successful ``apples-to-apples'' comparisons among them. Unlike previous efforts, we perform the comparisons for actual discharges, rendering the verification efforts relevant to existing experiments and future devices (ITER). The process requires i) assembling the experimental analyses at multiple times, radii, discharges, and devices, ii) creating the input files ensuring that the input parameters are faithfully translated code-to-code, iii) running the codes, and iv) comparing the results, all in an organized fashion. The purpose of this work is to automate this process as much as possible: At present, a python routine is used to generate and organize GYRO input files from TRANSP or ONETWO analyses. Another routine translates the GYRO input files into GS2 input files. (Translation software for other codes has not yet been written.) Other python codes submit the multiple GYRO and GS2 jobs, organize the results, and collect them into a table suitable for plotting. (These separate python routines could easily be consolidated.) An example of the process -- a linear comparison between GYRO and GS2 for a DIII-D discharge at multiple radii -- will be presented.
Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belli, E. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hammett, G. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Dorland, W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
2008-08-01
The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ~ κ^{-1.5} or κ^{-2.0}, depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows.
Local gyrokinetic study of electrostatic microinstabilities in dipole plasmas
Xie, Hua-sheng; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Zi-cong; Ou, Wei-ke; Li, Bo
2017-12-01
A linear gyrokinetic particle-in-cell scheme, which is valid for an arbitrary perpendicular wavelength k⊥ρi and includes the parallel dynamic along the field line, is developed to study the local electrostatic drift modes in point and ring dipole plasmas. We find that the most unstable mode in this system can be either the electron mode or the ion mode. The properties and relations of these modes are studied in detail as a function of k⊥ρi , the density gradient κn, the temperature gradient κT, electron to ion temperature ratio τ=Te/Ti , and mass ratio mi/me . For conventional weak gradient parameters, the mode is on the ground state (with eigenstate number l = 0) and especially k∥˜0 for small k⊥ρi . Thus, the bounce averaged dispersion relation is also derived for comparison. For strong gradient and large k⊥ρi , most interestingly, higher order eigenstate modes with even (e.g., l = 2, 4) or odd (e.g., l = 1) parity can be most unstable, which is not expected in the previous studies. High order eigenstate can also easily be most unstable at weak gradient when τ>10 . This work can be particularly important to understand the turbulent transport in laboratory and space magnetosphere.
Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
E.A. Belli, G.W. Hammett and W. Dorland
2008-01-01
The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ∼ κ -1.5 or κ -2.0 , depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows
Simulating REAL LIVES: Promoting Global Empathy and Interest in Learning through Simulation Games
Bachen, Christine M.; Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro F.; Raphael, Chad
2012-01-01
In response to an increasingly interdependent world, educators are demonstrating a growing interest in educating for global citizenship. Many definitions of the "good global citizen" value empathy as an especially important disposition for understanding others across national borders and cultural divides. Yet it may be difficult for…
The effects of global warming on fisheries: Simulation estimates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos A. Medel
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper develops two fisheries models in order to estimate the effect of global warming (GW on firm value. GW is defined as an increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s surface as a result of emissions. It is assumed that (i GW exists, and (ii higher temperatures negatively affect biomass. CO2 The literature on biology and GW supporting these two crucial assumptions is reviewed. The main argument presented is that temperature increase has two effects on biomass, both of which have an impact on firm value. First, higher temperatures cause biomass to oscillate. To measure the effect of biomass oscillation on firm value the model in [1] is modified to include water temperature as a variable. The results indicate that a 1 to 20% variation in biomass causes firm value to fall from 6 to 44%, respectively. Second, higher temperatures reduce biomass, and a modification of the model in [2] reveals that an increase in temperature anomaly between +1 and +8°C causes fishing firm value to decrease by 8 to 10%.
Formulation of an ocean model for global climate simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. M. Griffies
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper summarizes the formulation of the ocean component to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's (GFDL climate model used for the 4th IPCC Assessment (AR4 of global climate change. In particular, it reviews the numerical schemes and physical parameterizations that make up an ocean climate model and how these schemes are pieced together for use in a state-of-the-art climate model. Features of the model described here include the following: (1 tripolar grid to resolve the Arctic Ocean without polar filtering, (2 partial bottom step representation of topography to better represent topographically influenced advective and wave processes, (3 more accurate equation of state, (4 three-dimensional flux limited tracer advection to reduce overshoots and undershoots, (5 incorporation of regional climatological variability in shortwave penetration, (6 neutral physics parameterization for representation of the pathways of tracer transport, (7 staggered time stepping for tracer conservation and numerical efficiency, (8 anisotropic horizontal viscosities for representation of equatorial currents, (9 parameterization of exchange with marginal seas, (10 incorporation of a free surface that accomodates a dynamic ice model and wave propagation, (11 transport of water across the ocean free surface to eliminate unphysical ``virtual tracer flux' methods, (12 parameterization of tidal mixing on continental shelves. We also present preliminary analyses of two particularly important sensitivities isolated during the development process, namely the details of how parameterized subgridscale eddies transport momentum and tracers.
DIPOLE COLLAPSE AND DYNAMO WAVES IN GLOBAL DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel [MAG (ENS/IPGP), LRA, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Petitdemange, Ludovic, E-mail: martin@schrinner.eu [Previously at Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. (Germany)
2012-06-20
Magnetic fields of low-mass stars and planets are thought to originate from self-excited dynamo action in their convective interiors. Observations reveal a variety of field topologies ranging from large-scale, axial dipoles to more structured magnetic fields. In this article, we investigate more than 70 three-dimensional, self-consistent dynamo models in the Boussinesq approximation obtained by direct numerical simulations. The control parameters, the aspect ratio, and the mechanical boundary conditions have been varied to build up this sample of models. Both strongly dipolar and multipolar models have been obtained. We show that these dynamo regimes in general can be distinguished by the ratio of a typical convective length scale to the Rossby radius. Models with a predominantly dipolar magnetic field were obtained, if the convective length scale is at least an order of magnitude larger than the Rossby radius. Moreover, we highlight the role of the strong shear associated with the geostrophic zonal flow for models with stress-free boundary conditions. In this case the above transition disappears and is replaced by a region of bistability for which dipolar and multipolar dynamos coexist. We interpret our results in terms of dynamo eigenmodes using the so-called test-field method. We can thus show that models in the dipolar regime are characterized by an isolated 'single mode'. Competing overtones become significant as the boundary to multipolar dynamos is approached. We discuss how these findings relate to previous models and to observations.
Particle tracking code of simulating global RF feedback
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mestha, L.K.
1991-09-01
It is well known in the ''control community'' that a good feedback controller design is deeply rooted in the physics of the system. For example, when accelerating the beam we must keep several parameters under control so that the beam travels within the confined space. Important parameters include the frequency and phase of the rf signal, the dipole field, and the cavity voltage. Because errors in these parameters will progressively mislead the beam from its projected path in the tube, feedback loops are used to correct the behavior. Since the feedback loop feeds energy to the system, it changes the overall behavior of the system and may drive it to instability. Various types of controllers are used to stabilize the feedback loop. Integrating the beam physics with the feedback controllers allows us to carefully analyze the beam behavior. This will not only guarantee optimal performance but will also significantly enhance the ability of the beam control engineer to deal effectively with the interaction of various feedback loops. Motivated by this theme, we developed a simple one-particle tracking code to simulate particle behavior with feedback controllers. In order to achieve our fundamental objective, we can ask some key questions: What are the input and output parameters? How can they be applied to the practical machine? How can one interface the rf system dynamics such as the transfer characteristics of the rf cavities and phasing between the cavities? Answers to these questions can be found by considering a simple case of a single cavity with one particle, tracking it turn-by-turn with appropriate initial conditions, then introducing constraints on crucial parameters. Critical parameters are rf frequency, phase, and amplitude once the dipole field has been given. These are arranged in the tracking code so that we can interface the feedback system controlling them
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parkin, E. R.; Bicknell, G. V.
2013-01-01
Global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of turbulent accretion disks are presented which start from fully equilibrium initial conditions in which the magnetic forces are accounted for and the induction equation is satisfied. The local linear theory of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is used as a predictor of the growth of magnetic field perturbations in the global simulations. The linear growth estimates and global simulations diverge when nonlinear motions—perhaps triggered by the onset of turbulence—upset the velocity perturbations used to excite the MRI. The saturated state is found to be independent of the initially excited MRI mode, showing that once the disk has expelled the initially net flux field and settled into quasi-periodic oscillations in the toroidal magnetic flux, the dynamo cycle regulates the global saturation stress level. Furthermore, time-averaged measures of converged turbulence, such as the ratio of magnetic energies, are found to be in agreement with previous works. In particular, the globally averaged stress normalized to the gas pressure P >bar = 0.034, with notably higher values achieved for simulations with higher azimuthal resolution. Supplementary tests are performed using different numerical algorithms and resolutions. Convergence with resolution during the initial linear MRI growth phase is found for 23-35 cells per scale height (in the vertical direction).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moretto, T.; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Olsen, Nils
2006-01-01
simulated external contributions relevant for internal field modeling. These have proven very valuable for the design and planning of the up-coming multi-satellite Swarm mission. In addition, a real event simulation was carried out for a moderately active time interval when observations from the Orsted...... it consistently underestimates the dayside region 2 currents and overestimates the horizontal ionospheric closure currents in the dayside polar cap. Furthermore, with this example we illustrate the great benefit of utilizing the global model for the interpretation of Swarm external field observations and......, likewise, the potential of using Swarm measurements to test and improve the global model....
A global simulation of ICRF heating in a 3D magnetic configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Akutsu, T.
2005-01-01
A global simulation code for the ICRF heating analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic configuration is developed combining two global simulation codes; a drift kinetic equation solver, GNET, and a wave field solver, TASK/WM. Both codes take into account 3D geometry using the numerically obtained 3D MHD equilibrium. The developed simulation code is applied to the LHD configuration as an example. Characteristics of energetic ion distributions in the phase space are clarified in LHD. The simulation results are also compared with experimental results by evaluating the count number of the neutral particle analyzer using the obtained energetic ion distribution, and a relatively good agreement is obtained. (author)
Schiemann, Reinhard; Roberts, Charles J.; Bush, Stephanie; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Strachan, Jane; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Roberts, Malcolm J.
2015-04-01
Precipitation over land exhibits a high degree of variability due to the complex interaction of the precipitation generating atmospheric processes with coastlines, the heterogeneous land surface, and orography. Global general circulation models (GCMs) have traditionally had very limited ability to capture this variability on the mesoscale (here ~50-500 km) due to their low resolution. This has changed with recent investments in resolution and ensembles of multidecadal climate simulations of atmospheric GCMs (AGCMs) with ~25 km grid spacing are becoming increasingly available. Here, we evaluate the mesoscale precipitation distribution in one such set of simulations obtained in the UPSCALE (UK on PrACE - weather-resolving Simulations of Climate for globAL Environmental risk) modelling campaign with the HadGEM-GA3 AGCM. Increased model resolution also poses new challenges to the observational datasets used to evaluate models. Global gridded data products such as those provided by the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) are invaluable for assessing large-scale features of the precipitation distribution but may not sufficiently resolve mesoscale structures. In the absence of independent estimates, the intercomparison of different observational datasets may be the only way to get some insight into the uncertainties associated with these observations. Here, we focus on mid-latitude continental regions where observations based on higher-density gauge networks are available in addition to the global data sets: Europe/the Alps, South and East Asia, and the continental US. The ability of GCMs to represent mesoscale variability is of interest in its own right, as climate information on this scale is required by impact studies. An additional motivation for the research proposed here arises from continuing efforts to quantify the components of the global radiation budget and water cycle. Recent estimates based on radiation measurements suggest that the global mean
A Global System for Transportation Simulation and Visualization in Emergency Evacuation Scenarios
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Wei [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
2015-01-01
Simulation-based studies are frequently used for evacuation planning and decision making processes. Given the transportation systems complexity and data availability, most evacuation simulation models focus on certain geographic areas. With routine improvement of OpenStreetMap road networks and LandScanTM global population distribution data, we present WWEE, a uniform system for world-wide emergency evacuation simulations. WWEE uses unified data structure for simulation inputs. It also integrates a super-node trip distribution model as the default simulation parameter to improve the system computational performance. Two levels of visualization tools are implemented for evacuation performance analysis, including link-based macroscopic visualization and vehicle-based microscopic visualization. For left-hand and right-hand traffic patterns in different countries, the authors propose a mirror technique to experiment with both scenarios without significantly changing traffic simulation models. Ten cities in US, Europe, Middle East, and Asia are modeled for demonstration. With default traffic simulation models for fast and easy-to-use evacuation estimation and visualization, WWEE also retains the capability of interactive operation for users to adopt customized traffic simulation models. For the first time, WWEE provides a unified platform for global evacuation researchers to estimate and visualize their strategies performance of transportation systems under evacuation scenarios.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumgaertel J.A., Redi M.H., Budny R.V., Rewoldt G., Dorland W.
2005-01-01
Insight into plasma microturbulence and transport is being sought using linear simulations of drift waves on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), following a study of drift wave modes on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak. Microturbulence is likely generated by instabilities of drift waves, which cause transport of heat and particles. Understanding this transport is important because the containment of heat and particles is required for the achievement of practical nuclear fusion. Microtearing modes may cause high heat transport through high electron thermal conductivity. It is hoped that microtearing will be stable along with good electron transport in the proposed low collisionality International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Stability of the microtearing mode is investigated for conditions at mid-radius in a high density NSTX high performance (H-mode) plasma, which is compared to the proposed ITER plasmas. The microtearing mode is driven by the electron temperature gradient, and believed to be mediated by ion collisions and magnetic shear. Calculations are based on input files produced by TRXPL following TRANSP (a time-dependent transport analysis code) analysis. The variability of unstable mode growth rates is examined as a function of ion and electron collisionalities using the parallel gyrokinetic computational code GS2. Results show the microtearing mode stability dependence for a range of plasma collisionalities. Computation verifies analytic predictions that higher collisionalities than in the NSTX experiment increase microtearing instability growth rates, but that the modes are stabilized at the highest values. There is a transition of the dominant mode in the collisionality scan to ion temperature gradient character at both high and low collisionalities. The calculations suggest that plasma electron thermal confinement may be greatly improved in the low-collisionality ITER
A global hydrological simulation to specify the sources of water used by humans
Hanasaki, Naota; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Pokhrel, Yadu; Kanae, Shinjiro
2018-01-01
Humans abstract water from various sources to sustain their livelihood and society. Some global hydrological models (GHMs) include explicit schemes of human water abstraction, but the representation and performance of these schemes remain limited. We substantially enhanced the water abstraction schemes of the H08 GHM. This enabled us to estimate water abstraction from six major water sources, namely, river flow regulated by global reservoirs (i.e., reservoirs regulating the flow of the world's major rivers), aqueduct water transfer, local reservoirs, seawater desalination, renewable groundwater, and nonrenewable groundwater. In its standard setup, the model covers the whole globe at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°, and the calculation interval is 1 day. All the interactions were simulated in a single computer program, and all water fluxes and storage were strictly traceable at any place and time during the simulation period. A global hydrological simulation was conducted to validate the performance of the model for the period of 1979-2013 (land use was fixed for the year 2000). The simulated water fluxes for water abstraction were validated against those reported in earlier publications and showed a reasonable agreement at the global and country level. The simulated monthly river discharge and terrestrial water storage (TWS) for six of the world's most significantly human-affected river basins were compared with gauge observations and the data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. It is found that the simulation including the newly added schemes outperformed the simulation without human activities. The simulated results indicated that, in 2000, of the 3628±75 km3 yr-1 global freshwater requirement, 2839±50 km3 yr-1 was taken from surface water and 789±30 km3 yr-1 from groundwater. Streamflow, aqueduct water transfer, local reservoirs, and seawater desalination accounted for 1786±23, 199±10, 106±5, and 1.8
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nichols, Dr Jeff A [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL
2013-01-01
A global energy crop productivity model that provides geospatially explicit quantitative details on biomass potential and factors affecting sustainability would be useful, but does not exist now. This study describes a modeling platform capable of meeting many challenges associated with global-scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed an analytical framework for bioenergy crops consisting of six major components: (i) standardized natural resources datasets, (ii) global field-trial data and crop management practices, (iii) simulation units and management scenarios, (iv) model calibration and validation, (v) high-performance computing (HPC) simulation, and (vi) simulation output processing and analysis. The HPC-Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (HPC-EPIC) model simulated a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), estimating feedstock production potentials and effects across the globe. This modeling platform can assess soil C sequestration, net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, nonpoint source pollution (e.g., nutrient and pesticide loss), and energy exchange with the atmosphere. It can be expanded to include additional bioenergy crops (e.g., miscanthus, energy cane, and agave) and food crops under different management scenarios. The platform and switchgrass field-trial dataset are available to support global analysis of biomass feedstock production potential and corresponding metrics of sustainability.
Houweling, S; Dentener, F; Lelieveld, J
2000-01-01
Previous attempts to quantify the global source strength of CH4 from natural wetlands have resulted in a range of 90-260 TE(CH4) yr(-1). This relatively uncertain estimate significantly limits our understanding of atmospheric methane. In this study we reduce this uncertainty by simulating
Bos, Nathan D.; Shami, N. Sadat; Naab, Sara
2006-01-01
There is an increasing need for business students to be taught the ability to think through ethical dilemmas faced by corporations conducting business on a global scale. This article describes a multiplayer online simulation game, ISLAND TELECOM, that exposes students to ethical dilemmas in international business. Through role playing and…
Particle simulations in toroidal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydemir, A.Y.
1992-09-01
A computational tool to be used in kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas is being developed. The initial goal of the project is to develop an electrostatic gyrokinetic model for studying transport and stability problems in tokamaks. In this brief report, preliminary results from the early stages of this effort are presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pudykiewicz, J.A.; Dastoor, A.P. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Quebec (Canada)
1994-12-31
Volcanic eruptions play an important role in the global sulfur cycle of the Earth`s atmosphere and can significantly perturb the global atmospheric chemistry. The large amount of sulfate aerosol produced by the oxidation of SO{sub 2} injected into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions also has a relatively big influence on the radiative equilibrium of the Earth`s climatic system. The submicron particles of the sulfate aerosol reflect solar radiation more effectively than they trap radiation in the infrared range. The effect of this is observed as cooling of the Earth`s surface. The modification of the global radiation budget following volcanic eruption can subsequently cause significant fluctuations of atmospheric variables on a subclimatic scale. The resulting perturbation of weather patterns has been observed and well documented since the eruptions of Mt. Krakatau and Mt. Tambora. The impact of the sulfate aerosol from volcanic eruptions on the radiative equilibrium of the Earth`s atmosphere was also confirmed by the studies done with Global Circulation Models designed to simulate climate. The objective of the present paper is to present a simple and effective method to estimate the global distribution of the sulfate aerosol produced as a consequence of volcanic eruptions. In this study we will present results of the simulation of global distribution of sulfate aerosol from the eruption of Mt Pinatubo.
Miyamoto, K.
2005-12-01
I investigate how the intensity and the activity of mid-latitude cyclones change as a result of global warming, based on a time-slice experiment with a super-high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (20-km mesh TL959L60 MRI/JMA AGCM). The model was developed by the RR2002 project "Development of Super High Resolution Global and Regional Climate Models" funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. In this context, I use a 10-year control simulation with the climatological SST and a 10-year time-slice global warming simulation using the SST anomalies derived from the SRES A1B scenario run with the MRI-CGCM2.3 (T42L30 atmosphere, 0.5-2.0 x 2.5 L23 ocean) corresponding to the end of the 21st century. I have analyzed the sea-level pressure field and the kinetic energy field of the wind at the 500 hPa pressure level associated with mid-latitude transients from October through April. According to a comparison of 10-day average fields between present and future in the North Pacific, some statistically significant changes are found in a warmer climate for the both of sea-level pressure and the kinetic energy fields. In particular, from late winter through early spring, the sea-level pressure decreases on many parts of the whole Pacific. The kinetic energy of the wind becomes higher on center of the basin. Therefore, I suppose the Aleutian Low is likely to settle in longer by about one month than the present. Hereafter, I plan to investigate what kind of phenomena may accompany the changes on mid-latitude transients.
Structural Uncertainty in Model-Simulated Trends of Global Gross Primary Production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zaichun Zhu
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Projected changes in the frequency and severity of droughts as a result of increase in greenhouse gases have a significant impact on the role of vegetation in regulating the global carbon cycle. Drought effect on vegetation Gross Primary Production (GPP is usually modeled as a function of Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD and/or soil moisture. Climate projections suggest a strong likelihood of increasing trend in VPD, while regional changes in precipitation are less certain. This difference in projections between VPD and precipitation can cause considerable discrepancies in the predictions of vegetation behavior depending on how ecosystem models represent the drought effect. In this study, we scrutinized the model responses to drought using the 30-year record of Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS 3g Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset. A diagnostic ecosystem model, Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS, was used to estimate global GPP from 1982 to 2009 under nine different experimental simulations. The control run of global GPP increased until 2000, but stayed constant after 2000. Among the simulations with single climate constraint (temperature, VPD, rainfall and solar radiation, only the VPD-driven simulation showed a decrease in 2000s, while the other scenarios simulated an increase in GPP. The diverging responses in 2000s can be attributed to the difference in the representation of the impact of water stress on vegetation in models, i.e., using VPD and/or precipitation. Spatial map of trend in simulated GPP using GIMMS 3g data is consistent with the GPP driven by soil moisture than the GPP driven by VPD, confirming the need for a soil moisture constraint in modeling global GPP.
Global simulations of smoke from Kuwaiti oil fires and possible effects on climate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glatzmaier, G.A.; Malone, R.C.; Kao, C.Y.J.
1991-01-01
The Los Alamos Global Climate Model has bee used to simulate the global evolution of the Kuwaiti oil fire smoke and its potential effects on the climate. The initial simulations were done shortly before the fires were lit in January 1991. They indicated that such an event would not result in a Mini Nuclear Winter'' as some people were suggesting. Further simulations during the year suggested that the smoke could be responsible for subtle regional climate changes in the spring such as a 5 degree centigrade decrease in the surface temperature in Kuwait, a 10% decrease in precipitation in Saudi Arabia and a 10% increase in precipitation in the Tibetan Plateau region. These results are in qualitative agreement with the observations this year.
Global simulations of smoke from Kuwaiti oil fires and possible effects on climate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glatzmaier, G.A.; Malone, R.C.; Kao, C.Y.J.
1991-12-31
The Los Alamos Global Climate Model has bee used to simulate the global evolution of the Kuwaiti oil fire smoke and its potential effects on the climate. The initial simulations were done shortly before the fires were lit in January 1991. They indicated that such an event would not result in a ``Mini Nuclear Winter`` as some people were suggesting. Further simulations during the year suggested that the smoke could be responsible for subtle regional climate changes in the spring such as a 5 degree centigrade decrease in the surface temperature in Kuwait, a 10% decrease in precipitation in Saudi Arabia and a 10% increase in precipitation in the Tibetan Plateau region. These results are in qualitative agreement with the observations this year.
Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Pierce, Harold
2008-01-01
Advances in flood monitoring/forecasting have been constrained by the difficulty in estimating rainfall continuously over space (catchment-, national-, continental-, or even global-scale areas) and flood-relevant time scale. With the recent availability of satellite rainfall estimates at fine time and space resolution, this paper describes a prototype research framework for global flood monitoring by combining real-time satellite observations with a database of global terrestrial characteristics through a hydrologically relevant modeling scheme. Four major components included in the framework are (1) real-time precipitation input from NASA TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA); (2) a central geospatial database to preprocess the land surface characteristics: water divides, slopes, soils, land use, flow directions, flow accumulation, drainage network etc.; (3) a modified distributed hydrological model to convert rainfall to runoff and route the flow through the stream network in order to predict the timing and severity of the flood wave, and (4) an open-access web interface to quickly disseminate flood alerts for potential decision-making. Retrospective simulations for 1998-2006 demonstrate that the Global Flood Monitor (GFM) system performs consistently at both station and catchment levels. The GFM website (experimental version) has been running at near real-time in an effort to offer a cost-effective solution to the ultimate challenge of building natural disaster early warning systems for the data-sparse regions of the world. The interactive GFM website shows close-up maps of the flood risks overlaid on topography/population or integrated with the Google-Earth visualization tool. One additional capability, which extends forecast lead-time by assimilating QPF into the GFM, also will be implemented in the future.
Simulating the effects of climate and agricultural management practices on global crop yield
Deryng, D.; Sacks, W. J.; Barford, C. C.; Ramankutty, N.
2011-06-01
Climate change is expected to significantly impact global food production, and it is important to understand the potential geographic distribution of yield losses and the means to alleviate them. This study presents a new global crop model, PEGASUS 1.0 (Predicting Ecosystem Goods And Services Using Scenarios) that integrates, in addition to climate, the effect of planting dates and cultivar choices, irrigation, and fertilizer application on crop yield for maize, soybean, and spring wheat. PEGASUS combines carbon dynamics for crops with a surface energy and soil water balance model. It also benefits from the recent development of a suite of global data sets and analyses that serve as model inputs or as calibration data. These include data on crop planting and harvesting dates, crop-specific irrigated areas, a global analysis of yield gaps, and harvested area and yield of major crops. Model results for present-day climate and farm management compare reasonably well with global data. Simulated planting and harvesting dates are within the range of crop calendar observations in more than 75% of the total crop-harvested areas. Correlation of simulated and observed crop yields indicates a weighted coefficient of determination, with the weighting based on crop-harvested area, of 0.81 for maize, 0.66 for soybean, and 0.45 for spring wheat. We found that changes in temperature and precipitation as predicted by global climate models for the 2050s lead to a global yield reduction if planting and harvesting dates remain unchanged. However, adapting planting dates and cultivar choices increases yield in temperate regions and avoids 7-18% of global losses.
Discrete particle noise in particle-in-cell simulations of plasma microturbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nevins, W.M.; Hammett, G.W.; Dimits, A.M.; Dorland, W.; Shumaker, D.E.
2005-01-01
Recent gyrokinetic simulations of electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence with the global particle-in-cell (PIC) code GTC [Z. Lin et al., Proceedings of the 20th Fusion Energy Conference, Vilamoura, Portugal, 2004 (IAEA, Vienna, 2005)] yielded different results from earlier flux-tube continuum code simulations [F. Jenko and W. Dorland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 225001 (2002)] despite similar plasma parameters. Differences between the simulation results were attributed to insufficient phase-space resolution and novel physics associated with global simulation models. The results of the global PIC code are reproduced here using the flux-tube PIC code PG3EQ [A. M. Dimits et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 71 (1996)], thereby eliminating global effects as the cause of the discrepancy. The late-time decay of the ETG turbulence and the steady-state heat transport observed in these PIC simulations are shown to result from discrete particle noise. Discrete particle noise is a numerical artifact, so both these PG3EQ simulations and, by inference, the GTC simulations that they reproduced have little to say about steady-state ETG turbulence and the associated anomalous heat transport. In the course of this work several diagnostics are developed to retrospectively test whether a particular PIC simulation is dominated by discrete particle noise
A simulation study of the global orbit feedback system for Pohang light source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kukhee; Shim, Kyuyeol; Cho, Moohyun; Namkung, Won; Ko, In Soo; Choi, Jinhyuk
2000-01-01
This paper describes the simulation of the global orbit feedback system using the singular value decomposition (SVD) method, the error minimization method, and the neural network method. Instead of facing unacceptable correction result raised occasionally in the SVD method, we choose the error minimization method for the global orbit feedback. This method provides minimum orbit errors while avoiding unacceptable corrections, and keeps the orbit within the dynamic aperture of the storage ring. We simulate the Pohang Light Source (PLS) storage ring using the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) code that generates the orbit distortions for the error minimization method and the learning data set for neural network method. In order to compare the effectiveness of the neural network method with others, a neural network is trained by the learning algorithm using the learning data set. The global response matrix with a minimum error and the trained neural network are used to the global orbit feedback system. The simulation shows that a selection of beam position monitors (BPMs) is very sensitive in the reduction of rms orbit distortions, and the random choice gives better results than any other cases. (author)
Simulation of the Universal-Time Diurnal Variation of the Global Electric Circuit Charging Rate
Mackerras, D.; Darvenzia, M.; Orville, R. E.; Williams, E. R.; Goodman, S. J.
1999-01-01
A global lightning model that includes diurnal and annual lightning variation, and total flash density versus latitude for each major land and ocean, has been used as the basis for simulating the global electric circuit charging rate. A particular objective has been to reconcile the difference in amplitude ratios [AR=(max-min)/mean] between global lightning diurnal variation (AR approx. = 0.8) and the diurnal variation of typical atmospheric potential gradient curves (AR approx. = 0.35). A constraint on the simulation is that the annual mean charging current should be about 1000 A. The global lightning model shows that negative ground flashes can contribute, at most, about 10-15% of the required current. For the purpose of the charging rate simulation, it was assumed that each ground flash contributes 5 C to the charging process. It was necessary to assume that all electrified clouds contribute to charging by means other than lightning, that the total flash rate can serve as an indirect indicator of the rate of charge transfer, and that oceanic electrified clouds contribute to charging even though they are relatively inefficient in producing lightning. It was also found necessary to add a diurnally invariant charging current component. By trial and error it was found that charging rate diurnal variation curves in Universal time (UT) could be produced with amplitude ratios and general shapes similar to those of the potential gradient diurnal variation curves measured over ocean and arctic regions during voyages of the Carnegie Institute research vessels.
Simulations of the Madden-Julian oscillation in four pairs of coupled and uncoupled global models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Chidong; Dong, Min [RSMAS, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Gualdi, Silvio [National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Bologna (Italy); Hendon, Harry H. [BMRC, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Maloney, Eric D. [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Marshall, Andrew [Monash University, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Sperber, Kenneth R. [PCMDI, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Wanqiu [CPC/NCEP/NOAA, Camp Springs, MD (United States)
2006-11-15
The status of the numerical reproduction of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) by current global models was assessed through diagnoses of four pairs of coupled and uncoupled simulations. Slow eastward propagation of the MJO, especially in low-level zonal wind, is realistic in all these simulations. However, the simulated MJO suffers from several common problems. The MJO signal in precipitation is generally too weak and often eroded by an unrealistic split of an equatorial maximum of precipitation into a double ITCZ structure over the western Pacific. The MJO signal in low-level zonal wind, on the other hand, is sometimes too strong over the eastern Pacific but too weak over the Indian Ocean. The observed phase relationship between precipitation and low-level zonal wind associated with the MJO in the western Pacific and their coherence in general are not reproduced by the models. The seasonal migration in latitude of MJO activity is missing in most simulations. Air-sea coupling generally strengthens the simulated eastward propagating signal, but its effects on the phase relationship and coherence between precipitation and low-level zonal wind, and on their geographic distributions, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability are inconsistent among the simulations. Such inconsistency cautions generalization of results from MJO simulations using a single model. In comparison to observations, biases in the simulated MJO appear to be related to biases in the background state of mean precipitation, low-level zonal wind, and boundary-layer moisture convergence. This study concludes that, while the realistic simulations of the eastward propagation of the MJO are encouraging, reproducing other fundamental features of the MJO by current global models remains an unmet challenge. (orig.)
Improved Synthesis of Global Irradiance with One-Minute Resolution for PV System Simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Hofmann
2014-01-01
Full Text Available High resolution global irradiance time series are needed for accurate simulations of photovoltaic (PV systems, since the typical volatile PV power output induced by fast irradiance changes cannot be simulated properly with commonly available hourly averages of global irradiance. We present a two-step algorithm that is capable of synthesizing one-minute global irradiance time series based on hourly averaged datasets. The algorithm is initialized by deriving characteristic transition probability matrices (TPM for different weather conditions (cloudless, broken clouds and overcast from a large number of high resolution measurements. Once initialized, the algorithm is location-independent and capable of synthesizing one-minute values based on hourly averaged global irradiance of any desired location. The one-minute time series are derived by discrete-time Markov chains based on a TPM that matches the weather condition of the input dataset. One-minute time series generated with the presented algorithm are compared with measured high resolution data and show a better agreement compared to two existing synthesizing algorithms in terms of temporal variability and characteristic frequency distributions of global irradiance and clearness index values. A comparison based on measurements performed in Lindenberg, Germany, and Carpentras, France, shows a reduction of the frequency distribution root mean square errors of more than 60% compared to the two existing synthesizing algorithms.
Simulated effects of nitrogen saturation the global carbon budget using the IBIS model
Lu, Xuehe; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Zhang, Xiuying; Jin, Jiaxin; Zhu, Qiuan; Zhang, Zhen; Peng, Changhui
2016-01-01
Over the past 100 years, human activity has greatly changed the rate of atmospheric N (nitrogen) deposition in terrestrial ecosystems, resulting in N saturation in some regions of the world. The contribution of N saturation to the global carbon budget remains uncertain due to the complicated nature of C-N (carbon-nitrogen) interactions and diverse geography. Although N deposition is included in most terrestrial ecosystem models, the effect of N saturation is frequently overlooked. In this study, the IBIS (Integrated BIosphere Simulator) was used to simulate the global-scale effects of N saturation during the period 1961–2009. The results of this model indicate that N saturation reduced global NPP (Net Primary Productivity) and NEP (Net Ecosystem Productivity) by 0.26 and 0.03 Pg C yr−1, respectively. The negative effects of N saturation on carbon sequestration occurred primarily in temperate forests and grasslands. In response to elevated CO2 levels, global N turnover slowed due to increased biomass growth, resulting in a decline in soil mineral N. These changes in N cycling reduced the impact of N saturation on the global carbon budget. However, elevated N deposition in certain regions may further alter N saturation and C-N coupling.
ARM Cloud Radar Simulator Package for Global Climate Models Value-Added Product
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yuying [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2017-05-01
It has been challenging to directly compare U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ground-based cloud radar measurements with climate model output because of limitations or features of the observing processes and the spatial gap between model and the single-point measurements. To facilitate the use of ARM radar data in numerical models, an ARM cloud radar simulator was developed to converts model data into pseudo-ARM cloud radar observations that mimic the instrument view of a narrow atmospheric column (as compared to a large global climate model [GCM] grid-cell), thus allowing meaningful comparison between model output and ARM cloud observations. The ARM cloud radar simulator value-added product (VAP) was developed based on the CloudSat simulator contained in the community satellite simulator package, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP) (Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011), which has been widely used in climate model evaluation with satellite data (Klein et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2010). The essential part of the CloudSat simulator is the QuickBeam radar simulator that is used to produce CloudSat-like radar reflectivity, but is capable of simulating reflectivity for other radars (Marchand et al., 2009; Haynes et al., 2007). Adapting QuickBeam to the ARM cloud radar simulator within COSP required two primary changes: one was to set the frequency to 35 GHz for the ARM Ka-band cloud radar, as opposed to 94 GHz used for the CloudSat W-band radar, and the second was to invert the view from the ground to space so as to attenuate the beam correctly. In addition, the ARM cloud radar simulator uses a finer vertical resolution (100 m compared to 500 m for CloudSat) to resolve the more detailed structure of clouds captured by the ARM radars. The ARM simulator has been developed following the COSP workflow (Figure 1) and using the capabilities available in COSP
Can climate models be tuned to simulate the global mean absolute temperature correctly?
Duan, Q.; Shi, Y.; Gong, W.
2016-12-01
The Inter-government Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has already issued five assessment reports (ARs), which include the simulation of the past climate and the projection of the future climate under various scenarios. The participating models can simulate reasonably well the trend in global mean temperature change, especially of the last 150 years. However, there is a large, constant discrepancy in terms of global mean absolute temperature simulations over this period. This discrepancy remained in the same range between IPCC-AR4 and IPCC-AR5, which amounts to about 3oC between the coldest model and the warmest model. This discrepancy has great implications to the land processes, particularly the processes related to the cryosphere, and casts doubts over if land-atmosphere-ocean interactions are correctly considered in those models. This presentation aims to explore if this discrepancy can be reduced through model tuning. We present an automatic model calibration strategy to tune the parameters of a climate model so the simulated global mean absolute temperature would match the observed data over the last 150 years. An intermediate complexity model known as LOVECLIM is used in the study. This presentation will show the preliminary results.
Evaluation of stratospheric temperature simulation results by the global GRAPES model
Liu, Ningwei; Wang, Yangfeng; Ma, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yunhai
2017-12-01
Global final analysis (FNL) products and the general circulation spectral model (ECHAM) were used to evaluate the simulation of stratospheric temperature by the global assimilation and prediction system (GRAPES). Through a series of comparisons, it was shown that the temperature variations at 50 hPa simulated by GRAPES were significantly elevated in the southern hemisphere, whereas simulations by ECHAM and FNL varied little over time. The regional warming predicted by GRAPES seemed to be too distinct and uncontrolled to be reasonable. The temperature difference between GRAPES and FNL (GRAPES minus FNL) was small at the start time on the global scale. Over time, the positive values became larger in more locations, especially in parts of the southern hemisphere, where the warming predicted by GRAPES was dominant, with a maximal value larger than 24 K. To determine the reasons for the stratospheric warming, we considered the model initial conditions and ozone data to be possible factors; however, a comparison and sensitivity test indicated that the errors produced by GRAPES were not significantly related to either factor. Further research focusing on the impact of factors such as vapor, heating rate, and the temperature tendency on GRAPES simulations will be conducted.
High-resolution global climate modelling: the UPSCALE project, a large-simulation campaign
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. S. Mizielinski
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The UPSCALE (UK on PRACE: weather-resolving Simulations of Climate for globAL Environmental risk project constructed and ran an ensemble of HadGEM3 (Hadley Centre Global Environment Model 3 atmosphere-only global climate simulations over the period 1985–2011, at resolutions of N512 (25 km, N216 (60 km and N96 (130 km as used in current global weather forecasting, seasonal prediction and climate modelling respectively. Alongside these present climate simulations a parallel ensemble looking at extremes of future climate was run, using a time-slice methodology to consider conditions at the end of this century. These simulations were primarily performed using a 144 million core hour, single year grant of computing time from PRACE (the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe in 2012, with additional resources supplied by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC and the Met Office. Almost 400 terabytes of simulation data were generated on the HERMIT supercomputer at the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS, and transferred to the JASMIN super-data cluster provided by the Science and Technology Facilities Council Centre for Data Archival (STFC CEDA for analysis and storage. In this paper we describe the implementation of the project, present the technical challenges in terms of optimisation, data output, transfer and storage that such a project involves and include details of the model configuration and the composition of the UPSCALE data set. This data set is available for scientific analysis to allow assessment of the value of model resolution in both present and potential future climate conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichii, Kazuhito; Murakami, Kazutaka; Mukai, Toshikazu; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Ogawa, Katsuro
2003-01-01
A simple Earth system model, the Four-Spheres Cycle of Energy and Mass (4-SCEM) model, has been developed to simulate global warming due to anthropogenic CO 2 emission. The model consists of the Atmosphere-Earth Heat Cycle (AEHC) model, the Four Spheres Carbon Cycle (4-SCC) model, and their feedback processes. The AEHC model is a one-dimensional radiative convective model, which includes the greenhouse effect of CO 2 and H 2 O, and one cloud layer. The 4-SCC model is a box-type carbon cycle model, which includes biospheric CO 2 fertilization, vegetation area variation, the vegetation light saturation effect and the HILDA oceanic carbon cycle model. The feedback processes between carbon cycle and climate considered in the model are temperature dependencies of water vapor content, soil decomposition and ocean surface chemistry. The future status of the global carbon cycle and climate was simulated up to the year 2100 based on the 'business as usual' (IS92a) emission scenario, followed by a linear decline in emissions to zero in the year 2200. The atmospheric CO 2 concentration reaches 645 ppmv in 2100 and a peak of 760 ppmv approximately in the year 2170, and becomes a steady state with 600 ppmv. The projected CO 2 concentration was lower than those of the past carbon cycle studies, because we included the light saturation effect of vegetation. The sensitivity analysis showed that uncertainties derived from the light saturation effect of vegetation and land use CO 2 emissions were the primary cause of uncertainties in projecting future CO 2 concentrations. The climate feedback effects showed rather small sensitivities compared with the impacts of those two effects. Satellite-based net primary production trends analyses can somewhat decrease the uncertainty in quantifying CO 2 emissions due to land use changes. On the other hand, as the estimated parameter in vegetation light saturation was poorly constrained, we have to quantify and constrain the effect more
Zhao, F.; Veldkamp, T.; Frieler, K.; Schewe, J.; Ostberg, S.; Willner, S. N.; Schauberger, B.; Gosling, S.; Mueller Schmied, H.; Portmann, F. T.; Leng, G.; Huang, M.; Liu, X.; Tang, Q.; Hanasaki, N.; Biemans, H.; Gerten, D.; Satoh, Y.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Stacke, T.; Ciais, P.; Chang, J.; Ducharne, A.; Guimberteau, M.; Wada, Y.; Kim, H.; Yamazaki, D.
2017-12-01
Global hydrological models (GHMs) have been applied to assess global flood hazards, but their capacity to capture the timing and amplitude of peak river discharge—which is crucial in flood simulations—has traditionally not been the focus of examination. Here we evaluate to what degree the choice of river routing scheme affects simulations of peak discharge and may help to provide better agreement with observations. To this end we use runoff and discharge simulations of nine GHMs forced by observational climate data (1971-2010) within the ISIMIP2a project. The runoff simulations were used as input for the global river routing model CaMa-Flood. The simulated daily discharge was compared to the discharge generated by each GHM using its native river routing scheme. For each GHM both versions of simulated discharge were compared to monthly and daily discharge observations from 1701 GRDC stations as a benchmark. CaMa-Flood routing shows a general reduction of peak river discharge and a delay of about two to three weeks in its occurrence, likely induced by the buffering capacity of floodplain reservoirs. For a majority of river basins, discharge produced by CaMa-Flood resulted in a better agreement with observations. In particular, maximum daily discharge was adjusted, with a multi-model averaged reduction in bias over about 2/3 of the analysed basin area. The increase in agreement was obtained in both managed and near-natural basins. Overall, this study demonstrates the importance of routing scheme choice in peak discharge simulation, where CaMa-Flood routing accounts for floodplain storage and backwater effects that are not represented in most GHMs. Our study provides important hints that an explicit parameterisation of these processes may be essential in future impact studies.
Liang, Faming
2014-04-03
Simulated annealing has been widely used in the solution of optimization problems. As known by many researchers, the global optima cannot be guaranteed to be located by simulated annealing unless a logarithmic cooling schedule is used. However, the logarithmic cooling schedule is so slow that no one can afford to use this much CPU time. This article proposes a new stochastic optimization algorithm, the so-called simulated stochastic approximation annealing algorithm, which is a combination of simulated annealing and the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm. Under the framework of stochastic approximation, it is shown that the new algorithm can work with a cooling schedule in which the temperature can decrease much faster than in the logarithmic cooling schedule, for example, a square-root cooling schedule, while guaranteeing the global optima to be reached when the temperature tends to zero. The new algorithm has been tested on a few benchmark optimization problems, including feed-forward neural network training and protein-folding. The numerical results indicate that the new algorithm can significantly outperform simulated annealing and other competitors. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.
Global Hybrid Simulations of Energetic Particle-driven Modes in Toroidal Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, G.Y.; Breslau, J.; Fredrickson, E.; Park, W.; Strauss, H.R.
2004-01-01
Global hybrid simulations of energetic particle-driven MHD modes have been carried out for tokamaks and spherical tokamaks using the hybrid code M3D. The numerical results for the National Spherical Tokamak Experiments (NSTX) show that Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes are excited by beam ions with their frequencies consistent with the experimental observations. Nonlinear simulations indicate that the n=2 mode frequency chirps down as the mode moves out radially. For ITER, it is shown that the alpha-particle effects are strongly stabilizing for internal kink mode when central safety factor q(0) is sufficiently close to unity. However, the elongation of ITER plasma shape reduces the stabilization significantly
GLOBAL RANDOM WALK SIMULATIONS FOR SENSITIVITY AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS OF PASSIVE TRANSPORT MODELS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolae Suciu
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The Global Random Walk algorithm (GRW performs a simultaneoustracking on a fixed grid of huge numbers of particles at costscomparable to those of a single-trajectory simulation by the traditional Particle Tracking (PT approach. Statistical ensembles of GRW simulations of a typical advection-dispersion process in groundwater systems with randomly distributed spatial parameters are used to obtain reliable estimations of the input parameters for the upscaled transport model and of their correlations, input-output correlations, as well as full probability distributions of the input and output parameters.
A dynamic globalization model for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Hae Cheon; Park, No Ma; Kim, Jin Seok [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2005-07-01
A dynamic subgrid-scale model is proposed for large eddy simulation of turbulent flows in complex geometry. The eddy viscosity model by Vreman [Phys. Fluids, 16, 3670 (2004)] is considered as a base model. A priori tests with the original Vreman model show that it predicts the correct profile of subgrid-scale dissipation in turbulent channel flow but the optimal model coefficient is far from universal. Dynamic procedures of determining the model coefficient are proposed based on the 'global equilibrium' between the subgrid-scale dissipation and viscous dissipation. An important feature of the proposed procedures is that the model coefficient determined is globally constant in space but varies only in time. Large eddy simulations with the present dynamic model are conducted for forced isotropic turbulence, turbulent channel flow and flow over a sphere, showing excellent agreements with previous results.
A Madden-Julian oscillation event realistically simulated by a global cloud-resolving model.
Miura, Hiroaki; Satoh, Masaki; Nasuno, Tomoe; Noda, Akira T; Oouchi, Kazuyoshi
2007-12-14
A Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a massive weather event consisting of deep convection coupled with atmospheric circulation, moving slowly eastward over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Despite its enormous influence on many weather and climate systems worldwide, it has proven very difficult to simulate an MJO because of assumptions about cumulus clouds in global meteorological models. Using a model that allows direct coupling of the atmospheric circulation and clouds, we successfully simulated the slow eastward migration of an MJO event. Topography, the zonal sea surface temperature gradient, and interplay between eastward- and westward-propagating signals controlled the timing of the eastward transition of the convective center. Our results demonstrate the potential making of month-long MJO predictions when global cloud-resolving models with realistic initial conditions are used.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. E. Bodeker
2013-02-01
Full Text Available High vertical resolution ozone measurements from eight different satellite-based instruments have been merged with data from the global ozonesonde network to calculate monthly mean ozone values in 5° latitude zones. These ''Tier 0'' ozone number densities and ozone mixing ratios are provided on 70 altitude levels (1 to 70 km and on 70 pressure levels spaced ~ 1 km apart (878.4 hPa to 0.046 hPa. The Tier 0 data are sparse and do not cover the entire globe or altitude range. To provide a gap-free database, a least squares regression model is fitted to the Tier 0 data and then evaluated globally. The regression model fit coefficients are expanded in Legendre polynomials to account for latitudinal structure, and in Fourier series to account for seasonality. Regression model fit coefficient patterns, which are two dimensional fields indexed by latitude and month of the year, from the N-th vertical level serve as an initial guess for the fit at the N + 1-th vertical level. The initial guess field for the first fit level (20 km/58.2 hPa was derived by applying the regression model to total column ozone fields. Perturbations away from the initial guess are captured through the Legendre and Fourier expansions. By applying a single fit at each level, and using the approach of allowing the regression fits to change only slightly from one level to the next, the regression is less sensitive to measurement anomalies at individual stations or to individual satellite-based instruments. Particular attention is paid to ensuring that the low ozone abundances in the polar regions are captured. By summing different combinations of contributions from different regression model basis functions, four different ''Tier 1'' databases have been compiled for different intended uses. This database is suitable for assessing ozone fields from chemistry-climate model simulations or for providing the ozone boundary conditions for global climate model simulations that do not
CFD simulation of local and global mixing time in an agitated tank
Li, Liangchao; Xu, Bin
2017-01-01
The Issue of mixing efficiency in agitated tanks has drawn serious concern in many industrial processes. The turbulence model is very critical to predicting mixing process in agitated tanks. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics(CFD) software package Fluent 6.2, the mixing characteristics in a tank agitated by dual six-blade-Rushton-turbines(6-DT) are predicted using the detached eddy simulation(DES) method. A sliding mesh(SM) approach is adopted to solve the rotation of the impeller. The simulated flow patterns and liquid velocities in the agitated tank are verified by experimental data in the literature. The simulation results indicate that the DES method can obtain more flow details than Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS) model. Local and global mixing time in the agitated tank is predicted by solving a tracer concentration scalar transport equation. The simulated results show that feeding points have great influence on mixing process and mixing time. Mixing efficiency is the highest for the feeding point at location of midway of the two impellers. Two methods are used to determine global mixing time and get close result. Dimensionless global mixing time remains unchanged with increasing of impeller speed. Parallel, merging and diverging flow pattern form in the agitated tank, respectively, by changing the impeller spacing and clearance of lower impeller from the bottom of the tank. The global mixing time is the shortest for the merging flow, followed by diverging flow, and the longest for parallel flow. The research presents helpful references for design, optimization and scale-up of agitated tanks with multi-impeller.
GNES-R: Global nuclear energy simulator for reactors task 1: High-fidelity neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clarno, K.; De Almeida, V.; D'Azevedo, E.; De Oliveira, C.; Hamilton, S.
2006-01-01
A multi-laboratory, multi-university collaboration has formed to advance the state-of-the-art in high-fidelity, coupled-physics simulation of nuclear energy systems. We are embarking on the first-phase in the development of a new suite of simulation tools dedicated to the advancement of nuclear science and engineering technologies. We seek to develop and demonstrate a new generation of multi-physics simulation tools that will explore the scientific phenomena of tightly coupled physics parameters within nuclear systems, support the design and licensing of advanced nuclear reactors, and provide benchmark quality solutions for code validation. In this paper, we have presented the general scope of the collaborative project and discuss the specific challenges of high-fidelity neutronics for nuclear reactor simulation and the inroads we have made along this path. The high-performance computing neutronics code system utilizes the latest version of SCALE to generate accurate, problem-dependent cross sections, which are used in NEWTRNX - a new 3-D, general-geometry, discrete-ordinates solver based on the Slice-Balance Approach. The Global Nuclear Energy Simulator for Reactors (GNES-R) team is embarking on a long-term simulation development project that encompasses multiple laboratories and universities for the expansion of high-fidelity coupled-physics simulation of nuclear energy systems. (authors)
Prive, Nikki; Errico, R. M.; Carvalho, D.
2018-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA/GMAO) has spent more than a decade developing and implementing a global Observing System Simulation Experiment framework for use in evaluting both new observation types as well as the behavior of data assimilation systems. The NASA/GMAO OSSE has constantly evolved to relect changes in the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation data assimiation system, the Global Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5), and the real world observational network. Software and observational datasets for the GMAO OSSE are publicly available, along with a technical report. Substantial modifications have recently been made to the NASA/GMAO OSSE framework, including the character of synthetic observation errors, new instrument types, and more sophisticated atmospheric wind vectors. These improvements will be described, along with the overall performance of the current OSSE. Lessons learned from investigations into correlated errors and model error will be discussed.
Toolbox for Urban Mobility Simulation: High Resolution Population Dynamics for Global Cities
Bhaduri, B. L.; Lu, W.; Liu, C.; Thakur, G.; Karthik, R.
2015-12-01
In this rapidly urbanizing world, unprecedented rate of population growth is not only mirrored by increasing demand for energy, food, water, and other natural resources, but has detrimental impacts on environmental and human security. Transportation simulations are frequently used for mobility assessment in urban planning, traffic operation, and emergency management. Previous research, involving purely analytical techniques to simulations capturing behavior, has investigated questions and scenarios regarding the relationships among energy, emissions, air quality, and transportation. Primary limitations of past attempts have been availability of input data, useful "energy and behavior focused" models, validation data, and adequate computational capability that allows adequate understanding of the interdependencies of our transportation system. With increasing availability and quality of traditional and crowdsourced data, we have utilized the OpenStreetMap roads network, and has integrated high resolution population data with traffic simulation to create a Toolbox for Urban Mobility Simulations (TUMS) at global scale. TUMS consists of three major components: data processing, traffic simulation models, and Internet-based visualizations. It integrates OpenStreetMap, LandScanTM population, and other open data (Census Transportation Planning Products, National household Travel Survey, etc.) to generate both normal traffic operation and emergency evacuation scenarios. TUMS integrates TRANSIMS and MITSIM as traffic simulation engines, which are open-source and widely-accepted for scalable traffic simulations. Consistent data and simulation platform allows quick adaption to various geographic areas that has been demonstrated for multiple cities across the world. We are combining the strengths of geospatial data sciences, high performance simulations, transportation planning, and emissions, vehicle and energy technology development to design and develop a simulation
Brown, Patrick T.; Li, Wenhong; Cordero, Eugene C.; Mauget, Steven A.
2015-01-01
The comparison of observed global mean surface air temperature (GMT) change to the mean change simulated by climate models has received much public and scientific attention. For a given global warming signal produced by a climate model ensemble, there exists an envelope of GMT values representing the range of possible unforced states of the climate system (the Envelope of Unforced Noise; EUN). Typically, the EUN is derived from climate models themselves, but climate models might not accurately simulate the correct characteristics of unforced GMT variability. Here, we simulate a new, empirical, EUN that is based on instrumental and reconstructed surface temperature records. We compare the forced GMT signal produced by climate models to observations while noting the range of GMT values provided by the empirical EUN. We find that the empirical EUN is wide enough so that the interdecadal variability in the rate of global warming over the 20th century does not necessarily require corresponding variability in the rate-of-increase of the forced signal. The empirical EUN also indicates that the reduced GMT warming over the past decade or so is still consistent with a middle emission scenario's forced signal, but is likely inconsistent with the steepest emission scenario's forced signal. PMID:25898351
Brown, Patrick T; Li, Wenhong; Cordero, Eugene C; Mauget, Steven A
2015-04-21
The comparison of observed global mean surface air temperature (GMT) change to the mean change simulated by climate models has received much public and scientific attention. For a given global warming signal produced by a climate model ensemble, there exists an envelope of GMT values representing the range of possible unforced states of the climate system (the Envelope of Unforced Noise; EUN). Typically, the EUN is derived from climate models themselves, but climate models might not accurately simulate the correct characteristics of unforced GMT variability. Here, we simulate a new, empirical, EUN that is based on instrumental and reconstructed surface temperature records. We compare the forced GMT signal produced by climate models to observations while noting the range of GMT values provided by the empirical EUN. We find that the empirical EUN is wide enough so that the interdecadal variability in the rate of global warming over the 20(th) century does not necessarily require corresponding variability in the rate-of-increase of the forced signal. The empirical EUN also indicates that the reduced GMT warming over the past decade or so is still consistent with a middle emission scenario's forced signal, but is likely inconsistent with the steepest emission scenario's forced signal.
Brewer, Zachary E; Ogden, William David; Fann, James I; Burdon, Thomas A; Sheikh, Ahmad Y
Several modern learning frameworks (eg, cognitive apprenticeship, anchored instruction, and situated cognition) posit the utility of nontraditional methods for effective experiential learning. Thus, development of novel educational tools emphasizing the cognitive framework of operative sequences may be of benefit to surgical trainees. We propose the development and global deployment of an effective, mobile cognitive cardiac surgical simulator. In methods, 16 preclinical medical students were assessed. Overall, 4 separate surgical modules (sternotomy, cannulation, decannulation, and sternal closure) were created utilizing the Touch Surgery (London, UK) platform. Modules were made available to download free of charge for use on mobile devices. Usage data were collected over a 6-month period. Educational efficacy of the modules was evaluated by randomizing a cohort of medical students to either module usage or traditional, reading-based self-study, followed by a multiple-choice learning assessment tool. In results, downloads of the simulator achieved global penetrance, with highest usage in the USA, Brazil, Italy, UK, and India. Overall, 5368 unique users conducted a total of 1971 hours of simulation. Evaluation of the medical student cohort revealed significantly higher assessment scores in those randomized to module use versus traditional reading (75% ± 9% vs 61% ± 7%, respectively; P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study represents the first effort to create a mobile, interactive cognitive simulator for cardiac surgery. Simulators of this type may be effective for the training and assessment of surgical students. We investigated whether an interactive, mobile-computing-based cognitive task simulator for cardiac surgery could be developed, deployed, and validated. Our findings suggest that such simulators may be a useful learning tool. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Akinsanola, A. A.; Ajayi, V. O.; Adejare, A. T.; Adeyeri, O. E.; Gbode, I. E.; Ogunjobi, K. O.; Nikulin, G.; Abolude, A. T.
2018-04-01
This study presents evaluation of the ability of Rossby Centre Regional Climate Model (RCA4) driven by nine global circulation models (GCMs), to skilfully reproduce the key features of rainfall climatology over West Africa for the period of 1980-2005. The seasonal climatology and annual cycle of the RCA4 simulations were assessed over three homogenous subregions of West Africa (Guinea coast, Savannah, and Sahel) and evaluated using observed precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Furthermore, the model output was evaluated using a wide range of statistical measures. The interseasonal and interannual variability of the RCA4 were further assessed over the subregions and the whole of the West Africa domain. Results indicate that the RCA4 captures the spatial and interseasonal rainfall pattern adequately but exhibits a weak performance over the Guinea coast. Findings from the interannual rainfall variability indicate that the model performance is better over the larger West Africa domain than the subregions. The largest difference across the RCA4 simulated annual rainfall was found in the Sahel. Result from the Mann-Kendall test showed no significant trend for the 1980-2005 period in annual rainfall either in GPCP observation data or in the model simulations over West Africa. In many aspects, the RCA4 simulation driven by the HadGEM2-ES perform best over the region. The use of the multimodel ensemble mean has resulted to the improved representation of rainfall characteristics over the study domain.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tulio Rosembuj
2006-12-01
Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.
Tulio Rosembuj
2006-01-01
There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.
Intraseasonal Variability of the Indian Monsoon as Simulated by a Global Model
Joshi, Sneh; Kar, S. C.
2018-01-01
This study uses the global forecast system (GFS) model at T126 horizontal resolution to carry out seasonal simulations with prescribed sea-surface temperatures. Main objectives of the study are to evaluate the simulated Indian monsoon variability in intraseasonal timescales. The GFS model has been integrated for 29 monsoon seasons with 15 member ensembles forced with observed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and additional 16-member ensemble runs have been carried out using climatological SSTs. Northward propagation of intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over the Indian region from the model simulations has been examined. It is found that the model is unable to simulate the observed moisture pattern when the active zone of convection is over central India. However, the model simulates the observed pattern of specific humidity during the life cycle of northward propagation on day - 10 and day + 10 of maximum convection over central India. The space-time spectral analysis of the simulated equatorial waves shows that the ensemble members have varying amount of power in each band of wavenumbers and frequencies. However, variations among ensemble members are more in the antisymmetric component of westward moving waves and maximum difference in power is seen in the 8-20 day mode among ensemble members.
The Ozone Budget in the Upper Troposphere from Global Modeling Initiative (GMI)Simulations
Rodriquez, J.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Logan, Jennifer A.
2006-01-01
Ozone concentrations in the upper troposphere are influenced by in-situ production, long-range tropospheric transport, and influx of stratospheric ozone, as well as by photochemical removal. Since ozone is an important greenhouse gas in this region, it is particularly important to understand how it will respond to changes in anthropogenic emissions and changes in stratospheric ozone fluxes.. This response will be determined by the relative balance of the different production, loss and transport processes. Ozone concentrations calculated by models will differ depending on the adopted meteorological fields, their chemical scheme, anthropogenic emissions, and treatment of the stratospheric influx. We performed simulations using the chemical-transport model from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) with meteorological fields from (It)h e NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM), (2) the atmospheric GCM from NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office(GMAO), and (3) assimilated winds from GMAO . These simulations adopt the same chemical mechanism and emissions, and adopt the Synthetic Ozone (SYNOZ) approach for treating the influx of stratospheric ozone -. In addition, we also performed simulations for a coupled troposphere-stratosphere model with a subset of the same winds. Simulations were done for both 4degx5deg and 2degx2.5deg resolution. Model results are being tested through comparison with a suite of atmospheric observations. In this presentation, we diagnose the ozone budget in the upper troposphere utilizing the suite of GMI simulations, to address the sensitivity of this budget to: a) the different meteorological fields used; b) the adoption of the SYNOZ boundary condition versus inclusion of a full stratosphere; c) model horizontal resolution. Model results are compared to observations to determine biases in particular simulations; by examining these comparisons in conjunction with the derived budgets, we may pinpoint
UTILIZATION OF MULTIPLE MEASUREMENTS FOR GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, A. H.; Wu, S. T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hill, Frank
2011-01-01
Magnetic field measurements, line of sight (LOS) and/or vector magnetograms, have been used in a variety of solar physics studies. Currently, the global transverse velocity measurements near the photosphere from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) are available. We have utilized these multiple observational data, for the first time, to present a data-driven global three-dimensional and resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and to investigate the energy transport across the photosphere to the corona. The measurements of the LOS magnetic field and transverse velocity reflect the effects of convective zone dynamics and provide information from the sub-photosphere to the corona. In order to self-consistently include the observables on the lower boundary as the inputs to drive the model, a set of time-dependent boundary conditions is derived by using the method of characteristics. We selected GONG's global transverse velocity measurements of synoptic chart CR2009 near the photosphere and SOLIS full-resolution LOS magnetic field maps of synoptic chart CR2009 on the photosphere to simulate the equilibrium state and compute the energy transport across the photosphere. To show the advantage of using both observed magnetic field and transverse velocity data, we have studied two cases: (1) with the inputs of the LOS magnetic field and transverse velocity measurements, and (2) with the input of the LOS magnetic field and without the input of transverse velocity measurements. For these two cases, the simulation results presented here are a three-dimensional coronal magnetic field configuration, density distributions on the photosphere and at 1.5 solar radii, and the solar wind in the corona. The deduced physical characteristics are the total current helicity and the synthetic emission. By comparing all the physical parameters of case 1 and case 2 and their synthetic emission images with the EIT image, we find that using both the measured magnetic field and the
Self-consistent gyrokinetic modeling of neoclassical and turbulent impurity transport
Estève , D. ,; Sarazin , Y.; Garbet , X.; Grandgirard , V.; Breton , S. ,; Donnel , P. ,; Asahi , Y. ,; Bourdelle , C.; Dif-Pradalier , G; Ehrlacher , C.; Emeriau , C.; Ghendrih , Ph; Gillot , C.; Latu , G.; Passeron , C.
2018-01-01
International audience; Trace impurity transport is studied with the flux-driven gyrokinetic GYSELA code [V. Grandgirard et al., Comp. Phys. Commun. 207, 35 (2016)]. A reduced and linearized multi-species collision operator has been recently implemented, so that both neoclassical and turbulent transport channels can be treated self-consistently on an equal footing. In the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime likely relevant for tungsten, the standard expression of the neoclassical impurity flux is shown t...
Renormalized perturbation theory: Vlasov-Poisson System, weak turbulence limit and gyrokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.
1987-10-01
The Self-consistency of the renormalized perturbation theory is demonstrated by applying it to the Vlasov-Poisson System and showing that the theory has the correct weak turbulence limit. Energy conservation is proved to arbitrary high order for the electrostatic drift waves. The theory is applied to derive renormalized equations for a low-β gyrokinetic system. Comparison of our theory with other current theories is presented. 22 refs
LOW-FREQUENCY OSCILLATIONS IN GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF BLACK HOLE ACCRETION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Neill, Sean M.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Coleman Miller, M.; Sorathia, Kareem A.
2011-01-01
We have identified the presence of large-scale, low-frequency dynamo cycles in a long-duration, global, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of black hole accretion. Such cycles have previously been seen in local shearing box simulations, but we discuss their evolution over 1500 inner disk orbits of a global π/4 disk wedge spanning two orders of magnitude in radius and seven scale heights in elevation above/below the disk midplane. The observed cycles manifest themselves as oscillations in azimuthal magnetic field occupying a region that extends into a low-density corona several scale heights above the disk. The cycle frequencies are 10-20 times lower than the local orbital frequency, making them potentially interesting sources of low-frequency variability when scaled to real astrophysical systems. Furthermore, power spectra derived from the full time series reveal that the cycles manifest themselves at discrete, narrowband frequencies that often share power across broad radial ranges. We explore possible connections between these simulated cycles and observed low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (LFQPOs) in galactic black hole binary systems, finding that dynamo cycles have the appropriate frequencies and are located in a spatial region associated with X-ray emission in real systems. Derived observational proxies, however, fail to feature peaks with rms amplitudes comparable to LFQPO observations, suggesting that further theoretical work and more sophisticated simulations will be required to form a complete theory of dynamo-driven LFQPOs. Nonetheless, this work clearly illustrates that global MHD dynamos exhibit quasi-periodic behavior on timescales much longer than those derived from test particle considerations.
Quetin, G. R.; Swann, A. L. S.
2017-12-01
Successfully predicting the state of vegetation in a novel environment is dependent on our process level understanding of the ecosystem and its interactions with the environment. We derive a global empirical map of the sensitivity of vegetation to climate using the response of satellite-observed greenness and leaf area to interannual variations in temperature and precipitation. Our analysis provides observations of ecosystem functioning; the vegetation interactions with the physical environment, across a wide range of climates and provide a functional constraint for hypotheses engendered in process-based models. We infer mechanisms constraining ecosystem functioning by contrasting how the observed and simulated sensitivity of vegetation to climate varies across climate space. Our analysis yields empirical evidence for multiple physical and biological mediators of the sensitivity of vegetation to climate as a systematic change across climate space. Our comparison of remote sensing-based vegetation sensitivity with modeled estimates provides evidence for which physiological mechanisms - photosynthetic efficiency, respiration, water supply, atmospheric water demand, and sunlight availability - dominate the ecosystem functioning in places with different climates. Earth system models are generally successful in reproducing the broad sign and shape of ecosystem functioning across climate space. However, this general agreement breaks down in hot wet climates where models simulate less leaf area during a warmer year, while observations show a mixed response but overall more leaf area during warmer years. In addition, simulated ecosystem interaction with temperature is generally larger and changes more rapidly across a gradient of temperature than is observed. We hypothesize that the amplified interaction and change are both due to a lack of adaptation and acclimation in simulations. This discrepancy with observations suggests that simulated responses of vegetation to
A new synoptic scale resolving global climate simulation using the Community Earth System Model
Small, R. Justin; Bacmeister, Julio; Bailey, David; Baker, Allison; Bishop, Stuart; Bryan, Frank; Caron, Julie; Dennis, John; Gent, Peter; Hsu, Hsiao-ming; Jochum, Markus; Lawrence, David; Muñoz, Ernesto; diNezio, Pedro; Scheitlin, Tim; Tomas, Robert; Tribbia, Joseph; Tseng, Yu-heng; Vertenstein, Mariana
2014-12-01
High-resolution global climate modeling holds the promise of capturing planetary-scale climate modes and small-scale (regional and sometimes extreme) features simultaneously, including their mutual interaction. This paper discusses a new state-of-the-art high-resolution Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulation that was performed with these goals in mind. The atmospheric component was at 0.25° grid spacing, and ocean component at 0.1°. One hundred years of "present-day" simulation were completed. Major results were that annual mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the equatorial Pacific and El-Niño Southern Oscillation variability were well simulated compared to standard resolution models. Tropical and southern Atlantic SST also had much reduced bias compared to previous versions of the model. In addition, the high resolution of the model enabled small-scale features of the climate system to be represented, such as air-sea interaction over ocean frontal zones, mesoscale systems generated by the Rockies, and Tropical Cyclones. Associated single component runs and standard resolution coupled runs are used to help attribute the strengths and weaknesses of the fully coupled run. The high-resolution run employed 23,404 cores, costing 250 thousand processor-hours per simulated year and made about two simulated years per day on the NCAR-Wyoming supercomputer "Yellowstone."
Mechanism of ENSO influence on the South Asian monsoon rainfall in global model simulations
Joshi, Sneh; Kar, Sarat C.
2018-02-01
Coupled ocean atmosphere global climate models are increasingly being used for seasonal scale simulation of the South Asian monsoon. In these models, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) evolve as coupled air-sea interaction process. However, sensitivity experiments with various SST forcing can only be done in an atmosphere-only model. In this study, the Global Forecast System (GFS) model at T126 horizontal resolution has been used to examine the mechanism of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forcing on the monsoon circulation and rainfall. The model has been integrated (ensemble) with observed, climatological and ENSO SST forcing to document the mechanism on how the South Asian monsoon responds to basin-wide SST variations in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The model simulations indicate that the internal variability gets modulated by the SSTs with warming in the Pacific enhancing the ensemble spread over the monsoon region as compared to cooling conditions. Anomalous easterly wind anomalies cover the Indian region both at 850 and 200 hPa levels during El Niño years. The locations and intensity of Walker and Hadley circulations are altered due to ENSO SST forcing. These lead to reduction of monsoon rainfall over most parts of India during El Niño events compared to La Niña conditions. However, internally generated variability is a major source of uncertainty in the model-simulated climate.
Co2 emission scenarios for next centuries to obtain more complete simulations of the global warming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michelini, M.
2001-01-01
In the framework of a punctual Modeling of the Greenhouse Effect (report RT/ERG/2001/1) it is necessary to set CO2 Emission Scenarios for the next Centuries in order to obtain the complete evolution of the global warming. Some methodologies are described to approach such long term previsions. From the demand side, the growth of the consumes (which are affected by population and development) is correlated (supply side) with the technical-economic-environmental Evaluation of the future diffusion of classic sources (experienced in the past centuries) and of new Technologies and renewable sources. The previsions of the world population Growth are derived from the UNFPA publications. The degree of economic Development of the world Population in the very long term is obtained by simulating the Evolution of the Population across four main Areas characterized by different pro-capita consumes. Using these criteria two different Scenarios have been set-up and put into comparison with the SRES Scenarios published in the Third Assessment Report-WG1 of the IPCC. The cut at the year 2100 of the SRES Scenarios is also discussed. Simulations of the Global Warming in the long term have been performed with the two scenarios. These results are discussed together with the results of the Simulations reported by IPCC [it
An integrated model to simulate sown area changes for major crops at a global scale
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHIBASAKI; Ryosuke
2008-01-01
Dynamics of land use systems have attracted much attention from scientists around the world due to their ecological and socio-economic implications. An integrated model to dynamically simulate future changes in sown areas of four major crops (rice, maize, wheat and soybean) on a global scale is pre- sented. To do so, a crop choice model was developed on the basis of Multinomial Logit (Logit) model to model land users’ decisions on crop choices among a set of available alternatives with using a crop utility function. A GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted to simulate the crop yields under a given geophysical environment and farming management conditions, while the International Food Policy and Agricultural Simulation (IFPSIM) model was utilized to estimate crop price in the international market. The crop choice model was linked with the GIS-based EPIC model and the IFPSIM model through data exchange. This integrated model was then validated against the FAO statistical data in 2001-2003 and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global land cover product in 2001. Both validation approaches indicated reliability of the model for ad- dressing the dynamics in agricultural land use and its capability for long-term scenario analysis. Finally, the model application was designed to run over a time period of 30 a, taking the year 2000 as baseline. The model outcomes can help understand and explain the causes, locations and consequences of land use changes, and provide support for land use planning and policy making.
Pi, Xiaoqing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Stephens, Philip; Iijima, Bryron A.
2013-01-01
Modeling and imaging the Earth's ionosphere as well as understanding its structures, inhomogeneities, and disturbances is a key part of NASA's Heliophysics Directorate science roadmap. This invention provides a design tool for scientific missions focused on the ionosphere. It is a scientifically important and technologically challenging task to assess the impact of a new observation system quantitatively on our capability of imaging and modeling the ionosphere. This question is often raised whenever a new satellite system is proposed, a new type of data is emerging, or a new modeling technique is developed. The proposed constellation would be part of a new observation system with more low-Earth orbiters tracking more radio occultation signals broadcast by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) than those offered by the current GPS and COSMIC observation system. A simulation system was developed to fulfill this task. The system is composed of a suite of software that combines the Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM) including first-principles and empirical ionospheric models, a multiple- dipole geomagnetic field model, data assimilation modules, observation simulator, visualization software, and orbit design, simulation, and optimization software.
Andru?cã Maria Carmen
2013-01-01
The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pilarski Michał
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The main source of information about future climate changes are the results of numerical simulations performed in scientific institutions around the world. Present projections from global circulation models (GCMs are too coarse and are only usefulness for the world, hemisphere or continent spatial analysis. The low horizontal resolution of global models (100–200 km, does not allow to assess climate changes at regional or local scales. Therefore it is necessary to lead studies concerning how to detail the GCMs information. The problem of information transfer from the GCMs to higher spatial scale solve: dynamical and statistical downscaling. The dynamical downscaling method based on “nesting” global information in a regional models (RCMs, which solve the equations of motion and the thermodynamic laws in a small spatial scale (10–50 km. However, the statistical downscaling models (SDMs identify the relationship between large-scale variable (predictor and small-scale variable (predictand implementing linear regression. The main goal of the study was to compare the global model scenarios of thermal condition in Poland in XXI century with the more accurate statistical and dynamical regional models outcomes. Generally studies confirmed usefulness of statistical downscaling to detail information from GCMs. Basic results present that regional models captured local aspects of thermal conditions variability especially in coastal zone.
Biastoch, Arne; Sein, Dmitry; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Wang, Qiang; Danilov, Sergey
2018-01-01
Many questions in ocean and climate modelling require the combined use of high resolution, global coverage and multi-decadal integration length. For this combination, even modern resources limit the use of traditional structured-mesh grids. Here we compare two approaches: A high-resolution grid nested into a global model at coarser resolution (NEMO with AGRIF) and an unstructured-mesh grid (FESOM) which allows to variably enhance resolution where desired. The Agulhas system around South Africa is used as a testcase, providing an energetic interplay of a strong western boundary current and mesoscale dynamics. Its open setting into the horizontal and global overturning circulations also requires global coverage. Both model configurations simulate a reasonable large-scale circulation. Distribution and temporal variability of the wind-driven circulation are quite comparable due to the same atmospheric forcing. However, the overturning circulation differs, owing each model's ability to represent formation and spreading of deep water masses. In terms of regional, high-resolution dynamics, all elements of the Agulhas system are well represented. Owing to the strong nonlinearity in the system, Agulhas Current transports of both configurations and in comparison with observations differ in strength and temporal variability. Similar decadal trends in Agulhas Current transport and Agulhas leakage are linked to the trends in wind forcing.
Using probabilistic finite automata to simulate hourly series of global radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mora-Lopez, L. [Universidad de Malaga (Spain). Dpto. Lenguajes y Computacion; Sidrach-de-Cardona, M. [Universidad de Malaga (Spain). Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II
2003-03-01
A model to generate synthetic series of hourly exposure of global radiation is proposed. This model has been constructed using a machine learning approach. It is based on the use of a subclass of probabilistic finite automata which can be used for variable-order Markov processes. This model allows us to represent the different relationships and the representative information observed in the hourly series of global radiation; the variable-order Markov process can be used as a natural way to represent different types of days, and to take into account the ''variable memory'' of cloudiness. A method to generate new series of hourly global radiation, which incorporates the randomness observed in recorded series, is also proposed. As input data this method only uses the mean monthly value of the daily solar global radiation. We examine if the recorded and simulated series are similar. It can be concluded that both series have the same statistical properties. (author)
Kinetics programs for simulation of tropospheric photochemistry on the global scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elliott, S.; Kao, C.Y.J.; Turco, R.P.; Zhao, X.P.
1993-08-01
The study of tropospheric kinetics underlies global change because key greenhouse gases are photochemically active. Modeling of tropospheric chemistry on a global scale is essential because some indirect greenhouse gases are short-lived and interact in a non-linear fashion. It is also extremely challenging, however; the global change grid is extensive in both the physical and temporal domains, and critical lower atmospheric species include the organics and their oxidized derivatives, which are numerous. Several types of optimization may be incorporated into kinetics modules to enhance their ability to simulate the complete lower atmospheric gas phase chemical system. (1) The photochemical integrator can be accelerated by avoiding matrix and iterative solutions and by establishing families. Accuracy and mass conservation are sacrificed in the absence of iteration, but atom balancing is restorable post hoc. (2) Chemistry can be arranged upon the massive grid to exploit parallel processing, and solutions to its continuity equations can be automated to permit experimentation with species and reaction lists or family definitions. Costs in programming effort will be incurred in these cases. (3) Complex hydrocarbon decay sequences can be streamlined either through structural lumping methods descended from smog investigations, which require considerable calibration, or by defining surrogates for classes of compounds, with a loss in constituent detail. From among the available options, the most advantageous permutations will vary with the specific nature of any eventual global scale study, and there is likely to be demand for many approaches. Tracer transport codes serve as a foundation upon which tropospheric chemistry packages will be tested. Encroachment of the NO x sphere of influence upon tropical rain forests and the upper free troposphere are two examples of specific problems to which full three-dimensional chemical simulations might be applied
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watterson, I.G. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale (Australia)
2006-01-01
Simulations of global warming over the coming century from two CSIRO GCMs are analysed to assess changes in the intensity of extratropical cyclones, and the potential role of increased latent heating associated with precipitation during cyclones. A simple surface cyclone detection scheme is applied to a four-member ensemble of simulations from the Mark 2 GCM, under rising greenhouse gas concentrations. The seasonal distribution of cyclones appears broadly realistic during 1961-1990. By 2071-2100, with 3 K global warming, numbers over 20 deg N to 70 deg N decrease by 6% in winter and 2% annually, with similar results for the south. The average intensity of cyclones, from relative central pressure and other measures, is largely unchanged however. 30-yr extremes of dynamic intensity also show little clear change, including values averaged over continents. Mean rain rates at cyclone centres are typically at least double rates from all days. Rates during cyclones increase by an average 14% in the northern winter under global warming. Rates over adjacent grid squares and during the previous day increase similarly, as do extreme rates. Results from simulations of the higher-resolution (1.8 deg grid) Mark 3 GCM are similar, with widespread increases in rain rates but not in cyclone intensity. The analyses suggest that latent heating during storms increases, as anticipated due to the increased moisture capacity of the warmer atmosphere. However, any role for enhanced heating in storm development in the GCMs is apparently masked by other factors. An exception is a 5% increase in extreme intensity around 55 deg S in Mark 3, despite decreased numbers of lows, a factor assessed using extreme value theory. Further studies with yet higher-resolution models may be needed to examine the potential realism of these results, particularly with regard to extremes at smaller scale.
Assessment of SMAP soil moisture for global simulation of gross primary production
He, Liming; Chen, Jing M.; Liu, Jane; Bélair, Stéphane; Luo, Xiangzhong
2017-07-01
In this study, high-quality soil moisture data derived from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite measurements are evaluated from a perspective of improving the estimation of the global gross primary production (GPP) using a process-based ecosystem model, namely, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). The SMAP soil moisture data are assimilated into BEPS using an ensemble Kalman filter. The correlation coefficient (r) between simulated GPP from the sunlit leaves and Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) measured by Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 is used as an indicator to evaluate the performance of the GPP simulation. Areas with SMAP data in low quality (i.e., forests), or with SIF in low magnitude (e.g., deserts), or both are excluded from the analysis. With the assimilated SMAP data, the r value is enhanced for Africa, Asia, and North America by 0.016, 0.013, and 0.013, respectively (p r appears in single-cropping agricultural land where the irrigation is not considered in the model but well captured by SMAP (e.g., 0.09 in North America, p < 0.05). With the assimilation of SMAP, areas with weak model performances are identified in double or triple cropping cropland (e.g., part of North China Plain) and/or mountainous area (e.g., Spain and Turkey). The correlation coefficient is enhanced by 0.01 in global average for shrub, grass, and cropland. This enhancement is small and insignificant because nonwater-stressed areas are included.
Dynamics of global vegetation biomass simulated by the integrated Earth System Model
Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Thornton, P. E.; Piao, S.; Yang, X.; Truesdale, J. E.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Chini, L. P.; Thomson, A. M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Collins, W.; Edmonds, J.
2014-12-01
The global vegetation biomass stores huge amounts of carbon and is thus important to the global carbon budget (Pan et al., 2010). For the past few decades, different observation-based estimates and modeling of biomass in the above- and below-ground vegetation compartments have been comprehensively conducted (Saatchi et al., 2011; Baccini et al., 2012). However, uncertainties still exist, in particular for the simulation of biomass magnitude, tendency, and the response of biomass to climatic conditions and natural and human disturbances. The recently successful coupling of the integrated Earth System Model (iESM) (Di Vittorio et al., 2014; Bond-Lamberty et al., 2014), which links the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), Global Land-use Model (GLM), and Community Earth System Model (CESM), offers a great opportunity to understand the biomass-related dynamics in a fully-coupled natural and human modeling system. In this study, we focus on the systematic analysis and evaluation of the iESM simulated historical (1850-2005) and future (2006-2100) biomass changes and the response of the biomass dynamics to various impact factors, in particular the human-induced Land Use/Land Cover Change (LULCC). By analyzing the iESM simulations with and without the interactive LULCC feedbacks, we further study how and where the climate feedbacks affect socioeconomic decisions and LULCC, such as to alter vegetation carbon storage. References Pan Y et. al: A large and persistent carbon sink in the World's forests. Science 2011, 333:988-993. Saatchi SS et al: Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2011, 108:9899-9904. Baccini A et al: Estimated carbon dioxide emissions from tropical deforestation improved by carbon-density maps. Nature Clim Change 2012, 2:182-185. Di Vittorio AV et al: From land use to land cover: restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment-earth system model and the implications for
Wang, Y.; Stek, P. C.; Su, H.; Jiang, J. H.; Livesey, N. J.; Santee, M. L.
2014-12-01
Over the past century, global average surface temperature has warmed by about 0.16°C/decade, largely due to anthropogenic increases in well-mixed greenhouse gases. However, the trend in global surface temperatures has been nearly flat since 2000, raising a question regarding the exploration of the drivers of climate change. Water vapor is a strong greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Previous studies suggested that the sudden decrease of stratospheric water vapor (SWV) around 2000 may have contributed to the stall of global warming. Since 2004, the SWV observed by Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on Aura satellite has shown a slow recovery. The role of recent SWV variations in global warming has not been quantified. We employ a coupled atmosphere-ocean climate model, the NCAR CESM, to address this issue. It is found that the CESM underestimates the stratospheric water vapor by about 1 ppmv due to limited representations of the stratospheric dynamic and chemical processes important for water vapor variabilities. By nudging the modeled SWV to the MLS observation, we find that increasing SWV by 1 ppmv produces a robust surface warming about 0.2°C in global-mean when the model reaches equilibrium. Conversely, the sudden drop of SWV from 2000 to 2004 would cause a surface cooling about -0.08°C in global-mean. On the other hand, imposing the observed linear trend of SWV based on the 10-year observation of MLS in the CESM yields a rather slow surface warming, about 0.04°C/decade. Our model experiments suggest that SWV contributes positively to the global surface temperature variation, although it may not be the dominant factor that drives the recent global warming hiatus. Additional sensitivity experiments show that the impact of SWV on surface climate is mostly governed by the SWV amount at 100 hPa in the tropics. Furthermore, the atmospheric model simulations driven by observed sea surface temperature (SST) show that the inter-annual variation of SWV follows that of SST
Tang, G.; Bartlein, P. J.
2012-08-01
Satellite-based data, such as vegetation type and fractional vegetation cover, are widely used in hydrologic models to prescribe the vegetation state in a study region. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) simulate land surface hydrology. Incorporation of satellite-based data into a DGVM may enhance a model's ability to simulate land surface hydrology by reducing the task of model parameterization and providing distributed information on land characteristics. The objectives of this study are to (i) modify a DGVM for simulating land surface water balances; (ii) evaluate the modified model in simulating actual evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture, and surface runoff at regional or watershed scales; and (iii) gain insight into the ability of both the original and modified model to simulate large spatial scale land surface hydrology. To achieve these objectives, we introduce the "LPJ-hydrology" (LH) model which incorporates satellite-based data into the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) DGVM. To evaluate the model we ran LH using historical (1981-2006) climate data and satellite-based land covers at 2.5 arc-min grid cells for the conterminous US and for the entire world using coarser climate and land cover data. We evaluated the simulated ET, soil moisture, and surface runoff using a set of observed or simulated data at different spatial scales. Our results demonstrate that spatial patterns of LH-simulated annual ET and surface runoff are in accordance with previously published data for the US; LH-modeled monthly stream flow for 12 major rivers in the US was consistent with observed values respectively during the years 1981-2006 (R2 > 0.46, p 0.52). The modeled mean annual discharges for 10 major rivers worldwide also agreed well (differences day method for snowmelt computation, the addition of the solar radiation effect on snowmelt enabled LH to better simulate monthly stream flow in winter and early spring for rivers located at mid-to-high latitudes. In addition, LH
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flury, Sabine; Gessner, Mark
2011-01-01
obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that simulated global warming induced a shift in bacterial community structure. In addition, warming reduced fungal biomass, whereas bacterial biomass was unaffected. The mesh size of the litter bags and sampling date also had......Atmospheric warming and increased nitrogen deposition can lead to changes of microbial communities with possible consequences for biogeochemical processes. We used an enclosure facility in a freshwater marsh to assess the effects on microbes associated with decomposing plant litter under conditions...... of simulated climate warming and pulsed nitrogen supply. Standard batches of litter were placed in coarse-mesh and fine-mesh bags and submerged in a series of heated, nitrogen-enriched, and control enclosures. They were retrieved later and analyzed for a range of microbial parameters. Fingerprinting profiles...
The ARM Cloud Radar Simulator for Global Climate Models: Bridging Field Data and Climate Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yuying [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Klein, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Marchand, Roger [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Kollias, Pavlos [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York; Clothiaux, Eugene E. [The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania; Lin, Wuyin [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Johnson, Karen [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Swales, Dustin [CIRES and NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom; Tang, Shuaiqi [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Haynes, John M. [Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere/Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; Collis, Scott [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Jensen, Michael [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Bharadwaj, Nitin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Hardin, Joseph [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Isom, Bradley [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington
2018-01-01
Clouds play an important role in Earth’s radiation budget and hydrological cycle. However, current global climate models (GCMs) have had difficulties in accurately simulating clouds and precipitation. To improve the representation of clouds in climate models, it is crucial to identify where simulated clouds differ from real world observations of them. This can be difficult, since significant differences exist between how a climate model represents clouds and what instruments observe, both in terms of spatial scale and the properties of the hydrometeors which are either modeled or observed. To address these issues and minimize impacts of instrument limitations, the concept of instrument “simulators”, which convert model variables into pseudo-instrument observations, has evolved with the goal to improve and to facilitate the comparison of modeled clouds with observations. Many simulators have (and continue to be developed) for a variety of instruments and purposes. A community satellite simulator package, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP; Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2011), contains several independent satellite simulators and is being widely used in the global climate modeling community to exploit satellite observations for model cloud evaluation (e.g., Klein et al. 2013; Zhang et al. 2010). This article introduces a ground-based cloud radar simulator developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program for comparing climate model clouds with ARM observations from its vertically pointing 35-GHz radars. As compared to CloudSat radar observations, ARM radar measurements occur with higher temporal resolution and finer vertical resolution. This enables users to investigate more fully the detailed vertical structures within clouds, resolve thin clouds, and quantify the diurnal variability of clouds. Particularly, ARM radars are sensitive to low-level clouds, which are
DOUBLE DYNAMO SIGNATURES IN A GLOBAL MHD SIMULATION AND MEAN-FIELD DYNAMOS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beaudoin, Patrice; Simard, Corinne; Cossette, Jean-François; Charbonneau, Paul [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7 (Canada)
2016-08-01
The 11 year solar activity cycle is the most prominent periodic manifestation of the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) large-scale dynamo operating in the solar interior, yet longer and shorter (quasi-) periodicities are also present. The so-called “quasi-biennial” signal appearing in many proxies of solar activity has been gaining increasing attention since its detection in p -mode frequency shifts, which suggests a subphotospheric origin. A number of candidate mechanisms have been proposed, including beating between co-existing global dynamo modes, dual dynamos operating in spatially separated regions of the solar interior, and Rossby waves driving short-period oscillations in the large-scale solar magnetic field produced by the 11 year activity cycle. In this article, we analyze a global MHD simulation of solar convection producing regular large-scale magnetic cycles, and detect and characterize shorter periodicities developing therein. By constructing kinematic mean-field α {sup 2}Ω dynamo models incorporating the turbulent electromotive force (emf) extracted from that same simulation, we find that dual-dynamo behavior materializes in fairly wide regions of the model’s parameters space. This suggests that the origin of the similar behavior detected in the MHD simulation lies with the joint complexity of the turbulent emf and differential rotation profile, rather that with dynamical interactions such as those mediated by Rossby waves. Analysis of the simulation also reveals that the dual dynamo operating therein leaves a double-period signature in the temperature field, consistent with a dual-period helioseismic signature. Order-of-magnitude estimates for the magnitude of the expected frequency shifts are commensurate with helioseismic measurements. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that the solar quasi-biennial oscillations are associated with a secondary dynamo process operating in the outer reaches of the solar convection zone.
Model-data fusion across ecosystems: from multisite optimizations to global simulations
Kuppel, S.; Peylin, P.; Maignan, F.; Chevallier, F.; Kiely, G.; Montagnani, L.; Cescatti, A.
2014-11-01
This study uses a variational data assimilation framework to simultaneously constrain a global ecosystem model with eddy covariance measurements of daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and latent heat (LE) fluxes from a large number of sites grouped in seven plant functional types (PFTs). It is an attempt to bridge the gap between the numerous site-specific parameter optimization works found in the literature and the generic parameterization used by most land surface models within each PFT. The present multisite approach allows deriving PFT-generic sets of optimized parameters enhancing the agreement between measured and simulated fluxes at most of the sites considered, with performances often comparable to those of the corresponding site-specific optimizations. Besides reducing the PFT-averaged model-data root-mean-square difference (RMSD) and the associated daily output uncertainty, the optimization improves the simulated CO2 balance at tropical and temperate forests sites. The major site-level NEE adjustments at the seasonal scale are reduced amplitude in C3 grasslands and boreal forests, increased seasonality in temperate evergreen forests, and better model-data phasing in temperate deciduous broadleaf forests. Conversely, the poorer performances in tropical evergreen broadleaf forests points to deficiencies regarding the modelling of phenology and soil water stress for this PFT. An evaluation with data-oriented estimates of photosynthesis (GPP - gross primary productivity) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) rates indicates distinctively improved simulations of both gross fluxes. The multisite parameter sets are then tested against CO2 concentrations measured at 53 locations around the globe, showing significant adjustments of the modelled seasonality of atmospheric CO2 concentration, whose relevance seems PFT-dependent, along with an improved interannual variability. Lastly, a global-scale evaluation with remote sensing NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index
MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION DYNAMICS FROM 3D MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF SOLAR CONVECTION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Passos, Dário; Charbonneau, Paul; Miesch, Mark
2015-01-01
The form of solar meridional circulation is a very important ingredient for mean field flux transport dynamo models. However, a shroud of mystery still surrounds this large-scale flow, given that its measurement using current helioseismic techniques is challenging. In this work, we use results from three-dimensional global simulations of solar convection to infer the dynamical behavior of the established meridional circulation. We make a direct comparison between the meridional circulation that arises in these simulations and the latest observations. Based on our results, we argue that there should be an equatorward flow at the base of the convection zone at mid-latitudes, below the current maximum depth helioseismic measures can probe (0.75 R ⊙ ). We also provide physical arguments to justify this behavior. The simulations indicate that the meridional circulation undergoes substantial changes in morphology as the magnetic cycle unfolds. We close by discussing the importance of these dynamical changes for current methods of observation which involve long averaging periods of helioseismic data. Also noteworthy is the fact that these topological changes indicate a rich interaction between magnetic fields and plasma flows, which challenges the ubiquitous kinematic approach used in the vast majority of mean field dynamo simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Nabert
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The interaction of the solar wind with a planetary magnetic field causes electrical currents that modify the magnetic field distribution around the planet. We present an approach to estimating the planetary magnetic field from in situ spacecraft data using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulation approach. The method is developed with respect to the upcoming BepiColombo mission to planet Mercury aimed at determining the planet's magnetic field and its interior electrical conductivity distribution. In contrast to the widely used empirical models, global MHD simulations allow the calculation of the strongly time-dependent interaction process of the solar wind with the planet. As a first approach, we use a simple MHD simulation code that includes time-dependent solar wind and magnetic field parameters. The planetary parameters are estimated by minimizing the misfit of spacecraft data and simulation results with a gradient-based optimization. As the calculation of gradients with respect to many parameters is usually very time-consuming, we investigate the application of an adjoint MHD model. This adjoint MHD model is generated by an automatic differentiation tool to compute the gradients efficiently. The computational cost for determining the gradient with an adjoint approach is nearly independent of the number of parameters. Our method is validated by application to THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms magnetosheath data to estimate Earth's dipole moment.
Fast simulation of reconstructed phylogenies under global time-dependent birth-death processes.
Höhna, Sebastian
2013-06-01
Diversification rates and patterns may be inferred from reconstructed phylogenies. Both the time-dependent and the diversity-dependent birth-death process can produce the same observed patterns of diversity over time. To develop and test new models describing the macro-evolutionary process of diversification, generic and fast algorithms to simulate under these models are necessary. Simulations are not only important for testing and developing models but play an influential role in the assessment of model fit. In the present article, I consider as the model a global time-dependent birth-death process where each species has the same rates but rates may vary over time. For this model, I derive the likelihood of the speciation times from a reconstructed phylogenetic tree and show that each speciation event is independent and identically distributed. This fact can be used to simulate efficiently reconstructed phylogenetic trees when conditioning on the number of species, the time of the process or both. I show the usability of the simulation by approximating the posterior predictive distribution of a birth-death process with decreasing diversification rates applied on a published bird phylogeny (family Cettiidae). The methods described in this manuscript are implemented in the R package TESS, available from the repository CRAN (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/TESS/). Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Paiewonsky, Pablo; Elison Timm, Oliver
2018-03-01
In this paper, we present a simple dynamic global vegetation model whose primary intended use is auxiliary to the land-atmosphere coupling scheme of a climate model, particularly one of intermediate complexity. The model simulates and provides important ecological-only variables but also some hydrological and surface energy variables that are typically either simulated by land surface schemes or else used as boundary data input for these schemes. The model formulations and their derivations are presented here, in detail. The model includes some realistic and useful features for its level of complexity, including a photosynthetic dependency on light, full coupling of photosynthesis and transpiration through an interactive canopy resistance, and a soil organic carbon dependence for bare-soil albedo. We evaluate the model's performance by running it as part of a simple land surface scheme that is driven by reanalysis data. The evaluation against observational data includes net primary productivity, leaf area index, surface albedo, and diagnosed variables relevant for the closure of the hydrological cycle. In this setup, we find that the model gives an adequate to good simulation of basic large-scale ecological and hydrological variables. Of the variables analyzed in this paper, gross primary productivity is particularly well simulated. The results also reveal the current limitations of the model. The most significant deficiency is the excessive simulation of evapotranspiration in mid- to high northern latitudes during their winter to spring transition. The model has a relative advantage in situations that require some combination of computational efficiency, model transparency and tractability, and the simulation of the large-scale vegetation and land surface characteristics under non-present-day conditions.
Tang, G.; Bartlein, P. J.
2012-01-01
Water balance models of simple structure are easier to grasp and more clearly connect cause and effect than models of complex structure. Such models are essential for studying large spatial scale land surface water balance in the context of climate and land cover change, both natural and anthropogenic. This study aims to (i) develop a large spatial scale water balance model by modifying a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), and (ii) test the model's performance in simulating actual evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture and surface runoff for the coterminous United States (US). Toward these ends, we first introduced development of the "LPJ-Hydrology" (LH) model by incorporating satellite-based land covers into the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) DGVM instead of dynamically simulating them. We then ran LH using historical (1982-2006) climate data and satellite-based land covers at 2.5 arc-min grid cells. The simulated ET, soil moisture and surface runoff were compared to existing sets of observed or simulated data for the US. The results indicated that LH captures well the variation of monthly actual ET (R2 = 0.61, p 0.46, p 0.52) with observed values over the years 1982-2006, respectively. The modeled spatial patterns of annual ET and surface runoff are in accordance with previously published data. Compared to its predecessor, LH simulates better monthly stream flow in winter and early spring by incorporating effects of solar radiation on snowmelt. Overall, this study proves the feasibility of incorporating satellite-based land-covers into a DGVM for simulating large spatial scale land surface water balance. LH developed in this study should be a useful tool for studying effects of climate and land cover change on land surface hydrology at large spatial scales.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eriksson, Lars
2003-03-01
The heat flux level observed in magnetic plasma confinement experiments such as tokamaks is much higher than what can be explained from neoclassical theory. There is a strong interest in the controlled nuclear fusion community to fully understand this phenomenon, called anomalous transport. One idea is that radial electric fields play a key role in the stabilization process of the electrostatic instabilities called micro instabilities that are considered responsible for the anomalous heat flux. This work studies the effect of a static ad-hoc radial electric field on microinstabilities, especially the ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven mode, within the frame of a global 3D gyrokinetic model. This will make it possible to extend the simulations done in tokamaks and helically symmetric systems to fully 313 magnetic configurations. Technically the work consists of extending the 3D gyrokinetic code Euterpe to also include the effect of the drifts induced by an imposed radial electrostatic potential. Simulations are performed in tokamak and helically symmetric configurations. The results indicate that this modified version of Euterpe can be used in studying more complex 3D fusion devices
Bennett, Katrina E.; Urrego Blanco, Jorge R.; Jonko, Alexandra; Bohn, Theodore J.; Atchley, Adam L.; Urban, Nathan M.; Middleton, Richard S.
2018-01-01
The Colorado River Basin is a fundamentally important river for society, ecology, and energy in the United States. Streamflow estimates are often provided using modeling tools which rely on uncertain parameters; sensitivity analysis can help determine which parameters impact model results. Despite the fact that simulated flows respond to changing climate and vegetation in the basin, parameter sensitivity of the simulations under climate change has rarely been considered. In this study, we conduct a global sensitivity analysis to relate changes in runoff, evapotranspiration, snow water equivalent, and soil moisture to model parameters in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. We combine global sensitivity analysis with a space-filling Latin Hypercube Sampling of the model parameter space and statistical emulation of the VIC model to examine sensitivities to uncertainties in 46 model parameters following a variance-based approach. We find that snow-dominated regions are much more sensitive to uncertainties in VIC parameters. Although baseflow and runoff changes respond to parameters used in previous sensitivity studies, we discover new key parameter sensitivities. For instance, changes in runoff and evapotranspiration are sensitive to albedo, while changes in snow water equivalent are sensitive to canopy fraction and Leaf Area Index (LAI) in the VIC model. It is critical for improved modeling to narrow uncertainty in these parameters through improved observations and field studies. This is important because LAI and albedo are anticipated to change under future climate and narrowing uncertainty is paramount to advance our application of models such as VIC for water resource management.
A global MHD simulation of an event with a quasi-steady northward IMF component
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V. G. Merkin
2007-06-01
Full Text Available We show results of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM global MHD simulations of an event previously examined using Iridium spacecraft observations as well as DMSP and IMAGE FUV data. The event is chosen for the steady northward IMF sustained over a three-hour period during 16 July 2000. The Iridium observations showed very weak or absent Region 2 currents in the ionosphere, which makes the event favorable for global MHD modeling. Here we are interested in examining the model's performace during weak magnetospheric forcing, in particular, its ability to reproduce gross signatures of the ionospheric currents and convection pattern and energy deposition in the ionosphere both due to the Poynting flux and particle precipitation. We compare the ionospheric field-aligned current and electric potential patterns with those recovered from Iridium and DMSP observations, respectively. In addition, DMSP magnetometer data are used for comparisons of ionospheric magnetic perturbations. The electromagnetic energy flux is compared with Iridium-inferred values, while IMAGE FUV observations are utilized to verify the simulated particle energy flux.
Influence of the solar wind and IMF on Jupiter's magnetosphere: Results from global MHD simulations
Sarkango, Y.; Jia, X.; Toth, G.; Hansen, K. C.
2017-12-01
Due to its large size, rapid rotation and presence of substantial internal plasma sources, Jupiter's magnetosphere is fundamentally different from that of the Earth. How and to what extent do the external factors, such as the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), influence the internally-driven magnetosphere is an open question. In this work, we solve the 3D semi-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations using a well-established code, BATSRUS, to model the Jovian magnetosphere and study its interaction with the solar wind. Our global model adopts a non-uniform mesh covering the region from 200 RJ upstream to 1800 RJ downstream with the inner boundary placed at a radial distance of 2.5 RJ. The Io plasma torus centered around 6 RJ is generated in our model through appropriate mass-loading terms added to the set of MHD equations. We perform systematic numerical experiments in which we vary the upstream solar wind properties to investigate the impact of solar wind events, such as interplanetary shock and IMF rotation, on the global magnetosphere. From our simulations, we extract the location of the magnetopause boundary, the bow shock and the open-closed field line boundary (OCB), and determine their dependence on the solar wind properties and the IMF orientation. For validation, we compare our simulation results, such as density, temperature and magnetic field, to published empirical models based on in-situ measurements.
Combined simulation of carbon and water isotopes in a global ocean model
Paul, André; Krandick, Annegret; Gebbie, Jake; Marchal, Olivier; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Losch, Martin; Kurahashi-Nakamura, Takasumi; Tharammal, Thejna
2013-04-01
Carbon and water isotopes are included as passive tracers in the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The implementation of the carbon isotopes is based on the existing MITgcm carbon cycle component and involves the fractionation processes during photosynthesis and air-sea gas exchange. Special care is given to the use of a real freshwater flux boundary condition in conjunction with the nonlinear free surface of the ocean model. The isotopic content of precipitation and water vapor is obtained from an atmospheric GCM (the NCAR CAM3) and mapped onto the MITgcm grid system, but the kinetic fractionation during evaporation is treated explicitly in the ocean model. In a number of simulations, we test the sensitivity of the carbon isotope distributions to the formulation of fractionation during photosynthesis and compare the results to modern observations of δ13C and Δ14C from GEOSECS, WOCE and CLIVAR. Similarly, we compare the resulting distribution of oxygen isotopes to modern δ18O data from the NASA GISS Global Seawater Oxygen-18 Database. The overall agreement is good, but there are discrepancies in the carbon isotope composition of the surface water and the oxygen isotope composition of the intermediate and deep waters. The combined simulation of carbon and water isotopes in a global ocean model will provide a framework for studying present and past states of ocean circulation such as postulated from deep-sea sediment records.
Global Qualitative Flow-Path Modeling for Local State Determination in Simulation and Analysis
Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Fleming, Land D. (Inventor)
1998-01-01
For qualitative modeling and analysis, a general qualitative abstraction of power transmission variables (flow and effort) for elements of flow paths includes information on resistance, net flow, permissible directions of flow, and qualitative potential is discussed. Each type of component model has flow-related variables and an associated internal flow map, connected into an overall flow network of the system. For storage devices, the implicit power transfer to the environment is represented by "virtual" circuits that include an environmental junction. A heterogeneous aggregation method simplifies the path structure. A method determines global flow-path changes during dynamic simulation and analysis, and identifies corresponding local flow state changes that are effects of global configuration changes. Flow-path determination is triggered by any change in a flow-related device variable in a simulation or analysis. Components (path elements) that may be affected are identified, and flow-related attributes favoring flow in the two possible directions are collected for each of them. Next, flow-related attributes are determined for each affected path element, based on possibly conflicting indications of flow direction. Spurious qualitative ambiguities are minimized by using relative magnitudes and permissible directions of flow, and by favoring flow sources over effort sources when comparing flow tendencies. The results are output to local flow states of affected components.
Gregg, Watson W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.
2016-01-01
The importance of including directional and spectral light in simulations of ocean radiative transfer was investigated using a coupled biogeochemical-circulation-radiative model of the global oceans. The effort focused on phytoplankton abundances, nutrient concentrations and vertically-integrated net primary production. The importance was approached by sequentially removing directional (i.e., direct vs. diffuse) and spectral irradiance and comparing results of the above variables to a fully directionally and spectrally-resolved model. In each case the total irradiance was kept constant; it was only the pathways and spectral nature that were changed. Assuming all irradiance was diffuse had negligible effect on global ocean primary production. Global nitrate and total chlorophyll concentrations declined by about 20% each. The largest changes occurred in the tropics and sub-tropics rather than the high latitudes, where most of the irradiance is already diffuse. Disregarding spectral irradiance had effects that depended upon the choice of attenuation wavelength. The wavelength closest to the spectrally-resolved model, 500 nm, produced lower nitrate (19%) and chlorophyll (8%) and higher primary production (2%) than the spectral model. Phytoplankton relative abundances were very sensitive to the choice of non-spectral wavelength transmittance. The combined effects of neglecting both directional and spectral irradiance exacerbated the differences, despite using attenuation at 500 nm. Global nitrate decreased 33% and chlorophyll decreased 24%. Changes in phytoplankton community structure were considerable, representing a change from chlorophytes to cyanobacteria and coccolithophores. This suggested a shift in community function, from light-limitation to nutrient limitation: lower demands for nutrients from cyanobacteria and coccolithophores favored them over the more nutrient-demanding chlorophytes. Although diatoms have the highest nutrient demands in the model, their
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hirofumi Tomita
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The response of tropical cyclone activity to climate change is a matter of great inherent interest and practical importance. Most current global climate models are not, however, capable of adequately resolving tropical cyclones; this has led to the development of downscaling techniques designed to infer tropical cyclone activity from the large-scale fields produced by climate models. Here we compare the statistics of tropical cyclones simulated explicitly in a very high resolution (~14 km grid mesh global climate model to the results of one such downscaling technique driven by the same global model. This is done for a simulation of the current climate and also for a simulation of a climate warmed by the addition of carbon dioxide. The explicitly simulated and downscaled storms are similarly distributed in space, but the intensity distribution of the downscaled events has a somewhat longer high-intensity tail, owing to the higher resolution of the downscaling model. Both explicitly simulated and downscaled events show large increases in the frequency of events at the high-intensity ends of their respective intensity distributions, but the downscaled storms also show increases in low-intensity events, whereas the explicitly simulated weaker events decline in number. On the regional scale, there are large differences in the responses of the explicitly simulated and downscaled events to global warming. In particular, the power dissipation of downscaled events shows a 175% increase in the Atlantic, while the power dissipation of explicitly simulated events declines there.
Germination Shifts of C3 and C4 Species under Simulated Global Warming Scenario
Zhang, Hongxiang; Yu, Qiang; Huang, Yingxin; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yu; Song, Yantao; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei
2014-01-01
Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination) of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night) and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night), simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature), maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies. PMID:25137138
Germination shifts of C3 and C4 species under simulated global warming scenario.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongxiang Zhang
Full Text Available Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night, simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature, maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lygia Therese Budnik
Full Text Available Ambient monitoring analyses may identify potential new public health hazards such as residual levels of fumigants and industrial chemicals off gassing from products and goods shipped globally. We analyzed container air with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (TD-2D-GC-MS/FPD and assessed whether the concentration of the volatiles benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane exceeded recommended exposure limits (REL. Products were taken from transport containers and analyzed for outgassing of volatiles. Furthermore, experimental outgassing was performed on packaging materials and textiles, to simulate the hazards tainting from globally shipped goods. The mean amounts of benzene in analyzed container air were 698-fold higher, and those of ethylene dichloride were 4.5-fold higher than the corresponding REL. More than 90% of all containers struck with toluene residues higher than its REL. For 1,2-dichloroethane 53% of containers, transporting shoes exceeded the REL. In standardized experimental fumigation of various products, outgassing of 1,2-dichloroethane under controlled laboratory conditions took up to several months. Globally produced transported products tainted with toxic industrial chemicals may contribute to the mixture of volatiles in indoor air as they are likely to emit for a long period. These results need to be taken into account for further evaluation of safety standards applying to workers and consumers.
A Global Terrestrial Reference Frame from simulated VLBI and SLR data in view of GGOS
Glaser, Susanne; König, Rolf; Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; Nilsson, Tobias; Heinkelmann, Robert; Flechtner, Frank; Schuh, Harald
2017-07-01
In this study, we assess the impact of two combination strategies, namely local ties (LT) and global ties (GT), on the datum realization of Global Terrestrial Reference Frames in view of the Global Geodetic Observing System requiring 1 mm-accuracy. Simulated Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data over a 7 year time span was used. The LT results show that the geodetic datum can be best transferred if the precision of the LT is at least 1 mm. Investigating different numbers of LT, the lack of co-located sites on the southern hemisphere is evidenced by differences of 9 mm in translation and rotation compared to the solution using all available LT. For the GT, the combination applying all Earth rotation parameters (ERP), such as pole coordinates and UT1-UTC, indicates that the rotation around the Z axis cannot be adequately transferred from VLBI to SLR within the combination. Applying exclusively the pole coordinates as GT, we show that the datum can be transferred with mm-accuracy within the combination. Furthermore, adding artificial stations in Tahiti and Nigeria to the current VLBI network results in an improvement in station positions by 13 and 12%, respectively, and in ERP by 17 and 11%, respectively. Extending to every day VLBI observations leads to 65% better ERP estimates compared to usual twice-weekly VLBI observations.
The Global Nuclear Futures Model: A Dynamic Simulation Tool for Energy Strategies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bixler, N.E.
2002-01-01
The Global Nuclear Futures Model (GNFM) is a dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of nuclear energy, nuclear materials storage and disposition, global nuclear materials management, and nuclear proliferation risk. It links nuclear energy and other energy shares dynamically to greenhouse gas emissions and twelve other measures of environmental impact. It presents historical data from 1990 to 2000 and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. More specifically, it contains separate modules for energy, the nuclear fuel cycle front end, the nuclear fuel cycle back end, defense nuclear materials, environmental impacts, and measures of the potential for nuclear proliferation. It is globally integrated but also breaks out five regions of the world so that environmental impacts and nuclear proliferation concerns can be evaluated on a regional basis. The five regions are the United States of America (USA), The Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the OECD nations excluding the USA, and the rest of the world (ROW). (author)
Germination shifts of C3 and C4 species under simulated global warming scenario.
Zhang, Hongxiang; Yu, Qiang; Huang, Yingxin; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yu; Song, Yantao; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei
2014-01-01
Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination) of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night) and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night), simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature), maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies.
S-World: A high resolution global soil database for simulation modelling (Invited)
Stoorvogel, J. J.
2013-12-01
There is an increasing call for high resolution soil information at the global level. A good example for such a call is the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison carried out within AgMIP. While local studies can make use of surveying techniques to collect additional techniques this is practically impossible at the global level. It is therefore important to rely on legacy data like the Harmonized World Soil Database. Several efforts do exist that aim at the development of global gridded soil property databases. These estimates of the variation of soil properties can be used to assess e.g., global soil carbon stocks. However, they do not allow for simulation runs with e.g., crop growth simulation models as these models require a description of the entire pedon rather than a few soil properties. This study provides the required quantitative description of pedons at a 1 km resolution for simulation modelling. It uses the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) for the spatial distribution of soil types, the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database to derive information on soil properties per soil type, and a range of co-variables on topography, climate, and land cover to further disaggregate the available data. The methodology aims to take stock of these available data. The soil database is developed in five main steps. Step 1: All 148 soil types are ordered on the basis of their expected topographic position using e.g., drainage, salinization, and pedogenesis. Using the topographic ordering and combining the HWSD with a digital elevation model allows for the spatial disaggregation of the composite soil units. This results in a new soil map with homogeneous soil units. Step 2: The ranges of major soil properties for the topsoil and subsoil of each of the 148 soil types are derived from the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database. Step 3: A model of soil formation is developed that focuses on the basic conceptual question where we are within the range of a particular soil property
Qi, W.; Zhang, C.; Fu, G.; Sweetapple, C.; Zhou, H.
2016-02-01
The applicability of six fine-resolution precipitation products, including precipitation radar, infrared, microwave and gauge-based products, using different precipitation computation recipes, is evaluated using statistical and hydrological methods in northeastern China. In addition, a framework quantifying uncertainty contributions of precipitation products, hydrological models, and their interactions to uncertainties in ensemble discharges is proposed. The investigated precipitation products are Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products (TRMM3B42 and TRMM3B42RT), Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)/Noah, Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN), and a Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP-MVK+) product. Two hydrological models of different complexities, i.e. a water and energy budget-based distributed hydrological model and a physically based semi-distributed hydrological model, are employed to investigate the influence of hydrological models on simulated discharges. Results show APHRODITE has high accuracy at a monthly scale compared with other products, and GSMAP-MVK+ shows huge advantage and is better than TRMM3B42 in relative bias (RB), Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSE), root mean square error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (CC), false alarm ratio, and critical success index. These findings could be very useful for validation, refinement, and future development of satellite-based products (e.g. NASA Global Precipitation Measurement). Although large uncertainty exists in heavy precipitation, hydrological models contribute most of the uncertainty in extreme discharges. Interactions between precipitation products and hydrological models can have the similar magnitude of contribution to discharge uncertainty as the hydrological models. A
Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Glocer, Alex
2014-06-01
There is a growing concern over possible severe societal consequences related to adverse space weather impacts on man-made technological infrastructure. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made toward the first-principles modeling of space weather events, and three-dimensional (3-D) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have been at the forefront of this transition, thereby playing a critical role in advancing our understanding of space weather. However, the modeling of extreme space weather events is still a major challenge even for the modern global MHD models. In this study, we introduce a specially adapted University of Michigan 3-D global MHD model for simulating extreme space weather events with a Dst footprint comparable to the Carrington superstorm of September 1859 based on the estimate by Tsurutani et. al. (2003). Results are presented for a simulation run with "very extreme" constructed/idealized solar wind boundary conditions driving the magnetosphere. In particular, we describe the reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the associated induced geoelectric field on the ground to such extreme driving conditions. The model setup is further tested using input data for an observed space weather event of Halloween storm October 2003 to verify the MHD model consistence and to draw additional guidance for future work. This extreme space weather MHD model setup is designed specifically for practical application to the modeling of extreme geomagnetically induced electric fields, which can drive large currents in ground-based conductor systems such as power transmission grids. Therefore, our ultimate goal is to explore the level of geoelectric fields that can be induced from an assumed storm of the reported magnitude, i.e., Dst˜=-1600 nT.
Simulating the Current Water Cycle with the NASA Ames Mars Global Climate Model
Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Brecht, A. S.; Urata, R. A.; Montmessin, F.
2017-12-01
The water cycle is a critical component of the current Mars climate system, and it is now widely recognized that water ice clouds significantly affect the nature of the simulated water cycle. Two processes are key to implementing clouds in a Mars global climate model (GCM): the microphysical processes of formation and dissipation, and their radiative effects on atmospheric heating/cooling rates. Together, these processes alter the thermal structure, change the atmospheric dynamics, and regulate inter-hemispheric transport. We have made considerable progress using the NASA Ames Mars GCM to simulate the current-day water cycle with radiatively active clouds. Cloud fields from our baseline simulation are in generally good agreement with observations. The predicted seasonal extent and peak IR optical depths are consistent MGS/TES observations. Additionally, the thermal response to the clouds in the aphelion cloud belt (ACB) is generally consistent with observations and other climate model predictions. Notably, there is a distinct gap in the predicted clouds over the North Residual Cap (NRC) during local summer, but the clouds reappear in this simulation over the NRC earlier than the observations indicate. Polar clouds are predicted near the seasonal CO2 ice caps, but the column thicknesses of these clouds are generally too thick compared to observations. Our baseline simulation is dry compared to MGS/TES-observed water vapor abundances, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. These areas of disagreement appear to be a consistent with other current water cycle GCMs. Future avenues of investigation will target improving our understanding of what controls the vertical extent of clouds and the apparent seasonal evolution of cloud particle sizes within the ACB.
Description and evaluation of GMXe: a new aerosol submodel for global simulations (v1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. J. Pringle
2010-09-01
Full Text Available We present a new aerosol microphysics and gas aerosol partitioning submodel (Global Modal-aerosol eXtension, GMXe implemented within the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry model (EMAC, version 1.8. The submodel is computationally efficient and is suitable for medium to long term simulations with global and regional models. The aerosol size distribution is treated using 7 log-normal modes and has the same microphysical core as the M7 submodel (Vignati et al., 2004.
The main developments in this work are: (i the extension of the aerosol emission routines and the M7 microphysics, so that an increased (and variable number of aerosol species can be treated (new species include sodium and chloride, and potentially magnesium, calcium, and potassium, (ii the coupling of the aerosol microphysics to a choice of treatments of gas/aerosol partitioning to allow the treatment of semi-volatile aerosol, and, (iii the implementation and evaluation of the developed submodel within the EMAC model of atmospheric chemistry.
Simulated concentrations of black carbon, particulate organic matter, dust, sea spray, sulfate and ammonium aerosol are shown to be in good agreement with observations (for all species at least 40% of modeled values are within a factor of 2 of the observations. The distribution of nitrate aerosol is compared to observations in both clean and polluted regions. Concentrations in polluted continental regions are simulated quite well, but there is a general tendency to overestimate nitrate, particularly in coastal regions (geometric mean of modelled values/geometric mean of observed data ≈2. In all regions considered more than 40% of nitrate concentrations are within a factor of two of the observations. Marine nitrate concentrations are well captured with 96% of modeled values within a factor of 2 of the observations.
An integrated model to simulate sown area changes for major crops at a global scale
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU WenBin; YANG Peng; MENG ChaoYing; SHIBASAKI Ryosuke; ZHOU QingBo; TANG HuaJun; SHI Yun
2008-01-01
Dynamics of land use systems have attracted much attention from scientists around the world due to their ecological and socio-economic implications. An integrated model to dynamically simulate future changes in sown areas of four major crops (rice, maize, wheat and soybean) on a global scale is presented. To do so, a crop choice model was developed on the basis of Multinomial Logit (Logit) model to model land users' decisions on crop choices among a set of available alternatives with using a crop utility function. A GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted to simulate the crop yields under a given geophysical environment and farming management conditions,while the International Food Policy and Agricultural Simulation (IFPSIM) model was utilized to estimate crop price in the international market. The crop choice model was linked with the GIS-based EPIC model and the IFPSIM model through data exchange. This integrated model was then validated against the FAO statistical data in 2001-2003 and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)global land cover product in 2001. Both validation approaches indicated reliability of the model for addressing the dynamics in agricultural land use and its capability for long-term scenario analysis. Finally,the model application was designed to run over a time period of 30 a, taking the year 2000 as baseline.The model outcomes can help understand and explain the causes, locations and consequences of land use changes, and provide support for land use planning and policy making.
A simulation of orientation dependent, global changes in camera sensitivity in ECT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bieszk, J.A.; Hawman, E.G.; Malmin, R.E.
1984-01-01
ECT promises the abilities to: 1) observe radioisotope distributions in a patient without the summation of overlying activity to reduce contrast, and 2) measure quantitatively these distributions to further and more accurately assess organ function. Ideally, camera-based ECT systems should have a performance that is independent of camera orientation or gantry angle. This study is concerned with ECT quantitation errors that can arise from angle-dependent variations of camera sensitivity. Using simulated phantoms representative of heart and liver sections, the effects of sensitivity changes on reconstructed images were assessed both visually and quantitatively based on ROI sums. The sinogram for each test image was simulated with 128 linear digitization and 180 angular views. The global orientation-dependent sensitivity was modelled by applying an angular sensitivity dependence to the sinograms of the test images. Four sensitivity variations were studied. Amplitudes of 0% (as a reference), 5%, 10%, and 25% with a cosθ dependence were studied as well as a cos2θ dependence with a 5% amplitude. Simulations were done with and without Poisson noise to: 1) determine trends in the quantitative effects as a function of the magnitude of the variation, and 2) to see how these effects are manifested in studies having statistics comparable to clinical cases. For the most realistic sensitivity variation (cosθ, 5% ampl.), the ROIs chosen in the present work indicated changes of <0.5% in the noiseless case and <5% for the case with Poisson noise. The effects of statistics appear to dominate any effects due to global, sinusoidal, orientation-dependent sensitivity changes in the cases studied
The magnitude and causes of uncertainty in global model simulations of cloud condensation nuclei
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. A. Lee
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interaction effects are a major source of uncertainty in climate models so it is important to quantify the sources of uncertainty and thereby direct research efforts. However, the computational expense of global aerosol models has prevented a full statistical analysis of their outputs. Here we perform a variance-based analysis of a global 3-D aerosol microphysics model to quantify the magnitude and leading causes of parametric uncertainty in model-estimated present-day concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Twenty-eight model parameters covering essentially all important aerosol processes, emissions and representation of aerosol size distributions were defined based on expert elicitation. An uncertainty analysis was then performed based on a Monte Carlo-type sampling of an emulator built for each model grid cell. The standard deviation around the mean CCN varies globally between about ±30% over some marine regions to ±40–100% over most land areas and high latitudes, implying that aerosol processes and emissions are likely to be a significant source of uncertainty in model simulations of aerosol–cloud effects on climate. Among the most important contributors to CCN uncertainty are the sizes of emitted primary particles, including carbonaceous combustion particles from wildfires, biomass burning and fossil fuel use, as well as sulfate particles formed on sub-grid scales. Emissions of carbonaceous combustion particles affect CCN uncertainty more than sulfur emissions. Aerosol emission-related parameters dominate the uncertainty close to sources, while uncertainty in aerosol microphysical processes becomes increasingly important in remote regions, being dominated by deposition and aerosol sulfate formation during cloud-processing. The results lead to several recommendations for research that would result in improved modelling of cloud–active aerosol on a global scale.
Simulation skill of APCC set of global climate models for Asian summer monsoon rainfall variability
Singh, U. K.; Singh, G. P.; Singh, Vikas
2015-04-01
The performance of 11 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Climate Center (APCC) global climate models (coupled and uncoupled both) in simulating the seasonal summer (June-August) monsoon rainfall variability over Asia (especially over India and East Asia) has been evaluated in detail using hind-cast data (3 months advance) generated from APCC which provides the regional climate information product services based on multi-model ensemble dynamical seasonal prediction systems. The skill of each global climate model over Asia was tested separately in detail for the period of 21 years (1983-2003), and simulated Asian summer monsoon rainfall (ASMR) has been verified using various statistical measures for Indian and East Asian land masses separately. The analysis found a large variation in spatial ASMR simulated with uncoupled model compared to coupled models (like Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia, National Centers for Environmental Prediction and Japan Meteorological Agency). The simulated ASMR in coupled model was closer to Climate Prediction Centre Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) compared to uncoupled models although the amount of ASMR was underestimated in both models. Analysis also found a high spread in simulated ASMR among the ensemble members (suggesting that the model's performance is highly dependent on its initial conditions). The correlation analysis between sea surface temperature (SST) and ASMR shows that that the coupled models are strongly associated with ASMR compared to the uncoupled models (suggesting that air-sea interaction is well cared in coupled models). The analysis of rainfall using various statistical measures suggests that the multi-model ensemble (MME) performed better compared to individual model and also separate study indicate that Indian and East Asian land masses are more useful compared to Asia monsoon rainfall as a whole. The results of various statistical measures like skill of multi-model ensemble, large spread
Effect of retreating sea ice on Arctic cloud cover in simulated recent global warming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Abe
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of sea ice reduction on Arctic cloud cover in historical simulations with the coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model MIROC5. Arctic sea ice has been substantially retreating since the 1980s, particularly in September, under simulated global warming conditions. The simulated sea ice reduction is consistent with satellite observations. On the other hand, Arctic cloud cover has been increasing in October, with about a 1-month lag behind the sea ice reduction. The delayed response leads to extensive sea ice reductions because the heat and moisture fluxes from the underlying open ocean into the atmosphere are enhanced. Sensitivity experiments with the atmospheric part of MIROC5 clearly show that sea ice reduction causes increases in cloud cover. Arctic cloud cover increases primarily in the lower troposphere, but it decreases in the near-surface layers just above the ocean; predominant temperature rises in these near-surface layers cause drying (i.e., decreases in relative humidity, despite increasing moisture flux. Cloud radiative forcing due to increases in cloud cover in autumn brings an increase in the surface downward longwave radiation (DLR by approximately 40–60 % compared to changes in clear-sky surface DLR in fall. These results suggest that an increase in Arctic cloud cover as a result of reduced sea ice coverage may bring further sea ice retreat and enhance the feedback processes of Arctic warming.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idomura, Yasuhiro; Jolliet, Sebastien
2010-01-01
A gyrokinetic toroidal five dimensional Eulerian code GT5D is ported on six advanced massively parallel platforms and comprehensive benchmark tests are performed. A parallelisation technique based on physical properties of the gyrokinetic equation is presented. By extending the parallelisation technique with a hybrid parallel model, the scalability of the code is improved on platforms with multi-core processors. In the benchmark tests, a good salability is confirmed up to several thousands cores on every platforms, and the maximum sustained performance of ∼18.6 Tflops is achieved using 16384 cores of BX900. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Plum, Maja
Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...
F. Gerard Adams
2008-01-01
The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is â€œflatâ€ . While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between â€œoldâ€ countries and â€œnewâ€ . As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Righi
2013-10-01
Full Text Available We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry global model with the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications to quantify the impact of transport emissions (land transport, shipping and aviation on the global aerosol. We consider a present-day (2000 scenario according to the CMIP5 (Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 emission data set developed in support of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. The model takes into account particle mass and number emissions: The latter are derived from mass emissions under different assumptions on the size distribution of particles emitted by the three transport sectors. Additional sensitivity experiments are performed to quantify the effects of the uncertainties behind such assumptions. The model simulations show that the impact of the transport sectors closely matches the emission patterns. Land transport is the most important source of black carbon (BC pollution in the USA, Europe and the Arabian Peninsula, contributing up to 60–70% of the total surface-level BC concentration in these regions. Shipping contributes about 40–60% of the total aerosol sulfate surface-level concentration along the most-traveled routes of the northern Atlantic and northern Pacific oceans, with a significant impact (~ 10–20% along the coastlines. Aviation mostly affects aerosol number, contributing about 30–40% of the particle number concentration in the northern midlatitudes' upper troposphere (7–12 km, although significant effects are also simulated at the ground, due to the emissions from landing and take-off cycles. The transport-induced perturbations to the particle number concentrations are very sensitive to the assumptions on the size distribution of emitted particles, with the largest uncertainties (about one order of magnitude obtained for the land transport sector. The simulated climate impacts, due to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. J. Murray
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Global freshwater resources are sensitive to changes in climate, land cover and population density and distribution. The Land-surface Processes and eXchanges Dynamic Global Vegetation Model is a recent development of the Lund-Potsdam-Jena model with improved representation of fire-vegetation interactions. It allows simultaneous consideration of the effects of changes in climate, CO_{2} concentration, natural vegetation and fire regime shifts on the continental hydrological cycle. Here the model is assessed for its ability to simulate large-scale spatial and temporal runoff patterns, in order to test its suitability for modelling future global water resources. Comparisons are made against observations of streamflow and a composite dataset of modelled and observed runoff (1986–1995 and are also evaluated against soil moisture data and the Palmer Drought Severity Index. The model captures the main features of the geographical distribution of global runoff, but tends to overestimate runoff in much of the Northern Hemisphere (where this can be somewhat accounted for by freshwater consumption and the unrealistic accumulation of the simulated winter snowpack in permafrost regions and the southern tropics. Interannual variability is represented reasonably well at the large catchment scale, as are seasonal flow timings and monthly high and low flow events. Further improvements to the simulation of intra-annual runoff might be achieved via the addition of river flow routing. Overestimates of runoff in some basins could likely be corrected by the inclusion of transmission losses and direct-channel evaporation.
Theoretical model simulations for the global Thermospheric Mapping Study (TMS) periods
Rees, D.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.
Theoretical and semiempirical models of the solar UV/EUV and of the geomagnetic driving forces affecting the terrestrial mesosphere and thermosphere have been used to generate a series of representative numerical time-dependent and global models of the thermosphere, for the range of solar and geoamgnetic activity levels which occurred during the three Thermospheric Mapping Study periods. The simulations obtained from these numerical models are compared with observations, and with the results of semiempirical models of the thermosphere. The theoretical models provide a record of the magnitude of the major driving forces which affected the thermosphere during the study periods, and a baseline against which the actual observed structure and dynamics can be compared.
Stein, Olaf; Schultz, Martin G.; Bouarar, Idir; Clark, Hannah; Huijnen, Vincent; Gaudel, Audrey; George, Maya; Clerbaux, Cathy
2015-04-01
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of incomplete combustion and is also produced from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere. It is of interest as an indirect greenhouse gas and an air pollutant causing health effects and is thus subject to emission restrictions. CO acts as a major sink for the OH radical and as a precursor for tropospheric ozone and affects the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere as well as regional air quality. Despite the developments in the global modelling of chemistry and of the parameterization of the physical processes, CO concentrations remain underestimated during NH winter by most state-of-the-art chemical transport models. The resulting model bias can in principle originate from either an underestimation of CO sources or an overestimation of its sinks. We address both the role of sources and sinks with a series of MOZART chemistry transport model sensitivity simulations for the year 2008 and compare our results to observational data from ground-based stations, satellite observations, and from MOZAIC tropospheric profile measurements on passenger aircraft. Our base case simulation using the MACCity emission inventory (Granier et al. 2011) underestimates the near-surface Northern Hemispheric CO mixing ratios by more than 20 ppb from December to April with a maximal bias of 40 ppb in January. The bias is strongest for the European region (up to 75 ppb in January). From our sensitivity studies the mismatch between observed and modelled atmospheric CO concentrations can be explained by a combination of the following emission inventory shortcuts: (i) missing anthropogenic wintertime CO emissions from traffic or other combustion processes, (ii) missing anthropogenic VOC emissions, (iii) an exaggerated downward trend in the RCP8.5 scenario underlying the MACCity inventory, (iv) a lack of knowledge about the seasonality of emissions. Deficiencies in the parameterization of the dry deposition velocities can also lead to
Simulation of the influence of historical land cover changes on the global climate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Y. [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). College of Civil Aviation; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Regional Climate-Environment for East Asia; Yan, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Regional Climate-Environment for East Asia; Beijing Normal Univ. (China). State Key Lab. of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology (ESPRE); Wang, Z. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
2013-09-01
In order to estimate biogeophysical effects of historical land cover change on climate during last three centuries, a set of experiments with a climate system model of intermediate complexity (MPM-2) is performed. In response to historical deforestation, the model simulates a decrease in annual mean global temperature in the range of 0.07-0.14 C based on different grassland albedos. The effect of land cover changes is most pronounced in the middle northern latitudes with maximum cooling reaching approximately 0.6 C during northern summer. The cooling reaches 0.57 C during northern spring owing to the large effects of land surface albedo. These results suggest that land cover forcing is important for study on historical climate change and that more research is necessary in the assessment of land management options for climate change mitigation. (orig.)
Testing a statistical method of global mean palotemperature estimations in a long climate simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zorita, E.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik
2001-07-01
Current statistical methods of reconstructing the climate of the last centuries are based on statistical models linking climate observations (temperature, sea-level-pressure) and proxy-climate data (tree-ring chronologies, ice-cores isotope concentrations, varved sediments, etc.). These models are calibrated in the instrumental period, and the longer time series of proxy data are then used to estimate the past evolution of the climate variables. Using such methods the global mean temperature of the last 600 years has been recently estimated. In this work this method of reconstruction is tested using data from a very long simulation with a climate model. This testing allows to estimate the errors of the estimations as a function of the number of proxy data and the time scale at which the estimations are probably reliable. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Tang
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Satellite-based data, such as vegetation type and fractional vegetation cover, are widely used in hydrologic models to prescribe the vegetation state in a study region. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM simulate land surface hydrology. Incorporation of satellite-based data into a DGVM may enhance a model's ability to simulate land surface hydrology by reducing the task of model parameterization and providing distributed information on land characteristics. The objectives of this study are to (i modify a DGVM for simulating land surface water balances; (ii evaluate the modified model in simulating actual evapotranspiration (ET, soil moisture, and surface runoff at regional or watershed scales; and (iii gain insight into the ability of both the original and modified model to simulate large spatial scale land surface hydrology. To achieve these objectives, we introduce the "LPJ-hydrology" (LH model which incorporates satellite-based data into the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ DGVM. To evaluate the model we ran LH using historical (1981–2006 climate data and satellite-based land covers at 2.5 arc-min grid cells for the conterminous US and for the entire world using coarser climate and land cover data. We evaluated the simulated ET, soil moisture, and surface runoff using a set of observed or simulated data at different spatial scales. Our results demonstrate that spatial patterns of LH-simulated annual ET and surface runoff are in accordance with previously published data for the US; LH-modeled monthly stream flow for 12 major rivers in the US was consistent with observed values respectively during the years 1981–2006 (R^{2} > 0.46, p < 0.01; Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient > 0.52. The modeled mean annual discharges for 10 major rivers worldwide also agreed well (differences < 15% with observed values for these rivers. Compared to a degree-day method for snowmelt computation, the addition of the solar radiation effect on snowmelt
GFDL's CM2 global coupled climate models. Part I: Formulation and simulation characteristics
Delworth, T.L.; Broccoli, A.J.; Rosati, A.; Stouffer, R.J.; Balaji, V.; Beesley, J.A.; Cooke, W.F.; Dixon, K.W.; Dunne, J.; Dunne, K.A.; Durachta, J.W.; Findell, K.L.; Ginoux, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Gudgel, R.; Harrison, M.J.; Held, I.M.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Kushner, P.J.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, S.-J.; Lu, J.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Spelman, M.J.; Stern, W.F.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Wyman, B.; Zeng, F.; Zhang, R.
2006-01-01
The formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled climate models developed at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are described. The models were designed to simulate atmospheric and oceanic climate and variability from the diurnal time scale through multicentury climate change, given our computational constraints. In particular, an important goal was to use the same model for both experimental seasonal to interannual forecasting and the study of multicentury global climate change, and this goal has been achieved. Tw o versions of the coupled model are described, called CM2.0 and CM2.1. The versions differ primarily in the dynamical core used in the atmospheric component, along with the cloud tuning and some details of the land and ocean components. For both coupled models, the resolution of the land and atmospheric components is 2?? latitude ?? 2.5?? longitude; the atmospheric model has 24 vertical levels. The ocean resolution is 1?? in latitude and longitude, with meridional resolution equatorward of 30?? becoming progressively finer, such that the meridional resolution is 1/3?? at the equator. There are 50 vertical levels in the ocean, with 22 evenly spaced levels within the top 220 m. The ocean component has poles over North America and Eurasia to avoid polar filtering. Neither coupled model employs flux adjustments. The co ntrol simulations have stable, realistic climates when integrated over multiple centuries. Both models have simulations of ENSO that are substantially improved relative to previous GFDL coupled models. The CM2.0 model has been further evaluated as an ENSO forecast model and has good skill (CM2.1 has not been evaluated as an ENSO forecast model). Generally reduced temperature and salinity biases exist in CM2.1 relative to CM2.0. These reductions are associated with 1) improved simulations of surface wind stress in CM2.1 and associated changes in oceanic gyre circulations; 2) changes in cloud tuning and
M3D project for simulation studies of plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.; Sugiyama, L.E.
1998-01-01
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) project carries out simulation studies of plasmas of various regimes using multi-levels of physics, geometry, and mesh schemes in one code package. This paper and papers by Strauss, Sugiyama, and Belova in this workshop describe the project, and present examples of current applications. The currently available physics models of the M3D project are MHD, two-fluids, gyrokinetic hot particle/MHD hybrid, and gyrokinetic particle ion/two-fluid hybrid models. The code can be run with both structured and unstructured meshes
Solar Simulated Ultraviolet Radiation Induces Global Histone Hypoacetylation in Human Keratinocytes.
Zhang, Xiaoru; Kluz, Thomas; Gesumaria, Lisa; Matsui, Mary S; Costa, Max; Sun, Hong
2016-01-01
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight is the primary effector of skin DNA damage. Chromatin remodeling and histone post-translational modification (PTM) are critical factors in repairing DNA damage and maintaining genomic integrity, however, the dynamic changes of histone marks in response to solar UVR are not well characterized. Here we report global changes in histone PTMs induced by solar simulated UVR (ssUVR). A decrease in lysine acetylation of histones H3 and H4, particularly at positions of H3 lysine 9, lysine 56, H4 lysine 5, and lysine 16, was found in human keratinocytes exposed to ssUVR. These acetylation changes were highly associated with ssUVR in a dose-dependent and time-specific manner. Interestingly, H4K16ac, a mark that is crucial for higher order chromatin structure, exhibited a persistent reduction by ssUVR that was transmitted through multiple cell divisions. In addition, the enzymatic activities of histone acetyltransferases were significantly reduced in irradiated cells, which may account for decreased global acetylation. Moreover, depletion of histone deacetylase SIRT1 in keratinocytes rescued ssUVR-induced H4K16 hypoacetylation. These results indicate that ssUVR affects both HDAC and HAT activities, leading to reduced histone acetylation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiokawa, Hotaka; Dolence, Joshua C.; Gammie, Charles F.; Noble, Scott C.
2012-01-01
Global, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of non-radiative, magnetized disks are widely used to model accreting black holes. We have performed a convergence study of GRMHD models computed with HARM3D. The models span a factor of four in linear resolution, from 96 × 96 × 64 to 384 × 384 × 256. We consider three diagnostics of convergence: (1) dimensionless shell-averaged quantities such as plasma β; (2) the azimuthal correlation length of fluid variables; and (3) synthetic spectra of the source including synchrotron emission, absorption, and Compton scattering. Shell-averaged temperature is, except for the lowest resolution run, nearly independent of resolution; shell-averaged plasma β decreases steadily with resolution but shows signs of convergence. The azimuthal correlation lengths of density, internal energy, and temperature decrease steadily with resolution but show signs of convergence. In contrast, the azimuthal correlation length of magnetic field decreases nearly linearly with grid size. We argue by analogy with local models, however, that convergence should be achieved with another factor of two in resolution. Synthetic spectra are, except for the lowest resolution run, nearly independent of resolution. The convergence behavior is consistent with that of higher physical resolution local model ( s hearing box ) calculations and with the recent non-relativistic global convergence studies of Hawley et al.
Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.
2011-01-02
Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.
Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming
Elliott, Scott; Maltrud, Mathew; Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George; Cameron-Smith, Philip
2011-03-01
Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH4 distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.
The global warming game - simulations of a CO2 reduction agreement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fankhauser, S.; Kverndokk, S.
1992-06-01
The paper analyses incentives for and the benefits of a possible international cooperation to reduce CO-2-emissions. The negotiations are modeled as a (static) reciprocal-externality-game in CO 2 -emissions between five world regions. CO 2 -emissions affect the players in two ways: First, each country's income depends (via energy inputs) on the amount of CO 2 emitted. On the other hand, emissions may cause future damage due to climate change. Without cooperation, each player maximizes its net benefits in setting marginal income equal to its marginal damage cost (Nash equilibrium). Under full cooperation marginal income equals the sum of the marginal damages (social optimum). The paper presents simulations of these two equilibria. Compared to the situation where no attention is paid to the greenhouse effect (the business as usual scenario), emission reductions under the Nash equilibrium can be interpreted as incentives for unilateral actions. According to the simulation results, this can only be expected from OECD countries. The results also imply that a socially optimal treaty, while clearly beneficial for the world in its entirety, may only be achieved if side payments are offered to at least China and the former Soviet Union, and probably the USA. The optimal global emission reductions in this study are on average lower than the reductions recommended by international conferences. 34 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs
Wu, X.; Song, X.; Deng, L.; Park, S.; Liang, X.; Zhang, G. J.
2006-05-01
Despite the significant progress made in developing general circulation models (GCMs), major uncertainties related to the parameterization of convection, cloud and radiation processes still remain. The current GCM credibility of seasonal-interannual climate predictions or climate change projections is limited. In particular, the following long-standing biases, common to most GCMs, need to be reduced: 1) over-prediction of high-level cloud amounts although GCMs realistically simulating the global radiation budget; 2) general failure to reproduce the seasonal variation and migration of the ITCZ precipitation; 3) incomplete representation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO); and 4) false production of an excessive cold tone of sea surface temperature across the Pacific basin and a double ITCZ structure in precipitation when the atmosphere and ocean are fully coupled. The development of cloud-resolving models (CRMs) provides a unique opportunity to address issues aimed to reduce these biases. The statistical analysis of CRM simulations together with the theoretical consideration of subgrid-scale processes will enable us to develop physically-based parameterization of convection, clouds, radiation and their interactions.
The global warming game - simulations of a CO[sub 2] reduction agreement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fankhauser, S [Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, London (United Kingdom); Kverndokk, S [Stiftelsen for Samfunns- og Naeringslivsforskning, Oslo (Norway)
1992-06-01
The paper analyses incentives for and the benefits of a possible international cooperation to reduce CO-2-emissions. The negotiations are modeled as a (static) reciprocal-externality-game in CO[sub 2]-emissions between five world regions. CO[sub 2]-emissions affect the players in two ways: First, each country's income depends (via energy inputs) on the amount of CO[sub 2] emitted. On the other hand, emissions may cause future damage due to climate change. Without cooperation, each player maximizes its net benefits in setting marginal income equal to its marginal damage cost (Nash equilibrium). Under full cooperation marginal income equals the sum of the marginal damages (social optimum). The paper presents simulations of these two equilibria. Compared to the situation where no attention is paid to the greenhouse effect (the business as usual scenario), emission reductions under the Nash equilibrium can be interpreted as incentives for unilateral actions. According to the simulation results, this can only be expected from OECD countries. The results also imply that a socially optimal treaty, while clearly beneficial for the world in its entirety, may only be achieved if side payments are offered to at least China and the former Soviet Union, and probably the USA. The optimal global emission reductions in this study are on average lower than the reductions recommended by international conferences. 34 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.
Global Simulations of the Asymmetry in Forming Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability at Mercury
Paral, J.; Rankin, R.
2013-12-01
MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) is the first spacecraft to provide data from the orbit of Mercury. After the probe's insertion into the orbit on March 2011, the in situ measurements revealed a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the observations of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. This instability forms at the magnetopause boundary due to the high shear of the plasma flows. The asymmetry in the observations is unexpected and largely unexplained, although it has been speculated that finite ion gyroradius effect plays an important role. The large gyroradius implies that kinetic effects are important and thus must be taken into account. We employ global ion hybrid-kinetic simulations to obtain a 2D model of Mercury's magnetosphere. This code treats ions as particles and follows the full trajectory while electrons act as a charge neutralizing fluid. The planet is treated as the perfect conductor placed in the streaming solar wind to form a quasi steady state of the magnetosphere. By placing a virtual probe in the simulation domain we obtain time series of the plasma parameters which can be compared to the observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft. The comparison of the KH instability is remarkably close to the observations of MESSENGER; to within a factor of two. The model also confirms the asymmetry in the observations. The ion density obtained from the computer model is shown together with velocity vectors (represented by arrows). The solid line represents the trajectory of the third flyby of MESSENGER on September 29, 2009.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flury, Sabine; McGinnis, Daniel Frank; Gessner, Mark O.
2010-01-01
We determined methane (CH4) emissions in a field enclosure experiment in a littoral freshwater marsh under the influence of experimentally simulated warming and enhanced nitrogen deposition. Methane emissions by ebullition from the marsh composed of Phragmites australis were measured with funnel ...... to the atmosphere, even when they occupy only relatively small littoral areas. More detailed investigations are clearly needed to assess whether global warming and nitrogen deposition can have climate feedbacks by altering methane fluxes from these wetlands. ......We determined methane (CH4) emissions in a field enclosure experiment in a littoral freshwater marsh under the influence of experimentally simulated warming and enhanced nitrogen deposition. Methane emissions by ebullition from the marsh composed of Phragmites australis were measured with funnel...... traps deployed in a series of enclosures for two 3 week periods. Diffusive fluxes were estimated on the basis of measured CH4 concentrations and application of Fick's law. Neither diffusive nor ebullitive fluxes of methane were significantly affected by warming or nitrate enrichment, possibly because...
Global mass conservation method for dual-continuum gas reservoir simulation
Wang, Yi; Sun, Shuyu; Gong, Liang; Yu, Bo
2018-01-01
In this paper, we find that the numerical simulation of gas flow in dual-continuum porous media may generate unphysical or non-robust results using regular finite difference method. The reason is the unphysical mass loss caused by the gas compressibility and the non-diagonal dominance of the discretized equations caused by the non-linear well term. The well term contains the product of density and pressure. For oil flow, density is independent of pressure so that the well term is linear. For gas flow, density is related to pressure by the gas law so that the well term is non-linear. To avoid these two problems, numerical methods are proposed using the mass balance relation and the local linearization of the non-linear source term to ensure the global mass conservation and the diagonal dominance of discretized equations in the computation. The proposed numerical methods are successfully applied to dual-continuum gas reservoir simulation. Mass conservation is satisfied while the computation becomes robust. Numerical results show that the location of the production well relative to the large-permeability region is very sensitive to the production efficiency. It decreases apparently when the production well is moved from the large-permeability region to the small-permeability region, even though the well is very close to the interface of the two regions. The production well is suggested to be placed inside the large-permeability region regardless of the specific position.
Global mass conservation method for dual-continuum gas reservoir simulation
Wang, Yi
2018-03-17
In this paper, we find that the numerical simulation of gas flow in dual-continuum porous media may generate unphysical or non-robust results using regular finite difference method. The reason is the unphysical mass loss caused by the gas compressibility and the non-diagonal dominance of the discretized equations caused by the non-linear well term. The well term contains the product of density and pressure. For oil flow, density is independent of pressure so that the well term is linear. For gas flow, density is related to pressure by the gas law so that the well term is non-linear. To avoid these two problems, numerical methods are proposed using the mass balance relation and the local linearization of the non-linear source term to ensure the global mass conservation and the diagonal dominance of discretized equations in the computation. The proposed numerical methods are successfully applied to dual-continuum gas reservoir simulation. Mass conservation is satisfied while the computation becomes robust. Numerical results show that the location of the production well relative to the large-permeability region is very sensitive to the production efficiency. It decreases apparently when the production well is moved from the large-permeability region to the small-permeability region, even though the well is very close to the interface of the two regions. The production well is suggested to be placed inside the large-permeability region regardless of the specific position.
Magnetically Modulated Heat Transport in a Global Simulation of Solar Magneto-convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cossette, Jean-Francois [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Campus Box 600, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Charbonneau, Paul [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K. [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, RG2 9AX (United Kingdom); Rast, Mark P., E-mail: Jean-Francois.Cossette@lasp.colorado.edu, E-mail: paulchar@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: smolar@ecmwf.int, E-mail: Mark.Rast@lasp.colorado.edu [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Campus Box 391, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)
2017-05-20
We present results from a global MHD simulation of solar convection in which the heat transported by convective flows varies in-phase with the total magnetic energy. The purely random initial magnetic field specified in this experiment develops into a well-organized large-scale antisymmetric component undergoing hemispherically synchronized polarity reversals on a 40 year period. A key feature of the simulation is the use of a Newtonian cooling term in the entropy equation to maintain a convectively unstable stratification and drive convection, as opposed to the specification of heating and cooling terms at the bottom and top boundaries. When taken together, the solar-like magnetic cycle and the convective heat flux signature suggest that a cyclic modulation of the large-scale heat-carrying convective flows could be operating inside the real Sun. We carry out an analysis of the entropy and momentum equations to uncover the physical mechanism responsible for the enhanced heat transport. The analysis suggests that the modulation is caused by a magnetic tension imbalance inside upflows and downflows, which perturbs their respective contributions to heat transport in such a way as to enhance the total convective heat flux at cycle maximum. Potential consequences of the heat transport modulation for solar irradiance variability are briefly discussed.
Genesis of Hurricane Sandy (2012) Simulated with a Global Mesoscale Model
Shen, Bo-Wen; DeMaria, Mark; Li, J.-L. F.; Cheung, S.
2013-01-01
In this study, we investigate the formation predictability of Hurricane Sandy (2012) with a global mesoscale model. We first present five track and intensity forecasts of Sandy initialized at 00Z 22-26 October 2012, realistically producing its movement with a northwestward turn prior to its landfall. We then show that three experiments initialized at 00Z 16-18 October captured the genesis of Sandy with a lead time of up to 6 days and simulated reasonable evolution of Sandy's track and intensity in the next 2 day period of 18Z 21-23 October. Results suggest that the extended lead time of formation prediction is achieved by realistic simulations of multiscale processes, including (1) the interaction between an easterly wave and a low-level westerly wind belt (WWB) and (2) the appearance of the upper-level trough at 200 hPa to Sandy's northwest. The low-level WWB and upper-level trough are likely associated with a Madden-Julian Oscillation.
Global simulation of flux transfer events: Generation mechanism and spacecraft signatures
Raeder, J.
We use global MHD simulations of Earth's magnetosphere to show that for southward IMF conditions: a) steady reconnection preferentially occurs without FTEs when the stagnation flow line nearly coincides with the X-line location, which requires small dipole tilt and nearly due southward IMF, b) FTEs occur when the flow/field symmetry is broken, which requires either a large dipole tilt and/or a substantial east-west component of the IMF, c) the predicted spacecraft signature and the repetition frequency of FTEs in the simulations agrees very well with typical observations, lending credibility to the the model, d) the fundamental process that leads to FTE formation is multiple X-line formation caused by the flow and field patterns in the magnetosheath and requires no intrinsic plasma property variations like variable resistivity, e) if the dipole tilt breaks the symmetry FTEs occur only in the winter hemisphere whereas the reconnection signatures in the summer hemisphere are steady with no bipolar FTE-like signatures, f) if the IMF east-west field component breaks the symmetry FTEs occur in both hemispheres but are least likely observed near the subsolar point, and g) FTE formation depends on sufficient resolution and low diffusion in the model. Too coarse resolution and/or too high diffusivity lead to flow-through reconnection signatures that appear unphysical given the frequent observation of FTEs.
Flury, Sabine; Gessner, Mark O
2011-02-01
Atmospheric warming and increased nitrogen deposition can lead to changes of microbial communities with possible consequences for biogeochemical processes. We used an enclosure facility in a freshwater marsh to assess the effects on microbes associated with decomposing plant litter under conditions of simulated climate warming and pulsed nitrogen supply. Standard batches of litter were placed in coarse-mesh and fine-mesh bags and submerged in a series of heated, nitrogen-enriched, and control enclosures. They were retrieved later and analyzed for a range of microbial parameters. Fingerprinting profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that simulated global warming induced a shift in bacterial community structure. In addition, warming reduced fungal biomass, whereas bacterial biomass was unaffected. The mesh size of the litter bags and sampling date also had an influence on bacterial community structure, with the apparent number of dominant genotypes increasing from spring to summer. Microbial respiration was unaffected by any treatment, and nitrogen enrichment had no clear effect on any of the microbial parameters considered. Overall, these results suggest that microbes associated with decomposing plant litter in nutrient-rich freshwater marshes are resistant to extra nitrogen supplies but are likely to respond to temperature increases projected for this century.
Kinetic structures of quasi-perpendicular shocks in global particle-in-cell simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng, Ivy Bo; Markidis, Stefano; Laure, Erwin; Johlander, Andreas; Vaivads, Andris; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Henri, Pierre; Lapenta, Giovanni
2015-01-01
We carried out global Particle-in-Cell simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and a magnetosphere to study the kinetic collisionless physics in super-critical quasi-perpendicular shocks. After an initial simulation transient, a collisionless bow shock forms as a result of the interaction of the solar wind and a planet magnetic dipole. The shock ramp has a thickness of approximately one ion skin depth and is followed by a trailing wave train in the shock downstream. At the downstream edge of the bow shock, whistler waves propagate along the magnetic field lines and the presence of electron cyclotron waves has been identified. A small part of the solar wind ion population is specularly reflected by the shock while a larger part is deflected and heated by the shock. Solar wind ions and electrons are heated in the perpendicular directions. Ions are accelerated in the perpendicular direction in the trailing wave train region. This work is an initial effort to study the electron and ion kinetic effects developed near the bow shock in a realistic magnetic field configuration
Goto, Daisuke; Sato, Yousuke; Yashiro, Hisashi; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Nakajima, Teruyuki
2017-02-01
A high-performance computing resource allows us to conduct numerical simulations with a horizontal grid spacing that is sufficiently high to resolve cloud systems. The cutting-edge computational capability, which was provided by the K computer at RIKEN in Japan, enabled the authors to perform long-term, global simulations of air pollutions and clouds with unprecedentedly high horizontal resolutions. In this study, a next generation model capable of simulating global air pollutions with O(10 km) grid spacing by coupling an atmospheric chemistry model to the Non-hydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) was performed. Using the newly developed model, month-long simulations for July were conducted with 14 km grid spacing on the K computer. Regarding the global distributions of aerosol optical thickness (AOT), it was found that the correlation coefficient (CC) between the simulation and AERONET measurements was approximately 0.7, and the normalized mean bias was -10%. The simulated AOT was also compared with satellite-retrieved values; the CC was approximately 0.6. The radiative effects due to each chemical species (dust, sea salt, organics, and sulfate) were also calculated and compared with multiple measurements. As a result, the simulated fluxes of upward shortwave radiation at the top of atmosphere and the surface compared well with the observed values, whereas those of downward shortwave radiation at the surface were underestimated, even if all aerosol components were considered. However, the aerosol radiative effects on the downward shortwave flux at the surface were found to be as high as 10 W/m2 in a global scale; thus, simulated aerosol distributions can strongly affect the simulated air temperature and dynamic circulation.
Using WEED to simulate the global wetland distribution in a ESM
Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan
2016-04-01
Lakes and wetlands are an important land surface feature. In terms of hydrology, they regulate river discharge, mitigate flood events and constitute a significant surface water storage. Considering physical processes, they link the surface water and energy balances by altering the separation of incoming energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes. Finally, they impact biogeochemical processes and may act as carbon sinks or sources. Most global hydrology and climate models regard wetland extent and properties as constant in time. However, to study interactions between wetlands and different states of climate, it is necessary to implement surface water bodies (thereafter referred to as wetlands) with dynamical behavior into these models. Besides an improved representation of geophysical feedbacks between wetlands, land surface and atmosphere, a dynamical wetland scheme could also provide estimates of soil wetness as input for biogeochemical models, which are used to compute methane production in wetlands. Recently, a model for the representation of wetland extent dynamics (WEED) was developed as part of the hydrology model (MPI-HM) of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M). The WEED scheme computes wetland extent in agreement with the range of observations for the high northern latitudes. It simulates a realistic seasonal cycle which shows sensitivity to northern snow-melt as well as rainy seasons in the tropics. Furthermore, flood peaks in river discharge are mitigated. However, the WEED scheme overestimates wetland extent in the Tropics which might be related to the MPI-HM's simplified potential evapotranspiration computation. In order to overcome this limitation, the WEED scheme is implemented into the MPI-M's land surface model JSBACH. Thus, not only its effect on water fluxes can be investigated but also its impact on the energy cycle, which is not included in the MPI-HM. Furthermore, it will be possible to analyze the physical effects of wetlands in a
Global characteristics of extreme winters from a multi-millennial simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hunt, B.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, PO Box 1, Aspendale (Australia)
2011-10-15
Output from a multi-millennial simulation with the CSIRO Mark 2 coupled global climatic model has been analysed to determine the principal characteristics of extreme winters over the globe for ''present conditions''. Thus, this study is not concerned with possible changes in winter conditions associated with anthropogenically induced climatic change. Defining an extreme winter as having a surface temperature anomaly of below -2 standard deviations (sd) revealed a general occurrence rate over the globe of between 100 and 200 over a 6,000-year period of the simulation, with somewhat higher values over northwest North America. For temperature anomalies below -3 sd the corresponding occurrence rate drops to about 10. Spatial correlation studies revealed that extreme winters over regions in Europe, North America or Asia were very limited geographically, with time series of the surface temperature anomalies for these regions having mutual correlation coefficients of about 0.2. The temporal occurrence rates of winters (summers) having sd below -3 (above +3) were very asymmetric and sporadic, suggesting that such events arise from stochastic influences. Multi-year sequences of extreme winters were comparatively rare events. Detailed analysis revealed that the temporal and spatial evolution of the monthly surface temperature anomalies associated with an individual extreme winter were well replicated in the simulation, as were daily time series of such anomalies. Apart from an influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on extreme winters in Europe, other prominent climatic oscillations were very poorly correlated with such winters. Rather modest winter temperature anomalies were found in the southern hemisphere. (orig.)
Lin, Y.; Perez, J. D.
A 2-D global hybrid simulation is carried out to study the structure of the dayside mag- netopause in the noon-midnight meridian plane associated with magnetic reconnec- tion. In the simulation the bow shock, magnetosheath, and magnetopause are formed self-consistently by supersonic solar wind passing the geomagnetic field. The recon- nection events at high- and low-latitudes are simulated for various IMF conditions. The following results will be presented. (1) Large-amplitude rotational discontinuities and Alfvén waves are present in the quasi-steady reconnection layer. (2) The rotational discontinuity possesses an electron sense, or right-hand polarization in the magnetic field as the discontinuity forms from the X line. Later, however, the rotational dis- continuity tends to evolve to a structure with a smallest field rotational angle and thus may reverse its sense of the field rotation. The Walén relation is tested for elec- tron and ion flows in the magnetopause rotational discontinuities with left-hand and right-hand polarizations. (3) The structure of the magnetopause discontinuities and that of the accelerated/decelerated flows are modified significantly by the presence of the local magnetosheath flow. (4) Field-aligned currents are generated in the magne- topause rotational discontinuities. Part of the magnetopause currents propagate with Alfvén waves along the field lines into the polar ionosphere, contributing to the field- aligned current system in the high latitudes. The generation of the parallel currents under northward and southward IMF conditions is investigated. (5) Finally, typical ion velocity distributions will be shown at various locations across the magnetopause northward and southward of the X lines. The ion distributions associated with single or multiple X lines will be discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, S.; Veselka, T.D.; Cirillo, R.R.
1991-01-01
Global warming control strategies which mandate stringent caps on emissions of greenhouse forcing gases can substantially alter a country's demand, production, and imports of energy products. Although there is a large degree of uncertainty when attempting to estimate the potential impact of these strategies, insights into the problem can be acquired through computer model simulations. This paper presents one method of structuring a general equilibrium model, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program/Global Climate Change (ENPEP/GCC), to simulate changes in a country's energy supply and demand balance in response to global warming control strategies. The equilibrium model presented in this study is based on the principle of decomposition, whereby a large complex problem is divided into a number of smaller submodules. Submodules simulate energy activities and conversion processes such as electricity production. These submodules are linked together to form an energy supply and demand network. Linkages identify energy and fuel flows among various activities. Since global warming control strategies can have wide reaching effects, a complex network was constructed. The network represents all energy production, conversion, transportation, distribution, and utilization activities. The structure of the network depicts interdependencies within and across economic sectors and was constructed such that energy prices and demand responses can be simulated. Global warming control alternatives represented in the network include: (1) conservation measures through increased efficiency; and (2) substitution of fuels that have high greenhouse gas emission rates with fuels that have lower emission rates. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs
Theory, simulation, and experimental studies of zonal flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T. S.; Burrell, K.H.; Lin, Z.; Nazikian, R.; Synakowski, E.J.
2000-01-01
The authors report on current theoretical understanding of the characteristics of self-generated zonal flows as observed in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of toroidal ITG turbulence [Science 281, 1835 (1998)], and discuss various possibilities for experimental measurements of signature of zonal flows
Simulation of core turbulence measurement in Tore Supra ohmic regimes
Hacquin, S.; Citrin, J.; Arnichand, H.; Sabot, R.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Tore Supra team,
2016-01-01
This paper reports on a simulation of reflectometry measurement in Tore Supra ohmic discharges, for which the experimental observations as well as gyrokinetic non-linear computations predict a modification of turbulence spectrum between the linear (LOC) and the saturated ohmic confinement (SOC)
Global Climate Model Simulated Hydrologic Droughts and Floods in the Nelson-Churchill Watershed
Vieira, M. J. F.; Stadnyk, T. A.; Koenig, K. A.
2014-12-01
There is uncertainty surrounding the duration, magnitude and frequency of historical hydroclimatic extremes such as hydrologic droughts and floods prior to the observed record. In regions where paleoclimatic studies are less reliable, Global Climate Models (GCMs) can provide useful information about past hydroclimatic conditions. This study evaluates the use of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) GCMs to enhance the understanding of historical droughts and floods across the Canadian Prairie region in the Nelson-Churchill Watershed (NCW). The NCW is approximately 1.4 million km2 in size and drains into Hudson Bay in Northern Manitoba, Canada. One hundred years of observed hydrologic records show extended dry and wet periods in this region; however paleoclimatic studies suggest that longer, more severe droughts have occurred in the past. In Manitoba, where hydropower is the primary source of electricity, droughts are of particular interest as they are important for future resource planning. Twenty-three GCMs with daily runoff are evaluated using 16 metrics for skill in reproducing historic annual runoff patterns. A common 56-year historic period of 1950-2005 is used for this evaluation to capture wet and dry periods. GCM runoff is then routed at a grid resolution of 0.25° using the WATFLOOD hydrological model storage-routing algorithm to develop streamflow scenarios. Reservoir operation is naturalized and a consistent temperature scenario is used to determine ice-on and ice-off conditions. These streamflow simulations are compared with the historic record to remove bias using quantile mapping of empirical distribution functions. GCM runoff data from pre-industrial and future projection experiments are also bias corrected to obtain extended streamflow simulations. GCM streamflow simulations of more than 650 years include a stationary (pre-industrial) period and future periods forced by radiative forcing scenarios. Quantile mapping adjusts for magnitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Tomohiko; Oya, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Sato, Tetsuya.
1992-10-01
Extensive three-dimensional computer simulations of the magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) coupling are performed to study self-excitation of auroral arcs with special emphasis on 1) nonlinear evolution of the feedback instability in the M-I coupling system, 2) controlling mechanisms of the auroral arc structure, 3) formation of a field-aligned electric potential structure in association with the development of the feedback instability, and 4) effects of the parallel potential generation on auroral arc development. It is reconfirmed that the feedback instability produces a longitudinally elongated, latitudinally striated structure where the upward field-aligned current and the ionospheric density are locally enhanced. The following important new features are revealed. 1) The global distribution of the striation structure is primarily governed by the magnetospheric convection pattern and the ionospheric density distribution. 2) There appears a significant dawn-dusk asymmetry in the auroral arc formation, even though the apparent geometrical relationship is symmetric. 3) The recombination effect plays a significant role in the global, as well as local, development of the auroral arc structure. The nonlinearity of recombination, in conjunction with the closure of an arc-associated local field-aligned current system, acts to destroy an old arc and creates a new arc in a different but adjacent position. 4) A V-shaped field aligned potential structure is created in association with an auroral arc. Rapid increase in the electron density and the local upward field-aligned current of an arc arises as a result of enhanced ionization by precipitating electrons accelerated by the parallel potential. 5) A drastic oscillatory behavior of appearance and disappearance of auroral arcs is obtained when the ionization effect is strong. The period is primarily given by the Alfven bounce time. (J.P.N.)
Improved simulation of tropospheric ozone by a global-multi-regional two-way coupling model system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Yan
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Small-scale nonlinear chemical and physical processes over pollution source regions affect the tropospheric ozone (O3, but these processes are not captured by current global chemical transport models (CTMs and chemistry–climate models that are limited by coarse horizontal resolutions (100–500 km, typically 200 km. These models tend to contain large (and mostly positive tropospheric O3 biases in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we use the recently built two-way coupling system of the GEOS-Chem CTM to simulate the regional and global tropospheric O3 in 2009. The system couples the global model (at 2.5° long. × 2° lat. and its three nested models (at 0.667° long. × 0.5° lat. covering Asia, North America and Europe, respectively. Specifically, the nested models take lateral boundary conditions (LBCs from the global model, better capture small-scale processes and feed back to modify the global model simulation within the nested domains, with a subsequent effect on their LBCs. Compared to the global model alone, the two-way coupled system better simulates the tropospheric O3 both within and outside the nested domains, as found by evaluation against a suite of ground (1420 sites from the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division (GMD, the Chemical Coordination Centre of European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System (AQS, aircraft (the High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO and Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In- Service Aircraft (MOZAIC and satellite measurements (two Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI products. The two-way coupled simulation enhances the correlation in day-to-day variation of afternoon mean surface O3
Satoh, Masaki; Tomita, Hirofumi; Yashiro, Hisashi; Kajikawa, Yoshiyuki; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Yamaura, Tsuyoshi; Miyakawa, Tomoki; Nakano, Masuo; Kodama, Chihiro; Noda, Akira T.; Nasuno, Tomoe; Yamada, Yohei; Fukutomi, Yoshiki
2017-12-01
This article reviews the major outcomes of a 5-year (2011-2016) project using the K computer to perform global numerical atmospheric simulations based on the non-hydrostatic icosahedral atmospheric model (NICAM). The K computer was made available to the public in September 2012 and was used as a primary resource for Japan's Strategic Programs for Innovative Research (SPIRE), an initiative to investigate five strategic research areas; the NICAM project fell under the research area of climate and weather simulation sciences. Combining NICAM with high-performance computing has created new opportunities in three areas of research: (1) higher resolution global simulations that produce more realistic representations of convective systems, (2) multi-member ensemble simulations that are able to perform extended-range forecasts 10-30 days in advance, and (3) multi-decadal simulations for climatology and variability. Before the K computer era, NICAM was used to demonstrate realistic simulations of intra-seasonal oscillations including the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), merely as a case study approach. Thanks to the big leap in computational performance of the K computer, we could greatly increase the number of cases of MJO events for numerical simulations, in addition to integrating time and horizontal resolution. We conclude that the high-resolution global non-hydrostatic model, as used in this five-year project, improves the ability to forecast intra-seasonal oscillations and associated tropical cyclogenesis compared with that of the relatively coarser operational models currently in use. The impacts of the sub-kilometer resolution simulation and the multi-decadal simulations using NICAM are also reviewed.
ON HELIUM MIXING IN QUASI-GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berlok, Thomas; Pessah, Martin E., E-mail: berlok@nbi.dk, E-mail: mpessah@nbi.dk [Niels Bohr International Academy, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)
2016-12-20
The assumption of a spatially uniform helium distribution in the intracluster medium (ICM) can lead to biases in the estimates of key cluster parameters if composition gradients are present. The helium concentration profile in galaxy clusters is unfortunately not directly observable. Current models addressing the putative sedimentation are one-dimensional and parametrize the presence of magnetic fields in a crude way, ignoring the weakly collisional, magnetized nature of the medium. When these effects are considered, a wide variety of instabilities can play an important role in the plasma dynamics. In a series of recent papers, we have developed the local, linear theory of these instabilities and addressed their nonlinear development with a modified version of Athena. Here, we extend our study by developing a quasi-global approach that we use to simulate the mixing of helium as induced by generalizations of the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI) and the magnetothermal instability, which feed off thermal and composition gradients. In the inner region of the ICM, mixing can occur over a few gigayears, after which the average magnetic field inclination angle is ∼30°–50°, resulting in an averaged Spitzer parameter higher by about 20% than the value obtained in homogeneous simulations. In the cluster outskirts the instabilities are rather inefficient, due to the shallow gradients. This suggests that composition gradients in cluster cores might be shallower than one-dimensional models predict. More quantitative statements demand more refined models that can incorporate the physics driving the sedimentation process and simultaneously account for the weakly collisional nature of the plasma.
Global Simulations of the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks with Comprehensive Disk Microphysics
Bai, Xue-Ning
2017-08-01
The gas dynamics of weakly ionized protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are largely governed by the coupling between gas and magnetic fields, described by three non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) effects (Ohmic, Hall, ambipolar). Previous local simulations incorporating these processes have revealed that the inner regions of PPDs are largely laminar and accompanied by wind-driven accretion. We conduct 2D axisymmetric, fully global MHD simulations of these regions (˜1-20 au), taking into account all non-ideal MHD effects, with tabulated diffusion coefficients and approximate treatment of external ionization and heating. With the net vertical field aligned with disk rotation, the Hall-shear instability strongly amplifies horizontal magnetic field, making the overall dynamics dependent on initial field configuration. Following disk formation, the disk likely relaxes into an inner zone characterized by asymmetric field configuration across the midplane, which smoothly transitions to a more symmetric outer zone. Angular momentum transport is driven by both MHD winds and laminar Maxwell stress, with both accretion and decretion flows present at different heights, and modestly asymmetric winds from the two disk sides. With anti-aligned field polarity, weakly magnetized disks settle into an asymmetric field configuration with supersonic accretion flow concentrated at one side of the disk surface, and highly asymmetric winds between the two disk sides. In all cases, the wind is magneto-thermal in nature, characterized by a mass loss rate exceeding the accretion rate. More strongly magnetized disks give more symmetric field configuration and flow structures. Deeper far-UV penetration leads to stronger and less stable outflows. Implications for observations and planet formation are also discussed.
Global Simulations of the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks with Comprehensive Disk Microphysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bai, Xue-Ning, E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2017-08-10
The gas dynamics of weakly ionized protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are largely governed by the coupling between gas and magnetic fields, described by three non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) effects (Ohmic, Hall, ambipolar). Previous local simulations incorporating these processes have revealed that the inner regions of PPDs are largely laminar and accompanied by wind-driven accretion. We conduct 2D axisymmetric, fully global MHD simulations of these regions (∼1–20 au), taking into account all non-ideal MHD effects, with tabulated diffusion coefficients and approximate treatment of external ionization and heating. With the net vertical field aligned with disk rotation, the Hall-shear instability strongly amplifies horizontal magnetic field, making the overall dynamics dependent on initial field configuration. Following disk formation, the disk likely relaxes into an inner zone characterized by asymmetric field configuration across the midplane, which smoothly transitions to a more symmetric outer zone. Angular momentum transport is driven by both MHD winds and laminar Maxwell stress, with both accretion and decretion flows present at different heights, and modestly asymmetric winds from the two disk sides. With anti-aligned field polarity, weakly magnetized disks settle into an asymmetric field configuration with supersonic accretion flow concentrated at one side of the disk surface, and highly asymmetric winds between the two disk sides. In all cases, the wind is magneto-thermal in nature, characterized by a mass loss rate exceeding the accretion rate. More strongly magnetized disks give more symmetric field configuration and flow structures. Deeper far-UV penetration leads to stronger and less stable outflows. Implications for observations and planet formation are also discussed.
Global simulation of formation and evolution of plasmoid and flux-rope in the Earth's Magnetotail
Ge, Y.; Raeder, J.; Du, A.
2014-12-01
The observation of plasmoids and flux-ropes in the Earth's magnetotail was crucial to establish the simultaneous presence of multiple x-lines in the tail, and has become the basis for the Near Earth Neutral Line (NENL) model of substorms. While the "classical" NENL model envisions x-lines that extend across the entire tail, recent observations have shown that neither do the x-lines and resulting plasmoids encompass the entire tail, nor do the x-lines have to lie along the y-axis. The fragmentation of the tail by spatially and temporally limited x-lines has important consequences for the mass and energy budget of the tail. Recent ARTEMIS observations have shown that the plasmoids in the distant tail are limited in the Y direction and some flux ropes are tilted during their tailward propagation. Understanding their formation and evolution during their propagation through the magnetotail shall shred more light on the general energy and flux transport of the Earth's magnetosphere. In this study we simulate plasmoids and flux-ropes in the Earth's magnetotail using the Open Global Geospace Circulation Model (OpenGGCM). We investigate the generation mechanisms for tail plasmoids and flux-ropes and their evolution as they propagate in the magnetotail. The simulation results show that the limited extend of NENL controls the length or the Y scale of tail plasmoid and flux rope. In addition, by studying their 3D magnetic topology we find that the tilted flux rope forms due to a progressive spreading of reconnection line along the east-west direction, which produces and releases two ends of the flux rope at different times and in different speeds. By constructing a catalogue of observational signatures of plasmoid and flux rope we compare the differences of their signatures and find that large-scale plasmoids have much weaker core fields than that inside the small-scale flux ropes.
Global ice volume variations through the last glacial cycle simulated by a 3-D ice-dynamical model
Bintanja, R.; Wal, R.S.W. van de; Oerlemans, J.
2002-01-01
A coupled ice sheet—ice shelf—bedrock model was run at 20km resolution to simulate the evolution of global ice cover during the last glacial cycle. The mass balance model uses monthly mean temperature and precipitation as input and incorporates the albedo—mass balance feedback. The model is forced
Bruce A. McCarl; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; Diana Burton; Chi-Chung. Chen
2000-01-01
A multiperiod, regional, mathematical programming economic model is used to evaluate the potential economic impacts of global climatic change on the US forest sector. A wide range of scenarios for the biological response of forests to climate change are developed, ranging from small to large changes in forest growth rates. These scenarios are simulated in the economic...
Pelt, van S.C.; Beersma, J.J.; Buishand, T.A.; Hurk, van den B.J.J.M.; Kabat, P.
2012-01-01
Probability estimates of the future change of extreme precipitation events are usually based on a limited number of available global climate model (GCM) or regional climate model (RCM) simulations. Since floods are related to heavy precipitation events, this restricts the assessment of flood risks.
Strahan, Susan E.; Douglass, Anne R.
2004-01-01
The Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) has integrated two 36-year simulations of an ozone recovery scenario with an offline chemistry and tra nsport model using two different meteorological inputs. Physically ba sed diagnostics, derived from satellite and aircraft data sets, are d escribed and then used to evaluate the realism of temperature and transport processes in the simulations. Processes evaluated include barri er formation in the subtropics and polar regions, and extratropical w ave-driven transport. Some diagnostics are especially relevant to sim ulation of lower stratospheric ozone, but most are applicable to any stratospheric simulation. The global temperature evaluation, which is relevant to gas phase chemical reactions, showed that both sets of me teorological fields have near climatological values at all latitudes and seasons at 30 hPa and below. Both simulations showed weakness in upper stratospheric wave driving. The simulation using input from a g eneral circulation model (GMI(GCM)) showed a very good residual circulation in the tropics and Northern Hemisphere. The simulation with inp ut from a data assimilation system (GMI(DAS)) performed better in the midlatitudes than it did at high latitudes. Neither simulation forms a realistic barrier at the vortex edge, leading to uncertainty in the fate of ozone-depleted vortex air. Overall, tracer transport in the offline GML(GCM) has greater fidelity throughout the stratosphere tha n it does in the GMI(DAS)
The atmospheric boundary layer in the CSIRO global climate model: simulations versus observations
Garratt, J. R.; Rotstayn, L. D.; Krummel, P. B.
2002-07-01
A 5-year simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer in the CSIRO global climate model (GCM) is compared with detailed boundary-layer observations at six locations, two over the ocean and four over land. Field observations, in the form of surface fluxes and vertical profiles of wind, temperature and humidity, are generally available for each hour over periods of one month or more in a single year. GCM simulations are for specific months corresponding to the field observations, for each of five years. At three of the four land sites (two in Australia, one in south-eastern France), modelled rainfall was close to the observed climatological values, but was significantly in deficit at the fourth (Kansas, USA). Observed rainfall during the field expeditions was close to climatology at all four sites. At the Kansas site, modelled screen temperatures (Tsc), diurnal temperature amplitude and sensible heat flux (H) were significantly higher than observed, with modelled evaporation (E) much lower. At the other three land sites, there is excellent correspondence between the diurnal amplitude and phase and absolute values of each variable (Tsc, H, E). Mean monthly vertical profiles for specific times of the day show strong similarities: over land and ocean in vertical shape and absolute values of variables, and in the mixed-layer and nocturnal-inversion depths (over land) and the height of the elevated inversion or height of the cloud layer (over the sea). Of special interest is the presence climatologically of early morning humidity inversions related to dewfall and of nocturnal low-level jets; such features are found in the GCM simulations. The observed day-to-day variability in vertical structure is captured well in the model for most sites, including, over a whole month, the temperature range at all levels in the boundary layer, and the mix of shallow and deep mixed layers. Weaknesses or unrealistic structure include the following, (a) unrealistic model mixed
Global model simulations of air pollution during the 2003 European heat wave
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Ordóñez
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Three global Chemistry Transport Models – MOZART, MOCAGE, and TM5 – as well as MOZART coupled to the IFS meteorological model including assimilation of ozone (O_{3} and carbon monoxide (CO satellite column retrievals, have been compared to surface measurements and MOZAIC vertical profiles in the troposphere over Western/Central Europe for summer 2003. The models reproduce the meteorological features and enhancement of pollution during the period 2–14 August, but not fully the ozone and CO mixing ratios measured during that episode. Modified normalised mean biases are around −25% (except ~5% for MOCAGE in the case of ozone and from −80% to −30% for CO in the boundary layer above Frankfurt. The coupling and assimilation of CO columns from MOPITT overcomes some of the deficiencies in the treatment of transport, chemistry and emissions in MOZART, reducing the negative biases to around 20%. The high reactivity and small dry deposition velocities in MOCAGE seem to be responsible for the overestimation of O_{3} in this model. Results from sensitivity simulations indicate that an increase of the horizontal resolution to around 1°×1° and potential uncertainties in European anthropogenic emissions or in long-range transport of pollution cannot completely account for the underestimation of CO and O_{3} found for most models. A process-oriented TM5 sensitivity simulation where soil wetness was reduced results in a decrease in dry deposition fluxes and a subsequent ozone increase larger than the ozone changes due to the previous sensitivity runs. However this latest simulation still underestimates ozone during the heat wave and overestimates it outside that period. Most probably, a combination of the mentioned factors together with underrepresented biogenic emissions in the models, uncertainties in the modelling of vertical/horizontal transport processes in the proximity of the boundary layer as well as limitations of
A simple integrated assessment approach to global change simulation and evaluation
Ogutu, Keroboto; D'Andrea, Fabio; Ghil, Michael
2016-04-01
We formulate and study the Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model, which constitutes the basis of our idealized integrated assessment approach to simulating and evaluating global change. CoCEB is composed of a physical climate module, based on Earth's energy balance, and an economy module that uses endogenous economic growth with physical and human capital accumulation. A biosphere model is likewise under study and will be coupled to the existing two modules. We concentrate on the interactions between the two subsystems: the effect of climate on the economy, via damage functions, and the effect of the economy on climate, via a control of the greenhouse gas emissions. Simple functional forms of the relation between the two subsystems permit simple interpretations of the coupled effects. The CoCEB model is used to make hypotheses on the long-term effect of investment in emission abatement, and on the comparative efficacy of different approaches to abatement, in particular by investing in low carbon technology, in deforestation reduction or in carbon capture and storage (CCS). The CoCEB model is very flexible and transparent, and it allows one to easily formulate and compare different functional representations of climate change mitigation policies. Using different mitigation measures and their cost estimates, as found in the literature, one is able to compare these measures in a coherent way.
Use of a hybrid code for global-scale plasma simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swift, D.W.
1996-01-01
This paper presents a demonstration of the use of a hybrid code to model the Earth's magnetosphere on a global scale. The typical hybrid code calculates the interaction of fully kinetic ions and a massless electron fluid with the magnetic field. This code also includes a fluid ion component to approximate the cold ionospheric plasma that spatially overlaps with the discrete particle component. Other innovative features of the code include a numerically generated curvilinear coordinate system and subcycling of the magnetic field update to the particle push. These innovations allow the code to accommodate disparate time and distance scales. The demonstration is a simulation of the noon meridian plane of the magnetosphere. The code exhibits the formation of fast and slow-mode shocks and tearing reconnection at the magnetopause. New results include particle acceleration in the cusp and nearly field aligned currents linking the cusp and polar ionosphere. The paper also describes a density depletion instability and measures to avoid it. 27 refs., 4 figs
Global SWOT Data Assimilation of River Hydrodynamic Model; the Twin Simulation Test of CaMa-Flood
Ikeshima, D.; Yamazaki, D.; Kanae, S.
2016-12-01
CaMa-Flood is a global scale model for simulating hydrodynamics in large scale rivers. It can simulate river hydrodynamics such as river discharge, flooded area, water depth and so on by inputting water runoff derived from land surface model. Recently many improvements at parameters or terrestrial data are under process to enhance the reproducibility of true natural phenomena. However, there are still some errors between nature and simulated result due to uncertainties in each model. SWOT (Surface water and Ocean Topography) is a satellite, which is going to be launched in 2021, can measure open water surface elevation. SWOT observed data can be used to calibrate hydrodynamics model at river flow forecasting and is expected to improve model's accuracy. Combining observation data into model to calibrate is called data assimilation. In this research, we developed data-assimilated river flow simulation system in global scale, using CaMa-Flood as river hydrodynamics model and simulated SWOT as observation data. Generally at data assimilation, calibrating "model value" with "observation value" makes "assimilated value". However, the observed data of SWOT satellite will not be available until its launch in 2021. Instead, we simulated the SWOT observed data using CaMa-Flood. Putting "pure input" into CaMa-Flood produce "true water storage". Extracting actual daily swath of SWOT from "true water storage" made simulated observation. For "model value", we made "disturbed water storage" by putting "noise disturbed input" to CaMa-Flood. Since both "model value" and "observation value" are made by same model, we named this twin simulation. At twin simulation, simulated observation of "true water storage" is combined with "disturbed water storage" to make "assimilated value". As the data assimilation method, we used ensemble Kalman filter. If "assimilated value" is closer to "true water storage" than "disturbed water storage", the data assimilation can be marked effective. Also
May, Dominik; Wold, Kari; Moore, Stephanie
2015-09-01
The world is changing significantly, and it is becoming increasingly globalised. This means that countries, businesses, and professionals must think and act globally to be successful. Many individuals, however, are not prepared with the global competency skills needed to communicate and perform effectively in a globalised system. To address this need, higher education institutions are looking for ways to instil these skills in their students. This paper explains one promising approach using current learning principles: transnational interactive online environments in engineering education. In 2011, the TU Dortmund and the University of Virginia initiated a collaboration in which engineering students from both universities took part in one online synchronous course and worked together on global topics. This paper describes how the course was designed and discusses specific research results regarding how interactive online role-playing simulations support students in gaining the global competency skills required to actively participate in today's international workforce.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petelet, M
2008-07-01
Current approach of most welding modellers is to content themselves with available material data, and to chose a mechanical model that seems to be appropriate. Among inputs, those controlling the material properties are one of the key problems of welding simulation: material data are never characterized over a sufficiently wide temperature range. This way to proceed neglect the influence of the uncertainty of input data on the result given by the computer code. In this case, how to assess the credibility of prediction? This thesis represents a step in the direction of implementing an innovative approach in welding simulation in order to bring answers to this question, with an illustration on some concretes welding cases.The global sensitivity analysis is chosen to determine which material properties are the most sensitive in a numerical welding simulation and in which range of temperature. Using this methodology require some developments to sample and explore the input space covering welding of different steel materials. Finally, input data have been divided in two groups according to their influence on the output of the model (residual stress or distortion). In this work, complete methodology of the global sensitivity analysis has been successfully applied to welding simulation and lead to reduce the input space to the only important variables. Sensitivity analysis has provided answers to what can be considered as one of the probable frequently asked questions regarding welding simulation: for a given material which properties must be measured with a good accuracy and which ones can be simply extrapolated or taken from a similar material? (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petelet, M
2007-10-15
Current approach of most welding modellers is to content themselves with available material data, and to chose a mechanical model that seems to be appropriate. Among inputs, those controlling the material properties are one of the key problems of welding simulation: material data are never characterized over a sufficiently wide temperature range {exclamation_point} This way to proceed neglect the influence of the uncertainty of input data on the result given by the computer code. In this case, how to assess the credibility of prediction? This thesis represents a step in the direction of implementing an innovative approach in welding simulation in order to bring answers to this question, with an illustration on some concretes welding cases. The global sensitivity analysis is chosen to determine which material properties are the most sensitive in a numerical welding simulation and in which range of temperature. Using this methodology require some developments to sample and explore the input space covering welding of different steel materials. Finally, input data have been divided in two groups according to their influence on the output of the model (residual stress or distortion). In this work, complete methodology of the global sensitivity analysis has been successfully applied to welding simulation and lead to reduce the input space to the only important variables. Sensitivity analysis has provided answers to what can be considered as one of the probable frequently asked questions regarding welding simulation: for a given material which properties must be measured with a good accuracy and which ones can be simply extrapolated or taken from a similar material? (author)
A Non-hydrostatic Atmospheric Model for Global High-resolution Simulation
Peng, X.; Li, X.
2017-12-01
A three-dimensional non-hydrostatic atmosphere model, GRAPES_YY, is developed on the spherical Yin-Yang grid system in order to enforce global high-resolution weather simulation or forecasting at the CAMS/CMA. The quasi-uniform grid makes the computation be of high efficiency and free of pole problem. Full representation of the three-dimensional Coriolis force is considered in the governing equations. Under the constraint of third-order boundary interpolation, the model is integrated with the semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian method using the same code on both zones. A static halo region is set to ensure computation of cross-boundary transport and updating Dirichlet-type boundary conditions in the solution process of elliptical equations with the Schwarz method. A series of dynamical test cases, including the solid-body advection, the balanced geostrophic flow, zonal flow over an isolated mountain, development of the Rossby-Haurwitz wave and a baroclinic wave, are carried out, and excellent computational stability and accuracy of the dynamic core has been confirmed. After implementation of the physical processes of long and short-wave radiation, cumulus convection, micro-physical transformation of water substances and the turbulent processes in the planetary boundary layer include surface layer vertical fluxes parameterization, a long-term run of the model is then put forward under an idealized aqua-planet configuration to test the model physics and model ability in both short-term and long-term integrations. In the aqua-planet experiment, the model shows an Earth-like structure of circulation. The time-zonal mean temperature, wind components and humidity illustrate reasonable subtropical zonal westerly jet, meridional three-cell circulation, tropical convection and thermodynamic structures. The specific SST and solar insolation being symmetric about the equator enhance the ITCZ and tropical precipitation, which concentrated in tropical region. Additional analysis and
Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations for low-frequency electromagnetic waves in general plasma equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frieman, E.A.; Chen, L.
1981-10-01
A nonlinear gyrokinetic formalism for low-frequency (less than the cyclotron frequency) microscopic electromagnetic perturbations in general magnetic field configurations is developed. The nonlinear equations thus derived are valid in the strong-turbulence regime and contain effects due to finite Larmor radius, plasma inhomogeneities, and magentic field geometries. The specific case of axisymmetric tokamaks is then considered, and a model nonlinear equation is derived for electrostatic drift waves. Also, applying the formalism to the shear Alfven wave heating sceme, it is found that nonlinear ion Landau damping of kinetic shear-Alfven waves is modified, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by the diamagnetic drift effects. In particular, wave energy is found to cascade in wavenumber instead of frequency
A Systematic Method for Verification and Validation of Gyrokinetic Microstability Codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bravenec, Ronald [Fourth State Research, Austin, TX (United States)
2017-11-14
My original proposal for the period Feb. 15, 2014 through Feb. 14, 2017 called for an integrated validation and verification effort carried out by myself with collaborators. The validation component would require experimental profile and power-balance analysis. In addition, it would require running the gyrokinetic codes varying the input profiles within experimental uncertainties to seek agreement with experiment before discounting a code as invalidated. Therefore, validation would require a major increase of effort over my previous grant periods which covered only code verification (code benchmarking). Consequently, I had requested full-time funding. Instead, I am being funded at somewhat less than half time (5 calendar months per year). As a consequence, I decided to forego the validation component and to only continue the verification efforts.
Gyrokinetic analysis of linear microinstabilities for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X
Xanthopoulos, P.; Jenko, F.
2007-04-01
A linear collisionless gyrokinetic investigation of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes—considering both adiabatic and full electron dynamics—and trapped electron modes (TEMs) is presented for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) [G. Grieger et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1990 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1991), Vol. 3, p. 525]. The study of ITG modes reveals that in W7-X, microinstabilities of distinct character coexist. The effect of changes in the density gradient and temperature ratio is discussed. Substantial differences with respect to the axisymmetric geometry appear in W7-X, concerning the relative separation of regions with a large fraction of helically trapped particles and those of pronounced bad curvature. For both ITG modes and TEMs, the dependence of their linear growth rates on the background gradients is studied along with their parallel mode structure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Palmroth
2006-05-01
Full Text Available We compare the ionospheric electron precipitation morphology and power from a global MHD simulation (GUMICS-4 with direct measurements of auroral energy flux during a pair of substorms on 28-29 March 1998. The electron precipitation power is computed directly from global images of auroral light observed by the Polar satellite ultraviolet imager (UVI. Independent of the Polar UVI measurements, the electron precipitation energy is determined from SNOE satellite observations on the thermospheric nitric oxide (NO density. We find that the GUMICS-4 simulation reproduces the spatial variation of the global aurora rather reliably in the sense that the onset of the substorm is shown in GUMICS-4 simulation as enhanced precipitation in the right location at the right time. The total integrated precipitation power in the GUMICS-4 simulation is in quantitative agreement with the observations during quiet times, i.e., before the two substorm intensifications. We find that during active times the GUMICS-4 integrated precipitation is a factor of 5 lower than the observations indicate. However, we also find factor of 2-3 differences in the precipitation power among the three different UVI processing methods tested here. The findings of this paper are used to complete an earlier objective, in which the total ionospheric power deposition in the simulation is forecasted from a mathematical expression, which is a function of solar wind density, velocity and magnetic field. We find that during this event, the correlation coefficient between the outcome of the forecasting expression and the simulation results is 0.83. During the event, the simulation result on the total ionospheric power deposition agrees with observations (correlation coefficient 0.8 and the AE index (0.85.
Gyrokinetic modelling of the quasilinear particle flux for plasmas with neutral-beam fuelling
Narita, E.; Honda, M.; Nakata, M.; Yoshida, M.; Takenaga, H.; Hayashi, N.
2018-02-01
A quasilinear particle flux is modelled based on gyrokinetic calculations. The particle flux is estimated by determining factors, namely, coefficients of off-diagonal terms and a particle diffusivity. In this paper, the methodology to estimate the factors is presented using a subset of JT-60U plasmas. First, the coefficients of off-diagonal terms are estimated by linear gyrokinetic calculations. Next, to obtain the particle diffusivity, a semi-empirical approach is taken. Most experimental analyses for particle transport have assumed that turbulent particle fluxes are zero in the core region. On the other hand, even in the stationary state, the plasmas in question have a finite turbulent particle flux due to neutral-beam fuelling. By combining estimates of the experimental turbulent particle flux and the coefficients of off-diagonal terms calculated earlier, the particle diffusivity is obtained. The particle diffusivity should reflect a saturation amplitude of instabilities. The particle diffusivity is investigated in terms of the effects of the linear instability and linear zonal flow response, and it is found that a formula including these effects roughly reproduces the particle diffusivity. The developed framework for prediction of the particle flux is flexible to add terms neglected in the current model. The methodology to estimate the quasilinear particle flux requires so low computational cost that a database consisting of the resultant coefficients of off-diagonal terms and particle diffusivity can be constructed to train a neural network. The development of the methodology is the first step towards a neural-network-based particle transport model for fast prediction of the particle flux.
First-principle description of collisional gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dif-Pradalier, G
2008-10-15
This dissertation starts in chapter 1 with a comprehensive introduction to nuclear fusion, its basic physics, goals and means. It especially defines the concept of a fusion plasma and some of its essential physical properties. The following chapter 2 discusses some fundamental concepts of statistical physics. It introduces the kinetic and the fluid frameworks, compares them and highlights their respective strengths and limitations. The end of the chapter is dedicated to the fluid theory. It presents two new sets of closure relations for fluid equations which retain important pieces of physics, relevant in the weakly collisional tokamak regimes: collective resonances which lead to Landau damping and entropy production. Nonetheless, since the evolution of the turbulence is intrinsically nonlinear and deeply influenced by velocity space effects, a kinetic collisional description is most relevant. First focusing on the kinetic aspect, chapter 3 introduces the so-called gyrokinetic framework along with the numerical solver - the GYSELA code - which will be used throughout this dissertation. Very generically, code solving is an initial value problem. The impact on turbulent nonlinear evolution of out of equilibrium initial conditions is discussed while studying transient flows, self-organizing dynamics and memory effects due to initial conditions. This dissertation introduces an operational definition, now of routine use in the GYSELA code, for the initial state and concludes on the special importance of the accurate calculation of the radial electric field. The GYSELA framework is further extended in chapter 4 to describe Coulomb collisions. The implementation of a collision operator acting on the full distribution function is presented. Its successful confrontation to collisional theory (neoclassical theory) is also shown. GYSELA is now part of the few gyrokinetic codes which can self-consistently address the interplay between turbulence and collisions. While
First-principle description of collisional gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dif-Pradalier, G.
2008-10-01
This dissertation starts in chapter 1 with a comprehensive introduction to nuclear fusion, its basic physics, goals and means. It especially defines the concept of a fusion plasma and some of its essential physical properties. The following chapter 2 discusses some fundamental concepts of statistical physics. It introduces the kinetic and the fluid frameworks, compares them and highlights their respective strengths and limitations. The end of the chapter is dedicated to the fluid theory. It presents two new sets of closure relations for fluid equations which retain important pieces of physics, relevant in the weakly collisional tokamak regimes: collective resonances which lead to Landau damping and entropy production. Nonetheless, since the evolution of the turbulence is intrinsically nonlinear and deeply influenced by velocity space effects, a kinetic collisional description is most relevant. First focusing on the kinetic aspect, chapter 3 introduces the so-called gyrokinetic framework along with the numerical solver - the GYSELA code - which will be used throughout this dissertation. Very generically, code solving is an initial value problem. The impact on turbulent nonlinear evolution of out of equilibrium initial conditions is discussed while studying transient flows, self-organizing dynamics and memory effects due to initial conditions. This dissertation introduces an operational definition, now of routine use in the GYSELA code, for the initial state and concludes on the special importance of the accurate calculation of the radial electric field. The GYSELA framework is further extended in chapter 4 to describe Coulomb collisions. The implementation of a collision operator acting on the full distribution function is presented. Its successful confrontation to collisional theory (neoclassical theory) is also shown. GYSELA is now part of the few gyrokinetic codes which can self-consistently address the interplay between turbulence and collisions. While
A dynamic global-coefficient mixed subgrid-scale model for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Satbir; You, Donghyun
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► A new SGS model is developed for LES of turbulent flows in complex geometries. ► A dynamic global-coefficient SGS model is coupled with a scale-similarity model. ► Overcome some of difficulties associated with eddy-viscosity closures. ► Does not require averaging or clipping of the model coefficient for stabilization. ► The predictive capability is demonstrated in a number of turbulent flow simulations. -- Abstract: A dynamic global-coefficient mixed subgrid-scale eddy-viscosity model for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flows in complex geometries is developed. In the present model, the subgrid-scale stress is decomposed into the modified Leonard stress, cross stress, and subgrid-scale Reynolds stress. The modified Leonard stress is explicitly computed assuming a scale similarity, while the cross stress and the subgrid-scale Reynolds stress are modeled using the global-coefficient eddy-viscosity model. The model coefficient is determined by a dynamic procedure based on the global-equilibrium between the subgrid-scale dissipation and the viscous dissipation. The new model relieves some of the difficulties associated with an eddy-viscosity closure, such as the nonalignment of the principal axes of the subgrid-scale stress tensor and the strain rate tensor and the anisotropy of turbulent flow fields, while, like other dynamic global-coefficient models, it does not require averaging or clipping of the model coefficient for numerical stabilization. The combination of the global-coefficient eddy-viscosity model and a scale-similarity model is demonstrated to produce improved predictions in a number of turbulent flow simulations
SELF-DESTRUCTING SPIRAL WAVES: GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF A SPIRAL-WAVE INSTABILITY IN ACCRETION DISKS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Nelson, Richard P.; Richard, Samuel, E-mail: jaehbae@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: r.p.nelson@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: samuel.richard@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2016-09-20
We present results from a suite of three-dimensional global hydrodynamic simulations that shows that spiral density waves propagating in circumstellar disks are unstable to the growth of a parametric instability that leads to break down of the flow into turbulence. This spiral wave instability (SWI) arises from a resonant interaction between pairs of inertial waves, or inertial-gravity waves, and the background spiral wave. The development of the instability in the linear regime involves the growth of a broad spectrum of inertial modes, with growth rates on the order of the orbital time, and results in a nonlinear saturated state in which turbulent velocity perturbations are of a similar magnitude to those induced by the spiral wave. The turbulence induces angular momentum transport and vertical mixing at a rate that depends locally on the amplitude of the spiral wave (we obtain a stress parameter α ∼ 5 × 10{sup −4} in our reference model). The instability is found to operate in a wide range of disk models, including those with isothermal or adiabatic equations of state, and in viscous disks where the dimensionless kinematic viscosity ν ≤ 10{sup −5}. This robustness suggests that the instability will have applications to a broad range of astrophysical disk-related phenomena, including those in close binary systems, planets embedded in protoplanetary disks (including Jupiter in our own solar system) and FU Orionis outburst models. Further work is required to determine the nature of the instability and to evaluate its observational consequences in physically more complete disk models than we have considered in this paper.
An Efficient Approximation of the Coronal Heating Rate for use in Global Sun-Heliosphere Simulations
Cranmer, Steven R.
2010-02-01
The origins of the hot solar corona and the supersonically expanding solar wind are still the subject of debate. A key obstacle in the way of producing realistic simulations of the Sun-heliosphere system is the lack of a physically motivated way of specifying the coronal heating rate. Recent one-dimensional models have been found to reproduce many observed features of the solar wind by assuming the energy comes from Alfvén waves that are partially reflected, then dissipated by magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. However, the nonlocal physics of wave reflection has made it difficult to apply these processes to more sophisticated (three-dimensional) models. This paper presents a set of robust approximations to the solutions of the linear Alfvén wave reflection equations. A key ingredient of the turbulent heating rate is the ratio of inward-to-outward wave power, and the approximations developed here allow this to be written explicitly in terms of local plasma properties at any given location. The coronal heating also depends on the frequency spectrum of Alfvén waves in the open-field corona, which has not yet been measured directly. A model-based assumption is used here for the spectrum, but the results of future measurements can be incorporated easily. The resulting expression for the coronal heating rate is self-contained, computationally efficient, and applicable directly to global models of the corona and heliosphere. This paper tests and validates the approximations by comparing the results to exact solutions of the wave transport equations in several cases relevant to the fast and slow solar wind.
SELF-DESTRUCTING SPIRAL WAVES: GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF A SPIRAL-WAVE INSTABILITY IN ACCRETION DISKS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Nelson, Richard P.; Richard, Samuel
2016-01-01
We present results from a suite of three-dimensional global hydrodynamic simulations that shows that spiral density waves propagating in circumstellar disks are unstable to the growth of a parametric instability that leads to break down of the flow into turbulence. This spiral wave instability (SWI) arises from a resonant interaction between pairs of inertial waves, or inertial-gravity waves, and the background spiral wave. The development of the instability in the linear regime involves the growth of a broad spectrum of inertial modes, with growth rates on the order of the orbital time, and results in a nonlinear saturated state in which turbulent velocity perturbations are of a similar magnitude to those induced by the spiral wave. The turbulence induces angular momentum transport and vertical mixing at a rate that depends locally on the amplitude of the spiral wave (we obtain a stress parameter α ∼ 5 × 10 −4 in our reference model). The instability is found to operate in a wide range of disk models, including those with isothermal or adiabatic equations of state, and in viscous disks where the dimensionless kinematic viscosity ν ≤ 10 −5 . This robustness suggests that the instability will have applications to a broad range of astrophysical disk-related phenomena, including those in close binary systems, planets embedded in protoplanetary disks (including Jupiter in our own solar system) and FU Orionis outburst models. Further work is required to determine the nature of the instability and to evaluate its observational consequences in physically more complete disk models than we have considered in this paper.
Maoyi, Molulaqhooa L.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Veitch, Jennifer J.
2018-03-01
Tropical cyclones (TCs) are one of the most devastating natural phenomena. This study examines the capability of a global climate model with grid stretching (CAM-EULAG, hereafter CEU) in simulating the characteristics of TCs over the South West Indian Ocean (SWIO). In the study, CEU is applied with a variable increment global grid that has a fine horizontal grid resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) over the SWIO and coarser resolution (1° × 1°—2° × 2.25°) over the rest of the globe. The simulation is performed for the 11 years (1999-2010) and validated against the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) best track data, global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) satellite data, and ERA-Interim (ERAINT) reanalysis. CEU gives a realistic simulation of the SWIO climate and shows some skill in simulating the spatial distribution of TC genesis locations and tracks over the basin. However, there are some discrepancies between the observed and simulated climatic features over the Mozambique channel (MC). Over MC, CEU simulates a substantial cyclonic feature that produces a higher number of TC than observed. The dynamical structure and intensities of the CEU TCs compare well with observation, though the model struggles to produce TCs with a deep pressure centre as low as the observed. The reanalysis has the same problem. The model captures the monthly variation of TC occurrence well but struggles to reproduce the interannual variation. The results of this study have application in improving and adopting CEU for seasonal forecasting over the SWIO.
Kantar, Rami S; Plana, Natalie M; Cutting, Court B; Diaz-Siso, Jesus Rodrigo; Flores, Roberto L
2018-01-29
In October 2012, a freely available, internet-based cleft simulator was created in partnership between academic, nonprofit, and industry sectors. The purpose of this educational resource was to address global disparities in cleft surgery education. This report assesses demographics, usage, and global effect of our simulator, in its fifth year since inception. Evaluate the global effect, usage, and demographics of an internet-based educational digital simulation cleft surgery software. Simulator modules, available in five languages demonstrate surgical anatomy, markings, detailed procedures, and intraoperative footage to supplement digital animation. Available data regarding number of users, sessions, countries reached, and content access were recorded. Surveys evaluating the demographic characteristics of registered users and simulator use were collected by direct e-mail. The total number of simulator new and active users reached 2865 and 4086 in June 2017, respectively. By June 2017, users from 136 countries had accessed the simulator. From 2015 to 2017, the number of sessions was 11,176 with a monthly average of 399.0 ± 190.0. Developing countries accounted for 35% of sessions and the average session duration was 9.0 ± 7.3 minutes. This yields a total simulator screen time of 100,584 minutes (1676 hours). Most survey respondents were surgeons or trainees (87%) specializing in plastic, maxillofacial, or general surgery (89%). Most users found the simulator to be useful (88%), at least equivalent or more useful than other resources (83%), and used it for teaching (58%). Our internet-based interactive cleft surgery platform reaches its intended target audience, is not restricted by socioeconomic barriers to access, and is judged to be useful by surgeons. More than 4000 active users have been reached since inception. The total screen time over approximately 2 years exceeded 1600 hours. This suggests that future surgical simulators of this kind may be sustainable by
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelsey, Adrian [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton (United Kingdom)
2015-12-15
Uncertainty in model predictions of the behaviour of fires is an important issue in fire safety analysis in nuclear power plants. A global sensitivity analysis can help identify the input parameters or sub-models that have the most significant effect on model predictions. However, to perform a global sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo sampling might require thousands of simulations to be performed and therefore would not be practical for an analysis based on a complex fire code using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). An alternative approach is to perform a global sensitivity analysis using an emulator. Gaussian process emulators can be built using a limited number of simulations and once built a global sensitivity analysis can be performed on an emulator, rather than using simulations directly. Typically reliable emulators can be built using ten simulations for each parameter under consideration, therefore allowing a global sensitivity analysis to be performed, even for a complex computer code. In this paper we use an example of a large scale pool fire to demonstrate an emulator based approach to global sensitivity analysis. In that work an emulator based global sensitivity analysis was used to identify the key uncertain model inputs affecting the entrainment rates and flame heights in large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) fire plumes. The pool fire simulations were performed using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software. Five model inputs were varied: the fire diameter, burn rate, radiative fraction, computational grid cell size and choice of turbulence model. The ranges used for these parameters in the analysis were determined from experiment and literature. The Gaussian process emulators used in the analysis were created using 127 FDS simulations. The emulators were checked for reliability, and then used to perform a global sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis. Large-scale ignited releases of LNG on water were performed by Sandia National
Del Rio, Beatriz G; Dieterich, Johannes M; Carter, Emily A
2017-08-08
The accuracy of local pseudopotentials (LPSs) is one of two major determinants of the fidelity of orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) simulations. We present a global optimization strategy for LPSs that enables OFDFT to reproduce solid and liquid properties obtained from Kohn-Sham DFT. Our optimization strategy can fit arbitrary properties from both solid and liquid phases, so the resulting globally optimized local pseudopotentials (goLPSs) can be used in solid and/or liquid-phase simulations depending on the fitting process. We show three test cases proving that we can (1) improve solid properties compared to our previous bulk-derived local pseudopotential generation scheme; (2) refine predicted liquid and solid properties by adding force matching data; and (3) generate a from-scratch, accurate goLPS from the local channel of a non-local pseudopotential. The proposed scheme therefore serves as a full and improved LPS construction protocol.
Shiyuan Zhong; Xiuping Li; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman; L. Ruby Leung; William I. Jr. Gustafson
2012-01-01
The performance of regional climate simulations is evaluated for the Great Lakes region. Three 10-year (1990-1999) current-climate simulations are performed using the MM5 regional climate model (RCM) with 36-km horizontal resolution. The simulations employed identical configuration and physical parameterizations, but different lateral boundary conditions and sea-...
Qi, Wei; Liu, Junguo; Yang, Hong; Sweetapple, Chris
2018-03-01
Global precipitation products are very important datasets in flow simulations, especially in poorly gauged regions. Uncertainties resulting from precipitation products, hydrological models and their combinations vary with time and data magnitude, and undermine their application to flow simulations. However, previous studies have not quantified these uncertainties individually and explicitly. This study developed an ensemble-based dynamic Bayesian averaging approach (e-Bay) for deterministic discharge simulations using multiple global precipitation products and hydrological models. In this approach, the joint probability of precipitation products and hydrological models being correct is quantified based on uncertainties in maximum and mean estimation, posterior probability is quantified as functions of the magnitude and timing of discharges, and the law of total probability is implemented to calculate expected discharges. Six global fine-resolution precipitation products and two hydrological models of different complexities are included in an illustrative application. e-Bay can effectively quantify uncertainties and therefore generate better deterministic discharges than traditional approaches (weighted average methods with equal and varying weights and maximum likelihood approach). The mean Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency values of e-Bay are up to 0.97 and 0.85 in training and validation periods respectively, which are at least 0.06 and 0.13 higher than traditional approaches. In addition, with increased training data, assessment criteria values of e-Bay show smaller fluctuations than traditional approaches and its performance becomes outstanding. The proposed e-Bay approach bridges the gap between global precipitation products and their pragmatic applications to discharge simulations, and is beneficial to water resources management in ungauged or poorly gauged regions across the world.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Trávníček, Pavel; Hellinger, Petr; Schiver, D.
2003-01-01
Roč. 679, CP679 (2003), s. 485-488 ISSN 1551-7616. [Solar wind ten. Pisa, 17.06.2002-21.06.2002] Grant - others:ESA(NL) Prodex14529/00/NL/SFe; NSF(US) INT-0010111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : magnetized obstacle * solar wind * global hybrid simulations Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics
Sato, Yousuke; Goto, Daisuke; Michibata, Takuro; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tomita, Hirofumi; Nakajima, Teruyuki
2018-03-07
Aerosols affect climate by modifying cloud properties through their role as cloud condensation nuclei or ice nuclei, called aerosol-cloud interactions. In most global climate models (GCMs), the aerosol-cloud interactions are represented by empirical parameterisations, in which the mass of cloud liquid water (LWP) is assumed to increase monotonically with increasing aerosol loading. Recent satellite observations, however, have yielded contradictory results: LWP can decrease with increasing aerosol loading. This difference implies that GCMs overestimate the aerosol effect, but the reasons for the difference are not obvious. Here, we reproduce satellite-observed LWP responses using a global simulation with explicit representations of cloud microphysics, instead of the parameterisations. Our analyses reveal that the decrease in LWP originates from the response of evaporation and condensation processes to aerosol perturbations, which are not represented in GCMs. The explicit representation of cloud microphysics in global scale modelling reduces the uncertainty of climate prediction.
Kizhner, Semion; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Post-Processing of data related to a Global Positioning System (GPS) simulation is an important activity in qualification of a GPS receiver for space flight. Because a GPS simulator is a critical resource it is desirable to move off the pertinent simulation data from the simulator as soon as a test is completed. The simulator data files are usually moved to a Personal Computer (PC), where the post-processing of the receiver logged measurements and solutions data and simulated data is performed. Typically post-processing is accomplished using PC-based commercial software languages and tools. Because of commercial software systems generality their general-purpose functions are notoriously slow and more than often are the bottleneck problem even for short duration experiments. For example, it may take 8 hours to post-process data from a 6-hour simulation. There is a need to do post-processing faster, especially in order to use the previous test results as feedback for a next simulation setup. This paper demonstrates that a fast software linear interpolation algorithm is applicable to a large class of engineering problems, like GPS simulation data post-processing, where computational time is a critical resource and is one of the most important considerations. An approach is developed that allows to speed-up post-processing by an order of magnitude. It is based on improving the post-processing bottleneck interpolation algorithm using apriori information that is specific to the GPS simulation application. The presented post-processing scheme was used in support of a few successful space flight missions carrying GPS receivers. A future approach to solving the post-processing performance problem using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology is described.
Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Rodell, Matthew; Ozdogan, Mutlu
2010-01-01
Agricultural land use significantly influences the surface water and energy balances. Effects of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes include repartitioning of latent and sensible heat fluxes, an increase in net radiation, and an increase in soil moisture and runoff. We are working on representing irrigation practices in continental- to global-scale land surface simulation in NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Because agricultural practices across the nations are diverse, and complex, we are attempting to capture the first-order reality of the regional practices before achieving a global implementation. This study focuses on two issues in Southeast Asia: multiple cropping and rice paddy irrigation systems. We first characterize agricultural practices in the region (i.e., crop types, growing seasons, and irrigation) using the Global data set of monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000 (MIRCA2000) dataset. Rice paddy extent is identified using remote sensing products. Whether irrigated or rainfed, flooded fields need to be represented and treated explicitly. By incorporating these properties and processes into a physically based land surface model, we are able to quantify the impacts on the simulated states and fluxes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hattermann, F. F.; Krysanova, V.; Gosling, S. N.; Dankers, R.; Daggupati, P.; Donnelly, C.; Flörke, M.; Huang, S.; Motovilov, Y.; Buda, S.; Yang, T.; Müller, C.; Leng, G.; Tang, Q.; Portmann, F. T.; Hagemann, S.; Gerten, D.; Wada, Y.; Masaki, Y.; Alemayehu, T.; Satoh, Y.; Samaniego, L.
2017-01-04
Ideally, the results from models operating at different scales should agree in trend direction and magnitude of impacts under climate change. However, this implies that the sensitivity of impact models designed for either scale to climate variability and change is comparable. In this study, we compare hydrological changes simulated by 9 global and 9 regional hydrological models (HM) for 11 large river basins in all continents under reference and scenario conditions. The foci are on model validation runs, sensitivity of annual discharge to climate variability in the reference period, and sensitivity of the long-term average monthly seasonal dynamics to climate change. One major result is that the global models, mostly not calibrated against observations, often show a considerable bias in mean monthly discharge, whereas regional models show a much better reproduction of reference conditions. However, the sensitivity of two HM ensembles to climate variability is in general similar. The simulated climate change impacts in terms of long-term average monthly dynamics evaluated for HM ensemble medians and spreads show that the medians are to a certain extent comparable in some cases with distinct differences in others, and the spreads related to global models are mostly notably larger. Summarizing, this implies that global HMs are useful tools when looking at large-scale impacts of climate change and variability, but whenever impacts for a specific river basin or region are of interest, e.g. for complex water management applications, the regional-scale models validated against observed discharge should be used.
Rozel, A. B.; Golabek, G.; Gerya, T.; Jain, C.; Tackley, P. J.
2017-12-01
We study the creation of primordial continental crust (TTG rocks) employing fully self-consistent numerical models of thermo-chemical convection on a global scale at the Archean. We use realistic rheological parameters [1] in 2D spherical annulus geometry using the convection code StagYY [2] for a one billion years period. Starting from a pyrolytic composition and an initially warm core, our simulations first generate mafic crust and depleted mantle in the upper mantle. The basaltic material can be both erupted (cold) and/or intruded (warm) at the base of the crust following a predefined partitioning. At all times, water concentration is considered fully saturated in the top 10 km of the domain, and it simply advected with the deforming material elsewhere. We track the pressure-temperature conditions of the newly formed hydrated basalt and check if it matches the conditions necessary for the formation of proto-continental crust [3]. We systematically test the influence of volcanism (eruption, also called "heat pipe") and plutonism (intrusive magmatism) on the time-dependent geotherm in the lithosphere. We show that the "heat-pipe" model (assuming 100% eruption) suggested to be the main heat loss mechanism during the Archean epoch [4] is not able to produce continental crust since it forms a too cold lithosphere. We also systematically test various friction coefficients and show that an intrusion fraction higher than 60% (in agreement with [5]) combined with a friction coefficient larger than 0.1 produces the expected amount of the three main petrological TTG compositions previously reported [3]. This result seems robust as the amount of TTG rocks formed vary over orders of magnitude. A large eruption over intrusion ratio can result in up to 100 times less TTG felsic crust production than a case where plutonism dominates. This study represents a major step towards the production of self-consistent convection models able to generate the continental crust of the Earth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Fuchs, V.; Dendy, R.O.
1993-01-01
A full-wave equation has been obtained from the gyrokinetic theory for the fast wave traversing a minority cyclotron resonance [Phys. Fluids B 4, 493 (1992)] with the aid of the fast wave approximation [Phys. Fluids 31, 1614 (1988)]. This theory describes the transmission, reflection, and absorption of the fast wave for arbitrary values of the parallel wave number. For oblique propagation the absorption is due to both ion cyclotron damping by minority ions and mode conversion to the ion Bernstein wave. The results for a 3 He minority in a D plasma indicate that for perpendicular propagation and minority temperatures of a few keV the power lost by the fast wave is all mode converted whereas for minority temperatures ∼100 keV∼30% of the incident power is dissipated by the minority ions due to the gyrokinetic correction. The gyrokinetic correction also results in a significant reduction in the reflection coefficient for low field side incidence when k zLB approx-lt 1 and the minority and hybrid resonances overlap
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John B. Kim
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Warming temperatures are projected to greatly alter many forests in the Pacific Northwest. MC2 is a dynamic global vegetation model, a climate-aware, process-based, and gridded vegetation model. We calibrated and ran MC2 simulations for the Blue Mountains Ecoregion, Oregon, USA, at 30 arc-second spatial resolution. We calibrated MC2 using the best available spatial datasets from land managers. We ran future simulations using climate projections from four global circulation models (GCM under representative concentration pathway 8.5. Under this scenario, forest productivity is projected to increase as the growing season lengthens, and fire occurrence is projected to increase steeply throughout the century, with burned area peaking early- to mid-century. Subalpine forests are projected to disappear, and the coniferous forests to contract by 32.8%. Large portions of the dry and mesic forests are projected to convert to woodlands, unless precipitation were to increase. Low levels of change are projected for the Umatilla National Forest consistently across the four GCM’s. For the Wallowa-Whitman and the Malheur National Forest, forest conversions are projected to vary more across the four GCM-based simulations, reflecting high levels of uncertainty arising from climate. For simulations based on three of the four GCMs, sharply increased fire activity results in decreases in forest carbon stocks by the mid-century, and the fire activity catalyzes widespread biome shift across the study area. We document the full cycle of a structured approach to calibrating and running MC2 for transparency and to serve as a template for applications of MC2. Keywords: Climate change, Regional change, Simulation, Calibration, Forests, Fire, Dynamic global vegetation model
Reale, Oreste; Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Fuentes, Marangelly; Putman, William M.; Partyka, Gary
2018-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Nature Run (NR), released for use in Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), is a 2-year long global non-hydrostatic free-running simulation at a horizontal resolution of 7 km, forced by observed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice, and inclusive of interactive aerosols and trace gases. This article evaluates the NR with respect to tropical cyclone (TC) activity. It is emphasized that to serve as a NR, a long-term simulation must be able to produce realistic TCs, which arise out of realistic large-scale forcings. The presence in the NR of the realistic, relevant dynamical features over the African Monsoon region and the tropical Atlantic is confirmed, along with realistic African Easterly Wave activity. The NR Atlantic TC seasons, produced with 2005 and 2006 SSTs, show interannual variability consistent with observations, with much stronger activity in 2005. An investigation of TC activity over all the other basins (eastern and western North Pacific, North and South Indian Ocean, and Australian region), together with relevant elements of the atmospheric circulation, such as, for example, the Somali Jet and westerly bursts, reveals that the model captures the fundamental aspects of TC seasons in every basin, producing realistic number of TCs with realistic tracks, life spans and structures. This confirms that the NASA NR is a very suitable tool for OSSEs targeting TCs and represents an improvement with respect to previous long simulations that have served the global atmospheric OSSE community. PMID:29674806
Royer, Jean-François; Chauvin, Fabrice; Daloz, Anne-Sophie
2010-05-01
The response of tropical cyclones (TC) activity to global warming has not yet reached a clear consensus in the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) or in the recent scientific literature. Observed series are neither long nor reliable enough for a statistically significant detection and attribution of past TC trends, and coupled climate models give widely divergent results for the future evolution of TC activity in the different ocean basins. The potential importance of the spatial structure of the future SST warming has been pointed out by Chauvin et al. (2006) in simulations performed at CNRM with the ARPEGE-Climat GCM. The current presentation describes a new set of simulations that have been performed with the ARPEGE-Climat model to try to understand the possible role of SST patterns in the TC cyclogenesis response in 15 CMIP3 coupled simulations analysed by Royer et al (2009). The new simulations have been performed with the atmospheric component of the ARPEGE-Climat GCM forced in 10 year simulations by the SST patterns from each of 15 CMIP3 simulations with different climate model at the end of the 21st century according to scenario A2. The TC analysis is based on the computation of a Convective Yearly Genesis Parameter (CYGP) and the Genesis Potential Index (GPI). The computed genesis indices for each of the ARPEGE-Climat forced simulations is compared with the indices computed directly from the initial coupled simulation. The influence of SST patterns can then be more easily assessed since all the ARPEGE-Climat simulations are performed with the same atmospheric model, whereas the original simulations used models with different parameterization and resolutions. The analysis shows that CYGP or GPI anomalies obtained with ARPEGE are as variable between each other as those obtained originally by the different IPCC models. The variety of SST patterns used to force ARPEGE explains a large part of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boysen, L.R.; Brovkin, V.; Pongratz, J.; Gayler, V.; Arora, V.K.; Cadule, P.; Noblet-Ducoudre, N. de; Kato, E.
2014-01-01
Bio-geophysical (BGP) and biogeochemical (BGC) effects of land-use and land cover change (LULCC) are separated at the global and regional scales in new interactive CO 2 simulations for the 21. century. Results from four earth system models (ESMs) are analyzed for the future RCP8.5 scenario from simulations with and without land-use and land cover change (LULCC), contributing to the Land-Use and Climate, Identification of robust impacts (LUCID) project. Over the period 2006-2100, LULCC causes the atmospheric CO 2 concentration to increase by 12, 22, and 66 ppm in CanESM2, MIROC-ESM, and MPI-ESM-LR, respectively. Statistically significant changes in global near-surface temperature are found in three models with a BGC induced global mean annual warming between 0.07 and 0.23 K. BGP-induced responses are simulated by three models in areas of intense LULCC of varying sign and magnitude (between -0.47 and 0.10 K). Modifications of the land carbon pool by LULCC are disentangled in accordance with processes that can lead to increases and decreases in this carbon pool. Global land carbon losses due to LULCC are simulated by all models: 218, 57, 35 and 34 Gt C by MPI-ESM-LR, MIROC-ESM, IPSL-CM5A-LR and CanESM2, respectively. On the contrary, the CO 2 -fertilization effect caused by elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations due to LULCC leads to a land carbon gain of 39 Gt C in MPI-ESM-LR and is almost negligible in the other models. A substantial part of the spread in models' responses to LULCC is attributed to the differences in implementation of LULCC (e.g., whether pastures or crops are simulated explicitly) and the simulation of specific processes. Simple idealized experiments with clear protocols for implementing LULCC in ESMs are needed to increase the understanding of model responses and the statistical significance of results, especially when analyzing the regional-scale impacts of LULCC. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. R. Boysen
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Biogeophysical (BGP and biogeochemical (BGC effects of land-use and land cover change (LULCC are separated at the global and regional scales in new interactive CO2 simulations for the 21st century. Results from four earth system models (ESMs are analyzed for the future RCP8.5 scenario from simulations with and without land-use and land cover change (LULCC, contributing to the Land-Use and Climate, IDentification of robust impacts (LUCID project. Over the period 2006–2100, LULCC causes the atmospheric CO2 concentration to increase by 12, 22, and 66 ppm in CanESM2, MIROC-ESM, and MPI-ESM-LR, respectively. Statistically significant changes in global near-surface temperature are found in three models with a BGC-induced global mean annual warming between 0.07 and 0.23 K. BGP-induced responses are simulated by three models in areas of intense LULCC of varying sign and magnitude (between −0.47 and 0.10 K. Modifications of the land carbon pool by LULCC are disentangled in accordance with processes that can lead to increases and decreases in this carbon pool. Global land carbon losses due to LULCC are simulated by all models: 218, 57, 35 and 34 Gt C by MPI-ESM-LR, MIROC-ESM, IPSL-CM5A-LR and CanESM2, respectively. On the contrary, the CO2-fertilization effect caused by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to LULCC leads to a land carbon gain of 39 Gt C in MPI-ESM-LR and is almost negligible in the other models. A substantial part of the spread in models' responses to LULCC is attributed to the differences in implementation of LULCC (e.g., whether pastures or crops are simulated explicitly and the simulation of specific processes. Simple idealized experiments with clear protocols for implementing LULCC in ESMs are needed to increase the understanding of model responses and the statistical significance of results, especially when analyzing the regional-scale impacts of LULCC.
Multiscale gyrokinetics for rotating tokamak plasmas: fluctuations, transport and energy flows.
Abel, I G; Plunk, G G; Wang, E; Barnes, M; Cowley, S C; Dorland, W; Schekochihin, A A
2013-11-01
This paper presents a complete theoretical framework for studying turbulence and transport in rapidly rotating tokamak plasmas. The fundamental scale separations present in plasma turbulence are codified as an asymptotic expansion in the ratio ε = ρi/α of the gyroradius to the equilibrium scale length. Proceeding order by order in this expansion, a set of coupled multiscale equations is developed. They describe an instantaneous equilibrium, the fluctuations driven by gradients in the equilibrium quantities, and the transport-timescale evolution of mean profiles of these quantities driven by the interplay between the equilibrium and the fluctuations. The equilibrium distribution functions are local Maxwellians with each flux surface rotating toroidally as a rigid body. The magnetic equilibrium is obtained from the generalized Grad-Shafranov equation for a rotating plasma, determining the magnetic flux function from the mean pressure and velocity profiles of the plasma. The slow (resistive-timescale) evolution of the magnetic field is given by an evolution equation for the safety factor q. Large-scale deviations of the distribution function from a Maxwellian are given by neoclassical theory. The fluctuations are determined by the 'high-flow' gyrokinetic equation, from which we derive the governing principle for gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamaks: the conservation and local (in space) cascade of the free energy of the fluctuations (i.e. there is no turbulence spreading). Transport equations for the evolution of the mean density, temperature and flow velocity profiles are derived. These transport equations show how the neoclassical and fluctuating corrections to the equilibrium Maxwellian act back upon the mean profiles through fluxes and heating. The energy and entropy conservation laws for the mean profiles are derived from the transport equations. Total energy, thermal, kinetic and magnetic, is conserved and there is no net turbulent heating. Entropy is produced
Astrophysical gyrokinetics: turbulence in pressure-anisotropic plasmas at ion scales and beyond
Kunz, M. W.; Abel, I. G.; Klein, K. G.
2018-04-01
We present a theoretical framework for describing electromagnetic kinetic turbulence in a multi-species, magnetized, pressure-anisotropic plasma. The turbulent fluctuations are assumed to be small compared to the mean field, to be spatially anisotropic with respect to it and to have frequencies small compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. At scales above the ion-Larmor radius, the theory reduces to the pressure-anisotropic generalization of kinetic reduced magnetohydrodynamics (KRMHD) formulated by Kunz et al. (J. Plasma Phys., vol. 81, 2015, 325810501). At scales at and below the ion-Larmor radius, three main objectives are achieved. First, we analyse the linear response of the pressure-anisotropic gyrokinetic system, and show it to be a generalization of previously explored limits. The effects of pressure anisotropy on the stability and collisionless damping of Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations are highlighted, with attention paid to the spectral location and width of the frequency jump that occurs as Alfvén waves transition into kinetic Alfvén waves. Secondly, we derive and discuss a very general gyrokinetic free-energy conservation law, which captures both the KRMHD free-energy conservation at long wavelengths and dual cascades of kinetic Alfvén waves and ion entropy at sub-ion-Larmor scales. We show that non-Maxwellian features in the distribution function change the amount of phase mixing and the efficiency of magnetic stresses, and thus influence the partitioning of free energy amongst the cascade channels. Thirdly, a simple model is used to show that pressure anisotropy, even within the bounds imposed on it by firehose and mirror instabilities, can cause order-of-magnitude variations in the ion-to-electron heating ratio due to the dissipation of Alfvénic turbulence. Our theory provides a foundation for determining how pressure anisotropy affects turbulent fluctuation spectra, the differential heating of particle species and the ratio of parallel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shufen Pan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available There is a critical need to monitor and predict terrestrial primary production, the key indicator of ecosystem functioning, in a changing global environment. Here we provide a brief review of three major approaches to monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production: (1 ground-based field measurements, (2 satellite-based observations, and (3 process-based ecosystem modelling. Much uncertainty exists in the multi-approach estimations of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP and net primary production (NPP. To improve the capacity of model simulation and prediction, it is essential to evaluate ecosystem models against ground and satellite-based measurements and observations. As a case, we have shown the performance of the dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM at various scales from site to region to global. We also discuss how terrestrial primary production might respond to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 and uncertainties associated with model and data. Further progress in monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production requires a multiscale synthesis of observations and model simulations. In the Anthropocene era in which human activity has indeed changed the Earth’s biosphere, therefore, it is essential to incorporate the socioeconomic component into terrestrial ecosystem models for accurately estimating and predicting terrestrial primary production in a changing global environment.
Evaluation and uncertainties of global climate models as simulated in East Asia and China
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Z.C.
1994-01-01
The assessments and uncertainties of the general circulation models (GCMs) as simulated in East Asia and China (15-60 N, 70-140 E) have been investigated by using seven GCMs. Four methods of assessment have been chosen. The variables for the validations for the GCMs include the annual, seasonal and monthly mean temperatures and precipitation. The assessments indicated that: (1) the simulations of seven GCMs for temperature are much better than those for precipitation; (2) the simulations in winter are much better than those in summer; (3) the simulations in eastern parts are much better than those in Western parts for both temperature and precipitation; (4) the best GCM for simulated temperature is the GISS model, and the best GCM for simulated precipitation is the UKMO-H model. The seven GCMs' means for both simulated temperature and precipitation provided good results. The range of uncertainties in East Asia and China due to human activities are presented. The differences between the GCMs for temperature and precipitation before the year 2050 are much smaller than those after the year 2050
GLOBAL HIGH-RESOLUTION N-BODY SIMULATION OF PLANET FORMATION. I. PLANETESIMAL-DRIVEN MIGRATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kominami, J. D. [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo (Japan); Daisaka, H. [Hitotsubashi University, Kunitachi-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Makino, J. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Fujimoto, M., E-mail: kominami@mail.jmlab.jp, E-mail: daisaka@phys.science.hit-u.ac.jp, E-mail: makino@mail.jmlab.jp, E-mail: fujimoto.masaki@jaxa.jp [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa (Japan)
2016-03-01
We investigated whether outward planetesimal-driven migration (PDM) takes place or not in simulations when the self-gravity of planetesimals is included. We performed N-body simulations of planetesimal disks with a large width (0.7–4 au) that ranges over the ice line. The simulations consisted of two stages. The first-stage simulations were carried out to see the runaway growth phase using the planetesimals of initially the same mass. The runaway growth took place both at the inner edge of the disk and at the region just outside the ice line. This result was utilized for the initial setup of the second-stage simulations, in which the runaway bodies just outside the ice line were replaced by the protoplanets with about the isolation mass. In the second-stage simulations, the outward migration of the protoplanet was followed by the stopping of the migration due to the increase of the random velocity of the planetesimals. Owing to this increase of random velocities, one of the PDM criteria derived in Minton and Levison was broken. In the current simulations, the effect of the gas disk is not considered. It is likely that the gas disk plays an important role in PDM, and we plan to study its effect in future papers.
Judt, Falko
2017-04-01
A tremendous increase in computing power has facilitated the advent of global convection-resolving numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Although this technological breakthrough allows for the seamless prediction of weather from local to global scales, the predictability of multiscale weather phenomena in these models is not very well known. To address this issue, we conducted a global high-resolution (4-km) predictability experiment using the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS), a state-of-the-art global NWP model developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The goals of this experiment are to investigate error growth from convective to planetary scales and to quantify the intrinsic, scale-dependent predictability limits of atmospheric motions. The globally uniform resolution of 4 km allows for the explicit treatment of organized deep moist convection, alleviating grave limitations of previous predictability studies that either used high-resolution limited-area models or global simulations with coarser grids and cumulus parameterization. Error growth is analyzed within the context of an "identical twin" experiment setup: the error is defined as the difference between a 20-day long "nature run" and a simulation that was perturbed with small-amplitude noise, but is otherwise identical. It is found that in convectively active regions, errors grow by several orders of magnitude within the first 24 h ("super-exponential growth"). The errors then spread to larger scales and begin a phase of exponential growth after 2-3 days when contaminating the baroclinic zones. After 16 days, the globally averaged error saturates—suggesting that the intrinsic limit of atmospheric predictability (in a general sense) is about two weeks, which is in line with earlier estimates. However, error growth rates differ between the tropics and mid-latitudes as well as between the troposphere and stratosphere, highlighting that atmospheric predictability is a complex
Simulation with an O-AGCM of the influence of variations of the solar constant on the global climate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cubasch, U. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Hegerl, G.C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Voss, R. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Waszkewitz, J. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Crowley, T.J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Oceanography
1996-07-01
Two simulations have been carried out with a global coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation model to study the potential impact of solar variability on climate. The Hoyt and Schatten estimate of solar variability from 1700 to 1992 has been used to force the model. Results indicate that the near-surface temperature simulated by the model is dominated by the long periodic solar fluctuations (Gleissberg cycle), with global mean temperatures varying by about 0.5 K. Further results indicate that solar variability induces a similar pattern of surface temperature change as the increase of greenhouse gases, i.e. an increase of the land-sea contrast. However, the solarinduced warming pattern over the ocean during northern hemispheric summer is more centered over the northern hemisphere subtropics, compared to a more uniform warming associated with the increase in greenhouse gases. Finally, the magnitude of the estimated solar warming during the 20th century is not sufficient to explain the observed warming. The recent observed 30-year trends are inconsistent with the solar forcing simulation at an estimated 90% significance level. Also, the observed trend pattern agrees better with the greenhouse warming pattern. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ian S. Acuña-Rodríguez
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The increase in temperature as consequence of the recent global warming has been reported to generate new ice-free areas in the Antarctic continent, facilitating the colonization and spread of plant populations. Consequently, Antarctic vascular plants have been observed extending their southern distribution. But as the environmental conditions toward southern localities become progressively more departed from the species’ physiological optimum, the ecophysiological responses and survival to the expected global warming could be reduced. However, if processes of local adaptation are the main cause of the observed southern expansion, those populations could appear constrained to respond positively to the expected global warming. Using individuals from the southern tip of South America, the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, we assess with a long term experiment (three years under controlled conditions if the responsiveness of Colobanthus quitensis populations to the expected global warming, is related with their different foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms along the latitudinal gradient. In addition, we tested if the release of the stress condition by the global warming in these cold environments increases the ecophysiological performance. For this, we describe the latitudinal pattern of net photosynthetic capacity, biomass accumulation, and number of flowers under current and future temperatures respective to each site of origin after three growing seasons. Overall, was found a clinal trend was found in the foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms in the evaluated C. quitensis populations. On the other hand, an asymmetric response to warming was observed for southern populations in all ecophysiological traits evaluated, suggesting that low temperature is limiting the performance of C. quitensis populations. Our results suggest that under a global warming scenario, plant populations that inhabiting cold zones at
Acuña-Rodríguez, Ian S; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Hereme, Rasme; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A
2017-01-01
The increase in temperature as consequence of the recent global warming has been reported to generate new ice-free areas in the Antarctic continent, facilitating the colonization and spread of plant populations. Consequently, Antarctic vascular plants have been observed extending their southern distribution. But as the environmental conditions toward southern localities become progressively more departed from the species' physiological optimum, the ecophysiological responses and survival to the expected global warming could be reduced. However, if processes of local adaptation are the main cause of the observed southern expansion, those populations could appear constrained to respond positively to the expected global warming. Using individuals from the southern tip of South America, the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, we assess with a long term experiment (three years) under controlled conditions if the responsiveness of Colobanthus quitensis populations to the expected global warming, is related with their different foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms along the latitudinal gradient. In addition, we tested if the release of the stress condition by the global warming in these cold environments increases the ecophysiological performance. For this, we describe the latitudinal pattern of net photosynthetic capacity, biomass accumulation, and number of flowers under current and future temperatures respective to each site of origin after three growing seasons. Overall, was found a clinal trend was found in the foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms in the evaluated C. quitensis populations. On the other hand, an asymmetric response to warming was observed for southern populations in all ecophysiological traits evaluated, suggesting that low temperature is limiting the performance of C. quitensis populations. Our results suggest that under a global warming scenario, plant populati