WorldWideScience

Sample records for global gam properties

  1. GAM observation in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanin, V V; Petrov, A V; Yashin, A Yu; Askinazi, L G; Belokurov, A A; Kornev, V A; Lebedev, V; Tukachinsky, A S; Vildjunas, M I; Wagner, F

    2016-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) in the TUMAN-3M tokamak are reported. With Doppler backscattering (DBS) the basic properties of the GAM such as frequency, conditions for the GAM existence and the GAM radial location have been identified. The two-frequency Doppler reflectometer system was employed to reveal an interplay between low frequency sheared poloidal rotation, ambient turbulence level and the GAM intensity. Bicoherence analysis of the DBS data evidences the presence of a nonlinear interaction between the GAM and plasma turbulence. (paper)

  2. GAM904S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baard, J.H.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the GAM904S library, which is used in the calculation of the activity of radionuclides present in the gamma-ray spectra of irradiated neutron fluence detectors. The library contains all data needed to calculate the activity for reactions which are normally applied in neutron fluence determinations performed in irradiation experiments in the HFR. The library contains also the nuclide constants for the activity calculation of gamma-ray measurements of U and Pu samples. The library consists of three kinds of tables, which contain nuclear information such as decay constants, gamma-ray energies and gamma-emission probabilities. No cross section data are stored in this library. this library is a selected part of a more complete library GAM904. With special utility programs the tables of the library GAM904S were printed. The line printer results are presented in this report. This library contains 122 nuclides and 992 gamma-ray energies. (author). 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 6 tabs

  3. Three-dimensional features of GAM zonal flows in the HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, L.W.; Cheng, J.; Hong, W.Y.; Zhao, K.J.; Lan, T.; Dong, J.Q.; Liu, A.D.; Yu, C.X.; Yu, D.L.; Qian, J.; Huang, Y.; Yang, Q.W.; Ding, X.T.; Liu, Y.; Pan, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    A novel design of the three-step Langmuir probe (TSLP) array has been developed to investigate the zonal flow (ZF) physics in the HL-2A tokamak. Three TSLP arrays are applied to measure the three-dimensional (3D) features of ZFs. They are separated by 65 mm in the poloidal and 800 mm in the toroidal directions, respectively. The 3D properties of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) ZFs are presented. The poloidal and toroidal modes of the radial electric fields of the GAM perturbations are simultaneously determined in the HL-2A tokamak for the first time. The modes have narrow radial wave numbers (k r ρ i = 0.03-0.07) and short radial scale lengths (2.4-4.2 cm). High coherence of both the GAM and the ambient turbulence separated by toroidal 22.5 0 along a magnetic field line is observed, which contrasts with the high coherence of the GAM and the low coherence of the ambient turbulence apart from the field line. The nonlinear three wave coupling between the turbulent fluctuations and the ZFs is a plausible mechanism for flow generation. The skewness and kurtosis spectra of the probability distribution function of the potential perturbations are contrasted with the corresponding bicoherence for the first time, which support the three wave coupling mechanism

  4. Global properties of cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jen, E.

    1986-01-01

    Cellular automata are discrete mathematical systems that generate diverse, often complicated, behavior using simple deterministic rules. Analysis of the local structure of these rules makes possible a description of the global properties of the associated automata. A class of cellular automata that generate infinitely many aperoidic temporal sequences is defined,a s is the set of rules for which inverses exist. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived characterizing the classes of ''nearest-neighbor'' rules for which arbitrary finite initial conditions (i) evolve to a homogeneous state; (ii) generate at least one constant temporal sequence

  5. Mechanosensitive promoter region in the human HB-GAM gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedert, Astrid; Kassem, Moustapha; Claes, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical loading is essential for maintaining bone mass in the adult skeleton. However, the underlying process of the transfer of the physical stimulus into a biochemical response, which is termed mechanotransduction is poorly understood. Mechanotransduction results in the modulation of gene...... cells. Analysis of the human HB-GAM gene upstream regulatory region with luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that the upregulation of HB-GAM expression occurred at the transcriptional level and was mainly dependent on the HB-GAM promoter region most upstream containing three potential AP-1 binding...

  6. Atlas Digital del Plan GAM 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Ruiz-Agüero

    2014-11-01

    Para consolidar las propuestas y alcanzar los objetivos de este plan fue necesario generar un instrumento de información geográfica capaz de analizar y visualizar los contenidos técnicos del proceso de planificación y ordenamiento territorial. Para ello se utilizó el equipo de software y hardware disponible en la SPNDU y en el Centro Nacional de Alta Tecnología (CeNAT. Además se aplicó una metodología que incluyó los procesos de recopilación y el diagnóstico de la información existente, la creación de un diccionario de datos, la estandarización de los elementos cartográficos, la elaboración de metadatos y la generación de nuevas capas. El resultado de esta metodología fue una base de datos simple, accesible, de fácil manejo y con posibilidades de ser replicada, que se constituyó en un atlas digital con 83 mapas y 172 capas de información geográfica. El uso de este atlas digital permitió analizar de manera eficiente la situación de la Gran Área Metropolitana (GAM, Costa Rica.

  7. GAM-HEAT -- a computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.; Kielpinski, A.L.; Steimke, J.L.

    1991-02-01

    The GAM-HEAT code was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guillotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re- radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium. The GAM-HEAT code has been exercised extensively for computing transient temperatures in SRS reactors with specific charges and control components. Results from these computations have been used to establish the need for and to evaluate hardware modifications designed to mitigate results of postulated accident scenarios, and to assist in the specification of safe reactor operating power limits. The code utilizes temperature dependence on material properties. The efficiency of the code has been enhanced by the use of an iterative equation solver. Verification of the code to date consists of comparisons with parallel efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory and with similar efforts at Westinghouse Science and Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA, and benchmarked using problems with known analytical or iterated solutions. All comparisons and tests yield results that indicate the GAM-HEAT code performs as intended

  8. Continuous nonlinear optimization for engineering applications in GAMS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Andrei, Neculai

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the theoretical details and computational performances of algorithms used for solving continuous nonlinear optimization applications imbedded in GAMS. Aimed toward scientists and graduate students who utilize optimization methods to model and solve problems in mathematical programming, operations research, business, engineering, and industry, this book enables readers with a background in nonlinear optimization and linear algebra to use GAMS technology to understand and utilize its important capabilities to optimize algorithms for modeling and solving complex, large-scale, continuous nonlinear optimization problems or applications. Beginning with an overview of constrained nonlinear optimization methods, this book moves on to illustrate key aspects of mathematical modeling through modeling technologies based on algebraically oriented modeling languages. Next, the main feature of GAMS, an algebraically oriented language that allows for high-level algebraic representation of mathematical opti...

  9. Perfil de salud del gamín

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina, Bernarda; Soto Vélez, Cecilia; Betancur Taborda, Ceneida; Jaramillo Vélez, Diva Estela; Zuloaga Posada, Luz; Berrio Castro, Vivian Adela; Escobar, Juan Darío

    1992-01-01

    En el presente estudio se analizó el perfil de salud del gamín de medellin en 98 niños, su situación sociofamiliar, el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas, la morbilidad general y la salud mental y oral.

  10. Global properties of physically interesting Lorentzian spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawarajan, Deloshan; Visser, Matt

    Under normal circumstances most members of the general relativity community focus almost exclusively on the local properties of spacetime, such as the locally Euclidean structure of the manifold and the Lorentzian signature of the metric tensor. When combined with the classical Einstein field equations this gives an extremely successful empirical model of classical gravity and classical matter — at least as long as one does not ask too many awkward questions about global issues, (such as global topology and global causal structure). We feel however that this is a tactical error — even without invoking full-fledged “quantum gravity” we know that the standard model of particle physics is also an extremely good representation of some parts of empirical reality; and we had better be able to carry over all the good features of the standard model of particle physics — at least into the realm of semi-classical quantum gravity. Doing so gives us some interesting global features that spacetime should possess: On physical grounds spacetime should be space-orientable, time-orientable, and spacetime-orientable, and it should possess a globally defined tetrad (vierbein, or in general a globally defined vielbein/n-bein). So on physical grounds spacetime should be parallelizable. This strongly suggests that the metric is not the fundamental physical quantity; a very good case can be made for the tetrad being more fundamental than the metric. Furthermore, a globally-defined “almost complex structure” is almost unavoidable. Ideas along these lines have previously been mooted, but much is buried in the pre-arXiv literature and is either forgotten or inaccessible. We shall revisit these ideas taking a perspective very much based on empirical physical observation.

  11. Investigating the radial structure of axisymmetric fluctuations in the TCV tokamak with local and global gyrokinetic GENE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, G.; Brunner, S.; Huang, Z.; Coda, S.; Görler, T.; Villard, L.; Bañón Navarro, A.; Dominski, J.; Fontana, M.; Jenko, F.; Porte, L.; Told, D.

    2018-03-01

    Axisymmetric (n = 0) density fluctuations measured in the TCV tokamak are observed to possess a frequency f 0 which is either varying (radially dispersive oscillations) or a constant over a large fraction of the plasma minor radius (radially global oscillations) as reported in a companion paper (Z Huang et al, this issue). Given that f 0 scales with the sound speed and given the poloidal structure of density fluctuations, these oscillations were interpreted as Geodesic Acoustic Modes, even though f 0 is in fact smaller than the local linear GAM frequency {f}{GAM}. In this work we employ the Eulerian gyrokinetic code GENE to simulate TCV relevant conditions and investigate the nature and properties of these oscillations, in particular their relation to the safety factor profile. Local and global simulations are carried out and a good qualitative agreement is observed between experiments and simulations. By varying also the plasma temperature and density profiles, we conclude that a variation of the edge safety factor alone is not sufficient to induce a transition from global to radially inhomogeneous oscillations, as was initially suggested by experimental results. This transition appears instead to be the combined result of variations in the different plasma profiles, collisionality and finite machine size effects. Simulations also show that radially global GAM-like oscillations can be observed in all fluxes and fluctuation fields, suggesting that they are the result of a complex nonlinear process involving also finite toroidal mode numbers and not just linear global GAM eigenmodes.

  12. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judson, D.S., E-mail: dsj@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Boston, A.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Coleman-Smith, P.J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Cullen, D.M. [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hardie, A. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Harkness, L.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Jones, L.L. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Jones, M. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Pucknell, V. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Rigby, S.V. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Seller, P. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Scraggs, D.P. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Slee, M.; Sweeney, A. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L697ZE (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point {sup 133}Ba and {sup 57}Co sources located {approx}35mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of {approx}20mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  13. Global distributions of cloud properties for CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, S.; Minnis, P.; Heck, P.; Young, D.

    2003-04-01

    The microphysical and macrophysical properties of clouds play a crucial role in the earth's radiation budget. Simultaneous measurement of the radiation and cloud fields on a global basis has long been recognized as a key component in understanding and modeling the interaction between clouds and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere. With the implementation of the NASA Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in 1998, this need is being met. Broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements taken by the CERES scanners at resolutions between 10 and 20 km on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Terra, and Aqua satellites are matched to simultaneous retrievals of cloud height, phase, particle size, water path, and optical depth from the TRMM Visible Infrared Scanner and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. The combined cloud-radiation product has already been used for developing new, highly accurate anisotropic directional models for converting broadband radiances to flux. They also provide a consistent measure of cloud properties at different times of day over the globe since January 1998. These data will be valuable for determining the indirect effects of aerosols and for linking cloud water to cloud radiation. This paper provides an overview of the CERES cloud products from the three satellites including the retrieval methodology, validation, and global distributions. Availability and access to the datasets will also be discussed.

  14. Creativity in context; the courage in Therivel's GAM/DP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Craig W

    2013-03-01

    The desire to quantify and categorize creativity so that we can easily identify the individual characteristics which serve as its precursors is one which authors have been attempting to successfully complete for some time. In this light, William Therivel's High Creativity Unmasked, discusses how his GAM/DP theory accounts for highly creative people from history as well as a rationale for the rise and fall of creativity in selected cultures throughout history. By examining the latest published work on how Genetic Endowment, Assistances, Misfortunes and Divisions of Power, and how they relate to creativity, Therivel proposes unique rationales for the rises and declines of cultures. This paper examines how creativity and courage work together and in some cases side by side, to explain more fully the role of creativity in culture. This article examines some of Therivel's examples and provides alternate explanations for the phenomena he ascribes to the decline of creativity. In addition, the complexity of both creativity and courage are discussed, both in the current context, and in the next steps for research and theoretical discussion.

  15. Global properties of systems quantized via bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebner, H.D.; Werth, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Take a smooth manifold M and a Lie algebra action (g-ation) theta on M as the geometrical arena of a physical system moving on M with momenta given by theta. It is proposed to quantize the system with a Mackey-like method via the associated vector bundle xisub(rho) of a principal bundle xi=(P,π,M,H) with model dependent structure group H and with g-action phi on P lifted from theta on M. This (quantization) bundle xisub(rho) gives the Hilbert space equal to L 2 (xisub(rho),ω) of the system as the linear space of sections in xisub(rho) being square integrable with respect to a volume form ω on M; the usual position operators are obtained; phi leads to a vector field representation D(phisub(rho),theta) of g in an hence Hilbert space to momentum operators. So Hilbert space carries the quantum kinematics. In this quantuzation the physically important connection between geometrical properties of the system, e.g. quasi-completeness of theta and G-maximality of phisub(rho), and global properties of its quantized kinematics, e.g. skew-adjointness of the momenta and integrability of D(phisub(rho), theta) can easily be studied. The relation to Nelson's construction of a skew-adjoint non-integrable Lie algebra representation and to Palais' local G-action is discussed. Finally the results are applied to actions induced by coverings as examples of non-maximal phisub(rho) on Esub(rho) lifted from maximal theta on M which lead to direct consequences for the corresponding quantum kinematics

  16. Geodesic acoustic eigenmode for tokamak equilibrium with maximum of local GAM frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhin, V.P. [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sorokina, E.A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-24

    The geodesic acoustic eigenmode for tokamak equilibrium with the maximum of local GAM frequency is found analytically in the frame of MHD model. The analysis is based on the asymptotic matching technique.

  17. Separation of the overlapping electromagnetic showers in the cellular GAMS-type calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednev, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of gamma reconstruction program for the GAMS spectrometer is described. Reconstruction efficiencies of two and three space-overlapping showers for detectors with different cell sizes are presented. 3 refs., 17 figs

  18. HB-GAM (pleiotrophin) reverses inhibition of neural regeneration by the CNS extracellular matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveliev, Mikhail; Fenrich, Keith K.; Kislin, Mikhail; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Varjosalo, Markku; Kajander, Tommi; Mugantseva, Ekaterina; Ahonen-Bishopp, Anni; Khiroug, Leonard; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Rougon, Geneviève; Rauvala, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) glycosaminoglycans inhibit regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We report here that HB-GAM (heparin-binding growth-associated molecule; also known as pleiotrophin), a CS-binding protein expressed at high levels in the developing CNS, reverses the role of the CS chains in neurite growth of CNS neurons in vitro from inhibition to activation. The CS-bound HB-GAM promotes neurite growth through binding to the cell surface proteoglycan glypican-2; furthermore, HB-GAM abrogates the CS ligand binding to the inhibitory receptor PTPσ (protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma). Our in vivo studies using two-photon imaging of CNS injuries support the in vitro studies and show that HB-GAM increases dendrite regeneration in the adult cerebral cortex and axonal regeneration in the adult spinal cord. Our findings may enable the development of novel therapies for CNS injuries. PMID:27671118

  19. gamAID: Greedy CP tensor decomposition for supervised EHR-based disease trajectory differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jette; Ho, Joyce; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2017-07-01

    We propose gamAID, an exploratory, supervised nonnegative tensor factorization method that iteratively extracts phenotypes from tensors constructed from medical count data. Using data from diabetic patients who later on get diagnosed with chronic kidney disorder (CKD) as well as diabetic patients who do not receive a CKD diagnosis, we demonstrate the potential of gamAID to discover phenotypes that characterize patients who are at risk for developing a disease.

  20. Some Einstein spaces and their global properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siklos, S.T.C.

    1981-01-01

    The global structure of a class of Einstein spaces is investigated. These spaces have algebraically special Weyl tensors and contain homogeneous hypersurfaces. It is found that they display simple examples of a variety of interesting configuration involving horizons and singularities. (author)

  1. Efficacy of a DNA Vaccine Carrying Eimeria maxima Gam56 Antigen Gene against Coccidiosis in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinjun; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    To control coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, a DNA vaccine targeting the gametophyte antigen Gam56 from Eimeria maxima in chickens was constructed, and the immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated. The ORF of Gam56 gene was cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(zeo)+. Expression of Gam56 protein in COS-7 cells transfected with recombinant plasmid pcDNA-Gam56 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The DNA vaccine was injected intramuscularly to yellow feathered broilers of 1-week old at 3 dosages (25, 50, and 100 µg/chick). Injection was repeated once 1 week later. One week after the second injection, birds were challenged orally with 5×104 sporulated oocysts of E. maxima, then weighed and killed at day 8 post challenge. Blood samples were collected and examined for specific peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation activity and serum antibody levels. Compared with control groups, the administration of pcDNA-Gam56 vaccine markedly increased the lymphocyte proliferation activity (P<0.05) at day 7 and 14 after the first immunization. The level of lymphocyte proliferation started to decrease on day 21 after the first immunization. A similar trend was seen in specific antibody levels. Among the 3 pcDNA-Gam56 immunized groups, the median dosage group displayed the highest lymphocyte proliferation and antibody levels (P<0.05). The median dosage group had the greatest relative body weight gain (89.7%), and the greatest oocyst shedding reduction (53.7%). These results indicate that median dosage of DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and immune protection effects, and may be used in field applications for coccidiosis control. PMID:23710081

  2. Managing global accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle.

  3. Global Account Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Wulff, Vlad Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Global account management (GAM) has become a critical issue for many multinational corporations that compete in a fast changing global market environment. In this article, we approach GAM from a benchlearning perspective, synthesize selected literature and examine case studies in order to underline...... the importance of multilevel relationships in strategic business-to-business relationships. The purpose of this study is to address various issues related to multilevel relationships in strategic partnerships (e.g. the recruitment of the global account manager and his supporting team, turf wars and compensation...

  4. Global property rights. The Kyoto protocol and the knowledge revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichilnisky, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is about the origin of today's global environmental problems, and how to resolve them. At stake are catastrophic risks from global warming and damage to the world's biodiversity that ranks as the planet' sixth great extinction. The origin of today's global environmental problems is a historic difference in property rights regimes between industrial and developing countries, the North and the South. The solutions we suggest involve redefining property rights in the use of the global environment as well as in knowledge. We discuss the Kyoto Protocol's new systems of property rights on the use of the planet's atmosphere, and propose a parallel system of property rights on knowledge. Resources such as forests and oil and other mineral deposits are owned as private property in industrial countries but they are treated as common or government property in developing countries. Ill-defined protected property rights lead to the over-extraction of resources in the South, such as timber and oil. They are exported at low prices to the North that over-consumes them. The international market amplifies the tragedy of the commons, leading to inferior solutions for the world economy as a whole (Chichilnisky 1994). Updating property rights on resources in developing countries would face formidable opposition. The lack of property rights in inputs to production, such as timber and oil, could be compensated by assigning property rights on by-products of outputs. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol provides an example as it limits the countries' rights to emit carbon, a by-product of burning fossil fuels. Our suggestions for trading emissions rights (Chichilnisky 1995, 96) was adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, yet the atmosphere's carbon concentration is a global public good, which makes trading tricky. Trading rights to forests' carbon sequestration services or to genetic blueprints would also be trading global public goods. Markets that trade public goods have been shown to require a

  5. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) — A new assessment tool for evaluating the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jason, E-mail: jp1@tiscali.co.uk

    2016-01-15

    Evaluating sustainability from EIA-based assessments has been problematic at best. This is due to the use of reductionist and qualitative approaches which is dependent upon the perspective of the assessor(s). Therefore, a more rigorous and holistic approach is required to evaluate sustainability in a more consistent way. In this paper, a matrix-based methodology in order to assess the indicated level and nature of sustainability for any project, policy, indicators, legislation, regulation, or other framework is described. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) is designed to evaluate the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability occurring in respect the fundamental and complex geocybernetic paradigms. The GAM method is described in detail in respect to the theory behind it and the methodology. The GAM is then demonstrated using an appropriate case study — Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (2008) concerning carbon budgets and targets. The results indicate that the Part 1 of Act may not achieve the desired goals in contributing towards sustainable development through the stated mechanisms for carbon budgets and targets. The paper then discusses the broader context of the GAM with respect to the core themes evident in the development and application of the GAM of: sustainability science; sustainability assessment; application value of the GAM; and future research and development. - Highlights: • A new assessment tool called the Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) described. • GAM evaluates the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability. • GAM demonstrated by application to Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (CCA). • Part 1 of CCA has significant flaws in achieving a sustainable pathway. • GAM offers a potentially useful tool for quantitatively evaluating sustainability.

  6. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) — A new assessment tool for evaluating the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating sustainability from EIA-based assessments has been problematic at best. This is due to the use of reductionist and qualitative approaches which is dependent upon the perspective of the assessor(s). Therefore, a more rigorous and holistic approach is required to evaluate sustainability in a more consistent way. In this paper, a matrix-based methodology in order to assess the indicated level and nature of sustainability for any project, policy, indicators, legislation, regulation, or other framework is described. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) is designed to evaluate the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability occurring in respect the fundamental and complex geocybernetic paradigms. The GAM method is described in detail in respect to the theory behind it and the methodology. The GAM is then demonstrated using an appropriate case study — Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (2008) concerning carbon budgets and targets. The results indicate that the Part 1 of Act may not achieve the desired goals in contributing towards sustainable development through the stated mechanisms for carbon budgets and targets. The paper then discusses the broader context of the GAM with respect to the core themes evident in the development and application of the GAM of: sustainability science; sustainability assessment; application value of the GAM; and future research and development. - Highlights: • A new assessment tool called the Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) described. • GAM evaluates the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability. • GAM demonstrated by application to Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (CCA). • Part 1 of CCA has significant flaws in achieving a sustainable pathway. • GAM offers a potentially useful tool for quantitatively evaluating sustainability.

  7. Reaching Non-Traditional and Under-Served Communities through Global Astronomy Month Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Global Astronomy Month (GAM), organized each year by Astronomers Without Borders (AWB), has become the world's largest annual celebration of astronomy. Launched as a follow-up to the unprecedented success of the 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009, GAM quickly attracted not only traditional partners in astronomy and space science outreach, but also unusual partners from very different fields. GAM's third annual edition, GAM2012, included worldwide programs for the sight-impaired, astronomy in the arts, and other non-traditional programs. The special planetarium program, OPTICKS, combined elements such as Moonbounce (sending images to the Moon and back) and artistic elements in a unique presentation of the heavens. Programs were developed to present the heavens to the sight-impaired as well. The Cosmic Concert, in which a new musical piece is composed each year, combined with background images of celestial objects, and presented during GAM, has become an annual event. Several astronomy themed art video projects were presented online. AWB's Astropoetry Blog held a very successful contest during GAM2012 that attracted more than 70 entries from 17 countries. Students were engaged by participation in special GAM campaigns of the International Asteroid Search Campaign. AWB and GAM have both developed into platforms where innovative programs can develop, and interdisciplinary collaborations can flourish. As AWB's largest program, GAM brings the audience and resources that provide a boost for these new types of programs. Examples, lessons learned, new projects, and plans for the future of AWB and GAM will be presented.

  8. Global scaling properties of the spectrum for the Fibonacci chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W. M.

    1987-02-01

    By means of the approximate renormalization approach of Niu and Nori [Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2057 (1986)] the widths of subband segments in the spectrum and the occupation probabilities on subbands are obtained to the lowest order for the two-value Fibonacci chains. The global scaling properties of the spectrum are then analytically calculated.

  9. Examining the relationship between spousal involvement in Gam-Anon and relapse behaviors in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zion, M M; Tracy, E; Abell, N

    1991-06-01

    The present investigation focused on Gamblers Anonymous (GA) members in Ohio to ascertain whether or not spousal participation in Gam-Anon, the companion support group, decreased the gambler's relapse into gambling behavior. A cross-sectional survey of 43 GA members was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. While no significant difference was found in the relapse of those gamblers with or without a spouse in Gam-Anon, the degree to which the gambler had engaged in other addictive-like behaviors in the past did appear to be related to relapse. Those gamblers who had not relapsed reported significantly more engagement in past addictive-like behaviors (excessive overeating, drinking, and using drugs) than those who had relapsed. Additionally, their spouses had also engaged in addictive-like behaviors in the past. Discussion suggests possible explanations for the findings. Implications are drawn for both outcome measures and research with self-help groups.

  10. Capturing value from Intellectual Property (IP) in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcácer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Globalization should provide firms with an opportunity to leverage their know-how and reputation across countries to create value. However, it remains challenging for them to actually capture that value using traditional Intellectual Property (IP) tools. In this paper, we document the strong growth...... in patents, trademarks, and industrial designs used by firms to protect their IP globally. We then show that IP protection remains fragmented; the quality of IP applications might be questionable; and developing a comprehensive IP footprint worldwide is very costly. Growing numbers of applications...

  11. GenoGAM: genome-wide generalized additive models for ChIP-Seq analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Georg; Engelhardt, Alexander; Schulz, Daniel; Schmid, Matthias; Tresch, Achim; Gagneur, Julien

    2017-08-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is a widely used approach to study protein-DNA interactions. Often, the quantities of interest are the differential occupancies relative to controls, between genetic backgrounds, treatments, or combinations thereof. Current methods for differential occupancy of ChIP-Seq data rely however on binning or sliding window techniques, for which the choice of the window and bin sizes are subjective. Here, we present GenoGAM (Genome-wide Generalized Additive Model), which brings the well-established and flexible generalized additive models framework to genomic applications using a data parallelism strategy. We model ChIP-Seq read count frequencies as products of smooth functions along chromosomes. Smoothing parameters are objectively estimated from the data by cross-validation, eliminating ad hoc binning and windowing needed by current approaches. GenoGAM provides base-level and region-level significance testing for full factorial designs. Application to a ChIP-Seq dataset in yeast showed increased sensitivity over existing differential occupancy methods while controlling for type I error rate. By analyzing a set of DNA methylation data and illustrating an extension to a peak caller, we further demonstrate the potential of GenoGAM as a generic statistical modeling tool for genome-wide assays. Software is available from Bioconductor: https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/GenoGAM.html . gagneur@in.tum.de. Supplementary information is available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Academician Ivan Gams and his influence on development of geomorphology in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Bognar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the role of academician Ivan Gams in the reorientation and modernization of Croatian geomorphology during 1970's and 1980's. The causes for losing contact with contemporary development of geomorphology in the world are analyzed in detail, and the way of reestablishing the former reputation and importance of Croatian geomorphology is presented, especially through the implementation of detailed geomorphological mapping, new methods of geomorphological investigation and education of younger scientific personnel at the university of Zagreb.

  13. Properties of global monopoles with an event horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Tamaki, T; Sakai, N

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the properties of global monopoles with an event horizon. We find that there is an unstable circular orbit even if a particle does not have an angular momentum when the core mass is negative. We also obtain the asymptotic form of solutions when the event horizon is much larger than the core radius of the monopole, and discuss if they could be a model of galactic halos.

  14. Counterfeiting as corporate externality: intellectual property crime and global insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Corporate negative externalities occur when corporations place some of the costs of their profit-seeking activity onto society. This paper suggests that the current global problem of intellectual property crime is such an externality, and that it has not been recognised as such because corporations present product counterfeiting and piracy as crimes which reduce their revenue, rather than as predictable side effects of corporate production and merchandising, including bran...

  15. Estimating perception of scene layout properties from global image features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael G; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-08

    The relationship between image features and scene structure is central to the study of human visual perception and computer vision, but many of the specifics of real-world layout perception remain unknown. We do not know which image features are relevant to perceiving layout properties, or whether those features provide the same information for every type of image. Furthermore, we do not know the spatial resolutions required for perceiving different properties. This paper describes an experiment and a computational model that provides new insights on these issues. Humans perceive the global spatial layout properties such as dominant depth, openness, and perspective, from a single image. This work describes an algorithm that reliably predicts human layout judgments. This model's predictions are general, not specific to the observers it trained on. Analysis reveals that the optimal spatial resolutions for determining layout vary with the content of the space and the property being estimated. Openness is best estimated at high resolution, depth is best estimated at medium resolution, and perspective is best estimated at low resolution. Given the reliability and simplicity of estimating the global layout of real-world environments, this model could help resolve perceptual ambiguities encountered by more detailed scene reconstruction schemas.

  16. Modeling diarrhea disease in children less than 5 years old: a GAM and GLM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sharif mahmood

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper presents the application of generalized additive model (GAM and generalized linear model (GLM as an exploratory tool for analyzing the factors that affect the occurrence of diarrhea of Bangladeshi child. The relation between the factors that are related with occurrence of diarrhea can be obtained by modeling parametric approach (GLM. But in practice the relation is not straight forward and we require elaborate explanations which incline semiparametric regression (GAM. We present a unified approach for analyzing factors affecting diarrhea via GLM and GAM. We applied Akaike's information criterion to select the best model for our data. Our study analyzes nonlinear resolution of covariate not available with traditional parametric models and the results provide some evidence on how to reduce occurrence of diarrhea by improving socio-economic and public health conditions.

  17. Deep-blue supercontinnum sources with optimum taper profiles – verification of GAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Møller, Uffe; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    We use an asymmetric 2 m draw-tower photonic crystal fiber taper to demonstrate that the taper profile needs careful optimisation if you want to develop a supercontinuum light source with as much power as possible in the blue edge of the spectrum. In particular we show, that for a given taper...... length, the downtapering should be as long as possible. We argue how this may be explained by the concept of group-acceleration mismatch (GAM) and we confirm the results using conventional symmetrical short tapers made on a taper station, which have varying downtapering lengths....

  18. Elevation alters ecosystem properties across temperate treelines globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Jordan R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Classen, Aimée T.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Clément, Jean-Christophe; Fajardo, Alex; Lavorel, Sandra; Sundqvist, Maja K.; Bahn, Michael; Chisholm, Chelsea; Cieraad, Ellen; Gedalof, Ze'Ev; Grigulis, Karl; Kudo, Gaku; Oberski, Daniel L.; Wardle, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is a primary driver of the distribution of biodiversity as well as of ecosystem boundaries. Declining temperature with increasing elevation in montane systems has long been recognized as a major factor shaping plant community biodiversity, metabolic processes, and ecosystem dynamics. Elevational gradients, as thermoclines, also enable prediction of long-term ecological responses to climate warming. One of the most striking manifestations of increasing elevation is the abrupt transitions from forest to treeless alpine tundra. However, whether there are globally consistent above- and belowground responses to these transitions remains an open question. To disentangle the direct and indirect effects of temperature on ecosystem properties, here we evaluate replicate treeline ecotones in seven temperate regions of the world. We find that declining temperatures with increasing elevation did not affect tree leaf nutrient concentrations, but did reduce ground-layer community-weighted plant nitrogen, leading to the strong stoichiometric convergence of ground-layer plant community nitrogen to phosphorus ratios across all regions. Further, elevation-driven changes in plant nutrients were associated with changes in soil organic matter content and quality (carbon to nitrogen ratios) and microbial properties. Combined, our identification of direct and indirect temperature controls over plant communities and soil properties in seven contrasting regions suggests that future warming may disrupt the functional properties of montane ecosystems, particularly where plant community reorganization outpaces treeline advance.

  19. Gamming Chairs and Gimballed Beds: Seafaring Women on Board Nineteenth-Century Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborn, Laurel

    2017-04-01

    During the nineteenth century, many captains' wives from New England took up residence on the ships their husbands commanded. This article focuses on how those women at sea attempted to use material culture to domesticate their voyaging space. While writing in their journals, they referred to not only the small personal things such as books and knitting needles that they brought in their trunks, but also large items, built for and used by women, such as gamming chairs, deckhouses, parlor organs, sewing machines, and gimballed beds. Mary Brewster attempted to retreat from the ship's officers in her small deckhouse, Annie Brassey slept in the gimballed bed, and Lucy Lord Howes disembarked in a gamming chair when captured by Confederates during the Civil War. Evidence of these artifacts found during shipwreck archaeology could be used to further what is known of the culture aboard ships on which women lived. Analysis of the material culture reveals how a captain's wife domesticated space, altered her environment, and made a home on the ship for her family.

  20. Global sensitivity analysis of multiscale properties of porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Kimoon; Zhang, Xuan; Katsoulakis, Markos; Plechac, Petr; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    2018-02-01

    Ubiquitous uncertainty about pore geometry inevitably undermines the veracity of pore- and multi-scale simulations of transport phenomena in porous media. It raises two fundamental issues: sensitivity of effective material properties to pore-scale parameters and statistical parameterization of Darcy-scale models that accounts for pore-scale uncertainty. Homogenization-based maps of pore-scale parameters onto their Darcy-scale counterparts facilitate both sensitivity analysis (SA) and uncertainty quantification. We treat uncertain geometric characteristics of a hierarchical porous medium as random variables to conduct global SA and to derive probabilistic descriptors of effective diffusion coefficients and effective sorption rate. Our analysis is formulated in terms of solute transport diffusing through a fluid-filled pore space, while sorbing to the solid matrix. Yet it is sufficiently general to be applied to other multiscale porous media phenomena that are amenable to homogenization.

  1. Comparative polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities of Genista tinctoria L. and Genistella sagittalis (L.) Gams (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanganu, Daniela; Olah, Neli Kinga; Benedec, Daniela; Mocan, Andrei; Crisan, Gianina; Vlase, Laurian; Popica, Iulia; Oniga, Ilioara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was focused on the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of Genista tinctoria L. and Genistella sagittalis (L.) Gams. A qualitative and quantitative characterization of the main phenolic compounds from the extracts were carried out using a HPLC-MS method. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid content was spectrophotometrically determined. The antioxidant activity towards various radicals generated in different systems was evaluated usingDPPH bleaching method, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC) and Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and all indicated that G. tinctoria extract was more antioxidant than G. sagittalis extract.That was in good agreement with the total polyphenolic and flavonoidic content.Chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, isoquercitrin and apigenin were identified in bothspecies. Caffeic acid, ferulic acid, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin and luteolin were found only in G. tinctoria, while quercetin was determined in G. sagittalis.

  2. A search for rare and forbidden decays of η-meson with GAMS-4π

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binon, F.; Blik, A.; Gorin, A.; Donskov, S.; Inaba, S.; Kolosov, V.; Ladygin, M.; Lednev, A.; Lishin, V.; Manuilov, I.; Mikhailov, Yu.; Pegneux, J.P.; Polyakov, V.; Samoylenko, V.; Sobol, A.; Stroot, J.P.; Sugonyaev, V.; Takamatsu, K.; Tsuru, T.; Khaustov, G.

    2006-01-01

    A search for the rare and forbidden neutral decays of η-meson with the GAMS-4π setup has been performed. The charge-exchange reaction at 32.5 GeV/c was used as a source of 3.7-bar 10 6 η-mesons. At the 90% confidence level the following upper limits were obtained: BR(η->3γ) -4 , BR(η->4γ) -4 , BR(η->π o π o ) -4 , BR(η->π o π o γ) -3 , BR(η->π o π o γγ) -3 , BR(η->3π o γ) -4 , BR(η->4π o ) -5

  3. Changing spousal roles and their effect on recovery in gamblers anonymous: GamAnon, social support, wives and husbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferentzy, Peter; Skinner, Wayne; Antze, Paul

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines changing spousal roles and their effects upon recovery in Gamblers Anonymous (GA). It is based upon a qualitative study designed to gage uniformity as well as variations in approaches to recovery in GA. Interviews were conducted with 39 GA members (26 men, 13 women; mean age 56.5 years). Though the study was based in the Toronto area, only 13 interviews involved participants from that region. Phone interviews were conducted with GA members from various regions of both Canada and the US. GamAnon, GA's sister fellowship, has been designed for anyone affected seriously by someone's gambling problem. In practice, GamAnon comprises mostly women--spouses of male GA members--who traditionally have taken a keen interest in the ways in which their husbands achieve and maintain abstinence from gambling. Changing spousal roles have led to fewer women joining GamAnon, as many opt instead to part with troubled spouses. As well, more women are attending GA than in the past, typically with husbands who are disinclined to join GamAnon. All of this has drastically altered how GA members pursue recovery. These changes and their implications are discussed.

  4. GAM - Gas Migration Experiments in a Heterogeneous Shear Zone of the Grimsel Test of the Grimsel Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschall, P.; Lunati, I.

    2006-12-01

    This report documents the scientific investigations carried out as part of the GAM project between June 1997 and April 2001 at the Grimsel Test Site within the framework of Investigation Phase V (1997 - 2001). Four radioactive waste management organisations participated in the GAM experiment, namely ANDRA, ENRESA, NAGRA and Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy. The experiment team consisted of the delegates of the participating organisations, research groups from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich and from the Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona and, last but not least, several contractor teams. Essential aims of the GAM investigation programme were the development and testing of laboratory and field equipment for tracer experiments. Innovative laboratory technologies were applied, such as Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy and X-ray tomography, flow visualisation in artificial fractures, nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and neutron radiography. Furthermore, a new technique was tested for the recovery of well preserved core samples from the GAM shear zone. Novelties in field testing comprised the use of an on-line counter for the particle tracer tests and a georadar survey of gas and brine injection tests with a high frequency borehole antenna. The development of upscaling methodologies and the derivation of effective parameters for single- and two-phase flow models was another issue of interest. The investigations comprised theoretical studies on solute transport in non-uniform flow fields and assessment of the impact of the microstructure on solute and gas transport. Closely related to these theoretical studies was the numerical interpretation of the combined solute and gas tracer tests, which revealed the great potential of such data sets with regard to model discrimination. As a final step in the synthesis task of the GAM project, a model abstraction process was established, aimed at integrating the

  5. Scientometrics Profile of Global Intellectual Property Rights Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanasekaran, D.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors in this paper aim to identify the growth of literature on Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs. The research publications on IPRs were downloaded from the Scopus online citation database and the authors found that there were 1,513,138 records contributed globally over a period of 10 years from 2005 to 2014. The distribution of publications based on the year, country, and document type were studied. Relative growth rate (RGR of the publications and doubling time (Td were calculated. Most productive organizations, source titles, and the productive authors on IPR research were studied. Most cited articles in the study area were identified. The results show that a number of publications under the subjects Medicine and Engineering were produced. The developed countries are very active in IPR research and producing publications. It is found that one institution which holds the sixth place among the top 10 most productive institutions belongs to Brazil, a developing country. Two developing countries such as China and India hold second and tenth positions respectively in the top 10 countries contributing literature on IPRs.

  6. [The use of interviews in participative intervention and research: the GAM tool as a collective interview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Christian; de Barros, Leticia Maria Renault; Melo, Jorge José Maciel; Passos, Eduardo

    2013-10-01

    This paper seeks to assess a way of conducting interviews in line with the ideology of Brazilian Psychiatric Reform. In the methodology of participative intervention and research in mental health, the interview is less a data collection than a data harvesting procedure. It is designed to apply the principles of psychosocial care, autonomy as the basis for treatment, the predominance of the users and of their social networks and civic participation. Inspired by the Explicitation Interview technique, the contention is that the handling of the interview presupposes an open attitude able to promote and embrace different viewpoints. This attitude makes the interview a collective experience of sharing and belonging, allowing participants to reposition themselves subjectively in treatment with the emergence of groupality. As an example of using the interview as a methodological tool in mental health research, we examine research into adaptation of the tool of Autonomous Medication Management (GAM). It is an interventionist approach guided by principles that foster autonomy and the protagonist status of users of psychotropic medication, their quality of life, their rights and recognition of the multiple significances of medication, understood here as a collective interview technique.

  7. A search for rare and forbidden decays of {eta}-meson with GAMS-4{pi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binon, F. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP 229, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Blik, A. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281, Protvino (Russian Federation); Gorin, A. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281, Protvino (Russian Federation); Donskov, S. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281, Protvino (Russian Federation); Inaba, S. [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics - KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kolosov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281, Protvino (Russian Federation); Ladygin, M. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281, Protvino (Russian Federation); Lednev, A. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281, Protvino (Russian Federation); Lishin, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281, Protvino (Russian Federation); Manuilov, I. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281, Protvino (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, Yu. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281, Protvino (Russian Federation); Pegneux, J.P. [Laboratoire d' Annecy de Physique des Particules, F-74019 Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Polyakov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281, Protvino (Russian Federation); Samoylenko, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281, Protvino (Russian Federation); Sobol, A. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281, Protvino (Russian Federation); Stroot, J.P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP 229, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Sugonyaev, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281, Protvino (Russian Federation); Takamatsu, K. [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics - KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tsuru, T. [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics - KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Khaustov, G. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281, Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2006-12-15

    A search for the rare and forbidden neutral decays of {eta}-meson with the GAMS-4{pi} setup has been performed. The charge-exchange reaction at 32.5 GeV/c was used as a source of 3.7-bar 10{sup 6}{eta}-mesons. At the 90% confidence level the following upper limits were obtained: BR({eta}->3{gamma})<1.6-bar 10{sup -4}, BR({eta}->4{gamma})<2.8-bar 10{sup -4}, BR({eta}->{pi}{sup o}{pi}{sup o})<3.5-bar 10{sup -4}, BR({eta}->{pi}{sup o}{pi}{sup o}{gamma})<1.7-bar 10{sup -3}, BR({eta}->{pi}{sup o}{pi}{sup o}{gamma}{gamma})<4.0-bar 10{sup -3}, BR({eta}->3{pi}{sup o}{gamma})<2.4-bar 10{sup -4}, BR({eta}->4{pi}{sup o})<2.0-bar 10{sup -5}.

  8. GamTest: Psychometric Evaluation and the Role of Emotions in an Online Self-Test for Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Jakob; Munck, Ingrid; Volberg, Rachel; Carlbring, Per

    2017-06-01

    Recent increases in the number of online gambling sites have made gambling more available, which may contribute to an increase in gambling problems. At the same time, online gambling provides opportunities to introduce measures intended to prevent problem gambling. GamTest is an online test of gambling behavior that provides information that can be used to give players individualized feedback and recommendations for action. The aim of this study is to explore the dimensionality of GamTest and validate it against the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) and the gambler's own perceived problems. A recent psychometric approach, exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) is used. Well-defined constructs are identified in a two-step procedure fitting a traditional exploratory factor analysis model as well as a so-called bifactor model. Using data collected at four Nordic gambling sites in the autumn of 2009 (n = 10,402), the GamTest ESEM analyses indicate high correspondence with the players' own understanding of their problems and with the PGSI, a validated measure of problem gambling. We conclude that GamTest captures five dimensions of problematic gambling (i.e., overconsumption of money and time, and monetary, social and emotional negative consequences) with high reliability, and that the bifactor approach, composed of a general factor and specific residual factors, reproduces all these factors except one, the negative consequences emotional factor, which contributes to the dominant part of the general factor. The results underscore the importance of tailoring feedback and support to online gamblers with a particular focus on how to handle emotions in relation to their gambling behavior.

  9. Some Physco-thermal properties of Rice Bran | Obetta | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of these properties were combined for study on their effect on thermal conductivity which was one of the thermal properties studied. Mean values of the thermal conductivity determined ranged from 0.2456 to 0.5764 W/m oC depending on the moisture content of the raw rice bran and the variety. The two major varieties ...

  10. International trade network: fractal properties and globalization puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata

    2014-12-12

    Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, the box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade.

  11. Topological properties and global structure of space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.G.; De Sabbata, V.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: measurement of gravity and gauge fields using quantum mechanical probes; gravitation at spatial infinity; field theories on supermanifolds; supergravities and Kaluza-Klein theories; boundary conditions at spatial infinity; singularities - global and local aspects; matter at the horizon of the Schwarzschild black hole; introluction to string theories; cosmic censorship and the strengths of singularities; conformal quantisation in singular spacetimes; solar system tests in transition; integration and global aspects of supermanifolds; the space-time of the bimetric general relativity theory; gravitation without Lorentz invariance; a uniform static magnetic field in Kaluza-Klein theory; introduction to topological geons; and a simple model of a non-asymptotically flat Schwarzschild black hole

  12. Consciousness as a global property of brain dynamic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, D. M.; Wennberg, R.; Guevara, R.; Perez Velazquez, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    We seek general principles of the structure of the cellular collective activity associated with conscious awareness. Can we obtain evidence for features of the optimal brain organization that allows for adequate processing of stimuli and that may guide the emergence of cognition and consciousness? Analyzing brain recordings in conscious and unconscious states, we followed initially the classic approach in physics when it comes to understanding collective behaviours of systems composed of a myriad of units: the assessment of the number of possible configurations (microstates) that the system can adopt, for which we use a global entropic measure associated with the number of connected brain regions. Having found maximal entropy in conscious states, we then inspected the microscopic nature of the configurations of connections using an adequate complexity measure and found higher complexity in states characterized not only by conscious awareness but also by subconscious cognitive processing, such as sleep stages. Our observations indicate that conscious awareness is associated with maximal global (macroscopic) entropy and with the short time scale (microscopic) complexity of the configurations of connected brain networks in pathological unconscious states (seizures and coma), but the microscopic view captures the high complexity in physiological unconscious states (sleep) where there is information processing. As such, our results support the global nature of conscious awareness, as advocated by several theories of cognition. We thus hope that our studies represent preliminary steps to reveal aspects of the structure of cognition that leads to conscious awareness.

  13. Is central dogma a global property of cellular information flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Selvarajoo, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology has come under scrutiny in recent years. Here, we reviewed high-throughput mRNA and protein expression data of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and several mammalian cells. At both single cell and population scales, the statistical comparisons between the entire transcriptomes and proteomes show clear correlation structures. In contrast, the pair-wise correlations of single transcripts to proteins show nullity. These data suggest that the organizing structure guiding cellular processes is observed at omics-wide scale, and not at single molecule level. The central dogma, thus, globally emerges as an average integrated flow of cellular information.

  14. Is central dogma a global property of cellular information flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent ePiras

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma of molecular biology has come under scrutiny in recent years. Here, we reviewed high-throughput mRNA and protein expression data of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and several mammalian cells. At both single cell and population scales, the statistical comparisons between the entire transcriptomes and proteomes show clear correlation structures. In contrast, the pair-wise correlations of single transcript to protein show nullity. These data suggest that the organizing structure guiding cellular processes is observed at omics-wide scale and not at single molecule level. The central dogma, thus, globally emerges as an average integrated flow of cellular information.

  15. Gyrokinetic Simulation of Global Turbulent Transport Properties in Tokamak Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.X.; Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Rewoldt, G.; Hahm, T.S.; Manickam, J.

    2006-01-01

    A general geometry gyro-kinetic model for particle simulation of plasma turbulence in tokamak experiments is described. It incorporates the comprehensive influence of noncircular cross section, realistic plasma profiles, plasma rotation, neoclassical (equilibrium) electric fields, and Coulomb collisions. An interesting result of global turbulence development in a shaped tokamak plasma is presented with regard to nonlinear turbulence spreading into the linearly stable region. The mutual interaction between turbulence and zonal flows in collisionless plasmas is studied with a focus on identifying possible nonlinear saturation mechanisms for zonal flows. A bursting temporal behavior with a period longer than the geodesic acoustic oscillation period is observed even in a collisionless system. Our simulation results suggest that the zonal flows can drive turbulence. However, this process is too weak to be an effective zonal flow saturation mechanism.

  16. Application of the preliminary Geosite Assessment Model (GAM: The case of the Bela Crkva municipality (Vojvodina, north Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boškov Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bela Crkva municipality is located in the northeastern part of Serbia, in the Southeast of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. This Municipality has a high concentration of geo sites which are of a great importance, and providing a good basis for the geo tourism development in this area. This paper proposes an inventory of geo sites in the Bela Crkva municipality. One of the aims of the paper is to evaluate different values of geo sites using preliminary Geosite Assessment Model (GAM in order to determine whether this area has the potential for geo tourism development.

  17. Production of $3\\pi^{0}$ and $\\eta2\\pi^{0}$ from $\\pi^{-}p$ collision in GAMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Takamatsu, Kunio; Ishida, Shin; Komada, Toshihiko; Wakabayashi, Ayumu; Ishida, Muneyuki; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Tsuru, Tsuneaki; Takamatsu, Kunio; Ishida, Shin; Komada, Toshihiko; Wakabayashi, Ayumu; Ishida, Muneyuki

    2000-01-01

    The data on the pi- p --> M0 n, with M0 = pi0 pi0 pi0 or pi0 pi0 eta obtained in the GAMS experiment may be useful to study the sigma(400--700) and a_1^chi (1000), which can be taken as chiral partners of pi and rho, respectively. A preliminary analysis for 3pi0 invariant mass spectra gives a support for the assumed a_1^chi with a mass of 930 MeV and Gamma = 170 MeV.

  18. Antagonismo in vitro de cepas de Trichoderma spp. frente a Sarocladium oryzae (Sawada) W. Gams & D. Hawksworth

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Benedicto; Obret, Yalainne; Pérez, Simón; Reyes, Yusimy

    2014-01-01

    Se evaluaron 27 aislamientos de Trichoderma spp. frente a dos de Sarocladium oryzae (Sawada) W. Gams & D. Hawksworth (S. o-2 y S. o-4) utilizando la técnica de cultivo dual, comparando el crecimiento de las colonias de Sarocladium para determinar los modos de acción, en diferentes fases de la interacción. El análisis estadístico de los datos se realizó mediante la prueba T- Student. El 81,48% de los aislamientos de Trichoderma presentó competencia por el sustrato, el 25,93% antibiosis y el 11...

  19. Impact of Intellectual Property in National and Business Development under the Context of the Current Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalin Ballesteros García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the document is to show the impact of the intellectual property on the national and enterprise development in the globalization context since the early twenty-first century. First, it is a historical telling of the intellectual property and its role in the international society; then outlining the arguments to infer the incidence degree of the intellectual property in the economic development of countries and then discussing the inclusion impact of concepts directly related to the intellectual property in business growth activities. It concludes with a reflection on the Colombian situation, in public and private context, in terms of intellectual property.

  20. Data Mining of Acupoint Characteristics from the Classical Medical Text: DongUiBoGam of Korean Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyung Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of East Asian medicine, different kinds of acupuncture treatment experiences have been accumulated in classical medical texts. Reexamining knowledge from classical medical texts is expected to provide meaningful information that could be utilized in current medical practices. In this study, we used data mining methods to analyze the association between acupoints and patterns of disorder with the classical medical book DongUiBoGam of Korean medicine. Using the term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf method, we quantified the significance of acupoints to its targeting patterns and, conversely, the significance of patterns to acupoints. Through these processes, we extracted characteristics of each acupoint based on its treating patterns. We also drew practical information for selecting acupoints on certain patterns according to their association. Data analysis on DongUiBoGam’s acupuncture treatment gave us an insight into the main idea of DongUiBoGam. We strongly believe that our approach can provide a novel understanding of unknown characteristics of acupoint and pattern identification from the classical medical text using data mining methods.

  1. Association of structural global brain network properties with intelligence in normal aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian U Fischer

    Full Text Available Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60-85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience.

  2. Association of Structural Global Brain Network Properties with Intelligence in Normal Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Florian U.; Wolf, Dominik; Scheurich, Armin; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60–85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient) were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience. PMID:24465994

  3. Global properties of symmetric competition models with riddling and blowout phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giant-italo Bischi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of chaos synchronization, and the related phenomena of riddling, blowout and on–off intermittency, are considered for discrete time competition models with identical competitors. The global properties which determine the different effects of riddling and blowout bifurcations are studied by the method of critical curves, a tool for the study of the global dynamical properties of two-dimensional noninvertible maps. These techniques are applied to the study of a dynamic market-share competition model.

  4. Global soil-climate-biome diagram: linking soil properties to climate and biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Yang, Y.; Fang, J.

    2017-12-01

    As a critical component of the Earth system, soils interact strongly with both climate and biota and provide fundamental ecosystem services that maintain food, climate, and human security. Despite significant progress in digital soil mapping techniques and the rapidly growing quantity of observed soil information, quantitative linkages between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale remain unclear. By compiling a large global soil database, we mapped seven major soil properties (bulk density [BD]; sand, silt and clay fractions; soil pH; soil organic carbon [SOC] density [SOCD]; and soil total nitrogen [STN] density [STND]) based on machine learning algorithms (regional random forest [RF] model) and quantitatively assessed the linkage between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale. Our results demonstrated a global soil-climate-biome diagram, which improves our understanding of the strong correspondence between soils, climate and biomes. Soil pH decreased with greater mean annual precipitation (MAP) and lower mean annual temperature (MAT), and the critical MAP for the transition from alkaline to acidic soil pH decreased with decreasing MAT. Specifically, the critical MAP ranged from 400-500 mm when the MAT exceeded 10 °C but could decrease to 50-100 mm when the MAT was approximately 0 °C. SOCD and STND were tightly linked; both increased in accordance with lower MAT and higher MAP across terrestrial biomes. Global stocks of SOC and STN were estimated to be 788 ± 39.4 Pg (1015 g, or billion tons) and 63 ± 3.3 Pg in the upper 30-cm soil layer, respectively, but these values increased to 1654 ± 94.5 Pg and 133 ± 7.8 Pg in the upper 100-cm soil layer, respectively. These results reveal quantitative linkages between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale, suggesting co-evolution of the soil, climate and biota under conditions of global environmental change.

  5. Investigation of global and local network properties of music perception with culturally different styles of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Rui, Xue; Li, Shuyu; Pu, Fang

    2014-11-01

    Graph theoretical analysis has recently become a popular research tool in neuroscience, however, there have been very few studies on brain responses to music perception, especially when culturally different styles of music are involved. Electroencephalograms were recorded from ten subjects listening to Chinese traditional music, light music and western classical music. For event-related potentials, phase coherence was calculated in the alpha band and then constructed into correlation matrices. Clustering coefficients and characteristic path lengths were evaluated for global properties, while clustering coefficients and efficiency were assessed for local network properties. Perception of light music and western classical music manifested small-world network properties, especially with a relatively low proportion of weights of correlation matrices. For local analysis, efficiency was more discernible than clustering coefficient. Nevertheless, there was no significant discrimination between Chinese traditional and western classical music perception. Perception of different styles of music introduces different network properties, both globally and locally. Research into both global and local network properties has been carried out in other areas; however, this is a preliminary investigation aimed at suggesting a possible new approach to brain network properties in music perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Blow-up, Global Existence and Persistence Properties for the Coupled Camassa–Holm equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingxuan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the coupled Camassa–Holm equations. First, we present some new criteria on blow-up. Then global existence and blow-up rate of the solution are also established. Finally, we discuss persistence properties of this system.

  7. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  8. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  9. Using the CARDAMOM framework to retrieve global terrestrial ecosystem functioning properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exbrayat, Jean-François; Bloom, A. Anthony; Smallman, T. Luke; van der Velde, Ivar R.; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems act as a sink for anthropogenic emissions of fossil-fuel and thereby partially offset the ongoing global warming. However, recent model benchmarking and intercomparison studies have highlighted the non-trivial uncertainties that exist in our understanding of key ecosystem properties like plant carbon allocation and residence times. It leads to worrisome differences in terrestrial carbon stocks simulated by Earth system models, and their evolution in a warming future. In this presentation we attempt to provide global insights on these properties by merging an ecosystem model with remotely-sensed global observations of leaf area and biomass through a data-assimilation system: the CARbon Data MOdel fraMework (CARDAMOM). CARDAMOM relies on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to retrieve confidence intervals of model parameters that regulate ecosystem properties independently of any prior land-cover information. The MCMC method thereby enables an explicit representation of the uncertainty in land-atmosphere fluxes and the evolution of terrestrial carbon stocks through time. Global experiments are performed for the first decade of the 21st century using a 1°×1° spatial resolution. Relationships emerge globally between key ecosystem properties. For example, our analyses indicate that leaf lifespan and leaf mass per area are highly correlated. Furthermore, there exists a latitudinal gradient in allocation patterns: high latitude ecosystems allocate more carbon to photosynthetic carbon (leaves) while plants invest more carbon in their structural parts (wood and root) in the wet tropics. Overall, the spatial distribution of these ecosystem properties does not correspond to usual land-cover maps and are also partially correlated with disturbance regimes. For example, fire-prone ecosystems present statistically significant higher values of carbon use efficiency than less disturbed ecosystems experiencing similar climatic conditions. These results

  10. International comparison of interpolation procedures for the efficiency of germanium gamma-ray spectrometers (GAM83 exercise)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijp, W.L.; Polle, A.N.; Nolthenius, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented for the outcome of an international intercomparison of a particular gamma-ray spectrometric procedure. Laboratories were asked to determine full energy peak efficiencies and activities by means of their own procedures, starting from supplied peak-efficiency data. Four data sets for four different conditions of germanium detectors were distributed. The sets comprised: a high accuracy- (uncertainty > 1%) data set with a relatively large number of measured data (SET 1); a low accuracy- (uncertainty 3-5%) data set with a relatively small number of measured data (SET 2); a low energy-data set (SET 3); a high accuracy-data set with a relatively small number of measured data (SET 4). The intercomparison (coded GAM83) was organized and analyzed under auspices of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM). The results comprise the analysis of the contributions of 41 participants

  11. Assessment selection in human-automation interaction studies: The Failure-GAM2E and review of assessment methods for highly automated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Camilla

    2018-01-01

    Highly automated driving will change driver's behavioural patterns. Traditional methods used for assessing manual driving will only be applicable for the parts of human-automation interaction where the driver intervenes such as in hand-over and take-over situations. Therefore, driver behaviour assessment will need to adapt to the new driving scenarios. This paper aims at simplifying the process of selecting appropriate assessment methods. Thirty-five papers were reviewed to examine potential and relevant methods. The review showed that many studies still relies on traditional driving assessment methods. A new method, the Failure-GAM 2 E model, with purpose to aid assessment selection when planning a study, is proposed and exemplified in the paper. Failure-GAM 2 E includes a systematic step-by-step procedure defining the situation, failures (Failure), goals (G), actions (A), subjective methods (M), objective methods (M) and equipment (E). The use of Failure-GAM 2 E in a study example resulted in a well-reasoned assessment plan, a new way of measuring trust through feet movements and a proposed Optimal Risk Management Model. Failure-GAM 2 E and the Optimal Risk Management Model are believed to support the planning process for research studies in the field of human-automation interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  13. [Improving global access to new vaccines: intellectual property, technology transfer, and regulatory pathways].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crager, Sara Eve

    2015-01-01

    The 2012 World Health Assembly Global Vaccine Action Plan called for global access to new vaccines within 5 years of licensure. Current approaches have proven insufficient to achieve sustainable vaccine pricing within such a timeline. Paralleling the successful strategy of generic competition to bring down drug prices, a clear consensus is emerging that market entry of multiple suppliers is a critical factor in expeditiously bringing down prices of new vaccines. In this context, key target objectives for improving access to new vaccines include overcoming intellectual property obstacles, streamlining regulatory pathways for biosimilar vaccines, and reducing market entry timelines for developing-country vaccine manufacturers by transfer of technology and know-how. I propose an intellectual property, technology, and know-how bank as a new approach to facilitate widespread access to new vaccines in low- and middle-income countries by efficient transfer of patented vaccine technologies to multiple developing-country vaccine manufacturers.

  14. Improving global access to new vaccines: intellectual property, technology transfer, and regulatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crager, Sara Eve

    2014-11-01

    The 2012 World Health Assembly Global Vaccine Action Plan called for global access to new vaccines within 5 years of licensure. Current approaches have proven insufficient to achieve sustainable vaccine pricing within such a timeline. Paralleling the successful strategy of generic competition to bring down drug prices, a clear consensus is emerging that market entry of multiple suppliers is a critical factor in expeditiously bringing down prices of new vaccines. In this context, key target objectives for improving access to new vaccines include overcoming intellectual property obstacles, streamlining regulatory pathways for biosimilar vaccines, and reducing market entry timelines for developing-country vaccine manufacturers by transfer of technology and know-how. I propose an intellectual property, technology, and know-how bank as a new approach to facilitate widespread access to new vaccines in low- and middle-income countries by efficient transfer of patented vaccine technologies to multiple developing-country vaccine manufacturers.

  15. Recent developments in intellectual property law in Australia with some reference to the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Crennan, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This paper by Susan Crennan, Justice of the High Court of Australia, addresses developments in Australia in intellectual property law, with some reference to the global economy, and deals with two patent cases, two copyright cases and a designs case. The paper was original presented as a lecture at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and is published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at t...

  16. CARACTERIZACIÓN DEL USO DEL SUELO EN LAS PRINCIPALES ÁREAS AGRÍCOLAS DE LA GRAN ÁREA METROPOLITANA (GAM DECOSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Wei-Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de aportar información para el ordenamiento y la planificación del uso del suelo, mediante la caracterización de su utilización en las regiones agrícolas de la Gran Área Metropolitana (GAM, se realizó una inves - tigación entre marzo 2008 y octubre 2009, por medio de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG. En el estudio se utilizaron imágenes aéreas correspondientes al proyecto Misión Carta cap - turadas entre febrero y marzo del 2005, lo que permitió identificar la distribución y extensión de los principales cultivos existentes en la GAM. Para identificar estas áreas se utilizó el método del reconocimiento remoto, el cual consiste en conocer la apariencia de un determinado cultivo en imágenes aéreas que permiten ubicar todas las áreas con aspecto similar y así identificar la adecuada diferenciación entre cultivos y usos. La información geográfica fue procesada mediante el programa de cómputo ArgGIS 9.2, el cual per - mitió obtener un mapa base a escala 1:12.500. El mapa con la distribución de las áreas de cultivo, se superpuso con información geográfica que ha sido previamente desarrollada por diferentes instituciones del país, lo que permitió caracterizar la actividad agrícola de la GAM. Los resultados muestran que la actividad agrícola cubre alrede - dor del 24% del área total de la GAM, destacán - dose la producción de hortalizas, café y plantas ornamentales bajo sarán. Las hortalizas tienen la mayor importancia en extensión, ya que abarca el 52% del área agrícola de la GAM, seguidas del café con 44%, mientras que la producción de ornamentales bajo sarán representa solamente cerca del 4%. Al analizar los cambios ocurridos en la actividad agrícola de la GAM en los últimos 28 años, en el caso del café el área de producción disminuyó en 3569 ha, lo cual corresponde al 17% de las 22 545 ha identificadas en 1983.

  17. Simple theory of how spiral galaxies acquire their principal global properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, D.; Sarazin, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    The strongest correlations among the global properties of spiral galaxies are the power law correlations between luminosity and rotation velocity (the Tully-Fisher relation) and between luminosity and luminous radius. Both of these relations are derived from a single density-radius power-law relation for spiral galaxies, assuming that the total mass-to-luminosity ratio is fixed by the Hubble type of the spiral, and that spirals gain their angular momentum through tidal interactions. The predictions of this simple theory are consistent with the observed luminosity and mass properties of the Hubble type-restricted samples of spiral galaxies studied by Rubin et al. This model suggests that many of the physical properties of spiral galaxies, and of the Hubble sequence, originate before or during the formation of galaxies

  18. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  19. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  20. Seeing is Believing: Simulating Resource-Extraction Problems With Gams Ide and Microsoft Excel in an Intermediate-Level Natural-Resource Economics Course

    OpenAIRE

    Caplan, Arthur J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we provide several GAMS- and Excel-based resource-extraction models that can be used in an intermediate-level natural-resource economics course to numerically solve a host of exhaustible- and replenishable-resource problems, and thereby help verify the intuition and symbolic solutions provided in the textbook. The specific textbook from which the examples are drawn is Tietenberg (2003).

  1. Ten Years of Cloud Properties from MODIS: Global Statistics and Use in Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts, began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 and June 24,2002, respectively. Among the algorithms developed and applied to this sensor, a suite of cloud products includes cloud masking/detection, cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure), and optical properties (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path, and thermodynamic phase). All cloud algorithms underwent numerous changes and enhancements between for the latest Collection 5 production version; this process continues with the current Collection 6 development. We will show example MODIS Collection 5 cloud climatologies derived from global spatial . and temporal aggregations provided in the archived gridded Level-3 MODIS atmosphere team product (product names MOD08 and MYD08 for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively). Data sets in this Level-3 product include scalar statistics as well as 1- and 2-D histograms of many cloud properties, allowing for higher order information and correlation studies. In addition to these statistics, we will show trends and statistical significance in annual and seasonal means for a variety of the MODIS cloud properties, as well as the time required for detection given assumed trends. To assist in climate model evaluation, we have developed a MODIS cloud simulator with an accompanying netCDF file containing subsetted monthly Level-3 statistical data sets that correspond to the simulator output. Correlations of cloud properties with ENSO offer the potential to evaluate model cloud sensitivity; initial results will be discussed.

  2. Evaluation of cloud properties in the NOAA/NCEP global forecast system using multiple satellite products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyelim [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Li, Zhanqing [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Beijing Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, GCESS, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    Knowledge of cloud properties and their vertical structure is important for meteorological studies due to their impact on both the Earth's radiation budget and adiabatic heating within the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to evaluate bulk cloud properties and vertical distribution simulated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (GFS) using three global satellite products. Cloud variables evaluated include the occurrence and fraction of clouds in up to three layers, cloud optical depth, liquid water path, and ice water path. Cloud vertical structure data are retrieved from both active (CloudSat/CALIPSO) and passive sensors and are subsequently compared with GFS model results. In general, the GFS model captures the spatial patterns of hydrometeors reasonably well and follows the general features seen in satellite measurements, but large discrepancies exist in low-level cloud properties. More boundary layer clouds over the interior continents were generated by the GFS model whereas satellite retrievals showed more low-level clouds over oceans. Although the frequencies of global multi-layer clouds from observations are similar to those from the model, latitudinal variations show discrepancies in terms of structure and pattern. The modeled cloud optical depth over storm track region and subtropical region is less than that from the passive sensor and is overestimated for deep convective clouds. The distributions of ice water path (IWP) agree better with satellite observations than do liquid water path (LWP) distributions. Discrepancies in LWP/IWP distributions between observations and the model are attributed to differences in cloud water mixing ratio and mean relative humidity fields, which are major control variables determining the formation of clouds. (orig.)

  3. Renormalization group analysis of the global properties of a strange attractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadanoff, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the circle map at the special point: the one at which there is a trajectory with a golden mean winding number and at which the map just fails to be invertable at one point on the circle. The invariant density of this trajectory has fractal properties. Previous work has suggested that the global behavior of this fractal can be effectively analyzed using a kind of partition function formalism to generate an f versus Σ curve. In this paper the partition function is obtained by using a renormalization group approach

  4. Global analysis of cloud field coverage and radiative properties, using morphological methods and MODIS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Z. Bar-Or

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently recognized continuous transition zone between detectable clouds and cloud-free atmosphere ("the twilight zone" is affected by undetectable clouds and humidified aerosol. In this study, we suggest to distinguish cloud fields (including the detectable clouds and the surrounding twilight zone from cloud-free areas, which are not affected by clouds. For this classification, a robust and simple-to-implement cloud field masking algorithm which uses only the spatial distribution of clouds, is presented in detail. A global analysis, estimating Earth's cloud field coverage (50° S–50° N for 28 July 2008, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data, finds that while the declared cloud fraction is 51%, the global cloud field coverage reaches 88%. The results reveal the low likelihood for finding a cloud-free pixel and suggest that this likelihood may decrease as the pixel size becomes larger. A global latitudinal analysis of cloud fields finds that unlike oceans, which are more uniformly covered by cloud fields, land areas located under the subsidence zones of the Hadley cell (the desert belts, contain proper areas for investigating cloud-free atmosphere as there is 40–80% probability to detect clear sky over them. Usually these golden-pixels, with higher likelihood to be free of clouds, are over deserts. Independent global statistical analysis, using MODIS aerosol and cloud products, reveals a sharp exponential decay of the global mean aerosol optical depth (AOD as a function of the distance from the nearest detectable cloud, both above ocean and land. Similar statistical analysis finds an exponential growth of mean aerosol fine-mode fraction (FMF over oceans when the distance from the nearest cloud increases. A 30 km scale break clearly appears in several analyses here, suggesting this is a typical natural scale of cloud fields. This work shows different microphysical and optical properties of cloud fields

  5. The global intellectual property ecosystem for insulin and its public health implications: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Warren A; Beall, Reed F

    2017-01-01

    Lack of access to insulin and poor health outcomes are issues for both low and high income countries. This has been accompanied by a shift from relatively inexpensive human insulin to its more expensive analogs, marketed by three to four main global players. Nonetheless, patent-based market exclusivities are beginning to expire there for the first generation insulin analogs. This paper adds a global dimension to information on the U.S. patent landscape for insulin by reviewing the patent status of insulins with emphasis on the situation outside the US and Europe. Using the term "insulin", we searched for patents listed on the United States Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) Orange Book and the Canadian Online Drug Product Database Online Query and its Patent Register. With this information, we expanded the search globally using the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) PatentScope database, the European Patent Office's INPADOC database and various country-specific Patent Offices. Patent protected insulins marketed in the U.S. and other countries are facing an imminent patent-expiration "cliff' yet the three companies that dominate the global insulin market are continuing to file for patents in and outside the U.S, but very rarely in Africa. Only a few local producers in the so-called "pharmerging" markets (e.g., Brazil, India, China) are filing for global patent protection on their own insulins. There is moderate, but statistically significant association between patent filings and diabetes disease burden. The global market dominance by a few companies of analog over human insulin will likely continue even though patents on the current portfolio of insulin analogs will expire very soon. Multinationals are continuing to file for more insulin patents in the bigger markets with large disease burdens and a rapidly emerging middle class. Off-patent human insulins can effectively manage diabetes. A practical way forward would be find (potential) generic

  6. The ethics of intellectual property rights in an era of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aakash Kaushik; Warsh, Jonathan; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, developed countries, led by the United States and the countries of the European Union, have sought to incorporate intellectual property rights provisions into global trade agreements. These countries successfully negotiated the World Trade Organization's 1994 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which required developing countries to adopt intellectual property provisions comparable to developed countries. In this manuscript, we review the policy controversy surrounding TRIPS and examine the two main ethical arguments articulated in its support--a theory of natural rights and a utilitarian argument. We contend that these theories provide insufficient bases for an intellectual property rights regime that compromises access to essential medicines in the developing world. While the policy community has engaged in active debate around the policy effects of TRIPS, scholars have not thoroughly considered the full ethical underpinnings of those policy arguments. We believe that a more robust understanding of the ethical implications of the agreement should inform policy discussions in the future. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. The MUSIC of galaxy clusters - II. X-ray global properties and scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, V.; Sembolini, F.; De Petris, M.; Valdarnini, R.; Yepes, G.; Gottlöber, S.

    2014-03-01

    We present the X-ray properties and scaling relations of a large sample of clusters extracted from the Marenostrum MUltidark SImulations of galaxy Clusters (MUSIC) data set. We focus on a sub-sample of 179 clusters at redshift z ˜ 0.11, with 3.2 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ mass. We employed the X-ray photon simulator PHOX to obtain synthetic Chandra observations and derive observable-like global properties of the intracluster medium (ICM), as X-ray temperature (TX) and luminosity (LX). TX is found to slightly underestimate the true mass-weighted temperature, although tracing fairly well the cluster total mass. We also study the effects of TX on scaling relations with cluster intrinsic properties: total (M500 and gas Mg,500 mass; integrated Compton parameter (YSZ) of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) thermal effect; YX = Mg,500 TX. We confirm that YX is a very good mass proxy, with a scatter on M500-YX and YSZ-YX lower than 5 per cent. The study of scaling relations among X-ray, intrinsic and SZ properties indicates that simulated MUSIC clusters reasonably resemble the self-similar prediction, especially for correlations involving TX. The observational approach also allows for a more direct comparison with real clusters, from which we find deviations mainly due to the physical description of the ICM, affecting TX and, particularly, LX.

  8. Global direct radiative forcing by process-parameterized aerosol optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    KirkevâG, Alf; Iversen, Trond

    2002-10-01

    A parameterization of aerosol optical parameters is developed and implemented in an extended version of the community climate model version 3.2 (CCM3) of the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research. Direct radiative forcing (DRF) by monthly averaged calculated concentrations of non-sea-salt sulfate and black carbon (BC) is estimated. Inputs are production-specific BC and sulfate from [2002] and background aerosol size distribution and composition. The scheme interpolates between tabulated values to obtain the aerosol single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, extinction coefficient, and specific extinction coefficient. The tables are constructed by full calculations of optical properties for an array of aerosol input values, for which size-distributed aerosol properties are estimated from theory for condensation and Brownian coagulation, assumed distribution of cloud-droplet residuals from aqueous phase oxidation, and prescribed properties of the background aerosols. Humidity swelling is estimated from the Köhler equation, and Mie calculations finally yield spectrally resolved aerosol optical parameters for 13 solar bands. The scheme is shown to give excellent agreement with nonparameterized DRF calculations for a wide range of situations. Using IPCC emission scenarios for the years 2000 and 2100, calculations with an atmospheric global cliamte model (AFCM) yield a global net anthropogenic DRF of -0.11 and 0.11 W m-2, respectively, when 90% of BC from biomass burning is assumed anthropogenic. In the 2000 scenario, the individual DRF due to sulfate and BC has separately been estimated to -0.29 and 0.19 W m-2, respectively. Our estimates of DRF by BC per BC mass burden are lower than earlier published estimates. Some sensitivity tests are included to investigate to what extent uncertain assumptions may influence these results.

  9. Microphysical Properties of Frozen Particles Inferred from Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) Polarimetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Wu, Dongliang

    2017-01-01

    Scattering differences induced by frozen particle microphysical properties are investigated, using the vertically (V) and horizontally (H) polarized radiances from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) 89 and 166GHz channels. It is the first study on global frozen particle microphysical properties that uses the dual-frequency microwave polarimetric signals. From the ice cloud scenes identified by the 183.3 3GHz channel brightness temperature (TB), we find that the scatterings of frozen particles are highly polarized with V-H polarimetric differences (PD) being positive throughout the tropics and the winter hemisphere mid-latitude jet regions, including PDs from the GMI 89 and 166GHz TBs, as well as the PD at 640GHz from the ER-2 Compact Scanning Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSSIR) during the TC4 campaign. Large polarization dominantly occurs mostly near convective outflow region (i.e., anvils or stratiform precipitation), while the polarization signal is small inside deep convective cores as well as at the remote cirrus region. Neglecting the polarimetric signal would result in as large as 30 error in ice water path retrievals. There is a universal bell-curve in the PD TB relationship, where the PD amplitude peaks at 10K for all three channels in the tropics and increases slightly with latitude. Moreover, the 166GHz PD tends to increase in the case where a melting layer is beneath the frozen particles aloft in the atmosphere, while 89GHz PD is less sensitive than 166GHz to the melting layer. This property creates a unique PD feature for the identification of the melting layer and stratiform rain with passive sensors. Horizontally oriented non-spherical frozen particles are thought to produce the observed PD because of different ice scattering properties in the V and H polarizations. On the other hand, changes in the ice microphysical habitats or orientation due to turbulence mixing can also lead to a reduced PD in the deep

  10. Global particle balance and wall recycling properties of long duration discharges on TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, M.; Yuno, M.; Itoh, S.

    2003-01-01

    The longest tokamak discharge with the duration of 11406 s (3 h 10 min) was achieved. The global particle balance has been investigated. In the longest discharge, the global balance between the particle absorption and release of the wall was achieved around t∼30 min and then the fueling was automatically stopped. After that the plasma density was maintained by the recycling flux alone until the end of the discharge. The maximum wall inventory is about 3.6 x 10 20 H at t ∼ 30 min but it is finally released from the wall at the end of the discharge. The global balance seems to be caused by the increase in the hydrogen release from the main chamber resulting from its temperature rise. Moreover, it has been observed a large difference between properties of wall recycling in the continuous gas feed case (i.e. static condition) and the additional gas puff case (i.e. dynamic condition). In the static condition, the effective particle confinement time increases almost linearly to about 10 s during the one-minute discharge. In the dynamic condition, the decay time of the electron density just after the gas puff, i.e. the effective particle confinement time, is 0.2 to 0.3 s during the one-minute discharge. The large difference was also reproduced in the longest discharge. It is considered that the enhanced wall pumping is caused by the increase in fluxes of the diffused ions and charge exchange neutrals due to the additional gas puff. (author)

  11. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  12. Seven years of global retrieval of cloud properties using space-borne data of GOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a global and regional multi-annual (June 1996–May 2003 analysis of cloud properties (spherical cloud albedo – CA, cloud optical thickness – COT and cloud top height – CTH of optically thick (COT > 5 clouds, derived using measurements from the GOME instrument on board the ESA ERS-2 space platform. We focus on cloud top height, which is obtained from top-of-atmosphere backscattered solar light measurements in the O2 A-band using the Semi-Analytical CloUd Retrieval Algorithm SACURA. The physical framework relies on the asymptotic equations of radiative transfer. The dataset has been validated against independent ground- and satellite-based retrievals and is aimed to support trace-gases retrievals as well as to create a robust long-term climatology together with SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 ensuing retrievals. We observed the El Niño-Southern Oscillation anomaly in the 1997–1998 record through CTH values over the Pacific Ocean. The global average CTH as derived from GOME is 5.6 ± 3.2 km, for a corresponding average COT of 19.1 ± 13.9.

  13. Vortex core structure and global properties of rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baym, Gordon; Pethick, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    We develop an approach for calculating stationary states of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in harmonic traps which is applicable for arbitrary ratios of the rotation frequency to the transverse frequency of the trap ω perpendicular . Assuming the number of vortices to be large, we write the condensate wave function as the product of a function that describes the structure of individual vortices times an envelope function varying slowly on the scale of the vortex spacing. By minimizing the energy, we derive Gross-Pitaevskii equations that determine the properties of individual vortices and the global structure of the cloud. For low rotation rates, the structure of a vortex is that of an isolated vortex in a uniform medium, while for rotation rates approaching the frequency of the trap (the mean-field lowest-Landau-level regime), the structure is that of the lowest p-wave state of a particle in a harmonic trap with frequency ω perpendicular . The global structure of the cloud is determined by minimizing the energy with respect to variations of the envelope function; for conditions appropriate to most experimental investigations to date, we predict that the transverse density profile of the cloud will be of the Thomas-Fermi form, rather than the Gaussian structure predicted on the assumption that the wave function consists only of components in the lowest Landau level for a regular array of vortices

  14. Chemical characteristics of Upper Cretaceous (Turonian) jet of the Gosau Group of Gams/Hieflau (Styria, Austria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R.; Sachsenhofer, R.F. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Prospektion und Angewandte Sedimentologie, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Str. 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2001-03-01

    Jet and coaly sediments within the Upper Cretaceous (Gosau) Schoenleiten Formation were collected from two outcrops near Gams/Hieflau (Styria, Austria). For comparison, additional jet and coal samples from different Gosau localities were included in the study. The identification of jet as bituminous driftwood (collotelinite) has been provided by microscopical examination of organic matter [Kollmann, H.A. and Sachsenhofer, R.F., Mitt. Ref. Geol. und Palaeont. Landesmuseum Joanneum SH 2 (1998) 223]. Rock-Eval analyses revealed enhanced HI and lower T{sub max} values of jet compared with the coals and coaly shales. The results reflect the higher contents of bituminous organic matter compared to vitrain-rich coals of similar maturity. In comparison with the coals and coaly shales, high amounts of liberated hydrocarbons (mg HC/g C{sub org}) are in contrast to generally lower yields of soluble organic matter during extraction with dichloromethane, indicating that portions of the hydrocarbons are liberated from lipids loosely bound to kerogen during pyrolysis. Further differences in n-alkane distribution patterns, odd over even predominance, pristane/phytane, and pristane/n-C{sub 17} ratios exist between jet, coals and coaly shales. The microbial origin of short-chain n-alkanes presumably resulted from the degradation of the predominant odd-numbered long-chain n-alkanes within the jet. The occurrence of biological markers (sesqui and diterpenoids) within the sediments (coaly shales), coals and jet samples indicates the origin of terrestrial organic matter from conifers. Biomarker composition of jet samples indicates enhanced aromatisation of sesqui and diterpenoids. These results correspond to enhanced aromatisation of steranes, as reflected by generally higher relative contents of triaromatic steroids in the jet. Because of comparable maturation (0.5-0.6% R{sub r}) of the coals, coaly shales and the jet samples, confirmed by the isomerisation of {alpha}{beta} C{sub 31

  15. Global existence and decay property of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound

    KAUST Repository

    Racke, Reinhard

    2012-09-01

    Our main focus in the present paper is to study the asymptotic behavior of a nonlinear version of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound. As it has been already proved in Said-Houari and Kasimov (2012) [29], the linear version of this system is of regularity-loss type. It is well known (Hosono and Kawashima (2006) [34], Ide and Kawashima (2008) [27], Kubo and Kawashima (2009) [41]) that the regularity-loss property of the linear problem creates difficulties when dealing with the nonlinear problem. In fact, the dissipative property of the problem becomes very weak in the high frequency region and as a result the classical energy method fails. To overcome this difficulty and following Ide and Kawashima (2008) [27] and Ikehata (2002) [30], we use an energy method with negative weights to create an artificial damping which allows us to control the nonlinearity. We prove that for 0≤k≤[s2]-2 with s<8, the solution of our problem is global in time and decays as

  16. Global existence and decay property of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound

    KAUST Repository

    Racke, Reinhard; Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2012-01-01

    Our main focus in the present paper is to study the asymptotic behavior of a nonlinear version of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound. As it has been already proved in Said-Houari and Kasimov (2012) [29], the linear version of this system is of regularity-loss type. It is well known (Hosono and Kawashima (2006) [34], Ide and Kawashima (2008) [27], Kubo and Kawashima (2009) [41]) that the regularity-loss property of the linear problem creates difficulties when dealing with the nonlinear problem. In fact, the dissipative property of the problem becomes very weak in the high frequency region and as a result the classical energy method fails. To overcome this difficulty and following Ide and Kawashima (2008) [27] and Ikehata (2002) [30], we use an energy method with negative weights to create an artificial damping which allows us to control the nonlinearity. We prove that for 0≤k≤[s2]-2 with s<8, the solution of our problem is global in time and decays as

  17. Landslide susceptibility modeling in a landslide prone area in Mazandarn Province, north of Iran: a comparison between GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Rossi, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Landslides are identified as one of the most important natural hazards in many areas throughout the world. The essential purpose of this study is to compare general linear model (GLM), general additive model (GAM), multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), and modified analytical hierarchy process (M-AHP) models and assessment of their performances for landslide susceptibility modeling in the west of Mazandaran Province, Iran. First, landslides were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, and extensive field works. In total, 153 landslides were identified in the study area. Among these, 105 landslides were randomly selected as training data (i.e. used in the models training) and the remaining 48 (30 %) cases were used for the validation (i.e. used in the models validation). Afterward, based on a deep literature review on 220 scientific papers (period between 2005 and 2012), eleven conditioning factors including lithology, land use, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, slope angle, slope aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), plan curvature, and profile curvature were selected. The Certainty Factor (CF) model was used for managing uncertainty in rule-based systems and evaluation of the correlation between the dependent (landslides) and independent variables. Finally, the landslide susceptibility zonation was produced using GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP models. For evaluation of the models, the area under the curve (AUC) method was used and both success and prediction rate curves were calculated. The evaluation of models for GLM, GAM, and MARS showed 90.50, 88.90, and 82.10 % for training data and 77.52, 70.49, and 78.17 % for validation data, respectively. Furthermore, The AUC value of the produced landslide susceptibility map using M-AHP showed a training value of 77.82 % and validation value of 82.77 % accuracy. Based on the overall assessments, the proposed approaches showed reasonable results for landslide

  18. Carboxyl group modification significantly altered the kinetic properties of purified carboxymethylcellulase from Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui; Saqib; Rashid; Rajoka

    2000-10-01

    Carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) from Aspergillus niger NIAB280 was purified by a combination of ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction and gel filtration chromatography on FPLC with 9-folds increase in specific activity. Native and subunit molecular weights were found to be 36 kDa each. The purified CMCase was modified by 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in the presence of glycinamide for 15 min (GAM15) and glycinamide plus cellobiose for 75 min (GAM75). Similarly, the enzyme was modified by EDC in the presence of ethylenediamine dihydrochloride plus cellobiose for 75 min (EDAM75). The neutralization (GAM15 and GAM75) and reversal (EDAM75) of negative charges of carboxyl groups of CMCase had profound effect on the specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)), pH optima, pK(a)'s of the active-site residues and thermodynamic parameters of activation. The specificity constants of native, GAM15, GAM75, and EDAM75 were 143, 340, 804, and 48, respectively. The enthalpy of activation (DeltaH(#)) of Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrolysis of native (50 and 15 kJ mol(-1)) and GAM15 (41 and 16 kJ mol(-1)) were biphasic whereas those of GAM75 (43 kJ mol(-1)) and EDAM75 (41 k J mol(-1)) were monophasic. Similarly, the entropy of activation (DeltaS(#)) of CMC hydrolysis of native (-61 and -173 J mol(-1) K(-1)) and GAM15 (-91 and -171 J mol(-1) K(-1)) were biphasic whereas those of GAM75 (-82 J mol(-1) K(-1)) and EDAM75 (-106 J mol(-1) K(-1)) were monophasic. The pH optima/pK(a)'s of both acidic and basic limbs of charge neutralized CMCases increased compared with those of native enzyme. The CMCase modification in the presence of glycinamide and absence of cellobiose at different pH's periodically activated and inhibited the enzyme activity indicating conformational changes. We believe that the alteration of the surface charges resulted in gross movement of loops that surround the catalytic pocket, thereby inducing changes in the vicinity

  19. Lambda bacteriophage gene products and x-ray sensitivity of Escherichia coli: comparison of red-dependent and gam-dependent radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trgovcevic, Z.; Rupp, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    When gene products of lambda bacteriophage are introduced into a cell by transient induction of a lysogen, increased resistance of the cells to x rays results. This phenomenon has been called phage-induced radioresistance. Genetic studies show at least two classes of induced radioresistance. The first type depends on the products of the lambda red genes and is observed in bacteria that are mutated in the recB gene. It is thought that the lambda red products compensate for the missing RecBC nuclease in the repair of x-ray damage. An optimal effect is obtained even when the lambda red products are supplied 1 h after irradiation. The lesions that are affected by the red-dependent process are probably not deoxyribonucleic acid strand breaks because the extent of deoxyribonucleic acid strand rejoining is not altered by the red products. The second type of phage-induced radioresistance requires the gam product of lambda and is observed in wild-type and polA strains. The lambda gam + gene product must be present immediately after irradiation to exert its full effect. In its presence, DNA breakdown is decreased, and a greater fraction of DNA is converted back to high molecular weight. Strains carrying lex, recA, or certain other combinations of mutations do not show any detectable phage-induced radioresistance. (U.S.)

  20. Antioxidant properties and global metabolite screening of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Suprama; Timson, David J; Annapure, Uday S

    2017-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is the only yeast species with probiotic properties. It is considered to have therapeutic significance in gastrointestinal disorders. In the present study, a comparative physiological study between this yeast and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BY4742) was performed by evaluating two prominent traits of probiotic species, responses to different stress conditions and antioxidant capacity. A global metabolite profile was also developed aiming to identify which therapeutically important secondary metabolites are produced. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii showed no significant difference in growth patterns but greater stress tolerance compared to S. cerevisiae. It also demonstrated a six- to 10-fold greater antioxidant potential (judged by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay), with a 70-fold higher total phenolic content and a 20-fold higher total flavonoid content in the extracellular fraction. These features were clearly differentiated by principal component analysis and further indicated by metabolite profiling. The extracellular fraction of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii cultures was found to be rich in polyphenolic metabolites: vanillic acid, cinnamic acid, phenyl ethyl alcohol (rose oil), erythromycin, amphetamine and vitamin B 6 , which results in the antioxidant capacity of this strain. The present study presents a new perspective for differentiating the two genetically related strains of yeast, S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae var. boulardii by assessing their metabolome fingerprints. In addition to the correlation of the phenotypic properties with the secretory metabolites of these two yeasts, the present study also emphasizes the potential to exploit S. cerevisiae var. boulardii in the industrial production of these metabolites. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Global transformation of erythrocyte properties via engagement of an SH2-like sequence in band 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchulu-Campanella, Estela; Turrini, Francesco M; Li, Yen-Hsing; Low, Philip S

    2016-11-29

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are composed of weakly conserved sequences of ∼100 aa that bind phosphotyrosines in signaling proteins and thereby mediate intra- and intermolecular protein-protein interactions. In exploring the mechanism whereby tyrosine phosphorylation of the erythrocyte anion transporter, band 3, triggers membrane destabilization, vesiculation, and fragmentation, we discovered a SH2 signature motif positioned between membrane-spanning helices 4 and 5. Evidence that this exposed cytoplasmic sequence contributes to a functional SH2-like domain is provided by observations that: (i) it contains the most conserved sequence of SH2 domains, GSFLVR; (ii) it binds the tyrosine phosphorylated cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (cdb3-PO 4 ) with K d = 14 nM; (iii) binding of cdb3-PO 4 to erythrocyte membranes is inhibited both by antibodies against the SH2 signature sequence and dephosphorylation of cdb3-PO 4 ; (iv) label transfer experiments demonstrate the covalent transfer of photoactivatable biotin from isolated cdb3-PO 4 (but not cdb3) to band 3 in erythrocyte membranes; and (v) phosphorylation-induced binding of cdb3-PO 4 to the membrane-spanning domain of band 3 in intact cells causes global changes in membrane properties, including (i) displacement of a glycolytic enzyme complex from the membrane, (ii) inhibition of anion transport, and (iii) rupture of the band 3-ankyrin bridge connecting the spectrin-based cytoskeleton to the membrane. Because SH2-like motifs are not retrieved by normal homology searches for SH2 domains, but can be found in many tyrosine kinase-regulated transport proteins using modified search programs, we suggest that related cases of membrane transport proteins containing similar motifs are widespread in nature where they participate in regulation of cell properties.

  2. SDSS IV MaNGA: Dependence of Global and Spatially Resolved SFR–M ∗ Relations on Galaxy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hsi-An; Lin, Lihwai; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Ibarra-Medel, Héctor; Boquien, Médéric; Lacerna, Ivan; Argudo-Fernández, Maria; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Drory, Niv; Gao, Yang; Masters, Karen; Pan, Kaike; Tabor, Martha; Tissera, Patricia; Xiao, Ting

    2018-02-01

    The galaxy integrated Hα star formation rate–stellar mass relation, or SFR(global)–M *(global) relation, is crucial for understanding star formation history and evolution of galaxies. However, many studies have dealt with SFR using unresolved measurements, which makes it difficult to separate out the contamination from other ionizing sources, such as active galactic nuclei and evolved stars. Using the integral field spectroscopic observations from SDSS-IV MaNGA, we spatially disentangle the contribution from different Hα powering sources for ∼1000 galaxies. We find that, when including regions dominated by all ionizing sources in galaxies, the spatially resolved relation between Hα surface density (ΣHα (all)) and stellar mass surface density (Σ*(all)) progressively turns over at the high Σ*(all) end for increasing M *(global) and/or bulge dominance (bulge-to-total light ratio, B/T). This in turn leads to the flattening of the integrated Hα(global)–M *(global) relation in the literature. By contrast, there is no noticeable flattening in both integrated Hα(H II)–M *(H II) and spatially resolved ΣHα (H II)–Σ*(H II) relations when only regions where star formation dominates the ionization are considered. In other words, the flattening can be attributed to the increasing regions powered by non-star-formation sources, which generally have lower ionizing ability than star formation. An analysis of the fractional contribution of non-star-formation sources to total Hα luminosity of a galaxy suggests a decreasing role of star formation as an ionizing source toward high-mass, high-B/T galaxies and bulge regions. This result indicates that the appearance of the galaxy integrated SFR–M * relation critically depends on their global properties (M *(global) and B/T) and relative abundances of various ionizing sources within the galaxies.

  3. The global intellectual property ecosystem for insulin and its public health implications: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Warren A.; Beall, Reed F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lack of access to insulin and poor health outcomes are issues for both low and high income countries. This has been accompanied by a shift from relatively inexpensive human insulin to its more expensive analogs, marketed by three to four main global players. Nonetheless, patent-based market exclusivities are beginning to expire there for the first generation insulin analogs. This paper adds a global dimension to information on the U.S. patent landscape for insulin by reviewing the ...

  4. Voxel Scale Complex Networks of Functional Connectivity in the Rat Brain: Neurochemical State Dependence of Global and Local Topological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Schwarz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis of functional imaging data reveals emergent features of the brain as a function of its topological properties. However, the brain is not a homogeneous network, and the dependence of functional connectivity parameters on neuroanatomical substrate and parcellation scale is a key issue. Moreover, the extent to which these topological properties depend on underlying neurochemical changes remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated both global statistical properties and the local, voxel-scale distribution of connectivity parameters of the rat brain. Different neurotransmitter systems were stimulated by pharmacological challenge (d-amphetamine, fluoxetine, and nicotine to discriminate between stimulus-specific functional connectivity and more general features of the rat brain architecture. Although global connectivity parameters were similar, mapping of local connectivity parameters at high spatial resolution revealed strong neuroanatomical dependence of functional connectivity in the rat brain, with clear differentiation between the neocortex and older brain regions. Localized foci of high functional connectivity independent of drug challenge were found in the sensorimotor cortices, consistent with the high neuronal connectivity in these regions. Conversely, the topological properties and node roles in subcortical regions varied with neurochemical state and were dependent on the specific dynamics of the different functional processes elicited.

  5. Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990-2014, using CESM1(WACCM): VOLCANIC AEROSOLS DERIVED FROM EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Michael J. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Schmidt, Anja [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; Easter, Richard [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Solomon, Susan [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Massachusetts USA; Kinnison, Douglas E. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Neely, Ryan R. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; Marsh, Daniel R. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Conley, Andrew [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Bardeen, Charles G. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Gettelman, Andrew [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA

    2016-03-06

    Accurate representation of global stratospheric aerosol properties from volcanic and non-volcanic sulfur emissions is key to understanding the cooling effects and ozone-loss enhancements of recent volcanic activity. Attribution of climate and ozone variability to volcanic activity is of particular interest in relation to the post-2000 slowing in the apparent rate of global average temperature increases, and variable recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. We have developed a climatology of global aerosol properties from 1990 to 2014 calculated based on volcanic and non-volcanic emissions of sulfur sources. We have complied a database of volcanic SO2 emissions and plume altitudes for eruptions between 1990 and 2014, and a new prognostic capability for simulating stratospheric sulfate aerosols in version 5 of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, a component of the Community Earth System Model. Our climatology shows remarkable agreement with ground-based lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD), and with in situ measurements of aerosol surface area density (SAD). These properties are key parameters in calculating the radiative and chemical effects of stratospheric aerosols. Our SAOD climatology represents a significant improvement over satellite-based analyses, which ignore aerosol extinction below 15 km, a region that can contain the vast majority of stratospheric aerosol extinction at mid- and high-latitudes. Our SAD climatology significantly improves on that provided for the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which misses 60% of the SAD measured in situ. Our climatology of aerosol properties is publicly available on the Earth System Grid.

  6. The effect of harmonized emissions on aerosol properties in global models – an AeroCom experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Textor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of unified aerosol sources on global aerosol fields simulated by different models are examined in this paper. We compare results from two AeroCom experiments, one with different (ExpA and one with unified emissions, injection heights, and particle sizes at the source (ExpB. Surprisingly, harmonization of aerosol sources has only a small impact on the simulated inter-model diversity of the global aerosol burden, and consequently global optical properties, as the results are largely controlled by model-specific transport, removal, chemistry (leading to the formation of secondary aerosols and parameterizations of aerosol microphysics (e.g., the split between deposition pathways and to a lesser extent by the spatial and temporal distributions of the (precursor emissions.

    The burdens of black carbon and especially sea salt become more coherent in ExpB only, because the large ExpA diversities for these two species were caused by a few outliers. The experiment also showed that despite prescribing emission fluxes and size distributions, ambiguities in the implementation in individual models can lead to substantial differences.

    These results indicate the need for a better understanding of aerosol life cycles at process level (including spatial dispersal and interaction with meteorological parameters in order to obtain more reliable results from global aerosol simulations. This is particularly important as such model results are used to assess the consequences of specific air pollution abatement strategies.

  7. Properties of global- and local-ancestry adjustments in genetic association tests in admixed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Eden R; Tunc, Ilker; Liu, Zhi; Slifer, Susan H; Beecham, Ashley H; Beecham, Gary W

    2018-03-01

    Population substructure can lead to confounding in tests for genetic association, and failure to adjust properly can result in spurious findings. Here we address this issue of confounding by considering the impact of global ancestry (average ancestry across the genome) and local ancestry (ancestry at a specific chromosomal location) on regression parameters and relative power in ancestry-adjusted and -unadjusted models. We examine theoretical expectations under different scenarios for population substructure; applying different regression models, verifying and generalizing using simulations, and exploring the findings in real-world admixed populations. We show that admixture does not lead to confounding when the trait locus is tested directly in a single admixed population. However, if there is more complex population structure or a marker locus in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the trait locus is tested, both global and local ancestry can be confounders. Additionally, we show the genotype parameters of adjusted and unadjusted models all provide tests for LD between the marker and trait locus, but in different contexts. The local ancestry adjusted model tests for LD in the ancestral populations, while tests using the unadjusted and the global ancestry adjusted models depend on LD in the admixed population(s), which may be enriched due to different ancestral allele frequencies. Practically, this implies that global-ancestry adjustment should be used for screening, but local-ancestry adjustment may better inform fine mapping and provide better effect estimates at trait loci. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  8. A New Modified Three-Term Conjugate Gradient Method with Sufficient Descent Property and Its Global Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtawar Baluch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new modified three-term conjugate gradient (CG method is shown for solving the large scale optimization problems. The idea relates to the famous Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP formula. As the numerator of PRP plays a vital role in numerical result and not having the jamming issue, PRP method is not globally convergent. So, for the new three-term CG method, the idea is to use the PRP numerator and combine it with any good CG formula’s denominator that performs well. The new modification of three-term CG method possesses the sufficient descent condition independent of any line search. The novelty is that by using the Wolfe Powell line search the new modification possesses global convergence properties with convex and nonconvex functions. Numerical computation with the Wolfe Powell line search by using the standard test function of optimization shows the efficiency and robustness of the new modification.

  9. Caracterización del uso del suelo en las principales áreas agrícolas de la Gran Área Metropolitana (GAM de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Wei-Salas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de aportar información para el ordenamiento y la planificación del uso del suelo, mediante la caracterización de su utilización en las regiones agrícolas de la Gran Área Metropolitana (GAM, se realizó una investigación entre marzo 2008 y octubre 2009, por medio de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG. En el estudio se utilizaron imágenes aéreas correspondientes al proyecto Misión Carta capturadas entre febrero y marzo del 2005, lo que permitió identificar la distribución y extensión de los principales cultivos existentes en la GAM. Para identificar estas áreas se utilizó el método del reconocimiento remoto, el cual consiste en conocer la apariencia de un determinado cultivo en imágenes aéreas que permiten ubicar todas las áreas con aspecto similar y así identificar la adecuada diferenciación entre cultivos y usos. La información geográfica fue procesada mediante el programa de cómputo ArgGIS 9.2, el cual permitió obtener un mapa base a escala 1:12.500. El ha sido previamente desarrollada por diferentes instituciones del país, lo que permitió caracterizar la actividad agrícola de la GAM. Los resultados muestran que la actividad agrícola cubre alrededor del 24% del área total de la GAM, destacándose la producción de hortalizas, café y plantas ornamentales bajo sarán. Las hortalizas tienen la mayor importancia en extensión, ya que abarca el 52% del área agrícola de la GAM, seguidas del café con 44%, mientras que la producción de ornamentales bajo sarán representa solamente cerca del 4%. Al analizar los cambios ocurridos en la actividad agrícola de la GAM en los últimos 28 años, en el caso del café el área de producción disminuyó en 3569 ha, lo cual corresponde al 17% de las 22 545 ha identificadas en 1983.

  10. Global quantal canonical symmetry properties for a system with a singular Lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziping

    1996-01-01

    Starting from the quantization formalism of the phase-space path integral for a system with a singular Lagrangian, the generalized canonical Ward identities and conserved charged at quantum level are deduced under the global transformation in extended phase space. In general, the quantal conserved charges are different from classical ones. We give a preliminary application to Yang-Mills theory, the new quantal conserved charges are found

  11. Leaf optical properties shed light on foliar trait variability at individual to global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A. N.; Serbin, S.; Dietze, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent syntheses of large trait databases have contributed immensely to our understanding of drivers of plant function at the global scale. However, the global trade-offs revealed by such syntheses, such as the trade-off between leaf productivity and resilience (i.e. "leaf economics spectrum"), are often absent at smaller scales and fail to correlate with actual functional limitations. An improved understanding of how traits vary among communities, species, and individuals is critical to accurate representations of vegetation ecophysiology and ecological dynamics in ecosystem models. Spectral data from both field observations and remote sensing platforms present a rich and widely available source of information on plant traits. Here, we apply Bayesian inversion of the PROSPECT leaf radiative transfer model to a large global database of over 60,000 field spectra and plant traits to (1) comprehensively assess the accuracy of leaf trait estimation using PROSPECT spectral inversion; (2) investigate the correlations between optical traits estimable from PROSPECT and other important foliar traits such as nitrogen and lignin concentrations; and (3) identify dominant sources of variability and characterize trade-offs in optical and non-optical foliar traits. Our work provides a key methodological contribution by validating physically-based retrieval of plant traits from remote sensing observations, and provides insights about trait trade-offs related to plant acclimation, adaptation, and community assembly.

  12. On the long-range dependence properties of annual precipitation using a global network of instrumental measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; O'Connell, Patrick Enda; Tzouka, Katerina; Iliopoulou, Theano

    2018-01-01

    The long-range dependence (LRD) is considered an inherent property of geophysical processes, whose presence increases uncertainty. Here we examine the spatial behaviour of LRD in precipitation by regressing the Hurst parameter estimate of mean annual precipitation instrumental data which span from 1916-2015 and cover a big area of the earth's surface on location characteristics of the instrumental data stations. Furthermore, we apply the Mann-Kendall test under the LRD assumption (MKt-LRD) to reassess the significance of observed trends. To summarize the results, the LRD is spatially clustered, it seems to depend mostly on the location of the stations, while the predictive value of the regression model is good. Thus when investigating for LRD properties we recommend that the local characteristics should be considered. The application of the MKt-LRD suggests that no significant monotonic trend appears in global precipitation, excluding the climate type D (snow) regions in which positive significant trends appear.

  13. Global existence and decay property of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound

    OpenAIRE

    Racke, Reinhard; Said-Hourari, Belkacem

    2012-01-01

    Our main focus in the present paper is to study the asymptotic behavior of a nonlinear version of the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity with second sound. As it has been already proved in \\cite{SaidKasi_2011}, the linear version of this system is of regularity-loss type. It is well known (\\cite{HKa06}, \\cite%b{IK08}, \\cite{KK09}) that the regularity-loss property of the linear problem creates difficulties when dealing with the nonlinear problem. In fact, the dissipative property of the pr...

  14. Effect of pressure on the global and local properties of cubic perovskite crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Tarik; Merad-Boudia, I; Bentalha, Z [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Departement de Physique. Ecole Preparatoire Sciences et Techniques, BP 230, 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Baltache, H; Khenata, R, E-mail: tarik_ouahrani@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M), Universite de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria)

    2011-08-01

    The influence of pressure on the structural, elastic, thermal and bonding properties of four perovskite-type oxides AMO{sub 3} is studied from the point of view of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. Ab initio investigations are performed by means of the full-potential linear augmented plane-wave method as implemented in the wien2k code. The integrated basin charges resulting from the topological analysis of electronic density provide a partition of the bulk modulus and compressibility into atomic contributions. Special attention is paid to the nonlinear behaviour of the local bonding properties.

  15. Neurons Responsive to Global Visual Motion Have Unique Tuning Properties in Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaede, Andrea H; Goller, Benjamin; Lam, Jessica P M; Wylie, Douglas R; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2017-01-23

    Neurons in animal visual systems that respond to global optic flow exhibit selectivity for motion direction and/or velocity. The avian lentiformis mesencephali (LM), known in mammals as the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT), is a key nucleus for global motion processing [1-4]. In all animals tested, it has been found that the majority of LM and NOT neurons are tuned to temporo-nasal (back-to-front) motion [4-11]. Moreover, the monocular gain of the optokinetic response is higher in this direction, compared to naso-temporal (front-to-back) motion [12, 13]. Hummingbirds are sensitive to small visual perturbations while hovering, and they drift to compensate for optic flow in all directions [14]. Interestingly, the LM, but not other visual nuclei, is hypertrophied in hummingbirds relative to other birds [15], which suggests enhanced perception of global visual motion. Using extracellular recording techniques, we found that there is a uniform distribution of preferred directions in the LM in Anna's hummingbirds, whereas zebra finch and pigeon LM populations, as in other tetrapods, show a strong bias toward temporo-nasal motion. Furthermore, LM and NOT neurons are generally classified as tuned to "fast" or "slow" motion [10, 16, 17], and we predicted that most neurons would be tuned to slow visual motion as an adaptation for slow hovering. However, we found the opposite result: most hummingbird LM neurons are tuned to fast pattern velocities, compared to zebra finches and pigeons. Collectively, these results suggest a role in rapid responses during hovering, as well as in velocity control and collision avoidance during forward flight of hummingbirds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Theoretical properties of the global optimizer of two layer neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Boob, Digvijay; Lan, Guanghui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of optimizing a two-layer artificial neural network that best fits a training dataset. We look at this problem in the setting where the number of parameters is greater than the number of sampled points. We show that for a wide class of differentiable activation functions (this class involves "almost" all functions which are not piecewise linear), we have that first-order optimal solutions satisfy global optimality provided the hidden layer is non-singular. ...

  17. Leaf optical properties shed light on foliar trait variability at individual to global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A. N.; Serbin, S.; Dietze, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent syntheses of large trait databases have contributed immensely to our understanding of drivers of plant function at the global scale. However, the global trade-offs revealed by such syntheses, such as the trade-off between leaf productivity and resilience (i.e. "leaf economics spectrum"), are often absent at smaller scales and fail to correlate with actual functional limitations. An improved understanding of how traits vary within communities, species, and individuals is critical to accurate representations of vegetation ecophysiology and ecological dynamics in ecosystem models. Spectral data from both field observations and remote sensing platforms present a potentially rich and widely available source of information on plant traits. In particular, the inversion of physically-based radiative transfer models (RTMs) is an effective and general method for estimating plant traits from spectral measurements. Here, we apply Bayesian inversion of the PROSPECT leaf RTM to a large database of field spectra and plant traits spanning tropical, temperate, and boreal forests, agricultural plots, arid shrublands, and tundra to identify dominant sources of variability and characterize trade-offs in plant functional traits. By leveraging such a large and diverse dataset, we re-calibrate the empirical absorption coefficients underlying the PROSPECT model and expand its scope to include additional leaf biochemical components, namely leaf nitrogen content. Our work provides a key methodological contribution as a physically-based retrieval of leaf nitrogen from remote sensing observations, and provides substantial insights about trait trade-offs related to plant acclimation, adaptation, and community assembly.

  18. Low carbon technology performance vs infrastructure vulnerability: analysis through the local and global properties space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, David A; Purnell, Phil; Roelich, Katy; Busch, Jonathan; Steinberger, Julia K

    2014-11-04

    Renewable energy technologies, necessary for low-carbon infrastructure networks, are being adopted to help reduce fossil fuel dependence and meet carbon mitigation targets. The evolution of these technologies has progressed based on the enhancement of technology-specific performance criteria, without explicitly considering the wider system (global) impacts. This paper presents a methodology for simultaneously assessing local (technology) and global (infrastructure) performance, allowing key technological interventions to be evaluated with respect to their effect on the vulnerability of wider infrastructure systems. We use exposure of low carbon infrastructure to critical material supply disruption (criticality) to demonstrate the methodology. A series of local performance changes are analyzed; and by extension of this approach, a method for assessing the combined criticality of multiple materials for one specific technology is proposed. Via a case study of wind turbines at both the material (magnets) and technology (turbine generators) levels, we demonstrate that analysis of a given intervention at different levels can lead to differing conclusions regarding the effect on vulnerability. Infrastructure design decisions should take a systemic approach; without these multilevel considerations, strategic goals aimed to help meet low-carbon targets, that is, through long-term infrastructure transitions, could be significantly jeopardized.

  19. Trade brokerage property of industrial sectors on the global value chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lizhi; Xu, Xiaoyu; Guan, Jun; Dong, Xianlei

    2017-08-01

    ICIO data have proven itself to be a reliable source for the analysis of economic globalization, with which sectors all over the world could be constructed into a sophisticated GVC, bringing the advantages of simultaneous study on international and domestic economies in detail as a holistic network. This paper uses OECD-WTO TiVA data to set up GIVCN-TiVA networks as the general analytical framework, depicting the transferring process of intermediate goods among sectors of various countries/regions. Secondly, the conception of brokerage roles in SNA has been adopted to redefine sector’s function while linkage exists between its upstream providers and downstream consumers, referred to as “Trade Brokerage Property”, as well as to quantify the ratio of each types of the roles. Thirdly, a set of simulations have been defined to testify the contribution that different TBPs incur to the robustness of global economic system. Finally, analyses on TBPs and NTBPs have been carried out in the levels of industry and country/region, respectively.

  20. Intercomparison and evaluation of global aerosol microphysical properties among AeroCom models of a range of complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Mann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many of the next generation of global climate models will include aerosol schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations to be determined by fundamental aerosol processes, which should lead to a more physically based simulation of aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings. This study examines the global variation in particle size distribution simulated by 12 global aerosol microphysics models to quantify model diversity and to identify any common biases against observations. Evaluation against size distribution measurements from a new European network of aerosol supersites shows that the mean model agrees quite well with the observations at many sites on the annual mean, but there are some seasonal biases common to many sites. In particular, at many of these European sites, the accumulation mode number concentration is biased low during winter and Aitken mode concentrations tend to be overestimated in winter and underestimated in summer. At high northern latitudes, the models strongly underpredict Aitken and accumulation particle concentrations compared to the measurements, consistent with previous studies that have highlighted the poor performance of global aerosol models in the Arctic. In the marine boundary layer, the models capture the observed meridional variation in the size distribution, which is dominated by the Aitken mode at high latitudes, with an increasing concentration of accumulation particles with decreasing latitude. Considering vertical profiles, the models reproduce the observed peak in total particle concentrations in the upper troposphere due to new particle formation, although modelled peak concentrations tend to be biased high over Europe. Overall, the multi-model-mean data set simulates the global variation of the particle size distribution with a good degree

  1. Global retrieval of soil moisture and vegetation properties using data-driven methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nemesio; Richaume, Philippe; Kerr, Yann

    2017-04-01

    Data-driven methods such as neural networks (NNs) are a powerful tool to retrieve soil moisture from multi-wavelength remote sensing observations at global scale. In this presentation we will review a number of recent results regarding the retrieval of soil moisture with the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, either using SMOS brightness temperatures as input data for the retrieval or using SMOS soil moisture retrievals as reference dataset for the training. The presentation will discuss several possibilities for both the input datasets and the datasets to be used as reference for the supervised learning phase. Regarding the input datasets, it will be shown that NNs take advantage of the synergy of SMOS data and data from other sensors such as the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT, active microwaves) and MODIS (visible and infra red). NNs have also been successfully used to construct long time series of soil moisture from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and SMOS. A NN with input data from ASMR-E observations and SMOS soil moisture as reference for the training was used to construct a dataset sharing a similar climatology and without a significant bias with respect to SMOS soil moisture. Regarding the reference data to train the data-driven retrievals, we will show different possibilities depending on the application. Using actual in situ measurements is challenging at global scale due to the scarce distribution of sensors. In contrast, in situ measurements have been successfully used to retrieve SM at continental scale in North America, where the density of in situ measurement stations is high. Using global land surface models to train the NN constitute an interesting alternative to implement new remote sensing surface datasets. In addition, these datasets can be used to perform data assimilation into the model used as reference for the training. This approach has recently been tested at the European Centre

  2. Identification and analysis of Eimeria nieschulzi gametocyte genes reveal splicing events of gam genes and conserved motifs in the wall-forming proteins within the genus Eimeria (Coccidia, Apicomplexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiedmer Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Coccidia provides a wide range of different species with different hosts to study common and variable features within the genus and its species. A common characteristic of all known Eimeria species is the oocyst, the infectious stage where its life cycle starts and ends. In our study, we utilized Eimeria nieschulzi as a model organism. This rat-specific parasite has complex oocyst morphology and can be transfected and even cultivated in vitro up to the oocyst stage. We wanted to elucidate how the known oocyst wall-forming proteins are preserved in this rodent Eimeria species compared to other Eimeria. In newly obtained genomics data, we were able to identify different gametocyte genes that are orthologous to already known gam genes involved in the oocyst wall formation of avian Eimeria species. These genes appeared putatively as single exon genes, but cDNA analysis showed alternative splicing events in the transcripts. The analysis of the translated sequence revealed different conserved motifs but also dissimilar regions in GAM proteins, as well as polymorphic regions. The occurrence of an underrepresented gam56 gene version suggests the existence of a second distinct E. nieschulzi genotype within the E. nieschulzi Landers isolate that we maintain.

  3. Identification and analysis of Eimeria nieschulzi gametocyte genes reveal splicing events of gam genes and conserved motifs in the wall-forming proteins within the genus Eimeria (Coccidia, Apicomplexa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmer, Stefanie; Erdbeer, Alexander; Volke, Beate; Randel, Stephanie; Kapplusch, Franz; Hanig, Sacha; Kurth, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Coccidia) provides a wide range of different species with different hosts to study common and variable features within the genus and its species. A common characteristic of all known Eimeria species is the oocyst, the infectious stage where its life cycle starts and ends. In our study, we utilized Eimeria nieschulzi as a model organism. This rat-specific parasite has complex oocyst morphology and can be transfected and even cultivated in vitro up to the oocyst stage. We wanted to elucidate how the known oocyst wall-forming proteins are preserved in this rodent Eimeria species compared to other Eimeria. In newly obtained genomics data, we were able to identify different gametocyte genes that are orthologous to already known gam genes involved in the oocyst wall formation of avian Eimeria species. These genes appeared putatively as single exon genes, but cDNA analysis showed alternative splicing events in the transcripts. The analysis of the translated sequence revealed different conserved motifs but also dissimilar regions in GAM proteins, as well as polymorphic regions. The occurrence of an underrepresented gam56 gene version suggests the existence of a second distinct E. nieschulzi genotype within the E. nieschulzi Landers isolate that we maintain. PMID:29210668

  4. Quantitative global and gene-specific promoter methylation in relation to biological properties of neuroblastomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Nimrod B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we aimed to quantify tumor suppressor gene (TSG promoter methylation densities levels in primary neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines. A subset of these TSGs is associated with a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP in other tumor types. Methods The study panel consisted of 38 primary tumors, 7 established cell lines and 4 healthy references. Promoter methylation was determined by bisulphate Pyrosequencing for 14 TSGs; and LINE-1 repeat element methylation was used as an indicator of global methylation levels. Results Overall mean TSG Z-scores were significantly increased in cases with adverse outcome, but were unrelated to global LINE-1 methylation. CIMP with hypermethylation of three or more gene promoters was observed in 6/38 tumors and 7/7 cell lines. Hypermethylation of one or more TSG (comprising TSGs BLU, CASP8, DCR2, CDH1, RASSF1A and RASSF2 was evident in 30/38 tumors. By contrast only very low levels of promoter methylation were recorded for APC, DAPK1, NORE1A, P14, P16, TP73, PTEN and RARB. Similar involvements of methylation instability were revealed between cell line models and neuroblastoma tumors. Separate analysis of two proposed CASP8 regulatory regions revealed frequent and significant involvement of CpG sites between exon 4 and 5, but modest involvement of the exon 1 region. Conclusions/significance The results highlight the involvement of TSG methylation instability in neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines using quantitative methods, support the use of DNA methylation analyses as a prognostic tool for this tumor type, and underscore the relevance of developing demethylating therapies for its treatment.

  5. VH mode accessibility and global H-mode properties in previous and present JET configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T T.C.; Ali-Arshad, S; Bures, M; Christiansen, J P; Esch, H P.L. de; Fishpool, G; Jarvis, O N; Koenig, R; Lawson, K D; Lomas, P J; Marcus, F B; Sartori, R; Schunke, B; Smeulders, P; Stork, D; Taroni, A; Thomas, P R; Thomsen, K [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    In JET VH modes, there is a distinct confinement transition following the cessation of ELMs, observed in a wide variety of tokamak operating conditions, using both NBI and ICRF heating methods. Important factors which influence VH mode accessibility such as magnetic configuration and vessel conditions have been identified. The new JET pumped divertor configuration has much improved plasma shaping control and power and particle exhaust capability and should permit exploitation of plasmas with VH confinement properties over an even wider range of operating regimes, particularly at high plasma current; first H-modes have been obtained in the 1994 JET operating period and initial results are reported. (authors). 7 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Global Transformational Leadership (GTL scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia van Beveren

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to adapt and consequently validate theGlobal Transformational Leadershipmeasuring scale (GTL. The scale was therefore applied to a sample of 456 members of 70 work groups, belonging to 26 organizations. The factorial structure of the scale was analysed through the exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, with the sample being split in two equal parts: EFA was conducted in both sub-samples and CFA was applied in the second sub-sample. The internal consistency was evaluated via Cronbach's alpha and the nomological validity was analysed via the evaluation of the GTL's correlations with both team-level autonomy and quality of group experience. The results revealed the presence of a unidimensional scale with a good level of internal consistency. Regarding the nomological validity, the results pointed to hypothetical relations, since the GTL showed positive correlations with the variables considered. Thus, the Portuguese version of the GTL is presented as a useful instrument for evaluating transformational leadership.

  8. Psychometric properties of the Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Madani, Amin; Ito, Yoichi M; Bilgic, Elif; McKendy, Katherine M; Feldman, Liane S; Fried, Gerald M; Vassiliou, Melina C

    2017-02-01

    The extent to which each item assessed using the Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) contributes to the total score remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of difficulty and discriminative ability of each of the 5 GOALS items using item response theory (IRT). A total of 396 GOALS assessments for a variety of laparoscopic procedures over a 12-year time period were included. Threshold parameters of item difficulty and discrimination power were estimated for each item using IRT. The higher slope parameters seen with "bimanual dexterity" and "efficiency" are indicative of greater discriminative ability than "depth perception", "tissue handling", and "autonomy". IRT psychometric analysis indicates that the 5 GOALS items do not demonstrate uniform difficulty and discriminative power, suggesting that they should not be scored equally. "Bimanual dexterity" and "efficiency" seem to have stronger discrimination. Weighted scores based on these findings could improve the accuracy of assessing individual laparoscopic skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. To what extent can global warming events influence scaling properties of climatic fluctuations in glacial periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    The Earth's climate is an extremely unstable complex system consisting of nonlinear and still rather unknown interactions among atmosphere, land surface, ice and oceans. The system is mainly driven by solar irradiance, even if internal components as volcanic eruptions and human activities affect the atmospheric composition thus acting as a driver for climate changes. Since the extreme climate variability is the result of a set of phenomena operating from daily to multi-millennial timescales, with different correlation times, a study of the scaling properties of the system can evidence non-trivial persistent structures, internal or external physical processes. Recently, the scaling properties of the paleoclimate changes have been analyzed by distinguish between interglacial and glacial climates [Shao and Ditlevsen, 2016]. The results show that the last glacial record (20-120 kyr BP) presents some elements of multifractality, while the last interglacial period (0-10 kyr BP), say the Holocene period, seems to be characterized by a mono-fractal structure. This is associated to the absence of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events in the interglacial climate that could be the cause for the absence of multifractality. This hypothesis is supported by the analysis of the period between 18 and 27 kyr BP, i.e. during the Last Glacial Period, in which a single DO event have been registred. Through the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) we were able to detect a timescale separation within the Last Glacial Period (20-120 kyr BP) in two main components: a high-frequency component, related to the occurrence of DO events, and a low-frequency one, associated to the cooling/warming phase switch [Alberti et al., 2014]. Here, we investigate the scaling properties of the climate fluctuations within the Last Glacial Period, where abrupt climate changes, characterized by fast increase of temperature usually called Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, have been particularly pronounced. By using the

  10. Global Perspective for Protecting Intellectual Property - Patenting in USA and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebski, Michalene Eva; Wolniak, Radosław

    2018-06-01

    Paper addresses the different methods for protecting intellectual property in modern knowledge-based economies. The focus of the paper is a comparison between the procedures for applying for patents in Poland and the United States. The comparison has been made from the perspective of the cost of obtaining and maintaining a patent in Poland, the United States and some other countries. The comparison has also been made from the perspective of the procedures for applying for a patent in different countries based on the Patent Cooperation Treaty. The paper also includes a comparison of the time needed for processing the patent application. Low cost provisional twelve-month patent pending protection available in the United States is also being discussed. The paper also provides some guidance and recommendations for conducting a patent search in order to validate the originality of the invention.

  11. O uso da entrevista na pesquisa-intervenção participativa em saúde mental: o dispositivo GAM como entrevista coletiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sade

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe-se a discutir um modo de fazer entrevista em sintonia com o ideário da Reforma Psiquiátrica brasileira. Na metodologia de uma pesquisa-intervenção participativa da saúde mental, a entrevista é um procedimento menos de coleta do que de colheita de dados; voltada ao cultivo dos princípios da atenção psicossocial, da autonomia como direção do tratamento, do protagonismo do usuário e de sua rede social e de sua participação cidadã. Inspirados na técnica da entrevista de explicitação, entendemos que o manejo da entrevista supõe uma atitude de abertura capaz de promover e acolher diferentes pontos de vista. Tal atitude faz da entrevista uma experiência coletiva, de compartilhamento e de pertencimento, permitindo que os participantes se reposicionem subjetivamente e que haja a contração de grupalidade. Como exemplo do emprego da entrevista como ferramenta metodológica na investigação em saúde mental é citada a pesquisa de adaptação do dispositivo Gestão Autônoma da Medicação (GAM. É uma abordagem de intervenção norteada por princípios que valorizam a autonomia e o protagonismo dos usuários de psicofármacos, a sua qualidade de vida, os seus direitos e o reconhecimento das significações plurais da medicação e entendido aqui como uma prática de entrevista coletiva.

  12. Understanding the drivers of marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties with global observations using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Andersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of aerosols, clouds and their interactions with radiation remain among the largest unknowns in the climate system. Even though the processes involved are complex, aerosol–cloud interactions are often analyzed by means of bivariate relationships. In this study, 15 years (2001–2015 of monthly satellite-retrieved near-global aerosol products are combined with reanalysis data of various meteorological parameters to predict satellite-derived marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties by means of region-specific artificial neural networks. The statistical models used are shown to be capable of predicting clouds, especially in regions of high cloud variability. On this monthly scale, lower-tropospheric stability is shown to be the main determinant of cloud fraction and droplet size, especially in stratocumulus regions, while boundary layer height controls the liquid-water amount and thus the optical thickness of clouds. While aerosols show the expected impact on clouds, at this scale they are less relevant than some meteorological factors. Global patterns of the derived sensitivities point to regional characteristics of aerosol and cloud processes.

  13. Providing Access and Visualization to Global Cloud Properties from GEO Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, T.; Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Spangenberg, D.; Palikonda, R.; Ayers, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Providing public access to cloud macro and microphysical properties is a key concern for the NASA Langley Research Center Cloud and Radiation Group. This work describes a tool and method that allows end users to easily browse and access cloud information that is otherwise difficult to acquire and manipulate. The core of the tool is an application-programming interface that is made available to the public. One goal of the tool is to provide a demonstration to end users so that they can use the dynamically generated imagery as an input into their own work flows for both image generation and cloud product requisition. This project builds upon NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Group's experience with making real-time and historical satellite cloud product imagery accessible and easily searchable. As we see the increasing use of virtual supply chains that provide additional value at each link there is value in making satellite derived cloud product information available through a simple access method as well as allowing users to browse and view that imagery as they need rather than in a manner most convenient for the data provider. Using the Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Processing Service as our access method, we describe a system that uses a hybrid local and cloud based parallel processing system that can return both satellite imagery and cloud product imagery as well as the binary data used to generate them in multiple formats. The images and cloud products are sourced from multiple satellites and also "merged" datasets created by temporally and spatially matching satellite sensors. Finally, the tool and API allow users to access information that spans the time ranges that our group has information available. In the case of satellite imagery, the temporal range can span the entire lifetime of the sensor.

  14. A CloudSat-CALIPSO View of Cloud and Precipitation Properties Across Cold Fronts over the Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Posselt, Derek J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of cloud and precipitation properties across oceanic extratropical cyclone cold fronts is examined using four years of combined CloudSat radar and CALIPSO lidar retrievals. The global annual mean cloud and precipitation distributions show that low-level clouds are ubiquitous in the post frontal zone while higher-level cloud frequency and precipitation peak in the warm sector along the surface front. Increases in temperature and moisture within the cold front region are associated with larger high-level but lower mid-/low level cloud frequencies and precipitation decreases in the cold sector. This behavior seems to be related to a shift from stratiform to convective clouds and precipitation. Stronger ascent in the warm conveyor belt tends to enhance cloudiness and precipitation across the cold front. A strong temperature contrast between the warm and cold sectors also encourages greater post-cold-frontal cloud occurrence. While the seasonal contrasts in environmental temperature, moisture, and ascent strength are enough to explain most of the variations in cloud and precipitation across cold fronts in both hemispheres, they do not fully explain the differences between Northern and Southern Hemisphere cold fronts. These differences are better explained when the impact of the contrast in temperature across the cold front is also considered. In addition, these large-scale parameters do not explain the relatively large frequency in springtime post frontal precipitation.

  15. New Satellite Estimates of Mixed-Phase Cloud Properties: A Synergistic Approach for Application to Global Satellite Imager Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. L., Jr.; Spangenberg, D.; Fleeger, C.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Y.; Minnis, P.

    2016-12-01

    Determining accurate cloud properties horizontally and vertically over a full range of time and space scales is currently next to impossible using data from either active or passive remote sensors or from modeling systems. Passive satellite imagers provide horizontal and temporal resolution of clouds, but little direct information on vertical structure. Active sensors provide vertical resolution but limited spatial and temporal coverage. Cloud models embedded in NWP can produce realistic clouds but often not at the right time or location. Thus, empirical techniques that integrate information from multiple observing and modeling systems are needed to more accurately characterize clouds and their impacts. Such a strategy is employed here in a new cloud water content profiling technique developed for application to satellite imager cloud retrievals based on VIS, IR and NIR radiances. Parameterizations are developed to relate imager retrievals of cloud top phase, optical depth, effective radius and temperature to ice and liquid water content profiles. The vertical structure information contained in the parameterizations is characterized climatologically from cloud model analyses, aircraft observations, ground-based remote sensing data, and from CloudSat and CALIPSO. Thus, realistic cloud-type dependent vertical structure information (including guidance on cloud phase partitioning) circumvents poor assumptions regarding vertical homogeneity that plague current passive satellite retrievals. This paper addresses mixed phase cloud conditions for clouds with glaciated tops including those associated with convection and mid-latitude storm systems. Novel outcomes of our approach include (1) simultaneous retrievals of ice and liquid water content and path, which are validated with active sensor, microwave and in-situ data, and yield improved global cloud climatologies, and (2) new estimates of super-cooled LWC, which are demonstrated in aviation safety applications and

  16. Parameterization of dust emissions in the global atmospheric chemistry-climate model EMAC: impact of nudging and soil properties

    OpenAIRE

    Astitha, M.; Lelieveld, J.; Kader, M. Abdel; Pozzer, A.; de Meij, A.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne desert dust influences radiative transfer, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, as well as nutrient transport and deposition. It directly and indirectly affects climate on regional and global scales. Two versions of a parameterization scheme to compute desert dust emissions are incorporated into the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy2.41 Atmospheric Chemistry). One uses a global...

  17. Diastolic chamber properties of the left ventricle assessed by global fitting of pressure-volume data: improving the gold standard of diastolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Javier; Yotti, Raquel; Pérez del Villar, Candelas; del Álamo, Juan C; Rodríguez-Pérez, Daniel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; Benito, Yolanda; Antoranz, J Carlos; Desco, M Mar; González-Mansilla, Ana; Barrio, Alicia; Elízaga, Jaime; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2013-08-15

    In cardiovascular research, relaxation and stiffness are calculated from pressure-volume (PV) curves by separately fitting the data during the isovolumic and end-diastolic phases (end-diastolic PV relationship), respectively. This method is limited because it assumes uncoupled active and passive properties during these phases, it penalizes statistical power, and it cannot account for elastic restoring forces. We aimed to improve this analysis by implementing a method based on global optimization of all PV diastolic data. In 1,000 Monte Carlo experiments, the optimization algorithm recovered entered parameters of diastolic properties below and above the equilibrium volume (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.99). Inotropic modulation experiments in 26 pigs modified passive pressure generated by restoring forces due to changes in the operative and/or equilibrium volumes. Volume overload and coronary microembolization caused incomplete relaxation at end diastole (active pressure > 0.5 mmHg), rendering the end-diastolic PV relationship method ill-posed. In 28 patients undergoing PV cardiac catheterization, the new algorithm reduced the confidence intervals of stiffness parameters by one-fifth. The Jacobian matrix allowed visualizing the contribution of each property to instantaneous diastolic pressure on a per-patient basis. The algorithm allowed estimating stiffness from single-beat PV data (derivative of left ventricular pressure with respect to volume at end-diastolic volume intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.65, error = 0.07 ± 0.24 mmHg/ml). Thus, in clinical and preclinical research, global optimization algorithms provide the most complete, accurate, and reproducible assessment of global left ventricular diastolic chamber properties from PV data. Using global optimization, we were able to fully uncouple relaxation and passive PV curves for the first time in the intact heart.

  18. Extreme emission-line galaxies out to z ~ 1 in zCOSMOS. I. Sample and characterization of global properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorín, R.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Contini, T.; Vílchez, J. M.; Bolzonella, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Lamareille, F.; Zamorani, G.; Maier, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Mignoli, M.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Presotto, V.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The study of large and representative samples of low-metallicity star-forming galaxies at different cosmic epochs is of great interest to the detailed understanding of the assembly history and evolution of low-mass galaxies. Aims: We present a thorough characterization of a large sample of 183 extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift 0.11 ≤ z ≤ 0.93 selected from the 20k zCOSMOS bright survey because of their unusually large emission line equivalent widths. Methods: We use multiwavelength COSMOS photometry, HST-ACS I-band imaging, and optical zCOSMOS spectroscopy to derive the main global properties of star-forming EELGs, such as sizes, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFR), and reliable oxygen abundances using both "direct" and "strong-line" methods. Results: The EELGs are extremely compact (r50 ~ 1.3 kpc), low-mass (M∗ ~ 107-1010 M⊙) galaxies forming stars at unusually high specific star formation rates (sSFR ≡ SFR/M⋆ up to 10-7 yr-1) compared to main sequence star-forming galaxies of the same stellar mass and redshift. At rest-frame UV wavelengths, the EELGs are luminous and show high surface brightness and include strong Lyα emitters, as revealed by GALEX spectroscopy. We show that zCOSMOS EELGs are high-ionization, low-metallicity systems, with median 12+log (O/H) = 8.16 ± 0.21 (0.2 Z⊙) including a handful of extremely metal-deficient (Universe, EELGs are most often found in relative isolation. While only very few EELGs belong to compact groups, almost one third of them are found in spectroscopically confirmed loose pairs or triplets. Conclusions: The zCOSMOS EELGs are galaxies caught in a transient and probably early period of their evolution, where they are efficiently building up a significant fraction of their present-day stellar mass in an ongoing, galaxy-wide starburst. Therefore, the EELGs constitute an ideal benchmark for comparison studies between low- and high-redshift low-mass star-forming galaxies. Full

  19. A Search for Centrally Produced non-$ q \\bar{q} $ Mesons in Proton Proton Interactions at 450~GeV/c using the CERN $\\Omega$ Spectrometer and GAMS-4000

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % WA102 \\\\ \\\\ During the last decade evidence for non-$ q \\bar{q} $ mesons has grown due to experiments having high statistics in various decay modes. However there are still many channels which have promising signals but any definite conclusion is limited by the available statistics. In order to make a significant contribution to this field we propose to perform two 100~day runs combining the efficient multiphoton detection of GAMS-4000 with the good charged particle detection of the Omega Spectrometer to search for other non-$ q \\bar{q} $ mesons in the reaction $ pp \\rightarrow p _{f} X ^{o} p _{s} $ at 450~GeV/c. Although many final states will be studied those decaying to $ \\eta \\eta, \\eta \\eta ^\\prime $ and $ \\eta ^\\prime \\eta ^\\prime $ are of particular interest and the statistics in these channels will be greatly enhanced. This study will act as an important input in helping to understand non-perturbative QCD.

  20. Intercomparison and Evaluation of Aerosol Microphysical Properties among AeroCom Global Models of a Range of Complexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mann, G.W.; Carslaw, K.S.; Reddington, C.L.; Pringle, K.J.; Schulz, M.; Asmi, A.; Spracklen, D.V.; Ridley, D.A.; Woodhouse, M.T.; Lee, L.A.; Zhang, K.; Ghan, S.H.; Easter, R.C.; Liu, X.; Stier, P.; Lee, Y.H.; Adams, P.J.; Tost, H.; Lelieveld, J.; Bauer, S.E.; Tsigaridis, K.; van Noije, T.P.C.; Strunk, A.; Vignati, E.; Bellouin, N.; Dalvi, M.; Johnson, C.E.; Bergman, T.; Kokkola, H.; von Salzen, K.; Yu, F.; Luo, G.; Petzold, A.; Heintzenberger, J.; Clarke, A.; Ogren, J.A.; Gras, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Kaminski, U.; Jennings, S.G.; O'Dowd, C.D.; Harrison, R. M.; Beddows, D.C.S.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.; Ulevicius, V.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Fiebich, M.; Hansson, H.-C.; Swietlicki, E.; Henzig, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 9 (2014), s. 4679-4713 ISSN 1680-7316 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : global climate models * aerosol processes * particle size distributions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.053, year: 2014

  1. LHS (latin hypercubes) sampling of the material properties of steels for the analysis of the global sensitivity in welding numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelet, Matthieu; Asserin, Olivier; Iooss, Bertrand; Petelet, Matthieu; Loredo, Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the method of sensitivity analysis allowing to identify the inlet data the most influential on the variability of the responses (residual stresses and distortions). Classically, the sensitivity analysis is carried out locally what limits its validity domain to a given material. A global sensitivity analysis method is proposed; it allows to cover a material domain as wide as those of the steels series. A probabilistic modeling giving the variability of the material parameters in the steels series is proposed. The original aspect of this work consists in the use of the sampling method by latin hypercubes (LHS) of the material parameters which forms the inlet data (dependent of temperature) of the numerical simulations. Thus, a statistical approach has been applied to the welding numerical simulation: LHS sampling of the material properties, global sensitivity analysis what has allowed the reduction of the material parameterization. (O.M.)

  2. Global properties of locally rotational symmetric Bianchi I spacetimes in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Makoto [Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2006-12-21

    We discuss the strong cosmic censorship conjecture for cosmological spacetimes in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton system. Locally rotational symmetric Bianchi I spacetimes are considered. We show local and global existence theorems for the system. Asymptotic behaviour for the spacetimes is also investigated. The curvature invariant is blowup at the initial singularities and the spacetimes are future geodesic complete. Thus, the strong cosmic censorship conjecture for the spacetimes holds.

  3. Global properties of locally rotational symmetric Bianchi I spacetimes in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the strong cosmic censorship conjecture for cosmological spacetimes in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton system. Locally rotational symmetric Bianchi I spacetimes are considered. We show local and global existence theorems for the system. Asymptotic behaviour for the spacetimes is also investigated. The curvature invariant is blowup at the initial singularities and the spacetimes are future geodesic complete. Thus, the strong cosmic censorship conjecture for the spacetimes holds

  4. Microstructure, local and global mechanical properties of friction stir welds in aluminium alloy 6005A-T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simar, A.; Brechet, Y.; Meester, B. de; Denquin, A.; Pardoen, T.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the welding speed on the microstructure, local and overall mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints has been investigated in the aluminium alloy 6005A-T6. The fine hardening precipitation within the heat-affected zone has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Post-welding heat treatments have been applied to obtain indications on the level of solid solution supersaturation in the as welded state. The local mechanical behaviour was determined using thin specimens extracted from various regions of the weld. The overall properties were measured on samples cut perpendicular to the weld. Specific attention was devoted to the relationship between the local microstructure and local hardening properties in the weakest region, which govern the overall strength and ductility of the welds

  5. Local and global statistical dynamical properties of chaotic Markov analytic maps and repellers: A coarse grained and spectral perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKernan, Donal; Basios, Vasileios

    2009-01-01

    The statistical properties of chaotic Markov analytic maps and equivalent repellers are investigated through matrix representations of the Frobenius-Perron operator (U). The associated basis sets are constructed using Chebyshev functions and Markov partitions which can be tailored to examine statistical dynamical properties associated with observables having support over local regions or for example, about periodic orbits. The decay properties of corresponding time correlations functions are given by a analytic expression of the spectra of U which is expected to be valid for a much larger class of systems than that studied here. An explicit and general expression is also derived for the correction factor to the dynamical zeta functions occurring when analytic function spaces are not invariant under U.

  6. Global and Local Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Friction Stir Welds with Dissimilar Materials and/or Thicknesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, A.A.; Sinke, J.; Benedictus, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article studies the properties of a wide range of friction-stir-welded joints with dissimilar aluminum alloys or thicknesses. Two aluminum alloys, namely, 2024-T3 and 7075-T6, are selected for the study and are welded in ten different combinations of alloys and thicknesses. The welding

  7. Parameterization of dust emissions in the global atmospheric chemistry-climate model EMAC: impact of nudging and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astitha, M.; Lelieveld, J.; Abdel Kader, M.; Pozzer, A.; de Meij, A.

    2012-11-01

    Airborne desert dust influences radiative transfer, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, as well as nutrient transport and deposition. It directly and indirectly affects climate on regional and global scales. Two versions of a parameterization scheme to compute desert dust emissions are incorporated into the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy2.41 Atmospheric Chemistry). One uses a globally uniform soil particle size distribution, whereas the other explicitly accounts for different soil textures worldwide. We have tested these two versions and investigated the sensitivity to input parameters, using remote sensing data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and dust concentrations and deposition measurements from the AeroCom dust benchmark database (and others). The two versions are shown to produce similar atmospheric dust loads in the N-African region, while they deviate in the Asian, Middle Eastern and S-American regions. The dust outflow from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean is accurately simulated by both schemes, in magnitude, location and seasonality. Approximately 70% of the modelled annual deposition data and 70-75% of the modelled monthly aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the Atlantic Ocean stations lay in the range 0.5 to 2 times the observations for all simulations. The two versions have similar performance, even though the total annual source differs by ~50%, which underscores the importance of transport and deposition processes (being the same for both versions). Even though the explicit soil particle size distribution is considered more realistic, the simpler scheme appears to perform better in several locations. This paper discusses the differences between the two versions of the dust emission scheme, focusing on their limitations and strengths in describing the global dust cycle and suggests possible future improvements.

  8. Parameterization of dust emissions in the global atmospheric chemistry-climate model EMAC: impact of nudging and soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Astitha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne desert dust influences radiative transfer, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, as well as nutrient transport and deposition. It directly and indirectly affects climate on regional and global scales. Two versions of a parameterization scheme to compute desert dust emissions are incorporated into the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy2.41 Atmospheric Chemistry. One uses a globally uniform soil particle size distribution, whereas the other explicitly accounts for different soil textures worldwide. We have tested these two versions and investigated the sensitivity to input parameters, using remote sensing data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET and dust concentrations and deposition measurements from the AeroCom dust benchmark database (and others. The two versions are shown to produce similar atmospheric dust loads in the N-African region, while they deviate in the Asian, Middle Eastern and S-American regions. The dust outflow from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean is accurately simulated by both schemes, in magnitude, location and seasonality. Approximately 70% of the modelled annual deposition data and 70–75% of the modelled monthly aerosol optical depth (AOD in the Atlantic Ocean stations lay in the range 0.5 to 2 times the observations for all simulations. The two versions have similar performance, even though the total annual source differs by ~50%, which underscores the importance of transport and deposition processes (being the same for both versions. Even though the explicit soil particle size distribution is considered more realistic, the simpler scheme appears to perform better in several locations. This paper discusses the differences between the two versions of the dust emission scheme, focusing on their limitations and strengths in describing the global dust cycle and suggests possible future improvements.

  9. A global data set of soil hydraulic properties and sub-grid variability of soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montzka, Carsten; Herbst, Michael; Weihermüller, Lutz; Verhoef, Anne; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-07-01

    Agroecosystem models, regional and global climate models, and numerical weather prediction models require adequate parameterization of soil hydraulic properties. These properties are fundamental for describing and predicting water and energy exchange processes at the transition zone between solid earth and atmosphere, and regulate evapotranspiration, infiltration and runoff generation. Hydraulic parameters describing the soil water retention (WRC) and hydraulic conductivity (HCC) curves are typically derived from soil texture via pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Resampling of those parameters for specific model grids is typically performed by different aggregation approaches such a spatial averaging and the use of dominant textural properties or soil classes. These aggregation approaches introduce uncertainty, bias and parameter inconsistencies throughout spatial scales due to nonlinear relationships between hydraulic parameters and soil texture. Therefore, we present a method to scale hydraulic parameters to individual model grids and provide a global data set that overcomes the mentioned problems. The approach is based on Miller-Miller scaling in the relaxed form by Warrick, that fits the parameters of the WRC through all sub-grid WRCs to provide an effective parameterization for the grid cell at model resolution; at the same time it preserves the information of sub-grid variability of the water retention curve by deriving local scaling parameters. Based on the Mualem-van Genuchten approach we also derive the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity from the water retention functions, thereby assuming that the local parameters are also valid for this function. In addition, via the Warrick scaling parameter λ, information on global sub-grid scaling variance is given that enables modellers to improve dynamical downscaling of (regional) climate models or to perturb hydraulic parameters for model ensemble output generation. The present analysis is based on the ROSETTA PTF

  10. A global off-line model of size-resolved aerosol microphysics: I. Model development and prediction of aerosol properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Spracklen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A GLObal Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP has been developed as an extension to the TOMCAT 3-D Eulerian off-line chemical transport model. GLOMAP simulates the evolution of the global aerosol size distribution using a sectional two-moment scheme and includes the processes of aerosol nucleation, condensation, growth, coagulation, wet and dry deposition and cloud processing. We describe the results of a global simulation of sulfuric acid and sea spray aerosol. The model captures features of the aerosol size distribution that are well established from observations in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere. Modelled condensation nuclei (CN>3nm vary between about 250–500 cm-3 in remote marine boundary layer regions and are generally in good agreement with observations. Modelled continental CN concentrations are lower than observed, which may be due to lack of some primary aerosol sources or the neglect of nucleation mechanisms other than binary homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid-water particles. Remote marine CN concentrations increase to around 2000–10 000 cm (at standard temperature and pressure in the upper troposphere, which agrees with typical observed vertical profiles. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN at 0.2% supersaturation vary between about 1000 cm-3 in polluted regions and between 10 and 500 cm-3 in the remote marine boundary layer. New particle formation through sulfuric acid-water binary nucleation occurs predominantly in the upper troposphere, but the model results show that these particles contribute greatly to aerosol concentrations in the marine boundary layer. For this sulfur-sea salt system it is estimated that sea spray emissions account for only ~10% of CCN in the tropical marine boundary layer, but between 20 and 75% in the mid-latitude Southern Ocean. In a run with only natural sulfate and sea salt emissions the global mean surface CN concentration is more than 60% of that from a run with 1985 anthropogenic

  11. Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  12. An Evaluation of Global and Local Tensile Properties of Friction-Stir Welded DP980 Dual-Phase Steel Joints Using a Digital Image Correlation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoungwook; Kim, Cheolhee; Song, Jung Han

    2015-12-04

    The effect of the microstructure heterogeneity on the tensile plastic deformation characteristic of friction-stir-welded (FSW) dual-phase (DP) steel was investigated for the potential applications on the lightweight design of vehicles. Friction-stir-welded specimens with a butt joint configuration were prepared, and quasi-static tensile tests were conducted, to evaluate the tensile properties of DP980 dual-phase steels. The friction-stir welding led to the formation of martensite and a significant hardness rise in the stir zone (SZ), but the presence of a soft zone in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) was caused by tempering of the pre-existing martensite. Owing to the appearance of severe soft zone, DP980 FSW joint showed almost 93% joint efficiency with the view-point of ultimate tensile strength and relatively low ductility than the base metal (BM). The local tensile deformation characteristic of the FSW joints was also examined using the digital image correlation (DIC) methodology by mapping the global and local strain distribution, and was subsequently analyzed by mechanics calculation. It is found that the tensile deformation of the FSW joints is highly heterogeneous, leading to a significant decrease in global ductility. The HAZ of the joints is the weakest region where the strain localizes early, and this localization extends until fracture with a strain near 30%, while the strain in the SZ and BM is only 1% and 4%, respectively. Local constitutive properties in different heterogeneous regions through the friction-stir-welded joint was also briefly evaluated by assuming iso-stress conditions. The local stress-strain curves of individual weld zones provide a clear indication of the heterogeneity of the local mechanical properties.

  13. Simulation of aerosol optical properties over a tropical urban site in India using a global model and its comparison with ground measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Goto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols have great impacts on atmospheric environment, human health, and earth's climate. Therefore, information on their spatial and temporal distribution is of paramount importance. Despite numerous studies have examined the variation and trends of BC and AOD over India, only very few have focused on their spatial distribution or even correlating the observations with model simulations. In the present study, a three-dimensional aerosol transport-radiation model coupled with a general circulation model. SPRINTARS, simulated atmospheric aerosol distributions including BC and aerosol optical properties, i.e., aerosol optical thickness (AOT, Ångström Exponent (AE, and single scattering albedo (SSA. The simulated results are compared with both BC measurements by aethalometer and aerosol optical properties measured by ground-based skyradiometer and by satellite sensor, MODIS/Terra over Hyderabad, which is a tropical urban area of India, for the year 2008. The simulated AOT and AE in Hyderabad are found to be comparable to ground-based measured ones. The simulated SSA tends to be higher than the ground-based measurements. Both these comparisons of aerosol optical properties between the simulations with different emission inventories and the measurements indicate that, firstly the model uncertainties derived from aerosol emission inventory cannot explain the gaps between the simulations and the measurements and secondly the vertical transport of BC and the treatment of BC-containing particles can be the main issue in the global model to solve the gap.

  14. Towards the Development of Global Nano-Quantitative Structure–Property Relationship Models: Zeta Potentials of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Toropov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zeta potential indirectly reflects a charge of the surface of nanoparticles in solutions and could be used to represent the stability of the colloidal solution. As processes of synthesis, testing and evaluation of new nanomaterials are expensive and time-consuming, so it would be helpful to estimate an approximate range of properties for untested nanomaterials using computational modeling. We collected the largest dataset of zeta potential measurements of bare metal oxide nanoparticles in water (87 data points. The dataset was used to develop quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR models. Essential features of nanoparticles were represented using a modified simplified molecular input line entry system (SMILES. SMILES strings reflected the size-dependent behavior of zeta potentials, as the considered quasi-SMILES modification included information about both chemical composition and the size of the nanoparticles. Three mathematical models were generated using the Monte Carlo method, and their statistical quality was evaluated (R2 for the training set varied from 0.71 to 0.87; for the validation set, from 0.67 to 0.82; root mean square errors for both training and validation sets ranged from 11.3 to 17.2 mV. The developed models were analyzed and linked to aggregation effects in aqueous solutions.

  15. The large-scale structure of the halo of the Andromeda galaxy. I. Global stellar density, morphology and metallicity properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de lUniversité, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Lewis, Geraint F. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Irwin, Michael J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Peñarrubia, Jorge [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Babul, Arif; Navarro, Julio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2 (Canada); Chapman, Scott C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 6310 Coburg Road, Halifax NS B3H 4R2 (Canada); Collins, Michelle [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Fardal, Mark [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, LGRT 619-E, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Mackey, A. D. [RSAA, The Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, PAB, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tanvir, Nial [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Widrow, Lawrence, E-mail: rodrigo.ibata@astro.unistra.fr [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2014-01-10

    We present an analysis of the large-scale structure of the halo of the Andromeda galaxy, based on the Pan-Andromeda Archeological Survey (PAndAS), currently the most complete map of resolved stellar populations in any galactic halo. Despite the presence of copious substructures, the global halo populations follow closely power-law profiles that become steeper with increasing metallicity. We divide the sample into stream-like populations and a smooth halo component (defined as the population that cannot be resolved into spatially distinct substructures with PAndAS). Fitting a three-dimensional halo model reveals that the most metal-poor populations ([Fe/H]<−1.7) are distributed approximately spherically (slightly prolate with ellipticity c/a = 1.09 ± 0.03), with only a relatively small fraction residing in discernible stream-like structures (f {sub stream} = 42%). The sphericity of the ancient smooth component strongly hints that the dark matter halo is also approximately spherical. More metal-rich populations contain higher fractions of stars in streams, with f {sub stream} becoming as high as 86% for [Fe/H]>−0.6. The space density of the smooth metal-poor component has a global power-law slope of γ = –3.08 ± 0.07, and a non-parametric fit shows that the slope remains nearly constant from 30 kpc to ∼300 kpc. The total stellar mass in the halo at distances beyond 2° is ∼1.1 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, while that of the smooth component is ∼3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. Extrapolating into the inner galaxy, the total stellar mass of the smooth halo is plausibly ∼8 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. We detect a substantial metallicity gradient, which declines from ([Fe/H]) = –0.7 at R = 30 kpc to ([Fe/H]) = –1.5 at R = 150 kpc for the full sample, with the smooth halo being ∼0.2 dex more metal poor than the full sample at each radius. While qualitatively in line with expectations from cosmological simulations, these observations are of great importance as

  16. Análisis de la calidad de varios cuerpos de agua superficiales en el GAM y la Península de Osa utilizando el Índice Holandés Quality analysis of various surface water bodies in the GAM and the osa peninsula using the Dutch Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Calvo Brenes

    2012-11-01

    ón positiva entre el ICA holandés y la densidad poblacional, y utiliza un nivel de probabilidad del 95%.Costa Rica is characterized by the amount of rivers, but most of them show high levels of contamination. Special interest is in those of the Gran Area Metropolitana (GAM since 70% of the population is located in this area. Even though there are many water quality indicators, it is advantageous the simplification by the use of water quality index. One of those already adopted in Costa Rica is the Holland Quality Index (Holland ICA.This is based on the use of three parameters: biochemical oxygen demand, ammonium nitrogen and the dissolve oxygen, expressed the last one as saturated oxygen percentage. This study focused in the analysis of the three parameters in 10 rivers located in the province of San José, Alajuela, Heredia, Car tago, as well as the Península of Osa. For the correlation of the Holland ICA with Population Density, there were sampled 3 places of the same river: one high up place close to the river birth, another in the middle, and the last one, close to the exit. It was found the rivers going through high density cities with populations over 8000 habitants per square kilometer (hab/km2, shows contamination corresponding to “severe” and “highly severe”. Places with population between 3000-8000 hab/km2, in general, shows contamination between “moderate” to “severe”. Places with less than 1000 hab/km2 are related to contamination levels of “lightly” to “none”. Those results vary depending of rivers flow rate, the total distance alongside the river, as well as the land use. The Univariate Regression Analysis showed positive correlation between Holland ICA and population density, with a 95% probability.

  17. Timed Synaptic Inhibition Shapes NMDA Spikes, Influencing Local Dendritic Processing and Global I/O Properties of Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doron

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The NMDA spike is a long-lasting nonlinear phenomenon initiated locally in the dendritic branches of a variety of cortical neurons. It plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and in single-neuron computations. Combining dynamic system theory and computational approaches, we now explore how the timing of synaptic inhibition affects the NMDA spike and its associated membrane current. When impinging on its early phase, individual inhibitory synapses strongly, but transiently, dampen the NMDA spike; later inhibition prematurely terminates it. A single inhibitory synapse reduces the NMDA-mediated Ca2+ current, a key player in plasticity, by up to 45%. NMDA spikes in distal dendritic branches/spines are longer-lasting and more resilient to inhibition, enhancing synaptic plasticity at these branches. We conclude that NMDA spikes are highly sensitive to dendritic inhibition; sparse weak inhibition can finely tune synaptic plasticity both locally at the dendritic branch level and globally at the level of the neuron’s output.

  18. Antioxidant properties of extracts from selected plant materials (Caesalpinia spinosa, Perilla frutescens, Artemisia annua and Viola wittrockiana) in vitro and in model food systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skowyra, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in plants, are of considerable interest and are increasingly becoming a subject of intensive research due to their bioactive properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-mutagenic, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activity. The objective of this research was to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from selected plant materials, namely Caesalpinia spinosa, Perilla frutescens, Artemisia annua and Viola wittrockiana Gams. Plant material extracts we...

  19. Integral measurements of lattice properties in the natural uranium-graphite critical facility Marius; Mesures globales de reseaux a graphite dans l'empilement critique marius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogne, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A systematic study of natural uranium-graphite lattices has been undertaken in the critical facility MARIUS, which was built in 1959 in Marcoule. Integral measurement of lattice properties are carried out by the progressive replacement method. This report describes the experimental methods, the analysis of the experiments and the results obtained for lattices with pitches ranging from 192 to 317 mm and fuel elements with cross sections ranging from 6 to 20 cm{sup 2}. The principles of correlation of the results are also outlined. Additional experimental results are also given, pertaining to the determination of the anisotropy, of both the axial and the radial migration areas, and of the age in graphite. (author) [French] L'empilement critique MARIUS, construit en 1959 a Marcoule, a ete utilise pour l'etude systematique des reseaux a graphite-uranium naturel. Les mesures globales de reseaux sont faites par la methode de remplacement progressif. On decrit ici les methodes experimentales utilisees pour ces mesures globales, les principes du depouillement et les resultats obtenus pour des pas de 192 a 317 mm et des combustibles de 6 a 20 cm{sup 2} d'uranium naturel. On donne d'autre part le principe de correlation des mesures. Un certain nombre de resultats experimentaux complementaires sont donnes, en permettant de determiner l'anisotropie, les aires de migration axiale et radiale, l'age dans le graphite. (auteur)

  20. Global digital data sets of soil type, soil texture, surface slope and other properties: Documentation of archived data tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, B.; Rosenzweig, C.; Rind, D.

    1987-01-01

    The file structure and coding of four soils data sets derived from the Zobler (1986) world soil file is described. The data were digitized on a one-degree square grid. They are suitable for large-area studies such as climate research with general circulation models, as well as in forestry, agriculture, soils, and hydrology. The first file is a data set of codes for soil unit, land-ice, or water, for all the one-degree square cells on Earth. The second file is a data set of codes for texture, land-ice, or water, for the same soil units. The third file is a data set of codes for slope, land-ice, or water for the same units. The fourth file is the SOILWRLD data set, containing information on soil properties of land cells of both Matthews' and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) sources. The fourth file reconciles land-classification differences between the two and has missing data filled in.

  1. Global minimum-energy structure and spectroscopic properties of I2(*-) x n H2O clusters: a Monte Carlo simulated annealing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arup Kumar; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Maity, Dilip Kumar

    2010-01-18

    The vibrational (IR and Raman) and photoelectron spectral properties of hydrated iodine-dimer radical-anion clusters, I(2)(*-) x n H(2)O (n=1-10), are presented. Several initial guess structures are considered for each size of cluster to locate the global minimum-energy structure by applying a Monte Carlo simulated annealing procedure including spin-orbit interaction. In the Raman spectrum, hydration reduces the intensity of the I-I stretching band but enhances the intensity of the O-H stretching band of water. Raman spectra of more highly hydrated clusters appear to be simpler than the corresponding IR spectra. Vibrational bands due to simultaneous stretching vibrations of O-H bonds in a cyclic water network are observed for I(2)(*-) x n H(2)O clusters with n > or = 3. The vertical detachment energy (VDE) profile shows stepwise saturation that indicates closing of the geometrical shell in the hydrated clusters on addition of every four water molecules. The calculated VDE of finite-size small hydrated clusters is extrapolated to evaluate the bulk VDE value of I(2)(*-) in aqueous solution as 7.6 eV at the CCSD(T) level of theory. Structure and spectroscopic properties of these hydrated clusters are compared with those of hydrated clusters of Cl(2)(*-) and Br(2)(*-).

  2. Functional architecture and global properties of the Corynebacterium glutamicum regulatory network: Novel insights from a dataset with a high genomic coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyre-González, Julio A; Tauch, Andreas

    2017-09-10

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped soil bacterium able to grow on a diversity of carbon sources like sugars and organic acids. It is a biotechnological relevant organism because of its highly efficient ability to biosynthesize amino acids, such as l-glutamic acid and l-lysine. Here, we reconstructed the most complete C. glutamicum regulatory network to date and comprehensively analyzed its global organizational properties, systems-level features and functional architecture. Our analyses show the tremendous power of Abasy Atlas to study the functional organization of regulatory networks. We created two models of the C. glutamicum regulatory network: all-evidences (containing both weak and strong supported interactions, genomic coverage=73%) and strongly-supported (only accounting for strongly supported evidences, genomic coverage=71%). Using state-of-the-art methodologies, we prove that power-law behaviors truly govern the connectivity and clustering coefficient distributions. We found a non-previously reported circuit motif that we named complex feed-forward motif. We highlighted the importance of feedback loops for the functional architecture, beyond whether they are statistically over-represented or not in the network. We show that the previously reported top-down approach is inadequate to infer the hierarchy governing a regulatory network because feedback bridges different hierarchical layers, and the top-down approach disregards the presence of intermodular genes shaping the integration layer. Our findings all together further support a diamond-shaped, three-layered hierarchy exhibiting some feedback between processing and coordination layers, which is shaped by four classes of systems-level elements: global regulators, locally autonomous modules, basal machinery and intermodular genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Addressing legal and political barriers to global pharmaceutical access: options for remedying the impact of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the imposition of TRIPS-plus standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Kohler, Jillian Clare; Forman, Lisa; Lipkus, Nathaniel

    2008-07-01

    Despite myriad programs aimed at increasing access to essential medicines in the developing world, the global drug gap persists. This paper focuses on the major legal and political constraints preventing implementation of coordinated global policy solutions - particularly, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and bilateral and regional free trade agreements. We argue that several policy and research routes should be taken to mitigate the restrictive impact of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus rules, including greater use of TRIPS flexibilities, advancement of human rights, and an ethical framework for essential medicines distribution, and a broader campaign that debates the legitimacy of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus standards themselves.

  4. Global warning, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  5. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  6. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  7. Generalized global symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q=0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a subgroup). They can also have ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. Our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.

  8. Global Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    at the mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  9. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  10. Global chain properties of an all l-α-eicosapeptide with a secondary α-helix and its all retro d-inverso-α-eicosapeptide estimated through the modeling of their CZE-determined electrophoretic mobilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiber, Julio A; Piaggio, Maria V; Peirotti, Marta B

    2014-03-01

    Several global chain properties of relatively long peptides composed of 20 amino acid residues are estimated through the modeling of their experimental effective electrophoretic mobilities determined by CZE for 2 chains, they do not present similar global conformations in the whole range of pH studied. These peptides may also differ in the quality of BGE components chain interactions depending on the pH value. Three Peptide 1 fragments (Peptides 3, 4, and 5) are also analyzed in this framework with the following purposes: (i) visualization of the effects of initial and final strands at each side of the α-helix on the global chain conformations of Peptide 1 at different pHs and (ii) analysis of global chain conformations of Peptides 1 and 2, and Peptide 1 fragments in relation to their pI values. Also, the peptide maximum and minimum hydrations predicted by the model, compatible with experimental effective electrophoretic mobilities at different pHs, are quantified and discussed, and needs for further research concerning chain hydration are proposed. It is shown that CZE is a useful analytical tool for peptidomimetic designs and purposes. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Existence and properties of semi-bounded global solutions to the functional differential equation with Volterra-type operators on the real line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hakl, Robert; Aguerrea, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 147, č. 6 (2017), s. 1119-1168 ISSN 0308-2105 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : functional differential equations * boundary-value problems * global existence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.158, year: 2016

  12. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Ru...

  13. Global Mindset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Global Mindset (GM) – the way to think about the global reality – is on the agenda of multinational companies concomitant with the increase in global complexity, uncertainty and diversity. In spite of a number of studies, the concept is still fluid and far from a managerial.......e. the capability to sense (quickly), reflect (constructively) and act purposefully (for mutual benefit). A case on an MNC is used at the end to show the organizational manifestations of a GM....

  14. Investigation of the influence of different cutting procedures on the global and local magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumoski, H.; Riedmüller, B.; Minkow, A.; Herr, U.

    2015-01-01

    The process of manufacturing iron cores for electric machines out of electrical steel sheets can strongly affect the magnetic properties of the material. In order to better understand the influence of cutting on the iron losses, a characterization of the magnetization behavior near the cutting edge is needed. The local magnetic properties of the material are modified by the cutting process which leads to an increase in the iron losses measured for 5 mm wide ring core samples by nearly 160% at low inductions. We present investigations on the effect of cutting by observation of the magnetic domain structure of 0.35 mm thick non-oriented electrical steel. By using the magneto-optical Kerr-effect on a ring samples the local magnetic properties of the material after processing are characterized in the form of domain wall displacements under an applied external ac-field. The influence of various cutting techniques on the magnetic properties was studied before and after stress relief annealing. This method allows a quantitative analysis of the influence of different cutting techniques on the micro-magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel for rotating machines. - Highlights: • The influence of cutting on the magnetic properties of electrical steel was studied. • The magnetic behavior at the cut edge was investigated using the Kerr-effect. • The micro-magnetic results correlate well with the integral magnetic measurements. • Stress relief annealing recovers the magnetic properties of the cut material. • The method allows quantitative determination of the extension of the affected zone

  15. Gendering Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  16. Developing Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is the first qualitative micro case study of one aspect of globalization: personal networks as a concrete outcome of development assistance spending. The empirical findings related in this paper present circumstantial evidence that Japanese foreign aid has contributed to globalization...

  17. Global Uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    Antologien handler om "demokratiproblemer i den globale sammenhæng" (del I) og "demokratiproblemer i uddannelse og for de offentligt ansatte" (del II), bundet sammen af et mellemstykke, der rækker ud mod begge poler både det globale og det lokale ved at knytte det til forholdet mellem marked...

  18. Global Mindsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... in a global context, and that they are dynamic and undergo change and action. Part of the mindset(s) may depend upon place, situation and context where individuals and organizations operate. The book will examine the notion of "mindset" is situational and dynamic, especially in a global setting, why...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the thinking...

  19. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  20. On the shape and properties of the global heliosphere over the Solar Cycle with Voyager/LECP ions and Cassini/INCA ENAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialynas, Konstantinos; Krimigis, Stamatios; Mitchell, Donald; Decker, Robert; Roelof, Edmond

    2017-04-01

    Voyager 1 (V1) and Voyager 2 (V2) have crossed the termination shock in 2004 (V1) and 2007(V2) and traversing the Heliosheath (HS) in the upstream (nose) hemisphere, while the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) on Cassini enables Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) images of the celestial sphere that place the local ion measurements by each Voyager in a global context. We present an analysis of 5.2-55 keV ENA global images of the HS and 28-53 keV in-situ ions over an 11-year period (2003-2014) that corresponds to the declining phase of solar cycle 23 (SC23) and onset of SC24. The measurements reveal a coherent decrease and recovery between ENA in the global heliosphere and in-situ ions at V1/V2 during this time period, in overlapping energy bands, establishing that the HS ions are the source of >28 keV ENA. The similarity in the overall appearance of the images throughout the INCA energy range (5.2-55 keV), reveals that the source of ENAs at 5.2 keV ENA and ion variations with the Solar Sunspot Numbers (SSN) and solar wind parameters indicates that the Heliosphere responds promptly, within 2-3 years, to outward propagating solar wind changes in both the nose and anti-nose (tail) directions following the Solar Cycle (SC) phases. A detailed latitudinal examination of the global ENA emissions, verifies that the peak intensities between the nose and anti-nose directions are nearly similar, the power law ENA spectral index (γ) is largely the same near the equator in both the nose and anti-nose directions and displays similar spatial dependence with latitude. The totality of the ENA and in situ ion observations, together with the V1 measurement of a 0.5 nT interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) and recent modeling, suggest a "bubble-shape" heliosphere, i.e with little substantial tail-like feature. These observations are essential in determining the context for the measurements anticipated by the forthcoming IMAP mission.

  1. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  2. Shadow Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  3. Global Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Is 21st-century Rome a global city? Is it part of Europe's core or periphery? This volume examines the “real city” beyond Rome's historical center, exploring the diversity and challenges of life in neighborhoods affected by immigration, neoliberalism, formal urban planning, and grassroots social...... movements. The contributors engage with themes of contemporary urban studies–the global city, the self-made city, alternative modernities, capital cities and nations, urban change from below, and sustainability. Global Rome serves as a provocative introduction to the Eternal City and makes an original...

  4. Designing global climate and atmospheric chemistry simulations for 1 and 10 km diameter asteroid impacts using the properties of ejecta from the K-Pg impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Toon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available About 66 million years ago, an asteroid about 10 km in diameter struck the Yucatan Peninsula creating the Chicxulub crater. The crater has been dated and found to be coincident with the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K-Pg mass extinction event, one of six great mass extinctions in the last 600 million years. This event precipitated one of the largest episodes of rapid climate change in Earth's history, yet no modern three-dimensional climate calculations have simulated the event. Similarly, while there is an ongoing effort to detect asteroids that might hit Earth and to develop methods to stop them, there have been no modern calculations of the sizes of asteroids whose impacts on land would cause devastating effects on Earth. Here, we provide the information needed to initialize such calculations for the K-Pg impactor and for a 1 km diameter impactor. There is considerable controversy about the details of the events that followed the Chicxulub impact. We proceed through the data record in the order of confidence that a climatically important material was present in the atmosphere. The climatic importance is roughly proportional to the optical depth of the material. Spherules with diameters of several hundred microns are found globally in an abundance that would have produced an atmospheric layer with an optical depth around 20, yet their large sizes would only allow them to stay airborne for a few days. They were likely important for triggering global wildfires. Soot, probably from global or near-global wildfires, is found globally in an abundance that would have produced an optical depth near 100, which would effectively prevent sunlight from reaching the surface. Nanometer-sized iron particles are also present globally. Theory suggests these particles might be remnants of the vaporized asteroid and target that initially remained as vapor rather than condensing on the hundred-micron spherules when they entered the atmosphere. If present in the

  5. Global sensitivity analysis of computer models with functional inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iooss, Bertrand; Ribatet, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Global sensitivity analysis is used to quantify the influence of uncertain model inputs on the response variability of a numerical model. The common quantitative methods are appropriate with computer codes having scalar model inputs. This paper aims at illustrating different variance-based sensitivity analysis techniques, based on the so-called Sobol's indices, when some model inputs are functional, such as stochastic processes or random spatial fields. In this work, we focus on large cpu time computer codes which need a preliminary metamodeling step before performing the sensitivity analysis. We propose the use of the joint modeling approach, i.e., modeling simultaneously the mean and the dispersion of the code outputs using two interlinked generalized linear models (GLMs) or generalized additive models (GAMs). The 'mean model' allows to estimate the sensitivity indices of each scalar model inputs, while the 'dispersion model' allows to derive the total sensitivity index of the functional model inputs. The proposed approach is compared to some classical sensitivity analysis methodologies on an analytical function. Lastly, the new methodology is applied to an industrial computer code that simulates the nuclear fuel irradiation.

  6. Global Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakat, Livia L.; Lorenz, Melanie P.; Ramsey, Jase R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cultural intelligence (CQ) on the job performance of global managers. Design/methodology/approach: – In total, 332 global managers were surveyed from multinational companies operating in Brazil. The mediating effect of job...... satisfaction was tested on the CQ-job performance relationship. Findings: – The findings suggest that job satisfaction transmits the effect of CQ to job performance, such that global managers high in CQ exhibit more job satisfaction in an international setting, and therefore perform better at their jobs....... Practical implications: – Results imply that global managers should increase their CQ in order to improve their job satisfaction and ultimately perform better in an international context. Originality/value: – The authors make three primary contributions to the international business literature. First...

  7. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...... of innovation" understanding of learning. Narula and Smith reconcile an important paradox. On the one hand, locations and firms are increasingly interdependent through supranational organisations, regional integration, strategic alliances, and the flow of investments, technologies, ideas and people...

  8. Another globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of ...

  9. Gendered globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  10. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  11. Properties of the Plasma Surrounding the Global Heliosphere Determined with Voyager 1&2 ions and ENA/INCA Observations at E > 5 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, S. M.; Dialynas, K.; Mitchell, D. G.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    2016-12-01

    The basic goal of the proposed Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) is detailed scientific understanding of the Heliosheath (HS) and beyond, a region of space explored in situ by Voyager 1 (V1) since 2004, Voyager 2 (V2) since 2007, and remotely via energetic neutral atoms (ENA) by the Cassini/INCA (5.2-55 keV) since 2003 and IBEX (0.3-6 keV) since 2009. The partial overlap in energies (28 5 keV, the rest residing below that range, resulting in a beta (particle/magnetic pressure) always > 1, typically >10. (2) Based on the ENA-derived hot ion pressures, the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) was predicted to be more than twice that expected in the literature i.e. similar to what was measured by V1 after crossing the heliopause (B 0.5 nT). (3) The width of the HS in the direction of V1 is 30 AU (predicted by INCA before the V1 HP crossing), but is thought to be larger (40-70 AU) in the southern ecliptic where V2, now 30 AU into the HS, currently travels. We address here the key question of the source of 5-55 keV ENAs that INCA measures. The analysis of INCA all-sky maps from 2003 to 2014 show that the decrease and recovery of ENA in the global heliosphere during this period (declining phase of SC23 and rise of SC24) is similar to that of the ions at V1/V2, consistent with the HS ions being the source of ENA. The close correspondence between ENA and ion spectra (despite the 140 AU distance between V1 and V2) as well as the similarity of ENA spectra over the nose and anti-nose directions, together with the recent V1 measurement of a BISMF 0.5nT, suggest that the global distributions of >5 keV ions in the heliosheath resembles a diamagnetic bubble with no significant tail-like feature (the alternative Parker 1961 model), also consistent with some recent MHD simulations and models.

  12. Global sampling of the seasonal changes in vegetation biophysical properties and associated carbon flux dynamics: using the synergy of information captured by spectral time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P. K. E.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Middleton, E.; Voorhis, S.; Landis, D.

    2016-12-01

    Spatial heterogeneity and seasonal dynamics in vegetation function contribute significantly to the uncertainties in regional and global CO2 budgets. High spectral resolution imaging spectroscopy ( 10 nm, 400-2500 nm) provides an efficient tool for synoptic evaluation of the factors significantly affecting the ability of the vegetation to sequester carbon and to reflect radiation, due to changes in vegetation chemical and structural composition. EO-1 Hyperion has collected more than 15 years of repeated observations for vegetation studies, and currently Hyperion time series are available for study of vegetation carbon dynamics at a number of FLUX sites. This study presents results from the analysis of EO-1 Hyperion and FLUX seasonal composites for a range of ecosystems across the globe. Spectral differences and seasonal trends were evaluated for each vegetation type and specific phenology. Evaluating the relationships between CO2 flux parameters (e.g., Net ecosystem production - NEP; Gross Ecosystem Exchange - GEE, CO2 flux, μmol m-2 s-1) and spectral parameters for these very different ecosystems, high correlations were established to parameters associated with canopy water and chlorophyll content for deciduous, and photosynthetic function for conifers. Imaging spectrometry provided high spatial resolution maps of CO2 fluxes absorbed by vegetation, and was efficient in tracing seasonal flux dynamics. This study will present examples for key ecosystem tipes to demonstrate the ability of imaging spectrometry and EO-1 Hyperion to map and compare CO2 flux dynamics across the globe.

  13. Global Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  14. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...... and unabated. Like these ‘absolute’ measures, our ‘centrist’ inequality indicators, the Krtscha measure and an intermediate Gini, also register a pronounced increase in global inequality, albeit, in the case of the latter, with a decline during 2005 to 2010. A critical question posed by our findings is whether...

  15. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries....... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...

  16. Global Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.

    2009-05-01

    IYA2009 is a global collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are global activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing global projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.

  17. Global rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosquist, K.

    1980-01-01

    Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)

  18. Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics collects chapters on recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems with a particular emphasis on cell mapping methods developed by Professor C.S. Hsu of the University of California, Berkeley. This collection of contributions prepared by a diverse group of internationally recognized researchers is intended to stimulate interests in global analysis of complex and high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, whose global properties are largely unexplored at this time. This book also: Presents recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems Provides in-depth considerations and extensions of cell mapping methods Adopts an inclusive style accessible to non-specialists and graduate students Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics is an ideal reference for the community of nonlinear dynamics in different disciplines including engineering, applied mathematics, meteorology, life science, computational science, and medicine.  

  19. Effect of the Global Topology of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field on the Properties of Impulsive Acceleration Processes in Distant Regions of the Earth's Magnetospheric Tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorenko, E.E.; Zelenyi, L.M.; Fedorov, A.O.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a statistical study of high-speed ion beams (beamlets) observed by the Interball-1 and Interball-2 satellites in the boundary region of the plasma sheet of the geomagnetic tail and in the high-latitude auroral regions of the Earth's magnetosphere. Beamlets result from nonlinear acceleration processes occurring in the current sheet in the distant regions of the geomagnetic tail. They propagate toward the Earth along the magnetic field lines and are detected in the boundary region of the plasma sheet and near the high-latitude boundary of the plasma sheet in the auroral region in the form of short (with a duration of 1-2 min) bursts of high-energy (with energies of about several tens of keV) ions. The sizes of the latitudinal zones where the beamlets are localized in the tail and in the auroral region are determined using the epoch superposition method. The relationship between the frequency of beamlet generation in the boundary region of the plasma sheet and the prehistory of the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (the magnitude of a clock angle) is investigated. It was established that this direction exerts a global effect on the beamlet generation frequency; moreover, it was found that the beamlet generation frequency in the midnight local time sector of the tail and at the flanks depends differently on the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field. In the midnight sector, the beamlets are observed at almost all directions of the interplanetary field, whereas the frequency of their generation at the flanks is maximal only when the interplanetary magnetic field has a large y component

  20. Another globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of the architecture of the international institutional system and the promotion of those economical policies which must ensure the stability world-wide economy and the amelioration of the international equity.

  1. Measuring Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Torben M.; Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate technique of factor analysis is used to combine several indicators of economic integration and international transactions into a single measure or index of globalization. The index is an alternative to the simple measure of openness based on trade, and it produces a ranking of countries over time for 23 OECD countries. Ireland is ranked as the most globalized country during the 1990?s, while the UK was at the top during the 1980?s. Some of the most notable changes in the rank...

  2. Going global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, W.; Poirier, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the global market for independent power projects and the increased competition and strategic alliances that are occurring to take advantage of the increasing demand. The topics of the article include the amount of involvement of US companies in the global market, the forces driving the market toward independent power, markets in the United Kingdom, North America, Turkey, Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Europe, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, the former Eastern European countries, Asia and the Pacific nations, and niche markets

  3. Structures and Spectroscopic Properties of F-(H2O) n with n = 1-10 Clusters from a Global Search Based On Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ruili; Wang, Pengju; Tang, Lingli; Huang, Xiaoming; Chen, Yonggang; Su, Yan; Zhao, Jijun

    2018-04-05

    Using a genetic algorithm incorporated in density functional theory, we explore the ground state structures of fluoride anion-water clusters F - (H 2 O) n with n = 1-10. The F - (H 2 O) n clusters prefer structures in which the F - anion remains at the surface of the structure and coordinates with four water molecules, as the F - (H 2 O) n clusters have strong F - -H 2 O interactions as well as strong hydrogen bonds between H 2 O molecules. The strong interaction between the F - anion and adjacent H 2 O molecule leads to a longer O-H distance in the adjacent molecule than in an individual water molecule. The simulated infrared (IR) spectra of the F - (H 2 O) 1-5 clusters obtained via second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) and including anharmonic effects reproduce the experimental results quite well. The strong interaction between the F - anion and water molecules results in a large redshift (600-2300 cm -1 ) of the adjacent O-H stretching mode. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of the lowest-energy structures of the F - (H 2 O) 1-10 clusters illustrates that charge transfer from the lone pair electron orbital of F - to the antibonding orbital of the adjacent O-H is mainly responsible for the strong interaction between the F - anion and water molecules, which leads to distinctly different geometric and vibrational properties compared with neutral water clusters.

  4. Global Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  5. Going global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe; Rasmussen, Christel

    2016-01-01

    occurred at a more micro level. This article explores this issue by studying the international activities of Danish foundations. It finds that grant-making on global issues is increasing, and that several foundations have undergone transformations in their approach to grantmaking, making them surprisingly...

  6. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  7. The Properties of Primordial Stars and Galaxies measured from the 21-cm Global Spectrum using the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Bowman, Judd D.; Bradley, Richard F.; Fialkov, Anastasia; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Jones, Dayton L.; Kasper, Justin; Loeb, Abraham; Mirocha, Jordan; Monsalve, Raul A.; Rapetti, David; Tauscher, Keith; Wollack, Edward

    2017-01-01

    DARE is a mission concept designed to observe the formation of primordial stars, black holes, and galaxies (z=11-35) by measuring their spectral effects on the redshifted 21-cm hydrogen line. The UV and X-ray radiation emitted by these first objects ionized and heated the intergalactic medium and imprinted characteristic features in the 21-cm spectrum. The 1.4 GHz signal is redshifted into the radio band 40-120 MHz. DARE will take advantage of the quietest RF environment in the inner solar system by using the Moon as a shield from human radio frequency interference and solar emissions via observations on the lunar farside. DARE’s science objectives are to determine: when the first stars turned on and their properties, when the first black holes began accreting and their masses, the reionization history of the early Universe, and if evidence exists for exotic physics in the Dark Ages such as Dark Matter decay. Wideband crossed-dipole antennas, pilot tone stablized radiometric receivers, a polarimeter, and a digital spectrometer constitute the science instrument. DARE’s radiometer is precisely calibrated with a featureless spectral response, controlled systematics, and heritage from CMB missions. Models for the instrument main beam and sidelobes, antenna reflection coefficient, gain variations, and calibrations will be validated with electromagnetic simulations, laboratory and anechoic chamber measurements, and verified on-orbit. The unique frequency structure of the 21-cm spectrum, its uniformity over large angular scales, and its unpolarized state are unlike the spectrally featureless, spatially-varying, polarized emission of the bright Galactic foreground, allowing the signal to be cleanly separated from the foreground. The 21-cm signal will be extracted in the presence of foregrounds using a Bayesian framework with a Markov Chain Monto Carlo (MCMC) numerical inference technique. The DARE data analysis pipeline enables efficient, simultaneous, and self

  8. Global swindle of global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.

    2007-01-01

    Voor sommige mensen is het nog steeds niet aannemelijk dat we te maken hebben met de effecten van ‘Global Warming’, de opwarming van de aarde door voornamelijk de broeikasgassen die vrijkomen bij de verbranding van fossiele brandstoffen. In de media worden voor- en tegenstanders aan het woord

  9. Conceived globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheraghi, Maryam; Schøtt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    and culture which have separate effects. Being man, young, educated and having entrepreneurial competencies promote transnational networking extensively. Networking is embedded in culture, in the way that transnational networking is more extensive in secular-rational culture than in traditional culture.......A firm may be conceived global, in the sense that, before its birth, the founding entrepreneur has a transnational network of advisors which provides an embedding for organising the upstart that may include assembling resources and marketing abroad. The purpose is to account for the entrepreneurs...... the intending, starting and operating phases, fairly constantly with only small fluctuations. The firm is conceived global in terms of the entrepreneur's transnational networking already in the pre-birth phase, when the entrepreneur is intending to start the firm. These phase effects hardly depend on attributes...

  10. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  11. Energy globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierno Andres

    1997-01-01

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  12. Global overeksponering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus A. Foss

    2007-01-01

    forandringer. Den globale orientering kommer blandt andet til udtryk i det relativt store internationale netværk, som bakker de unge op i deres protester - enten ved tilstedeværelse i København eller andre sympatiaktioner. Siden den 11. september, 2001, er globale realiteter blevet eksponeret i massemedierne...... så bliver der blændet fuldt op for linsen d. 11. september, 2001 til en global verden, hvor de demokratiske værdier ikke gælder. Lad mig blot give et eksempel: Guatanamo. Jeg skal hverken tale for eller imod den måde verden er indrettet på - da det er denne analyse uvedkommende - men blot pege på...... med væsentligt større kraft end tidligere. Før den 11. september blev globaliseringen udelukkende tegnet af jetsettet. Altså internationale politikere, kulturkoryfæer, videnskabsfolk og forretningsfolk, der har handler ud fra kendte rationaler. Men jetsettet har ikke længere den privilegeret position...

  13. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...... thought, as well as its historical application part II presents original case studies that demonstrate the emergence of such standards and explore the diffusion of liberal capitalist ideas through the global political economy and the consequences for development and governance; the International Monetary...... Fund's capacity to formulate a global standard of civilization in its reform programs; and problems in the development of the global trade, including the issue of intellectual property rights. This book will be of strong interest to students and scholars in wide range of fields relating to the study...

  14. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  15. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  16. Global ambitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruton, M.

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses global ambitions concerning the Norwegian petroleum industry. With the advent of the NORSOK (Forum for development and operation) cost reduction programme and a specific focus on key sectors of the market, the Norwegian oil industry is beginning to market its considerable technological achievements internationally. Obviously, the good fortune of having tested this technology in a very demanding domestic arena means that Norwegian offshore support companies, having succeeded at home, are perfectly poised to export their expertise to the international sector. Drawing on the traditional strengths of the country's maritime heritage, with mobile rig and specialized vessel business featuring strongly, other key technologies have been developed. 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Global health and global health ethics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benatar, S. R; Brock, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    ...? What are our responsibilities and how can we improve global health? Global Health and Global Health Ethics addresses these questions from the perspective of a range of disciplines, including medicine, philosophy and the social sciences...

  18. Global teaching of global seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  19. Globalizing Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    countries to keep up the process of globalization may be substantial, and the economic gains for such countries from adjusting to a more internationally integrated world economy are clear. However, in small- population economies, especially social-democratic welfare states, the internal pressure......This exploratory article examines the paradox of being open-minded while ethnocentric as expressed in Danish international management practices at the micro level. With a population of 5.4 million, Denmark is one of the smallest of the European countries. The pressure on many small advanced...... to integrate counteracts to some extent the need to maintain openness to differences. Thus, a strong economy and a feeling of smug ethnocentrism in Denmark generate a central paradox in thinking about internationalization in Danish society....

  20. Global Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, I.

    1985-01-01

    Any global view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.

  1. Global engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plass, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  2. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-01-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  3. Global gamesmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves.

  4. Globals of Completely Regular Monoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qian-qian; Gan Ai-ping; Du Xian-kun

    2015-01-01

    An element of a semigroup S is called irreducible if it cannot be expressed as a product of two elements in S both distinct from itself. In this paper we show that the class C of all completely regular monoids with irreducible identity elements satisfies the strong isomorphism property and so it is globally determined.

  5. Global Hail Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, A.; Sanderson, M.; Hand, W.; Blyth, A.; Groenemeijer, P.; Kunz, M.; Puskeiler, M.; Saville, G.; Michel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Hail risk models are rare for the insurance industry. This is opposed to the fact that average annual hail losses can be large and hail dominates losses for many motor portfolios worldwide. Insufficient observational data, high spatio-temporal variability and data inhomogenity have hindered creation of credible models so far. In January 2012, a selected group of hail experts met at Willis in London in order to discuss ways to model hail risk at various scales. Discussions aimed at improving our understanding of hail occurrence and severity, and covered recent progress in the understanding of microphysical processes and climatological behaviour and hail vulnerability. The final outcome of the meeting was the formation of a global hail risk model initiative and the launch of a realistic global hail model in order to assess hail loss occurrence and severities for the globe. The following projects will be tackled: Microphysics of Hail and hail severity measures: Understand the physical drivers of hail and hailstone size development in different regions on the globe. Proposed factors include updraft and supercooled liquid water content in the troposphere. What are the thresholds drivers of hail formation around the globe? Hail Climatology: Consider ways to build a realistic global climatological set of hail events based on physical parameters including spatial variations in total availability of moisture, aerosols, among others, and using neural networks. Vulnerability, Exposure, and financial model: Use historical losses and event footprints available in the insurance market to approximate fragility distributions and damage potential for various hail sizes for property, motor, and agricultural business. Propagate uncertainty distributions and consider effects of policy conditions along with aggregating and disaggregating exposure and losses. This presentation provides an overview of ideas and tasks that lead towards a comprehensive global understanding of hail risk for

  6. The global existence problem in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, L

    2000-01-01

    We survey some known facts and open questions concerning the global properties of 3+1 dimensional space--times containing a compact Cauchy surface. We consider space--times with an $\\ell$--dimensional Lie algebra of space--like Killing fields. For each $\\ell \\leq 3$, we give some basic results and conjectures on global existence and cosmic censorship. For the case of the 3+1 dimensional Einstein equations without symmetries, a new small data global existence result is announced.

  7. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO 2 and NO x which cause acid rain, and CO 2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  8. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  9. Global Warming on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; hide

    1998-01-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

  10. Global gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnish, G.; Horton, W.; Kishimoto, Y.; LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.

    1998-10-01

    A kinetic simulation code based on the gyrokinetic ion dynamics in global general metric (including a tokamak with circular or noncircular cross-section) has been developed. This gyrokinetic simulation is capable of examining the global and semi-global driftwave structures and their associated transport in a tokamak plasma. The authors investigate the property of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) or η i (η i ≡ ∂ ell nT i /∂ ell n n i ) driven drift waves in a tokamak plasma. The emergent semi-global drift wave modes give rise to thermal transport characterized by the Bohm scaling

  11. Changing global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadell, Pep

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) is the single largest human perturbation on the earth's radiative balance contributing to climate change. Its rate of change reflects the balance between anthropogenic carbon emissions and the dynamics of a number of terrestrial and ocean processes that remove or emit C02. It is the long term evolution of this balance that will determine to large extent the speed and magnitude of the human induced climate change and the mitigation requirements to stabilise atmospheric C02 concentrations at any given level. In this talk, we show new trends in global carbon sources and sinks, with particularly focus on major shifts occurring since 2000 when the growth rate of atmospheric C02 has reached its highest level on record. The acceleration in the C02 growth results from the combination of several changes in properties of the carbon cycle, including: acceleration of anthropogenic carbon emissions; increased carbon intensity of the global economy, and decreased efficiency of natural carbon sinks. We discuss in more detail some of the possible causes of the reduced efficiency of natural carbon sinks on land and oceans, such as the decreased net sink in the Southern Ocean and on terrestrial mid-latitudes due to world-wide occurrence of drought. All these changes reported here characterise a carbon cycle that is generating stronger than expected climate forcing, and sooner than expected

  12. Parallel hierarchical global illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Quinn O. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    Solving the global illumination problem is equivalent to determining the intensity of every wavelength of light in all directions at every point in a given scene. The complexity of the problem has led researchers to use approximation methods for solving the problem on serial computers. Rather than using an approximation method, such as backward ray tracing or radiosity, the authors have chosen to solve the Rendering Equation by direct simulation of light transport from the light sources. This paper presents an algorithm that solves the Rendering Equation to any desired accuracy, and can be run in parallel on distributed memory or shared memory computer systems with excellent scaling properties. It appears superior in both speed and physical correctness to recent published methods involving bidirectional ray tracing or hybrid treatments of diffuse and specular surfaces. Like progressive radiosity methods, it dynamically refines the geometry decomposition where required, but does so without the excessive storage requirements for ray histories. The algorithm, called Photon, produces a scene which converges to the global illumination solution. This amounts to a huge task for a 1997-vintage serial computer, but using the power of a parallel supercomputer significantly reduces the time required to generate a solution. Currently, Photon can be run on most parallel environments from a shared memory multiprocessor to a parallel supercomputer, as well as on clusters of heterogeneous workstations.

  13. Globalization and inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda

    Globalization is increasingly linked to inequality, but with often divergent and polarized findings. Some researchers show that globalization accentuates inequality both within and between countries. Others maintain that these claims are patently incorrect, arguing that globalization has

  14. Exploring Late Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    literature on late globalization from sociocultural and economic perspectives. It illustrates in a vignette the character and features of late globalization observable in the withdrawal from foreign locations or deinternationalization of universities, as late globalizing entitis. The paper discusses...

  15. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  16. Studies of global warming and global energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    Global warming caused by increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration has been the focus of many recent global energy studies. CO 2 is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. This means that global warming is fundamentally a problem of the global energy system. An analysis of the findings of recent global energy studies is made in this report. The results are categorized from the viewpoint of concern about global warming. The analysis includes energy use and CO 2 emissions, measures taken to restrain CO 2 emissions and the cost of such measure, and suggestions for long term global energy generation. Following this comparative analysis, each of the studies is reviewed in detail. (author) 63 refs

  17. Globalization and State Soverignty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Islam, Mainul

    2003-01-01

    .... Globalized capital is reorganizing business firms and undermining national politics. Globalization creates vast new markets and gigantic new wealth, as well as widespread suffering, disorder and unrest...

  18. Drivers of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the global epipelagic ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Catalá, T. S.

    2016-03-24

    Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in open surface waters (< 200 m) of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans was analysed by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). A four-component PARAFAC model was fit to the EEMs, which included two humic- (C1 and C2) and two amino acid-like (C3 and C4) components previously identified in ocean waters. Generalized-additive models (GAMs) were used to explore the environmental factors that drive the global distribution of these PARAFAC components. The explained variance for the humic-like components was substantially larger (> 70%) than for the amino acid-like components (< 35%). The environmental variables exhibiting the largest effect on the global distribution of C1 and C2 were apparent oxygen utilisation followed by chlorophyll a. Positive non-linear relationships between both predictor variables and the two humic-like PARAFAC components suggest that their distribution are biologically controlled. Compared with the dark ocean (> 200 m), the relationships of C1 and C2 with AOU indicate a higher C1/AOU and C2/AOU ratios of the humic-like substances in the dark ocean than in the surface ocean where a net effect of photobleaching is also detected. C3 (tryptophan-like) and C4 (tyrosine-like) variability was mostly dictated by salinity (S), by means of positive non-linear relationships, suggesting a primary physical control of their distributions at the global surface ocean scale that could be related to the changing evaporation-precipitation regime. Remarkably, bacterial biomass (BB) only contributed to explain a minor part of the variability of C1 and C4.

  19. Global Controllability of Chemical Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Drexler, Dániel András; Tóth, János

    2015-01-01

    Controllability of chemical reactions is an important problem in chemical engineering science. In control theory, analysis of the controllability of linear systems is well-founded, however the dynamics of chemical reactions is usually nonlinear. Global controllability properties of chemical reactions are analyzed here based on the Lie-algebra of the vector fields associated to elementary reactions. A chemical reaction is controllable almost everywhere if all the reaction rate coefficients can...

  20. Globalization challenges in a globalized world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriçi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is an ongoing phenomenon trying to redefine the economic, social, cultural and political dynamics of contemporary societies. The communication among countries and not only them, has been increased expanding political ties, making possible greater economic integration and wider cultural relations combined with augmented global wealth across the world. But, the process of globalization is in wider terms considered a beneficial one, but also viewed by some countries as a menace to national sovereignty and national culture. This paper tries to explain the obstacles to the process of globalization and its attendant benefits. Although globalization has arisen as a result of a more stable world, the factors that had contributed to its rise also help the factions interested to bring destabilization. In an academic approach in this article, between the research and comparative methods, I have been trying to get the maxims between economy, politics and diplomacy in their efforts of affecting the global era.

  1. Cosmic global strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1991-01-01

    The topics are: global strings; the gravitational field of a straight global string; how do global strings behave?; the axion cosmological energy density; computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields. (orig.)

  2. Globalization and business ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Khadartseva, L.; Agnaeva, L.

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that local conditions of markets may be different, but some global markets, ethics and social responsibility principles should be applicable to all markets. As markets globalize and an increasing proportion of business activity transcends national borders, institutions need to help manage, regulate, and police the global marketplace, and to promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system

  3. GlobalSoilMap and Global Carbon Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Jonathan; McBratney, Alex B.; Arrouays, Dominique

    consistently produced soil property information at 100 m resolution across the world. This information will aid in solving some of the key environment and societal issues of the day, including food security, global climate change land degradation and carbon sequestration. Data would be produced using mostly...... the storehouse of existing legacy soils data along with geographic information and a range of covariates. A range of modeling techniques is used dependant on the complexity of the background soil survey information. The key soil properties that would be most useful to the modeling community and other users are...... of soil property values throughout the depth of each profile. Maps have been produced at the country level in the Australia, Canada, Denmark, Nigeria, South Korea and the US and work is on-going in many other parts of the world....

  4. Global Mindset in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the call for identification of organizational contingencies related to global mindset, exploration of different forms of global mindset and their relationship with global strategies (Osland, Bird, Mendenhall & Osland, 2006). To this end, this paper explores global mindset...... development in the context of a 3-year single case study of middle manager microfoundations of global mindset in a Danish multinational corporation working with deliberate global mindset capability development as a vehicle for strategy execution and facilitation of global performance. A force field analysis...

  5. Globalization and its methodological discontents: Contextualizing globalization through the study of HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    There remains considerable discontent between globalization scholars about how to conceptualize its meaning and in regards to epistemological and methodological questions concerning how we can come to understand how these processes ultimately operate, intersect and transform our lives. This article argues that to better understand what globalization is and how it affects issues such as global health, we must take a differentiating approach, which focuses on how the multiple processes of globalization are encountered and informed by different social groups and with how these encounters are experienced within particular contexts. The article examines the heuristic properties of qualitative field research as a means to help better understand how the intersections of globalization are manifested within particular locations. To do so, the article focuses on three recent case studies conducted on globalization and HIV/AIDS and explores how these cases can help us to understand the contextual permutations involved within the processes of globalization. PMID:21861895

  6. Globalization and its methodological discontents: Contextualizing globalization through the study of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labonté Ronald

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There remains considerable discontent between globalization scholars about how to conceptualize its meaning and in regards to epistemological and methodological questions concerning how we can come to understand how these processes ultimately operate, intersect and transform our lives. This article argues that to better understand what globalization is and how it affects issues such as global health, we must take a differentiating approach, which focuses on how the multiple processes of globalization are encountered and informed by different social groups and with how these encounters are experienced within particular contexts. The article examines the heuristic properties of qualitative field research as a means to help better understand how the intersections of globalization are manifested within particular locations. To do so, the article focuses on three recent case studies conducted on globalization and HIV/AIDS and explores how these cases can help us to understand the contextual permutations involved within the processes of globalization.

  7. GLOBAL RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Er Kirtesh Jailia; Mrs.Manisha jailia; Er.Priyanka Jailia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we are going to discuss about the concept of Global relationship management. This is an important concept because now a day the whole business community is moving globally, means the geographical boundaries are of no more concern for the business communities. The global thinking of the business communities leads to the global relationship hence it is important for them to effectively manage such global relationship so that they can achieve what they want. The main concern is ove...

  8. Intellectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Shpresa Ibrahimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Montenue, a distinct French scholar of intellectual property, has suggested that IP is a “tool which surprisingly helps a lot”, and this definition on science, arts, culture, since the 16th century. Now, what would be the definition of intellectual property for the 21st century? Apparently not a “strange” tool, but a necessary tool, primary for enriching human knowledge, and for the new world order, especially in the global market sphere. Intellectual property is an integral part of international trade, and its importance keeps increasing, since effective use of knowledge is increasingly influencing the economic prosperity of peoples. One may say that there is little originality in the creative sphere. Naturally, this originality can only be reflected by individuality and human identity in intellectual creativity The author rights in the Kosovo legislation is a novelty, a necessity of developing a creative environment in the fields of science, arts and industrial property. First and foremost, the individual benefit, which is secured by the author as the creator of the work, is a moral and material right. Secondly, there is a need for harmonization, not only of values for the creator, but also for the development of science, culture, increased competitive advantage, and the public sphere, as a benefit for the public health and security, and the fiscal policy. The deficiency one must record is with the Office for Copy Rights, which is to play a strong role in implementing and protecting copy rights and other related rights by licensing collective management agencies, imposing administrative fines, awareness raising, provision of information, and other capacity building and educative measures. Naturally, the enactment of good legislation is a system without any meaning or sense if not associated with the court practice. Any establishment of a legal system not pursued with enforcement mechanisms remains only in legal frameworks.

  9. Global health research needs global networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    To meet the challenges arising from global environmental change on human health, co-developing common approaches and new alliances of science and society are necessary. The first steps towards defining cross-cutting, health-environment issues were developed by the Global Environmental Change and

  10. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefidvash, Farhang

    1997-01-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  11. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefidvash, Farhang [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1997-07-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  12. The Global Flood Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  13. Global and local scour at pile groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bundgaard, Klavs; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on scour around pile groups with different configurations exposed to steady current. Two kinds of tests were carried out: (1) Rigid-bed tests, and (2) Actual scour tests. In the former tests, the mean and turbulence properties...... of the flow were measured across the pile groups. The pile group configurations were such that the global scour was distinguished from the local scour. The results show that the global scour can be quite substantial....

  14. Global and local scour at pile groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bundgaard, Klavs; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on scour around pile groups with different configurations exposed to steady current. Two kinds of tests were carried out: rigid-bed tests and actual scour tests. In these, the mean and turbulence properties of the flow were measured...... across the pile groups. The pile-group configurations were such that the global scour was distinguished from the local scour. The results show that the global scour can be quite substantial....

  15. Globalization and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK NAYYAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy within countries might exercise some checks and balances on markets and globalization. The essential argument is that the relationship between globalization and democracy is dialectical and does not conform to ideological caricatures.

  16. Global from the Start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    This article provides insights from recent research on firms that are "born global". A born-global firm is a venture launched to exploit a global niche from the first day of its operations. The insights in this article are relevant to technology entrepreneurs and top management teams of new...... technology firms. After discussing various definitions for the term "born global" and identifying the main characteristics of born-global firms, this article lists a few salient characteristics of firms that are born global in the technology sector. The article concludes by identifying opportunities...

  17. Segregações gaméticas de locos isoenzímicos em porta-enxertos de citros e suas contribuições alélicas na formação de híbridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Filho Herculano Penna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os porta-enxertos de citros, Citrus limonia (limão Cravo, C. sunki, (tangerina Sunki, C. aurantium (laranja Azeda e Poncirus trifoliata (Trifoliata por meio de eletroforese horizontal descontínua em gel de amido quanto aos seus genótipos e suas segregações dos locos isoenzímicos Pgi-1, Pgm-1, Got-1, Got-2, Prxa-1, Aps-1 e Me-1, bem como às suas contribuições alélicas a mais de 400 híbridos entre eles. Os locos Me-1 e Aps-1, embora úteis para identificação de híbridos, são homozigotos nos genitores, portanto, inadequados às análises de segregações gaméticas nos genitores e das contribuições alélicas a seus híbridos e foram, por esta razão, desconsiderados. Em Trifoliata, o loco duplicado Got-2, anteriormente descrito com genótipo MT.SS, é na verdade SS.MT, em que S é um alelo de F em Sunki (FF.MM e de F e M em Azeda (FM.MM, enquanto os alelos M e T da duplicação são alelos de M do loco homozigoto MM de Azeda e Sunki, assim determinados pelo padrão de bandas dos híbridos e pela formação dos correspondentes heterodímeros intraloco. Considerando-se 27 segregações para os cinco locos estudados verificou-se a ocorrência de distorções estatisticamente significativas em seis (22% delas. Assumindo-se a ausência de seleção, haja vista as condições ideais de germinação em placas de Petri, a separação dos embriões e a determinação dos genótipos já no primeiro ou segundo par de folhas, os resultados refletem, provavelmente, distorção na proporção dos alelos nos gametas dos genitores, ou transmissão diferencial dos alelos, ou ainda, distinta viabilidade de seus portadores nos zigotos híbridos. Devido à co-dominância dos alelos de isoenzimas, foi possível deduzir a contribuição relativa de cada alelo dos locos heterozigotos dos genitores a partir dos genótipos das progênies híbridas. Não se observaram distorções genotípicas oriundas do genitor Trifoliata, porém ocorreram em

  18. COMPETING CONCEPTIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sklair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a relatively new idea in the social sciences, although people who work in and write about the mass media, transnational corporations and international business have been using it for some time. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the ways in which sociologists and other social scientists use ideas of globalization and to evaluate the fruitfulness of these competing conceptions. The central feature of the idea of globalization is that many contemporary problems cannot be adequately studied at the level of nation-states, that is, in terms of each country and its inter-national relations. Instead, they need to be conceptualized in terms of global processes. Some have even gone so far as to predict that global forces, by which they usually mean transnational corporations and other global economic institutions, global culture or globalizing belief systems/ideologies of various types, or a combination of all of these, are becoming so powerful that the continuing existence of the nation-state is in serious doubt. This is not a necessary consequence of most theories of globalization. The argument of this paper is that much of the globalization literature is confused because not all those who use the term distinguish it clearly enough from internation-alization, and some writers appear to use the two terms interchangeably. I argue that a clear distinction must be drawn between the inter-national and the global. The hyphen in inter-national is to distinguish (inadequate conceptions of the global' founded on the existing even if changing system of nation-states, from (genuine conceptions of the global based on the emergence of global processes and a global system of social relations not founded on national characteristics or nation-states. This global system theory is the framework for my own research. Globalization studies can be categorized on the basis of four research clusters:1. The world-systems approach; 2. The global

  19. Global model structures for ∗-modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhme, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    We extend Schwede's work on the unstable global homotopy theory of orthogonal spaces and L-spaces to the category of ∗-modules (i.e., unstable S-modules). We prove a theorem which transports model structures and their properties from L-spaces to ∗-modules and show that the resulting global model...... structure for ∗-modules is monoidally Quillen equivalent to that of orthogonal spaces. As a consequence, there are induced Quillen equivalences between the associated model categories of monoids, which identify equivalent models for the global homotopy theory of A∞-spaces....

  20. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Present processes of global climate change are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. 18 refs

  1. Globalization and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Machikita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Recent empirical studies which utilize plant- or establishment-level data to examine globalization's impact on productivity have discovered many causal mechanisms involved in globalization's impact on firms’ productivity. Because these pathways have been broad, there have been few attempts...

  2. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  3. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quere, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frederic; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Koertzinger, Arne; Landschuetzer, Peter; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Roedenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Soenke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  4. Global Tuberculosis Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alt+0 Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 Tuberculosis (TB) Menu Tuberculosis Data and statistics Regional Framework Resources Meetings and events Global tuberculosis report 2017 WHO has published a global TB ...

  5. Gender and Economic Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The following article draws on the discussion of the iuéd Colloquium on Gender and Economic Globalization. The Colloquium aimed to draw out the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, with a particular focus on poor women in developing countries. Globalization – for or against women? In order to look at the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, and more particularly on poor women’s lives, we are confronted with a complex set of interlinked dynamics. Inequitable g...

  6. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  7. GLOBAL OR NATIONAL BRANDS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina GÎRBOVEANU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, branding is such a strong force that hardly anything goes unbranded. Branding in global markets poses several challenges to the marketers. A key decision is the choice between global and nationals brands. This article gives the answers to the questions: what is, what is need for, what are the advantages, costs and risks of global and national brands? All go to the following conclusion: use global brands where possible and national brands where necessary.

  8. Global nuclear-structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to ε 2 and ε 4 used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and Β-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential

  9. Global analysis studies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gliklikh, Yuri; Vershik, A

    1992-01-01

    This volume (a sequel to LNM 1108, 1214, 1334 and 1453) continues the presentation to English speaking readers of the Voronezh University press series on Global Analysis and Its Applications. The papers are selected fromtwo Russian issues entitled "Algebraic questions of Analysis and Topology" and "Nonlinear Operators in Global Analysis". CONTENTS: YuE. Gliklikh: Stochastic analysis, groups of diffeomorphisms and Lagrangian description of viscous incompressible fluid.- A.Ya. Helemskii: From topological homology: algebras with different properties of homological triviality.- V.V. Lychagin, L.V. Zil'bergleit: Duality in stable Spencer cohomologies.- O.R. Musin: On some problems of computational geometry and topology.- V.E. Nazaikinskii, B.Yu. Sternin, V.E.Shatalov: Introduction to Maslov's operational method (non-commutative analysis and differential equations).- Yu.B. Rudyak: The problem of realization of homology classes from Poincare up to the present.- V.G. Zvyagin, N.M. Ratiner: Oriented degree of Fredholm...

  10. Global Governance, Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social globalization require analysis in terms of governance at the global level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of global governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international…

  11. Global Environment Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Ringtail lemur mom with two of paradise Nations rally to protect global environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Stockholm, Sweden birds-eye view Events GEF-7 Replenishment Trung Truong Son Landscapes

  12. Global Health Security

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-21

    Dr. Jordan Tappero, a CDC senior advisor on global health, discusses the state of global health security.  Created: 9/21/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Center for Global Health (CGH).   Date Released: 9/21/2017.

  13. Global Sourcing of Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    The global sourcing of services offers high returns but is also associated with high risks. The extent to which firms engage in ‘transformational’ global sourcing (i.e., global sourcing implying considerable changes in the home organization) chiefly depends on management's comfort zone which...

  14. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  15. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  16. Global Cancer Humanitarian Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat Garcia-Gonzalez of the Max Foundation accepted the first annual NCI Global Cancer Medicine Humanitarian Award for her work in chronic myeloid leukemia at the NCI, Center for Global Health Symposium for Global Cancer Research, held in Boston on March 25, 2015.

  17. Globalization and American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, William; Nicoletti, Augustine

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is a potent force in today's world. The welfare of the United States is tied to the welfare of other countries by economics, the environment, politics, culture, information, and technology. This paper identifies the implications of globalization for education, presents applications of important aspects of globalization that teachers…

  18. Security Components of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is our intention to present what are the main connections between globalization and international security. In terms of global security we can perceive the globalization as a process by which global state is represented by the UN, with a single world system, represented by major security organizations and with global effects. We will present from the beginning the main theoretical aspects that define the phenomenon of globalization, and then our contribution in assessing the implications of this phenomenon on the regional and global security. The results of our research are materialized in the last part of the paper. They emphasize the personal assessments on how the phenomenon of globalization has direct effect on global security. When talking about government, we think of norms, rules and decisionmaking procedures in the management of international life. The value that we add to the new scientific interpretation of the definition of globalization is represented, primarily, by the valuable bibliographic used resources and the original approach on the concept that refers to the links between globalization and security. This article may be, at any time, a starting point in an interesting research direction in the field of global security.

  19. Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

  20. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Stückelberger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  1. Global Peace through the Global University System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Hakan AYDIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Utopia is defined in Encarta Dictionary as “an ideal and perfect place or state, where everyone lives in harmony and everything is for the best.” Developments all around the world especially in the last decade have supported the idea that global peace is nothing but just a utopian dream. However, for centuries a group of believers have always been in search of global peace via different means. This book, titled as “Global Peace through the Global University System”, can be considered as one of the artifacts of this search.Actually this book is a collection of papers presented in working conference on the Global University System (GUS hosted by the University of Tampere, Finland in 1999. The main goal of the conference was bringing international experts to share their philosophy, past and present experiences about the GUS. The conference was held by the University of Tampere because UNESCO has an agreement with the University to establish the UNESCOChair in Global e-Learning.

  2. How Global is Global Civil Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chandhoke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the concept of global civil society has made its appearance on national and international intellectual, as well as political agendas, in a major way. It is of some interest that two other concepts, both of which call for transcendence of national boundaries in precisely the same way as global civil society does, have also made their appearance on the scene of intellectual debates at roughly the same time: the concept of cosmopolitanism and that of transnational justice. All three concepts have dramatically expanded the notion of commitment to one’s fellow beings beyond the nation state. And all three concepts have extended critiques of policies that violate the dignity of human beings from national governments to the practices of inter-national institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Forum. In sum the inter-related concepts of global civil society, cosmopolitanism, and transnational justice have greatly enlarged the traditional domain of political theory. And yet for any political theorist who is acutely conscious of the phenomenon of power, these concepts are not unproblematic. For the practices of global civil society may just reinforce the intellectual and the moral power of the West over the postcolonial world. This is particularly true of say global human rights organizations. This paper will attempt to raise some questions of the concept and the practices of global civil society from the perspective of the countries of the South.

  3. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  4. Institutionalizing Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Global Compact – which is a Global Public Policy Network advocating 10 universal principles in the areas of human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption – has turned into the world's largest corporate responsibility initiative. Although the Global...... Compact is often characterized as a promising way to address global governance gaps, it remains largely unclear why this is the case. To address this problem, we discuss to what extent the initiative represents an institutional solution to exercise global governance. We suggest that new governance modes...

  5. Global Analysis of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Many properties of minimal surfaces are of a global nature, and this is already true for the results treated in the first two volumes of the treatise. Part I of the present book can be viewed as an extension of these results. For instance, the first two chapters deal with existence, regularity and uniqueness theorems for minimal surfaces with partially free boundaries. Here one of the main features is the possibility of 'edge-crawling' along free parts of the boundary. The third chapter deals with a priori estimates for minimal surfaces in higher dimensions and for minimizers of singular integ

  6. Ideological Hegemony and Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ford Brown

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze libertarian discourse from the perspective of regulation theory, a~ a hegemonic ideology that underlies the emergence of a new mode of regulation. Within this general theoretical approach, I will also employ frames from regime theory as developed by international relations scholars, as well as the "epistemic community" approach from the same discipline. I want to suggest that free-market ideology could engender the emergence of rationalized global governance in order to maintain free trade, property rights, and other regulatory concerns of the emerging mode of accumulation, and that such a world state could conceivably extend liberalism's life by carrying liberalism to its extreme.

  7. INTERPRETING GLOBAL EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh W. Dalpour

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s constantly changing world it is often times difficult to understand thechanges happening around us every second. Some of these changes may be, inthe aggregate,for good, while others may have unappreciated and heavy costs.What isGlobalization? Globalization is “an elimination of barriers to trade,communication, and cultural exchange. The theory behind globalization is thatworldwide openness will promote the inherent wealth of all nations.”(Jones,2012All this encompasses global cultures, international economics and other growingsocial networks such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. Throughout thisanalysis the pros and cons of globalization will be discussed and also whetherornot globalization is in fact as much of a benefit for today’s global economy─as somany think─will be determined. First,identification of the various types ofglobalization is necessary.

  8. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  9. Global solidarity, migration and global health inequity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa

    2012-09-01

    The grounds for global solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a global concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to global inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of global solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of global solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: global solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address global health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  11. Forms of global governence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kharkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global governance as a concept defines the meaning of contemporary world politics both as a discipline and as reality. Interdependent and globalized world requires governance, and a global government has not been formed yet. The theoretical possibility of global governance without global government is proved and justified. The purpose of this article is to analytically identify possible forms of global governance. Three such forms of global governance are identified: hierarchical, market and network. In a hierarchy the governance is due to the asymmetry of power between the parties. Market control happens via anonymous pricing mechanism. Network, in contrast to the market is characterized by a closer value link between the actors, but unlike the hierarchical relationship actors are free to leave the network. Global governance takes three forms and is being implemented by different actors. To determine the most efficient form of global governance is impossible. Efficiency depends on the match between a form and an object of government. It should be noted that meta governance is likely to remain a monopoly of institutionally strong states in global governance.

  12. Relationship between global indices of reactivity, electrodonating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    groups with electrodonating or electroaccepting properties, and two indices of global reactivity were calcu- lated in the gas ... have a greater number of empirical descriptors, as well as theoretical ... as by the resistance (described by η) to the exchange of electronic ... (as calculated in gas phase) of the electroaccepting, ω+.

  13. The global structure of knowledge network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelopoulos, Spyros; Lomi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we treat patent citations as knowledge networks connecting pieces of formalized knowledge and people, and focus on how ideas are connected, rather than how they are protected. We focus on the global structural properties of formalized knowledge network, and more specifically on the

  14. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  15. Global Citizenship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2016-01-01

    published after 2000 was written by researchers based in the US and if you add other English-speaking countries such as Canada, England, Australia and New Zealand, the proportion is even higher. English in the field of education research often serves as the international lingua franca. Since there is also......Global citizenship as an idea has become an increasingly important issue on the educational agenda since the late 1970’s. The importance allotted to this issue is clear in the attention given to it by for example UNESCO where global citizenship education (GCED) is an area of strategic focus....... Increasingly schools all over the world are attempting to or expected to educate the global citizen, but how exactly do you educate the global citizen? What does this global citizenship consist of? While surely the type of training and education needed to train a global citizen will vary greatly depending...

  16. The psychology of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2002-10-01

    The influence of globalization on psychological functioning is examined. First, descriptions of how globalization is occurring in various world regions are presented. Then the psychological consequences of globalization are described, with a focus on identity issues. Specifically, it is argued that most people worldwide now develop a bicultural identity that combines their local identity with an identity linked to the global culture; that identity confusion may be increasing among young people in non-Western cultures as a result of globalization; that some people join self-selected cultures to maintain an identity that is separate from the global culture; and that a period of emerging adulthood increasingly extends identity explorations beyond adolescence, through the mid- to late twenties.

  17. The new global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Kevin M; Simone, Patricia M; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set.

  18. Salud y justicia global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyol, Ángel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A question that would have to worry more to the global justice is the huge inequality of health in the world. In this paper, I analyse the causes of the global inequality of health and the ethical arguments for and against the need to treat this inequality from the perspective of the global justice. After refusing the arguments against both of the libertarianism and the statism, and after showing the critics both to the approach to the language of human rights and to the poggean proposal to reduce the duties of global justice to negative moral duties, I defend the need to use a sufficiency approach to global justice based in positive moral duties to face the severity and the moral urgency of the global inequalities of health.

    Una de las cuestiones que debería preocupar más a la teoría de la justicia global es la enorme desigualdad de salud que hay en el mundo. En este artículo, se repasan las causas de la desigualdad global de salud y los argumentos éticos a favor y en contra de la necesidad de tratar dicha desigualdad desde la perspectiva de la justicia global. Tras rechazar los argumentos en contra tanto del libertarismo de derechas como del estatalismo, y tras exponer las críticas tanto al lenguaje de los derechos humanos como a la propuesta poggeana de reducir los deberes de la justicia global a deberes morales negativos, defiendo la necesidad de partir de un criterio de justicia global suficientista y basado en los deberes morales positivos para afrontar la gravedad y la urgencia moral que suponen las desigualdades globales de salud.

  19. Globalization vs National Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    economic market or system in which prices are based on competition among private businesses and not controlled by a government.12 Global Commons...effects of globalization , work in different countries for years of their lives, conduct social networking and business through cyberspace. Civic...Qaeda. Today , The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria recruits and funds operations around the world benefiting from globalization . The central objectives

  20. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  1. Developing Global Transformational Leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsey, Jase R.; Rutti, Raina M.; Lorenz, Melanie P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant increases in training and development of global managers, little is known about the precursors of transformational leadership in Multilatinas. While prior cross-cultural literature suggests that being an autocratic leader is ideal in Multilatinas, using transformational...... leadership theory, we argue that global leaders of Multilatinas embrace a more humanistic approach to leadership because of the importance of relationships between leaders and their followers. Additionally, we argue that global leaders with high levels of cultural intelligence will have high levels...

  2. Compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2 as substitutes for SF6 to reduce global warming potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Zhong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available C5F10O has recently been found to be a very promising alternative to SF6. This paper is devoted to the investigation of compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2. Firstly, the partition functions and enthalpies of formation for a few molecules (CxFy and CxFyO which are likely to exist in the mixtures, are calculated based on the G4(MP2 theory. The isomers of the above molecules are selected according to their Gibbs energy. The compositions of C5F10O-CO2-O2 mixtures are then determined using the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Next, the thermodynamic properties (mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat are derived from the previously calculated compositions. Lastly, the transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity are calculated based on Chapman-Enskog method. It is found that, as an arc quenching gas, C5F10O could not recombine into itself with the temperature decreasing down to room temperature after the arc extinction. Besides, the key species at room temperature are always CF4, CO2, and C4F6 if graphite is not considered. When taken into account, graphite will replace C4F6 as one of the dominate particles. The mixing of CO2 with C5F10O plasma significantly affects the thermodynamic properties (e.g. vanishing and/or shifting of the peaks in specific heat and transport coefficients (e.g. reducing viscosity and changing the number of peaks in thermal conductivity, while the addition of O2 with C5F10O-CO2 mixtures has no remarkable influence on both thermodynamic and transport properties.

  3. Compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2 as substitutes for SF6 to reduce global warming potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Linlin; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Xiaohua; Wu, Junhui; Han, Guiquan; Han, Guohui; Lu, Yanhui; Yang, Aijun; Wu, Yi

    2017-07-01

    C5F10O has recently been found to be a very promising alternative to SF6. This paper is devoted to the investigation of compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2. Firstly, the partition functions and enthalpies of formation for a few molecules (CxFy and CxFyO) which are likely to exist in the mixtures, are calculated based on the G4(MP2) theory. The isomers of the above molecules are selected according to their Gibbs energy. The compositions of C5F10O-CO2-O2 mixtures are then determined using the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Next, the thermodynamic properties (mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat) are derived from the previously calculated compositions. Lastly, the transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) are calculated based on Chapman-Enskog method. It is found that, as an arc quenching gas, C5F10O could not recombine into itself with the temperature decreasing down to room temperature after the arc extinction. Besides, the key species at room temperature are always CF4, CO2, and C4F6 if graphite is not considered. When taken into account, graphite will replace C4F6 as one of the dominate particles. The mixing of CO2 with C5F10O plasma significantly affects the thermodynamic properties (e.g. vanishing and/or shifting of the peaks in specific heat) and transport coefficients (e.g. reducing viscosity and changing the number of peaks in thermal conductivity), while the addition of O2 with C5F10O-CO2 mixtures has no remarkable influence on both thermodynamic and transport properties.

  4. Contextual cueing by global features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A.; Flusberg, Stephen J.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2008-01-01

    In visual search tasks, attention can be guided to a target item, appearing amidst distractors, on the basis of simple features (e.g. find the red letter among green). Chun and Jiang’s (1998) “contextual cueing” effect shows that RTs are also speeded if the spatial configuration of items in a scene is repeated over time. In these studies we ask if global properties of the scene can speed search (e.g. if the display is mostly red, then the target is at location X). In Experiment 1a, the overall background color of the display predicted the target location. Here the predictive color could appear 0, 400 or 800 msec in advance of the search array. Mean RTs are faster in predictive than in non-predictive conditions. However, there is little improvement in search slopes. The global color cue did not improve search efficiency. Experiments 1b-1f replicate this effect using different predictive properties (e.g. background orientation/texture, stimuli color etc.). The results show a strong RT effect of predictive background but (at best) only a weak improvement in search efficiency. A strong improvement in efficiency was found, however, when the informative background was presented 1500 msec prior to the onset of the search stimuli and when observers were given explicit instructions to use the cue (Experiment 2). PMID:17355043

  5. Globalization and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Imran Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of globalization has been introduced due to technical advancements that has made the world a global village. The world as is now has never been before; it is now a world where multicultural societies have developed, trade and transactions are made between countries, technology reaches every part of the world, and internet has connected every possible idea, opinion, person, and commodity with the rest of the world. In this world of globalization, education has taken a central role, as without education globalization cannot be germinated. Education is a national issue and as such, each country has its own educational policies that are emblems of that country's cultural values, belief system and historical realities. Nevertheless, the globalized world demands for multiculturalism, and commonalities amongst communities to be promoted so as to bring the world closer to accepting cultural diversities and celebrating commonalities. For these aims, educational institutions become institutions for promoting globalization by introducing various cultural and traditional beliefs to the new generation. Recently, globalization has become a popular subject of debate in national and international circiles. Globalization links individuals and institutions across the world through economic forces, digital technologies, and communication. It is moreover subjected to higher living standards, international affiliations, and multiple types of freedom. However, a major part of the world consists of under developed countries where technological advancements, communication, trade and commerce along with other economic activities are not enough to support them to be a part of the global society.

  6. GLOBAL KEYNESIANISM AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Kohler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Something like "global Keynesianism" or "transnational socialism" has been mentioned as a desirable alternative to global neoliberalism (Redmond 1997. However, a definition of this kind of global Keynesianism is hard to find. Many leftists tend to associate Keynesianism with corporate power. However, there are also numerous other leftists who view this differently. For example, a member of parliament for the German Green Party stated in a recent interview that "a reformist party today has to be a left-Keynesian party which contradicts the logic of capital" (Ebermann 1998. A number of scholars from several countries, including Canada, pursue post-Keynesian-ism, in the sense of left-Keynesian economics (e.g., Seccareccia 1991. How-ever, available left-Keynesian literature, as I see it, is lacking a world-system perspective. I am trying in this article to synthesize the two perspectives-namely, left-Keynesianism and world-system theory, leading to a perspective of global left-Keynesianism. This leftist global Keynesianism can, perhaps, be described as an approach to economics which emphasizes responsible public management of economic problems in a world-system context. Common themes in global Keynesianism include the importance of public management, democratic politics, the mixed economy, global income distribution, the management of global demand, investment and money, ecological sustainability and the importance of multiple levels of public management-local, national, regional and global.

  7. Global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  8. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    ) innovation capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of global value chain governance - market, modular, relational, captive, and hierarchy - which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous international tax laws...... to highly complex and flexible innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This paper highlights how Global Wealth Chains intersect with value chains and real economies, and provides three brief case studies on offshore shell companies, family property trusts......This working paper creates a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in international political economy and economic geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance...

  9. BUSINESS GLOBALIZATION: TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND GLOBAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMA Stela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce business globalization and the main globalization factors which, under the current stage, are transnational corporations. Globalization is the result of the pressure put by companies which, in turn, are under the close “magnifier” of all the involved factors (the so-called “stakeholders”. The market and the determining forces are not influenced by a political attitude nowadays marking globalization, but rather the political decisions have followed the course of economic evolutions, a trend that has always been provided by multinational corporations. In order to successfully follow up their activity, companies initiate new businesses, selling or deleting from their portfolio businesses or divisions with a decreasing tendency. Also, companies give up old rules and structures adopting new decision-making processes, control systems and mental patterns. Corporations must learn to become dynamic just like the market, if they wish to maintain, on the long run, a superior rate of income.

  10. From Global Knowledge to Global Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that student learning is enhanced when civic engagement is a component of international education initiatives. When only presented with knowledge about global challenges, students can become frustrated and overwhelmed unless they also understand how they might contribute to solutions. Political science programs are…

  11. Secret et anonymat dans l’assistance médicale à la procréation avec donneurs de gamètes, ou le dogme de l’anonymat « à la française » Secret and anonymity in medical assistance to procreation with gamete donors or the anonymity dogma « à la française »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Delaisi de Parseval

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La France s’est dotée d’un système législatif qui, en matière d’assistance médicale à la procréation avec donneurs (I.A.D., F.I.V. -D, dons d’ovocytes, dons d’embryons, a fait de la filiation biologique un secret désormais juridiquement protégé par la loi. Les lois votées par le Parlement français le 29 Juillet 1994 ont en effet choisi de rattacher la filiation des enfants nés avec la participation des donneurs de gamètes à la filiation charnelle (légitime ou naturelle, et non à la filiation fond��e sur la volonté, comme l’est la filiation adoptive. Ces positions sont discutées au plan de la métapsychologie et comparées à d’autres systèmes législatifs qui, pour l’auteur, prennent mieux en compte l’intérêt de toutes les parties concernées.France has a legislative system which, as far as medical assistance to procreation with donors (insemination with donor, in vitro fertilization with donor, gifts of oocytes, gift of embryos is concerned, has transformed biological filiation into a secret now protected by the law. Laws adopted by the French Parliament on July 29, 1994 chose to attach the filiation of children born with the participation of gamete donors to blood filiation (legitimate or natural and not to filiation based on will such as adoptive filiation. These positions are discussed from a metapsychological perspective and are compared with other legislative systems which, for the author, better take into consideration the interest of all persons concerned.

  12. Global scale groundwater flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Ludovicus; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus supports ecosystem habitat and biodiversity, while its large natural storage provides a buffer against water shortages. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component that is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle and allows the simulation of groundwater head dynamics. In this study we present a steady-state MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) groundwater model on the global scale at 5 arc-minutes resolution. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological model (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moorsdorff, in press). We force the groundwtaer model with the output from the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. We validated calculated groundwater heads and depths with available head observations, from different regions, including the North and South America and Western Europe. Our results show that it is feasible to build a relatively simple global scale groundwater model using existing information, and estimate water table depths within acceptable accuracy in many parts of the world.

  13. Compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2 as substitutes for SF6 to reduce global warming potential

    OpenAIRE

    Linlin Zhong; Mingzhe Rong; Xiaohua Wang; Junhui Wu; Guiquan Han; Guohui Han; Yanhui Lu; Aijun Yang; Yi Wu

    2017-01-01

    C5F10O has recently been found to be a very promising alternative to SF6. This paper is devoted to the investigation of compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2. Firstly, the partition functions and enthalpies of formation for a few molecules (CxFy and CxFyO) which are likely to exist in the mixtures, are calculated based on the G4(MP2) theory. The isomers of the above molecules are selected according to their Gibbs en...

  14. Generalized monotonicity from global minimization in fourth-order ODEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Peletier (Mark)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe consider solutions of the stationary Extended Fisher-Kolmogorov equation with general potential that are global minimizers of an associated variational problem. We present results that relate the global minimization property to a generalized concept of monotonicity of the solutions.

  15. Global surrogacy practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Darnovsky (Marcy); D. Beeson (Diane); K.E. Cheney (Kristen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis report summarises discussions of participants in Thematic Area 5 (Global Surrogacy Practices) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. The Forum brought together advocates of women’s health, children’s rights and human rights;

  16. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  17. Learning Democratic Global Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a model process of developing knowledge from within different groups and cultures to allow more equitable participation of all world societies in the definition of global governance. Reviews concepts relevant to education's contributions toward learning and creating democratic global governance. Discusses the educational utility of…

  18. Global Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, history, fine/applied arts, theater arts, architecture, etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  19. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  20. Globalization of the Semiosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the future perspectives for Foreign Language Studies in the era of Globalization. The intensified globalization processes are studied in the light of Yuri Lotmans concept of the semiosphere and the article advocates the development of a new philology of culture....

  1. Global Diversity and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Art

    2003-01-01

    Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

  2. Critically Theorizing the Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudelli, William

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has unleashed profound changes in education. These include positivistic international school comparisons, a singular focus on schools as drivers of economic development, and the adoption of neoliberal market principles in school. These changes, however, generally go unexamined within the field and literature of global education.…

  3. Globalization of Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap…

  4. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  5. Reframing Global Engagement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wende, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has strongly influenced higher education during the last decades. As in many other sectors, this has generated contradictory outcomes. Higher education has opened up to the world and become more engaged at the global level. But how will this process continue with the current backlash

  6. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Larsen, Marcus M.; Bharati, Pratyush

    2013-01-01

    This article examines antecedents and performance implications of global delivery models (GDMs) in global business services. GDMs require geographically distributed operations to exploit both proximity to clients and time-zone spread for efficient service delivery. We propose and empirically show...

  7. The 2030 Global Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Sound land governance is fundamental to achieving the 2030 Global Agenda as set by the Sustainable. Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by all the world’s leaders at the UN Summit in September 2015. This Global Agenda calls for a “data revolution” for sustainable development to empower people...

  8. Middle Schoolers Go Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mark; McTighe, Jay

    2017-01-01

    From global hunger to the world's water crisis, middle school students at New Jersey's West Windsor-Plainsboro Regional School District spend the last few days of the school year problem solving about the planet's most dire issues. With the Global Challenge, the school district's administrators not only want to implement an interesting and dynamic…

  9. Global marketing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John Rance; Galina Zhiltsova

    2009-01-01

    The reasoning issue of this work is to research and define the efficient methods of global marketing control. The report is focused on the following aspects: the importance of the control systems in global marketing environment, the relationship between planning and controlling, types and the

  10. Managing Global Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Yip (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMultinational companies need to manage their relationships with multinational customers in a globally integrated approach. This paper provides a systematic framework for developing and implementing such global customer management programmes. The paper is based on Chapter 1 of George S.

  11. Building Global Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  12. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  13. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian A; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M S; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E M S; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Van Der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future

  14. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quéré, Le Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M.S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E.M.S.; Nakaoka, S.; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Laan-Luijkx, van der Ingrid T.; Werf, van der Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  15. Global from the Start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2016-01-01

    This article provides insights from recent research on firms that are “born global”. A born-global firm is a venture launched to exploit a global niche from the first day of its operations. The insights in this article are relevant to technology entrepreneurs and top management teams of new...

  16. Globalization of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Globalization-the increasing transnational circulation of money, goods, people, ideas, and information worldwide-is generally recognized as one of the most powerful forces shaping our current and future history. How is it affecting healthcare, and in that context, what is the purpose and significance of Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHM), publisher of this journal? Our goal is not homogenization but rather to provide an opportunity for integration, convergence, and collaboration across cultures. By respecting and conserving the richness and diversity of each new medicine, we embrace globalization. Globalization is of course not new; it began in the Renaissance and particularly with the 15th- and 16th-century voyages of exploration by Columbus, Magellan, and others. Since the beginning of time, there have been interactions and exchanges among different peoples and cultures. However, the current magnitude of globalization is unprecedented and yet still expanding rapidly.

  17. Global gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, E.

    1985-01-01

    A general formula for global gauge and gravitational anomalies is derived. It is used to show that the anomaly free supergravity and superstring theories in ten dimensions are all free of global anomalies that might have ruined their consistency. However, it is shown that global anomalies lead to some restrictions on allowed compactifications of these theories. For example, in the case of O(32) superstring theory, it is shown that a global anomaly related to π 7 (O(32)) leads to a Dirac-like quantization condition for the field strength of the antisymmetric tensor field. Related to global anomalies is the question of the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field. It is argued that the relevant gravitational instantons are exotic spheres. It is shown that the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field is always even in ten dimensional supergravity. (orig.)

  18. Globalization of consumer confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çelik Sadullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of world economies and the importance of nowcasting analysis have been at the core of the recent literature. Nevertheless, these two strands of research are hardly coupled. This study aims to fill this gap through examining the globalization of the consumer confidence index (CCI by applying conventional and unconventional econometric methods. The US CCI is used as the benchmark in tests of comovement among the CCIs of several developing and developed countries, with the data sets divided into three sub-periods: global liquidity abundance, the Great Recession, and postcrisis. The existence and/or degree of globalization of the CCIs vary according to the period, whereas globalization in the form of coherence and similar paths is observed only during the Great Recession and, surprisingly, stronger in developing/emerging countries.

  19. Corporate Stakeholding and Globalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2016-01-01

    , the global warming, the disasters of global consumerism in terms of the collapse of the Rana Plaza factory in the fashion industry, are examples of how the stakeholder concept cannot continue to be defined as narrow as corporations usually does. The butterfly effect of globalism has shown to be – yes, global....... Even the smallest company, the single consumer and the tiniest decision made by anyone may in the future – perhaps even tomorrow – affect stakeholders, we didn’t know existed. The future generation is also to be considered as stakeholders, which decisions made today may affect. Companies, consumers......, everyday people including children already know this even from the first day at school if not before. What we need is not knowledge about these phenomena – it is how to think globally when we decide locally: in companies, in daily households, in education of our future generations. This chapter discusses...

  20. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    the higher costs (but decreased risk for value chain disruption) embedded in a more flexible global sourcing model that allows the firm to replicate and/or relocate activities across multiple locations. We develop a model and propositions on facilitating and constraining conditions of global sourcing...... sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...

  1. Global challenges and globalization of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhmetdinova, Farida

    2013-02-01

    This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies.

  2. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  3. Globalization as It Happens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    Globalization is usually understood as a structural, epochal condition altering the environment in which people, organizations, and societies operate. But such accounts offer little insight into the infrastructures, practices, and connections that facilitate the production of the global. This art......Globalization is usually understood as a structural, epochal condition altering the environment in which people, organizations, and societies operate. But such accounts offer little insight into the infrastructures, practices, and connections that facilitate the production of the global....... This article uses findings from an ethnographic study of tax planning to show how mundane practices and connectivities forge and organize global operations, and to argue for the value of analyzing processes of globalization in terms of assemblages and infrastructures. Empirically, the article captures how...... the making of ‘tax structures’ involves connecting, for instance, buildings in France, a human in Switzerland, a company in Denmark, various tax laws, a trust fund in New Zealand, and large amounts of money on the move. If studied along the lines of an analytics of ‘globalizing assemblages’, such financial...

  4. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  5. How global brands compete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Douglas B; Quelch, John A; Taylor, Earl L

    2004-09-01

    It's time to rethink global branding. More than two decades ago, Harvard Business School professor Theodore Levitt argued that corporations should grow by selling standardized products all over the world. But consumers in most countries had trouble relating to generic products, so executives instead strove for global scale on backstage activities such as production while customizing product features and selling techniques to local tastes. Such "glocal" strategies now rule marketing. Global branding has lost more luster recently because transnational companies have been under siege, with brands like Coca-Cola and Nike becoming lightning rods for antiglobalization protests. The instinctive reaction of most transnational companies has been to try to fly below the radar. But global brands can't escape notice. In fact, most transnational corporations don't realize that because of their power and pervasiveness, people view them differently than they do other firms. In a research project involving 3,300 consumers in 41 countries, the authors found that most people choose one global brand over another because of differences in the brands'global qualities. Ratherthan ignore the global characteristics of their brands, firms must learn to manage those characteristics. That's critical, because future growth for most companies will likely come from foreign markets. Consumers base preferences on three dimensions of global brands--quality (signaled by a company's global stature); the cultural myths that brands author; and firms' efforts to address social problems. The authors also found that it didn't matter to consumers whether the brands they bought were American--a remarkable finding considering that the study was conducted when anti-American sentiment in many nations was on the rise.

  6. Global resource sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  7. What qualifies globalization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarauw, Laura Louise

    2012-01-01

    modules and study programmes based on standardized learning outcomes and credits. In recent studies on the Bologna process (Fejes 2008, Ozga 2011) it is hence argued that qualifications frameworks can be seen as a key tool in an inevitable and univocal European standardization and marketisation of higher...... not neutral tools, responding to objective challenges of globalization, but at they same time shaping – or literally ‘framing’ – what is globalization By focusing on qualification frameworks, the paper unveils some of key the struggles over the significance of globalization in a Danish context...

  8. Global atmospheric changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piver, W T

    1991-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation.

  9. Global Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Christof; Kuhrmann, Marco; Prikladnicki, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Professional software products and IT systems and services today are developed mostly by globally distributed teams, projects, and companies. Successfully orchestrating Global Software Engineering (GSE) has become the major success factor both for organizations and practitioners. Yet, more than...... and experience reported at the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering (ICGSE) series. The outcomes of our analysis show GSE as a field highly attached to industry and, thus, a considerable share of ICGSE papers address the transfer of Software Engineering concepts and solutions to the global stage...

  10. Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinson, John V.

    2000-01-01

    Intellectual property is a term that covers a number of different rights. Considers issues such as what are the basic forms of intellectual property; who owns the intellectual property created by a teacher; who owns intellectual property created by students; and use of downloaded materials from the internet. (Author/LM)

  11. Global Warming: A Myth?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Global Warming: A Myth? - Credibility of Climate Scenarios Predicted by Systems Simulations. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 13-21 ...

  12. Stochastic and global optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dzemyda, Gintautas; Šaltenis, Vydūnas; Zhilinskas, A; Mockus, Jonas

    2002-01-01

    ... and Effectiveness of Controlled Random Search E. M. T. Hendrix, P. M. Ortigosa and I. García 129 9. Discrete Backtracking Adaptive Search for Global Optimization B. P. Kristinsdottir, Z. B. Zabinsky and...

  13. Food, Globalization and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Sonnenfeld, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of

  14. Local, Regional or Global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    to be consistent with models of internationalization that incorporate different assumptions about strategic choice and global competition. Preliminary results show that large multinationals follow home region oriented internationalization paths, although much of the regional effect reported by previous studies...

  15. The Global Energy Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining...... the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussing how it has evolved over the last 30 years and also, how it is expected to evolve in the coming 30 years....... Afterwards, the security of the world’s energy supply is investigated and it becomes clear that there is both an inevitable shortage of fossil fuels and a dangerous separation of supply and demand. The final topic discussed is renewable energy, since it is one sustainable solution to the global energy...

  16. Global Health Observatory (GHO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... global health estimates Health Equity Monitor 3.1 Maternal mortality Maternal health 3.2 Newborn and child mortality Child ... Programmes) Quick links Contact us Frequently asked questions Employment Feedback Privacy Email scams Regions Africa Americas South- ...

  17. Global reach and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Popular culture reflects both the interests of and the issues affecting the general public. As concerns regarding climate change and its impacts grow, is it permeating into popular culture and reaching that global audience?

  18. Global Methane Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Global Methane Initiative promotes cost-effective, near-term methane recovery through partnerships between developed and developing countries, with participation from the private sector, development banks, and nongovernmental organizations.

  19. Global Landslide Catalog Export

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) was developed with the goal of identifying rainfall-triggered landslide events around the world, regardless of size, impacts or...

  20. Biodiversity and global change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solbrig, Otto Thomas; Emden, H. M. van; Oordt, P. G. W. J. van; Solbrig, Otto T

    1992-01-01

    The IUBS symposium "Biodiversity and Global Change" held during the 24th General Assembly, 1-6 September, 1991, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, represented the first attempt to address the issue of bio...

  1. Global Climate Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Hourly Summaries are simple indicators of observational normals which include climatic data summarizations and frequency distributions. These typically...

  2. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, and are based on ... countries, mainly the fast-growing economies of East Asia. ... had no significant overall impact on investment and growth. Other.

  3. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, and are based on findings from the ... Does exporting matter for the poor in South Africa? ... strategies to promote employment and higher wages in.

  4. Global environmental engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Cicerone, RJ; Elliott, S; Turco, RP

    1992-01-01

    All the signs are that global ozone depletion is increasing. Ideas to mitigate the problem that at first glance may seem far-fetched deserve more serious consideration and a scientific process of evaluation. © 1992 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. The global warming problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

  6. Globalization of Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Globalization—the increasing transnational circulation of money, goods, people, ideas, and information worldwide—is generally recognized as one of the most powerful forces shaping our current and future history. How is it affecting healthcare, and in that context, what is the purpose and significance of Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHM), publisher of this journal? Our goal is not homogenization but rather to provide an opportunity for integration, convergence, and collaboration across cultures. By respecting and conserving the richness and diversity of each new medicine, we embrace globalization. Globalization is of course not new; it began in the Renaissance and particularly with the 15th- and 16th-century voyages of exploration by Columbus, Magellan, and others. Since the beginning of time, there have been interactions and exchanges among different peoples and cultures. However, the current magnitude of globalization is unprecedented and yet still expanding rapidly. PMID:24278809

  7. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, and are ... great disparities, with earnings among urban workers with higher education being four or five times larger than those of illiterate rural.

  8. The Global Menace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Summary The history of medicine has gone ‘global.’ Why? Can the proliferation of the ‘global’ in our writing be explained away as a product of staying true to our historical subjects’ categories? Or has this historiography in fact delivered a new ‘global’ problematic or performed serious ‘global’ analytic work? The situation is far from clear, and it is the tension between the global as descriptor and an analytics of the global that concerns me here. I have three main concerns: (1) that there is an epistemic collusion between the discourses of universality that inform medical science and global-talk; (2) that the embrace of the ‘global’ authorises a turning away from analyses of power in history-writing in that (3) this turning away from analyses of power in history-writing leads to scholarship that reproduces rather than critiques globalisation as a set of institutions, discourses and practices. PMID:26345469

  9. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 404-407 ISSN 1436-3445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotential WO * vertical systems * global vertical frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  10. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  11. Globalization, Inequality, and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Badinger; Elisabeth Nindl

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new empirical evidence on the determinants of corruption, focussing on the role of globalization and inequality. The estimates for a panel of 102 countries over the period 1995-2005 point to three main results: i) Detection technologies, reflected in a high level of development, human capital, and political rights reduce corruption, whereas natural resource rents increase corruption. ii) Globalization (in terms of both trade and financial openness) has a neg...

  12. Global warming yearbook: 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arris, L. [ed.

    1999-02-01

    The report brings together a year`s worth of global warming stories - over 280 in all - in one convenient volume. It provides a one-stop report on the scientific, political and industrial implications of global warming. The report includes: detailed coverage of negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol; scientific findings on carbon sources and sinks, coral bleaching, Antarctic ice shelves, plankton, wildlife and tree growth; new developments on fuel economy, wind power, fuel cells, cogeneration, energy labelling and emissions trading.

  13. Promoting Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Winker, MD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME. The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  14. Global surrogacy practices

    OpenAIRE

    Darnovsky, M.; Beeson, D.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarises discussions of participants in Thematic Area 5 (Global Surrogacy Practices) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. The Forum brought together advocates of women’s health, children’s rights and human rights; scholars from a range of disciplines; social workers; and legal and policy analysts with expertise in third-party reproduction and/or adoption. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first major convening of ...

  15. Global surrogacy practices

    OpenAIRE

    Darnovsky, Marcy; Beeson, Diane; Cheney, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis report summarises discussions of participants in Thematic Area 5 (Global Surrogacy Practices) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. The Forum brought together advocates of women’s health, children’s rights and human rights; scholars from a range of disciplines; social workers; and legal and policy analysts with expertise in third-party reproduction and/or adoption. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first major c...

  16. Financial Globalization and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Kunieda, Takuma

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates how financial globalization and financial development affect income inequality within a country. We demonstrate that when a country is financially closed to the world market, the Gini coefficient is monotonically decreasing with respect to the degree of financial development, whereas when a country becomes so small due to financial globalization that financial development in the country does not affect the world interest rate, the Gini coefficient is monotonically incr...

  17. Climate and Global Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplessy, J.C.; Pons, A.; Fantechi, R.

    1991-01-01

    The present volume contains the lessons delivered at the course held in Arles, France, on the subject Climate and Global Change: natural variability of the geosphere and biosphere systems, biogeochemical cycles and their perturbation by human activities, monitoring and forecasting global changes (satellite observations, modelling,...). Short presentations of students' own research activities are also proposed (climatic fluctuation in the Mediterranean area, climate/vegetation relations, etc.)

  18. Towards a global polity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    While "one world government" is not on the cards, the globalization of political life has progressed significantly over the last decades. Rather than adding on to existing theoretical frameworks such as the realist picture of international anarchy or the English School's "international society...... and meta-theoretical questions on how to analyze and theorize the global polity, what drives it forward, and whether it can be democratized....

  19. Media Pembelajaran Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Tham, Fikri Jufri; Liliana, Liliana; Purba, Kristo Radion

    2016-01-01

    Computer based learning media is one of the media has an important role in learning. Learning media will be attractive when packaged through interactive media , such as interactive media created in paper manufacture " instructional media global warming" . The advantage gained is that it can increase knowledge, generally educate people to be more concerned about the environment , and also can be a means of entertainment. This application is focused to learn about global warming and packaged in...

  20. THE EVOLUTION OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION DURING THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Tuca

    2013-01-01

    The current economic crisis constitutes a serious test for the process of globalization. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the current global crisis on economic globalization. To assess the impact of the current crisis on economic globalization, this paper examines the KOF Index of Globalization, before and during the crisis. The findings generally support the idea that economic globalization has been, in fact, weakened, after the onset of the current crisis. However, t...

  1. Globally Collaborative Experiential Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi UTSUMI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Global University System (GUS [Utsumi, et al, 2003] is a worldwide initiative to create advanced telecommunications infrastructure for access to educational resources across national and cultural boundaries for global peace. GUS aims to create a worldwide consortium of universities to provide the underdeveloped world with access to 21st Century education via broadband Internet technologies. The aim is to achieve “education and healthcare for all,” anywhere, anytime and at any pace. The GUS works in the major regions of the globe with partnerships of higher education and healthcare institutions. Learners in these regions will be able to take their courses from member institutions around the world to receive a GUS degree. These learners and their professors from partner institutions will also form a global forum for exchange of ideas and information and for conducting collaborative research and development with emerging global GRID computer network technology. Globally Collaborative Environmental Peace Gaming (GCEPG project [Utsumi, 2003] with a globally distributed computer simulation system, focusing on the issue of environment and sustainable development in developing countries, is to train would-be decision-makers in crisis management, conflict resolution, and negotiation techniques basing on “facts and figures.” The GUS will supply game players from around the world.

  2. Globalization in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence on Japan......Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence...... adjusting to those of the global currents that cannot be ignored. Further, I would suggest that global, or at least Western, influence is not a new thing in regard to moral education in Japan. The paper will provide an historical overview of the development of moral education since Meiji times and focus...

  3. Globalization and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, J. Lawrence; Carter, Lyn; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Duit, Reinders; Martin, Sonya; Siry, Christina; Krajcik, Joseph; Shin, Namsoo; Choi, Kyunghee; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2013-06-01

    Processes of globalization have played a major role in economic and cultural change worldwide. More recently, there is a growing literature on rethinking science education research and development from the perspective of globalization. This paper provides a critical overview of the state and future development of science education research from the perspective of globalization. Two facets are given major attention. First, the further development of science education as an international research domain is critically analyzed. It seems that there is a predominance of researchers stemming from countries in which English is the native language or at least a major working language. Second, the significance of rethinking the currently dominant variants of science instruction from the perspectives of economic and cultural globalization is given major attention. On the one hand, it is argued that processes concerning globalization of science education as a research domain need to take into account the richness of the different cultures of science education around the world. At the same time, it is essential to develop ways of science instruction that make students aware of the various advantages, challenges and problems of international economic and cultural globalization.

  4. Global environment and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    The environment problems on global scale have been highlighted in addition to the local problems due to the rapid increase of population, the increase of energy demand and so on. The global environment summit was held in Brazil. Now, global environment problems are the problems for mankind, and their importance seems to increase toward 21st century. In such circumstances, cogeneration can reduce carbon dioxide emission in addition to energy conservation, therefore, attention has been paid as the countermeasure for global environment. The background of global environment problems is explained. As to the effectiveness of cogeneration for global environment, the suitability of city gas to environment, energy conservation, the reduction of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emission are discussed. As for the state of spread of cogeneration, as of March, 1992, those of 2250 MW in terms of power generation capacity have been installed in Japan. It is forecast that cogeneration will increase hereafter. As the future systems of cogeneration, city and industry energy center conception, industrial repowering, multiple house cogeneration and fuel cells are described. (K.I.)

  5. Global Inequality: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Bata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global inequality has been little analyzed by sociologists despite their claim to be the scienti?c experts most in charge of the study of human inequalities and social strati?cation. Most undergraduate courses on social inequalities study race, class and gender without ever acknowledging that the greatest inequalities are between those individuals and households that live in developed versus less developed societies. The amount of international inequality has vastly outweighed within country inequalities since at least the 1870s when a wave of economic globalization under the Pax Britannica increased average wages in the core while leaving most of the periphery and the semiperiphery at subsistence levels. Increasing inequality was one of the most important consequences of nineteenth century globalization, and this fact is pregnant with importance for those who seek to understand what the consequences of twentieth century globalization may be. Resistance to global capitalism and attacks on symbols of power are likely to increase, just as they did in the decades following the great expansion of trade and investment in the last decades of the nineteenth century. Research into the causes of increasing inequalities is thus extremely important for social scientists, policy makers and global citizens who need to understand how the world-system works in order to change it.

  6. Global desertification: Drivers and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash; Davis, Kyle F.; Ravi, Sujith; Runyan, Christiane W.

    2013-01-01

    Desertification is a change in soil properties, vegetation or climate, which results in a persistent loss of ecosystem services that are fundamental to sustaining life. Desertification affects large dryland areas around the world and is a major cause of stress in human societies. Here we review recent research on the drivers, feedbacks, and impacts of desertification. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the drivers and feedbacks of global desertification is motivated by our increasing need to improve global food production and to sustainably manage ecosystems in the context of climate change. Classic desertification theories look at this process as a transition between stable states in bistable ecosystem dynamics. Climate change (i.e., aridification) and land use dynamics are the major drivers of an ecosystem shift to a “desertified” (or “degraded”) state. This shift is typically sustained by positive feedbacks, which stabilize the system in the new state. Desertification feedbacks may involve land degradation processes (e.g., nutrient loss or salinization), changes in rainfall regime resulting from land-atmosphere interactions (e.g., precipitation recycling, dust emissions), or changes in plant community composition (e.g., shrub encroachment, decrease in vegetation cover). We analyze each of these feedback mechanisms and discuss their possible enhancement by interactions with socio-economic drivers. Large scale effects of desertification include the emigration of “environmental refugees” displaced from degraded areas, climatic changes, and the alteration of global biogeochemical cycles resulting from the emission and long-range transport of fine mineral dust. Recent research has identified some possible early warning signs of desertification, which can be used as indicators of resilience loss and imminent shift to desert-like conditions. We conclude with a brief discussion on some desertification control strategies implemented in different

  7. Antarctic snow and global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granberg, H.B.

    2001-01-01

    Global circulation models (GCM) indicate that global warming will be most pronounced at polar regions and high latitudes, causing concern about the stability of the Antarctic ice cap. A project entitled the Seasonal Snow in Antarctica examined the properties of the near surface snow to determine the current conditions that influence snow cover development. The goal was to assess the response of the snow cover in Queen Maud Land (QML) to an increased atmospheric carbon dioxide content. The Antarctic snow cover in QML was examined as part of the FINNARP expeditions in 1999 and 2000 which examined the processes that influence the snow cover. Its energy and mass balance were also assessed by examining the near surface snow strata in shallow (1-2 m) pits and by taking measurements of environmental variables. This made it possible to determine if the glacier is in danger of melting at this northerly location in the Antarctic. The study also made it possible to determine which variables need to change and by how much, for significant melting to occur. It was shown that the Antarctic anticyclone creates particular conditions that protect the snow cover from melting. The anticyclone brings dry air from the stratosphere during most of the year and is exempt from the water vapour feedback. It was concluded that even a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide will not produce major snow melt runoff. 8 refs

  8. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic Published: Nov 29, 2017 Facebook Twitter ... 2001-FY 2018 Request The Global Response to HIV/AIDS International efforts to combat HIV began in ...

  9. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  10. Manufacturing mobility in global operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The globalization trend inevitably affects the organization of manufacturing by enterprises. It offers opportunities to examine manufacturing from a global perspective and consequently to produce where it is most appropriate. However, globalization has also led to an increase in competitive

  11. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    Ethiopia. Together with data from household studies, the new dataset could provide the basis for improved assessments of targeted infrastructure investment, which could help to reduce environmental degradation, promote economic development and alleviate poverty. References Alcamo J et al 1996 Baseline scenarios of global environmental change Glob. Environ. Change—Human Policy Dimens. 6 261-303 CIESIN, IFPRI and WRI 2000 Gridded Population of the World (GPW), Version 2 (available at http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/plue/gpw, accessed March 2004) Erb K-H et al 2007 A comprehensive global 5 min resolution land-use data set for the year 2000 consistent with national census data J. Land Use Sci. 2 191-224 Heistermann M, Müller C and Ronneberger K 2006 Land in sight? Achievements, deficits and potentials of global land-use modeling Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 114 141-58 Lambin E F and Meyfroidt P 2011 Global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108 3465-72 Leemans R et al 1996 The land cover and carbon cycle consequences of large-scale utilizations of biomass as an energy source Glob. Environ. Change 6 335-57 Lotze-Campen H, Reusswig F and Stoll-Kleemann S 2008 Socio-ecological monitoring of biodiversity change: building upon the world network of biosphere reserves GAIA—Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society 17 (Suppl. 1) 107-15 Nelson A 2008 Estimated travel time to the nearest city of 50,000 or more people in year 2000 (Ispra: Global Environment Monitoring Unit, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission) (available at http://bioval.jrc.ec.europa.eu/products/gam/download.htm, accessed August 2011) Nordhaus W D 2006 Geography and macroeconomics: new data and new findings Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103 3510-7 Popp A et al 2011 The economic potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation with special attention given to implications for the land system Environ. Res. Lett. 6 034017 Schneider U A et al

  12. The global transmission network of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Joel O; Leigh Brown, Andrew J; Hepler, N Lance; Mehta, Sanjay R; Richman, Douglas D; Smith, Davey M; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2014-01-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is pandemic, but its contemporary global transmission network has not been characterized. A better understanding of the properties and dynamics of this network is essential for surveillance, prevention, and eventual eradication of HIV. Here, we apply a simple and computationally efficient network-based approach to all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the global database, revealing a contemporary picture of the spread of HIV-1 within and between countries. This approach automatically recovered well-characterized transmission clusters and extended other clusters thought to be contained within a single country across international borders. In addition, previously undescribed transmission clusters were discovered. Together, these clusters represent all known modes of HIV transmission. The extent of international linkage revealed by our comprehensive approach demonstrates the need to consider the global diversity of HIV, even when describing local epidemics. Finally, the speed of this method allows for near-real-time surveillance of the pandemic's progression.

  13. Global chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Hester, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10 -3 range

  14. Analyticity and the Global Information Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeni A. Solov'ev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relation between analyticity in mathematics and the concept of a global information field in physics is reviewed. Mathematics is complete in the complex plane only. In the complex plane, a very powerful tool appears—analyticity. According to this property, if an analytic function is known on the countable set of points having an accumulation point, then it is known everywhere. This mysterious property has profound consequences in quantum physics. Analyticity allows one to obtain asymptotic (approximate results in terms of some singular points in the complex plane which accumulate all necessary data on a given process. As an example, slow atomic collisions are presented, where the cross-sections of inelastic transitions are determined by branch-points of the adiabatic energy surface at a complex internuclear distance. Common aspects of the non-local nature of analyticity and a recently introduced interpretation of classical electrodynamics and quantum physics as theories of a global information field are discussed.

  15. Is globalization good for your health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollar, D

    2001-01-01

    Four points are made about globalization and health. First, economic integration is a powerful force for raising the incomes of poor countries. In the past 20 years several large developing countries have opened up to trade and investment, and they are growing well--faster than the rich countries. Second, there is no tendency for income inequality to increase in countries that open up. The higher growth that accompanies globalization in developing countries generally benefits poor people. Since there is a large literature linking income of the poor to health status, we can be reasonably confident that globalization has indirect positive effects on nutrition, infant mortality and other health issues related to income. Third, economic integration can obviously have adverse health effects as well: the transmission of AIDS through migration and travel is a dramatic recent example. However, both relatively closed and relatively open developing countries have severe AIDS problems. The practical solution lies in health policies, not in policies on economic integration. Likewise, free trade in tobacco will lead to increased smoking unless health-motivated disincentives are put in place. Global integration requires supporting institutions and policies. Fourth, the international architecture can be improved so that it is more beneficial to poor countries. For example, with regard to intellectual property rights, it may be practical for pharmaceutical innovators to choose to have intellectual property rights in either rich country markets or poor country ones, but not both. In this way incentives could be strong for research on diseases in both rich and poor countries.

  16. Unpacking the Global Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper hopes to contribute to a reading of the political economy of the current global crisis with a focus on four interrelated themes. First, we discuss the constitutive role and functional character of crises in the evolution of neo-liberalism in particular and in capitalist reproduction...... opposing crisis responses—from multilaterals to regional organisations to global civil society—and realise that responses from either pro-neoliberal or anti-neoliberal forces are fundamentally the same through the years, simply re-articulating analyses and programmes that they have respectively...... pursued and advocated long before the global crisis. And fourth, in the context of East and Southeast Asia, we examine the tendencies of the global crisis vis-à-vis the strengthening and even acceleration of emergent authoritarian liberalism in the region despite and because of the global crisis....

  17. Salutogenesis, globalization, and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Theodor Dierk; Lehmann, Nadja

    2011-12-01

    Achieving successful communication in transcultural contexts means integrating emotional communication patterns into a global context. Professional, rational communication is characteristic of the cultural dimension, and emotions are characteristic of the direct, interpersonal dimension of human existence. Humans strive to achieve coherence in all dimensions of their lives; this goal is in the end the most essential aspect of psychophysical self-regulation. A major role in integrating emotional needs and cultural features in global coherence is played by the attractor 'global affinity'. The transitions from emotional coherence to cultural coherence, and likewise from cultural coherence to global coherence, can cause considerable insecurity as well as psychological problems, which previously went by the name 'adjustment disorders'. However, instead of pathologizing these processes, we should understand them in a salutogenic sense as challenges important for both individual and collective development. The development of more coherence is regulated by the neuropsychological approach and avoidance system. This system can be consciously fostered by directing our attention to the commonalities of all human beings. Such a global salutogenic orientation furthers both communication and creativity in teamwork. This article introduces a consequent salutogenic and evolutionary systemic view of transcultural communication and demonstrates its effectiveness in a number of case examples.

  18. Peopling Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Biehl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The field of Global Health brings together a vastly diverse array of actors working to address pressing health issues worldwide with unprecedented financial and technological resources and informed by various agendas. While Global Health initiatives are booming and displacing earlier framings of the field (such as tropical medicine or international health, critical analyses of the social, political, and economic processes associated with this expanding field — an “open source anarchy” on the ground — are still few and far between. In this essay, we contend that, among the powerful players of Global Health, the supposed beneficiaries of interventions are generally lost from view and appear as having little to say or nothing to contribute. We make the case for a more comprehensive and people-centered approach and demonstrate the crucial role of ethnography as an empirical lantern in Global Health. By shifting the emphasis from diseases to people and environments, and from trickle-down access to equality, we have the opportunity to set a humane agenda that both realistically confronts challenges and expands our vision of the future of global communities.

  19. Fueling Global Fishing Fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyedmers, Peter H.; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, fossil fuels became the dominant energy input to most of the world's fisheries. Although various analyses have quantified fuel inputs to individual fisheries, to date, no attempt has been made to quantify the global scale and to map the distribution of fuel consumed by fisheries. By integrating data representing more than 250 fisheries from around the world with spatially resolved catch statistics for 2000, we calculate that globally, fisheries burned almost 50 billion L of fuel in the process of landing just over 80 million t of marine fish and invertebrates for an average rate of 620 L/t. Consequently, fisheries account for about 1.2% of global oil consumption, an amount equivalent to that burned by the Netherlands, the 18th-ranked oil consuming country globally, and directly emit more than 130 million t of CO 2 into the atmosphere. From an efficiency perspective, the energy content of the fuel burned by global fisheries is 12.5 times greater than the edible protein energy content of the resulting catch

  20. Global carbon inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Munoz Castillo, Raul; Sun, Laixiang; Xue, Jinjun

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change and inequality are inescapably linked both in terms of who contributes climate change and who suffers the consequences. This fact is also partly reflected in two United Nations (UN) processes: on the one hand, the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under which countries agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels and, on the other hand, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals aiming to end poverty. These agreements are seen as important foundation to put the world nations on a sustainable pathway. However, how these agreements can be achieved or whether they are even mutually compatible is less clear. We explore the global carbon inequality between and within countries and the carbon implications of poverty alleviation by combining detailed consumer expenditure surveys for different income categories for a wide range of countries with an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output approach to estimate carbon footprints of different household groups, globally, and assess the carbon implications of moving the poorest people out of poverty. Given the current context, increasing income leads to increasing carbon footprints and makes global targets for mitigating greenhouse gases more difficult to achieve given the pace of technological progress and current levels of fossil fuel dependence. We conclude that the huge level of carbon inequality requires a critical discussion of undifferentiated income growth. Current carbon-intensive lifestyles and consumption patterns need to enter the climate discourse to a larger extent. (orig.)

  1. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks. Three “higher order” dimensions frame the review’s conceptual organization, facilitating the organization of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis. Comparative analysis of the literature suggests an uneven clustering of discipline-related subject matter across the literature’s “higher order” dimensions, with a much smaller body of literature related to landscape architecture confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of literature is associated with other fields of study, but inferentially related to landscape architecture. The review offers separate references and bibliographies for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically.

  2. Få greb om global ledelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine

    2017-01-01

    (Be-)greb om global ledelse – værktøjer til global ledelse i praksis: Værktøj 1: De 5 nøgleelementer i det globale ledelsesgrundlag – ’global opvarmning’ og ’ice breaker’ Værktøj 2: Dit globale mindset – afklaringsværktøj Værktøj 3: De 4 benspænd i global ledelse – dit ’globale ledelsemanifest......-GPS - de 7 kontekstfaktorer Værktøj 10: Strategisk global mindset – nøglehulsmodellen Værktøj 11: Global aktivering – sikring af det globale læringsberedskab Værktøj 12: Fakta eller fiktion - 9 myter om global mindset-kompetence...

  3. Global Awareness in the Classroom: Global Classroom Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    As countries around the world move toward global integration, knowledge of how Canada interrelates globally is becoming an increasingly useful asset. It is important that young Canadians learn what it means to become responsible global citizens. Awareness about global issues and appreciation of Canada's efforts in international development offer a…

  4. When Globalization Hits Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Haakonsson, Stine Jessen

    Lead firms are increasingly reorganizing their innovation activities into global innovation networks. Such reorganization has potentially major impact on their existing home-based innovation networks. Based on 31 interviews in four case studies of lead firms in the Danish food industry, the paper...... analyzes the dynamics of five key features of home-based innovation networks: 1) size of the national networks, 2) type of organization, 3) content of collaboration within the network, 4) concurrent globalization of organizations in the network, and 5) degree of formalization of network interactions....... The dynamics are generally differentiated according to the type of lead firm strategy, i.e. knowledge augmenting or knowledge exploiting. The qualitative and exploratory findings point towards some effects on national innovation networks. Hence, the paper concludes by hypothesizing that the globalization...

  5. Innovative Born Globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Sascha; Brem, Alexander; Muench, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Internationalization is a hot topic in innovation management, whereby the phenomenon of “Born Globals” is still limited to research in the domains of Entrepreneurship and International Management. As business model design plays a key role for Born Globals, we link these two concepts. For this, we...... propose hypotheses about the influence of efficiency-centered and novelty-entered business model design on international firm performance. To test these hypotheses, we performed a quantitative survey with 252 founders of international companies in Germany, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Additionally, we...... gained further insights through a case study analysis of 11 Born Globals. The results show that business model design matters to international firm performance and the business model design of Born Globals tends to be more efficiency-centered. Based on a multiple case study, we analyzed business models...

  6. Globalization - Different approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Puscaciu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the different approaches of the globalization phenomenon. Despite the geographical distancesm, the link between people are ever more strong on different ways and plans: from technology between political, economical, cultural world events, and many other aspects. So, the link between globalization and democracy, and its impact on the most important social and economic matters. We also surprise the impact of the internet revolution and its corolar e-commerce, and its consequences, sometimes unpredictible ones. Another annalysed problem is that of the governments trying, and sometimes succeeding to controll the money, products, peole and their ideas that freely move inside the national frontiers, thus going to slower or to stop the progress. Nevertheless, this global interraction between people also create phenomena of insecurity on different ways: terrorism, traffic of arms, drugs, economical aggresions causing the environment, and other inconvenient facts and situations.

  7. From cooperation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to success. In recent years joint international associations, licensing, co-production agreements, joint research programs, exploration of consortia and other cooperative relationships between two or more corporations with potential have increased. We notice a cooperation tendency among small-sized companies, especially among those from the developing countries.

  8. Climate change - global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciconkov, Risto

    2001-01-01

    An explanation about climate, weather, climate changes. What is a greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their influence on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate changes in the previous period by known international institutions, higher concentrations of global average temperature. Projecting of likely scenarios for the future climate changes and consequences of them on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resources. The main points of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. The need of preparing a country strategy concerning the acts of the Kyoto Protocol, suggestions which could contribute in the preparation of the strategy. A special attention is pointed to the energy, its resources, the structure of energy consumption and the energy efficiency. (Author)

  9. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  10. Global Operations Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the current context of global economic liberalisation and technological advancements, industrial companies are less likely to generate value in the traditional vertically integrated chain. Instead, they are doing so by means of elaborate cross-border and cross-organisational networks. As a rule......, these networks are configured on a global basis and consist of diverse and interdependent affiliates (linked both through ownership and non-equity relationships), which are engaged in an exchange of goods, services and information. The Scandinavian context is no exception to this trend. Nevertheless......, international comparative studies providing comprehensive insights from it are still rare. With the objective of bridging this gap, Global Operations Networks (GONE) project (sponsored by the Danish Research Council) brought together numerous academic and industrial partners from Denmark, Sweden and Finland...

  11. Design for Global Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztepe, Suzan

    2009-01-01

    In a global economy, no company can safely assume that their products will be accepted in foreign markets. One key issue is to understand and meet the latent needs of culturally diverse target markets. This book examines from a user perspective the issue of developing new products for global...... markets. Given that main goal of any design is to create value for users, Boztepe argues that the concept of user value could be a driving force in design decision-making regarding product development for global markets. Through interviews with women about their kitchen practices and observations...... framework to assists marketers, product designers and managers to deal with the complex issue of designing and tailoring products for local needs....

  12. Global Microbial Identifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    ) will likely also enable a much better understanding of the pathogenesis of the infection and the molecular basis of the host response to infection. But the full potential of these advances will only transpire if the data in this area become transferable and thereby comparable, preferably in open-source...... of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect outbreaks and emerging pathogens. To harness the full potential of WGS, a shared global database of genomes linked to relevant metadata and the necessary software tools needs to be generated, hence the global...... microbial identifier (GMI) initiative. This tool will ideally be used in amongst others in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and animals, in the identification of microorganisms in food and environment, and to track and trace microbial agents in all arenas globally. This will require...

  13. Developing Global Nurse Influencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Lori A

    2016-01-01

    How can universities create engaged citizens and global leaders? Each year, a select group of advanced practice nursing students at Baylor University Louise Herrington School of Nursing travel to Africa for a month-long clinical mission experience. Students work alongside local and missionary healthcare providers in a comprehensive Christian outreach to the community at a high-volume clinic. Creating rich learning experiences in a global setting in significant and sustainable ways is difficult, but intentionally focusing on what we are called to do and who we serve provides ballast for faculty and students. The success of the trip in preparing students to be global influencers is evident by the work graduates elect to do around the world, following graduation.

  14. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  15. Global ethics and principlism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together.

  16. Globalization theories of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization is affecting all areas of social life, and thus no exception crime. Its effect is most evident in the development of new forms of crime that transcends national borders and states receive a supranational character. This primarily refers to the various forms of organized crime, but also in certain of its forms, which are a kind of state violence and the consequences of which are reflected in the systematic violation of human rights. Also, the process of globalization of crime has caused the formation of international organizations aimed at combating of crime which transcends national boundaries. New forms of crime are conditioned by globalization demanded a new approach to their study. Existing criminological theories have proven inadequate in explaining all the causes that lead to crime. It was necessary to create new theories and new doctrines about the causes of crime. In the continuous process of development of criminology, in constant search for new explanations of the causes of crime, within the sociological theories have emerged and globalization theories of criminality, which the authors in their work special attention. The focus of the globalization theory on crime just on its prevention, to reduce the risk of its occurrence. This is certainly a positive step because it shifts the focus of criminologists with immediate causes of crime and focus on the study of their interactions, which is largely socially conditioned, which is especially prominent in the work. The aim of this paper is to point out that globalization theories should not be viewed in isolation from other criminological theories and doctrines, but that one, although relatively new, contribute to the creation of complete systems of criminological doctrines in order to find the optimal social response to crime.

  17. Long range global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth's steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth's temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic

  18. Coping With Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Jan-Erik Lane

    2015-01-01

    The process of globalization that has framed developments in the societies on Planet Earth the last decades will be supplanted by the climate change process, which no country can evade. It amounts to a set of giant forces shaping the environment, the economies and the politics of the world. It is somehow believed that the process of change can be controlled by halting the increase in greenhouse gases so that average global temperature would only augment by 2 degrees. This is a dire illusion, ...

  19. Building global learning communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averill Gordon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning communities around a community of practice of learning researchers and practitioners. The results include the development of a framework for utilising mobile social media to support collaborative curriculum development across international boundaries. We conclude that this framework is potentially transferrable to a range of educational contexts where the focus is upon student-generated mobile social media projects.

  20. Pathways to Global Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Mitry, Darryl J.

    2011-01-01

    . An important case study is McDonald‘s corporation, the world‘s largest fast food restaurant chain. This company has employed divergent marketing and economic strategies in both domestic and the international markets to become a leader in the global marketplace. An overview of the company‘s background......, organizational structures, mission and vision illustrate McDonald‘s strategic focus on its proactive evolution from a small drive-through operation to a global fast-food giant. The strategy is based on its ability to adapt to the cultural differences of the markets that McDonald‘s serves while preserving its...

  1. Globalization and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Yue; Kwan, Letty Yan-Yee

    2016-04-01

    In globalized societies, people often encounter symbols of diverse cultures in the same space at the same time. Simultaneous exposure to diverse cultures draws people's attention to cultural differences and promotes catergorical perceptions of culture. Local cultural identification and presence of cultural threat increase the likelihood of resisting inflow of foreign cultures (exclusionary reactions). When cultures are seen as intellectual resources, foreign cultural exposure affords intercultural learning and enhances individual creativity (integrative reactions). Psychological studies of globalization attest to the utility of treating cultures as evolving, interacting systems, rather than static, independent entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Global nuclear safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    As stated in the Nuclear Safety Review 1996, three components characterize the global nuclear safety culture infrastructure: (i) legally binding international agreements; (ii) non-binding common safety standards; and (iii) the application of safety standards. The IAEA has continued to foster the global nuclear safety culture by supporting intergovernmental collaborative efforts; it has facilitated extensive information exchange, promoted the drafting of international legal agreements and the development of common safety standards, and provided for the application of safety standards by organizing a wide variety of expert services

  3. Global Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Christof; Kuhrmann, Marco; Prikladnicki, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    SOFTWARE, LIKE ALL industry products, is the result of complex multinational supply chains with many partners from concept to development to production and maintenance. Global software engineering (GSE), IT outsourcing, and business process outsourcing during the past decade have showed growth...... rates of 10 to 20 percent per year. This instalment of Practitioner’s Digest summarizes experiences and guidance from industry to facilitate knowledge and technology transfer for GSE. It’s based on industry feedback from the annual IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, which had...

  4. The global event system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, J.

    1994-01-01

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different

  5. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...

  6. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper...

  7. Physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities into the physical properties of metals and ceramics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are reported. Topics covered include: high field superconductivity; microstructure and mechanical behavior of ceramics, glass-metal, and ceramic-metal systems; high temperature reactions; relation of microstructure to properties in ceramics; and structure and properties of carbon materials and composite materials

  8. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties on an ARB processed IF steel studied by X-ray diffraction and EBSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Gandarilla, Francisco, E-mail: fcruz@ipn.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Edificio 9, U.P.A.L.M., Zacatenco, Del. G. A. Madero, México, D.F. C.P. 07738, México (Mexico); Salcedo-Garrido, Ana María, E-mail: salcedo_marya@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Edificio 9, U.P.A.L.M., Zacatenco, Del. G. A. Madero, México, D.F. C.P. 07738, México (Mexico); Bolmaro, Raúl E., E-mail: bolmaro@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Física Rosario, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas-CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Ocampo y Esmeralda, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Baudin, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.baudin@u-psud.fr [CNRS, UMR 8182, ICMMO, Lab. de Synthèse, Propriétés et Modélisation des Matériaux, Université de Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91405 (France); De Vincentis, Natalia S., E-mail: devincentis@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Física Rosario, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas-CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Ocampo y Esmeralda, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); and others

    2016-08-15

    Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) is one of the so-called severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes, allowing the production of metals and alloys with ultrafine (micro-nano) structures. Materials with ultrafine grains present attractive properties like the simultaneous increase in strength and ductility. Our interest in these materials is focused on their microstructural evolution during ARB processing, eventually responsible for the enhancement of those mechanical properties. In the current work we follow the evolution of the microstructure in an interstitial-free (IF) steel deformed by ARB after consecutive processing cycles, by means of Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particularly, we present results related to texture, grain (GS) and domain sizes, grain boundary character, density of Geometrically Necessary Dislocations (GND), Grain Orientation Spread (GOS), lattice parameters, microstrain, dislocation density and their spatial arrangement. After 5 ARB cycles the system shows a microstructure constituted mainly by submicrometric grains with high angle boundaries and low presence of dislocations inside the grains. - Highlights: •The evolution of microstructure is followed simultaneously by using GAM, GOS and GND (EBSD) and XRD. •LAGBs and subgrains disappear after few cycles SSDs and HAGBs persist at the end. •Dynamic recrystallization counterbalances dislocation arrays and diminishes hardening rate. •Grain size stabilization is revealed as a mechanism for increasing ductility after few ARB cycles.

  9. Stochastic global optimization as a filtering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    We present a reformulation of stochastic global optimization as a filtering problem. The motivation behind this reformulation comes from the fact that for many optimization problems we cannot evaluate exactly the objective function to be optimized. Similarly, we may not be able to evaluate exactly the functions involved in iterative optimization algorithms. For example, we may only have access to noisy measurements of the functions or statistical estimates provided through Monte Carlo sampling. This makes iterative optimization algorithms behave like stochastic maps. Naive global optimization amounts to evolving a collection of realizations of this stochastic map and picking the realization with the best properties. This motivates the use of filtering techniques to allow focusing on realizations that are more promising than others. In particular, we present a filtering reformulation of global optimization in terms of a special case of sequential importance sampling methods called particle filters. The increasing popularity of particle filters is based on the simplicity of their implementation and their flexibility. We utilize the flexibility of particle filters to construct a stochastic global optimization algorithm which can converge to the optimal solution appreciably faster than naive global optimization. Several examples of parametric exponential density estimation are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the approach.

  10. Military Implications of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-20

    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  11. Global Warming: A Myth?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There could be many unseen factors influencing temperature fluctuations in the .... may change when climate changes and this may change the level sampled by MSUs. So unlike ... b) A global decrease in low clouds by 8% c) A decrease in ...

  12. Global Food Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Globalisation in food production and consumption is fundamentally transforming a wide variety of social practices at different levels in society. Simply adding another level of governance will therefore not solve the problems related to food production and consumption in global modernity. Different

  13. Economic globalization plus cosmopolitanism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Went, R.

    2004-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s sales, finance and production (i.e. all three circuits of capital), as well as the concentration and centralization of capital, have been internationalized to an extent that has never been seen before in history. This unprecedented economic globalization has been accompanied by

  14. Health promotion in globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Franco-Giraldo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to unravel some theoretical and factual elements required to implement more effective health promotion strategies and practices in the field of health services whilst following the great challenges that globalization has imposed on the health systems, which are inevitably expressed in the local context (glocalization. Methodology: a narrative review taking into account the concepts of globalization and health promotion in relation to health determinants. The authors approach some courses of action and strategies for health promotion based on the social principles and universal values that guide health promotion, health service reorientation and primary healthcare, empowerment, social participation, and inter-sectoral and social mobilization. Discussion: the discussion focuses on the redirection of health promotion services in relation to the wave of health reforms that has spread throughout the world under the neoliberal rule. The author also discusses health promotion, its ineffectiveness, and the quest for renewal. Likewise, the author sets priorities for health promotion in relation to social determinants. Conclusion: the current global order, in terms of international relations, is not consistent with the ethical principles of health promotion. In this paper, the author advocates for the implementation of actions to change the social and physical life conditions of people based on changes in the use of power in society and the appropriate practice of politics in the context of globalization in order to achieve the effectiveness of the actions of health promotion.

  15. A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Summary The emergence of global history has been one of the more notable features of academic history over the past three decades. Although historians of disease were among the pioneers of one of its earlier incarnations—world history—the recent “global turn” has made relatively little impact on histories of health, disease, and medicine. Most continue to be framed by familiar entities such as the colony or nation-state or are confined to particular medical “traditions.” This article aims to show what can be gained from taking a broader perspective. Its purpose is not to replace other ways of seeing or to write a new “grand narrative” but to show how transnational and transimperial approaches are vital to understanding some of the key issues with which historians of health, disease, and medicine are concerned. Moving on from an analysis of earlier periods of integration, the article offers some reflections on our own era of globalization and on the emerging field of global health. PMID:26725408

  16. From Global to Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinslow, Andrew; Sadler, Troy; Friedrichsen, Patricia; Zangori, Laura; Peel, Amanda; Graham, Kerri

    2017-01-01

    The global scale of climate change may seem beyond many high school students' comprehension. To complicate matters, climate change has emerged as a political issue that pits candidates, neighbors, and sometimes teachers and students against each other (Kahan 2015). The "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS Lead States 2013) call on…

  17. Global Health Solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Oram, Peter G N; Buyx, Alena

    2017-07-01

    For much of the 20th century, vulnerability to deprivations of health has often been defined by geographical and economic factors. Those in wealthy, usually 'Northern' and 'Western', parts of the world have benefited from infrastructures, and accidents of geography and climate, which insulate them from many serious threats to health. Conversely, poorer people are typically exposed to more threats to health, and have lesser access to the infrastructures needed to safeguard them against the worst consequences of such exposure. However, in recent years the increasingly globalized nature of the world's economy, society and culture, combined with anthropogenic climate change and the evolution of antibiotic resistance, has begun to shift the boundaries that previously defined the categories of person threatened by many exogenous threats to health. In doing so, these factors expose both new and forgotten similarities between persons, and highlight the need for global cooperative responses to the existential threats posed by climate change and the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. In this article, we argue that these emerging health threats, in demonstrating the similarities that exist between even distant persons, provides a catalyst for global solidarity, which justifies, and provides motivation for, the establishment of solidaristic, cooperative global health infrastructures.

  18. GAR Global Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskrey, Andrew; Safaie, Sahar

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk management strategies, policies and actions need to be based on evidence of current disaster loss and risk patterns, past trends and future projections, and underlying risk factors. Faced with competing demands for resources, at any level it is only possible to priorities a range of disaster risk management strategies and investments with adequate understanding of realised losses, current and future risk levels and impacts on economic growth and social wellbeing as well as cost and impact of the strategy. The mapping and understanding of the global risk landscape has been greatly enhanced by the latest iteration of the GAR Global Risk Assessment and the objective of this submission is to present the GAR global risk assessment which contributed to Global Assessment Report (GAR) 2015. This initiative which has been led by UNISDR, was conducted by a consortium of technical institutions from around the world and has covered earthquake, cyclone, riverine flood, and tsunami probabilistic risk for all countries of the world. In addition, the risks associated with volcanic ash in the Asia-Pacific region, drought in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa and climate change in a number of countries have been calculated. The presentation will share thee results as well as the experience including the challenges faced in technical elements as well as the process and recommendations for the future of such endeavour.

  19. Managing global responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saur, K. [Five Winds International, Donzdorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The electronics industry in particular is a global industry. Local and regional solutions require a globally applicable product design and use global value chains. Operating in increasingly integrated material and product loops offers a unique solution to not only providing markets with compatible solutions, but also offer a chance to significantly reduce the environmental footprint of the industry. Product lifespan extension in emerging economies, utilization of local market needs, utilize available and affordable labour forces and creating wealth and capacity in developing countries may serve as a way to make industry more sustainable and successful. Both the supply side and the product end of life management need to be considered in this global industry. Intelligent solution support the dematerialization and material throughput and help creating markets and build wealth. Critical success factors include knowledge management, capacity building, developing infrastructure. This paper presents a discussion on a solutions oriented approach towards product life cycle management and stewardship combined with sustainable production and consumption considerations, support the industries aspirations and the UNEP Life Cycle Initiative's mission in a perfect manner. The aim of this paper is to offer approaches and develop ideas how economic viable and sustainable solutions can be developed. (orig.)

  20. Global Value Chain Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Virginia; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    modes chosen and the different ways of coordinating them. We also examine the outcomes of a global value chain configuration in terms of performance and upgrading. Our aim is to review the state of the art of these issues, identify research gaps and suggest new lines for future research that would...

  1. Exceptionalism and globalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Achieving sustainable use of the planet will require ethical judgments in both sciences and environmental politics. The purpose of this editorial is to discuss two paradigms, exceptionalism and globalism, that are important in this regard. Exceptionalism is the insistence that one set of rules or behaviors is acceptable for an individual or country but that a different set should be used for the rest of the world. For example, the disparity in per capita consumption of resources and economic status has increased dramatically in the last century, but the consumers of great amounts of resources do not feel a proportionate responsibility for addressing this issue. Globalism is defined as individual and societal willingness to diminish, postpone or forgo individual natural resource use to protect and enhance the integrity of the global ecological life support system. Increasing affluence and the still increasing human population, coupled with wide dissemination of information and an increasing awareness that humans occupy a finite planet, exacerbate this already difficult situation. Increased interest in sustainable use of the planet makes open discussion of these issues mandatory because individuals cannot function in isolation from the larger society of which they are a part. Similarly, no country can function in isolation from other countries, which collectively form an interactive mosaic. This discussion identifies some of the crucial issues related to exceptionalism and globalism, which must be addressed before sustainable use of the planet can be achieved.

  2. Globalization and Summit Reform

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Also at the Centre for Global Studies, the continuing support and reporting skill of .... The financial crises of the late 1990s convinced the G-7 Finance Ministers that key ...... for the functioning of the world economy and its principal institutions.3.

  3. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together

  4. Global Diabetes Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Nielsen, Annegrete; Langstrup, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    As already recognized, though little theorized within International Relations, the capacity of technology to ensure the achievement of preset policy goals is often grossly overrated. Drawing on Science and Technology Studies, this chapter proposes a lens to investigate global encounters, which ta...

  5. A global awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guesnerie, R.

    2007-01-01

    Today there is no doubt of the global warming. The author presents the diagnostic of the environmental impacts of the climatic change but also the economic impacts. Illustrated by many references of scenario, he analyses then the possible actions and programs. (A.L.B.)

  6. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.

  7. Global, Local, or Regional?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Alain; Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    of analysis, in addition to the country-level and the global level. Regional strategy analysis requires a fundamental rethink of mainstream theories in the international strategy sphere. This rethink involves, inter alia, internalization theory, with its resource-based view and transaction cost economics...

  8. The Global Internet Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Deborah Joy

    2009-01-01

    The global rise of Internet-based education is discussed in relation to models drawn from social studies and epidemiology. Experiential and data density models are highlighted, also the capacity for technological change, and phenomena observed in the spread of disease. The lesson of these illustrations is that even apparently permanent phenomena…

  9. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2016-01-01

    Selecting key performance indicators in conventional product development is a challenging task for project management and is compound by global product development. Informed from the findings of two in depth case studies conducted with large Danish manufacturing companies, in this paper we develo...

  10. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  11. Global Precipitation Measurement Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Art

    2010-01-01

    This poster presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites which are designed to measure the Earth's precipitation. It includes the schedule of launches for the various satellites in the constellation, and the coverage of the constellation, It also reviews the mission capabilities, and the mission science objectives.

  12. The Global Cancer Burden

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast describes the global burden of cancer and efforts by CDC and others to reduce that burden.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  13. Regionalizing global climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, A.J.; Arneth, A.; Ganzeveld, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Global climate models simulate the Earth's climate impressively at scales of continents and greater. At these scales, large-scale dynamics and physics largely define the climate. At spatial scales relevant to policy makers, and to impacts and adaptation, many other processes may affect regional and

  14. Geography and global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim; Moon, Graham

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the report of the World Health Organisation's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, Closing the gap in a generation (Marmot 2008), this invited commentary considers the scope for geographical research on global health. We reflect on current work and note future possibilities, particularly those that take a critical perspective on the interplay of globalisation, security and health.

  15. Vaccines: Shaping global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando

    2017-03-14

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2017.

  16. Global Mercury Assessment 2013

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    mercury pollution. This summary report and the accompanying. Technical Background Report for the Global. Mercury Assessment 2013 are developed in response to Decision 25/5, paragraph ... The use of different pollution control technologies in different ...... vegetation, snow, freshwater, and seawater. One of the largest ...

  17. Organizing for Global Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    Research on Purchasing Organization is dominated by studies on centralization versus decentralization. While global sourcing relates to the integrated activities of purchasing and other functions in line with the company’s strategic objectives and while it has been put forward that hybrid...

  18. SLA Looks Globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes the 1992 Special Libraries Association (SLA) Annual Conference. Topics discussed include emphasizing internationalism; competing in a global economy; the competitive importance of information; downsizing because of financial constraints; Internet and NREN (National Research and Education Network); recruitment; ethics; standards; and the…

  19. The global warming scare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunavala, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that the present propaganda about the global warming with its disastrous consequences is a scare spread by some First World countries, especially the United States, to prevent the rapid industrialization of developing third world countries. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  20. Neuroanatomy and Global Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2017-07-05

    Our brains are like a dense forest-a complex, seemingly impenetrable terrain of interacting cells mediating cognition and behavior. However, we should view the challenge of understanding the brain with optimism, provided that we choose appropriate strategies for the development of global neuroscience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The New Global Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-13

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ Perspective, The New Global Health.  Created: 8/13/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/14/2013.

  2. Global Disease Detectives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-21

    This podcast documents U.S. efforts to prevent, detect, and control emerging infectious diseases, such as SARS and pandemic influenza.  Created: 9/21/2010 by CDC Center for Global Health.   Date Released: 9/21/2010.

  3. Globalization, consumption, development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Fardon, R.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Dijk, van R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume were first presented at a conference on 'Globalization, development and the making of consumers: what are collective identities for?' which was held in The Hague, The Netherlands, on 13-16 March 1997. The papers are concerned with the challenge to the development

  4. Global Green Growth Institute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel

    2017-01-01

    Har man fulgt historien om Venstres gruppeformand Lars Løkkes rejser på 1. klasse i forbindelse med formandsposten for Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) er der sikkert nogle der undrer sig over, hvad GGGI er for en størrelse. Medierne præsenterer GGGI som en international klimaorganisation, der...

  5. Global South: Anthropological Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna; Kalb, Don

    2015-01-01

    hand, and an alliance of Southern states within the World Trade Organization on the other. Generally seen as an inheritor of the emancipatory thought behind the notion of the ‘third world,’ in the social sciences the idea of the ‘global south’ is also entangled with more classical academic themes...

  6. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Bharati, Pratyush

    -zone spread allowing for 24/7 service delivery and access to resources. Based on comprehensive data we show that providers are likely to establish GDM configurations when clients value access to globally distributed talent pools and speed of service delivery, and in particular when services are highly...

  7. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Bharati, Pratyush M.

    2015-01-01

    antecedents and contingencies of setting up GDM structures. Based on comprehensive data we show that providers are likely to establish GDM location configurations when clients value access to globally distributed talent and speed of service delivery, in particular when services are highly commoditized...

  8. OLD AND NEW ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Elena MĂRGULESCU

    2015-01-01

    The retrospective of the theoretical approaches of the phenomenon of economic globalization in the last three decades emphasizes the movement of attention from the globalization of markets, from the'80s, to the globalization of production and services in the current decade. This trend is essentially the result of implementing new strategies by multinational and transnational companies. We try in this context to draw a line between the "globalization of markets" and the "globalization of produ...

  9. Global carbon inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubacek, Klaus [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Masaryk University, Department of Environmental Studies, Brno (Czech Republic); Baiocchi, Giovanni [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Economics, College Park, MD (United States); Feng, Kuishuang [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Munoz Castillo, Raul [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Interamerican Development Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Sun, Laixiang [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); SOAS, University of London, London (United Kingdom); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria); Xue, Jinjun [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Economics, Nagoya (Japan); Hubei University of Economics, Wuhan (China)

    2017-12-01

    Global climate change and inequality are inescapably linked both in terms of who contributes climate change and who suffers the consequences. This fact is also partly reflected in two United Nations (UN) processes: on the one hand, the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under which countries agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels and, on the other hand, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals aiming to end poverty. These agreements are seen as important foundation to put the world nations on a sustainable pathway. However, how these agreements can be achieved or whether they are even mutually compatible is less clear. We explore the global carbon inequality between and within countries and the carbon implications of poverty alleviation by combining detailed consumer expenditure surveys for different income categories for a wide range of countries with an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output approach to estimate carbon footprints of different household groups, globally, and assess the carbon implications of moving the poorest people out of poverty. Given the current context, increasing income leads to increasing carbon footprints and makes global targets for mitigating greenhouse gases more difficult to achieve given the pace of technological progress and current levels of fossil fuel dependence. We conclude that the huge level of carbon inequality requires a critical discussion of undifferentiated income growth. Current carbon-intensive lifestyles and consumption patterns need to enter the climate discourse to a larger extent. (orig.)

  10. Global scenarios and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The 21st century brings with it a number of disturbing challenges. They may even threaten to disrupt world order. Many agree the most critical and urgent challenge of all confronting human kind today is climate change. Global warming has reached a level which can trigger drastic shifts in world weather. There is convincing evidence to show that global warming is significantly attributed to mans own activities. If man is responsible for the warming of the planet, then only man can help stop global warming. Only man can reverse climate change. Climate change has the power to literally destruct the world. The adverse effects of global climate change are increasingly evident from the frequency and ferocity of natural disasters like the recent severe drought and flood in Queensland, Australia; the prolonged drought in East Africa; the destructive typhoon Nargis in Myanmar; the terrifying hurricane Katrina which brought New Orleans to its knees; the disastrous Mississippi flood and killer cyclones in USA and the out of season drought and flood in the Yangtze river basin. The list does not end there. Dr. R. K. Pachauri, Chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in his lecture on 28 April 2011 at UNITEN, entitled Fukushima, Energy and Climate Change reaffirmed that the warming of the earths climate system is unequivocal. That climate change is mans common enemy is no longer in doubt. This is the reason why many see climate change as the single most important driver of the expanding global interest in green technology and a low carbon economy. (author)

  11. Estimating PM2.5 speciation concentrations using prototype 4.4 km-resolution MISR aerosol properties over Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xia; Garay, Michael J.; Diner, David J.; Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Xu, Jin; Liu, Yang

    2018-05-01

    Research efforts to better characterize the differential toxicity of PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than or equal to 2.5 μm) speciation are often hindered by the sparse or non-existent coverage of ground monitors. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aboard NASA's Terra satellite is one of few satellite aerosol sensors providing information of aerosol shape, size and extinction globally for a long and continuous period that can be used to estimate PM2.5 speciation concentrations since year 2000. Currently, MISR only provides a 17.6 km product for its entire mission with global coverage every 9 days, a bit too coarse for air pollution health effects research and to capture local spatial variability of PM2.5 speciation. In this study, generalized additive models (GAMs) were developed using MISR prototype 4.4 km-resolution aerosol data with meteorological variables and geographical indicators, to predict ground-level concentrations of PM2.5 sulfate, nitrate, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in Southern California between 2001 and 2015 at the daily level. The GAMs are able to explain 66%, 62%, 55% and 58% of the daily variability in PM2.5 sulfate, nitrate, OC and EC concentrations during the whole study period, respectively. Predicted concentrations capture large regional patterns as well as fine gradients of the four PM2.5 species in urban areas of Los Angeles and other counties, as well as in the Central Valley. This study is the first attempt to use MISR prototype 4.4 km-resolution AOD (aerosol optical depth) components data to predict PM2.5 sulfate, nitrate, OC and EC concentrations at the sub-regional scale. In spite of its low temporal sampling frequency, our analysis suggests that the MISR 4.4 km fractional AODs provide a promising way to capture the spatial hotspots and long-term temporal trends of PM2.5 speciation, understand the effectiveness of air quality controls, and allow our estimated PM2.5 speciation data to

  12. Anti-Globalization or Alter-Globalization? Mapping the Political Ideology of the Global Justice Movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Steger, Manfred; Wilson, E.K.

    Steger, Manfred B. and Erin K. Wilson. (2012) Anti-Globalization or Alter-Globalization? Mapping the Political Ideology of the Global Justice Movement. International Studies Quarterly, doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2478.2012.00740.x?(c) 2012 International Studies Association Globalization has unsettled

  13. William Alford and the Misunderstanding of Chinese Intellectual Property History: The Key to Unscrambling the Globally Unequal Intellectual Property Regime%安守廉与曲解的中国知识产权史——反思国际知识产权不平等秩序之突破点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵科[澳

    2012-01-01

    In his famous book To Steal A Book Is An Elegant Offense, Harvard Professor William Alford stated that Chinese culture is incompatible with intellectual property. This widely circulated, misleading view was a result of cultural typology, by which Alford failed to examine history from multi-disciplinary and micro-historical perspectives. Alford also failed to properly examine the Western intellectual property history and the overprotection of intellectual property in today' s world. He believes that reasonable interference by Western countries in China and other developing countries are justifiable. This has resulted in a misunderstood China being put in a very disadvantaged position in the world.%哈佛大学的安守廉(WilliamAlford)教授在其名著《窃书为雅罪》一书中,认为中国传统文化与知识产权是不兼容的。此一观点在中外流传甚广、影响极深。安教授采用了文化类型学的研究方法,未对史料从跨学科的角度进行“微观考古”,故其结论与史实不符。而且,安教授对西方自身的知识产权史及当代知识产权的不合理扩张,均缺乏全面认知,简单地认为发达国家对中国这样的发展中国家进行“合理干预”是正当的,使被误解的中国在国际上处于极被动的局面。

  14. Strategic Global Climate Command?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J. C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have been exploring geoengineering because Anthropogenic GHG emissions could drive the globe towards unihabitability for people, wildlife and vegetation. Potential global deployment of these technologies is inherently strategic. For example, solar radiation management to reflect more sunlight might be strategically useful during a period of time where the population completes an effort to cease emissions and carbon removal technologies might then be strategically deployed to move the atmospheric concentrations back to a safer level. Consequently, deployment of these global technologies requires the ability to think and act strategically on the part of the planet's governments. Such capacity most definitely does not exist today but it behooves scientists and engineers to be involved in thinking through how global command might develop because the way they do the research could support the development of a capacity to deploy intervention rationally -- or irrationally. Internationalizing research would get countries used to working together. Organizing the research in a step-wise manner where at each step scientists become skilled at explaining what they have learned, the quality of the information they have, what they don't know and what more they can do to reduce or handle uncertainty, etc. Such a process can increase societal confidence in being able to make wise decisions about deployment. Global capacity will also be enhanced if the sceintific establishment reinvents misssion driven research so that the programs will identify the systemic issues invovled in any proposed technology and systematically address them with research while still encouraging individual creativity. Geoengineering will diverge from climate science in that geoengineering research needs to design interventions for some publically desirable goal and investigates whether a proposed intervention will acheive desired outcomes. The effort must be a systems-engineering design problem

  15. Elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates the following five aspects of engineering-material solid-state elastic constants: general properties, interrelationships, relationships to other physical properties, changes during cooling from ambient to near-zero temperature, and near-zero-temperature behavior. Topics considered include compressibility, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, Hooke's law, elastic-constant measuring methods, thermodynamic potentials, higher-order energy terms, specific heat, thermal expansivity, magnetic materials, structural phase transitions, polymers, composites, textured aggregates, and other-phenomena correlations. Some of the conclusions concerning polycrystalline elastic properties and their temperature dependence are: elastic constants are physical, not mechanical, properties which relate thermodynamically to other physical properties such as specific heat and thermal expansivity; elastic constants at low temperatures are nearly temperature independent, as required by the third law of thermodynamics; and elastic constants can be used to study directional properties of materials, such as textured aggregates and composites

  16. Global carbon budget 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quere, C.; Moriarty, R.; Jones, S.D.; Boden, T.A.; Peters, G.P.; Andrew, R.M.; Andres, R.J.; Ciais, P.; Bopp, L.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO 2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990's, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO 2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO 2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO 2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6±0.4 GtC yr -1 , ELUC 0.9±0.5 GtC yr -1 , GATM 4.3±0

  17. Globalization and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian-Alexandru Miu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, very complex phenomenon, involves overcoming the barriers between different states, which allowed the rapid transfer of capital, technology, information, and the "toxins" from one country to another. First, the technology formed the basis of rapid expansion of great ideas promoted by globalization. Undeniable progress in the field of technology and science, has conferred to the man extraordinary powers that have been used most often to the detriment of his spiritual progress. We must not deny that science and technology have brought many benefits to human, and he could expand the knowledge horizon upon the world in which he lives, exploiting information acquired and share them with others. Science and technology must become for postmodern man ways of talk and communion between human and divinity, all to the praise of God and the perfection of the creature.

  18. Problems of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telebaković Boško

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world has been going through the process of economical, political and cultural integration for a long time. At the end of the 20th century, the integration received a new meaning. In the world’s policy, sovereign countries were in conflict or collaborated earlier. A stricter hierarchy of economical and political power hubs is being established now. In such processes of globalization, differences in development, wealth and power arise, people are less safe, the sovereignity of national states is being violated. The story of equality remains in the sense of disappearance of cultural differences in floods of non-cultural culture. It is difficult to talk about democracy when the world’s power is getting stronger and stronger. Is it possible to have a globalization which would not affect human rights, and which would not prevent people from taking care of truth, freedom and happiness?

  19. Thinking About Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.

    2006-01-01

    Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web

  20. Global challenges in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorian, James P.; Franssen, Herman T.; Simbeck, Dale R. MD

    2006-01-01

    Environmental and security concerns are stimulating global interest in hydrogen power, renewable energy, and advanced transportation technologies, but no significant movement away from oil and a carbon-based world economy is expected soon. Over the longer-term, however, a transition from fossil fuels to a non-carbon-based economy will likely occur, affecting the type of environment future generations may encounter. Key challenges will face the world's energy industry over the next few decades to ensure a smooth transition-challenges which will require government and industry solutions beginning as early as today. This paper identifies four critical challenges in energy and the choices which will have to be made on how best to confront growing pollution caused by fossil fuels and how to facilitate an eventual revolutionary-like transition to a non-carbon-based global economy

  1. Global data on blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thylefors, B.; Négrel, A. D.; Pararajasegaram, R.; Dadzie, K. Y.

    1995-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that there are 38 million persons who are blind. Moreover, a further 110 million people have low vision and are at great risk of becoming blind. The main causes of blindness and low vision are cataract, trachoma, glaucoma, onchocerciasis, and xerophthalmia; however, insufficient data on blindness from causes such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration preclude specific estimations of their global prevalence. The age-specific prevalences of the major causes of blindness that are related to age indicate that the trend will be for an increase in such blindness over the decades to come, unless energetic efforts are made to tackle these problems. More data collected through standardized methodologies, using internationally accepted (ICD-10) definitions, are needed. Data on the incidence of blindness due to common causes would be useful for calculating future trends more precisely. PMID:7704921

  2. Act local, think global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Chris; McRoberts, Doug

    2002-01-01

    Tip O'Neill, one of the grand old men of modem US politics, once famously remarked that all politics is local. Like most politicians who succeed on the national stage - and not just in the US - it was a truth he never lost sight of. What is true for politicians is equally true in the communications business. We may increasingly live in a global village, but successful companies - even multi-nationals - forget the importance of local and regional public relations at their peril. Think of Douglas Ivester, the CEO of Coca-Cola at the time of the 1999 Belgian contamination scandal, who allegedly reacted to first reports of the crisis by asking: 'Where the hell is Belgium?' A more appropriate question today - several years after Coke's share price toppled and the CEO was unceremoniously sacked - might be: 'Who the hell is Douglas Nester?' But - to adapt another famous phrase - the fact that communications (and marketing) professionals still need to 'act local' as much as ever before should not blind us to the growing need to 'think global'. In the nuclear industry, as in the world economy generally, increasing global integration is a reality, as are the international nature of the news media and the increasingly global nature of the anti-nuclear pressure groups. Indeed, it was the growing need for a truly global information network to counter these trends, by increasing the overall speed and accuracy of the worldwide nuclear information flow, that led the nuclear community to establish NucNet in 1991. So where exactly is the line between local and regional nuclear communications on the one hand, and global communications on the other? Is there one spin for a regional audience, and another for a global audience? This presentation proposes some guiding principles, by examining the response of nuclear communicators world-wide to the new communications agenda imposed in the wake of the September 11th suicide attacks in the US. NucNet President Doug McRoberts and Executive

  3. The Global Professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Bousquet

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As educators in an increasingly global society, we realize that we need to train students-undergraduate and graduate-to live and work in a global environment. This idea is not a new one; scholars, administrators, and government officials have been promoting similar notions for several decades, especially since the advent of the Cold War. David Ward, president of the American Council on Education, emphasized at the 2003 annual meeting of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges that international education can no longer be considered "business as usual." The concept that graduates must have cross-cultural knowledge and expertise -long recognized in the languages and humanities-has steadily gained support to become an important goal and a marker of achievement for many professional schools in the United States today.

  4. Global Shipping Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    information please contact the Chairman, War Gaming Department, Naval War College, 686 Cushing Road, Newport, RI 02841 or via electronic mail at... Game ……………………………………………...9 c. Overarching Research Question……………………………………………..…10 d. Subsidiary Questions…………………………………………………………...10 e ...An e -SLOC is the “cyber network that supports the global maritime trade network.” Industry Global Shipping Game Report 27 experts felt that

  5. Potential global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Global economic integration and growth contribute much to the construction of energy plants, vehicles and other industrial products that produces carbon emission and in effect cause the destruction of the environment. A coordinated policy and response worldwide to curb emissions and to effect global climate change must be introduced. Improvement in scientific understanding is required to monitor how much emission reduction is necessary. In the near term, especially in the next seven years, sustained research and development for low carbon or carbon-free energy is necessary. Other measures must also be introduced, such as limiting the use of vehicles, closing down inefficient power plants, etc. In the long term, the use of the electric car, use solar energy, etc. is required. Reforestation must also be considered to absorb large amounts of carbon in the atmosphere

  6. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation has enabled companies to globalise their product development process. Today, everything from manufacturing to R&D can be globally distributed. This has led to a more complex and disintegrated product development process. This paper investigates the impacts companies have experienced...... operational solutions to counteract the negative impacts with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a unique look into global product development through an investigation of its impact on the organisation, the product development process, and the product. Furthermore, it shows the solutions...... as a result of this, and how they have been addressed. Data was collected through case studies of five Danish multinational corporations. The findings showed that the companies experienced several challenges when they globalised their product development process. They consequently implemented various...

  7. Computer Networks and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Magliaro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication and information computer networks connect the world in ways that make globalization more natural and inequity more subtle. As educators, we look at these phenomena holistically analyzing them from the realist’s view, thus exploring tensions, (in equity and (injustice, and from the idealist’s view, thus embracing connectivity, convergence and development of a collective consciousness. In an increasingly market- driven world we find examples of openness and human generosity that are based on networks, specifically the Internet. After addressing open movements in publishing, software industry and education, we describe the possibility of a dialectic equilibrium between globalization and indigenousness in view of ecologically designed future smart networks

  8. Slowing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, C.

    1990-01-01

    According to the authors, global warming promises to be one of the central environmental issues of the nineties. After a decade of scientific concern but popular neglect, the eighties ended with a growing political as well as scientific consensus that the world can no longer afford to procrastinate about this issue. This paper reports on coping with global warming which, according to the author, will force societies to move rapidly into uncharted terrain, reversing powerful trends that have dominated the industrial age. This challenge cannot be met without a strong commitment on the part of both individual consumers and governments. In terms of the earth's carbon balance, the unprecedented policy changes that have now become urgent include a new commitment to greater energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, a carbon tax on fossil fuels, a reversal of deforestation in tropical countries, and the rapid elimination of CFCs

  9. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Radunsky, K.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Austria the CO 2 emissions increased by 5.9 % from 1990 to 1999, the other greenhouse gases by 2.6 %. The Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Environment and Water Management, in cooperation with other ministries and the countries, has worked out an action plan for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to meet the targets of the Kyoto protocol. This study analyzes the greenhouse gas emissions in Austria, in the European Union and globally. The measured emission values throughout Austria and in the other European countries are given in tables, the environmental impact for Austria and globally is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental emission control in Austria, the European Union and worldwide are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the greenhouse gas emissions is analysed. (a.n.)

  10. Surveying the global virome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels K H; Simmonds, Peter; Kapoor, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies have greatly enhanced our abilities to identify novel microbial sequences. Thus, our understanding of the global virome and the virome of specific host species in particular is rapidly expanding. Identification of animal viruses is important for understa......Recent advances in sequencing technologies have greatly enhanced our abilities to identify novel microbial sequences. Thus, our understanding of the global virome and the virome of specific host species in particular is rapidly expanding. Identification of animal viruses is important....... Much remains to be learned on the novel hepaciviruses, including their association with disease, and thereby how relevant they will become as HCV model systems and for studies of animal disease. This review discusses how virome analysis led to identification of novel hepaci- and pegiviruses...

  11. EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Basanti Jain

    2017-01-01

    The abnormal increase in the concentration of the greenhouse gases is resulting in higher temperatures. We call this effect is global warming. The average temperature around the world has increased about 1'c over 140 years, 75% of this has risen just over the past 30 years. The solar radiation, as it reaches the earth, produces "greenhouse effect" in the atmosphere. The thick atmospheric layers over the earth behaves as a glass surface, as it permits short wave radiations from coming in, but ...

  12. The global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Reimer, E.

    1991-01-01

    Basic concepts of the global carbon cycle on earth are described; by careful analyses of isotopic ratios, emission history and oceanic ventilation rates are derived, which provide crucial tests for constraining and calibrating models. Effects of deforestation, fertilizing, fossil fuel burning, soil erosion, etc. are quantified and compared, and the oceanic carbon process is evaluated. Oceanic and terrestrial biosphere modifications are discussed and a carbon cycle model is proposed

  13. Investigative Journalism: global perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the work of nine members or associates of the Media Discourse Group. Investigative Journalism: Global Perspectives presents a theoretical and practical guide to contemporary international investigative journalism to outline principles of modern investigative work in the digital world. A diverse range of contributions from academics, journalists, and activists interrogate wide ranging issues such as state power, freedom of speech and social justice, as well as exploring...

  14. Global Derivatives Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

  15. Global Dislocations, Network Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Pisani, Francis; Arquilla, John

    2004-01-01

    Globalization is essentially an attempt to foster universal commercial, social and political norms of behavior in a world where diversity—in all areas of interaction—has always ruled. Naturally, the great transformation called for by this vision of interconnectedness sparks tensions with existing institutions and practices. Yet there is nothing predetermined about the ways in which these tensions will be played out in the coming years; and by understanding the causes of potential difficulti...

  16. Global oil company profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Global Oil Company Profiles provides a comprehensive review of 50 of the top oil companies in the world. Each chapter is devoted to an individual company, providing an invaluable insight into the organisation, its structure and operations. Using the most recent data available, the report offers an up-to-date analysis of performance and future direction, as well as a unique benchmarking system for each company profiled. (author)

  17. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, ... was among the largest in the world, at 90 percent of the entire value of ... the workforce—including young adults, women, and the elderly who are ... UN ECLAC, 2010. 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80. 90+. C o n.

  18. Going global with personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Storgaard Nielsen, Kira; Stage, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The persona method is widely used and commonly described both in scientific literature and in case-based blogs. Most often the descriptions point to a local context with local user groups and it is difficult to find writings on use of the method in an international context and in globally distrib...... grounds for the team, especially for team distributed across countries. Keywords: personas, scenarios, cross culture, international, design....

  19. Globalization and Risk Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Jaume Ventura; Fernando A. Broner

    2006-01-01

    We study the effects of globalization on risk sharing and welfare. Like the previous literature, we assume that governments cannot commit to enforce the repayment of debts owed by their citizens. Unlike the previous literature, we assume that governments cannot discriminate between domestic and foreign creditors when enforcing debt payments. This creates novel interactions between domestic and international trade in assets. (i) Increases in domestic trade raise the benefits of enforcement and...

  20. Global software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This overview presents the mid stages of my doctoral research-based on ethnographic work conducted in IT companies in India and in Denmark-on collaborative work within global software development (GSD). In the following I briefly introduce how this research seeks to spark a debate in CSCW...... by challenging contemporary ideals about software development outsourcing through the exploration of the multiplicities and asymmetric dynamics inherent in the collaborative work of GSD....