Sample records for global fundamental plane

  1. Open Cluster Dynamics via Fundamental Plane

    Lin, Chien-Cheng; Pang, Xiao-Ying


    Open clusters (OCs) are important objects for stellar dynamics studies. The short survival timescale of OCs makes them closely related to the formation of Galactic field stars. We motivate to investigate the dynamical evolution of OCs on the aspect of internal effect and the external influence. Firstly, we make use of the known OC catalog to obtain OCs masses, effective radii. Additionally, we estimate OCs kinematics properties by OC members cross-matched with radial velocity and metallicity from SDSSIV/APOGEE2. We then establish the fundamental plane of OCs based on the radial velocity dispersion, the effective radius, and average surface brightness. The deviation of the fundamental plane from the Virial Plane, so called the tilt, and the r.m.s. dispersion of OCs around the average plane are used to indicate the dynamical status of OCs. Parameters of the fitted plane will vary with cluster age and distance.

  2. Mergers of elliptical galaxies and the fundamental plane

    Gonzalez-Garcia, AC; van Albada, TS; AvilaReese,; Firmani, C; Frenk, CS; Allen, YC


    N-body simulations have been carried out in order to explore the final state of elliptical galaxies after encounters and more expecifically whether the Fundamental Plane (FP hereafter) relation is affected by merging.

  3. A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane

    Dainotti, M. G.; Hernandez, X.; Postnikov, S.; Nagataki, S.; O’brien, P.; Willingale, R.; Striegel, S.


    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obey a 3D relation, between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, T a , its corresponding X-ray luminosity, L a , and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, L peak . This 3D relation identifies a GRB fundamental plane whose existence we here confirm. Here we include the most recent GRBs observed by Swift to define a “gold sample” (45 GRBs) and obtain an intrinsic scatter about the plane compatible within 1 σ with the previous result. We compare GRB categories, such as short GRBs with extended emission (SEE), X-ray flashes, GRBs associated with supernovae, a sample of only long-duration GRBs (132), selected from the total sample by excluding GRBs of the previous categories, and the gold sample, composed by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus. We find that the relation planes for each of these categories are not statistically different from the gold fundamental plane, with the exception of the SSE, which are hence identified as a physically distinct class. The gold fundamental plane has an intrinsic scatter smaller than any plane derived from the other sample categories. Thus, the distance of any particular GRB category from this plane becomes a key parameter. We computed the several category planes with T a as a dependent parameter obtaining for each category smaller intrinsic scatters (reaching a reduction of 24% for the long GRBs). The fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters.

  4. A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane

    Dainotti, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stanford University, Via Pueblo Mall 382, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Hernandez, X. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, México (Mexico); Postnikov, S. [The Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Nagataki, S. [RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako Saitama (Japan); O’brien, P.; Willingale, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Road Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Striegel, S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States)


    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obey a 3D relation, between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, T {sub a} , its corresponding X-ray luminosity, L {sub a} , and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, L {sub peak}. This 3D relation identifies a GRB fundamental plane whose existence we here confirm. Here we include the most recent GRBs observed by Swift to define a “gold sample” (45 GRBs) and obtain an intrinsic scatter about the plane compatible within 1 σ with the previous result. We compare GRB categories, such as short GRBs with extended emission (SEE), X-ray flashes, GRBs associated with supernovae, a sample of only long-duration GRBs (132), selected from the total sample by excluding GRBs of the previous categories, and the gold sample, composed by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus. We find that the relation planes for each of these categories are not statistically different from the gold fundamental plane, with the exception of the SSE, which are hence identified as a physically distinct class. The gold fundamental plane has an intrinsic scatter smaller than any plane derived from the other sample categories. Thus, the distance of any particular GRB category from this plane becomes a key parameter. We computed the several category planes with T {sub a} as a dependent parameter obtaining for each category smaller intrinsic scatters (reaching a reduction of 24% for the long GRBs). The fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters.

  5. Refining the fundamental plane of accreting black holes

    Körding, E.; Falcke, H.D.E.; Corbel, S.; K�rding, E.


    Context: .The idea of a unified description of supermassive and stellar black holes has been supported by the extension of the empirical radio/X-ray correlation from X-ray binaries to active galactic nuclei through the inclusion of a mass term. This has lead to the so-called fundamental plane of

  6. Fundamental Plane of FSRQs from SDSS DR5 Quasar Catalogue ...

    Introduction. The formation of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is still unclear due to fundamental problems in astrophysics (Meier et al. 2001). Although the jet formation remains unclear, the relationships explored between the jet emission and accretion processes have been explored by many authors ...


    Davis, Benjamin L.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia; Shields, Douglas W. [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, 346 1/2 North Arkansas Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Westfall, Kyle B. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Flatman, Russell [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Hartley, Matthew T. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, 226 Physics Building, 835 West Dickson Street, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Berrier, Joel C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Martinsson, Thomas P. K. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Swaters, Rob A., E-mail: [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)


    Spiral structure is the most distinctive feature of disk galaxies and yet debate persists about which theory of spiral structure is correct. Many versions of the density wave theory demand that the pitch angle be uniquely determined by the distribution of mass in the bulge and disk of the galaxy. We present evidence that the tangent of the pitch angle of logarithmic spiral arms in disk galaxies correlates strongly with the density of neutral atomic hydrogen in the disk and with the central stellar bulge mass of the galaxy. These three quantities, when plotted against each other, form a planar relationship that we argue should be fundamental to our understanding of spiral structure in disk galaxies. We further argue that any successful theory of spiral structure must be able to explain this relationship.

  8. Stability of fundamental couplings: A global analysis

    Martins, C. J. A. P.; Pinho, A. M. M.


    Astrophysical tests of the stability of fundamental couplings are becoming an increasingly important probe of new physics. Motivated by the recent availability of new and stronger constraints we update previous works testing the consistency of measurements of the fine-structure constant α and the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ =mp/me (mostly obtained in the optical/ultraviolet) with combined measurements of α , μ and the proton gyromagnetic ratio gp (mostly in the radio band). We carry out a global analysis of all available data, including the 293 archival measurements of Webb et al. and 66 more recent dedicated measurements, and constraining both time and spatial variations. While nominally the full data sets show a slight statistical preference for variations of α and μ (at up to two standard deviations), we also find several inconsistencies between different subsets, likely due to hidden systematics and implying that these statistical preferences need to be taken with caution. The statistical evidence for a spatial dipole in the values of α is found at the 2.3 sigma level. Forthcoming studies with facilities such as ALMA and ESPRESSO should clarify these issues.

  9. Mergers between elliptical galaxies and the thickening of the Fundamental Plane

    González-Garciá, A. C.; Albada, T. S. van


    Published in: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 342 (2003) L36 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We have carried out computer simulations to study the effect of merging on the fundamental plane (FP) relation. Initially, systems are spherical Jaffe models following a simple scaling

  10. Global structure of a polynomial autonomous system on the plane

    Nguyen Van Chau.


    This note is to study the global behaviour of a polynomial autonomous system on the plane with divergence non-positive outside a bounded set. It is shown that in some certain conditions the global structure of such system can be simple. The main result here can be seen as an improvement of the result of Olech and Meister concerning with the global asymptotical stable conjecture of Markur and Yamable and the Jacobian Conjecture. (author). 13 refs


    Gültekin, Kayhan; King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Cackett, Edward M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 West Hancock Street, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Pinkney, Jason, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio Northern University, 525 S. Main St., Ada, OH 45810 (United States)


    We put active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with low-mass black holes on the fundamental plane of black hole accretion—the plane that relates X-ray emission, radio emission, and mass of an accreting black hole—to test whether or not the relation is universal for both stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. We use new Chandra X-ray and Very Large Array radio observations of a sample of black holes with masses less than 10{sup 6.3} M {sub ☉}, which have the best leverage for determining whether supermassive black holes and stellar-mass black holes belong on the same plane. Our results suggest that the two different classes of black holes both belong on the same relation. These results allow us to conclude that the fundamental plane is suitable for use in estimating supermassive black hole masses smaller than ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, in testing for intermediate-mass black holes, and in estimating masses at high accretion rates.


    Lin, Da-Bin; Mu, Hui-Jun; Lu, Zu-Jia; Liang, En-Wei [GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Gu, Wei-Min; Ma, Ren-Yi, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)


    The variability of the accretion rate, which is believed to induce the aperiodic variability of X-ray emission from disks, may affect the energy injection into a jet. In this spirit, a correlation between disk emission and jet emission can be formed even if the mean luminosity of disk emission remains constant. In this work, these correlations are found in the situation in which the luminosity of disk emission is variable and kept at a constant mean value. The obtained correlations may be shallower than that of the fundamental plane of black hole activity. In addition, the slope of correlation may increase with increasing observed frequency of jet emission. For the luminosities spaced over three days, the slope of correlation decreases with increasing black hole mass. The deviation of our found correlations from that of the fundamental plane is related to the suppression of variability in the jet emission in comparison with that in the disk emission. This mechanism may work in some sources in which shallower correlations have been reported. Moreover, it implies that luminosities used to estimate the relation of the fundamental plane should cover an appropriate timescale, in which the variability of jet emission is not significantly suppressed.

  13. Discovery of a New Fundamental Plane Dictating Galaxy Cluster Evolution from Gravitational Lensing

    Fujita, Yutaka; Umetsu, Keiichi; Rasia, Elena; Meneghetti, Massimo; Donahue, Megan; Medezinski, Elinor; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Postman, Marc


    In cold dark-matter (CDM) cosmology, objects in the universe have grown under the effect of gravity of dark matter. The intracluster gas in a galaxy cluster was heated when the dark-matter halo formed through gravitational collapse. The potential energy of the gas was converted to thermal energy through this process. However, this process and the thermodynamic history of the gas have not been clearly characterized in connection with the formation and evolution of the internal structure of dark-matter halos. Here, we show that observational CLASH data of high-mass galaxy clusters lie on a plane in the three-dimensional logarithmic space of their characteristic radius r s , mass M s , and X-ray temperature T X with a very small orthogonal scatter. The tight correlation indicates that the gas temperature was determined at a specific cluster formation time, which is encoded in r s and M s . The plane is tilted with respect to T X ∝ M s /r s , which is the plane expected in the case of simplified virial equilibrium. We show that this tilt can be explained by a similarity solution, which indicates that clusters are not isolated but continuously growing through matter accretion from their outer environments. Numerical simulations reproduce the observed plane and its angle. This result holds independently of the gas physics implemented in the code, revealing the fundamental origin of this plane.

  14. Fundamental solutions and dual boundary element methods for fracture in plane Cosserat elasticity.

    Atroshchenko, Elena; Bordas, Stéphane P A


    In this paper, both singular and hypersingular fundamental solutions of plane Cosserat elasticity are derived and given in a ready-to-use form. The hypersingular fundamental solutions allow to formulate the analogue of Somigliana stress identity, which can be used to obtain the stress and couple-stress fields inside the domain from the boundary values of the displacements, microrotation and stress and couple-stress tractions. Using these newly derived fundamental solutions, the boundary integral equations of both types are formulated and solved by the boundary element method. Simultaneous use of both types of equations (approach known as the dual boundary element method (BEM)) allows problems where parts of the boundary are overlapping, such as crack problems, to be treated and to do this for general geometry and loading conditions. The high accuracy of the boundary element method for both types of equations is demonstrated for a number of benchmark problems, including a Griffith crack problem and a plate with an edge crack. The detailed comparison of the BEM results and the analytical solution for a Griffith crack and an edge crack is given, particularly in terms of stress and couple-stress intensity factors, as well as the crack opening displacements and microrotations on the crack faces and the angular distributions of stresses and couple-stresses around the crack tip.

  15. 1.4 GHz on the Fundamental Plane of black hole activity

    Saikia, Payaswini; Körding, Elmar; Dibi, Salome


    The Fundamental Plane (FP) of black hole activity is an empirical relationship between the O III/X-ray luminosity depicting the accretion power, the radio luminosity as a probe of the instantaneous jet power and the mass of the black hole. For the first time, we use the 1.4 GHz FIRST radio luminosities on the optical FP, to investigate whether or not Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimetres (FIRST) fluxes can trace nuclear activity. We use an SDSS-FIRST cross-correlated sample of 10 149 active galaxies and analyse their positioning on the optical FP. We focus on various reasons that can cause the discrepancy between the observed FIRST radio fluxes and the theoretically expected core radio fluxes, and show that FIRST fluxes are heavily contaminated by non-nuclear, extended components and other environmental factors. We show that the subsample of `compact sources', which should have negligible lobe contribution, statistically follow the FP when corrected for relativistic beaming, while all the other sources lie above the plane. The sample of low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs), which should have negligible lobe and beaming contribution, also follow the FP. A combined fit of the low-luminosity AGN and the X-ray binaries, with the LINERs, results in the relation log LR = 0.77 log L_{O III} + 0.69 log M. Assuming that the original FP relation is correct, we conclude that 1.4 GHz FIRST fluxes do not trace the pure `core' jet and instantaneous nuclear activity in the AGN, and one needs to be careful while using it on the FP of black hole activity.


    Yuan, Z. S.; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.


    Diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters is known to be related to cluster mass and cluster dynamical state. We collect the observed fluxes of radio halos, relics, and mini-halos for a sample of galaxy clusters from the literature, and calculate their radio powers. We then obtain the values of cluster mass or mass proxies from previous observations, and also obtain the various dynamical parameters of these galaxy clusters from optical and X-ray data. The radio powers of relics, halos, and mini-halos are correlated with the cluster masses or mass proxies, as found by previous authors, while the correlations concerning giant radio halos are in general the strongest. We found that the inclusion of dynamical parameters as the third dimension can significantly reduce the data scatter for the scaling relations, especially for radio halos. We therefore conclude that the substructures in X-ray images of galaxy clusters and the irregular distributions of optical brightness of member galaxies can be used to quantitatively characterize the shock waves and turbulence in the intracluster medium responsible for re-accelerating particles to generate the observed diffuse radio emission. The power of radio halos and relics is correlated with cluster mass proxies and dynamical parameters in the form of a fundamental plane


    Van de Sande, Jesse; Franx, Marijn [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kriek, Mariska [Astronomy Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bezanson, Rachel [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)


    The Fundamental Plane (FP) of early-type galaxies, relating the effective radius, velocity dispersion, and surface brightness, has long been recognized as a unique tool for analyzing galaxy structure and evolution. With the discovery of distant quiescent galaxies and the introduction of high sensitivity near-infrared spectrographs, it is now possible to explore the FP out to z ∼ 2. In this Letter we study the evolution of the FP out to z ∼ 2 using kinematic measurements of massive quiescent galaxies (M {sub *} > 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}). We find preliminary evidence for the existence of an FP out to z ∼ 2. The scatter of the FP, however, increases from z ∼ 0 to z ∼ 2, even when taking into account the larger measurement uncertainties at higher redshifts. We find a strong evolution of the zero point from z ∼ 2 to z ∼ 0: Δlog{sub 10} M/L{sub g} ∝(– 0.49 ± 0.03)z. In order to assess whether our spectroscopic sample is representative of the early-type galaxy population at all redshifts, we compare their rest-frame g – z colors with those from a larger mass complete sample of quiescent galaxies. At z > 1 we find that the spectroscopic sample is bluer. We use the color offsets to estimate a mass-to-light ratio (M/L) correction. The implied FP zero point evolution after correction is significantly smaller: Δlog{sub 10} M/L{sub g} ∝(– 0.39 ± 0.02)z. This is consistent with an apparent formation redshift of z{sub form}=6.62{sub −1.44}{sup +3.19} for the underlying population, ignoring the effects of progenitor bias. A more complete spectroscopic sample is required at z ∼ 2 to properly measure the M/L evolution from the FP evolution.

  18. Global patterns of city size distributions and their fundamental drivers.

    Ethan H Decker


    Full Text Available Urban areas and their voracious appetites are increasingly dominating the flows of energy and materials around the globe. Understanding the size distribution and dynamics of urban areas is vital if we are to manage their growth and mitigate their negative impacts on global ecosystems. For over 50 years, city size distributions have been assumed to universally follow a power function, and many theories have been put forth to explain what has become known as Zipf's law (the instance where the exponent of the power function equals unity. Most previous studies, however, only include the largest cities that comprise the tail of the distribution. Here we show that national, regional and continental city size distributions, whether based on census data or inferred from cluster areas of remotely-sensed nighttime lights, are in fact lognormally distributed through the majority of cities and only approach power functions for the largest cities in the distribution tails. To explore generating processes, we use a simple model incorporating only two basic human dynamics, migration and reproduction, that nonetheless generates distributions very similar to those found empirically. Our results suggest that macroscopic patterns of human settlements may be far more constrained by fundamental ecological principles than more fine-scale socioeconomic factors.

  19. Plane parallel radiance transport for global illumination in vegetation

    Max, N.; Mobley, C.; Keating, B.; Wu, E.H.


    This paper applies plane parallel radiance transport techniques to scattering from vegetation. The leaves, stems, and branches are represented as a volume density of scattering surfaces, depending only on height and the vertical component of the surface normal. Ordinary differential equations are written for the multiply scattered radiance as a function of the height above the ground, with the sky radiance and ground reflectance as boundary conditions. They are solved using a two-pass integration scheme to unify the two-point boundary conditions, and Fourier series for the dependence on the azimuthal angle. The resulting radiance distribution is used to precompute diffuse and specular `ambient` shading tables, as a function of height and surface normal, to be used in rendering, together with a z-buffer shadow algorithm for direct solar illumination.

  20. An efficient global energy optimization approach for robust 3D plane segmentation of point clouds

    Dong, Zhen; Yang, Bisheng; Hu, Pingbo; Scherer, Sebastian


    Automatic 3D plane segmentation is necessary for many applications including point cloud registration, building information model (BIM) reconstruction, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and point cloud compression. However, most of the existing 3D plane segmentation methods still suffer from low precision and recall, and inaccurate and incomplete boundaries, especially for low-quality point clouds collected by RGB-D sensors. To overcome these challenges, this paper formulates the plane segmentation problem as a global energy optimization because it is robust to high levels of noise and clutter. First, the proposed method divides the raw point cloud into multiscale supervoxels, and considers planar supervoxels and individual points corresponding to nonplanar supervoxels as basic units. Then, an efficient hybrid region growing algorithm is utilized to generate initial plane set by incrementally merging adjacent basic units with similar features. Next, the initial plane set is further enriched and refined in a mutually reinforcing manner under the framework of global energy optimization. Finally, the performances of the proposed method are evaluated with respect to six metrics (i.e., plane precision, plane recall, under-segmentation rate, over-segmentation rate, boundary precision, and boundary recall) on two benchmark datasets. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method obtained good performances both in high-quality TLS point clouds (i.e., http://SEMANTIC3D.NET)


    Allanson, Steven P.; Hudson, Michael J.; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.


    This paper addresses the challenge of understanding the typical star formation histories of red-sequence galaxies, using linestrength indices and mass-to-light ratios as complementary constraints on their stellar age distribution. We first construct simple parametric models of the star formation history that bracket a range of scenarios, and fit these models to the linestrength indices of low-redshift cluster red-sequence galaxies. For giant galaxies, we confirm the downsizing trend, i.e., the stellar populations are younger, on average, for lower σ galaxies. We find, however, that this trend flattens or reverses at σ ∼ -1 . We then compare predicted stellar mass-to-light ratios with dynamical mass-to-light ratios derived from the fundamental plane (FP), or by the SAURON group. For galaxies with σ ∼ 70 km s -1 , models with a late 'frosting' of young stars and models with exponential star formation histories have stellar mass-to-light ratios that are larger than observed dynamical mass-to-light ratios by factors of 1.7 and 1.4, respectively, and so are rejected. The single stellar population (SSP) model is consistent with the FP, and requires a modest amount of dark matter (between 20% and 30%) to account for the difference between stellar and dynamical mass-to-light ratios. A model in which star formation was 'quenched' at intermediate ages is also consistent with the observations, although in this case less dark matter is required for low mass galaxies. We also find that the contribution of stellar populations to the 'tilt' of the fundamental plane is highly dependent on the assumed star formation history: for the SSP model, the tilt of the FP is driven primarily by stellar-population effects. For a quenched model, two-thirds of the tilt is due to stellar populations and only one-third is due to dark matter or non-homology.

  2. Global oil prices, macroeconomic fundamentals and China's commodity sector comovements

    Chen, Peng


    This paper investigates the common movements of commodity sectors in China as well as the economic underpinnings of the comovements. We employ a Bayesian dynamic latent factor model to disentangle the common and idiosyncratic sector-specific factors of the prices of a group of China's commodity sectors: petrochemicals, grains, energy, non-ferrous metals, oils & fats, and softs. The results indicate that the common factor accounts for a significant portion of the fluctuations of China's commodity sectors, providing evidence of the strong commodity sector comovements in China. We further use a VAR model to link the common movements across China's commodity sectors to the underlying determinants, including global oil price shocks and domestic macroeconomic fluctuations. We find that the global oil price shocks have strong effects on the common movements across commodity sectors in China in addition to its domestic macroeconomic fluctuations at long horizons. However, at short horizons, the common movements across commodity sectors in China respond more strongly to the global oil shocks than to its domestic macroeconomic fluctuations. - Highlights: • We examine the comovements of commodity prices at the industry level in China. • The common factor accounts for a significant portion of commodity sector fluctuations. • We investigate the joint impacts of global oil price shocks and domestic macro fluctuations on the comovements. • The global oil price shocks have persistent and strong effects on the comovements. • The impacts of domestic macro fluctuations on the comovements differ at short and long horizons.

  3. Biological soil crusts: a fundamental organizing agent in global drylands

    Belnap, J.; Zhang, Y.


    Ecosystem function is profoundly affected by plant community composition, which is ultimately determined by factors that govern seed retention. Dryland ecosystems constitute ~35% of terrestrial surfaces, with most soils in these regions covered by biological soil crusts (biocrusts), a community whose autotrophs are dominated by cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses. Studies at 550 sites revealed that plant community composition was controlled by the interaction among biocrust type, disturbance regime, and external morphology of seeds. In bare soils (due to disturbance), all seed types were present in the seedbank and plant community. As biocrusts became better developed (i.e., the cover of lichens and mosses increased), they more strongly filtered out seeds with appendages. Thus, soils under late successional biocrusts contained seedbanks dominated by smooth seeds and vascular plants growing in late successional biocrusts were dominated by those with smooth seeds. Therefore, the tension between the removal of biocrusts by soil surface disturbance and their recovery creates a shifting mosaic of plant patch types in both space and time. Because changes in vascular plant communities reverberate throughout both below ground and above ground food webs and thus affect multiple trophic levels, we propose that biocrusts are a fundamental organizing agent in drylands worldwide. Future increased demand for resources will intensify land use both temporally and spatially, resulting in an increased rate of biocrust loss across larger areas. As a result, we can expect shifts in the composition and distribution of plant communities, accompanied by concomitant changes in many aspects of dryland ecosystems. Conceptual model of shifting dryland plant mosaics through space and time. Within the large circles, soil surface type changes with time in the same space, going from bare uncrusted soil (B) to cyanobacterial biocrust (C) to lichen/moss (L/M) biocrust. Disturbance (D) drives the


    Graves, Genevieve J.; Faber, S. M.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.


    This analysis uses spectra of ∼16,000 nearby Sloan Digital Sky Survey quiescent galaxies to track variations in galaxy star formation histories (SFHs) along and perpendicular to the fundamental plane (FP). We sort galaxies by their FP properties (σ, R e , and I e ) and construct high signal-to-noise ratio mean galaxy spectra that span the breadth and thickness of the FP. From these spectra, we determine mean luminosity-weighted ages, [Fe/H], [Mg/H], and [Mg/Fe] based on single stellar population models using the method described in Graves and Schiavon. In agreement with previous work, the SFHs of early-type galaxies are found to form a two-parameter family. The major trend is that mean age, [Fe/H], [Mg/H], and [Mg/Fe] all increase with σ. However, no stellar population property shows any dependence on R e at fixed σ, suggesting that σ and not dynamical mass (M dyn ∝ σ 2 R e ) is the better predictor of past SFH. In addition to the main trend with σ, galaxies also show a range of population properties at fixed σ that are strongly correlated with surface brightness residuals from the FP (Δlog I e ), such that higher surface brightness galaxies have younger mean ages, higher [Fe/H], higher [Mg/H], and lower [Mg/Fe] than lower surface brightness galaxies. These latter trends are a major new constraint on SFHs.

  5. The KMOS Cluster Survey (KCS). III. Fundamental Plane of Cluster Galaxies at z ≃ 1.80 in JKCS 041

    Prichard, Laura J.; Davies, Roger L.; Beifiori, Alessandra; Chan, Jeffrey C. C.; Cappellari, Michele; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Bender, Ralf; Galametz, Audrey; Saglia, Roberto P.; Stott, John P.; Wilman, David J.; Lewis, Ian J.; Sharples, Ray; Wegner, Michael


    We present data for 16 galaxies in the overdensity JKCS 041 at z≃ 1.80 as part of the K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph (KMOS) Cluster Survey (KCS). With 20 hr integrations, we have obtained deep absorption-line spectra from which we derived velocity dispersions for seven quiescent galaxies. We combined photometric parameters derived from Hubble Space Telescope images with the dispersions to construct a fundamental plane (FP) for quiescent galaxies in JKCS 041. From the zero-point evolution of the FP, we derived a formation redshift for the galaxies of {z}{form}=3.0+/- 0.3, corresponding to a mean age of 1.4 ± 0.2 Gyr. We tested the effect of structural and velocity dispersion evolution on our FP zero-point and found a negligible contribution when using dynamical mass-normalized parameters (˜ 3 % ) but a significant contribution from stellar-mass-normalized parameters (˜ 42 % ). From the relative velocities of the galaxies, we probed the 3D structure of these 16 confirmed members of JKCS 041 and found that a group of galaxies in the southwest of the overdensity had systematically higher velocities. We derived ages for the galaxies in the different groups from the FP. We found that the east-extending group had typically older galaxies ({2.1}-0.2+0.3 Gyr) than those in the southwest group (0.3 ± 0.2 Gyr). Although based on small numbers, the overdensity dynamics, morphology, and age results could indicate that JKCS 041 is in formation and may comprise two merging groups of galaxies. This result could link large-scale structure to ages of galaxies for the first time at this redshift. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs: 095.A-0137(A) and 096.A-0189(A)).

  6. Path integral for spinning particle in the plane wave field: Global and local projections

    Boudiaf, N.; Boudjedaa, T.; Chetouani, L.


    The Green function related to the problem of a Dirac particle interacting with a plane wave is calculated via the path integral formalism proposed recently by Alexandrou et al. according to the two so-called global and local projections. With the help of the incorporation of two simple identities, it is shown that the contribution to the calculation of the integrals comes essentially from classical solutions projected along the direction of wave propagation. (orig.)


    Graves, Genevieve J.; Faber, S. M.


    The fundamental plane (FP) of early-type galaxies is observed to have finite thickness and to be tilted from the virial relation. Both of these represent departures from the simple assumption that dynamical mass-to-light ratios (M dyn /L) are constant for all early-type galaxies. We use a sample of 16,000 quiescent galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to map out the variations in M dyn /L throughout the three-dimensional FP space defined by velocity dispersion (σ), effective radius (R e ), and effective surface brightness (I e ). Dividing M dyn /L into multiple components allows us to separately consider the contribution to the observed M dyn /L variation due to stellar population effects, initial mass function (IMF) variations, and variations in the dark matter fraction within one R e . Along the FP, we find that the stellar population contribution given some constant IMF (M *,IMF /L) scales with σ such that M *,IMF /L ∝ f(σ). Meanwhile, the dark matter and/or IMF contribution (M dyn /M *,IMF ) scales with M dyn such that M dyn /M *,IMF ∝ g(M dyn ). This means that the two contributions to the tilt of the FP rotate the plane around different axes in the three-dimensional space. The observed tilt of the FP requires contributions from both, with dark matter/IMF variations likely comprising the dominant contribution. Looking at M dyn /L variations through the thickness of the FP, we find that M dyn /L variations must be dominated either by IMF variations or by real differences in the dark matter fraction with R e . This means that the finite thickness of the FP is due to variations in the stellar mass surface density within R e (Σ *,IMF ), not the fading of passive stellar populations. It therefore represents genuine structural differences between early-type galaxies. These structural variations are correlated with galaxy star formation histories such that galaxies with higher M dyn /M *,IMF have higher [Mg/Fe], lower metallicities, and older mean

  8. Pseudo Phase Plane and Fractional Calculus modeling of western global economic downturn

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; Mata, Maria Eugénia


    This paper applies Pseudo Phase Plane (PPP) and Fractional Calculus (FC) mathematical tools for modeling world economies. A challenging global rivalry among the largest international economies began in the early 1970s, when the post-war prosperity declined. It went on, up to now. If some worrying threatens may exist actually in terms of possible ambitious military aggression, invasion, or hegemony, countries' PPP relative positions can tell something on the current global peaceful equilibrium. A global political downturn of the USA on global hegemony in favor of Asian partners is possible, but can still be not accomplished in the next decades. If the 1973 oil chock has represented the beginning of a long-run recession, the PPP analysis of the last four decades (1972-2012) does not conclude for other partners' global dominance (Russian, Brazil, Japan, and Germany) in reaching high degrees of similarity with the most developed world countries. The synergies of the proposed mathematical tools lead to a better understanding of the dynamics underlying world economies and point towards the estimation of future states based on the memory of each time series.

  9. Global Justice: Building International and Supranational Structures on the Basis of Fundamental Rights

    Edgar Lammertse


    Full Text Available This article is intended to share a few thoughts, notions and questions about regulatory and governmental structures, both national and international, with regard to the development of global justice. It will highlight the issue whether or not local wisdom can contribute to global justice. In addition, this writing will discover legal problems that arise from the idea of global society and global justice by analyzing jurisdictional aspects and by explaining a little bit about dematerialization of crime, as it has been affected by the changing of communities’ behavior in global contexts after the era of computer and information and communication technology (ICT. Progressive development in Europe, especially regarding the European Union Law, will also be explored in order to describe the respect for fundamental rights in this region.

  10. Global dynamics of a nonlocal delayed reaction-diffusion equation on a half plane

    Hu, Wenjie; Duan, Yueliang


    We consider a delayed reaction-diffusion equation with spatial nonlocality on a half plane that describes population dynamics of a two-stage species living in a semi-infinite environment. A Neumann boundary condition is imposed accounting for an isolated domain. To describe the global dynamics, we first establish some a priori estimate for nontrivial solutions after investigating asymptotic properties of the nonlocal delayed effect and the diffusion operator, which enables us to show the permanence of the equation with respect to the compact open topology. We then employ standard dynamical system arguments to establish the global attractivity of the nontrivial equilibrium. The main results are illustrated by the diffusive Nicholson's blowfly equation and the diffusive Mackey-Glass equation.

  11. A calibration of the stellar mass fundamental plane at z ∼ 0.5 using the micro-lensing-induced flux ratio anomalies of macro-lensed quasars , ,

    Schechter, Paul L.; Pooley, David; Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Wambsganss, Joachim


    We measure the stellar mass surface densities of early-type galaxies by observing the micro-lensing of macro-lensed quasars caused by individual stars, including stellar remnants, brown dwarfs, and red dwarfs too faint to produce photometric or spectroscopic signatures. Instead of observing multiple micro-lensing events in a single system, we combine single-epoch X-ray snapshots of 10 quadruple systems, and compare the measured relative magnifications for the images with those computed from macro-models. We use these to normalize a stellar mass fundamental plane constructed using a Salpeter initial mass function with a low-mass cutoff of 0.1 M ☉ and treat the zeropoint of the surface mass density as a free parameter. Our method measures the graininess of the gravitational potential produced by individual stars, in contrast to methods that decompose a smooth total gravitational potential into two smooth components, one stellar and one dark. We find the median likelihood value for the normalization factor F by which the Salpeter stellar masses must be multiplied is 1.23, with a one sigma confidence range, dominated by small number statistics, of 0.77

  12. A Massive Cluster in its Youth: the Fundamental Plane, Kinematics, and Ages for Cluster Galaxies at z = 1.80 in JKCS 041

    Prichard, Laura Jane; Davies, Roger L.; Beifiori, Alessandra; Chan, Jeffrey C. C.; Cappellari, Michele; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Mendel, Trevor; Bender, Ralf; Galametz, Audrey; Saglia, Roberto P.; Smith, Russell; Stott, John P.; Wilman, David J.; Lewis, Ian J.; Sharples, Ray; Wegner, Michael


    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the Universe, and we know that early type galaxies (ETGs) are more common towards their centers. Clusters of galaxies are increasingly rare at early times, but are essential for understanding the formation of these massive structures and how they alter the fate of their member galaxies. However, long integration times are required to constrain the stellar properties of these distant cluster ETGs. Now with the advent of the multiplexed near-infrared integral field instrument, the K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph (KMOS) on the Very Large Telescope, we can target the ETGs in these valuable high-redshift clusters more efficiently than ever. The KMOS guaranteed observing program, the KMOS Cluster Survey (KCS; P.I.s Bender & Davies), has enabled a study of cluster galaxies in overdensities spanning z=1-2 through absorption-line spectroscopy obtained from 20-hour integrations. We will present spectra for 16 galaxies in the furthest KCS overdensity, JKCS 041, an ETG-rich cluster at z=1.80. We measured seven velocity dispersions from the quiescent galaxy spectra, expanding the sample of like measurements in the literature at or above z=1.80 by more than 40%. Through the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope photometry and deep absorption-line spectroscopy, we were able to construct the highest redshift fundamental plane (FP) within a single system for galaxies in JKCS 041. From the redshift evolution of the FP zero-point, we derived a mean age of the galaxies in this cluster of 1.4 +/- 0.2 Gyrs. We determined relative velocities of the galaxies to study the three-dimensional structure of this overdensity. We noticed from the dynamics of JKCS 041 that a group of galaxies was infalling towards the cluster center. When measuring FP ages for the infalling group, we found these galaxies had significantly younger mean ages (0.3 +/- 0.2 Gyrs) than the other galaxies in the cluster (2.0 +0.3/-0.1 Gyrs). Based on the

  13. Estimation of hourly global solar irradiation on tilted planes from horizontal one using artificial neural networks

    Notton, Gilles; Paoli, Christophe; Vasileva, Siyana; Nivet, Marie Laure; Canaletti, Jean-Louis; Cristofari, Christian


    Calculating global solar irradiation from global horizontal irradiation only is a difficult task, especially when the time step is small and the data are not averaged. We used an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to realize this conversion. The ANN is optimized and tested on the basis of five years of solar data; the accuracy of the optimal configuration is around 6% for the RRMSE (relative root mean square error) and around 3.5% for the RMAE (relative mean absolute value) i.e. a better performance than the empirical correlations available in the literature. -- Highlights: ► ANN (Artificial Neural Network) methodology applied to hourly global solar irradiation in order to estimate tilted irradiations. ► Model validation with more than 23,000 data. ► Comparison with “conventional” models. ► The precision in the results is better than with empirical correlations. ► 6% for the RMSE (root means square error) and around 3.5% for the RMAE (Relative Mean Absolute Value).

  14. The impacts of global oil price shocks on China's fundamental industries

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Chuanguo


    This paper investigated the impacts of oil price shocks on China's fundamental industries. In order to analyze the reactions of different industries to oil price shocks, we focused on four fundamental industries: grains, metals, petrochemicals and oil fats. We separated the oil price shocks into two parts, positive and negative parts, to investigate how commodity markets react when oil prices go up and down. We further studied the extreme price movements, called jumps, existing in the oil markets and how jump behavior has affected China's commodity markets. Our results suggest that asymmetric effects of oil price shocks did exist in the four markets and the negative oil price shocks had stronger influences on the four markets in China. The petrochemicals market suffered most from the oil price shocks, and the grains market was least sensitive to the shocks. When jumps occurred in the crude oil market, the four commodity markets would be affected differently. The oil fats market and petrochemicals market tended to “overreact” to jumps. - Highlights: • We investigate the impacts of oil price shocks on China's fundamental industries. • Jump behavior does exist in the crude oil market. • The impacts of oil price shocks are asymmetric. • China's four commodity markets are affected by the jump behavior

  15. Fundamental and semi-global kinetic mechanisms for hydrocarbon combustion. Final report, March 1977-October 1980

    Dryer, F L; Glassman, I; Brezinsky, K


    Over the past three and one half years, substantial research efforts of the Princeton Fuels Research Group have been directed towards the development of simplified mechanisms which would accurately describe the oxidation of hydrocarbons fuels. The objectives of this combustion research included the study of semi-empirical modeling (that is an overall description) of the chemical kinetic mechanisms of simple hydrocarbon fuels. Such fuels include the alkanes: ethane, propane, butane, hexane and octane as well as the critically important alkenes: ethene, propene and butene. As an extension to this work, the study of the detailed radical species characteristics of combustion systems was initiated as another major aspect of the program, with emphasis on the role of the OH and HO/sub 2/ radicals. Finally, the studies of important alternative fuel problems linked the program to longer range approaches to the energy supply question. Studies of alternative fuels composed the major elements of this area of the program. The efforts on methanol research were completed, and while the aromatics aspects of the DOE work have been a direct extension of efforts supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, they represented a significant part of the overall research effort. The emphasis in the proposed program is to provide further fundamental understanding of the oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels which will be useful in guiding engineering approaches. Although the scope of program ranges from the fundamentals of chemical kinetics to that of alternative fuel combustion, the objective in mind is to provide insight and guidance to the understanding of practical combustion environments. The key to our approach has been our understanding of the fundamental combustion chemistry and its relation to the important practical combustion problems which exist in implementing energy efficient, alternate fuels technologies.

  16. The Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford University: Fundamental Research Towards Future Energy Technologies

    Milne, Jennifer L.; Sassoon, Richard E.; Hung, Emilie; Bosshard, Paolo; Benson, Sally M.

    The Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP), at Stanford University, invests in research with the potential to lead to energy technologies with lower greenhouse gas emissions than current energy technologies. GCEP is sponsored by four international companies, ExxonMobil, GE, Schlumberger, and Toyota and supports research programs in academic institutions worldwide. Research falls into the broad areas of carbon based energy systems, renewables, electrochemistry, and the electric grid. Within these areas research efforts are underway that are aimed at achieving break-throughs and innovations that greatly improve efficiency, performance, functionality and cost of many potential energy technologies of the future including solar, batteries, fuel cells, biofuels, hydrogen storage and carbon capture and storage. This paper presents a summary of some of GCEP's activities over the past 7 years with current research areas of interest and potential research directions in the near future.

  17. Evolution of proteomes: fundamental signatures and global trends in amino acid compositions

    Yeramian Edouard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary characterization of species and lifestyles at global levels is nowadays a subject of considerable interest, particularly with the availability of many complete genomes. Are there specific properties associated with lifestyles and phylogenies? What are the underlying evolutionary trends? One of the simplest analyses to address such questions concerns characterization of proteomes at the amino acids composition level. Results In this work, amino acid compositions of a large set of 208 proteomes, with significant number of representatives from the three phylogenetic domains and different lifestyles are analyzed, resorting to an appropriate multidimensional method: Correspondence analysis. The analysis reveals striking discrimination between eukaryotes, prokaryotic mesophiles and hyperthemophiles-themophiles, following amino acid usage. In sharp contrast, no similar discrimination is observed for psychrophiles. The observed distributional properties are compared with various inferred chronologies for the recruitment of amino acids into the genetic code. Such comparisons reveal correlations between the observed segregations of species following amino acid usage, and the separation of amino acids following early or late recruitment. Conclusion A simple description of proteomes according to amino acid compositions reveals striking signatures, with sharp segregations or on the contrary non-discriminations following phylogenies and lifestyles. The distribution of species, following amino acid usage, exhibits a discrimination between [high GC]-[high optimal growth temperatures] and [low GC]-[moderate temperatures] characteristics. This discrimination appears to coincide closely with the separation of amino acids following their inferred early or late recruitment into the genetic code. Taken together the various results provide a consistent picture for the evolution of proteomes, in terms of amino acid usage.

  18. The impact of global oil price shocks on China’s bulk commodity markets and fundamental industries

    Zhang, Chuanguo; Chen, Xiaoqing


    This paper investigated the reaction of aggregate commodity market to oil price shocks and also explored the effects of oil price shocks on China's fundamental industries: metals, petrochemicals, grains and oilfats. We separated the volatilities of oil price into expected, unexpected and negatively expected categories to identify how oil prices influence bulk commodity markets. We contrasted the results between different periods and among classified indices, in order to discover the significant changes in recent years and the differences at an industry level. Our results indicate that the aggregate commodity market was affected by both expected and unexpected oil price volatilities in China. The impact of unexpected oil price volatilities became more complex after 2007. The metals and grains indices did not significantly respond to the expected volatility in oil prices, in contrast to the petrochemicals and oilfats indices. These results not only contribute to advancing the existing literature, but also merit particular attention from policy makers and market investors in China. - Highlights: • We investigated the impact of global oil price shocks on China’s bulk commodity markets and fundamental industries. • The aggregate commodity market was affected by both expected and unexpected oil price volatilities. • The impact of unexpected oil price volatilities became more complex after 2007. • The metals and grains indices did not significantly respond to the expected volatility in oil prices

  19. Nearaffine planes

    Wilbrink, H.A.


    In this paper we develop a theory for nearaffine planes analogous to the theory of ordinary affine translation planes. In a subsequent paper we shall use this theory to give a characterization of a certain class of Minkowski planes.

  20. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E


    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Example of the Smooth Skew Product in the Plane with the One-dimensional Ramified Continuum as the Global Attractor*

    Efremova L.S.


    Full Text Available The example is constructed of the C1-smooth skew product of interval maps possessing the one-dimensional ramified continuum (containing no arcs homeomorphic to the circle with an infinite set of ramification points as the global attractor. L’exemple est construit à partir d’un produit biaisé lisse de classe C1 de transformations d’un intervalle, qui a un continuum unidimensionnel ramifié (ne contenant pas d’arcs homéomorphes à un cercle avec un ensemble infini de points de branchement comme attracteur global.

  2. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams


    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  3. Modeling Nearly Spherical Pure-bulge Galaxies with a Stellar Mass-to-light Ratio Gradient under the ΛCDM and MOND Paradigms. I. Methodology, Dynamical Stellar Mass, and Fundamental Mass Plane

    Chae, Kyu-Hyun; Bernardi, Mariangela; Sheth, Ravi K.


    We carry out spherical Jeans modeling of nearly round pure-bulge galaxies selected from the ATLAS3D sample. Our modeling allows for gradients in the stellar mass-to-light ratio (M ⋆/L) through analytic prescriptions parameterized with a “gradient strength” K introduced to accommodate any viable gradient. We use a generalized Osipkov–Merritt model for the velocity dispersion (VD) anisotropy. We produce Monte Carlo sets of models based on the stellar VD profiles under both the ΛCDM and MOND paradigms. Here, we describe the galaxy data, the empirical inputs, and the modeling procedures of obtaining the Monte Carlo sets. We then present the projected dynamical stellar mass, {M}\\star {{e}}, within the effective radius R e, and the fundamental mass plane (FMP) as a function of K. We find the scaling of the K-dependent mass with respect to the ATLAS3D reported mass as: {log}}10[{M}\\star {{e}}(K)/{M}\\star {{e}}{{A}3{{D}}}]=a\\prime +b\\prime K with a‧ = ‑0.019 ± 0.012 and b‧ = ‑0.18 ± 0.02 (ΛCDM), or a‧ = ‑0.023 ± 0.014 and b‧ = ‑0.23 ± 0.03 (MOND), for 0 ≤ K expectation and only the zero-point scales with K. The median value of K for the ATLAS3D galaxies is ={0.53}-0.04+0.05. We perform a similar analysis of the much larger SDSS DR7 spectroscopic sample. In this case, only the VD within a single aperture is available, so we impose the additional requirement that the VD slope be similar to that in the ATLAS3D galaxies. Our analysis of the SDSS galaxies suggests a positive correlation of K with stellar mass.

  4. Transformational plane geometry

    Umble, Ronald N


    Axioms of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Existence and Incidence Postulates The Distance and Ruler Postulates The Plane Separation Postulate The Protractor Postulate The Side-Angle-Side Postulate and the Euclidean Parallel Postulate Theorems of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Exterior Angle Theorem Triangle Congruence Theorems The Alternate Interior Angles Theorem and the Angle Sum Theorem Similar Triangles Introduction to Transformations, Isometries, and Similarities Transformations Isometries and SimilaritiesAppendix: Proof of Surjectivity Translations, Rotations, and Reflections Translations Rotations Reflections Appendix: Geometer's Sketchpad Commands Required by Exploratory Activities Compositions of Translations, Rotations, and Reflections The Three Points Theorem Rotations as Compositions of Two Reflections Translations as Compositions of Two Halfturns or Two Reflections The Angle Addition Theorem Glide Reflections Classification of Isometries The Fundamental Theorem and Congruence Classification of Isometr...

  5. Fundamental statistical relationships between monthly and daily meteorological variables: Temporal downscaling of weather based on a global observational dataset

    Sommer, Philipp; Kaplan, Jed


    Accurate modelling of large-scale vegetation dynamics, hydrology, and other environmental processes requires meteorological forcing on daily timescales. While meteorological data with high temporal resolution is becoming increasingly available, simulations for the future or distant past are limited by lack of data and poor performance of climate models, e.g., in simulating daily precipitation. To overcome these limitations, we may temporally downscale monthly summary data to a daily time step using a weather generator. Parameterization of such statistical models has traditionally been based on a limited number of observations. Recent developments in the archiving, distribution, and analysis of "big data" datasets provide new opportunities for the parameterization of a temporal downscaling model that is applicable over a wide range of climates. Here we parameterize a WGEN-type weather generator using more than 50 million individual daily meteorological observations, from over 10'000 stations covering all continents, based on the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) and Synoptic Cloud Reports (EECRA) databases. Using the resulting "universal" parameterization and driven by monthly summaries, we downscale mean temperature (minimum and maximum), cloud cover, and total precipitation, to daily estimates. We apply a hybrid gamma-generalized Pareto distribution to calculate daily precipitation amounts, which overcomes much of the inability of earlier weather generators to simulate high amounts of daily precipitation. Our globally parameterized weather generator has numerous applications, including vegetation and crop modelling for paleoenvironmental studies.

  6. The Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe - A Mission to Discover the Origin of Particle Acceleration and its Fundamental Connection to the Global Interstellar Interaction

    Schwadron, N.


    Our piece of cosmic real-estate, the heliosphere, is the domain of all human existence - an astrophysical case-history of the successful evolution of life in a habitable system. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) was the first mission to explore the global heliosphere and in concert with Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 is discovering a fundamentally new and uncharted physical domain of the outer heliosphere. In parallel, Cassini/INCA maps the global heliosphere at energies ( 5-55 keV) above those measured by IBEX. The enigmatic IBEX ribbon and the INCA belt were unanticipated discoveries demonstrating that much of what we know or think we understand about the outer heliosphere needs to be revised. The global structure of the heliosphere is highly complex and influenced by competing factors ranging from the local interstellar magnetic field, suprathermal populations both within and beyond the heliopause, and the detailed flow properties of the LISM. Global heliospheric structure and microphysics in turn influences the acceleration of energetic particles and creates feedbacks that modify the interstellar interaction as a whole. The next quantum leap enabled by IMAP will open new windows on the frontier of Heliophysics and probe the acceleration of suprathermal and higher energy particles at a time when the space environment is rapidly evolving. IMAP ultimately connects the acceleration processes observed directly at 1 AU with unprecedented sensitivity and temporal resolution with the global structure of our heliosphere. The remarkable synergy between IMAP, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 will remain for at least the next decade as Voyager 1 pushes further into the interstellar domain and Voyager 2 moves through the heliosheath. IMAP, like ACE before it, will be a keystone of the Heliophysics System Observatory by providing comprehensive energetic particle, pickup ion, suprathermal ion, neutral atom, solar wind, solar wind heavy ion, and magnetic field observations to diagnose

  7. Tobacco industry's elaborate attempts to control a global track and trace system and fundamentally undermine the Illicit Trade Protocol.

    Gilmore, Anna B; Gallagher, Allen W A; Rowell, Andy


    The Illicit Trade Protocol (ITP) requires a global track and trace (T&T) system to reduce tobacco smuggling. Given the tobacco industry's (TI) historical involvement in tobacco smuggling, it stipulates that T&T 'shall not be performed by or delegated to the tobacco industry'. This paper explores the rationale for & nature of the TI's effors to influence the ITP & its T&T system. Analysis of leaked TI documents and publicly available data; ,investigation of front groups, trademark and patent ownership. Growing & diverse sources of evidence indicate that the TI remains involved in tobacco smuggling and that TI cigarettes account for around two-thirds of the illicit cigarette market. The TI therefore has a vested interest in controlling the global T&T system aimed to curtail this behaviour. To this end, Philip Morris International (PMI) adapted its pack marker system, Codentify, to meet T&T requirements, licensed it for free to its three major competitors who then collectively promoted it to governments using front groups and third parties including companies claiming to be independent despite clear TI links. PMI also sought to suggest Codentify was independent by selling some parts of its intellectual property on Codentify while retaining others, leaving a complex web of shared interests. In Africa, British American Tobacco used payments to obtain data suggesting its smaller competitor companies were evading taxes and secure influence with tax authorities. Regulatory capture has been enhanced by a public relations effort involving TI funding for conferences, training, research, and international police and anti-corruption organisations. Collectively this has created public messaging and a powerful network of organisations supportive of the TI's misleading postion on illicit. Governments should assume the TI seeks to control T&T systems in order to avoid scrutiny and minimise excise tax payments and that any T&T system based on Codentify, on intellectual property

  8. Protocol for Validation of the Land Surface Reflectance Fundamental Climate Data Record using AERONET: Application to the Global MODIS and VIIRS Data Records

    Roger, J. C.; Vermote, E.; Holben, B. N.


    The land surface reflectance is a fundamental climate data record at the basis of the derivation of other climate data records (Albedo, LAI/Fpar, Vegetation indices) and a key parameter in the understanding of the land-surface-climate processes. It is essential that a careful validation of its uncertainties is performed on a global and continuous basis. One approach is the direct comparison of this product with ground measurements but that approach presents several issues related to scale, the episodic nature of ground measurements and the global representativeness. An alternative is to compare the surface reflectance product to reference reflectance determined from Top of atmosphere reflectance corrected using accurate radiative transfer code and very detailed measurements of the atmosphere obtained over the AERONET sites (Vermote and al, 2014, RSE) which allows to test for a large range of aerosol characteristics; formers being important inputs for atmospheric corrections. However, the application of this method necessitates the definition of a very detailed protocol for the use of AERONET data especially as far as size distribution and absorption are concerned, so that alternative validation methods or protocols could be compared. This paper describes the protocol we have been working on based on our experience with the AERONET data and its application to the MODIS and VIIRS record.

  9. An introduction to finite projective planes

    Albert, Abraham Adrian


    Geared toward both beginning and advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this self-contained treatment offers an elementary approach to finite projective planes. Following a review of the basics of projective geometry, the text examines finite planes, field planes, and coordinates in an arbitrary plane. Additional topics include central collineations and the little Desargues' property, the fundamental theorem, and examples of finite non-Desarguesian planes.Virtually no knowledge or sophistication on the part of the student is assumed, and every algebraic system that arises is defined and

  10. Generating asymptotically plane wave spacetimes

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund


    In an attempt to study asymptotically plane wave spacetimes which admit an event horizon, we find solutions to vacuum Einstein's equations in arbitrary dimension which have a globally null Killing field and rotational symmetry. We show that while such solutions can be deformed to include ones which are asymptotically plane wave, they do not posses a regular event horizon. If we allow for additional matter, such as in supergravity theories, we show that it is possible to have extremal solutions with globally null Killing field, a regular horizon, and which, in addition, are asymptotically plane wave. In particular, we deform the extremal M2-brane solution in 11-dimensional supergravity so that it behaves asymptotically as a 10-dimensional vacuum plane wave times a real line. (author)

  11. Radiology fundamentals

    Singh, Harjit


    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  12. Fundamental Astronomy

    Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan


    Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

  13. Fundamental length

    Pradhan, T.


    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  14. SDSS-IV MaNGA: global stellar population and gradients for about 2000 early-type and spiral galaxies on the mass-size plane

    Li, Hongyu; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Ge, Junqiang; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Mo, H. J.; Li, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Brownstein, Joel R.; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Law, David R.; Drory, Niv


    We perform full spectrum fitting stellar population analysis and Jeans Anisotropic modelling of the stellar kinematics for about 2000 early-type galaxies (ETGs) and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR14 sample. Galaxies with different morphologies are found to be located on a remarkably tight mass plane which is close to the prediction of the virial theorem, extending previous results for ETGs. By examining an inclined projection (`the mass-size' plane), we find that spiral and early-type galaxies occupy different regions on the plane, and their stellar population properties (i.e. age, metallicity, and stellar mass-to-light ratio) vary systematically along roughly the direction of velocity dispersion, which is a proxy for the bulge fraction. Galaxies with higher velocity dispersions have typically older ages, larger stellar mass-to-light ratios and are more metal rich, which indicates that galaxies increase their bulge fractions as their stellar populations age and become enriched chemically. The age and stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients for low-mass galaxies in our sample tend to be positive (centre Spiral galaxies with large mass and size have the steepest gradients, while the most massive ETGs, especially above the critical mass Mcrit ≳ 2 × 1011 M⊙, where slow rotator ETGs start dominating, have much flatter gradients. This may be due to differences in their evolution histories, e.g. mergers.

  15. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals


    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  16. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals


    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  17. Marketing fundamentals.

    Redmond, W H


    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  18. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj


    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  19. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj


    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  20. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen


    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...


    Schenck, David E.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Reiter, Megan; Juneau, Stephanie


    We present an analysis of the relation between the star formation rate (SFR) and mass of dense gas in Galactic clumps and nearby galaxies. Using the bolometric luminosity as a measure of SFR and the molecular line luminosity of HCO + (3-2) as a measure of dense gas mass, we find that the relation between SFR and M dense is approximately linear. This is similar to published results derived using HCN (1-0) as a dense gas tracer. HCO + (3-2) and HCN (1-0) have similar conditions for excitation. Our work includes 16 Galactic clumps that are in both the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey and the Red MSX Source Survey, 27 water maser sources from the literature, and the aforementioned HCN (1-0) data. Our results agree qualitatively with predictions of recent theoretical models which state that the nature of the relation should depend on how the critical density of the tracer compares with the mean density of the gas.

  2. A Fundamental Plane of Spiral Structure in Disk Galaxies

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia; Westfall, Kyle B.; Shields, Douglas W.; Flatman, Russell; Hartley, Matthew T.; Berrier, Joel C.; Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Swaters, Rob A.

    Spiral structure is the most distinctive feature of disk galaxies and yet debate persists about which theory of spiral structure is correct. Many versions of the density wave theory demand that the pitch angle be uniquely determined by the distribution of mass in the bulge and disk of the galaxy. We

  3. Fundamental superstrings as holograms

    Dabholkar, A.; Murthy, S.


    The worldsheet of a macroscopic fundamental superstring in the Green-Schwarz light-cone gauge is viewed as a possible boundary hologram of the near horizon region of a small black string. For toroidally compactified strings, the hologram has global symmetries of AdS 3 x S d-1 x T 8-d ( d = 3, . . . , 8), only some of which extend to local conformal symmetries. We construct the bulk string theory in detail for the particular case of d = 3. The symmetries of the hologram are correctly reproduced from this exact worldsheet description in the bulk. Moreover, the central charge of the boundary Virasoro algebra obtained from the bulk agrees with the Wald entropy of the associated small black holes. This construction provides an exact CFT description of the near horizon region of small black holes both in Type-II and heterotic string theory arising from multiply wound fundamental superstrings. (author)

  4. Fundamental superstrings as holograms

    Dabholkar, Atish; Murthy, Sameer


    The worldsheet of a macroscopic fundamental superstring in the Green-Schwarz light-cone gauge is viewed as a possible boundary hologram of the near horizon region of a small black string. For toroidally compactified strings, the hologram has global symmetries of AdS 3 x S d-1 x T 8-d (d = 3, ..., 8), only some of which extend to local conformal symmetries. We construct the bulk string theory in detail for the particular case of d = 3. The symmetries of the hologram are correctly reproduced from this exact worldsheet description in the bulk. Moreover, the central charge of the boundary Virasoro algebra obtained from the bulk agrees with the Wald entropy of the associated small black holes. This construction provides an exact CFT description of the near horizon region of small black holes both in Type-II and heterotic string theory arising from multiply wound fundamental superstrings

  5. Hydrodynamics of planing monohull watercraft

    Vorus, William S


    This book addresses the principles involved in the design and engineering of planing monohull power boats, with an emphasis on the theoretical fundamentals that readers need in order to be fully functional in marine design and engineering. Author William Vorus focuses on three topics: boat resistance, seaway response, and propulsion and explains the physical principles, mathematical details, and theoretical details that support physical understanding. In particular, he explains the approximations and simplifications in mathematics that lead to success in the applications of planing craft design engineering, and begins with the simplest configuration that embodies the basic physics. He leads readers, step-by-step, through the physical complications that occur, leading to a useful working knowledge of marine design and engineering. Included in the book are a wealth of examples that exemplify some of the most important naval architecture and marine engineering problems that challenge many of today’s engineers.

  6. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  7. Existence of Projective Planes

    Perrott, Xander


    This report gives an overview of the history of finite projective planes and their properties before going on to outline the proof that no projective plane of order 10 exists. The report also investigates the search carried out by MacWilliams, Sloane and Thompson in 1970 [12] and confirms their result by providing independent verification that there is no vector of weight 15 in the code generated by the projective plane of order 10.

  8. Fundamentals of sustainable neighbourhoods

    Friedman, Avi


    This book introduces architects, engineers, builders, and urban planners to a range of design principles of sustainable communities and illustrates them with outstanding case studies. Drawing on the author’s experience as well as local and international case studies, Fundamentals of Sustainable Neighbourhoods presents planning concepts that minimize developments' carbon footprint through compact communities, adaptable and expandable dwellings, adaptable landscapes, and smaller-sized yet quality-designed housing. This book also: Examines in-depth global strategies for minimizing the residential carbon footprint, including district heating, passive solar gain, net-zero residences, as well as preserving the communities' natural assets Reconsiders conceptual approaches in building design and urban planning to promote a better connection between communities and nature Demonstrates practical applications of green architecture Focuses on innovative living spaces in urban environments

  9. Cross plane scattering correction

    Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.


    Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution

  10. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    Dominguez, Daniel, E-mail:; Peralta, Luis Grave de [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bernussi, Ayrton A. [Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)


    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  11. Instabilities of Kirkendall planes

    Dal, van M.J.H.; Gusak, A.M.; Cserhati, C.; Kodentsov, A.; Loo, van F.J.J.


    Reconsideration of the Kirkendall effect is presented. It is demonstrated (experimentally as well as theoretically) that Kirkendall planes can be multiple, stable or unstable within a single-phase reaction zone. A general criterion of instabilty is given.

  12. Algebraic Structures on MOD Planes

    Kandasamy, Vasantha; Ilanthenral, K.; Smarandache, Florentin


    Study of MOD planes happens to a very recent one. In this book, systematically algebraic structures on MOD planes like, MOD semigroups, MOD groups and MOD rings of different types are defined and studied. Such study is innovative for a large four quadrant planes are made into a small MOD planes. Several distinct features enjoyed by these MOD planes are defined, developed and described.

  13. Quantitative compositional analysis and field-evaporation behavior of ordered Ni4Mo on an atomic plane-by-plane basis: an atom-probe field-ion microscope study. MSC report No. 4802

    Yamamoto, M.; Seidman, D.N.


    The (211) fundamental and (101) superlattice planes, of the bct lattice, were analysed chemically on an atomic plane-by-plane basis. It was demonstrated that the composition of each individual plane can be determined as a function of depth without any ambiguity. The overall average Mo concentration was measured to be 17.1 at. % for the (211) fundamental plane. Details of the field evaporation behavior of the (211) fundamental and (101) superlattice planes were studied. The field-evaporation behavior is described in terms of the field-evaporation rate, the order of the field evaporated ions, etc. Each individual atomic plane field evaporated on an atomic plane-by-plane basis for the (211) fundamental plane. While for (101) superlattice plane a group of planes consisting of one plane of Mo atoms and four planes of Ni atoms field-evaporated as a unit. An abnormal increase in the number of Mo atoms was found in the central portion of the (211) fundamental plane. Possible mechanisms for the abnormal field evaporation rate are discussed. It is concluded that the atom probe technique can be used to follow the physics and chemistry of the field-evaporation process and the chemistry of the alloy as a function of position, on a subnanometer scale, throughout the specimen. 13 figures

  14. Fast Plane Wave Imaging

    Jensen, Jonas

    This PhD project investigates and further develops methods for ultrasound plane wave imaging and blood flow estimation with the objective of overcoming some of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems, which are related to low frame rates and only estimation of velocities along...... the ultrasound beam. The first part of the contribution investigates the compromise between frame rate and plane wave image quality including the influence of grating lobes from a λ-pitch transducer. A method for optimizing the image quality is suggested, and it is shown that the frame rate can be increased...... healthy volunteers. Complex flow patterns were measured in an anthropomorphic flow phantom and showed good agreement with the velocity field simulated using computational fluid dynamics. The last part of the contribution investigates two clinical applications. Plane wave imaging was used for slow velocity...

  15. Instability of in-plane vortices in two-dimensional easy-plane ferromagnets

    Wysin, G.M.


    An analysis of the core region of an in-plane vortex in the two-dimensional Heisenberg model with easy-plane anisotropy λ=J z /J xy leads to a clear understanding of the instability towards transformation into an out-of-plane vortex as a function of anisotropy. The anisotropy parameter λ c at which the in-plane vortex becomes unstable and develops into an out-of-plane vortex is determined with an accuracy comparable to computer simulations for square, hexagonal, and triangular lattices. For λ c , the in-plane vortex is stable but exhibits a normal mode whose frequency goes to zero as ω∝(λ c -λ) 1/2 as λ approaches λ c . For λ>λ c , the static nonzero out-of-plane spin components grow as (λ-λ c ) 1/2 . The lattice dependence of λ c is determined strongly by the number of spins in the core plaquette, is fundamentally a discreteness effect, and cannot be obtained in a continuum theory

  16. Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.

    Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.


    We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

  17. Multi-planed unified switching topologies

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Sugawara, Yutaka


    An apparatus and method for extending the scalability and improving the partitionability of networks that contain all-to-all links for transporting packet traffic from a source endpoint to a destination endpoint with low per-endpoint (per-server) cost and a small number of hops. An all-to-all wiring in the baseline topology is decomposed into smaller all-to-all components in which each smaller all-to-all connection is replaced with star topology by using global switches. Stacking multiple copies of the star topology baseline network creates a multi-planed switching topology for transporting packet traffic. Point-to-point unified stacking method using global switch wiring methods connects multiple planes of a baseline topology by using the global switches to create a large network size with a low number of hops, i.e., low network latency. Grouped unified stacking method increases the scalability (network size) of a stacked topology.

  18. The OBS control plane

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Ruepp, Sarah Renée


    . The applicability analysis carried out here focuses on the actual feasibility of the integration and the potential trade-offs which appear when two contradicting principles are combined. Taking advantage of the flexibility of the GMPLS control plane does not seem to be as easy and as straightforward as expected...

  19. Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia

    Nagy, Sandra L.


    This is a study of Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia. Islamic fundamentalism is defined as the return to the foundations and principles of Islam including all movements based on the desire to create a more Islamic society. After describing the practices and beliefs of Islam, this thesis examines the three aspects of universal Islamic fundamentalism: revivalism, resurgence, and radicalism. It analyzes the role of Islam in Indonesia under Dutch colonial rule, an alien Christian imperialist po...

  20. BKP plane partitions

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael


    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another

  1. BKP plane partitions

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)


    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.

  2. Carbon nanotube plane fastener

    Kaori Hirahara


    Full Text Available We report a feature of carbon nanotubes (CNTs that arises when the surfaces of two vertically-aligned CNT brushes are pressed together. Adhesion between the CNTs creates a plane fastener-like device. Observations from scanning electron microscopy and measurements of adhesion properties indicate a device-dependence on CNT density and shape near the tip region. Among other applications, such fasteners have the potential to attach small components onto micron-sized electronic devices.

  3. Conquest of the Plane

    Colignatus, Thomas


    CONQUEST OF THE PLANE provides: an integrated course for geometry and analysis a didactic build-up that avoids traditional clutter use of only the essentials for good understanding proper place for vectors, complex numbers, linear algebra and trigonometry an original and elegant development of trigonometry an original and elegant foundation for calculus examples from physics, economics and statistics integration within the dynamic environment of Mathematica ...

  4. An Algorithm for constructing Hjelmslev planes

    Hall, Joanne L.; Rao, Asha


    Projective Hjelmslev planes and Affine Hjelmselv planes are generalisations of projective planes and affine planes. We present an algorithm for constructing a projective Hjelmslev planes and affine Hjelsmelv planes using projective planes, affine planes and orthogonal arrays. We show that all 2-uniform projective Hjelmslev planes, and all 2-uniform affine Hjelsmelv planes can be constructed in this way. As a corollary it is shown that all 2-uniform Affine Hjelmselv planes are sub-geometries o...

  5. Simultaneous orthogonal plane imaging.

    Mickevicius, Nikolai J; Paulson, Eric S


    Intrafraction motion can result in a smearing of planned external beam radiation therapy dose distributions, resulting in an uncertainty in dose actually deposited in tissue. The purpose of this paper is to present a pulse sequence that is capable of imaging a moving target at a high frame rate in two orthogonal planes simultaneously for MR-guided radiotherapy. By balancing the zero gradient moment on all axes, slices in two orthogonal planes may be spatially encoded simultaneously. The orthogonal slice groups may be acquired with equal or nonequal echo times. A Cartesian spoiled gradient echo simultaneous orthogonal plane imaging (SOPI) sequence was tested in phantom and in vivo. Multiplexed SOPI acquisitions were performed in which two parallel slices were imaged along two orthogonal axes simultaneously. An autocalibrating phase-constrained 2D-SENSE-GRAPPA (generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition) algorithm was implemented to reconstruct the multiplexed data. SOPI images without intraslice motion artifacts were reconstructed at a maximum frame rate of 8.16 Hz. The 2D-SENSE-GRAPPA reconstruction separated the parallel slices aliased along each orthogonal axis. The high spatiotemporal resolution provided by SOPI has the potential to be beneficial for intrafraction motion management during MR-guided radiation therapy or other MRI-guided interventions. Magn Reson Med 78:1700-1710, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    Babu, V


    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  7. The Punctured Plane

    in the 'analysis' on these spaces. The main theme of this article is to illustrate how topology governs analysis. Most of you are probably familiar with analysis, another name for calculus. At its core are the fundamental concepts of limits, differentiation and integration of functions on R, and more generally Rn. What is topology ...

  8. Fundamental neutron physics

    Deslattes, R.; Dombeck, T.; Greene, G.; Ramsey, N.; Rauch, H.; Werner, S.


    Fundamental physics experiments of merit can be conducted at the proposed intense neutron sources. Areas of interest include: neutron particle properties, neutron wave properties, and fundamental physics utilizing reactor produced γ-rays. Such experiments require intense, full-time utilization of a beam station for periods ranging from several months to a year or more

  9. Plane partition vesicles

    Rensburg, E J Janse van; Ma, J


    We examine partitions and their natural three-dimensional generalizations, plane partitions, as models of vesicles undergoing an inflation-deflation transition. The phase diagrams of these models include a critical point corresponding to an inflation-deflation transition, and exhibits multicritical scaling in the vicinity of a multicritical point located elsewhere on the critical curve. We determine the locations of the multicritical points by analysing the generating functions using analytic and numerical means. In addition, we determine the numerical values of the multicritical scaling exponents associated with the multicritical scaling regimes in these models

  10. Relativities of fundamentality

    McKenzie, Kerry


    S-dualities have been held to have radical implications for our metaphysics of fundamentality. In particular, it has been claimed that they make the fundamentality status of a physical object theory-relative in an important new way. But what physicists have had to say on the issue has not been clear or consistent, and in particular seems to be ambiguous between whether S-dualities demand an anti-realist interpretation of fundamentality talk or merely a revised realism. This paper is an attempt to bring some clarity to the matter. After showing that even antecedently familiar fundamentality claims are true only relative to a raft of metaphysical, physical, and mathematical assumptions, I argue that the relativity of fundamentality inherent in S-duality nevertheless represents something new, and that part of the reason for this is that it has both realist and anti-realist implications for fundamentality talk. I close by discussing the broader significance that S-dualities have for structuralist metaphysics and for fundamentality metaphysics more generally.

  11. Fundamentals of electronics

    Schubert, Thomas F


    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  12. In-plane and out-of-plane emission of nuclear matter in Au+Au collisions

    Bastid, N.; Dupieux, P.; Ramillien, V.; Alard, J.P.; Amouroux, V.; Berger, L.; Boussange, S.; Fraysse, L.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Montarou, G.


    Collective flow effects in Au (E/A = 150 to 800 MeV) on Au collisions measured with the phase I setup of the FOPI detector at GSI - Darmstadt are presented. Directed side ward flow is studied, by the mean transverse momentum in the reaction plane x (y)>, without reaction plane reconstruction. A more quantitative measurement of the global amount of directed side ward flow is also made and some comparisons with the predictions of different QMD versions are given. Experimental results concerning the preferential emission of particles in a direction perpendicular to the reaction plane are also presented. Azimuthal distributions of fragments around the beam axis, with respect to the reaction plane are studied in the mid-rapidity region and the associated R N (out-of-plane/in-plane ratios) are extracted. The dependence of R N upon transverse momentum, centrality, fragment charge and bombarding energy is studied. (authors). 24 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  13. Fundamentals of electrochemical science

    Oldham, Keith


    Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals

  14. Fundamentals of ion exchange

    Townsend, R.P.


    In this paper the fundamentals of ion exchange mechanisms and their thermodynamics are described. A range of ion exchange materials is considered and problems of communication and technology transfer between scientists working in the field are discussed. (UK)

  15. Land Prices and Fundamentals

    Koji Nakamura; Yumi Saita


    This paper examines the long-term relationship between macro economic fundamentals and the weighted-average land price indicators, which are supposed to be more appropriate than the official land price indicators when analyzing their impacts on the macro economy. In many cases, we find the cointegrating relationships between the weighted-average land price indicators and the discounted present value of land calculated based on the macro economic fundamentals indicators. We also find that the ...

  16. Fundamentals of structural dynamics

    Craig, Roy R


    From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e

  17. Information security fundamentals

    Peltier, Thomas R


    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  18. Religious fundamentalism and conflict

    Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz


    This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...

  19. Fundamentals of statistics

    Mulholland, Henry


    Fundamentals of Statistics covers topics on the introduction, fundamentals, and science of statistics. The book discusses the collection, organization and representation of numerical data; elementary probability; the binomial Poisson distributions; and the measures of central tendency. The text describes measures of dispersion for measuring the spread of a distribution; continuous distributions for measuring on a continuous scale; the properties and use of normal distribution; and tests involving the normal or student's 't' distributions. The use of control charts for sample means; the ranges

  20. Fundamentalism and science

    Massimo Pigliucci


    Full Text Available The many facets of fundamentalism. There has been much talk about fundamentalism of late. While most people's thought on the topic go to the 9/11 attacks against the United States, or to the ongoing war in Iraq, fundamentalism is affecting science and its relationship to society in a way that may have dire long-term consequences. Of course, religious fundamentalism has always had a history of antagonism with science, and – before the birth of modern science – with philosophy, the age-old vehicle of the human attempt to exercise critical thinking and rationality to solve problems and pursue knowledge. “Fundamentalism” is defined by the Oxford Dictionary of the Social Sciences1 as “A movement that asserts the primacy of religious values in social and political life and calls for a return to a 'fundamental' or pure form of religion.” In its broadest sense, however, fundamentalism is a form of ideological intransigence which is not limited to religion, but includes political positions as well (for example, in the case of some extreme forms of “environmentalism”.

  1. Duality and noncommutative planes

    Jøndrup, Søren


    We study extensions of simple modules over an associative ring A   and we prove that for twosided ideals mm and nn with artinian factors the condition ExtA1(A/m,A/n)≠0 holds for the left A  -modules A/mA/m and A/nA/n if and only if it holds for the right modules A/nA/n and A/mA/m. The methods pro...... proving this are applied to show that noncommutative models of the plane, i.e. algebras of the form k〈x,y〉/(f)k〈x,y〉/(f), where f∈([x,y])f∈([x,y]) are noetherian only in case (f)=([x,y])...

  2. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S


    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Integral representation in the hodograph plane of compressible flow

    Hansen, Erik Bent; Hsiao, G.C.


    Compressible flow is considered in the hodograph plane. The linearity of the equation determining the stream function is exploited to derive a representation formula involving boundary data only, and a fundamental solution to the adjoint equation. For subsonic flow, an efficient algorithm...

  4. Path integration on the upper half-plane

    Kubo, Reijiro.


    Feynman's path integral is considered on the Poincare upper half-plane. It is shown that the fundamental solution to the heat equation δf/δt = Δ H f can be expressed in terms of a path integral. A simple relation between the path integral and the Selberg trace formula is discussed briefly. (author)

  5. Path Integration on the Upper Half-Plane

    Reijiro, KUBO; Research Institute for Theoretical Physics Hiroshima University


    Feynman's path integral is considered on the Poincare upper half-plane. It is shown that the fundamental solution to the heat equation ∂f/∂t=Δ_Hf can be expressed in terms of a path integral. A simple relation between the path integral and the Selberg trace formula is discussed briefly.

  6. Fundamentals of turbomachines

    Dick, Erik


    This book explores the working principles of all kinds of turbomachines. The same theoretical framework is used to analyse the different machine types. Fundamentals are first presented and theoretical concepts are then elaborated for particular machine types, starting with the simplest ones.For each machine type, the author strikes a balance between building basic understanding and exploring knowledge of practical aspects. Readers are invited through challenging exercises to consider how the theory applies to particular cases and how it can be generalised.   The book is primarily meant as a course book. It teaches fundamentals and explores applications. It will appeal to senior undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering and to professional engineers seeking to understand the operation of turbomachines. Readers will gain a fundamental understanding of turbomachines. They will also be able to make a reasoned choice of turbomachine for a particular application and to understand its operation...

  7. Arguing against fundamentality

    McKenzie, Kerry

    This paper aims to open up discussion on the relationship between fundamentality and naturalism, and in particular on the question of whether fundamentality may be denied on naturalistic grounds. A historico-inductive argument for an anti-fundamentalist conclusion, prominent within the contemporary metaphysical literature, is examined; finding it wanting, an alternative 'internal' strategy is proposed. By means of an example from the history of modern physics - namely S-matrix theory - it is demonstrated that (1) this strategy can generate similar (though not identical) anti-fundamentalist conclusions on more defensible naturalistic grounds, and (2) that fundamentality questions can be empirical questions. Some implications and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed.

  8. Fundamentals of piping design

    Smith, Peter


    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  9. Infosec management fundamentals

    Dalziel, Henry


    Infosec Management Fundamentals is a concise overview of the Information Security management concepts and techniques, providing a foundational template for both experienced professionals and those new to the industry. This brief volume will also appeal to business executives and managers outside of infosec who want to understand the fundamental concepts of Information Security and how it impacts their business decisions and daily activities. Teaches ISO/IEC 27000 best practices on information security management Discusses risks and controls within the context of an overall information securi

  10. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    Robert Kunzman


    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately help strengthen the broader civic fabric.

  11. Fundamentals of continuum mechanics

    Rudnicki, John W


    A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally.  This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ

  12. Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals

    Eccles, William


    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi

  13. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    Akatsu, Eiko


    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  14. Semantic Versus Syntactic Cutting Planes

    Filmus, Yuval; Hrubeš, Pavel; Lauria, Massimo


    In this paper, we compare the strength of the semantic and syntactic version of the cutting planes proof system. First, we show that the lower bound technique of Pudlák applies also to semantic cutting planes: the proof system has feasible interpolation via monotone real circuits, which gives an exponential lower bound on lengths of semantic cutting planes refutations. Second, we show that semantic refutations are stronger than syntactic ones. In particular, we give a formula for whic...

  15. Photovoltaic Solar Energy : From Fundamentals to Applications

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.


    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date

  16. Fundamentals of astrodynamics

    Wakker, K.F.


    This book deals with the motion of the center of mass of a spacecraft; this discipline is generally called astrodynamics. The book focuses on an analytical treatment of the motion of spacecraft and provides insight into the fundamentals of spacecraft orbit dynamics. A large number of topics are

  17. Safety analysis fundamentals

    Wright, A.C.D.


    This paper discusses the safety analysis fundamentals in reactor design. This study includes safety analysis done to show consequences of postulated accidents are acceptable. Safety analysis is also used to set design of special safety systems and includes design assist analysis to support conceptual design. safety analysis is necessary for licensing a reactor, to maintain an operating license, support changes in plant operations

  18. Fundamentals and Optimal Institutions

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Rossi, Martín


    of regulatory institutions such as revenue sharing, salary caps or luxury taxes. We show, theoretically and empirically, that these large differences in adopted institutions can be rationalized as optimal responses to differences in the fundamental characteristics of the sports being played. This provides...

  19. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    Johannesson, Rolf


    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  20. Industrial separation processes : fundamentals

    Haan, de A.B.; Bosch, Hans


    Separation processes on an industrial scale comprise well over half of the capital and operating costs. They are basic knowledge in every chemical engineering and process engineering study. This book provides comprehensive and fundamental knowledge of university teaching in this discipline,

  1. Fundamental partial compositeness

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea


    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  2. Grenoble Fundamental Research Department


    A summary of the various activities of the Fundamental Research Institute, Grenoble, France is given. The following fields are covered: Nuclear physics, solid state physics, physical chemistry, biology and advanced techniques. Fore more detailed descriptions readers are referred to scientific literature [fr

  3. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  4. Fundamental Metallurgy of Solidification

    Tiedje, Niels


    The text takes the reader through some fundamental aspects of solidification, with focus on understanding the basic physics that govern solidification in casting and welding. It is described how the first solid is formed and which factors affect nucleation. It is described how crystals grow from...

  5. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  6. Introduction and fundamentals

    Thomas, R.H.


    This introduction discusses advances in the fundamental sciences which underlie the applied science of health physics and radiation protection. Risk assessments in nuclear medicine are made by defining the conditions of exposure, identification of adverse effects, relating exposure with effect, and estimation of the overall risk for ionizing radiations

  7. Fundamentals of plasma physics

    Bittencourt, J A


    A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.

  8. Fast fundamental frequency estimation

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom


    Modelling signals as being periodic is common in many applications. Such periodic signals can be represented by a weighted sum of sinusoids with frequencies being an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. Due to its widespread use, numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the funda...

  9. Gravitational Couplings for Gop-Planes and y-Op-Planes

    Giraldo, Juan Fernando Ospina


    The Wess-Zumino actions for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) and y-deformed orientifold planes (yOp-planes) are presented and two series power expantions are realized from whiches processes that involves GOp-planes,yOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes and y-Op-planes are showed.

  10. Globalization & technology

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...... of innovation" understanding of learning. Narula and Smith reconcile an important paradox. On the one hand, locations and firms are increasingly interdependent through supranational organisations, regional integration, strategic alliances, and the flow of investments, technologies, ideas and people...

  11. Conceptual Design of Wave Plane

    Frigaard, Peter; Trewers, Andrew; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The Wave Plane is a patented Wave Energy device of the overtopping type, designed to capture potential as well as kinetic energy. This is as such different to other overtopping devices, who usually only focus on potential energy. If Wave Plane A/S can deliver the turbine technology to utilize both...

  12. Fundamentals of differential beamforming

    Benesty, Jacob; Pan, Chao


    This book provides a systematic study of the fundamental theory and methods of beamforming with differential microphone arrays (DMAs), or differential beamforming in short. It begins with a brief overview of differential beamforming and some popularly used DMA beampatterns such as the dipole, cardioid, hypercardioid, and supercardioid, before providing essential background knowledge on orthogonal functions and orthogonal polynomials, which form the basis of differential beamforming. From a physical perspective, a DMA of a given order is defined as an array that measures the differential acoustic pressure field of that order; such an array has a beampattern in the form of a polynomial whose degree is equal to the DMA order. Therefore, the fundamental and core problem of differential beamforming boils down to the design of beampatterns with orthogonal polynomials. But certain constraints also have to be considered so that the resulting beamformer does not seriously amplify the sensors’ self noise and the mism...

  13. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Choosing an intermediate-level geophysics text is always problematic: What should we teach students after they have had introductory courses in geology, math, and physics, but little else? Fundamentals of Geophysics is aimed specifically at these intermediate-level students, and the author's stated approach is to construct a text “using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and equations in which the student can follow each derivation step-by-step.” Moreover, for Lowrie, the Earth is round, not flat—the “fundamentals of geophysics” here are the essential properties of our Earth the planet, rather than useful techniques for finding oil and minerals. Thus this book is comparable in both level and approach to C. M. R. Fowler's The Solid Earth (Cambridge University Press, 1990).

  14. What is Fundamental?


    Discussing what is fundamental in a variety of fields, biologist Richard Dawkins, physicist Gerardus 't Hooft, and mathematician Alain Connes spoke to a packed Main Auditorium at CERN 15 October. Dawkins, Professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, explained simply the logic behind Darwinian natural selection, and how it would seem to apply anywhere in the universe that had the right conditions. 't Hooft, winner of the 1999 Physics Nobel Prize, outlined some of the main problems in physics today, and said he thinks physics is so fundamental that even alien scientists from another planet would likely come up with the same basic principles, such as relativity and quantum mechanics. Connes, winner of the 1982 Fields Medal (often called the Nobel Prize of Mathematics), explained how physics is different from mathematics, which he described as a "factory for concepts," unfettered by connection to the physical world. On 16 October, anthropologist Sharon Traweek shared anecdotes from her ...

  15. Fundamentals of gas counters

    Bateman, J.E.


    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  16. Fundamentals of Filament Interaction


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0110 FUNDAMENTALS OF FILAMENT INTERACTION Martin Richardson UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Final Report 06/02/2017 DISTRIBUTION...of Filament Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA95501110001 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Richardson 5d. PROJECT...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Martin Richardson a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 407-823-6819 Standard Form

  17. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.


    The basic processes of living cells which are relevant to an understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with man are described. Particular reference is made to cell death, cancer induction and genetic effects. This is the second of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the bases of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the International Commision on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Others consider basic radiation physics and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  18. Fundamentals of linear algebra

    Dash, Rajani Ballav


    FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.

  19. Fundamentals of queueing theory

    Gross, Donald; Thompson, James M; Harris, Carl M


    Praise for the Third Edition ""This is one of the best books available. Its excellent organizational structure allows quick reference to specific models and its clear presentation . . . solidifies the understanding of the concepts being presented.""-IIE Transactions on Operations Engineering Thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, Fourth Edition continues to present the basic statistical principles that are necessary to analyze the probabilistic nature of queues. Rather than pre

  20. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P


    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  1. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    Bronzino, Joseph D


    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  2. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    Wollaber, Allan Benton


    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating @@), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  3. Fundamental concepts on energy

    Rodriguez, M.H.


    The fundamental concepts on energy and the different forms in which it is manifested are presented. Since it is possible to transform energy in a way to other, the laws that govern these transformations are discussed. The energy transformation processes are an essential compound in the capacity humanizes to survive and be developed. The energy use brings important economic aspects, technical and political. Because this, any decision to administer energy system will be key for our future life

  4. Fundamentals of powder metallurgy

    Khan, I.H.; Qureshi, K.A.; Minhas, J.I.


    This book is being presented to introduce the fundamentals of technology of powder metallurgy. An attempt has been made to present an overall view of powder metallurgy technology in the first chapter, whereas chapter 2 to 8 deal with the production of metal powders. The basic commercial methods of powder production are briefly described with illustrations. Chapter 9 to 12 describes briefly metal powder characteristics and principles of testing, mixing, blending, conditioning, compaction and sintering. (orig./A.B.)

  5. Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology

    Marsh, Bruce


    Fundamentals haunt me. Certain words ignite unavoidable trains of thought, trains that begin in a cascade, unexpectedly leaping chasm after chasm, rushing from single words to whole paragraphs to full books to men's lives. So it is with me with seeing the word “fundamental” in print. I cannot evade the euphoric excitement of thinking that someone has found something terribly original and simple, understandable by every journeyman, explaining everything.

  6. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.


    A review is presented of basic radiation physics with particular relevance to radiological protection. The processes leading to the production and absorption of ionising radiation are outlined, and the important dosimetric quantities and their units of measurements. The review is the first of a series of reports presenting the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  7. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating π), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  8. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.


    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  9. Value of Fundamental Science

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  10. Easy plane baby Skyrmions

    Jäykkä, Juha; Speight, Martin


    The baby Skyrme model is studied with a novel choice of potential, V=(1)/(2)ϕ32. This “easy plane” potential vanishes at the equator of the target two-sphere. Hence, in contrast to previously studied cases, the boundary value of the field breaks the residual SO(2) internal symmetry of the model. Consequently, even the unit charge Skyrmion has only discrete symmetry and consists of a bound state of two half lumps. A model of long-range inter-Skyrmion forces is developed wherein a unit Skyrmion is pictured as a single scalar dipole inducing a massless scalar field tangential to the vacuum manifold. This model has the interesting feature that the two-Skyrmion interaction energy depends only on the average orientation of the dipoles relative to the line joining them. Its qualitative predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations. Global energy minimizers of charges B=1,…,14,18,32 are found numerically. Up to charge B=6, the minimizers have 2B half lumps positioned at the vertices of a regular 2B-gon. For charges B≥7, rectangular or distorted rectangular arrays of 2B half lumps are preferred, as close to square as possible.


    Duane Knudson


    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follows: Part 1 Introduction: 1.Introduction to biomechanics of human movement; 2.Fundamentals of biomechanics and qualitative analysis; Part 2 Biological/Structural Bases: 3.Anatomical description and its limitations; 4.Mechanics of the musculoskeletal system; Part 3 Mechanical Bases: 5.Linear and angular kinematics; 6.Linear kinetics; 7.Angular kinetics; 8.Fluid mechanics; Part 4 Application of Biomechanics in Qualitative Analysis :9.Applying biomechanics in physical education; 10.Applying biomechanics in coaching; 11.Applying biomechanics in strength and conditioning; 12.Applying biomechanics in sports medicine and rehabilitation. AUDIENCE This is an important reading for both student and educators in the medicine, sport and exercise-related fields. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a helpful guide to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in exercise and sport biomechanics. ASSESSMENT The text provides a constructive fundamental resource for biomechanics, exercise and sport-related students, teachers and researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion. It is also very useful since being clearly written and presenting several ways of examples of the application of biomechanics to help teach and apply biomechanical variables and concepts, including sport-related ones

  12. Mathematical analysis fundamentals

    Bashirov, Agamirza


    The author's goal is a rigorous presentation of the fundamentals of analysis, starting from elementary level and moving to the advanced coursework. The curriculum of all mathematics (pure or applied) and physics programs include a compulsory course in mathematical analysis. This book will serve as can serve a main textbook of such (one semester) courses. The book can also serve as additional reading for such courses as real analysis, functional analysis, harmonic analysis etc. For non-math major students requiring math beyond calculus, this is a more friendly approach than many math-centric o

  13. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    Lindmayer, Joseph


    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  14. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.


    A brief review is presented of the early and late effects of ionising radiation on man, with particular emphasis on those aspects of importance in radiological protection. The terminology and dose response curves, are explained. Early effects on cells, tissues and whole organs are discussed. Late somatic effects considered include cancer and life-span shortening. Genetic effects are examined. The review is the third of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria, such as those of the ICRP. (u.K.)

  15. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  16. Fundamental composite electroweak dynamics

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying


    Using the recent joint results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on the Higgs boson, we determine the current status of composite electroweak dynamics models based on the expected scalar sector. Our analysis can be used as a minimal template for a wider class of models between the two limitin...... space at the effective Lagrangian level. We show that a wide class of models of fundamental composite electroweak dynamics are still compatible with the present constraints. The results are relevant for the ongoing and future searches at the Large Hadron Collider....

  17. Fundamentals of Project Management

    Heagney, Joseph


    With sales of more than 160,000 copies, Fundamentals of Project Management has helped generations of project managers navigate the ins and outs of every aspect of this complex discipline. Using a simple step-by-step approach, the book is the perfect introduction to project management tools, techniques, and concepts. Readers will learn how to: ò Develop a mission statement, vision, goals, and objectives ò Plan the project ò Create the work breakdown structure ò Produce a workable schedule ò Understand earned value analysis ò Manage a project team ò Control and evaluate progress at every stage.

  18. Fundamentals of calculus

    Morris, Carla C


    Fundamentals of Calculus encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and FunctionsThe DerivativeUsing the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Techniques of DifferentiationIntegral CalculusIntegration TechniquesFunctions

  19. Fundamentals of attosecond optics

    Chang, Zenghu


    Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances th

  20. Scientific and technological fundamentals

    Roethemeyer, H.


    Specific ultimate repositories in a given geological formation have to be assessed on the basis of a safety analysis, taking into account the site specifics of the repository system 'Overall geological situation - ultimate disposal facility - waste forms'. The fundamental possibilities and limits of waste disposal are outlined. Orientation values up to about 10 6 years are derived for the isolation potential of ultimate disposal mines, and about 10 4 years for the calculation of effects of emplaced radioactive wastes also on man. (DG) [de

  1. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    Sawhney, GS


    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  2. Fundamental formulas of physics


    The republication of this book, unabridged and corrected, fills the need for a comprehensive work on fundamental formulas of mathematical physics. It ranges from simple operations to highly sophisticated ones, all presented most lucidly with terms carefully defined and formulas given completely. In addition to basic physics, pertinent areas of chemistry, astronomy, meteorology, biology, and electronics are also included.This is no mere listing of formulas, however. Mathematics is integrated into text, for the most part, so that each chapter stands as a brief summary or even short textbook of

  3. Fundamentals of Cavitation

    Franc, Jean-Pierre


    The present book is aimed at providing a comprehensive presentation of cavitation phenomena in liquid flows. It is further backed up by the experience, both experimental and theoretical, of the authors whose expertise has been internationally recognized. A special effort is made to place the various methods of investigation in strong relation with the fundamental physics of cavitation, enabling the reader to treat specific problems independently. Furthermore, it is hoped that a better knowledge of the cavitation phenomenon will allow engineers to create systems using it positively. Examples in the literature show the feasibility of this approach.

  4. Fundamentals of magnetism

    Getzlaff, Mathias


    In the last decade a tremendous progress has taken place in understanding the basis of magnetism, especially in reduced dimensions. In the first part, the fundamentals of magnetism are conveyed for atoms and bulk-like solid-state systems providing a basis for the understanding of new phenomena which exclusively occur in low-dimensional systems as the giant magneto resistance. This wide field is discussed in the second part and illustrated by copious examples. This textbook is particularly suitable for graduate students in physical and materials sciences. It includes numerous examples, exercises, and references.

  5. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry


    The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems

  6. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    Tooley, Mike


    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  7. Nanomachines fundamentals and applications

    Wang, Joseph


    This first-hand account by one of the pioneers of nanobiotechnology brings together a wealth of valuable material in a single source. It allows fascinating insights into motion at the nanoscale, showing how the proven principles of biological nanomotors are being transferred to artificial nanodevices.As such, the author provides engineers and scientists with the fundamental knowledge surrounding the design and operation of biological and synthetic nanomotors and the latest advances in nanomachines. He addresses such topics as nanoscale propulsions, natural biomotors, molecular-scale machin

  8. Fundamentals of photonics

    Saleh, Bahaa E A


    Now in a new full-color edition, Fundamentals of Photonics, Second Edition is a self-contained and up-to-date introductory-level textbook that thoroughly surveys this rapidly expanding area of engineering and applied physics. Featuring a logical blend of theory and applications, coverage includes detailed accounts of the primary theories of light, including ray optics, wave optics, electromagnetic optics, and photon optics, as well as the interaction of photons and atoms, and semiconductor optics. Presented at increasing levels of complexity, preliminary sections build toward more advan

  9. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry


    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)

  10. Two-transitive MInkowski planes

    Wilbrink, H.A.


    In this paper we determine all finite Minkowski planes with an automorphism group which satisfies the following transitivity property: any ordered pair of nonparallel points can be mapped onto any other ordered pair of nonparallel points.

  11. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    Kohler, Susanna


    Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these

  12. STEP and fundamental physics

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John


    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 1013 to one part in 1018 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels.

  13. STEP and fundamental physics

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John


    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 10 13 to one part in 10 18 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels. (paper)

  14. Quivers, words and fundamentals

    Mattioli, Paolo; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye


    A systematic study of holomorphic gauge invariant operators in general N=1 quiver gauge theories, with unitary gauge groups and bifundamental matter fields, was recently presented in For large ranks a simple counting formula in terms of an infinite product was given. We extend this study to quiver gauge theories with fundamental matter fields, deriving an infinite product form for the refined counting in these cases. The infinite products are found to be obtained from substitutions in a simple building block expressed in terms of the weighted adjacency matrix of the quiver. In the case without fundamentals, it is a determinant which itself is found to have a counting interpretation in terms of words formed from partially commuting letters associated with simple closed loops in the quiver. This is a new relation between counting problems in gauge theory and the Cartier-Foata monoid. For finite ranks of the unitary gauge groups, the refined counting is given in terms of expressions involving Littlewood-Richardson coefficients.

  15. Dynamical analysis of a cubic Liénard system with global parameters

    Chen, Hebai; Chen, Xingwu


    In this paper we investigate the dynamical behaviour of a cubic Liénard system with global parameters. After analysing the qualitative properties of all the equilibria and judging the existences of limit cycles and homoclinic loops for the whole parameter plane, we give the bifurcation diagram and phase portraits. Phase portraits are global if there exist limit cycles and local otherwise. We prove that parameters lie in a connected region, not just on a curve, usually in the parameter plane when the system has one homoclinic loop. Moreover, for global parameters we give a positive answer to conjecture 3.2 of (1998 Nonlinearity 11 1505-19) in the case of exactly two equilibria about the existence of some function whose graph is exactly the surface of double limit cycles. Supported by NSFC 11471228, 11172246 and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

  16. Forest Carbon Uptake and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

    Zobitz, John


    Using the fundamental theorem of calculus and numerical integration, we investigate carbon absorption of ecosystems with measurements from a global database. The results illustrate the dynamic nature of ecosystems and their ability to absorb atmospheric carbon.

  17. Fundamentals of Structural Engineering

    Connor, Jerome J


    Fundamentals of Structural Engineering provides a balanced, seamless treatment of both classic, analytic methods and contemporary, computer-based techniques for conceptualizing and designing a structure. The book’s principle goal is to foster an intuitive understanding of structural behavior based on problem solving experience for students of civil engineering and architecture who have been exposed to the basic concepts of engineering mechanics and mechanics of materials. Making it distinct from many other undergraduate textbooks, the authors of this text recognize the notion that engineers reason about behavior using simple models and intuition they acquire through problem solving. The approach adopted in this text develops this type of intuition  by presenting extensive, realistic problems and case studies together with computer simulation, which allows rapid exploration of  how a structure responds to changes in geometry and physical parameters. This book also: Emphasizes problem-based understanding of...

  18. Making physics more fundamental



    The stellar death throes of supernovae have been seen and admired since time immemorial. However last year's was the first to come under the combined scrutiny of space-borne radiation detectors and underground neutrino monitors as well as terrestrial optical telescopes and even gravity wave antennae. The remarkable results underline the power of modern physics to explain and interrelate processes in the furthest reaches of the cosmos and the deep interior of nuclear particles. In recent years this common ground between 'Big Bang' cosmology and particle physics has been regularly trodden and retrodden in the light of fresh new insights and new experimental results, and thinking has steadily converged. In 1983, the first Symposium on Astronomy, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, organized by CERN and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), was full of optimism, with new ideas ('inflation') to explain how the relatively small variations in the structure of the Universe could have arisen through the quantum structure of the initial cataclysm.

  19. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    Kido, Ken'iti


    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  20. Fundamental partial compositeness

    Sannino, Francesco


    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  1. Theory of fundamental interactions

    Pestov, A.B.


    In the present article the theory of fundamental interactions is derived in a systematic way from the first principles. In the developed theory there is no separation between space-time and internal gauge space. Main equations for basic fields are derived. In is shown that the theory satisfies the correspondence principle and gives rise to new notions in the considered region. In particular, the conclusion is made about the existence of particles which are characterized not only by the mass, spin, charge but also by the moment of inertia. These are rotating particles, the particles which represent the notion of the rigid body on the microscopical level and give the key for understanding strong interactions. The main concepts and dynamical laws for these particles are formulated. The basic principles of the theory may be examined experimentally not in the distant future. 29 refs

  2. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    Lowrie, William


    This unique textbook presents a comprehensive overview of the fundamental principles of geophysics. Unlike most geophysics textbooks, it combines both the applied and theoretical aspects to the subject. The author explains complex geophysical concepts using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and easy-to-follow equations. After placing the Earth in the context of the solar system, he describes each major branch of geophysics: gravitation, seismology, dating, thermal and electrical properties, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism and geodynamics. Each chapter begins with a summary of the basic physical principles, and a brief account of each topic's historical evolution. The book will satisfy the needs of intermediate-level earth science students from a variety of backgrounds, while at the same time preparing geophysics majors for continued study at a higher level.

  3. Fundamentals of PIXE analysis

    Ishii, Keizo


    Elemental analysis based on the particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) is a novel technique to analyze trace elements. It is a very simple method, its sensitivity is very high, multiple elements in a sample can be simultaneously analyzed and a few 10 μg of a sample is enough to be analyzed. Owing to these characteristics, the PIXE analysis is now used in many fields (e.g. biology, medicine, dentistry, environmental pollution, archaeology, culture assets etc.). Fundamentals of the PIXE analysis are described here: the production of characteristic x-rays and inner shell ionization by heavy charged particles, the continuous background in PIXE spectrum, quantitative formulae of the PIXE analysis, the detection limit of PIXE analysis, etc. (author)

  4. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    Zaman, Najamuz


    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  5. Fundamental partial compositeness

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena


    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Under certain assumptions on the dynamics of the scalars, successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough ‘square root’. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)_R-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  6. Fundamentals of quantum mechanics

    House, J E


    Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics, Third Edition is a clear and detailed introduction to quantum mechanics and its applications in chemistry and physics. All required math is clearly explained, including intermediate steps in derivations, and concise review of the math is included in the text at appropriate points. Most of the elementary quantum mechanical models-including particles in boxes, rigid rotor, harmonic oscillator, barrier penetration, hydrogen atom-are clearly and completely presented. Applications of these models to selected “real world” topics are also included. This new edition includes many new topics such as band theory and heat capacity of solids, spectroscopy of molecules and complexes (including applications to ligand field theory), and small molecules of astrophysical interest.

  7. Fundamentals of phosphors

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime


    Drawing from the second edition of the best-selling Handbook of Phosphors, Fundamentals of Phosphors covers the principles and mechanisms of luminescence in detail and surveys the primary phosphor materials as well as their optical properties. The book addresses cutting-edge developments in phosphor science and technology including oxynitride phosphors and the impact of lanthanide level location on phosphor performance.Beginning with an explanation of the physics underlying luminescence mechanisms in solids, the book goes on to interpret various luminescence phenomena in inorganic and organic materials. This includes the interpretation of the luminescence of recently developed low-dimensional systems, such as quantum wells and dots. The book also discusses the excitation mechanisms by cathode-ray and ionizing radiation and by electric fields to produce electroluminescence. The book classifies phosphor materials according to the type of luminescence centers employed or the class of host materials used and inte...

  8. Fundamentals of thinking, patterns

    Gafurov, O. M.; Gafurov, D. O.; Syryamkin, V. I.


    The authors analyze the fundamentals of thinking and propose to consider a model of the brain based on the presence of magnetic properties of gliacytes (Schwann cells) because of their oxygen saturation (oxygen has paramagnetic properties). The authors also propose to take into account the motion of electrical discharges through synapses causing electric and magnetic fields as well as additional effects such as paramagnetic resonance, which allows combining multisensory object-related information located in different parts of the brain. Therefore, the events of the surrounding world are reflected and remembered in the cortex columns, thus, creating isolated subnets with altered magnetic properties (patterns) and subsequently participate in recognition of objects, form a memory, and so on. The possibilities for the pattern-based thinking are based on the practical experience of applying methods and technologies of artificial neural networks in the form of a neuroemulator and neuromorphic computing devices.

  9. Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots

    Schiele, A.


    This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a

  10. Nuclear fundamentals remain

    Stošić Zoran V.


    Full Text Available For Japan, the situation has become extremely difficult since counter-measures to deal with the nuclear accident had to be carried out along with dealing with the broader disaster caused by earthquake and the tsunami. In terms of damage, the Tohoku earthquake and the tsunami have caused the most fatalities and the largest economic loss ever from an earthquake and/or tsunami. The impact of this natural disaster is present not only in Japan but world-wide. The state of affairs in the global energy sector is affected by the consequences which may be lasting for decades. These effects are subject of this article dealing not with the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi NPPs itself, but rather with the world-wide consequences and after effect on nuclear energy development. This includes: environmental damages, socio-economic effects, actions of safety authorities, extended protective measures against external events, the impact on global nuclear energy, triggered nuclear phase-outs and changes in new build plans as well as the sustainability of energy mix itself and an outlook.

  11. Fundamental Physics with Antihydrogen

    Hangst, J. S.

    Antihydrogen—the antimatter equivalent of the hydrogen atom—is of fundamental interest as a test bed for universal symmetries—such as CPT and the Weak Equivalence Principle for gravitation. Invariance under CPT requires that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Antimatter is of course intriguing because of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe—currently unexplained by the Standard Model. At the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) [1], several groups have been working diligently since 1999 to produce, trap, and study the structure and behaviour of the antihydrogen atom. One of the main thrusts of the AD experimental program is to apply precision techniques from atomic physics to the study of antimatter. Such experiments complement the high-energy searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Antihydrogen is the only atom of antimatter to be produced in the laboratory. This is not so unfortunate, as its matter equivalent, hydrogen, is one of the most well-understood and accurately measured systems in all of physics. It is thus very compelling to undertake experimental examinations of the structure of antihydrogen. As experimental spectroscopy of antihydrogen has yet to begin in earnest, I will give here a brief introduction to some of the ion and atom trap developments necessary for synthesizing and trapping antihydrogen, so that it can be studied.

  12. Strings and fundamental physics

    Baumgartl, Marco; Brunner, Ilka; Haack, Michael


    The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)

  13. Fundamentals of precision medicine

    Divaris, Kimon


    Imagine a world where clinicians make accurate diagnoses and provide targeted therapies to their patients according to well-defined, biologically-informed disease subtypes, accounting for individual differences in genetic make-up, behaviors, cultures, lifestyles and the environment. This is not as utopic as it may seem. Relatively recent advances in science and technology have led to an explosion of new information on what underlies health and what constitutes disease. These novel insights emanate from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, as well as epigenomics and exposomics—such ‘omics data can now be generated at unprecedented depth and scale, and at rapidly decreasing cost. Making sense and integrating these fundamental information domains to transform health care and improve health remains a challenge—an ambitious, laudable and high-yield goal. Precision dentistry is no longer a distant vision; it is becoming part of the rapidly evolving present. Insights from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, and epigenomics and exposomics have reached an unprecedented depth and scale. Much more needs to be done, however, for the realization of precision medicine in the oral health domain. PMID:29227115

  14. Strings and fundamental physics

    Baumgartl, Marco [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Brunner, Ilka; Haack, Michael (eds.) [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik


    The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)

  15. Fundamentals of klystron testing

    Caldwell, J.W. Jr.


    Fundamentals of klystron testing is a text primarily intended for the indoctrination of new klystron group test stand operators. It should significantly reduce the familiarization time of a new operator, making him an asset to the group sooner than has been experienced in the past. The new employee must appreciate the mission of SLAC before he can rightfully be expected to make a meaningful contribution to the group's effort. Thus, the introductory section acquaints the reader with basic concepts of accelerators in general, then briefly describes major physical aspects of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Only then is his attention directed to the klystron, with its auxiliary systems, and the rudiments of klystron tube performance checks. It is presumed that the reader is acquainted with basic principles of electronics and scientific notation. However, to preserve the integrity of an indoctrination guide, tedious technical discussions and mathematical analysis have been studiously avoided. It is hoped that the new operator will continue to use the text for reference long after his indoctrination period is completed. Even the more experienced operator should find that particular sections will refresh his understanding of basic principles of klystron testing

  16. Making physics more fundamental



    The stellar death throes of supernovae have been seen and admired since time immemorial. However last year's was the first to come under the combined scrutiny of space-borne radiation detectors and underground neutrino monitors as well as terrestrial optical telescopes and even gravity wave antennae. The remarkable results underline the power of modern physics to explain and interrelate processes in the furthest reaches of the cosmos and the deep interior of nuclear particles. In recent years this common ground between 'Big Bang' cosmology and particle physics has been regularly trodden and retrodden in the light of fresh new insights and new experimental results, and thinking has steadily converged. In 1983, the first Symposium on Astronomy, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, organized by CERN and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), was full of optimism, with new ideas ('inflation') to explain how the relatively small variations in the structure of the Universe could have arisen through the quantum structure of the initial cataclysm

  17. Fundamental Safety Principles

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.


    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  18. Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics

    Tang, C. L.


    Quantum mechanics has evolved from a subject of study in pure physics to one with a wide range of applications in many diverse fields. The basic concepts of quantum mechanics are explained in this book in a concise and easy-to-read manner emphasising applications in solid state electronics and modern optics. Following a logical sequence, the book is focused on the key ideas and is conceptually and mathematically self-contained. The fundamental principles of quantum mechanics are illustrated by showing their application to systems such as the hydrogen atom, multi-electron ions and atoms, the formation of simple organic molecules and crystalline solids of practical importance. It leads on from these basic concepts to discuss some of the most important applications in modern semiconductor electronics and optics. Containing many homework problems and worked examples, the book is suitable for senior-level undergraduate and graduate level students in electrical engineering, materials science and applied physics. Clear exposition of quantum mechanics written in a concise and accessible style Precise physical interpretation of the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics Illustrates the important concepts and results by reference to real-world examples in electronics and optoelectronics Contains homeworks and worked examples, with solutions available for instructors

  19. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    Majer, V.


    The author of the book has had 25 years of experience at the Nuclear Chemistry of Prague Technical University. In consequence, the book is intended as a basic textbook for students of this field. Its main objectives are an easily understandable presentation of the complex subject and in spite of the uncertainty which still characterizes the definition and subjects of nuclear chemistry - a systematic classification and logical structure. Contents: 1. Introduction (history and definition); 2. General nuclear chemistry (physical fundamentals, hot atom chemistry, interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, radioactive elements, isotope effects, isotope exchange, chemistry of radioactive trace elements); 3. Methods of nuclear chemistry of nuclear chemistry (radiochemical methods, activation, separation and enrichment chemistry); 4. Preparative nuclear chemistry (isotope production, labelled compounds); 5. Analytival nuclear chemistry; 6. Applied nuclear chemistry (isotope applications in general physical and analytical chemistry). The book is supplemented by an annex with tables, a name catalogue and a subject index which will facilitate access to important information. (RB) [de

  20. Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate ...

    Abstract. In this paper, the error analysis has been done for the linear approximate transformation between two tangent planes in celestial sphere in a simple case. The results demonstrate that the error from the linear transformation does not meet the requirement of high-precision astrometry under some conditions, so the ...

  1. Testing of focal plane arrays

    Merriam, J.D.


    Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics

  2. Technology fundamentals: photovoltaic systems

    Quaschning, V.


    The generation of electric power from photovoltaic systems is described in detail. The mechanism of operation of solar cells is described in terms of photons, electrons, charge carriers and charge separation. The various cells, modules, technical terms and related technology are discussed. The chemical elements used in solar cells are mentioned and the manufacturing processes described. The technical advantages of the newer thin-film modules over the traditional silicon cells are given but at present manufacturing cost is limiting their production. Both stand-alone and grid-connected PV systems are described. The potential market for PV systems is discussed. It is suggested that PV could eventually meet the total global electric power demand. (author)

  3. Fundamentals - longitudinal motion

    Weng, W.T.


    There are many ways to accelerate charged particles to high energy for physics research. Each has served its purpose but eventually has encountered fundamental limitations of one kind or another. Looking at the famous Livingston curve, the initial birth and final level-off of all types of accelerators is seen. In fact, in the mid-80s we personally witnessed the creation of a new type of collider - the Stanford Linear Collider. Also witnessed, was the resurgence of study into novel methods of acceleration. This paper will cover acceleration and longitudinal motion in a synchrotron. A synchrotron is a circular accelerator with the following three characteristics: (1) Magnetic guiding (dipole) and confinement (quadrupole) components are placed in a small neighborhood around the equilibrium orbit. (2) Particles are kept in resonance with the radio-frequency electric field indefinitely to achieve acceleration to higher energies. (3) Magnetic fields are varied adiabatically with the energy of the particle. D. Edwards described the transverse oscillations of particles in a synchrotron. Here the author talks about the longitudinal oscillations of particles. The phase stability principle was invented by V. Veksler and E. McMillan independently in 1945. The phase stability and strong focusing principle, invented by Courant and Livingston in 1952, enabled the steady energy gain of accelerators and storage rings witnessed during the past 30 years. This paper is a unified overview of the related rf subjects in an accelerator and a close coupling between accelerator physics and engineering practices, which is essential for the major progress in areas such as high intensity synchrotrons, a multistage accelerator complex, and anti-proton production and cooling, made possible in the past 20 years

  4. Interaction of gravitational plane waves

    Ferrari, V.


    The mathematical theory of colliding, infinite-fronted, plane gravitational waves is presented. The process of focusing, the creation of singularities and horizons, due to the interaction, and the lens effect due to a beam-like gravitational wave are discussed

  5. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    Rathkjen, Arne

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second...

  6. Blocking sets in Desarguesian planes

    Blokhuis, A.; Miklós, D.; Sós, V.T.; Szönyi, T.


    We survey recent results concerning the size of blocking sets in desarguesian projective and affine planes, and implications of these results and the technique to prove them, to related problemis, such as the size of maximal partial spreads, small complete arcs, small strong representative systems

  7. Gravitational Couplings for y-Gop-Planes

    Giraldo, Juan Fernando Ospina


    The Wess-Zumino action for y deformed and generalized orientifold planes (yGOp-planes) is presented and one power expantion is realized from which processes that involves yGOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard yGOp-planes are showed.

  8. Gravitational Couplings for Generalized Orientifold Planes

    Giraldo, Juan Fernando Ospina


    The Wess-Zumino action for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) is presented and a series power expantion is realized from which processes that involves GOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes are showed.

  9. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    F. Topsøe


    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  10. Fundamentals of Space Medicine

    Clément, Gilles


    A total of more than 240 human space flights have been completed to date, involving about 450 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of more than 70 years. The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study the bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning, space motion sickness, the causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance, the changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation or the risk of developing kidney stones. Some results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has been active in this research. This readable text presents the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. Topics discussed in this book include: adaptation of sensory-motor, cardio-vascular, bone, and muscle systems to the microgravity of spaceflight; psychological and sociological issues of living in a confined, isolated, and stressful environment; operational space medicine, such as crew selection, training and in-flight health monitoring, countermeasures and support; results of space biology experiments on individual cells, plants, and animal models; and the impact of long-duration missions such as the human mission to Mars. The author also provides a detailed description of how to fly a space experiment, based on his own experience with research projects conducted onboard Salyut-7, Mir, Spacelab, and the Space Shuttle. Now is the time to look at the future of human spaceflight and what comes next. The future human exploration of Mars captures the imagination of both the

  11. Fundamentals of machine elements SI version

    Schmid, Steven R; Jacobson, Bo O


    Part I - FundamentalsIntroductionWhat is Design?Design of Mechanical SystemsDesign as a Multidisciplinary EndeavorDesign of Machine ElementsComputers in DesignCatalogs and VendorsUnitsUnit ChecksSignificant FiguresSummaryLoad, Stress, and StrainIntroductionCritical SectionLoad Classification and Sign ConventionSupport ReactionsStatic EquilibriumFree-Body DiagramSupported BeamsShear and Moment DiagramsStressStress ElementStress TensorPlane StressMohr's CircleThree-Dimensional StressesOctahedral StressesStrainStrain TensorPlane StrainSummaryIntroduction to Materials and ManufacturingIntroductionDuctile and Brittle MaterialsClassification of Solid MaterialsStress-Strain DiagramsProperties of Solid MaterialsStress-Strain RelationshipsTwo-Parameter Materials ChartsEffects of ManufacturingSummaryStresses and StrainsIntroductionProperties of Beam Cross SectionsNormal Stress and StrainTorsionBending Stress and StrainTransverse Shear Stress and StrainSummaryDeformationIntroductionMoment-Curvature RelationSingularity F...

  12. The Explicit Determinations Of Dual Plane Curves And Dual Helices In Terms Of Its Dual Curvature And Dual Torsion

    Lee Jae Won; Choi Jin Ho; Jin Dae Ho


    In this paper, we give the explicit determinations of dual plane curves, general dual helices and dual slant helices in terms of its dual curvature and dual torsion as a fundamental theory of dual curves in a dual 3-space

  13. Hybrid Fundamental Solution Based Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications

    Changyong Cao


    Full Text Available An overview on the development of hybrid fundamental solution based finite element method (HFS-FEM and its application in engineering problems is presented in this paper. The framework and formulations of HFS-FEM for potential problem, plane elasticity, three-dimensional elasticity, thermoelasticity, anisotropic elasticity, and plane piezoelectricity are presented. In this method, two independent assumed fields (intraelement filed and auxiliary frame field are employed. The formulations for all cases are derived from the modified variational functionals and the fundamental solutions to a given problem. Generation of elemental stiffness equations from the modified variational principle is also described. Typical numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and performance of the HFS-FEM. Finally, a brief summary of the approach is provided and future trends in this field are identified.

  14. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    Grant, August E


    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha

  15. Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots

    Schiele, A.


    This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a new theoretical framework for analyzing physical human robot interaction (pHRI) with exoskeletons, and (2) a clear set of design rules of how to build wearable, portable exoskeletons to easily and...

  16. Plane waves with weak singularities

    David, Justin R.


    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  17. Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP)

    Câmara, Carlos Alexandre; Martins, Renato Parsekian


    ABSTRACT Introduction: A reasonable exposure of incisors and gingival tissues is generally considered more attractive than excess or lack of exposure. A reasonable gingival exposure is considered to be around 0 to 2 mm when smiling and 2-4 mm exposure of the maxillary incisor edge when the lips are at rest. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP), which aims to help in the diagnosis of the relationships established among molars, incisors...

  18. Plane waves and spacelike infinity

    Marolf, Donald; Ross, Simon F


    In an earlier paper, we showed that the causal boundary of any homogeneous plane wave satisfying the null convergence condition consists of a single null curve. In Einstein-Hilbert gravity, this would include any homogeneous plane wave satisfying the weak null energy condition. For conformally flat plane waves such as the Penrose limit of AdS 5 x S 5 , all spacelike curves that reach infinity also end on this boundary and the completion is Hausdorff. However, the more generic case (including, e.g., the Penrose limits of AdS 4 x S 7 and AdS 7 x S 4 ) is more complicated. In one natural topology, not all spacelike curves have limit points in the causal completion, indicating the need to introduce additional points at 'spacelike infinity' - the endpoints of spacelike curves. We classify the distinct ways in which spacelike curves can approach infinity, finding a two-dimensional set of distinct limits. The dimensionality of the set of points at spacelike infinity is not, however, fixed from this argument. In an alternative topology, the causal completion is already compact, but the completion is non-Hausdorff

  19. Fundamental volatility is regime specific

    Arnold, I.J.M.; MacDonald, R.; Vries, de C.G.


    A widely held notion holds that freely floating exchange rates are excessively volatile when judged against fundamentals and when moving from fixed to floating exchange rates. We re-examine the data and conclude that the disparity between the fundamentals and exchange rate volatility is more

  20. Geometry, heat equation and path integrals on the Poincare upper half-plane

    Kubo, Reijiro.


    Geometry, heat equation and Feynman's path integrals are studied on the Poincare upper half-plane. The fundamental solution to the heat equation δf/δt = Δ H f is expressed in terms of a path integral defined on the upper half-plane. It is shown that Kac's proof that Feynman's path integral satisfies the Schroedinger equation is also valid for our case. (author)

  1. Geometry, Heat Equation and Path Integrals on the Poincare Upper Half-Plane

    Reijiro, KUBO; Research Institute for Theoretical Physics Hiroshima University


    Geometry, heat equation and Feynman's path integrals are studied on the Poincare upper half-plane. The fundamental solution to the heat equation ∂f/∂t=Δ_Hf is expressed in terms of a path integral defined on the upper half-plane. It is shown that Kac's statement that Feynman's path integral satisfies the Schrodinger equation is also valid for our case.

  2. Planes y proyectos para un desarrollo sustentable

    Mg. Arq. Jorge Montenegro


    Full Text Available La cátedra de Urbanismo I A de la Facultad de Arquitectura, Urbanismo y Diseño de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, considera que es fundamental educar a los alumnos en la construcción de un pensamiento crítico reflexivo, sobre la base de teorías, modelos y metodologías preocupados por el desarrollo sustentable de nuestras ciudades. En este contexto, la cátedra promueve la construcción de una visión holística sobre la ciudad, abordando los contenidos, metodologías e instrumentación específca —planes maestros, proyectos urbanos— desde los enfoques tradicionales: físico–funcional y morfológico–perceptual, los que se complementan con una mirada socioambiental del fenómeno urbano. En este artículo presentamos una síntesis de la tarea académica que desarrollamos.

  3. Some Considerations Regarding Plane to Plane Parallelism Error Effects in Robotic Systems

    Stelian Alaci


    Full Text Available The paper shows that by imposing the parallelism constraint between the measured plane and the reference plane, the position of the current plane is not univocal specified and is impossible to specify the way to attain the parallelism errors imposed by accuracy constrains. The parameters involved in the calculus of plane to plane parallelism error can be used to set univocal the relative position between the two planes.

  4. Metal-core pad-plane development for ACTAR TPC

    Giovinazzo, J.; Pibernat, J.; Goigoux, T.; de Oliveira, R.; Grinyer, G. F.; Huss, C.; Mauss, B.; Pancin, J.; Pedroza, J. L.; Rebii, A.; Roger, T.; Rosier, P.; Saillant, F.; Wittwer, G.


    With the recent development of active targets and time projection chambers (ACTAR TPC) as detectors for fundamental nuclear physics experiments, the need arose for charge collection planes with a high density of readout channels. In order to fulfill the mechanical constraints for the ACTAR TPC device, we designed a pad-plane based on a metal-core circuit with an conceptually simple design and routing for signal readout, named FAKIR (in reference to a fakir bed of nails). A test circuit has been equipped with a micro mesh gaseous structure (micromegas) for signal amplification and a dedicated readout electronics. Test measurements have been performed with an 55Fe X-ray source giving an intrinsic energy resolution (FWHM) of 22 ± 1% at 5 . 9 keV, and with a 3-alpha source for which a resolution of about 130 ± 20 keV at 4 . 8 MeV has been estimated. The pad-plane has been mounted into a reduced size demonstrator version of the ACTAR TPC detector, in order to illustrate charged particle track reconstruction. The tests preformed with the X-ray and the 3-alpha sources shows that results obtained from pads signals are comparable to the intrinsic result from the micro-mesh signal. In addition, a simple alpha particle tracks analysis is performed to demonstrate that the pad plane allows a precise reconstruction of the direction and length of the trajectories.

  5. Work Planing Automation at Mechanical Subdivision

    Dzindzelėta, Vytautas


    Work planing automation, installation possibilities and future outlook at mechanical subdivision. To study how the work planing has changed before and after automation process and to analyse automation process methodology.

  6. Combinatorial geometry in the plane

    Hadwiger, Hugo; Klee, Victor


    Geared toward advanced undergraduates familiar with analysis and college geometry, this concise book discusses theorems on topics restricted to the plane such as convexity, coverings, and graphs. In addition to helping students cultivate rigorous thought, the text encourages the development of mathematical intuition and clarifies the nature of mathematical research.The two-part treatment begins with specific topics including integral distances, covering problems, point set geometry and convexity, simple paradoxes involving point sets, and pure combinatorics, among other subjects. The second pa

  7. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez, D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz, D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle, G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.


    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

  8. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    Whitaker, Stephen


    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  9. Fundamental number theory with applications

    Mollin, Richard A


    An update of the most accessible introductory number theory text available, Fundamental Number Theory with Applications, Second Edition presents a mathematically rigorous yet easy-to-follow treatment of the fundamentals and applications of the subject. The substantial amount of reorganizing makes this edition clearer and more elementary in its coverage. New to the Second Edition           Removal of all advanced material to be even more accessible in scope           New fundamental material, including partition theory, generating functions, and combinatorial number theory           Expa

  10. An N=8 superconformal particle in the half-plane

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf, E-mail: lechtenf@itp.uni-hannover.d [Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Toppan, Francesco, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    By imposing global supersymmetry and scale invariance we construct an N=8 superconformal mechanical system based on the inhomogeneous (2,8,6) linear multiplet. The unique action describes a special Kahler sigma model with a Calogero-type potential and Fayet-Iliopoulos terms. The classical dynamics of the two propagating bosons is restricted to a (warped) half-plane and bounded. We numerically inspect typical trajectories of this special particle. (author)

  11. The 2030 Global Agenda

    Enemark, Stig


    Sound land governance is fundamental to achieving the 2030 Global Agenda as set by the Sustainable. Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by all the world’s leaders at the UN Summit in September 2015. This Global Agenda calls for a “data revolution” for sustainable development to empower people...

  12. Quantum mechanics I the fundamentals

    Rajasekar, S


    Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals provides a graduate-level account of the behavior of matter and energy at the molecular, atomic, nuclear, and sub-nuclear levels. It covers basic concepts, mathematical formalism, and applications to physically important systems.

  13. Are fundamental constants really constant

    Norman, E.B.


    Reasons for suspecting that fundamental constants might change with time are reviewed. Possible consequences of such variations are examined. The present status of experimental tests of these ideas is discussed

  14. Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics

    Gülçat, Ülgen


    This introduction to the principles of unsteady aerodynamics covers all the core concepts, provides readers with a review of the fundamental physics, terminology and basic equations, and covers hot new topics such as the use of flapping wings for propulsion.

  15. Fundamentals of electronic image processing

    Weeks, Arthur R


    This book is directed to practicing engineers and scientists who need to understand the fundamentals of image processing theory and algorithms to perform their technical tasks. It is intended to fill the gap between existing high-level texts dedicated to specialists in the field and the need for a more practical, fundamental text on image processing. A variety of example images are used to enhance reader understanding of how particular image processing algorithms work.

  16. Qualitative insights on fundamental mechanics

    Mardari, G. N.


    The gap between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics has an important interpretive implication: the Universe must have an irreducible fundamental level, which determines the properties of matter at higher levels of organization. We show that the main parameters of any fundamental model must be theory-independent. They cannot be predicted, because they cannot have internal causes. However, it is possible to describe them in the language of classical mechanics. We invoke philosophical reas...

  17. Studies of global warming and global energy

    Inaba, Atsushi


    Global warming caused by increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration has been the focus of many recent global energy studies. CO 2 is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. This means that global warming is fundamentally a problem of the global energy system. An analysis of the findings of recent global energy studies is made in this report. The results are categorized from the viewpoint of concern about global warming. The analysis includes energy use and CO 2 emissions, measures taken to restrain CO 2 emissions and the cost of such measure, and suggestions for long term global energy generation. Following this comparative analysis, each of the studies is reviewed in detail. (author) 63 refs

  18. Systems considerations in mosaic focal planes

    White, K. P., III


    Two key reasons for pursuing the development of mosaic focal planes are reviewed and it is shown that rapid frame repetition rate is the only requirement that can be solved no other way than through mosaic focal planes. With the view that spaceborne mosaic focal plane sensors are necessarily 'smart sensors' requiring a lot of onboard processing just to function, it is pointed out that various artificial intelligence techniques may be the most appropriate to incorporate in the data processing. Finally, a novel mosaic focal plane design is proposed, termed a virtual mosaic focal plane, in response to other system constraints.

  19. Local versus Global Knowledges: A Fundamental Dilemma in "Remote Education"

    Christie, Michael


    When "remote education" is seen as something which is delivered from some outside (by definition not remote) agency, rather than something which is grown at home, it is usually constructed as a problem of disadvantage: how do we deliver to remote students the quality cosmopolitan education we offer to kids in the city? Equality of…

  20. Evaluation of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured with cardiac MRI in children with tetralogy of Fallot.

    Soslow, Jonathan H; Usoro, Emem; Wang, Li; Parra, David A


    Aneurysmal dilation of the right ventricular outflow tract complicates assessment of right ventricular function in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is commonly used to estimate ejection fraction. We hypothesised that tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured by cardiac MRI approximates global and segmental right ventricular function, specifically right ventricular sinus ejection fraction, in children with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was measured retrospectively on cardiac MRIs in 54 patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Values were compared with right ventricular global, sinus, and infundibular ejection fractions. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was indexed to body surface area, converted into a fractional value, and converted into published paediatric Z-scores. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measurements had good agreement between observers. Right ventricular ejection fraction did not correlate with the absolute or indexed tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and correlated weakly with fractional tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r=0.41 and p=0.002). Segmental right ventricular function did not appreciably improve correlation with any of the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measures. Paediatric Z-scores were unable to differentiate patients with normal and abnormal right ventricular function. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured by cardiac MRI correlates poorly with global and segmental right ventricular ejection fraction in children with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is an unreliable approximation of right ventricular function in this patient population.

  1. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    Quint, Wolfgang; Vogel, Manuel


    The individual topics are covered by leading experts in the respective fields of research. Provides readers with present theory and experiments in this field. A useful reference for researchers. This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  2. Grand unification in the projective plane

    Hebecker, A.


    A 6-dimensional grand unified theory with the compact space having the topology of a real projective plane, i.e., a 2-sphere with opposite points identified, is considered. The space is locally flat except for two conical singularities where the curvature is concentrated. One supersymmetry is preserved in the effective 4d theory. The unified gauge symmetry, for example SU(5), is broken only by the non-trivial global topology. In contrast to the Hosotani mechanism, no adjoint Wilson-line modulus associated with this breaking appears. Since, locally, SU(5) remains a good symmetry everywhere, no UV-sensitive threshold corrections arise and SU(5)-violating local operators are forbidden. Doublet-triplet splitting can be addressed in the context of a 6d N=2 super Yang-Mills theory with gauge group SU(6). If this symmetry is first broken to SU(5) at a fixed point and then further reduced to the standard model group in the above non-local way, the two light Higgs doublets of the MSSM are predicted by the group-theoretical and geometrical structure of the model. (author)

  3. RFID design fundamentals and applications

    Lozano-Nieto, Albert


    RFID is an increasingly pervasive tool that is now used in a wide range of fields. It is employed to substantiate adherence to food preservation and safety standards, combat the circulation of counterfeit pharmaceuticals, and verify authenticity and history of critical parts used in aircraft and other machinery-and these are just a few of its uses. Goes beyond deployment, focusing on exactly how RFID actually worksRFID Design Fundamentals and Applications systematically explores the fundamental principles involved in the design and characterization of RFID technologies. The RFID market is expl

  4. Fundamentals of multicore software development

    Pankratius, Victor; Tichy, Walter F


    With multicore processors now in every computer, server, and embedded device, the need for cost-effective, reliable parallel software has never been greater. By explaining key aspects of multicore programming, Fundamentals of Multicore Software Development helps software engineers understand parallel programming and master the multicore challenge. Accessible to newcomers to the field, the book captures the state of the art of multicore programming in computer science. It covers the fundamentals of multicore hardware, parallel design patterns, and parallel programming in C++, .NET, and Java. It

  5. Qualitative insights on fundamental mechanics

    Mardari, Ghenadie N


    The gap between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics has an important interpretive implication: the Universe must have an irreducible fundamental level, which determines the properties of matter at higher levels of organization. We show that the main parameters of any fundamental model must be theory-independent. Moreover, such models must also contain discrete identical entities with constant properties. These conclusions appear to support the work of Kaniadakis on subquantum mechanics. A qualitative analysis is offered to suggest compatibility with relevant phenomena, as well as to propose new means for verification

  6. Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics

    Martins, C.J.A.P.


    I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.

  7. Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics

    Martins, C.J.A.P. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)


    I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.

  8. The fundamentals of mathematical analysis

    Fikhtengol'ts, G M


    The Fundamentals of Mathematical Analysis, Volume 1 is a textbook that provides a systematic and rigorous treatment of the fundamentals of mathematical analysis. Emphasis is placed on the concept of limit which plays a principal role in mathematical analysis. Examples of the application of mathematical analysis to geometry, mechanics, physics, and engineering are given. This volume is comprised of 14 chapters and begins with a discussion on real numbers, their properties and applications, and arithmetical operations over real numbers. The reader is then introduced to the concept of function, i

  9. The fundamental interactions of matter

    Falla, D.F.


    Elementary particles are here discussed, in the context of the extent to which the fundamental interactions are related to the elementary constituents of matter. The field quanta related to the four fundamental interactions (electromagnetic, strong,weak and gravitational) are discussed within an historical context beginning with the conception of the photon. The discovery of the mesons and discoveries relevant to the nature of the heavy vector boson are considered. Finally a few recent speculations on the properties of the graviton are examined. (U.K.)

  10. Energy-delay trade-off of wireless data collection in the plane

    Mitici, M.A.; Goseling, Jasper; de Graaf, Maurits; Boucherie, Richardus J.


    We analyze the Pareto front of the delay of collecting data from wireless devices located in the plane according to a Poisson process and the energy needed by the devices to transmit their observations. Fundamental bounds on the energy-delay trade-off over the space of all achievable scheduling


    Mario Jeleč


    Full Text Available Cross laminated timber (CLT is a versatile engineered timber product that is increasingly well-known and of global interest in several applications such as full size plane or linear timber elements. The aim of this study involves investigating the performance of CLT beams loaded in-plane by considering bending and shear stress analysis with a special emphasis on the in-plane shear behavior including the complex internal structure of CLT. Numerical analysis based on 3D-FE models was used and compared with two existing analytical approaches, namely representative volume sub element (method I and composite beam theory (method II. The separate verification of bending and shear stresses including tree different shear failure modes was performed, and a good agreement was obtained. The main difference between the results relates to shear failure mode in the crossing areas between the orthogonally bonded lamellas in which the distribution of shear stresses τzx over the crossing areas per height of the CLT beam is not in accordance with the analytical assumptions. The presented analyses constitute the first attempt to contribute to the on-going review process of Eurocode 5 with respect to CLT beams loaded-in plane. Currently, regulations on designing these types of beams do not exist, and thus experimental and numerical investigations are planned in the future.

  12. Processing vertical size disparities in distinct depth planes.

    Duke, Philip A; Howard, Ian P


    A textured surface appears slanted about a vertical axis when the image in one eye is horizontally enlarged relative to the image in the other eye. The surface appears slanted in the opposite direction when the same image is vertically enlarged. Two superimposed textured surfaces with different horizontal size disparities appear as two surfaces that differ in slant. Superimposed textured surfaces with equal and opposite vertical size disparities appear as a single frontal surface. The vertical disparities are averaged. We investigated whether vertical size disparities are averaged across two superimposed textured surfaces in different depth planes or whether they induce distinct slants in the two depth planes. In Experiment 1, two superimposed textured surfaces with different vertical size disparities were presented in two depth planes defined by horizontal disparity. The surfaces induced distinct slants when the horizontal disparity was more than ±5 arcmin. Thus, vertical size disparities are not averaged over surfaces with different horizontal disparities. In Experiment 2 we confirmed that vertical size disparities are processed in surfaces away from the horopter, so the results of Experiment 1 cannot be explained by the processing of vertical size disparities in a fixated surface only. Together, these results show that vertical size disparities are processed separately in distinct depth planes. The results also suggest that vertical size disparities are not used to register slant globally by their effect on the registration of binocular direction of gaze.

  13. Fundamental Objectives and Directives Principles of State Policy: A ...

    Corruption is a term that is eclectic. It is a global phenomenon that has paired itself with both past and present civilizations. Financial corruption is a variant of this obnoxious ill of modern state, Nigeria not being an exception. The provisions of the Fundamental Objectives and Directive Principles of State policy in the ...

  14. Parallax handling of image stitching using dominant-plane homography

    Pang, Zhaofeng; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Baojun; Tang, Linbo


    In this paper, we present a novel image stitching method to handle parallax in practical application. For images with significant amount of parallax, the more effective approach is to align roughly and globally the overlapping regions and then apply a seam-cutting method to composite naturally stitched images. It is well known that images can be modeled by various planes result from the projective parallax under non-ideal imaging condition. The dominant-plane homography has important advantages of warping an image globally and avoiding some local distortions. The proposed method primarily addresses large parallax problem through two steps: (1) selecting matching point pairs located on the dominant plane, by clustering matching correspondences and then measuring the cost of each cluster; and (2) in order to obtain a plausible seam, edge maps of overlapped area incorporation arithmetic is adopted to modify the standard seam-cutting method. Furthermore, our approach is demonstrated to achieve reliable performance of handling parallax through a mass of experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art methods.

  15. A Collaborative Knowledge Plane for Autonomic Networks

    Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine

    Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.

  16. Another argument against fundamental scalars

    Joglekar, S.D.


    An argument, perhaps not as strong, which is based on the inclusion of interaction with external gravity into a theory describing strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions is presented. The argument is related to the basis of the common belief which favours a renormalizable action against a non-renormalizable action as a candidate for a fundamental theory. (author). 12 refs

  17. Fundamentals of Welding. Teacher Edition.

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    These instructional materials assist teachers in improving instruction on the fundamentals of welding. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; and 27 references. Seven units of…

  18. Composing Europe's Fundamental Rights Area

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov


    The article offers a perspective on how the objective of a strong and coherent European protection standard pursued by the fundamental rights amendments of the Lisbon Treaty can be achieved, as it proposes a discursive pluralistic framework to understand and guide the relationship between the EU...

  19. Summary: fundamental interactions and processes

    Koltun, D.S.


    The subjects of the talks of the first day of the workshop are discussed in terms of fundamental interactions, dynamical theory, and relevant degrees of freedom. Some general considerations are introduced and are used to confront the various approaches taken in the earlier talks

  20. Fundamental Composite (Goldstone) Higgs Dynamics

    Cacciapaglia, G.; Sannino, Francesco


    We provide a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian level, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak symmetry is embedded, either as a pseudo-Goldstone boson or as a massive excitation of the conden...... searches of new physics at the Large Hadron Collider....

  1. Fundamentals of Biomass pellet production

    Holm, Jens Kai; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hustad, Johan Einar


    Pelletizing experiments along with modelling of the pelletizing process have been carried out with the aim of understanding the fundamental physico-chemical mechanisms that control the quality and durability of biomass pellets. A small-scale California pellet mill (25 kg/h) located with the Biomass...

  2. Energy informatics: Fundamentals and standardization

    Biyao Huang


    Full Text Available Based on international standardization and power utility practices, this paper presents a preliminary and systematic study on the field of energy informatics and analyzes boundary expansion of information and energy system, and the convergence of energy system and ICT. A comprehensive introduction of the fundamentals and standardization of energy informatics is provided, and several key open issues are identified.

  3. Experiments in Fundamental Neutron Physics

    Nico, J. S.; Snow, W. M.


    Experiments using slow neutrons address a growing range of scientific issues spanning nuclear physics, particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. The field of fundamental physics using neutrons has experienced a significant increase in activity over the last two decades. This review summarizes some of the recent developments in the field and outlines some of the prospects for future research.

  4. Brake Fundamentals. Automotive Articulation Project.

    Cunningham, Larry; And Others

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary auto mechanics programs, this curriculum guide contains learning exercises in seven areas: (1) brake fundamentals; (2) brake lines, fluid, and hoses; (3) drum brakes; (4) disc brake system and service; (5) master cylinder, power boost, and control valves; (6) parking brakes; and (7) trouble shooting. Each…

  5. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    Campbell, Linley


    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  6. Fundamentals: IVC and Computer Science

    Gozalvez, Javier; Haerri, Jerome; Hartenstein, Hannes; Heijenk, Geert; Kargl, Frank; Petit, Jonathan; Scheuermann, Björn; Tieler, Tessa; Altintas, O.; Dressler, F.; Hartenstein, H.; Tonguz, O.K.

    The working group on “Fundamentals: IVC and Computer Science‿ discussed the lasting value of achieved research results as well as potential future directions in the field of inter- vehicular communication. Two major themes ‘with variations’ were the dependence on a specific technology (particularly

  7. Different Variants of Fundamental Portfolio

    Tarczyński Waldemar


    Full Text Available The paper proposes the fundamental portfolio of securities. This portfolio is an alternative for the classic Markowitz model, which combines fundamental analysis with portfolio analysis. The method’s main idea is based on the use of the TMAI1 synthetic measure and, in limiting conditions, the use of risk and the portfolio’s rate of return in the objective function. Different variants of fundamental portfolio have been considered under an empirical study. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions has been related to the classic portfolio constructed with the help of the Markowitz model and the WIG20 market index’s rate of return. All portfolios were constructed with data on rates of return for 2005. Their effectiveness in 2006- 2013 was then evaluated. The studied period comprises the end of the bull market, the 2007-2009 crisis, the 2010 bull market and the 2011 crisis. This allows for the evaluation of the solutions’ flexibility in various extreme situations. For the construction of the fundamental portfolio’s objective function and the TMAI, the study made use of financial and economic data on selected indicators retrieved from Notoria Serwis for 2005.

  8. Credit cycles and macro fundamentals

    Koopman, S.J.; Kraeussl, R.G.W.; Lucas, A.; Monteiro, A.


    We use an intensity-based framework to study the relation between macroeconomic fundamentals and cycles in defaults and rating activity. Using Standard and Poor's U.S. corporate rating transition and default data over the period 1980-2005, we directly estimate the default and rating cycle from micro

  9. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    Strel'tsov, V.N.


    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  10. Experimental tests of fundamental symmetries

    Jungmann, K. P.


    Ongoing experiments and projects to test our understanding of fundamental inter- actions and symmetries in nature have progressed significantly in the past few years. At high energies the long searched for Higgs boson has been found; tests of gravity for antimatter have come closer to reality;

  11. Escola de ensino fundamental(s em movimento – movimento na escola de ensino fundamental

    Reiner Hildebrandt-Stramann


    Full Text Available A escola de ensino fundamental na Alemanha sofreu movimento nos últimos 15 anos, porque, entre outros motivos, entrou movimento nessas escolas. Esse jogo de palavras chama atenção a duas linhas de trabalho que determinam a discussão na atual pedagogia escolar. O presente trabalho revela essas duas perspectivas. Uma das linhas está relacionada ao atual processo de mudança na pedagogia escolar. Essa prediz que a escola de ensino fundamental deve ser um lugar de aprendizagem e de vivência para as crianças. A outra linha tem a ver com o jogo de palavras ancorado a esses processos da pedagogia do movimento, a qual ganha cada vez maiores dimensões. A escola de ensino fundamental deve ser vista sob a perspectiva do movimento e transformada em um lugar de movimento.

  12. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.


    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  13. Compact planes, mostly 8-dimensional. A retrospect

    Salzmann, Helmut R.


    Results on $8$-dimensional topological planes are scattered in the literature. It is the aim of the present paper to give a survey of these geometries, in particular of information obtained after the appearance of the treatise Compact Projective Planes or not included in this book. For some theorems new proofs are given and a few related results concerning planes of other dimensions are presented.


    Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Belikov, Ruslan; Soummer, Remi


    We describe a coronagraph approach where the performance of a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is improved by using a partially transmissive phase-shifting focal plane mask and a Lyot stop. This approach combines the low inner working angle offered by phase mask coronagraphy, the full throughput and uncompromized angular resolution of the PIAA approach, and the design flexibility of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph. A PIAA complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC) is fully described by the focal plane mask size, or, equivalently, its complex transmission which ranges from 0 (opaque) to -1 (phase shifting). For all values of the transmission, the PIAACMC theoretically offers full on-axis extinction and 100% throughput at large angular separations. With a pure phase focal plane mask (complex transmission = -1), the PIAACMC offers 50% throughput at 0.64 λ/D while providing total extinction of an on-axis point source. This performance is very close to the 'fundamental performance limit' of coronagraphy derived from first principles. For very high contrast level, imaging performance with PIAACMC is in practice limited by the angular size of the on-axis target (usually a star). We show that this fundamental limitation must be taken into account when choosing the optimal value of the focal plane mask size in the PIAACMC design. We show that the PIAACMC enables visible imaging of Jupiter-like planets at ∼1.2 λ/D from the host star, and can therefore offer almost three times more targets than a PIAA coronagraph optimized for this type of observation. We find that for visible imaging of Earth-like planets, the PIAACMC gain over a PIAA is probably much smaller, as coronagraphic performance is then strongly constrained by stellar angular size. For observations at 'low' contrast (below ∼ 10 8 ), the PIAACMC offers significant performance enhancement over PIAA. This is especially relevant for ground-based high contrast imaging systems in the near-IR, where

  15. Stability Analysis Method for Rock Slope with an Irregular Shear Plane Based on Interface Model

    Changqing Qi


    Full Text Available Landslide developed in rock mass usually has irregular shear plane. An approach for calculating distributed factor of safety of the irregular shear plane was put forward in this paper. The presented method can obtain not only the detailed stability status at any grid node of a complex shear plane but also the global safety of the slope. Thus, it is helpful to thoroughly understand the mechanism of slope failure. Comparing with the result obtained through the limit equilibrium method, the presented method was proved to be more accurate and suitable for stability analysis of rock slope with a thin shear plane. The stability of a potentially unstable rock slope was analyzed based on the presented method at the end of this paper. The detailed local stability, global stability, and the potential failure mechanism were provided.

  16. Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes

    Teo, E. H. T.; Kalish, R.; Kulik, J.; Kauffmann, Y.; Lifshitz, Y.


    Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphitic planes under different conditions.

  17. Lower incisor inclination regarding different reference planes.

    Zataráin, Brenda; Avila, Josué; Moyaho, Angeles; Carrasco, Rosendo; Velasco, Carmen


    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of lower incisor inclination with respect to different reference planes. It was an observational, analytical, longitudinal, prospective study conducted on 100 lateral cephalograms which were corrected according to the photograph in natural head position in order to draw the true vertical plane (TVP). The incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) was compensated to eliminate the variation of the mandibular plane growth type with the formula "FMApx.- 25 (FMA) + IMPApx. = compensated IMPA (IMPACOM)". As the data followed normal distribution determined by the KolmogorovSmirnov test, parametric tests were used for the statistical analysis, Ttest, ANOVA and Pearson coefficient correlation test. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical significance of p planes. There were statistically significant differences among the means of the planes measured, except for IMPACOM, FMIA and TVP. The IMPA differed significantly from the IMPACOM. The compensated IMPA and the FMIA did not differ significantly from the TVP. The true horizontal plane was mismatched with Frankfort plane in 84% of the sample with a range of 19°. The true vertical plane is adequate for measuring lower incisor inclination. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  18. Flux dynamics in ultrasensitive superconducting focal planes

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The performance of superconducting focal planes will drive the achievable specifications of ultrasensitive instruments for NASA astrophysics missions, yet they have...

  19. Global water cycle: geochemistry and environment

    Berner, Elizabeth Kay; Berner, Robert A


    .... The book provides an integrated approach to global geochemistry and environmental problems and introduces the reader to some fundamental concepts of geology, oceanography, meteorology, environmental...

  20. Colliding almost-plane gravitational waves: Colliding plane waves and general properties of almost-plane-wave spacetimes

    Yurtsever, U.


    It is well known that when two precisely plane-symmetric gravitational waves propagating in an otherwise flat background collide, they focus each other so strongly as to produce a curvature singularity. This paper is the first of several devoted to almost-plane gravitational waves and their collisions. Such waves are more realistic than plane waves in having a finite but very large transverse size. In this paper we review some crucial features of the well-known exact solutions for colliding plane waves and we argue that one of these features, the breakdown of ''local inextendibility'' can be regarded as nongeneric. We then introduce a new framework for analyzing general colliding plane-wave spacetimes; we give an alternative proof of a theorem due to Tipler implying the existence of singularities in all generic colliding plane-wave solutions; and we discuss the fact that the recently constructed Chandrasekhar-Xanthopoulos colliding plane-wave solutions are not strictly plane symmetric and thus do not satisfy the conditions and the conclusion of Tipler's theorem

  1. Quantum Mechanics - Fundamentals and Applications to Technology

    Singh, Jasprit


    Explore the relationship between quantum mechanics and information-age applications This volume takes an altogether unique approach to quantum mechanics. Providing an in-depth exposition of quantum mechanics fundamentals, it shows how these concepts are applied to most of today's information technologies, whether they are electronic devices or materials. No other text makes this critical, essential leap from theory to real-world applications. The book's lively discussion of the mathematics involved fits right in with contemporary multidisciplinary trends in education: Once the basic formulation has been derived in a given chapter, the connection to important technological problems is summarily described. The many helpful features include * Twenty-eight application-oriented sections that focus on lasers, transistors, magnetic memories, superconductors, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and other important technology-driving materials and devices * One hundred solved examples, with an emphasis on numerical results and the connection between the physics and its applications * End-of-chapter problems that ground the student in both fundamental and applied concepts * Numerous figures and tables to clarify the various topics and provide a global view of the problems under discussion * Over two hundred illustrations to highlight problems and text A book for the information age, Quantum Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications to Technology promises to become a standard in departments of electrical engineering, applied physics, and materials science, as well as physics. It is an excellent text for senior undergraduate and graduate students, and a helpful reference for practicing scientists, engineers, and chemists in the semiconductor and electronic industries.

  2. A Solution to the Fundamental Linear Fractional Order Differential Equation

    Hartley, Tom T.; Lorenzo, Carl F.


    This paper provides a solution to the fundamental linear fractional order differential equation, namely, (sub c)d(sup q, sub t) + ax(t) = bu(t). The impulse response solution is shown to be a series, named the F-function, which generalizes the normal exponential function. The F-function provides the basis for a qth order "fractional pole". Complex plane behavior is elucidated and a simple example, the inductor terminated semi- infinite lossy line, is used to demonstrate the theory.

  3. Existence and Stability of Spatial Plane Waves for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes in R^3

    Correia, Simão; Figueira, Mário


    We consider the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equation on the whole space. We observe that this system admits a L^∞ family of global spatial plane wave solutions, which are connected with the two-dimensional equation. We then proceed to prove local well-posedness over a space which includes L^3(R^3) and these solutions. Finally, we prove L^3-stability of spatial plane waves, with no condition on their size.

  4. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    Cohen, Marvin L


    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  5. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics


    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment

  6. Fundamentals of estuarine physical oceanography

    Bruner de Miranda, Luiz; Kjerfve, Björn; Castro Filho, Belmiro Mendes de


    This book provides an introduction to the complex system functions, variability and human interference in ecosystem between the continent and the ocean. It focuses on circulation, transport and mixing of estuarine and coastal water masses, which is ultimately related to an understanding of the hydrographic and hydrodynamic characteristics (salinity, temperature, density and circulation), mixing processes (advection and diffusion), transport timescales such as the residence time and the exposure time. In the area of physical oceanography, experiments using these water bodies as a natural laboratory and interpreting their circulation and mixing processes using theoretical and semi-theoretical knowledge are of fundamental importance. Small-scale physical models may also be used together with analytical and numerical models. The book highlights the fact that research and theory are interactive, and the results provide the fundamentals for the development of the estuarine research.

  7. Protection of fundamental rights today

    Meyer-Abich, K.M.


    Technical developments can both change the methods of dealing with existing conflicts, and cause new conflicts. Meyer-Abich analyzes five conflicts caused by the technological development in the solution of which the constitutional, liberal, and democratic protection of fundamental rights is not at all guaranteed. Meyer-Abich thinks that these new conflicts can be solved in the framework of the liberal constitutional state, if legal and political consequences are taken in order to guarantee the uncharged protection of fundamental rights under changing conditions. The necessary reforms can, however, only be realized if the way how state and science see themselves changes. Both have to give up their one-sidedness into which have been pushed by conflict which havbe been caused by the scientific and technical development. Only then it will be possible to solve the jemerging conflicts without eopardizing the integritiy of the society. (orig.) [de


    Lavinia Mihaela VLĂDILĂ


    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code in the specter of the legal life the division of causes removing the criminal feature of the offence in explanatory causes and non-attributable causes. This dichotomy is not without legal and factual fundaments and has been subjected to doctrinaire debates even since the period when the Criminal Code of 1969 was still in force. From our perspective, one of the possible legal fundaments of the explanatory causes results from that the offence committed is based on the protection of a right at least equal with the one prejudiced by the action of aggression, salvation, by the legal obligation imposed or by the victim’s consent.

  9. Modern measurements fundamentals and applications

    Petri, D; Carbone, P; Catelani, M


    This book explores the modern role of measurement science for both the technically most advanced applications and in everyday and will help readers gain the necessary skills to specialize their knowledge for a specific field in measurement. Modern Measurements is divided into two parts. Part I (Fundamentals) presents a model of the modern measurement activity and the already recalled fundamental bricks. It starts with a general description that introduces these bricks and the uncertainty concept. The next chapters provide an overview of these bricks and finishes (Chapter 7) with a more general and complex model that encompasses both traditional (hard) measurements and (soft) measurements, aimed at quantifying non-physical concepts, such as quality, satisfaction, comfort, etc. Part II (Applications) is aimed at showing how the concepts presented in Part I can be usefully applied to design and implement measurements in some very impor ant and broad fields. The editors cover System Identification (Chapter 8...

  10. Fundamental investigations of catalyst nanoparticles

    Elkjær, Christian Fink

    and economic development in the 20th century. There is however a downside to this development and we are seeing significant pollution and pressure on resources. Catalysis therefore has an increasingly important role in limiting pollution and optimizing the use of resources. This development will depend on our...... fundamental understanding of catalytic processes and our ability to make use of that understanding. This thesis presents fundamental studies of catalyst nanoparticles with particular focus on dynamic processes. Such studies often require atomic-scale characterization, because the catalytic conversion takes...... important that we only study intrinsic structures and phenomena and not those that may be induced by the high energy electrons used to image the specimen. This requires careful consideration of the influence of the electron beam in order to understand, control and minimize that influence. I present four...

  11. Fundamentals of electronic systems design

    Lienig, Jens


    This textbook covers the design of electronic systems from the ground up, from drawing and CAD essentials to recycling requirements. Chapter by chapter, it deals with the challenges any modern system designer faces: the design process and its fundamentals, such as technical drawings and CAD, electronic system levels, assembly and packaging issues and appliance protection classes, reliability analysis, thermal management and cooling, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), all the way to recycling requirements and environmental-friendly design principles. Enables readers to face various challenges of designing electronic systems, including coverage from various engineering disciplines; Written to be accessible to readers of varying backgrounds; Uses illustrations extensively to reinforce fundamental concepts; Organized to follow essential design process, although chapters are self-contained and can be read in any order.

  12. Fundamental research in developing countries

    Moravesik, M.J.


    Technical assistance is today a widespread activity. Large numbers of persons with special qualifications in the applied sciences go to the developing countries to work on specific research and development projects, as do educationists on Fulbright or other programmes - usually to teach elementary or intermediate courses. But I believe that until now it has been rare for a person primarily interested in fundamental research to go to one of these countries to help build up advanced education and pure research work. Having recently returned from such an assignment, and having found it a most stimulating and enlightening experience, I feel moved to urge strongly upon others who may be in a position to do so that they should seek similar experience themselves. The first step is to show that advanced education and fundamental research are badly needed in the under-developed countries.

  13. Fundamentals of plastic optical fibers

    Koike, Yasuhiro


    Polymer photonics is an interdisciplinary field which demands excellence both in optics (photonics) and materials science (polymer). However, theses disciplines have developed independently, and therefore the demand for a comprehensive work featuring the fundamentals of photonic polymers is greater than ever.This volume focuses on Polymer Optical Fiber and their applications. The first part of the book introduces typical optical fibers according to their classifications of material, propagating mode, and structure. Optical properties, the high bandwidth POF and transmission loss are discussed,

  14. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science


    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the two modules: structure of metals (bonding, common lattic types, grain structure/boundary, polymorphis, alloys, imperfections in metals) and properties of metals (stress, strain, Young modulus, stress-strain relation, physical properties, working of metals, corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, tritium/material compatibility)

  15. Fundamental requirements for petrochemical development

    Flint, G. B.


    The development of NOVA Chemicals over the past 20 years is described as an illustration of how the petrochemical industry provides markets for natural gas, natural gas liquids and the products of crude oil distillation, and functions as a conduit for upgrading products which would otherwise be sold into the fuel market. Some fundamental characteristics of the business which are foundations for competitiveness are reviewed in the process. These fundamentals help to understand why the industry locates in certain geographic regions of the world, which are often remote from end-use markets. Chief among these fundamentals is access to an adequate supply of appropriately priced feedstock; this is the single most important reason why chemical companies continue to emphasize developments in areas of the world where feedstock are advantageously priced. The cost of operations is equally significant. Cost depends not so much on location but on the scale of operations, hence the tendency towards large scale plants. Plant and product rationalization, technology and product development synergies and leverage with suppliers are all opportunities for cost reduction throughout the product supply chain. The combination of lower natural gas cost in Alberta, the lower fixed cost of extraction and the economies of scale achieved by large scale operation (five billion pounds per year of polyethylene production capacity) are the crucial factors that will enable NOVA Chemicals to maintain its competitive position and to weather the highs and lows in industry price fluctuations

  16. Discretization of superintegrable systems on a plane

    Kabát, Z.


    We construct difference analogues of so called Smorodinsky-Winternitz superintegrable systems in the Euclidean plane. Using methods of umbral calculus, we obtain difference equations for generalized isotropic harmonic oscillator on the uniform lattice, and also its solution in terms of power series. In the case of gauge-rotated Hamiltonian, the solution is a polynomial, well-defined in the whole plane.

  17. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir


    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  18. Moving vertices to make drawings plane

    Goaoc, X.; Kratochvil, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Shin, C.S.; Wolff, A.; Hong, S.K.; Nishizeki, T.; Quan, W.


    In John Tantalo’s on-line game Planarity the player is given a non-plane straight-line drawing of a planar graph. The aim is to make the drawing plane as quickly as possible by moving vertices. In this paper we investigate the related problem MinMovedVertices which asks for the minimum number of

  19. Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir


    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient (μ). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 μ. If μ > 2/7 tan θ, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  20. Coherent field propagation between tilted planes.

    Stock, Johannes; Worku, Norman Girma; Gross, Herbert


    Propagating electromagnetic light fields between nonparallel planes is of special importance, e.g., within the design of novel computer-generated holograms or the simulation of optical systems. In contrast to the extensively discussed evaluation between parallel planes, the diffraction-based propagation of light onto a tilted plane is more burdensome, since discrete fast Fourier transforms cannot be applied directly. In this work, we propose a quasi-fast algorithm (O(N 3  log N)) that deals with this problem. Based on a proper decomposition into three rotations, the vectorial field distribution is calculated on a tilted plane using the spectrum of plane waves. The algorithm works on equidistant grids, so neither nonuniform Fourier transforms nor an explicit complex interpolation is necessary. The proposed algorithm is discussed in detail and applied to several examples of practical interest.

  1. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.


    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate (φ coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m 2 ) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints

  2. Towards a global quantum network

    Simon, Christoph


    The creation of a global quantum network is now a realistic proposition thanks to developments in satellite and fibre links and quantum memory. Applications will range from secure communication and fundamental physics experiments to a future quantum internet.

  3. Fundamental situations in teaching biology: The case of parthenogenesis

    Robert Evans


    Full Text Available This theoretical paper considers the notion of fundamental situation in the sense of Brousseau’s theory of didactical situations. It introduces some precise elements of this theory in which a teacher provides an environment for student work that aims to enable students, through constructive inquiry, to acquire well defined pieces of scientific knowledge. Situations become fundamental if they not only allow, but force students to construct the target knowledge. A classical example from mathematics is presented, where the target knowledge is a theorem of plane geometry presented as a puzzle. Then a new fundamental situation in biology is described for parthenogenetic reproduction, which has recently turned out to occur in Komodo dragons. An explicit demand to generate and test hypotheses that could explain the given example of dragon reproduction, using authentic DNA data, is given to students. The paper concludes with an analysis of the extent to which this fundamental situation in biology is authentic to the theory of didactical situations.

  4. Global Geomorphology

    Douglas, I.


    Any global view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.

  5. Fundamentals of spherical array processing

    Rafaely, Boaz


    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of spherical microphone arrays. It is written for graduate students, researchers and engineers who work with spherical microphone arrays in a wide range of applications.   The first two chapters provide the reader with the necessary mathematical and physical background, including an introduction to the spherical Fourier transform and the formulation of plane-wave sound fields in the spherical harmonic domain. The third chapter covers the theory of spatial sampling, employed when selecting the positions of microphones to sample sound pressure functions in space. Subsequent chapters present various spherical array configurations, including the popular rigid-sphere-based configuration. Beamforming (spatial filtering) in the spherical harmonics domain, including axis-symmetric beamforming, and the performance measures of directivity index and white noise gain are introduced, and a range of optimal beamformers for spherical arrays, includi...

  6. Fundamental solutions of singular SPDEs

    Selesi, Dora


    Highlights: → Fundamental solutions of linear SPDEs are constructed. → Wick-convolution product is introduced for the first time. → Fourier transformation maps Wick-convolution into Wick product. → Solutions of linear SPDEs are expressed via Wick-convolution with fundamental solutions. → Stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved. - Abstract: This paper deals with some models of mathematical physics, where random fluctuations are modeled by white noise or other singular Gaussian generalized processes. White noise, as the distributional derivative od Brownian motion, which is the most important case of a Levy process, is defined in the framework of Hida distribution spaces. The Fourier transformation in the framework of singular generalized stochastic processes is introduced and its applications to solving stochastic differential equations involving Wick products and singularities such as the Dirac delta distribution are presented. Explicit solutions are obtained in form of a chaos expansion in the Kondratiev white noise space, while the coefficients of the expansion are tempered distributions. Stochastic differential equations of the form P(ω, D) ◊ u(x, ω) = A(x, ω) are considered, where A is a singular generalized stochastic process and P(ω, D) is a partial differential operator with random coefficients. We introduce the Wick-convolution operator * which enables us to express the solution as u = s*A ◊ I ◊(-1) , where s denotes the fundamental solution and I is the unit random variable. In particular, the stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved, which in physical interpretation describes waves propagating with a random speed from randomly appearing point sources.

  7. Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion.

    Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi


    The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units-i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)-may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the 'added-mass' matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called 'fundamental theorem for wave power'. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies.

  8. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    Grant, August E


    A classic now in its 14th edition, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best resource for students and professionals looking to brush up on how these technologies have developed, grown, and converged, as well as what's in store for the future. It begins by developing the communication technology framework-the history, ecosystem, and structure-then delves into each type of technology, including everything from mass media, to computers and consumer electronics, to networking technologies. Each chapter is written by faculty and industry experts who p

  9. Quantum Uncertainty and Fundamental Interactions

    Tosto S.


    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simplified theoretical approach to infer some essential concepts on the fundamental interactions between charged particles and their relative strengths at comparable energies by exploiting the quantum uncertainty only. The worth of the present approach relies on the way of obtaining the results, rather than on the results themselves: concepts today acknowledged as fingerprints of the electroweak and strong interactions appear indeed rooted in the same theoretical frame including also the basic principles of special and general relativity along with the gravity force.

  10. Photovoltaics fundamentals, technology and practice

    Mertens, Konrad


    Concise introduction to the basic principles of solar energy, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic cells, photovoltaic measurement techniques, and grid connected systems, overviewing the potential of photovoltaic electricity for students and engineers new to the topic After a brief introduction to the topic of photovoltaics' history and the most important facts, Chapter 1 presents the subject of radiation, covering properties of solar radiation, radiation offer, and world energy consumption. Chapter 2 looks at the fundamentals of semiconductor physics. It discusses the build-up of semiconducto

  11. Plasma expansion: fundamentals and applications

    Engeln, R; Mazouffre, S; Vankan, P; Bakker, I; Schram, D C


    The study of plasma expansion is interesting from a fundamental point of view as well as from a more applied point of view. We here give a short overview of the way properties like density, velocity and temperature behave in an expanding thermal plasma. Experimental data show that the basic phenomena of plasma expansion are to some extent similar to those of the expansion of a hot neutral gas. From the application point of view, we present first results on the use of an expanding thermal plasma in the plasma-activated catalysis of ammonia, from N 2 -H 2 mixtures

  12. Fundamentals of gas particle flow

    Rudinger, G


    Fundamentals of Gas-Particle Flow is an edited, updated, and expanded version of a number of lectures presented on the "Gas-Solid Suspensions” course organized by the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Materials presented in this book are mostly analytical in nature, but some experimental techniques are included. The book focuses on relaxation processes, including the viscous drag of single particles, drag in gas-particles flow, gas-particle heat transfer, equilibrium, and frozen flow. It also discusses the dynamics of single particles, such as particles in an arbitrary flow, in a r

  13. Testing Fundamental Gravitation in Space

    Turyshev, Slava G.


    General theory of relativity is a standard theory of gravitation; as such, it is used to describe gravity when the problems in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics are concerned. The theory is also relied upon in many modern applications involving spacecraft navigation, geodesy, and time transfer. Here we review the foundations of general relativity and discuss its current empirical status. We describe both the theoretical motivation and the scientific progress that may result from the new generation of high-precision tests that are anticipated in the near future.

  14. Current challenges in fundamental physics

    Egana Ugrinovic, Daniel

    The discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model of particle physics. The Standard Model is a remarkably successful theory of fundamental physics, but it suffers from severe problems. It does not provide an explanation for the origin or stability of the electroweak scale nor for the origin and structure of flavor and CP violation. It predicts vanishing neutrino masses, in disagreement with experimental observations. It also fails to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, and it does not provide a particle candidate for dark matter. In this thesis we provide experimentally testable solutions for most of these problems and we study their phenomenology.

  15. Short-range fundamental forces

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.


    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  16. Fundamentals of affinity cell separations.

    Zhang, Ye; Lyons, Veronica; Pappas, Dimitri


    Cell separations using affinity methods continue to be an enabling science for a wide variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the fundamental aspects of affinity separation, including the competing forces for cell capture and elution, cell-surface interactions, and models for cell adhesion. Factors affecting separation performance such as bond affinity, contact area, and temperature are presented. We also discuss and demonstrate the effects of nonspecific binding on separation performance. Metrics for evaluating cell separations are presented, along with methods of comparing separation techniques for cell isolation using affinity capture. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices

    Yang, Deng-Ke


    Revised throughout to cover the latest developments in the fast moving area of display technology, this 2nd edition of Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices, will continue to be a valuable resource for those wishing to understand the operation of liquid crystal displays. Significant updates include new material on display components, 3D LCDs and blue-phase displays which is one of the most promising new technologies within the field of displays and it is expected that this new LC-technology will reduce the response time and the number of optical components of LC-modules. Prof. Yang is a pion

  18. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science


    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the following modules: thermal shock (thermal stress, pressurized thermal shock), brittle fracture (mechanism, minimum pressurization-temperature curves, heatup/cooldown rate limits), and plant materials (properties considered when selecting materials, fuel materials, cladding and reflectors, control materials, nuclear reactor core problems, plant material problems, atomic displacement due to irradiation, thermal and displacement spikes due to irradiation, neutron capture effect, radiation effects in organic compounds, reactor use of aluminum)

  19. Fundamental Vibration of Molecular Hydrogen

    Dickenson, G. D.; Niu, M. L.; Salumbides, E. J.; Komasa, J.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Pachucki, K.; Ubachs, W.


    The fundamental ground tone vibration of H2, HD, and D2 is determined to an accuracy of 2×10-4cm-1 from Doppler-free laser spectroscopy in the collisionless environment of a molecular beam. This rotationless vibrational splitting is derived from the combination difference between electronic excitation from the X1Σg+, v=0, and v=1 levels to a common EF1Σg+, v=0 level. Agreement within 1σ between the experimental result and a full ab initio calculation provides a stringent test of quantum electrodynamics in a chemically bound system.

  20. Foam engineering fundamentals and applications


    Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research. The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams. The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.

  1. Fundamental aspects of cathodic sputtering

    Harman, R.


    The main fundamental aspects and problems of cathodic sputtering used mainly for thin film deposition and sputter etching are discussed. Among many types of known sputtering techniques the radiofrequency /RF/ diode sputtering is the most universal one and is used for deposition of metals, alloys, metallic compounds, semiconductors and insulators. It seems that nowadays the largest number of working sputtering systems is of diode type. Sometimes also the dc or rf triode sputtering systems are used. The problems in these processes are practically equivalent and comparable with the problems in the diode method and therefore our discussion will be, in most cases applicable for both, the diode and triode methods

  2. Computing fundamentals digital literacy edition

    Wempen, Faithe


    Computing Fundamentals has been tailor made to help you get up to speed on your Computing Basics and help you get proficient in entry level computing skills. Covering all the key topics, it starts at the beginning and takes you through basic set-up so that you'll be competent on a computer in no time.You'll cover: Computer Basics & HardwareSoftwareIntroduction to Windows 7Microsoft OfficeWord processing with Microsoft Word 2010Creating Spreadsheets with Microsoft ExcelCreating Presentation Graphics with PowerPointConnectivity and CommunicationWeb BasicsNetwork and Internet Privacy and Securit

  3. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    Schmerr, Lester W


    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  4. Fundamental principles of quantum theory

    Bugajski, S.


    After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)

  5. Macroscopic fundamental strings in cosmology

    Aharonov, Y; Englert, F; Orloff, J


    We show that, when D greater than or equal to 4, theories of closed strings of closed strings in D, non-compact space-time dimensions exhibit a phase transition. The high-temperature phase is characterized by a condensate of arbitrarily long strings with Hausdorff dimension two (area filling curves). We suggest that this stringy phase is the ancestor of the adiabatic era. Fundamental strings could then both drive the inflation and seed, in a way reminiscent of the cosmic string mechanism, the large structures in the universe.

  6. Slip patterns and preferred dislocation boundary planes

    Winther, G.


    The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single and polycryst......The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single...... and polycrystals of fcc metals in three deformation modes (rolling, tension and torsion). In the macroscopic system, boundaries lie close to the macroscopically most stressed planes. In the crystallographic system, the boundary plane depends on the grain/crystal orientation. The boundary planes in both co......-ordinate systems are rationalised based on the slip. The more the slip is concentrated on a slip plane, the closer the boundaries lie to this. The macroscopic preference arises from the macroscopic directionality of the slip. The established relations are applied to (a) prediction of boundary planes from slip...

  7. In-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of molybdenum disulfide

    Ding, Zhiwei; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Wu


    We investigate the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the in-plane thermal conductivity of monolayer MoS 2 is about 19.76 W mK −1 . Interestingly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of multilayer MoS 2 is insensitive to the number of layers, which is in strong contrast to the in-plane thermal conductivity of graphene where the interlayer interaction strongly affects the in-plane thermal conductivity. This layer number insensitivity is attributable to the finite energy gap in the phonon spectrum of MoS 2 , which makes the phonon–phonon scattering channel almost unchanged with increasing layer number. For the cross-plane thermal transport, we find that the cross-plane thermal conductivity of multilayer MoS 2 can be effectively tuned by applying cross-plane strain. More specifically, a 10% cross-plane compressive strain can enhance the thermal conductivity by a factor of 10, while a 5% cross-plane tensile strain can reduce the thermal conductivity by 90%. Our findings are important for thermal management in MoS 2 based nanodevices and for thermoelectric applications of MoS 2 . (paper)

  8. Influence of mandibular fixation method on stability of the maxillary occlusal plane after occlusal plane alteration.

    Yosano, Akira; Katakura, Akira; Takaki, Takashi; Shibahara, Takahiko


    In this study, we investigated how method of mandibular fixation influenced longterm postoperative stability of the maxilla in Class III cases. In particular, we investigated change in the maxillary occlusal plane after Occlusal Plane Alteration. Therefore, we focused on change in the palatal plane to evaluate stability of the maxillary occlusal plane, as the position of the palatal plane affects the maxillary occlusal plane. This study included 16 patients diagnosed with mandibular protrusion. Alteration of the occlusal plane was achieved by clockwise rotation of the maxilla by Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback was performed by bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy. We analyzed and examined lateral cephalometric radiographs taken at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Stability achieved by two methods of mandibular fixation was compared. In one group of patients (group S) titanium screws were used, and in the other group (group P) titanium-locking mini-plates were used. No significant displacement was recognized in group S, whereas an approximately 0.7mm upward vertical displacement was recognized in the anterior nasal spine in group P. As a result, not only the angle of the palatal plane and S-N plane, but also occlusal plane angle in group P showed a greater decrease than that in group S. The results suggest that fixing the mandible with screws yielded greater stability of the maxilla and maxillary occlusal plane than fixing the mandible with titanium plates.

  9. Streptococcus anginosus infections: crossing tissue planes.

    Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Miller, Wallace T


    Streptococcus anginosus has long been recognized to cause invasive pyogenic infections. This holds true for thoracic infections where S. anginosus has a propensity for abscess and empyema formation. Early diagnosis is important given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with thoracic S. anginosus infections. Yet, distinguishing thoracic S. anginosus clinically is difficult. We present three cases of thoracic S. anginosus that demonstrated radiographic extension across tissue planes, including the interlobar fissure, diaphragm, and chest wall. Few infectious etiologies are known to cross tissue planes. Accordingly, we propose S. anginosus be considered among the differential diagnosis of potential infectious etiologies causing radiographic extension across tissue planes.

  10. Optically sectioned imaging by oblique plane microscopy

    Kumar, Sunil; Lin, Ziduo; Lyon, Alex R.; MacLeod, Ken T.; Dunsby, Chris


    Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and so high speed optically sectioned imaging is possible. The first OPM results obtained using a high NA water immersion lens on a commercially available inverted microscope frame are presented, together with a measurement of the achievable optical resolution.

  11. a globally convergent hyperpl onvergent hyperplane


    Bayero Journal of Pure and App. ISSN 2006 – 6996 ... Globally Convergent Hyper plane-BFGS method for solving nonline. The attractive ... Numerical performance on some b rates there liability ..... convergence of a class of quasi methods on ...

  12. A laboratory scale fundamental time?

    Mendes, R.V.


    The existence of a fundamental time (or fundamental length) has been conjectured in many contexts. However, the ''stability of physical theories principle'' seems to be the one that provides, through the tools of algebraic deformation theory, an unambiguous derivation of the stable structures that Nature might have chosen for its algebraic framework. It is well-known that c and ℎ are the deformation parameters that stabilize the Galilean and the Poisson algebra. When the stability principle is applied to the Poincare-Heisenberg algebra, two deformation parameters emerge which define two time (or length) scales. In addition there are, for each of them, a plus or minus sign possibility in the relevant commutators. One of the deformation length scales, related to non-commutativity of momenta, is probably related to the Planck length scale but the other might be much larger and already detectable in laboratory experiments. In this paper, this is used as a working hypothesis to look for physical effects that might settle this question. Phase-space modifications, resonances, interference, electron spin resonance and non-commutative QED are considered. (orig.)

  13. Global Food Governance

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.


    Globalisation in food production and consumption is fundamentally transforming a wide variety of social practices at different levels in society. Simply adding another level of governance will therefore not solve the problems related to food production and consumption in global modernity. Different

  14. Global, Local, or Regional?

    Verbeke, Alain; Geisler Asmussen, Christian


    of analysis, in addition to the country-level and the global level. Regional strategy analysis requires a fundamental rethink of mainstream theories in the international strategy sphere. This rethink involves, inter alia, internalization theory, with its resource-based view and transaction cost economics...

  15. Pain management: a fundamental human right.

    Brennan, Frank; Carr, Daniel B; Cousins, Michael


    This article surveys worldwide medical, ethical, and legal trends and initiatives related to the concept of pain management as a human right. This concept recently gained momentum with the 2004 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Chapters-, International Association for the Study of Pain- and World Health Organization-sponsored "Global Day Against Pain," where it was adopted as a central theme. We survey the scope of the problem of unrelieved pain in three areas, acute pain, chronic noncancer pain, and cancer pain, and outline the adverse physical and psychological effects and social and economic costs of untreated pain. Reasons for deficiencies in pain management include cultural, societal, religious, and political attitudes, including acceptance of torture. The biomedical model of disease, focused on pathophysiology rather than quality of life, reinforces entrenched attitudes that marginalize pain management as a priority. Strategies currently applied for improvement include framing pain management as an ethical issue; promoting pain management as a legal right, providing constitutional guarantees and statutory regulations that span negligence law, criminal law, and elder abuse; defining pain management as a fundamental human right, categorizing failure to provide pain management as professional misconduct, and issuing guidelines and standards of practice by professional bodies. The role of the World Health Organization is discussed, particularly with respect to opioid availability for pain management. We conclude that, because pain management is the subject of many initiatives within the disciplines of medicine, ethics and law, we are at an "inflection point" in which unreasonable failure to treat pain is viewed worldwide as poor medicine, unethical practice, and an abrogation of a fundamental human right.

  16. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.


    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality

  17. Lieb's correlation inequality for plane rotors

    Rivasseau, V.


    We prove a conjecture by E. Lieb, which leads to the Lieb inequality for plane rotors. As in the Ising model case, this inequality implies the existence of an algorithm to compute the transition temperature of this model. (orig.)

  18. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  19. Null-plane quantization of fermions

    Mustaki, D.


    Massive Dirac fermions are canonically quantized on the null plane using the Dirac-Bergmann algorithm. The procedure is carried out in the framework of quantum electrodynamics as an illustration of a rigorous treatment of interacting fermion fields

  20. Some Features of the Plane Couette Flow

    Skovorodko, Petr


    In the previous paper 1 it was found, in particular, that in the transition regime of the plane Couette flow the values of total energy flux and shear stress may exceed the corresponding free molecular values...

  1. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.


    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general space-time to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave space-times. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality.

  2. Proof of Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane

    Kachkachi, M.; Kouadik, S.


    Using Neumann series, we solve iteratively SBE to arbitrary order. Then applying this, we compute the energy momentum tensor and n points functions for generic n starting from WZP action on the supercomplex plane. We solve the superconformal Ward identity and we show that the iterative solution to arbitrary order is resumed by WZP action. This proves the Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane. (author). 8 refs

  3. Constructive curves in non-Euclidean planes

    Horváth, Ákos G.


    In this paper we overview the theory of conics and roulettes in four non-Euclidean planes. We collect the literature about these classical concepts, from the eighteenth century to the present, including papers available only on arXiv. The comparison of the four non-Euclidean planes, in terms of the known results on conics and roulettes, reflects only the very subjective view of the author.

  4. Optimal interconnection trees in the plane theory, algorithms and applications

    Brazil, Marcus


    This book explores fundamental aspects of geometric network optimisation with applications to a variety of real world problems. It presents, for the first time in the literature, a cohesive mathematical framework within which the properties of such optimal interconnection networks can be understood across a wide range of metrics and cost functions. The book makes use of this mathematical theory to develop efficient algorithms for constructing such networks, with an emphasis on exact solutions.  Marcus Brazil and Martin Zachariasen focus principally on the geometric structure of optimal interconnection networks, also known as Steiner trees, in the plane. They show readers how an understanding of this structure can lead to practical exact algorithms for constructing such trees.  The book also details numerous breakthroughs in this area over the past 20 years, features clearly written proofs, and is supported by 135 colour and 15 black and white figures. It will help graduate students, working mathematicians, ...

  5. Heteroepitaxial growth of basal plane stacking fault free a-plane GaN

    Wieneke, Matthias; Hempel, Thomas; Noltemeyer, Martin; Witte, Hartmut; Dadgar, Armin; Blaesing, Juergen; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke Universitaet Magdeburg, FNW/IEP, Magdeburg (Germany)


    Growth of light emitting quantum-wells based on a-plane GaN is a possibility to reduce or even to avoid polarization correlated luminescence red shift and reduction of radiative recombination efficiency. But until now heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN films are characterized by a poor crystalline quality expressed by a high density of basal plane stacking faults (BSF) and partial dislocations. We present Si doped a-plane GaN films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy using high temperature AlGaN nucleation layers. FE-SEM images revealed three dimensionally grown GaN crystallites sized up to tenth micrometer in the basal plane and a few tenth micrometers along the c-axes. Though, the full width at half maxima of the X-ray diffraction {omega}-scans of the in-plane GaN(1 anti 100) and GaN(0002) Bragg reflections exhibited a very high crystal quality. Furthermore, luminescence spectra were dominated by near band gap emission, while there was no separated peak of the basal plane stacking fault. In summary we present heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN without an evidence of basal plane stacking faults in X-ray diffraction measurements and luminescence spectra.

  6. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    Mattox, D.M.


    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  7. Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications

    Cengel, Yunus


    Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...

  8. Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices

    Deen, M Jamal


    The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...

  9. Fundamental Laser Welding Process Investigations

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove


    In a number of systematic laboratory investigations the fundamental behavior of the laser welding process was analyzed by the use of normal video (30 Hz), high speed video (100 and 400 Hz) and photo diodes. Sensors were positioned to monitor the welding process from both the top side and the rear...... side of the specimen.Special attention has been given to the dynamic nature of the laser welding process, especially during unstable welding conditions. In one series of experiments, the stability of the process has been varied by changing the gap distance in lap welding. In another series...... video pictures (400 Hz), a clear impact on the seam characteristics has been identified when a hump occurs.Finally, a clear correlation between the position of the focus point, the resultant process type and the corresponding signal intensity and signal variation has been found for sheets welded...

  10. Materials Fundamentals of Gate Dielectrics

    Demkov, Alexander A


    This book presents materials fundamentals of novel gate dielectrics that are being introduced into semiconductor manufacturing to ensure the continuous scalling of the CMOS devices. This is a very fast evolving field of research so we choose to focus on the basic understanding of the structure, thermodunamics, and electronic properties of these materials that determine their performance in device applications. Most of these materials are transition metal oxides. Ironically, the d-orbitals responsible for the high dielectric constant cause sever integration difficulties thus intrinsically limiting high-k dielectrics. Though new in the electronics industry many of these materials are wel known in the field of ceramics, and we describe this unique connection. The complexity of the structure-property relations in TM oxides makes the use of the state of the art first-principles calculations necessary. Several chapters give a detailed description of the modern theory of polarization, and heterojunction band discont...

  11. Queueing networks a fundamental approach

    Dijk, Nico


    This handbook aims to highlight fundamental, methodological and computational aspects of networks of queues to provide insights and to unify results that can be applied in a more general manner.  The handbook is organized into five parts: Part 1 considers exact analytical results such as of product form type. Topics include characterization of product forms by physical balance concepts and simple traffic flow equations, classes of service and queue disciplines that allow a product form, a unified description of product forms for discrete time queueing networks, insights for insensitivity, and aggregation and decomposition results that allow subnetworks to be aggregated into single nodes to reduce computational burden. Part 2 looks at monotonicity and comparison results such as for computational simplification by either of two approaches: stochastic monotonicity and ordering results based on the ordering of the proces generators, and comparison results and explicit error bounds based on an underlying Markov r...

  12. The fundamentals of stellar astrophysics

    Collins, G.W. II.


    A broad overview of theoretical stellar astrophysics is presented in a textbook intended for graduate students. Chapters are devoted to fundamental principles, assumptions, theorems, and polytropes; energy sources and sinks; the flow of energy through the star and the construction of stellar models; the theory of stellar evolution; relativistic stellar structure; the structure of distorted stars; stellar pulsation and oscillation. Also discussed are the flow of radiation through the stellar atmosphere, the solution of the radiative-transfer equation, the environment of the radiation field, the construction of a stellar model atmosphere, the formation and shape of spectral lines, LTE breakdown, illuminated and extended stellar atmospheres, and the transfer of polarized radiation. Diagrams, graphs, and sample problems are provided. 164 refs

  13. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    Hanssen, Joel


    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  14. Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications

    Tian, Jie


    Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.

  15. Fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    Chubb, Donald L


    This is a text book presenting the fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic(TPV) energy conversion suitable for an upper undergraduate or first year graduate course. In addition it can serve as a reference or design aid for engineers developing TPV systems. Mathematica design programs for interference filters and a planar TPV system are included on a CD-Rom disk. Each chapter includes a summary and concludes with a set of problems. The first chapter presents the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory necessary to calculate the optical properties of the components in a TPV optical cavity. Using a simplified model, Chapter 2 develops expressions for the maximum efficiency and power density for an ideal TPV system. The next three chapters consider the three major components in a TPV system; the emitter, filter and photovoltaic(PV) array. Chapter 3 applies the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory presented in Chapter 1 in the calculation of spectral emittance. From the spectral emittance t...

  16. Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics

    Gülçat, Ülgen


    In this book, the author introduces the concept of unsteady aerodynamics and its underlying principles. He provides the readers with a comprehensive review of the fundamental physics of free and forced unsteadiness, the terminology and basic equations of aerodynamics ranging from incompressible flow to hypersonics. The book also covers modern topics related to the developments made in recent years, especially in relation to wing flapping for propulsion. The book is written for graduate and senior year undergraduate students in aerodynamics and also serves as a reference for experienced researchers. Each chapter includes ample examples, questions, problems and relevant references.   The treatment of these modern topics has been completely revised end expanded for the new edition. It now includes new numerical examples, a section on the ground effect, and state-space representation.

  17. Fundamental aspects of quantum theory

    Gorini, V.; Frigerio, A.


    This book presents information on the following topics: general problems and crucial experiments; the classical behavior of measuring instruments; quantum interference effect for two atoms radiating a single photon; quantization and stochastic processes; quantum Markov processes driven by Bose noise; chaotic behavior in quantum mechanics; quantum ergodicity and chaos; microscopic and macroscopic levels of description; fundamental properties of the ground state of atoms and molecules; n-level systems interacting with Bosons - semiclassical limits; general aspects of gauge theories; adiabatic phase shifts for neutrons and photons; the spins of cyons and dyons; round-table discussion the the Aharonov-Bohm effect; gravity in quantum mechanics; the gravitational phase transition; anomalies and their cancellation; a new gauge without any ghost for Yang-Mills Theory; and energy density and roughening in the 3-D Ising ferromagnet

  18. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications


    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  19. Microwave engineering concepts and fundamentals

    Khan, Ahmad Shahid


    Detailing the active and passive aspects of microwaves, Microwave Engineering: Concepts and Fundamentals covers everything from wave propagation to reflection and refraction, guided waves, and transmission lines, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying principles at the core of microwave engineering. This encyclopedic text not only encompasses nearly all facets of microwave engineering, but also gives all topics—including microwave generation, measurement, and processing—equal emphasis. Packed with illustrations to aid in comprehension, the book: •Describes the mathematical theory of waveguides and ferrite devices, devoting an entire chapter to the Smith chart and its applications •Discusses different types of microwave components, antennas, tubes, transistors, diodes, and parametric devices •Examines various attributes of cavity resonators, semiconductor and RF/microwave devices, and microwave integrated circuits •Addresses scattering parameters and their properties, as well a...

  20. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy

    Rule, Gordon S


    NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful technique to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy is a comprehensive textbook that guides the reader from a basic understanding of the phenomenological properties of magnetic resonance to the application and interpretation of modern multi-dimensional NMR experiments on 15N/13C-labeled proteins. Beginning with elementary quantum mechanics, a set of practical rules is presented and used to describe many commonly employed multi-dimensional, multi-nuclear NMR pulse sequences. A modular analysis of NMR pulse sequence building blocks also provides a basis for understanding and developing novel pulse programs. This text not only covers topics from chemical shift assignment to protein structure refinement, as well as the analysis of protein dynamics and chemical kinetics, but also provides a practical guide to many aspects of modern spectrometer hardware, sample preparation, experimental set-up, and data pr...

  1. Phononic crystals fundamentals and applications

    Adibi, Ali


    This book provides an in-depth analysis as well as an overview of phononic crystals. This book discusses numerous techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals and covers, among other material, sonic and ultrasonic structures, hypersonic planar structures and their characterization, and novel applications of phononic crystals. This is an ideal book for those working with micro and nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and acoustic devices. This book also: Presents an introduction to the fundamentals and properties of phononic crystals Covers simulation techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals Discusses sonic and ultrasonic, hypersonic and planar, and three-dimensional phononic crystal structures Illustrates how phononic crystal structures are being deployed in communication systems and sensing systems.

  2. Multiphase flow dynamics 1 fundamentals

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov


    Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. In its third extended edition this monograph contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the fundamentals of multiphase dynamics are provided. This third edition includes various updates, extensions and improvements in all book chapters.

  3. Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert


    Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...... language and a high-level structured language. We introduce concrete tools such as program inverters and translators for both languages, which follow the structure suggested by the flowchart model. To further illustrate the different concepts and tools brought together in this paper, we present two major...

  4. Islamic Fundamentalism in Modern Russia

    Elena F. Parubochaya


    Full Text Available Nowadays Islam takes the stage of recovery associated with the peculiar issues associated with the Muslim society. These characteristics are expressed in the spread of ideas of Islamic fundamentalism and its supporters’ confrontation with the rest of the world. This process has affected the Russian Muslims as well, the trend developed after the collapse of the Soviet Union when the post soviet muslims began to realize themselves as part of one of the Muslim Ummah, coming into conflict with the secular law of the Russian Federation. After the Soviet Union’s disintegration, the radical Islamic ideas have begun to appear in Russia, in the conditions of the growth of nationalism these thoughts found a fertile ground. One of these ideas was associated with the construction of Sharia state in the Muslim autonomous republics of the Russian Federation and their subsequent withdrawal from Russian’s membership. The situation for the Russian state in the Muslim republics aggravated the war in Chechnya. Through Chechnya mercenaries from Arab countries started to penetrate to the Russian territory, they also brought the money for the destabilization of the internal situation in Russia. Nevertheless, separatism did not find the mass support in neighboring regions such as Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Ingushetia. It is evidently that international Jihad ideas were supported financially from abroad. The issue of funding is a key part of the development of Islamic fundamentalism in Russia, the international Islamic funds and organizations gave huge financial assistance to them. At the present moment Russian authorities lead a fruitful and a successful fight against terrorism. In the future, after the completion of the antiterrorist operation in the Middle East hundreds of terrorists may return to Russia with huge experience that can threaten the security of the Russian state.

  5. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Aggarwal, Raj


    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  6. Weathering the financial storm: The importance of fundamentals and flexibility

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursson, Thórarinn G.

    The recent global financial tsunami has had economic consequences that have not been witnessed since the Great Depression. But while some countries suffered a particularly large contraction in economic activity on top of a system-wide banking and currency collapse, others came off relatively ligh...... in determining the economic impact of the crisis and, in particular, that countries with sound fundamentals and flexible economic frameworks were better able to weather the financial storm....

  7. In-plane optical response in underdoped YBCO

    Kakeshita, Teruhisa; Masui, Takahiko; Tajima, Setsuko


    The recent STM experiments demonstrated that the electronic state in CuO2 plane is inhomogeneous [1], which becomes conspicuous in the underdoped regime. In such an inhomogeneous state, it is not obvious whether a superfluid density is correctly estimated by a conventional way. We investigated the in-plane optical response for underdoped YBCO crystal to discuss the relation between inhomogeneity and superfluid density in the pseudo-gapped state. The a-axis optical spectrum shows a larger residual conductivity than that for the optimum doping. The superfluid density estimated from our optical spectrum at the lowest temperature is substantially smaller than that determined by μSR. We discuss this strongly suppressed superfluid density and the large residual conductivity in terms of the inhomogeneity in real- and k-space. This work was supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization(NEDO) through ISTEC as the Collaborative Research and Development of Fundamental Technologies for Superconductivity Applications. [1]K.M.Lang et al., Nature 415, 412 (2002). *present address: Dept. of Physics, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan

  8. The global warming problem



    In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

  9. "A Tale of Two Planes": Deep Versus Superficial Serratus Plane Block for Postmastectomy Pain Syndrome.

    Piracha, Mohammad M; Thorp, Stephen L; Puttanniah, Vinay; Gulati, Amitabh

    Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is a significant burden for breast cancer survivors. Although multiple therapies have been described, an evolving field of serratus anterior plane blocks has been described in this population. We describe the addition of the deep serratus anterior plane block (DSPB) for PMPS. Four patients with history of PMPS underwent DSPB for anterior chest wall pain. A retrospective review of these patients' outcomes was obtained through postprocedure interviews. Three of the patients previously had a superficial serratus anterior plane block, which was not as efficacious as the DSPB. The fourth patient had a superficial serratus anterior plane that was difficult to separate with hydrodissection but had improved pain control with a DSPB. We illustrate 4 patients who have benefitted from a DSPB and describe indications that this block may be more efficacious than a superficial serratus plane block. Further study is recommended to understand the intercostal nerve branches within the lateral and anterior muscular chest wall planes.

  10. On the geometry of certain irreducible non-torus plane sextics

    Eyral, Christophe; Oka, Mutsuo


    An irreducible non-torus plane sextic with simple singularities is said to be special if its fundamental group factors to a dihedral group. There exist (exactly) ten configurations of simple singularities that are realizable by such curves. Among them, six are realizable by non-special sextics...... as well. We conjecture that for each of these six configurations there always exists a non-special curve whose fundamental group is abelian, and we prove this conjecture for three configurations (another one has already been treated in one of our previous papers). As a corollary, we obtain new explicit...

  11. Affine planes, ternary rings, and examples of non-Desarguesian planes

    Ivanov, Nikolai V.


    The paper is devoted to a detailed self-contained exposition of a part of the theory of affine planes leading to a construction of affine (or, equivalently, projective) planes not satisfying the Desarques axiom. It is intended to complement the introductory expositions of the theory of affine and projective planes. A novelty of our exposition is a new notation for the ternary operation in a ternary ring, much more suggestive than the standard one.

  12. Fundamentals and Techniques of Nonimaging

    O' Gallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.


    This is the final report describing a long term basic research program in nonimaging optics that has led to major advances in important areas, including solar energy, fiber optics, illumination techniques, light detectors, and a great many other applications. The term ''nonimaging optics'' refers to the optics of extended sources in systems for which image forming is not important, but effective and efficient collection, concentration, transport, and distribution of light energy is. Although some of the most widely known developments of the early concepts have been in the field of solar energy, a broad variety of other uses have emerged. Most important, under the auspices of this program in fundamental research in nonimaging optics established at the University of Chicago with support from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences at the Department of Energy, the field has become very dynamic, with new ideas and concepts continuing to develop, while applications of the early concepts continue to be pursued. While the subject began as part of classical geometrical optics, it has been extended subsequently to the wave optics domain. Particularly relevant to potential new research directions are recent developments in the formalism of statistical and wave optics, which may be important in understanding energy transport on the nanoscale. Nonimaging optics permits the design of optical systems that achieve the maximum possible concentration allowed by physical conservation laws. The earliest designs were constructed by optimizing the collection of the extreme rays from a source to the desired target: the so-called ''edge-ray'' principle. Later, new concentrator types were generated by placing reflectors along the flow lines of the ''vector flux'' emanating from lambertian emitters in various geometries. A few years ago, a new development occurred with the discovery that making the design edge-ray a functional of some

  13. Evaluation of irradiation measurements on tilted planes at PV systems in the Netherlands

    Betcke, J.W.H.; Dijk, V.A.P. van; Ramaekers, L.A.M.; Zolingen, R.J.C. van


    Monitoring data of Dutch PV systems in the field show lower values for the measured global irradiation in the array plane than expected from model calculatations. Since the locations of the PV systems contain obstacles, we expect that shielding of diffuse irradiation may cause the difference. For

  14. Virtual and composite fundamentals in the ERM

    Knot, KHW; Sturm, JE


    A latent-variable approach is applied to identify the appropriate driving process for fundamental exchange rates in the ERM. From the time-series characteristics of so-called "virtual fundamentals" and "composite fundamentals", a significant degree of mean reversion can be asserted. The relative

  15. Teaching the Politics of Islamic Fundamentalism.

    Kazemzadeh, Masoud


    Argues that the rise of Islamic fundamentalism since the Iranian Revolution has generated a number of issues of analytical significance for political science. Describes three main models in teaching and research on Islamic fundamentalism: Islamic exceptionalism, comparative fundamentalisms, and class analysis. Discusses the construction of a…

  16. Explaining crude oil prices using fundamental measures

    Coleman, Les


    Oil is the world's most important commodity, and improving the understanding of drivers of its price is a longstanding research objective. This article analyses real oil prices during 1984–2007 using a monthly dataset of fundamental and market parameters that cover financial markets, global economic growth, demand and supply of oil, and geopolitical measures. The innovation is to incorporate proxies for speculative and terrorist activity and dummies for major industry events, and quantify price impacts of each. New findings are positive links between oil prices and speculative activity, bond yields, an interaction term incorporating OPEC market share and OECD import dependence, and the number of US troops and frequency of terrorist attacks in the Middle East. Shocks also prove significant with a $6–18 per barrel impact on price for several months. - Highlights: ► Article introduces new variables to the study of oil prices. ► New variables are terrorist incidents and military activity, and oil futures market size. ► Shocks prove important affecting prices by $6–18 per barrel for several months. ► OPEC market influence rises with OECD import dependence.

  17. Fundamentals of the DIGES code

    Simos, N.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.


    Recently the authors have completed the development of the DIGES code (Direct GEneration of Spectra) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper presents the fundamental theoretical aspects of the code. The basic modeling involves a representation of typical building-foundation configurations as multi degree-of-freedom dynamic which are subjected to dynamic inputs in the form of applied forces or pressure at the superstructure or in the form of ground motions. Both the deterministic as well as the probabilistic aspects of DIGES are described. Alternate ways of defining the seismic input for the estimation of in-structure spectra and their consequences in terms of realistically appraising the variability of the structural response is discussed in detaiL These include definitions of the seismic input by ground acceleration time histories, ground response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra or power spectral densities. Conversions of one of these forms to another due to requirements imposed by certain analysis techniques have been shown to lead, in certain cases, in controversial results. Further considerations include the definition of the seismic input as the excitation which is directly applied at the foundation of a structure or as the ground motion of the site of interest at a given point. In the latter case issues related to the transferring of this motion to the foundation through convolution/deconvolution and generally through kinematic interaction approaches are considered.

  18. Gas cell neutralizers (Fundamental principles)

    Fuehrer, B.


    Neutralizing an ion-beam of the size and energy levels involved in the neutral-particle-beam program represents a considerable extension of the state-of-the-art of neutralizer technology. Many different mediums (e.g., solid, liquid, gas, plasma, photons) can be used to strip the hydrogen ion of its extra electron. A large, multidisciplinary R and D effort will no doubt be required to sort out all of the ''pros and cons'' of these various techniques. The purpose of this particular presentation is to discuss some basic configurations and fundamental principles of the gas type of neutralizer cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the ''Gasdynamic Free-Jet'' neutralizer since this configuration has the potential of being much shorter than other type of gas cells (in the beam direction) and it could operate in nearly a continuous mode (CW) if necessary. These were important considerations in the ATSU design which is discussed in some detail in the second presentation entitled ''ATSU Point Design''

  19. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.


    The major portion of this program is devoted to critical ICH phenomena. The topics include edge physics, fast wave propagation, ICH induced high frequency instabilities, and a preliminary antenna design for Ignitor. This research was strongly coordinated with the world's experimental and design teams at JET, Culham, ORNL, and Ignitor. The results have been widely publicized at both general scientific meetings and topical workshops including the speciality workshop on ICRF design and physics sponsored by Lodestar in April 1992. The combination of theory, empirical modeling, and engineering design in this program makes this research particularly important for the design of future devices and for the understanding and performance projections of present tokamak devices. Additionally, the development of a diagnostic of runaway electrons on TEXT has proven particularly useful for the fundamental understanding of energetic electron confinement. This work has led to a better quantitative basis for quasilinear theory and the role of magnetic vs. electrostatic field fluctuations on electron transport. An APS invited talk was given on this subject and collaboration with PPPL personnel was also initiated. Ongoing research on these topics will continue for the remainder fo the contract period and the strong collaborations are expected to continue, enhancing both the relevance of the work and its immediate impact on areas needing critical understanding

  20. Levitated Optomechanics for Fundamental Physics

    Rashid, Muddassar; Bateman, James; Vovrosh, Jamie; Hempston, David; Ulbricht, Hendrik


    Optomechanics with levitated nano- and microparticles is believed to form a platform for testing fundamental principles of quantum physics, as well as find applications in sensing. We will report on a new scheme to trap nanoparticles, which is based on a parabolic mirror with a numerical aperture of 1. Combined with achromatic focussing, the setup is a cheap and readily straightforward solution to trapping nanoparticles for further study. Here, we report on the latest progress made in experimentation with levitated nanoparticles; these include the trapping of 100 nm nanodiamonds (with NV-centres) down to 1 mbar as well as the trapping of 50 nm Silica spheres down to 10?4 mbar without any form of feedback cooling. We will also report on the progress to implement feedback stabilisation of the centre of mass motion of the trapped particle using digital electronics. Finally, we argue that such a stabilised particle trap can be the particle source for a nanoparticle matterwave interferometer. We will present our Talbot interferometer scheme, which holds promise to test the quantum superposition principle in the new mass range of 106 amu. EPSRC, John Templeton Foundation.

  1. Nanostructured metals. Fundamentals to applications

    Grivel, J.-C.; Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Juul Jensen, D.; Mishin, O.V.; Nielsen, S.F.; Pantleon, W.; Toftegaard, H.; Winther, G.; Yu, T.


    In the today's world, materials science and engineering must as other technical fields focus on sustainability. Raw materials and energy have to be conserved and metals with improved or new structural and functional properties must be invented, developed and brought to application. In this endeavour a very promising route is to reduce the structural scale of metallic materials, thereby bridging industrial metals of today with emerging nanometals of tomorrow, i.e. structural scales ranging from a few micrometres to the nanometre regime. While taking a focus on metals with structures in this scale regime the symposium spans from fundamental aspects towards applications, uniting materials scientists and technologists. A holistic approach characterizes the themes of the symposium encompassing synthesis, characterization, modelling and performance where in each area significant progress has been made in recent years. Synthesis now covers top-down processes, e.g. plastic deformation, and bottom-up processes, e.g. chemical and physical synthesis. In the area of structural and mechanical characterization advanced techniques are now widely applied and in-situ techniques for structural characterization under mechanical or thermal loading are under rapid development in both 2D and 3D. Progress in characterization techniques has led to a precise description of different boundaries (grain, dislocation, twin, phase), and of how they form and evolve, also including theoretical modelling and simulations of structures, properties and performance. (au)

  2. The water, fundamental ecological base?

    Bolivar, Luis Humberto


    To speak of ecology and the man's interaction with the environment takes, in fact implicit many elements that, actuating harmoniously generates a conducive entropy to a better to be, however it is necessary to hierarchy the importance of these elements, finding that the water, not alone to constitute sixty five percent of the total volume of the planet, or sixty percent of the human body, but to be the well called molecule of the life, it is constituted in the main element to consider in the study of the ecology. The water circulates continually through the endless hydrological cycle of condensation, precipitation, filtration, retention, evaporation, precipitation and so forth; however, due to the quick growth of the cities, its expansion of the green areas or its border lands, result of a demographic behavior and of inadequate social establishment; or of the advance industrial excessive, they produce irreparable alterations in the continuous processes of the water production, for this reason it is fundamental to know some inherent problems to the sources of water. The water, the most important in the renewable natural resources, essential for the life and for the achievement of good part of the man's goals in their productive function, it is direct or indirectly the natural resource more threatened by the human action

  3. Fundamentals of neurogastroenterology: basic science.

    Grundy, David; Al-Chaer, Elie D; Aziz, Qasim; Collins, Stephen M; Ke, Meiyun; Taché, Yvette; Wood, Jackie D


    The focus of neurogastroenterology in Rome II was the enteric nervous system (ENS). To avoid duplication with Rome II, only advances in ENS neurobiology after Rome II are reviewed together with stronger emphasis on interactions of the brain, spinal cord, and the gut in terms of relevance for abdominal pain and disordered gastrointestinal function. A committee with expertise in selective aspects of neurogastroenterology was invited to evaluate the literature and provide a consensus overview of the Fundamentals of Neurogastroenterology textbook as they relate to functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). This review is an abbreviated version of a fuller account that appears in the forthcoming book, Rome III. This report reviews current basic science understanding of visceral sensation and its modulation by inflammation and stress and advances in the neurophysiology of the ENS. Many of the concepts are derived from animal studies in which the physiologic mechanisms underlying visceral sensitivity and neural control of motility, secretion, and blood flow are examined. Impact of inflammation and stress in experimental models relative to FGIDs is reviewed as is human brain imaging, which provides a means for translating basic science to understanding FGID symptoms. Investigative evidence and emerging concepts implicate dysfunction in the nervous system as a significant factor underlying patient symptoms in FGIDs. Continued focus on neurogastroenterologic factors that underlie the development of symptoms will lead to mechanistic understanding that is expected to directly benefit the large contingent of patients and care-givers who deal with FGIDs.

  4. In-plane Tire Deformation Measurement Using a Multi-Laser Sensor System

    Xiong, Yi


    The interactions between tires and roads are basic mechanisms that alter the dynamic states of vehicles. A fundamental understanding of tire-road interactions is clearly demanded in tire design to achieve performance improvements. The emergence of various tire sensors provides an opportunity to make accurate measurement of the physical quantities that are involved in tire-road interactions.  This thesis aims to measure and analyze the in-plane deformation of rolling tires through its direc...

  5. Optimization of hardening/softening behavior of plane frame structures using nonlinear normal modes

    Dou, Suguang; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard


    Devices that exploit essential nonlinear behavior such as hardening/softening and inter-modal coupling effects are increasingly used in engineering and fundamental studies. Based on nonlinear normal modes, we present a gradient-based structural optimization method for tailoring the hardening...... involving plane frame structures where the hardening/softening behavior is qualitatively and quantitatively tuned by simple changes in the geometry of the structures....

  6. Deflection of electron beams by ground planes

    Fernsler, R.F.; Lampe, M.


    Analytic methods are used to determine the effect of a nearby ground plane on the trajectory of a relativistic electron beam passing through dense gas. The beam is shown to respond to the ground plane in one of two distinct modes, determined by beam current and energy. Low-power beams deflect from the ground plane and tear longitudinally. High-power beams do not deflect or tear but tilt, i.e., the beam axis is no longer parallel to the direction of propagation. This conclusion is reached by computing the net beam force as a superposition of the ''bare'' ground-plane forces, the shielding forces from the beam-generated plasma, the body coupling forces induced by beam tilt, and the force that arises as the beam separates from the plasma. Effects from electromagnetic retardation and ground resistivity are shown to be negligible in typical cases of interest, and the interaction between ground planes and other external forces is discussed as well

  7. The horizontal plane appearances of scoliosis

    Illés, Tamás S.; Burkus, Máté; Somoskeőy, Szabolcs


    Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two-/three-dimen......Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two...... cases of a normal spine and a thoracic scoliosis are presented. Results: For a normal spine, vector projections in the transverse plane are aligned with the posterior-anterior anatomical axis. For a scoliotic spine, vector projections in the horizontal plane provide information on the lateral...... decompensation of the spine and the lateral displacement of vertebrae. In the horizontal plane view, vertebral rotation and projections of the sagittal curves can also be analyzed simultaneously. Conclusions: The use of posterior-anterior vertebral vector facilitates the understanding of the 3D nature...

  8. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    Eder, W. E.


    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  9. Computed tomography of peripancreatic fat planes

    Wittich, G.R.; Van Sonnenberg, E.; Willson, S.A.; Tobin, R.S.; Cubberley, D.A.; Marx, M.Q.


    Obliteration of peripancreatic fat planes usually is considered an indicator of peripancreatic tumour infiltration in the presence of a malignant mass, or of inflammation of peripancreatic tissues in patients with pancreatitis. However, absence of peripancreatic fat planes also may be found in patients without evidence of pancreatic disease. Hence, CT scans of 125 patients without clinical or computed tomographic evidence of pancreatic disease were evaluated to assess normal variations in the anatomy of the pancreas and its relation to surrounding vessels and bowel loops. The fat plane separating the superior mesenteric artery from the pancreas was preserved in 100% of patients. Conversely, fat planes between the pancreas and the superior mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava, and adjacent bowel loops were partially or totally obliterated in 13% to 50% of patients. It is concluded that the absence of fat around the superior mesenteric artery is highly suggestive of pathologic changes of the pancreas, while the lack of fat planes between the pancreas and other splanchnic vessels or bowel loops frequently is normal, and therefore, is an unreliable sign of pancreatic disease. The applications of these findings to the assessment of tumour resectability by CT, and to CT scanning techniques, are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion Measured with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot

    Soslow, Jonathan H.; Usoro, Emem; Wang, Li; Parra, David A.


    Background Aneurysmal dilation of the right ventricular outflow tract complicates assessment of right ventricular function in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is commonly used to estimate ejection fraction. We hypothesized that tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging approximates global and segmental right ventricular function, specifically right ventricular sinus ejection fraction, in pediatric patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Methods Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was measured retrospectively on cardiac magnetic resonance images in 54 patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Values were compared with right ventricular global, sinus, and infundibular ejection fractions. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was: 1) indexed to body surface area, 2) converted into a fractional value, and 3) converted into published pediatric Z-scores. Results Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measurements had good agreement between observers. Right ventricular ejection fraction did not correlate with the absolute or indexed tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and correlated weakly with fractional tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r=0.41 and p=0.002). Segmental right ventricular function did not appreciably improve correlation with any of the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measures. Pediatric Z-scores were unable to differentiate patients with normal and abnormal right ventricular function. Conclusions Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging correlates poorly with global and segmental right ventricular ejection fraction in pediatric patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is an unreliable approximation of right ventricular function in this patient population. PMID:26279488

  11. On the theory of twinning plane superconductivity

    Mishonov, T.M.


    The thermodynamic potential of the superconducting layer in the twinning plane (TP) vicinity for the type I superconductors is found. The corrections to the surface tension in powers of the Ginsburg-Landau parameter κ are obtained. The corresponding states law for the supercooling field for the type I twinning plane superconductivity (TPS) is obtained, as well as the critical field law for the type II TPS. A review of experimental and theoretical works on TPS and some similar systems is given. The conditions for the Berezinski-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition for the proximity effect are discussed, as well as the possible mechanisms for the conducting phase transition TPS in Nb and the pinning forces close to the twinning plane. The obtained order parameter distribution can be used for description of the superlattices from normal and superconducting metals as well. 6 figs., 44 refs

  12. Plane wave limits and T-duality

    Guven, R.


    The Penrose limit is generalized to show that, any leading order solution of the low-energy field equations in any one of the five string theories has a plane wave solution as a limit. This limiting procedure takes into account all the massless fields that may arise and commutes with the T-duality so that any dual solution has again a plane wave limit. The scaling rules used in the limit are unique and stem from the scaling property of the D = 11 supergravity action. Although the leading order dual solutions need not be exact or supersymmetric, their plane wave limits always preserve some portion of the Poincare supersymmetry and solve the relevant field equations in all powers of the string tension parameter. Further properties of the limiting procedure are discussed. (author)

  13. Topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves

    Huo, Shao-Yong; Chen, Jiu-Jiu; Huang, Hong-Bo


    Topological phononic insulators (TPnIs) show promise for application in the manipulation of acoustic waves for the design of low-loss transmission and perfectly integrated communication devices. Since solid phononic crystals exist as a transverse polarization mode and a mixed longitudinal-transverse polarization mode, the realization of topological edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is desirable to enhance the controllability of the edge waves in solid systems. In this paper, a two-dimensional (2D) solid/solid hexagonal-latticed phononic system that simultaneously supports the topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is investigated. Firstly, two pairs of two-fold Dirac cones, respectively corresponding to the out-of-plane and in-plane waves, are obtained at the same frequency by tuning the crystal parameters. Then, a strategy of zone folding is invoked to form double Dirac cones. By shrinking and expanding the steel scatterer, the lattice symmetry is broken, and band inversions induced, giving rise to an intriguing topological phase transition. Finally, the topologically protected edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves, which can be simultaneously located at the frequency range from 1.223 to 1.251 MHz, are numerically observed. Robust pseudospin-dependent elastic edge wave propagation along arbitrary paths is further demonstrated. Our results will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  14. Astronomia Motivadora no Ensino Fundamental

    Melo, J.; Voelzke, M. R.


    O objetivo principal deste trabalho é procurar desenvolver o interesse dos alunos pelas ciências através da Astronomia. Uma pesquisa com perguntas sobre Astronomia foi realizada junto a 161 alunos do Ensino Fundamental, com o intuito de descobrir conhecimentos prévios dos alunos sobre o assunto. Constatou-se, por exemplo, que 29,3% da 6ª série responderam corretamente o que é eclipse, 30,0% da 8ª série acertaram o que a Astronomia estuda, enquanto 42,3% dos alunos da 5ª série souberam definir o Sol. Pretende-se ampliar as turmas participantes e trabalhar, principalmente de forma prática com: dimensões e escalas no Sistema Solar, construção de luneta, questões como dia e noite, estações do ano e eclipses. Busca-se abordar, também, outros conteúdos de Física tais como a óptica na construção da luneta, e a mecânica no trabalho com escalas e medidas, e ao utilizar uma luminária para representar o Sol na questão do eclipse, e de outras disciplinas como a Matemática na transformação de unidades, regras de três; Artes na modelagem ou desenho dos planetas; a própria História com relação à busca pela origem do universo, e a Informática que possibilita a busca mais rápida por informações, além de permitir simulações e visualizações de imagens importantes. Acredita-se que a Astronomia é importante no processo ensino aprendizagem, pois permite a discussão de temas curiosos como, por exemplo, a origem do universo, viagens espaciais a existência ou não de vida em outros planetas, além de temas atuais como as novas tecnologias.

  15. Multiple fracture planes in deuteron irradiated metals

    Jones, W.R.; Johnson, P.B.


    Evidence has been found of multiple fracture planes in the blistering and flaking of metals observed at room temperature following irradiation at 120 K with 200 keV deuterons. In particular, two fracture planes are identified in copper, gold and stainless steel and three in aluminium. In nickel only one fracture plane is found. Qualitative models are proposed which explain the different fracture planes that are observed. In these models it is proposed that several mechanisms are important. (i) High levels of compressional stress in the implanted layer inhibits bubble nucleation and bubble growth in the depth region near the maxima in the damage and gas deposition profiles. (ii) The lateral stress varies from compression in the implant region to tension in the material below. In the region of tension bubble growth is enhanced. The vertical gradient in the lateral stress may also assist gas to move deeper into the target to further enhance bubble growth in this region. (iii) Shear resulting from differential expansion due to a combination of radiation induced swelling and localised heating is an important mechanism leading to fracture. (orig.)

  16. Copernican Revolution in the Complex Plane

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 11. Copernican Revolution in the Complex Plane - An Algebraic Way to Show the "Chief Point" of Copernican Innovation. Giorgio Goldoni. General Article Volume 17 Issue 11 November 2012 pp 1065-1084 ...

  17. Infrared MUSIC from Z technology focal planes

    Waters, C.R.; Sommese, A.; Johnston, D.; Landau, H.


    Presented is the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm which uses the high frequency differences in sensed time signals to discriminate, count, and accurately locate closely spaced targets. Z technology focal planes allow the implementation of this algorithm and the trade-off between finer spatial resolution systems and systems with coarser resolution but higher sampling rates

  18. Construction of the STAR Event Plane Detector

    Adams, Joseph


    The Event Plane Detector (EPD) is an upgrade to the STAR experiment at RHIC, providing high granularity and acceptance in the forward (2.2 run for commissioning. In this talk I will discuss the construction of the EPD, the installation of the quarter wheel, and plans for full installation in 2018.

  19. Ruler of the plane - Games of geometry

    Beekhuis, S.; Buchin, K.; Castermans, T.; Hurks, T.; Sonke, W.; Aronov, B.; Katz, M.J.


    Ruler of the Plane is a set of games illustrating concepts from combinatorial and computational geometry. The games are based on the art gallery problem, ham-sandwich cuts, the Voronoi game, and geometric network connectivity problems like the Euclidean minimum spanning tree and traveling

  20. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    IAS Admin

    (Figure 1). A relation between tan θ and tanψ gives the trigonometric equation of the family of curves. In this article, trigonometric equations of some known plane curves are deduced and it is shown that these equations reveal some geometric characteristics of the families of the curves under consideration. In Section 2,.

  1. On Generalisation of Polynomials in Complex Plane

    Maslina Darus


    Full Text Available The generalised Bell and Laguerre polynomials of fractional-order in complex z-plane are defined. Some properties are studied. Moreover, we proved that these polynomials are univalent solutions for second order differential equations. Also, the Laguerre-type of some special functions are introduced.

  2. Covariant quantum mechanics on a null plane

    Leutwyler, H.; Stern, J.


    Lorentz invariance implies that the null plane wave functions factorize into a kinematical part describing the motion of the system as a whole and an inner wave function that involves the specific dynamical properties of the system - in complete correspondence with the non-relativistic situation. Covariance is equivalent to an angular condition which admits non-trivial solutions

  3. Does monocular visual space contain planes?

    Koenderink, Jan J.; Albertazzi, Liliana; van Doorn, Andrea J.; van Ee, Raymond; van de Grind, Wim A.; Kappers, Astrid M L; Lappin, Joe S.; Farley Norman, J.; (Stijn) Oomes, A. H J; te Pas, Susan P.; Phillips, Flip; Pont, Sylvia C.; Richards, Whitman A.; Todd, James T.; Verstraten, Frans A J; de Vries, Sjoerd

    The issue of the existence of planes-understood as the carriers of a nexus of straight lines-in the monocular visual space of a stationary human observer has never been addressed. The most recent empirical data apply to binocular visual space and date from the 1960s (Foley, 1964). This appears to be

  4. In-plane user positioning indoors

    Jovanovic, N.; Özçelebi, T.; Lukkien, J.J.; Skoric, B.; Ignatenko, T.


    Indoor positioning is a service required by many smart environment applications for various purposes, such as activity classification, indoor navigation and context awareness. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the user positioning problem based on in-plane detection enabled by a set of

  5. Techniques to measure complex-plane fields

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available In this work we construct coherent superpositions of Gaussian and vortex modes which can be described to occupy the complex-plane. We demonstrate how these fields can be experimentally constructed in a digital, controllable manner with a spatial...

  6. Personnel thermoluminescent dosimetry of plane pilots

    Azorin V, J.C.; Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J.


    In this work are presented the results of the research realized in the pilots of commercial planes of the different flight equipment existing. The results obtained show that the pilots receive during their work, doses of ionizing radiation greater than the limit recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection. (Author)

  7. Elastic Constants of Plane Orthotropic Elasticity

    Krenk, Steen


    The four independent material parameters of plane orthotropic elasti city are introduced as the effective stiffness, the effective Poisson ratio, the stiffness ratio and the shear parameter. It is proved that stress boundary value problems with zero resulting force on internal contours lead...

  8. Cues for localization in the horizontal plane

    Jeppesen, Jakob; Møller, Henrik


    manipulated in HRTFs used for binaural synthesis of sound in the horizontal plane. The manipulation of cues resulted in HRTFs with cues ranging from correct combinations of spectral information and ITDs to combinations with severely conflicting cues. Both the ITD and the spectral information seem...

  9. Locating a minisum circle in the plane

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita


    We consider the problem of locating a circle with respect to existing facilities in the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the facilities is minimized, i.e., we approximate a set of given points by a circle regarding the sum of weighted distances. If the radius...

  10. Crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions

    Shum, D.K.M.; Merkle, J.G.


    A method for estimating the decrease in crack-initiation toughness, from a reference plane strain value, due to positive straining along the crack front of a circumferential flaw in a reactor pressure vessel is presented in this study. This method relates crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions with material failure at points within a distance of a few crack-tip-opening displacements ahead of a crack front, and involves the formulation of a micromechanical crack-initiation model. While this study is intended to address concerns regarding the effects of positive out-of- plane straining on ductile crack initiation, the approach adopted in this work can be extended in a straightforward fashion to examine conditions of macroscopic cleavage crack initiation. Provided single- parameter dominance of near-tip fields exists in the flawed structure, results from this study could be used to examine the appropriateness of applying plane strain fracture toughness to the evaluation of circumferential flaws, in particular to those in ring-forged vessels which have no longitudinal welds. In addition, results from this study could also be applied toward the analysis of the effects of thermal streaming on the fracture resistance of circumferentially oriented flaws in a pressure vessel. 37 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  11. Global ice sheet modeling

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.


    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  12. The elliptic sine-Gordon equation in a half plane

    Pelloni, B; Pinotsis, D A


    We consider boundary value problems for the elliptic sine-Gordon equation posed in the half plane y > 0. This problem was considered in Gutshabash and Lipovskii (1994 J. Math. Sci. 68 197–201) using the classical inverse scattering transform approach. Given the limitations of this approach, the results obtained rely on a nonlinear constraint on the spectral data derived heuristically by analogy with the linearized case. We revisit the analysis of such problems using a recent generalization of the inverse scattering transform known as the Fokas method, and show that the nonlinear constraint of Gutshabash and Lipovskii (1994 J. Math. Sci. 68 197–201) is a consequence of the so-called global relation. We also show that this relation implies a stronger constraint on the spectral data, and in particular that no choice of boundary conditions can be associated with a decaying (possibly mod 2π) solution analogous to the pure soliton solutions of the usual, time-dependent sine-Gordon equation. We also briefly indicate how, in contrast to the evolutionary case, the elliptic sine-Gordon equation posed in the half plane does not admit linearisable boundary conditions

  13. Origin of the Local Group satellite planes

    Banik, Indranil; O'Ryan, David; Zhao, Hongsheng


    We attempt to understand the planes of satellite galaxies orbiting the Milky Way (MW) and M31 in the context of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), which implies a close MW-M31 flyby occurred ≈8 Gyr ago. Using the timing argument, we obtain MW-M31 trajectories consistent with cosmological initial conditions and present observations. We adjust the present M31 proper motion within its uncertainty in order to simulate a range of orbital geometries and closest approach distances. Treating the MW and M31 as point masses, we follow the trajectories of surrounding test particle disks, thereby mapping out the tidal debris distribution. Around each galaxy, the resulting tidal debris tends to cluster around a particular orbital pole. We find some models in which these preferred spin vectors align fairly well with those of the corresponding observed satellite planes. The radial distributions of material in the simulated satellite planes are similar to what we observe. Around the MW, our best-fitting model yields a significant fraction (0.22) of counter-rotating material, perhaps explaining why Sculptor counter-rotates within the MW satellite plane. In contrast, our model yields no counter-rotating material around M31. This is testable with proper motions of M31 satellites. In our best model, the MW disk is thickened by the flyby 7.65 Gyr ago to a root mean square height of 0.75 kpc. This is similar to the observed age and thickness of the Galactic thick disk. Thus, the MW thick disk may have formed together with the MW and M31 satellite planes during a past MW-M31 flyby.

  14. Determining the ice-binding planes of antifreeze proteins by fluorescence-based ice plane affinity.

    Basu, Koli; Garnham, Christopher P; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter


    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are expressed in a variety of cold-hardy organisms to prevent or slow internal ice growth. AFPs bind to specific planes of ice through their ice-binding surfaces. Fluorescence-based ice plane affinity (FIPA) analysis is a modified technique used to determine the ice planes to which the AFPs bind. FIPA is based on the original ice-etching method for determining AFP-bound ice-planes. It produces clearer images in a shortened experimental time. In FIPA analysis, AFPs are fluorescently labeled with a chimeric tag or a covalent dye then slowly incorporated into a macroscopic single ice crystal, which has been preformed into a hemisphere and oriented to determine the a- and c-axes. The AFP-bound ice hemisphere is imaged under UV light to visualize AFP-bound planes using filters to block out nonspecific light. Fluorescent labeling of the AFPs allows real-time monitoring of AFP adsorption into ice. The labels have been found not to influence the planes to which AFPs bind. FIPA analysis also introduces the option to bind more than one differently tagged AFP on the same single ice crystal to help differentiate their binding planes. These applications of FIPA are helping to advance our understanding of how AFPs bind to ice to halt its growth and why many AFP-producing organisms express multiple AFP isoforms.

  15. Modeling of Electromagnetic Fields in Parallel-Plane Structures: A Unified Contour-Integral Approach

    M. Stumpf


    Full Text Available A unified reciprocity-based modeling approach for analyzing electromagnetic fields in dispersive parallel-plane structures of arbitrary shape is described. It is shown that the use of the reciprocity theorem of the time-convolution type leads to a global contour-integral interaction quantity from which novel both time- and frequency-domain numerical schemes can be arrived at. Applications of the numerical method concerning the time-domain radiated interference and susceptibility of parallel-plane structures are discussed and illustrated on numerical examples.

  16. On the C*-algebras of foliations in the plane

    Wang, Xiaolu


    The main result of this original research monograph is the classification of C*-algebras of ordinary foliations of the plane in terms of a class of -trees. It reveals a close connection between some most recent developments in modern analysis and low-dimensional topology. It introduces noncommutative CW-complexes (as the global fibred products of C*-algebras), among other things, which adds a new aspect to the fast-growing field of noncommutative topology and geometry. The reader is only required to know basic functional analysis. However, some knowledge of topology and dynamical systems will be helpful. The book addresses graduate students and experts in the area of analysis, dynamical systems and topology.

  17. MDL, Collineations and the Fundamental Matrix

    Maybank , Steve; Sturm , Peter


    International audience; Scene geometry can be inferred from point correspondences between two images. The inference process includes the selection of a model. Four models are considered: background (or null), collineation, affine fundamental matrix and fundamental matrix. It is shown how Minimum Description Length (MDL) can be used to compare the different models. The main result is that there is little reason for preferring the fundamental matrix model over the collineation model, even when ...

  18. The Global Age NGIOA @ Risk

    Pandya, Jayshree


    Dr. Jayshree Pandya, founder of Risk Group LLC, is ahead of the curve in addressing the changing global fundamentals of the emerging Global Age.   The Global Age, and its changing global fundamentals has brought complex, chaotic, and turbulent times for every nation—where failures on all levels have become self-evident, repetitive, destructive, and potentially hopeless in nature and uncertainty. Nations are caught off guard.   From what is visible worldwide today, the promise of progress and prosperity for all nations does not seem to have materialized in this Global Age. Instead of progress and prosperity, we see crisis and catastrophe  overpowering and overwhelming the capability of most nations to meet their promise of progress and prosperity. Nations are in crisis. This introductory book addresses the global shifts and the changing global fundamentals of the Global Age, to lay out a much needed foundation of an integrated NGIOA risk governance framework for the near future. This book will make a conv...

  19. Constraints on Alternate Universes: Stars and habitable planets with different fundamental constants

    Adams, Fred C.


    This paper develops constraints on the values of the fundamental constants that allow universes to be habitable. We focus on the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ and the gravitational structure constant $\\alpha_G$, and find the region in the $\\alpha$-$\\alpha_G$ plane that supports working stars and habitable planets. This work is motivated, in part, by the possibility that different versions of the laws of physics could be realized within other universes. The following constraints are enforce...

  20. Arithmetic fundamental groups and moduli of curves

    Makoto Matsumoto


    This is a short note on the algebraic (or sometimes called arithmetic) fundamental groups of an algebraic variety, which connects classical fundamental groups with Galois groups of fields. A large part of this note describes the algebraic fundamental groups in a concrete manner. This note gives only a sketch of the fundamental groups of the algebraic stack of moduli of curves. Some application to a purely topological statement, i.e., an obstruction to the subjectivity of Johnson homomorphisms in the mapping class groups, which comes from Galois group of Q, is explained. (author)

  1. Proposed experiment to test fundamentally binary theories

    Kleinmann, Matthias; Vértesi, Tamás; Cabello, Adán


    Fundamentally binary theories are nonsignaling theories in which measurements of many outcomes are constructed by selecting from binary measurements. They constitute a sensible alternative to quantum theory and have never been directly falsified by any experiment. Here we show that fundamentally binary theories are experimentally testable with current technology. For that, we identify a feasible Bell-type experiment on pairs of entangled qutrits. In addition, we prove that, for any n , quantum n -ary correlations are not fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary. For that, we introduce a family of inequalities that hold for fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary theories but are violated by quantum n -ary correlations.

  2. Constant physics and characteristics of fundamental constant

    Tarrach, R.


    We present some evidence which supports a surprising physical interpretation of the fundamental constants. First, we relate two of them through the renormalization group. This leaves as many fundamental constants as base units. Second, we introduce and a dimensional system of units without fundamental constants. Third, and most important, we find, while interpreting the units of the a dimensional system, that is all cases accessible to experimentation the fundamental constants indicate either discretization at small values or boundedness at large values of the corresponding physical quantity. (Author) 12 refs

  3. European Integration and Globalization

    Diana Bobica


    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  4. Suicide plane crash against nuclear power plants

    Richard, A.


    Cea (French atomic energy commission) and EDF (Electricity of France) are reassessing their safety standards concerning suicide plane attacks against nuclear facilities. The general idea is to study the non-linear behaviour of reinforced concrete in case of mechanical impact. American studies carried out in 1988 show that a F-14 phantom crashing into a 3,6 meter thick wall at a speed of 774 km/h penetrates only the first 5 cm of the wall. More recent studies performed in Germany and based on computerized simulations show that the reactor containment can sustain impacts from a F15 plane or even from a 747-Boeing but contiguous buildings like the one which houses spent fuels might be more easily damaged because of their metal roofing. (A.C.)

  5. Fundamental Perspectives on Supply Chain Management

    Omta, S.W.F.; Hoenen, S.J.


    The aim of the present literature study is to find the fundamental perspectives/models in the realm of supply chain management and to investigate whether they can be extended based on recent literature findings. The fundamental perspectives were found using a two-tier snowball collection method,

  6. Individual differences in fundamental social motives.

    Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L


    Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. EU criminal law and fundamental rights

    de Hert, Paul; Mitsilegas, V.; Bergström, M.; Konstadinides, Th.


    The chapter first offers a background analysis to EU fundamental rights law, recalling the historical affirmation of the protection of fundamental rights as a EU concern, and the important innovation brought about by the Lisbon Treaty (section 2) and the multiplicity of actors involved in the system

  8. Fundamental symmetries and interactions-selected topics

    Jungmann, Klaus P.


    In the field of fundamental interactions and symmetries numerous experiments are underway or planned in order to verify the standard model in particle physics, to search for possible extensions to it or to exploit the standard model for extracting most precise values for fundamental constants. We

  9. A multiplicity jump trigger using silicon planes

    Alexopoulos, T.; Erwin, A.R.


    Since silicon tracking planes are already present in a B decay experiment, it is an attractive idea to use these as part of a multiplicity jump detector. Two average B decays would produce a multiplicity jump of around 10 in the final state. Such a trigger has been tried for a fixed target Charm experiment with disappointing success. The failure was attributed to the difficulty in adequately controlling the gains of a large number of microstrip amplifies

  10. Wafer plane inspection for advanced reticle defects

    Nagpal, Rajesh; Ghadiali, Firoz; Kim, Jun; Huang, Tracy; Pang, Song


    Readiness of new mask defect inspection technology is one of the key enablers for insertion & transition of the next generation technology from development into production. High volume production in mask shops and wafer fabs demands a reticle inspection system with superior sensitivity complemented by a low false defect rate to ensure fast turnaround of reticle repair and defect disposition (W. Chou et al 2007). Wafer Plane Inspection (WPI) is a novel approach to mask defect inspection, complementing the high resolution inspection capabilities of the TeraScanHR defect inspection system. WPI is accomplished by using the high resolution mask images to construct a physical mask model (D. Pettibone et al 1999). This mask model is then used to create the mask image in the wafer aerial plane. A threshold model is applied to enhance the inspectability of printing defects. WPI can eliminate the mask restrictions imposed on OPC solutions by inspection tool limitations in the past. Historically, minimum image restrictions were required to avoid nuisance inspection stops and/or subsequent loss of sensitivity to defects. WPI has the potential to eliminate these limitations by moving the mask defect inspections to the wafer plane. This paper outlines Wafer Plane Inspection technology, and explores the application of this technology to advanced reticle inspection. A total of twelve representative critical layers were inspected using WPI die-to-die mode. The results from scanning these advanced reticles have shown that applying WPI with a pixel size of 90nm (WPI P90) captures all the defects of interest (DOI) with low false defect detection rates. In validating CD predictions, the delta CDs from WPI are compared against Aerial Imaging Measurement System (AIMS), where a good correlation is established between WPI and AIMSTM.

  11. Cues for localization in the horizontal plane

    Jeppesen, Jakob; Møller, Henrik


    Spatial localization of sound is often described as unconscious evaluation of cues given by the interaural time difference (ITD) and the spectral information of the sound that reaches the two ears. Our present knowledge suggests the hypothesis that the ITD roughly determines the cone of the perce...... independently in HRTFs used for binaural synthesis. The ITD seems to be dominant for localization in the horizontal plane even when the spectral information is severely degraded....

  12. Resonant power processors. I - State plane analysis

    Oruganti, R.; Lee, F. C.


    State-plane techniques in conjunction with piecewise-linear analysis is employed to study the steady-state and transient characteristics of a series resonant converter. With the direct viewing of the resonant tank energy and the device switching instants, the state portrayal provides unique insights into the complex behavior of the converter. Operation of the converter under both continuous and discontinuous current modes and at frequencies both below and above resonant frequency are discussed.

  13. Country Fundamentals and Currency Excess Returns

    Daehwan Kim


    Full Text Available We examine whether country fundamentals help explain the cross-section of currency excess returns. For this purpose, we consider fundamental variables such as default risk, foreign exchange rate regime, capital control as well as interest rate in the multi-factor model framework. Our empirical results show that fundamental factors explain a large part of the cross-section of currency excess returns. The zero-intercept restriction of the factor model is not rejected for most currencies. They also reveal that our factor model with country fundamentals performs better than a factor model with usual investment-style factors. Our main empirical results are based on 2001-2010 balanced panel data of 19 major currencies. This paper may fill the gap between country fundamentals and practitioners' strategies on currency investment.

  14. The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment

    Donovan, Benjamin


    The next generation of X-ray spectrometers necessitate significant increases in both resolution and effective area to achieve the science goals set forth in the 2010 Decadal Survey and the 2013 Astrophysics Roadmap. The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE), an X-ray spectroscopy suborbital rocket payload currently scheduled for launch in Q3 2020, will serve as a testbed for several key technologies which can help achieve the desired performance increases of future spectrometers. OGRE will be the first instrument to fly mono-crystalline silicon X-ray mirrors developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The payload will also utilize an array of off-plane gratings manufactured at The Pennsylvania State University. Additionally, the focal plane will be populated with an array of four electron-multiplying CCDs developed by the Open University and XCAM Ltd. With these key technologies, OGRE hopes to achieve the highest resolution on-sky soft X-ray spectrum to date. We discuss the optical design, expected performance, and the current status of the payload.

  15. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    Armas, Jay [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)


    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  16. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)


    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  17. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias


    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  18. Linearized motion estimation for articulated planes.

    Datta, Ankur; Sheikh, Yaser; Kanade, Takeo


    In this paper, we describe the explicit application of articulation constraints for estimating the motion of a system of articulated planes. We relate articulations to the relative homography between planes and show that these articulations translate into linearized equality constraints on a linear least-squares system, which can be solved efficiently using a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker system. The articulation constraints can be applied for both gradient-based and feature-based motion estimation algorithms and to illustrate this, we describe a gradient-based motion estimation algorithm for an affine camera and a feature-based motion estimation algorithm for a projective camera that explicitly enforces articulation constraints. We show that explicit application of articulation constraints leads to numerically stable estimates of motion. The simultaneous computation of motion estimates for all of the articulated planes in a scene allows us to handle scene areas where there is limited texture information and areas that leave the field of view. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of the algorithm in a variety of challenging real-world cases such as human body tracking, motion estimation of rigid, piecewise planar scenes, and motion estimation of triangulated meshes.

  19. Availability of the basal planes of graphene oxide determines whether it is antibacterial.

    Hui, Liwei; Piao, Ji-Gang; Auletta, Jeffrey; Hu, Kan; Zhu, Yanwu; Meyer, Tara; Liu, Haitao; Yang, Lihua


    There are significant controversies on the antibacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO): GO was reported to be bactericidal in saline, whereas its activity in nutrient broth was controversial. To unveil the mechanisms underlying these contradictions, we performed antibacterial assays under comparable conditions. In saline, bare GO sheets were intrinsically bactericidal, yielding a bacterial survival percentage of planes. Using bovine serum albumin and tryptophan as well-defined model adsorbates, we found that noncovalent adsorption on GO basal planes may account for the deactivation of GO's bactericidal activity. Moreover, this deactivation mechanism was shown to be extrapolatable to GO's cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Taken together, our observations suggest that bare GO intrinsically kills both bacteria and mammalian cells and noncovalent adsorption on its basal planes may be a global deactivation mechanism for GO's cytotoxicity.

  20. Software for people fundamentals, trends and best practices

    Maedche, Alexander; Neer, Ludwig


    The highly competitive and globalized software market is creating pressure on software companies. Given the current boundary conditions, it is critical to continuously increase time-to-market and reduce development costs. In parallel, driven by private life experiences with mobile computing devices, the World Wide Web and software-based services, people, general expectations with regards to software are growing. They expect software that is simple and joyful to use. In the light of the changes that have taken place in recent years, software companies need to fundamentally reconsider the way th

  1. Fundamental limits of positron emission mammography

    Moses, William W.; Qi, Jinyi


    We explore the causes of performance limitation in positron emission mammography cameras. We compare two basic camera geometries containing the same volume of 511 keV photon detectors, one with a parallel plane geometry and another with a rectangular geometry. We find that both geometries have similar performance for the phantom imaged (in Monte Carlo simulation), even though the solid angle coverage of the rectangular camera is about 50 percent higher than the parallel plane camera. The reconstruction algorithm used significantly affects the resulting image; iterative methods significantly outperform the commonly used focal plane tomography. Finally, the characteristics of the tumor itself, specifically the absolute amount of radiotracer taken up by the tumor, will significantly affect the imaging performance

  2. BOOK REVIEWS: Quantum Mechanics: Fundamentals

    Whitaker, A.


    mechanics, which is assumed, but to examine whether it gives a consistent account of measurement. The conclusion is that after a measurement, interference terms are ‘effectively’ absent; the set of ‘one-to-one correlations between states of the apparatus and the object’ has the same form as that of everyday statistics and is thus a probability distribution. This probability distribution refers to potentialities, only one of which is actually realized in any one trial. Opinions may differ on whether their treatment is any less vulnerable to criticisms such as those of Bell. To sum up, Gottfried and Yan’s book contains a vast amount of knowledge and understanding. As well as explaining the way in which quantum theory works, it attempts to illuminate fundamental aspects of the theory. A typical example is the ‘fable’ elaborated in Gottfried’s article in Nature cited above, that if Newton were shown Maxwell’s equations and the Lorentz force law, he could deduce the meaning of E and B, but if Maxwell were shown Schrödinger’s equation, he could not deduce the meaning of Psi. For use with a well-constructed course (and, of course, this is the avowed purpose of the book; a useful range of problems is provided for each chapter), or for the relative expert getting to grips with particular aspects of the subject or aiming for a deeper understanding, the book is certainly ideal. It might be suggested, though, that, even compared to the first edition, the isolated learner might find the wide range of topics, and the very large number of mathematical and conceptual techniques, introduced in necessarily limited space, somewhat overwhelming. The second book under consideration, that of Schwabl, contains ‘Advanced’ elements of quantum theory; it is designed for a course following on from one for which Gottfried and Yan, or Schwabl’s own `Quantum Mechanics' might be recommended. It is the second edition in English, and is a translation of the third German edition

  3. Global warning, global warming

    Benarde, M.A.


    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  4. Default Bayesian Estimation of the Fundamental Frequency

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt


    Joint fundamental frequency and model order esti- mation is an important problem in several applications. In this paper, a default estimation algorithm based on a minimum of prior information is presented. The algorithm is developed in a Bayesian framework, and it can be applied to both real....... Moreover, several approximations of the posterior distributions on the fundamental frequency and the model order are derived, and one of the state-of-the-art joint fundamental frequency and model order estimators is demonstrated to be a special case of one of these approximations. The performance...

  5. Ion beam analysis fundamentals and applications

    Nastasi, Michael; Wang, Yongqiang


    Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications explains the basic characteristics of ion beams as applied to the analysis of materials, as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) of art/archaeological objects. It focuses on the fundamentals and applications of ion beam methods of materials characterization.The book explains how ions interact with solids and describes what information can be gained. It starts by covering the fundamentals of ion beam analysis, including kinematics, ion stopping, Rutherford backscattering, channeling, elastic recoil detection, particle induced x-ray emission, and nucle

  6. Scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by a buried vertical dike

    Batista Lurimar S.


    Full Text Available The complete and exact solution of the scattering of a TE mode frequency domain electromagnetic plane wave by a vertical dike under a conductive overburden has been established. An integral representation composed of one-sided Fourier transforms describes the scattered electric field components in each one of the five media: air, overburden, dike, and the country rocks on both sides of the dike. The determination of the terms of the series that represents the spectral components of the Fourier integrals requires the numerical inversion of a sparse matrix, and the method of successive approaches. The zero-order term of the series representation for the spectral components of the overburden, for given values of the electrical and geometrical parameters of the model, has been computed. This result allowed to determine an approximate value of the variation of the electric field on the top of the overburden in the direction perpendicular to the strike of the dike. The results demonstrate the efficiency of this forward electromagnetic modeling, and are fundamental for the interpretation of VLF and Magnetotelluric data.

  7. A phase plane analysis of neuron-astrocyte interactions.

    Amiri, Mahmood; Montaseri, Ghazal; Bahrami, Fariba


    Intensive experimental studies have shown that astrocytes are active partners in modulation of synaptic transmission. In the present research, we study neuron-astrocyte signaling using a biologically inspired model of one neuron synapsing one astrocyte. In this model, the firing dynamics of the neuron is described by the Morris-Lecar model and the Ca(2+) dynamics of a single astrocyte explained by a functional model introduced by Postnov and colleagues. Using the coupled neuron-astrocyte model and based on the results of the phase plane analyses, it is demonstrated that the astrocyte is able to activate the silent neuron or change the neuron spiking frequency through bidirectional communication. This suggests that astrocyte feedback signaling is capable of modulating spike transmission frequency by changing neuron spiking frequency. This effect is described by a saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation in the coupled neuron-astrocyte model. In this way, our results suggest that the neuron-astrocyte crosstalk has a fundamental role in producing diverse neuronal activities and therefore enhances the information processing capabilities of the brain. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Against Globalization

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders


    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  9. Evaluation of an improved mixing plane interface for OpenFOAM

    Beaudoin, M; Page, M; Magnan, R; Nilsson, H; Jasak, H


    A mixing plane interface provides a circumferentially averaging rotor-stator coupling interface, which is extremely useful in practical turbomachinery simulations. It allows fundamentally transient problems to be studied in steady-state, using simplified mesh components having periodic properties, and with the help of a multiple reference frames (MRF) approach. An improved version of the mixing plane interface for the community-driven version of OpenFOAM is presented. This new version of the mixing plane introduces a per- field, user-selectable mixing option for the flow fields at the interface, including the possibility to use a mass-flow averaging algorithm for the velocity field. We show that the quality of the mass-flow transfer can be improved by a proper selection of the mixing options at the interface. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the improved mixing plane interface for various steady-state simulations of incompressible flows, applied to a simple 2D validation test case, and to more complex 3D turbomachinery cases

  10. Insights into the growth rate of spatially evolving plane turbulent free-shear layers from 2D vortex-gas simulations

    Suryanarayanan, Saikishan; Narasimha, Roddam


    Although the free-shear or mixing layer has been a subject of extensive research over nearly a century, there are certain fundamental issues that remain controversial. These include the influence of initial and downstream conditions on the flow, the effect of velocity ratio across the layer, and the nature of any possible coupling between small scale dynamics and the large scale evolution of layer thickness. In the spirit of the temporal vortex-gas simulations of Suryanarayanan et al. ["Free turbulent shear layer in a point vortex gas as a problem in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics," Phys. Rev. E 89, 013009 (2014)], we revisit the simple 2D inviscid vortex-gas model with extensive computations and detailed analysis, in order to gain insights into some of the above issues. Simulations of the spatially evolving vortex-gas shear layer are carried out at different velocity ratios using a computational model based on the work of Basu et al. ["Vortex sheet simulation of a plane canonical mixing layer," Comput. Fluids 21, 1-30 (1992) and "Modelling plane mixing layers using vortex points and sheets," Appl. Math. Modell. 19, 66-75 (1995)], but with a crucial improvement that ensures conservation of global circulation. The simulations show that the conditions imposed at the origin of the free shear layer and at the exit to the computational domain can affect flow evolution in their respective downstream and upstream neighbourhoods, the latter being particularly strong in the single stream limit. In between these neighbourhoods at the ends is a regime of universal self-preserving growth rate given by a universal function of velocity ratio. The computed growth rates are generally located within the scatter of experimental data on plane mixing layers and closely agree with recent high Reynolds number experiments and 3D large eddy simulation studies. These findings support the view that observed free-shear layer growth can be largely explained by the 2D vortex dynamics of

  11. Simulation Exploration through Immersive Parallel Planes: Preprint

    Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Bush, Brian W.; Gruchalla, Kenny; Smith, Steve


    We present a visualization-driven simulation system that tightly couples systems dynamics simulations with an immersive virtual environment to allow analysts to rapidly develop and test hypotheses in a high-dimensional parameter space. To accomplish this, we generalize the two-dimensional parallel-coordinates statistical graphic as an immersive 'parallel-planes' visualization for multivariate time series emitted by simulations running in parallel with the visualization. In contrast to traditional parallel coordinate's mapping the multivariate dimensions onto coordinate axes represented by a series of parallel lines, we map pairs of the multivariate dimensions onto a series of parallel rectangles. As in the case of parallel coordinates, each individual observation in the dataset is mapped to a polyline whose vertices coincide with its coordinate values. Regions of the rectangles can be 'brushed' to highlight and select observations of interest: a 'slider' control allows the user to filter the observations by their time coordinate. In an immersive virtual environment, users interact with the parallel planes using a joystick that can select regions on the planes, manipulate selection, and filter time. The brushing and selection actions are used to both explore existing data as well as to launch additional simulations corresponding to the visually selected portions of the input parameter space. As soon as the new simulations complete, their resulting observations are displayed in the virtual environment. This tight feedback loop between simulation and immersive analytics accelerates users' realization of insights about the simulation and its output.

  12. Wafer plane inspection with soft resist thresholding

    Hess, Carl; Shi, Rui-fang; Wihl, Mark; Xiong, Yalin; Pang, Song


    Wafer Plane Inspection (WPI) is an inspection mode on the KLA-Tencor TeraScaTM platform that uses the high signalto- noise ratio images from the high numerical aperture microscope, and then models the entire lithographic process to enable defect detection on the wafer plane[1]. This technology meets the needs of some advanced mask manufacturers to identify the lithographically-significant defects while ignoring the other non-lithographically-significant defects. WPI accomplishes this goal by performing defect detection based on a modeled image of how the mask features would actually print in the photoresist. There are several advantages to this approach: (1) the high fidelity of the images provide a sensitivity advantage over competing approaches; (2) the ability to perform defect detection on the wafer plane allows one to only see those defects that have a printing impact on the wafer; (3) the use of modeling on the lithographic portion of the flow enables unprecedented flexibility to support arbitrary illumination profiles, process-window inspection in unit time, and combination modes to find both printing and non-printing defects. WPI is proving to be a valuable addition to the KLA-Tencor detection algorithm suite. The modeling portion of WPI uses a single resist threshold as the final step in the processing. This has been shown to be adequate on several advanced customer layers, but is not ideal for all layers. Actual resist chemistry has complicated processes including acid and base-diffusion and quench that are not consistently well-modeled with a single resist threshold. We have considered the use of an advanced resist model for WPI, but rejected it because the burdensome requirements for the calibration of the model were not practical for reticle inspection. This paper describes an alternative approach that allows for a "soft" resist threshold to be applied that provides a more robust solution for the most challenging processes. This approach is just

  13. Simulation Exploration through Immersive Parallel Planes

    Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Steve [Los Alamos Visualization Associates


    We present a visualization-driven simulation system that tightly couples systems dynamics simulations with an immersive virtual environment to allow analysts to rapidly develop and test hypotheses in a high-dimensional parameter space. To accomplish this, we generalize the two-dimensional parallel-coordinates statistical graphic as an immersive 'parallel-planes' visualization for multivariate time series emitted by simulations running in parallel with the visualization. In contrast to traditional parallel coordinate's mapping the multivariate dimensions onto coordinate axes represented by a series of parallel lines, we map pairs of the multivariate dimensions onto a series of parallel rectangles. As in the case of parallel coordinates, each individual observation in the dataset is mapped to a polyline whose vertices coincide with its coordinate values. Regions of the rectangles can be 'brushed' to highlight and select observations of interest: a 'slider' control allows the user to filter the observations by their time coordinate. In an immersive virtual environment, users interact with the parallel planes using a joystick that can select regions on the planes, manipulate selection, and filter time. The brushing and selection actions are used to both explore existing data as well as to launch additional simulations corresponding to the visually selected portions of the input parameter space. As soon as the new simulations complete, their resulting observations are displayed in the virtual environment. This tight feedback loop between simulation and immersive analytics accelerates users' realization of insights about the simulation and its output.

  14. ARC Code TI: X-Plane Communications Toolbox (XPC)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The X-Plane Communications Toolbox (XPC) is an open source research tool used to interact with the commercial flight simulator software X-Plane. XPC allows users to...

  15. Dose distributions of pendulum fields in the field border plane

    Schrader, R.


    Calculations (program SIDOS-U2) and LiF measurements taken in a cylindric water phantom are used to investigate the isodose distributions of different pendulum irradiation methods (Co-60) in a plane which is parallel to the central ray plane and crosses the field borders at the depth of the axis. The dose values compared to the maximum values of the central ray plane are completely different for each pendulum method. In case of monoaxial pendulum methods around small angles, the maximum dose value found in the border plane is less than 50% of the dose in the central ray plane. The relative maximum of the border plane moves to tissues laying in a greater depth. In case of bi-axial methods, the maximum value of the border plane can be much more than 50% of the maximum dose measured in the central ray plane. (orig.) [de

  16. Vacuum Predisperser For A Large Plane-Grating Spectrograph

    Engleman, R.; Palmer, B. A.; Steinhaus, D. W.


    A plane grating predisperser has been constructed which acts as an "order-sorter" for a large plane-grating spectrograph. This combination can photograph relatively wide regions of spectra in a single exposure with no loss of resolution.

  17. Plane wave fast color flow mode imaging

    Bolic, Ibrahim; Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik


    A new Plane wave fast color flow imaging method (PWM) has been investigated, and performance evaluation of the PWM based on experimental measurements has been made. The results show that it is possible to obtain a CFM image using only 8 echo-pulse emissions for beam to flow angles between 45...... degrees and 75 degrees. Compared to the conventional ultrasound imaging the frame rate is similar to 30 - 60 times higher. The bias, B-est of the velocity profile estimate, based on 8 pulse-echo emissions, is between 3.3% and 6.1% for beam to flow angles between 45 degrees and 75 degrees, and the standard...

  18. Synchrotron-radiation plane-wave topography

    Riglet, P.; Sauvage, M.; Petroff, J.F.; Epelboin, Y.


    A computer program based on the Takagi-Taupin differential equations for X-ray propagation in distorted crystals has been developed in order to simulate dislocation images in the Bragg case. The program is valid both for thin and thick crystals. Simulated images of misfit dislocations formed either in a thin epilayer or in a thick substrate are compared with experimental images obtained by synchrotron-radiation plane-wave topography. The influence of the various strain components on the image features is discussed. (author)

  19. PSB Chromaticity Correction in both Planes

    Bartosik, Hannes; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    In view of the LHC injector upgrade program (LIU[1]), all LHC pre-accelerators and in particular the CERN Booster (PSB) are being reviewed for potential lattice optics and equipment optimizations. The option to correct the chromaticity in both planes would be very helpful for a better control of the beam in the presence of both non-linearities and space charge. Moreover, one could reduce decoherence phenomena that otherwise limit the usefulness of resonance measurement techniques based on a turn-by-turn BPM system.

  20. New plastic plane stress model for concrete

    Winnicki, A.; Cichon, Cz.


    In the paper a description of concrete behaviour in the plane stress case is given on the basis of the modified bounding surface plasticity theory. Three independent plastic mechanisms have been introduced describing axiatoric and deviatoric plastic strains and their coupling. All the new analytical formulae for material functions being in agreement with experiments and loading/unloading criteria have been proposed. In addition, for the proper description of concrete behaviour in tension a new, separate function of bounding surface shrinkage has been introduced. (author)

  1. The Simbol-X Focal Plane

    Laurent, P.


    The Simbol-X focal plane is designed to detect photons focused by the mirror in the 0.5 to 100 keV energy band. Composed of two detectors, it will measure the position, energy, and arrival time of each incoming X-ray. On top of it will be a collimator to shield all photons not coming from the mirror field of view. The whole system is surrounded by an active and passive shielding in order to ensure the required very low background.

  2. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.


    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  3. The memory effect for plane gravitational waves

    Zhang, P.-M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.


    We give an account of the gravitational memory effect in the presence of the exact plane wave solution of Einstein's vacuum equations. This allows an elementary but exact description of the soft gravitons and how their presence may be detected by observing the motion of freely falling particles. The theorem of Bondi and Pirani on caustics (for which we present a new proof) implies that the asymptotic relative velocity is constant but not zero, in contradiction with the permanent displacement claimed by Zel'dovich and Polnarev. A non-vanishing asymptotic relative velocity might be used to detect gravitational waves through the "velocity memory effect", considered by Braginsky, Thorne, Grishchuk, and Polnarev.

  4. On Helmholtz Problem for Plane Periodical Structures

    Akishin, P.G.; Vinitskij, S.I.


    The plane Helmholtz problem of the periodical disc structures with the phase shifts conditions of the solutions along the basis lattice vectors and the Dirichlet conditions on the basic boundaries is considered. The Green function satisfying the quasi periodical conditions on the lattice is constructed. The Helmholtz problem is reduced to the boundary integral equations for the simple layer potentials of this Green function. The methods of the discretization of the arising integral equations are proposed. The procedures of calculation of the matrix elements are discussed. The reality of the spectral parameter of the nonlinear continuous and discretized problems is shown. 8 refs., 2 figs

  5. Accounting Fundamentals for Non-Accountants

    The purpose of this module is to provide an introduction and overview of accounting fundamentals for non-accountants. The module also covers important topics such as communication, internal controls, documentation and recordkeeping.

  6. Fundamental physics with low-energy neutrons

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad


    Low-energy neutrons are playing a prominent role in a growing number of fundamental physics studies. This paper provides a brief description of the physics that some of the experiments in the area are addressing. (paper)

  7. Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering | Mahfouz | African ...

    Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering. ... could affect the bladder and lead to eventual loss of its integrity, with the need for replacement or repair. ... Tissue engineering relies upon three essential pillars; the scaffold, the cells seeded on ...


    Gennady N. Zverev


    Full Text Available This paper defines the goals and problems of fundamental informatics, formulates principal laws of information universe and constructive bases of information objects and processes. The classification of semantics types of knowledge and skills is presented. 

  9. A fundamental equation in quantum mechanics

    Mackinnon, L.


    It is pointed out that the nondispersive de Broglie wave packet has a zero d'Alembertian, suggesting the possible reality of de Broglie waves and also that the field wave equation may be fundamental to Quantum Mechanics. (author)

  10. Fundamentals of evaporation and condensation phenomena

    Munir, Z.A.


    Fundamental relationships governing evaporation and condensation processes are reviewed. The terrace-ledge-kink (TLK) model is discussed in terms of atomic steps comprising growth and evaporation of crystals. Recent results in the field are described

  11. Fundamentals of Friction and Vapor Phase Lubrication

    Gellman, Andrew


    This is the final report for the three year research program on "Fundamentals of Friction and Vapor Phase Lubrication" conducted at Carnegie Mellon with support from AFOSR grant number F49630-01-1-0069...

  12. Search for fundamental 'God Particle' speeds up

    Spotts, P N


    This month researchers at CERN are driving the accelerator to its limits and beyond to find the missing Higgs boson. Finding it would confirm a 30-yr-old theory about why matter's most fundamental particles have mass (1 page).

  13. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences

    Blending the most fundamental Remote-Sensing principles (RS) with the most functional spatial knowledge (GIS) with the objective of the determination of the accident-prone palms and points (case study: Tehran-Hamadan Highway on Saveh Superhighway)

  14. Fundamentally Flawed: Extension Administrative Practice (Part 1).

    Patterson, Thomas F., Jr.


    Extension's current administrative techniques are based on the assumptions of classical management from the early 20th century. They are fundamentally flawed and inappropriate for the contemporary workplace. (SK)

  15. Strategic Information Resources Management: Fundamental Practices.

    Caudle, Sharon L.


    Discusses six fundamental information resources management (IRM) practices in successful organizations that can improve government service delivery performance. Highlights include directing changes, integrating IRM decision making into a strategic management process, performance management, maintaining an investment philosophy, using business…

  16. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences: Submissions

    The journal of fundamental and applied sciences receives and publishes ... and applied science which the results of studies may interest all researchers. ... the references are sorted in ascending order, according to the examples below.

  17. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    Kluge, H-Jürgen


    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions.

  18. SU (2) with fundamental fermions and scalars

    Hansen, Martin; Janowski, Tadeusz; Pica, Claudio


    We present preliminary results on the lattice simulation of an SU(2) gauge theory with two fermion flavors and one strongly interacting scalar field, all in the fundamental representation of SU(2). The motivation for this study comes from the recent proposal of "fundamental" partial compositeness...... the properties of light meson resonances previously obtained for the SU(2) model. Preprint: CP3-Origins-2017-047 DNRF90...

  19. Fundamentals, Misvaluation, and Investment: The Real Story

    Chirinko, Robert S.; Schaller, Huntley


    Abstract: Is real investment fully determined by fundamentals or is it sometimes affected by stockmarket misvaluation? We introduce three new tests that: measure the reaction of investment to sales shocks for firms that may be overvalued; use Fama-MacBeth regressions to determine whether "overinvestment" affects subsequent returns; and analyze the time path of the marginal product of capital in reaction to fundamental and misvaluation shocks. Besides these qualitative tests, we introduce a me...

  20. Lasers and optoelectronics fundamentals, devices and applications

    Maini, Anil K


    With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diag

  1. Out-of-plane ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations

    Kumagai, Hitoshi; Nukui, Yasushi; Imamura, Akira; Terayama, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Tetsuya; Kojima, Isao


    There have been few studies on the out-of-plane shear in RC mat-slab foundations, and the reasonable method has been demanded to estimate ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations in the nuclear facilities. In the previous study, the out-of-plane loading tests on the 20 square slab specimens had been performed to collect the fundamental data. In this study, the test results were successfully predicted by 3D non-linear Finite Element Analysis. It has been confirmed that the ultimate shear stress in the slab specimen can be estimated by the Arakawa's formula, which is commonly used to estimate the shear strength of RC beams. (author)

  2. In-plane and out-of-plane nonlinear dynamics of an axially moving beam

    Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.; Amabili, Marco


    In the present study, the nonlinear forced dynamics of an axially moving beam is investigated numerically taking into account the in-plane and out-of-plane motions. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the motion of the system are derived via Hamilton’s principle. The Galerkin scheme is then introduced to these partial differential equations yielding a set of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations with coupled terms. This set is transformed into a new set of first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations by means of a change of variables. A direct time integration technique is conducted upon the new set of equations resulting in the bifurcation diagrams of Poincaré maps of the system. The dynamical characteristics of the system are investigated for different system parameters and presented through use of time histories, phase-plane portraits, Poincaré sections, and fast Fourier transforms

  3. 16-dimensional smooth projective planes with large collineation groups

    Bödi, Richard


    Erworben im Rahmen der Schweizer Nationallizenzen ( Smooth projective planes are projective planes defined on smooth manifolds (i.e. the set of points and the set of lines are smooth manifolds) such that the geometric operations of join and intersection are smooth. A systematic study of such planes and of their collineation groups can be found in previous works of the author. We prove in this paper that a 16-dimensional smooth projective plane which admits a ...

  4. On Finite Hjelmslev Planes of Parameters (pk−1, p)

    Atilla Akpinar


    In this paper, we study on finite projective Hjelmslev planes M(Zq) coordinatized by Hjelmslev ring Zq (where prime power q = pk). We obtain finite hyperbolic Klingenberg planes from these planes under certain conditions. Also, we give a combinatorical result on M(Zq), related by deleting a line from lines in same neighbour.

  5. Multispectral linear array (MLA) focal plane mechanical and thermal design

    Mitchell, A. S.; Kaminski, E. F.


    The mechanical and thermal design of an integrated focal plane subsystem of a Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) instrument is discussed in terms of focal-plane alignment, thermoelastic performance, and thermal requirements. The modular construction and thermal control of the focal plane array are discussed.

  6. The Curious Out-of-Plane Conductivity of PEDOT : PSS

    van de Ruit, Kevin; Katsouras, Ilias; Bollen, Dirk; van Mol, Ton; Janssen, Rene A. J.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Kemerink, Martijn


    For its application as transparent conductor in light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, both the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivity of PEDOT:PSS are important. However, studies into the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS rarely address the out-of-plane conductivity and those that do, report widely

  7. Fermi system with planes and charge reservoir: Anisotropic in-plane resistivity

    Levin, G.A.; Quader, K.F.


    The authors explore the normal state in-plane resistivity of a model Fermi system with two planes and a charge reservoir. When the Fermi energy lies near the top of one of the resulting sub-bands, the system can be described by two types of quasiparticle excitations with different energy spectra and relaxation times. They show that for certain stoichiometry, ρ ab is linear in temperature with positive or negative intercepts. A relation between the slopes and intercepts of resistivities in the a and b directions in untwinned crystals is derived. The results are in good agreement with experimental data on YBCO. 7 refs., 1 tab

  8. Dense ionic fluids confined in planar capacitors: in- and out-of-plane structure from classical density functional theory

    Härtel, Andreas; Samin, Sela; Van Roij, René


    The ongoing scientific interest in the properties and structure of electric double layers (EDLs) stems from their pivotal role in (super)capacitive energy storage, energy harvesting, and water treatment technologies. Classical density functional theory (DFT) is a promising framework for the study of the in- and out-of-plane structural properties of double layers. Supported by molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate the adequate performance of DFT for analyzing charge layering in the EDL perpendicular to the electrodes. We discuss charge storage and capacitance of the EDL and the impact of screening due to dielectric solvents. We further calculate, for the first time, the in-plane structure of the EDL within the framework of DFT. While our out-of-plane results already hint at structural in-plane transitions inside the EDL, which have been observed recently in simulations and experiments, our DFT approach performs poorly in predicting in-plane structure in comparison to simulations. However, our findings isolate fundamental issues in the theoretical description of the EDL within the primitive model and point towards limitations in the performance of DFT in describing the out-of-plane structure of the EDL at high concentrations and potentials. (paper)

  9. Traces of chiral symmetry on light planes

    Sazdjian, Hagop.


    The possibility of a description of the hadronic world by field theories defined on light planes and formulated in terms of three interacting quark field variables has been investigated. The framework of models where the chiral symmetry breaking is produced by the only mechanical masses of quarks has been considered. The hypothesis that the light plane charges generate in the real world approximate symmetries of one particle states has also been emitted. The projection of the algebraic structure of the observables in the space of physical states have yielded various relations in terms of the masses and couplings of the low lying mesons. They seem to be in agreement with experimental data, and suggest the consistency of the adopted model to describe symmetry breaking phenomena. The quark mechanical masses m(u) approximately 30MeV and m(s) approximately 200MeV have also been estimated. The smallness of these masses in respect to those of hadrons seems to indicate that they do not constitute the only mass scale of the hadronic world, but that there should exist another scale parameter, independent of the quark mechanical masses, and symmetric of SU(3) [fr

  10. The plane motion control of the quadrocopter

    A. N. Kanatnikov


    Full Text Available Among a large number of modern flying vehicles, the quadrocopter relates to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV which are relatively cheap and easy to design. Quadrocopters are able to fly in bad weather, hang in the air for quite a long time, observe the objects and perform many other tasks. They have been applied in rescue operations, in agriculture, in the military and many other fields.For quadrocopters, the problems of path planning and control are relevant. These problems have many variants in which limited resources of modern UAV, possible obstacles, for instance, for flying in a cross-country terrain or in a city environment and weather conditions (particularly, wind conditions are taken into account. Many research studies are concerned with these problems and reflected in series of publications (note the interesting survey [1] and references therein. Various methods were used for the control synthesis for these vehicles: linear approximations [2], sliding mode control [3], the covering method [4] and so on.In the paper, a quadrocopter is considered as a rigid body. The kinematic and dynamic equations of the motion are analyzed. Two cases of motion are emphasized: a motion in a vertical plane and in a horizontal plane. The control is based on transferring of the affine system to the canonical form [5] and the nonlinear stabilization method [6].

  11. The Sentinel-4 UVN focal plane assemblies

    Hinger, Jürgen; Hohn, Rüdiger; Gebhardt, Eyk; Reichardt, Jörg


    The Sentinel-4 UVN Instrument is a dispersive imaging spectrometer covering the UV-VIS and the NIR wavelength. It is developed and built under an ESA contract by an industrial consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space. It will be accommodated on board of the MTG-S (Meteosat Third Generation - Sounder) satellite that will be placed in a geostationary orbit over Europe sampling data for generating two-dimensional maps of a number of atmospheric trace gases. The incoming light is dispersed by reflective gratings and detected by the two (UVVIS and NIR) CCDs mounted inside the focal plane assemblies. Both CCD detectors acquire spectral channels and spatial sampling in two orthogonal directions and will be operated at about 215 K mainly to minimize random telegraph signal effects and to reduce dark current. Stringent detector temperature as well as alignment stability requirements of less than +/-0.1 K per day respectively of less than 2 micrometers/2 arcseconds from ground to orbit are driving the FPA thermo-mechanical design. A specific FPA design feature is the redundant LED-calibration system for bad pixel detection as well as pixel gain and linearity monitoring. This paper reports on the design and qualification of the Focal Plane Assemblies with emphasis on thermo-mechanical as well as alignment stability verification.

  12. The Sentinel 4 focal plane subsystem

    Hohn, Rüdiger; Skegg, Michael P.; Hermsen, Markus; Hinger, Jürgen; Williges, Christian; Reulke, Ralf


    The Sentinel 4 instrument is an imaging spectrometer, developed by Airbus under ESA contract in the frame of the joint European Union (EU)/ESA COPERNICUS program with the objective of monitoring trace gas concentrations. Sentinel 4 will provide accurate measurements of key atmospheric constituents such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, as well as aerosol and cloud properties. Sentinel 4 is unique in being the first geostationary UVN mission. The SENTINEL 4 space segment will be integrated on EUMETSAT's Meteosat Third Generation Sounder satellite (MTG-S). Sentinel 4 will provide coverage of Europe and adjacent regions. The Sentinel 4 instrument comprises as a major element two Focal Plane Subsystems (FPS) covering the wavelength ranges 305 nm to 500 nm (UVVIS) and 750 nm to 775 nm (NIR) respectively. The paper describes the Focal Plane Subsystems, comprising the detectors, the optical bench and the control electronics. Further the design and development approach will be presented as well as first measurement results of FPS Qualification Model.

  13. Mathematical Foundation for Plane Covering Using Hexagons

    Johnson, Gordon G.


    This work is to indicate the development and mathematical underpinnings of the algorithms previously developed for covering the plane and the addressing of the elements of the covering. The algorithms are of interest in that they provides a simple systematic way of increasing or decreasing resolution, in the sense that if we have the covering in place and there is an image superimposed upon the covering, then we may view the image in a rough form or in a very detailed form with minimal effort. Such ability allows for quick searches of crude forms to determine a class in which to make a detailed search. In addition, the addressing algorithms provide an efficient way to process large data sets that have related subsets. The algorithms produced were based in part upon the work of D. Lucas "A Multiplication in N Space" which suggested a set of three vectors, any two of which would serve as a bases for the plane and also that the hexagon is the natural geometric object to be used in a covering with a suggested bases. The second portion is a refinement of the eyeball vision system, the globular viewer.

  14. Plasma drift towards a plane equipotential surface

    Carlqvist, P.


    Recently Alfven has qualitatively described how a collisionless plasma drifts in crossed electric and magnetic fields towards an infinite conducting plate of constant potential. In the present note we quantitatively study three models which are closely related to Alfven's model. It is found that when the plasma comes sufficiently close to a plane equipotential surface (conducting plate) it is deflected approximately along the surface. The deflection is not caused by pressure effects but rather by the electric and magnetic fields. Small fluxes of ions and electrons also cross the plane equipotential surface. These fluxes account for an electric current in the plasma which induces a magnetic field in the same direction as the total magnetic field assumed to be homogeneous. It is shown that if the Alfven number, M(sub)A, is much smaller than unity in the volume considered the magnetic field induced by plasma currents is small compared to the total magnetic field. However, if M(sub)A is of the order of unity or larger the total magnetic field is to a substantial degree generated by plasma currents. (Author)

  15. A Single-Element Plane Grating Monochromator

    Michael C. Hettrick


    Full Text Available Concerted rotations of a self-focused varied line-space diffraction grating about its groove axis and surface normal define a new geometric class of monochromator. Defocusing is canceled, while the scanned wavelength is reinforced at fixed conjugate distances and horizontal deviation angle. This enables high spectral resolution over a wide band, and is of particular advantage at grazing reflection angles. A new, rigorous light-path formulation employs non-paraxial reference points to isolate the lateral ray aberrations, with those of power-sum ≤ 3 explicitly expanded for a plane grating. Each of these 14 Fermat equations agrees precisely with the value extracted from numerical raytrace simulations. An example soft X-ray design (6° deviation angle and 2 × 4 mrad aperture attains a resolving power > 25 , 000 over a three octave scan range. The proposed rotation scheme is not limited to plane surfaces or monochromators, providing a new degree of freedom in optical design.

  16. Global Strategy

    Li, Peter Ping


    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  17. Efficient Closed Form Cut-Off Planes and Propagation Planes Characteristics for Dielectric Slab Loaded Boundary Value Problems

    Zafar, Junaid


    The geometrical relationship between the cut-off and propagating planes of any waveguide system is a prerequisite for any design process. The characterization of cut-off planes and optimisation are challenging for numerical methods, closed-form solutions are always preferred. In this paper Maxwells coupled field equations are used to characterise twin E-plane and H-plane slab loaded boundary value problems. The single mode bandwidths and dispersion characteristics of these structures are pres...

  18. In-plane wavelength division de-multiplexing using photonic crystals

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders; Hede, K. K.

    We demonstrate a novel concept for in-plane coarse wavelength division de-multiplexing in integrated photonic circuits utilizing planar photonic crystal waveguides (PhCWs) fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material. The filtering of wavelength channels is realized by shifting the cut......-off frequency of the fundamental photonic bandgap mode. The shift is obtained by modifying the size of the border holes in consecutive sections of the PhCW1. Simulations and experimental proof-of-principle of the four-channel de-multiplexer will be presented. 1A. Adibi et al., Electron. Lett. 36, 1376...

  19. On the necessity of connection between plane and curve space metrics in gravity theory on a plane background

    Vlasov, A.A.


    The necessity of covariant connection of plane space metrics in the gravity theory ''on a plane background'' is underlined. It is shown that this connection in the relativistic gravity theory results in its difference from the general relativity theory ''on a plane background''

  20. Modelling of the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes for different orientations.

    Serrano, D; Marín, M J; Utrillas, M P; Tena, F; Martínez-Lozano, J A


    In this study, estimated data of the UV Index on vertical planes are presented for the latitude of Valencia, Spain. For that purpose, the UVER values have been generated on vertical planes by means of four different geometrical models a) isotropic, b) Perez, c) Gueymard, d) Muneer, based on values of the global horizontal UVER and the diffuse horizontal UVER, measured experimentally. The UVER values, obtained by any model, overestimate the experimental values for all orientations, with the exception of the Perez model for the East plane. The results show statistical values of the MAD parameter (Mean Absolute Deviation) between 10% and 25%, the Perez model being the one that obtained a lower MAD for all levels. As for the statistic RMSD parameter (Root Mean Square Deviation), the results show values between 17% and 32%, and again the Perez model provides the best results in all vertical planes. The difference between the estimated UV Index and the experimental UV Index, for vertical and 40° tilted planes, was also calculated. 40° is an angle close to the latitude of Burjassot, Valencia, (39.5°), which, according to various studies, is the optimum angle to capture maximum radiation on tilted planes. We conclude that the models provide a good estimate of the UV Index, as they coincide or differ in one unit compared to the experimental values in 99% of cases, and this is valid for all orientations. Finally, we examined the relation between the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes, both the experimental and estimated by the Perez model, and the experimental UV Index on a horizontal plane at 12 GMT. Based on the results, we can conclude that it is possible to estimate with a good approximation the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes in different directions on the basis of the experimental horizontal UVI value, thus justifying the interest of this study. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies 2012