WorldWideScience

Sample records for global environment problems

  1. On global environment problems in electric power business

    Sugi, Masashi

    1992-01-01

    The former environmental problems were atmospheric pollution, water quality contamination, noise and vibration nuisance, waste disposal and so on mainly at interior or district level, but now, the influence that the problems such as the global warming due to carbon dioxide emission, the ozone layer breaking due to freon gas, acid rain going over boundaries and so on exert to environment spreads to wide areas, therefore, various research and investigation have been carried out as the environmental problems on global scale at national and international levels. It has become an important subject to make the preservation of global environment and durable economical development compatible by effectively utilizing limited resources and energy. The electric power companies have advanced positively the prevention of pollution and the preservation of environment, and attained the environment preservation of top level in the world. The consciousness of people on environmental problems has heightened, therefore the construction and operation of power plants harmonized to districts are important. The countermeasures to environmental problems taken by electric power companies are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Global environment and cogeneration

    Miyahara, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    The environment problems on global scale have been highlighted in addition to the local problems due to the rapid increase of population, the increase of energy demand and so on. The global environment summit was held in Brazil. Now, global environment problems are the problems for mankind, and their importance seems to increase toward 21st century. In such circumstances, cogeneration can reduce carbon dioxide emission in addition to energy conservation, therefore, attention has been paid as the countermeasure for global environment. The background of global environment problems is explained. As to the effectiveness of cogeneration for global environment, the suitability of city gas to environment, energy conservation, the reduction of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emission are discussed. As for the state of spread of cogeneration, as of March, 1992, those of 2250 MW in terms of power generation capacity have been installed in Japan. It is forecast that cogeneration will increase hereafter. As the future systems of cogeneration, city and industry energy center conception, industrial repowering, multiple house cogeneration and fuel cells are described. (K.I.)

  3. Global Environment Facility |

    environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Ringtail lemur mom with two of paradise Nations rally to protect global environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Stockholm, Sweden birds-eye view Events GEF-7 Replenishment Trung Truong Son Landscapes

  4. Learning about “wicked” problems in the Global South. Creating a film-based learning environment with “Visual Problem Appraisal”

    Loes Witteveen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The current complexity of sustainable development in the Global South calls for the design of learning strategies that can deal with this complexity. One such innovative learning strategy, called Visual Problem Appraisal (VPA, is highlighted in this article. The strategy is termed visual as it creates a learning environment that is film-based. VPA enhances the analysis of complex issues, and facilitates stakeholder dialogue and action planning. The strategy is used in workshops dealing with problem analysis and policy design, and involves the participants “meeting” stakeholders through filmed narratives. The article demonstrates the value of using film in multi stakeholder learning environments addressing issues concerning sustainable development.

  5. Development and the global environment

    Colombo, U.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the Third World and the protection of the environment are two major global problems interconnected by energy - the motor of economic growth and the main cause of deterioration of the global environment. They can no longer be separated. The threats of ozone, acid rain, and global warming are global in scope and solutions must involve energy consumption, conservations, and renewable resources. The precept that development should hinge on sound management of natural resources and the environment no longer has merely local or regional significance. It is a global concern and each person should feel a sense of ethical commitment as a world citizen

  6. Learning about “wicked” problems in the Global South. Creating a film-based learning environment with “Visual Problem Appraisal”

    Loes Witteveen; Rico Lie

    2012-01-01

    The current complexity of sustainable development in the Global South calls for the design of learning strategies that can deal with this complexity. One such innovative learning strategy, called Visual Problem Appraisal (VPA), is highlighted in this article. The strategy is termed visual as it creates a learning environment that is film-based. VPA enhances the analysis of complex issues, and facilitates stakeholder dialogue and action planning. The strategy is used in workshops dealing with ...

  7. The global warming problem

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

  8. Energy and global environment

    Fyfe, W.S.; Powell, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    At present about 90% of the world's energy consumption is met by the fossil carbon fuel used in the form of coal, oil and natural gas. This results into release of vast amounts of waste gas CO 2 into the atmosphere posing a threat to the global environment. Moreover this energy source is not sustainable (renewable) and its use amounts to spending Earth's capital resources. The options to this energy source are biomass energy, hydro power, solar energy, geothermal energy and nuclear energy. The potentials, limitations, geological impact and environmental dangers, if any, of these sources are discussed in brief. Energy conservation through energy efficient systems is also one more option. Problems and potential for change to sustainable energy systems with respect to India and Canada are examined. Finally it is pointed out that the ultimate solution to the world's energy problem lies in population control and population reduction. This will make possible for the world to have a sustainable energy system primarily based on solar energy. (M.G.B.). 15 refs

  9. The global environment: An overview

    Tolba, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Global environmental chemistry today involves a rapidly expanding need both for new research and for the development of an interdiciplinary approach to the multiplicity of interconnected environmental problems. Every ecosystem shows signs of damage: growing quantities of wastes; decreasing water supplies; soil degradation; coastal zone deterioration; deforestation and climatic change; global warming due to ozone depletion. Solutions must involve a cooperative and holistic global effort in three areas: scientific understanding of how the interactive physical, chemical and biological processes regulate the total Earth system; public policy implications including closer liaison between scientists and policymakers;and understanding of the state of the global environment, what is going wrong, why, and whether it is getting worse

  10. Learning about “wicked” problems in the Global South. Creating a film-based learning environment with “Visual Problem Appraisal”

    Witteveen, L.M.; Lie, R.

    2012-01-01

    The current complexity of sustainable development in the Global South calls for the design of learning strategies that can deal with this complexity. One such innovative learning strategy, called Visual Problem Appraisal (VPA), is highlighted in this article. The strategy is termed visual as it

  11. Globalization and protection of environment

    Panahandeh, M.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years two trends have come into conflict in the international arena. The first is the globalization of economy and the second is the increased public concern over the environmental impact of economic activities and awareness of the global dimensions of many environmental problems. Nowadays confrontation of the issue of globalization and economic liberalization and protect of the environment is a matter of heated debate and environmentalists see globalization posing a threat to environment standards. The effects of liberalization on environment in the developing world have been analyzed from the perspective of the pollution- have hypothesis. The hypothesis suggests that the liberalization encourages a spatial displacement of the so-called d irty o r pollution- intensive industries from the developed countries with stricter environmental regulations to their preferential location in developing countries which enjoy minimal environmental regulations or capacity for environmental monitoring and enforcement. It also suggests that economic policies which promote foreign investment in the natural resources of developing countries will increase rates of natural-resource extraction in the developing world. according to the theory, the translational firms will employ cheep technologies in developing countries which are not environmental sound and no longer permitted to use in the industrialized world

  12. Problems of globalization

    Telebaković Boško

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world has been going through the process of economical, political and cultural integration for a long time. At the end of the 20th century, the integration received a new meaning. In the world’s policy, sovereign countries were in conflict or collaborated earlier. A stricter hierarchy of economical and political power hubs is being established now. In such processes of globalization, differences in development, wealth and power arise, people are less safe, the sovereignity of national states is being violated. The story of equality remains in the sense of disappearance of cultural differences in floods of non-cultural culture. It is difficult to talk about democracy when the world’s power is getting stronger and stronger. Is it possible to have a globalization which would not affect human rights, and which would not prevent people from taking care of truth, freedom and happiness?

  13. GLobal Integrated Design Environment

    Kunkel, Matthew; McGuire, Melissa; Smith, David A.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2011-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a collaborative engineering application built to resolve the design session issues of real-time passing of data between multiple discipline experts in a collaborative environment. Utilizing Web protocols and multiple programming languages, GLIDE allows engineers to use the applications to which they are accustomed in this case, Excel to send and receive datasets via the Internet to a database-driven Web server. Traditionally, a collaborative design session consists of one or more engineers representing each discipline meeting together in a single location. The discipline leads exchange parameters and iterate through their respective processes to converge on an acceptable dataset. In cases in which the engineers are unable to meet, their parameters are passed via e-mail, telephone, facsimile, or even postal mail. The result of this slow process of data exchange would elongate a design session to weeks or even months. While the iterative process remains in place, software can now exchange parameters securely and efficiently, while at the same time allowing for much more information about a design session to be made available. GLIDE is written in a compilation of several programming languages, including REALbasic, PHP, and Microsoft Visual Basic. GLIDE client installers are available to download for both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh systems. The GLIDE client software is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2000 or later on Windows systems, and with Microsoft Excel X or later on Macintosh systems. GLIDE follows the Client-Server paradigm, transferring encrypted and compressed data via standard Web protocols. Currently, the engineers use Excel as a front end to the GLIDE Client, as many of their custom tools run in Excel.

  14. Japan and the global environment

    Miller, A.S.; Moore, C.

    1993-01-01

    In many areas, the word most often used to describe Japanese policy is open-quotes enigma.close quotes In some ways, Japan's record on environmental policy also has elements of mystery and contradiction. On the one hand, Japan's history and culture often are associated with a reverence for nature. Indeed, Japan does lead the world in certain environmental areas, such as reduction of conventional air pollutants and compensation of air pollution victims. On the other hand, Japan has been widely criticized for its poor record in preserving its domestic environment, contribution to tropical deforestation, and unwillingness to protect endangered species. Today, the international community clamors for Japan to take its share of responsibility, as an economic superpower, for the global environment. To secure its place in world affairs, Japan slowly has begun to respond to this pressure on issues ranging from ivory importation to reduction of CFC emissions. There is some hope that the government's particular willingness to address global warming may be a sign of significant changes to come in Japanese environmental policy. However, international pressure remains on the many environmental issues Japan has yet to resolve, including tropical deforestation and financing of Third World development projects that harm the environment. Japan's environmental policy is most effective when government and industry cooperate to find technical solutions to environmental problems. Although in recent years Japan's energy consumption has risen sharply, the Japanese have developed numerous technologies to reduce pollution and increase economic growth by improving energy efficiency. It is in these technologies that Japan has made the greatest strides and has the most to offer the global environment

  15. Introduction to global energetic problems

    Gicquel, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book gives a view on global energetic problems and proposes a thorough economic analysis on principle aspects taken into account: energy supply, depending energy sources and available technologic channels, relationships between macro-economy and energy demand, new size of energy problems (environmental effects, overcosts of renewable energy sources, necessity of an high technologic development...). 38 refs

  16. SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND ENVIRONMENT

    Neeta Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing social and environmental problems, the principles of Socio-Economic Sustainable development have gained prime importance. Human activities and their after-effects, direct and indirect, strongly influence nature and its resources. Keeping the huge role played by mankind in sustaining the glory of nature in mind, development goals need to be shaped in accordance with the parallel development and benefit of nature. India, as a developing nation, has a landmark role to play i...

  17. Designing for the global environment

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document contains papers which were presented at the symposium entitled Designing for the Global Environment. Session topics included policy and the implementation of energy efficient technologies. Individual papers were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  18. Survey on problems in developing technologies for the global environment issues (Version II); Chikyu kankyo mondai gijutsu kaihatsu kadai chosa. 2

    NONE

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes a survey on problems in developing technologies for the global environment issues. Technological development of means to reduce generation of environmental issues and substitutive means for non-generation thereof is being moved forward specifically in the Sunshine Project and the Moonlight Project. The Chemical Technology Research Institute assumes that it has a responsibility to positively contribute to developing a technological system that matches the substance circulation mechanism of the earth from the fields of chemistry. Therefore, the Institute has organized working groups that have been identifying problems from their expertise standpoints and have been extracting study assignments. Subsequent to the Version I, the Version II has been compiled. The Version II takes up the simulation of global warming mechanisms, behavior of gases dissolved in oceans, and possibility of fixing CO2 in oceans. With respect to fluorocarbons, the Version II describes development of substitutive substances, their stability, combustion method as a destruction technique, and destruction by means of super criticality. Regarding CO2, the version introduces technologies to re-use CO2 as a resource by means of membrane separation, storage, and contact hydrogenation. The volume also dwells on CO2 reduction by using photo-chemical and electrochemical reactions, CO2 reduction and photo-synthesis by using semiconductors as photo catalysts and electrodes. (NEDO)

  19. Iron deficiency - a global problem

    Ali, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Iron deficiency is an important nutritional global problem. This paper contains summery of information gathered from a dietary survey as iron deficiency anaemia is major public health problem in many developing countries including Pakistan. Comparison of anaemia in different age group and sex versus various regions in the world are given. In Pakistan also anaemia is widespread. According to the report of Micro-Nutrient survey of Pakistan 40% of the population are found to have low level of haemoglobin, more than half of pregnant women suffered from marginal or deficient haemoglobin. (A.B.)

  20. Iron deficiency - a global problem

    Ali, S M [Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1994-12-31

    Iron deficiency is an important nutritional global problem. This paper contains summery of information gathered from a dietary survey as iron deficiency anaemia is major public health problem in many developing countries including Pakistan. Comparison of anaemia in different age group and sex versus various regions in the world are given. In Pakistan also anaemia is widespread. According to the report of Micro-Nutrient survey of Pakistan 40% of the population are found to have low level of haemoglobin, more than half of pregnant women suffered from marginal or deficient haemoglobin. (A.B.).

  1. Global Collaborations - Prospects and Problems

    Corbett, Ian

    2005-04-01

    International collaboration has long been a feature of science. Collaborative investments in joint facilities and projects have grown considerably over the past 20-40 years, and many projects have been multinational from the start. This has been particularly true in Europe, where intergovernmental organizations such as CERN, ESA, and ESO have enabled European countries to carry out forefront science with state-of-art facilites which would have been beyond the capabilities of any one country. A brief survey of these organizations, their structure, and the possible reasons behind their success is given. The transition from regional to global creates new problems. Global scale projects face a range of generic issues which must be addressed and overcome if the project is to be a success. Each project has its own specific boundary conditions and each adopts an approach best fitted to its own objectives and constraints. Experience with billion dollar projects such as the SSC, LHC, and ITER shows the key problem areas and demonstrates the importance of preparatory work in the early stages to settle issues such as schedule, funding, location, legal and managerial structure, and oversight. A range of current and proposed intercontinental or global projects - so- called ``Megascience Projects" - is reviewed. Such projects, originally a feature of space and particle physics, are now becoming more common, and very large projects in astronomy, for example ALMA and 50 - 100m telescopes, and other areas of physics now fall into the `global' category. These projects are on such a large scale, from any scientific, managerial, financial or political perspective, and have such global importance, that they have necessarily been conceived as international from the outset. Increasing financial pressures on governments and funding agencies in the developed countries place additional demands on the project planning. The contrasting approaches, problems faced, and progress made in various

  2. Global economics and the environment

    Stone, R.D.; Hamilton, E.

    1991-01-01

    The rampant destruction of the rural tropics the earth's most fertile source of life will continue unchecked unless a global bargain can be reached between the capital-rich North and the economically destitute South. This report presents the findings of a colloquium sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations and the World Resources Institute, and assesses the prospects for a global policy for sustainable growth in the Third World. It reviews how the North constrains the development of such a policy by its actions in the areas of international trade, public and private investment, and debt and recommends new efforts to foster mutual cooperation. It also outlines a series of creative recommendations from the colloquium's international and multidisciplinary panel of experts. Offering an agenda for the June 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), this report sets the stage for one of the most important global challenges of the coming decade

  3. The Global Environment: At a Tipping Point?

    Han, Xueying; Appelbaum, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Overview of the current global environment. Introduction to climate change, global warming, ocean warming and acidification, impacts on both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lecture used for a Global Studies class.

  4. Global positioning site environment evaluator

    Leffler, S.; Reeser, H.G.; Zaker, E.; Hansen, W.; Sikorski, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Development of an innovative, integrated, automated system (Global Positioning Site Environment Evaluator - GPSEETM) for surveying contaminated waste sites is described. This system makes novel use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite constellation for establishing specific locations and current times for surveying radioactive, hazardous, or mixed-waste sites. GPSEE may also be used for waste site contamination surveys after remediation activities to ensure environmental remediation is complete. A base station is established for collecting and recording data and directing field operations for field stations which may be located many miles from the base station. The field operators collect site surveying and contamination data utilizing a variety of chemical and radiological sensors. A major goal for the data collection process is to collect all data utilizing in situ sensors, thereby minimizing the need for collecting soil and water samples. Site contamination data is transmitted electronically to the base station for recording and processing. The GPSEE system is being developed for use at DOE/DOD and a variety of industrial facilities. 3 figs

  5. Energy supply - a global problem

    Barthelt, K.

    1990-01-01

    The text of a speech celebrating the 10 years operation of the nuclear power plant in Goesgen. The author expresses his opinion on the future of nuclear energy, on the responsibility towards the next generation and on the energy supply for the Third World. He draws attention to the gap between north and south and to the limited amount of resources and mention the CO2-problem and the potential of nuclear energy

  6. Global water cycle: geochemistry and environment

    Berner, Elizabeth Kay; Berner, Robert A

    1987-01-01

    .... The book provides an integrated approach to global geochemistry and environmental problems and introduces the reader to some fundamental concepts of geology, oceanography, meteorology, environmental...

  7. THE NEW GLOBAL ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

    Oksay, Suna; Oksay, M. Serhan

    2015-01-01

    Globalization has emerged as an unavoidable process. Its impact upon different levels create different results. Therefore, the effects- of globalization on the world, on countries, on industries, and on firms must be examined separately. The principal worldwide effect of globalization is the increase in the volume of world trade. Its effects on countries have become apparent through the process of deregulation and the elimination of obstacles to trade, etc. At the industrial level, it creates...

  8. The global atmospheric environment for the next generation

    Dentener, F.; Stevenson, D.; Ellingsen, K.; Noije, van T.; Schultz, M.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C.; Bell, N.; Bergmann, D.; Bey, I.; Bouwman, L.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Collins, B.; Drevet, J.; Doherty, R.; Eickhout, B.; Eskes, H.; Fiore, A.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D.; Horowitz, L.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Josse, B.; Lawrence, M.; Krol, M.C.; Lamarque, J.F.; Montanaro, V.; Müller, J.F.; Peuch, V.H.; Pitari, G.; Pyle, J.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Sanderson, M.; Savage, N.H.; Shindell, D.; Strahan, S.; Szopa, S.; Sudo, K.; Dingenen, van R.; Wild, O.; Zeng, G.

    2006-01-01

    Air quality, ecosystem exposure to nitrogen deposition, and climate change are intimately coupled problems: we assess changes in the global atmospheric environment between 2000 and 2030 using 26 state-of-the-art global atmospheric chemistry models and three different emissions scenarios. The first

  9. Molecular science solving global problems

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Stults, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    From the late 1940s to the late 1980s, the Department of Energy (DOE) had a critical role in the Cold War. Many sites were built to contribute to the nation's nuclear weapons effort. However, not enough attention was paid to how the waste generated at these facilities should be handled. As a result, a number of sites fouled the soil around them or dumped low-level radioactive waste into nearby rivers. A DOE laboratory is under construction with a charter to help. Called the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), this national user facility will be located at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, WA. This laboratory has been funded by DOE and Congress to play a major role as the nation confronts the enormous challenge of reducing environmental and human risks from hundreds of government and industrial waste sites in an economically viable manner. The original proposal for the EMSL took a number of twists and turns on its way to its present form, but one thing remained constant: the belief that safe, permanent, cost-effective solutions to many of the country's environmental problems could be achieved only by multidisciplinary teams working to understand and control molecular processes. The processes of most concern are those that govern the transport and transformation of contaminants, the treatment and storage of high-level mixed wastes, and the risks those contaminants ultimately pose to workers and the public

  10. Problems in global atmospheric chemistry

    Crutzen, Paul J.

    1993-02-01

    The chemistry of the atmosphere is substantially influenced by a wide range of chemical processes which are primarily driven by the action of ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths shorter than 320 nm (UV-B) on ozone and water vapor. This leads to the formation of hydroxyl (OH) radicals which, despite very low tropospheric concentrations, remove most gases that are emitted into the atmosphere by natural and anthropogenic processes. Therefore, although only about 10% of all atmospheric ozone is located in the troposphere, through the formation of OH, it determines the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere and is, therefore, of the utmost importance for maintaining its chemical composition. Due to a variety of human activities, especially through increasing emissions of CH4, CO, and NOx, the concentrations of tropospheric ozone and hydroxyl are expected to be increasing in polluted and decreasing in clean tropospheric environments. Altogether, this may be leading to an overall decrease in the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere, contributing to a gradual buildup of several longlived trace gases that are primarily removed by reaction with OH. In the stratosphere, especially due to catalytic reactions of chlorine-containing gases of industrial origin, ozone is being depleted, most drastically noted during the early spring months over Antarctica. Because ozone is the only atmospheric constituent that can significantly absorb solar radiation in the wavelength region 240 - 320 nm, this loss of ozone enhances the penetration of biologically harmful UV-B radiation to the earth's surface with ensuing negative consequences for the biosphere. Several of the aforementioned chemically active trace gases with growing trends in the atmosphere are also efficient greenhouse gases. Together they can exert a warming effect on the earth's climate about equal to that of carbon dioxide.

  11. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems?

    A. Kolk (Ans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single

  12. Problems of environment pollution in energy production

    Soyberk, Oe.

    2000-01-01

    This publication relates to nuclear fuel cycle and environment, nuclear accidents, risk analysis, test of nuclear weapon, security problems of nuclear power plants, advantages and disadvantages of energy sources, climate variation due to environment pollution

  13. Global environment and radiation exposure

    Okamoto, Kazuto

    1991-01-01

    The present status of investigation of acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse effect and their relations to radiation exposure are reported. Soil acidification increases transfer rates of radioactivities to plants which increases the population dose. There are two types of ozone depletion, conventional type and ozone hole type and the latter is much more serious than the former. In the greenhouse effect, although there are large uncertainties both in theoretical and observational sides, present predictions about the global warming will not be very far from reality. Environmental effects are wide-ranging and serious. Radon and thoron exhalation rates are affected by the global warming. The influence of the greenhouse effect on ozone depletion is to suppress depletion for conventional type and enhance depletion for ozone hole type. (author) 65 refs

  14. East Asian perspective on global environmental problems

    Yonehara, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has been conducting active global warming research programs focusing on development of a method to forecast climate change accompanying global warming both globally and in East Asia. A regional climate change forecasting method is being developed and researches are conducted on impacts of climate change on the natural and social environment in East Asia. Researches are also conducted focusing on the relationship between emissions and deposition of acid substances and assessment of the environmental impacts of acid rain in East Asia. 4 figs

  15. Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster

    Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue 23, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.

  16. Global Banking System Regulatory Environment

    Oleh Mozhovyi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The international and domestic experience shows that the main factors of financial destabilization during the financial crises are in the banking sector. The article reveals that the vulnerability of the financial system is connected with functions, deposit and credit transactions, risks distribution and ensuring liquidity; banks act as a major factor in stabilisation measures in the current context of globalization processes, since the economic stability of banking activities relates directly to all the entities and only stable banking system can withstand the crisis phenomena. Therefore, as a result of the analysis, it is proved that not only reduction of risks of banks is needed, but also introduction of the effective supervision system over implementation of the requirements and standards to prevent these risks. According to modern international approaches, banks use the so-called prudential supervision, which is based on the risk management assessment policy on the part of the Bank’s management, and regulatory bodies contribute to implementation of such policy. The authors have concluded that not only modern specificity of banks, but also the impact of supervision systems and regulation of modern trends in development of the banking should be analysed. Application of the general regulatory principles and banking risks methodology is required. The task of supervision is distribution of reliable risk management practices in the banking system, taking into account national peculiarities of development.

  17. Stochastic global optimization as a filtering problem

    Stinis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    We present a reformulation of stochastic global optimization as a filtering problem. The motivation behind this reformulation comes from the fact that for many optimization problems we cannot evaluate exactly the objective function to be optimized. Similarly, we may not be able to evaluate exactly the functions involved in iterative optimization algorithms. For example, we may only have access to noisy measurements of the functions or statistical estimates provided through Monte Carlo sampling. This makes iterative optimization algorithms behave like stochastic maps. Naive global optimization amounts to evolving a collection of realizations of this stochastic map and picking the realization with the best properties. This motivates the use of filtering techniques to allow focusing on realizations that are more promising than others. In particular, we present a filtering reformulation of global optimization in terms of a special case of sequential importance sampling methods called particle filters. The increasing popularity of particle filters is based on the simplicity of their implementation and their flexibility. We utilize the flexibility of particle filters to construct a stochastic global optimization algorithm which can converge to the optimal solution appreciably faster than naive global optimization. Several examples of parametric exponential density estimation are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the approach.

  18. Adjustment problems and residential care environment

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2015-01-01

    Problem: Residential care environment represents a specific social space that is associated with a number of negative consequences, covering most aspects of children and youth functioning. The paper analyzes of the presence of adjustment problems among adolescents from institutional care environment and compares this results with a population of adolescents who grew up in a family. Methods: The sample consisted of two groups of adolescents. The first group included 285 adolescents currently g...

  19. Problem of ''global color'' in gauge theories

    Horvathy, P.A.; Rawnsley, J.H.; UER de Mathematique, Universite de Provence, Marseille, France)

    1986-01-01

    The problem of ''global color'' (which arose recently in monopole theory) is generalized to arbitrary gauge theories: a subgroup K of the ''unbroken'' gauge group G is implementable iff the gauge bundle reduces to the centralizer of K in G. Equivalent implementations correspond to equivalent reductions. Such an action is an internal symmetry for a given configuration iff the Yang-Mills field reduces also. The case of monopoles is worked out in detail

  20. History of global environmental problems. Chikyu kankyo mondai no rekishi

    Matsui, S [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-04-15

    This paper takes general view of the history of global environmental problems. A UN human environment conference was held in Stockholm in 1972, at which the human environment declaration and an action plan were adopted. The most important among the results of the Stockholm Conference were the treaty on international transactions of wild animal and plant species feared of extinction in the 1970's, the international treaty on prevention of pollution caused by ocean vessels, and the treaty on prevention of ocean pollution caused by dumping of wastes and other materials. Also adopted in the 1970's include the action plan to prevent desertification, the action plan on the world population, and the world weather plan. The UN Nairobi Conference in 1982 has sounded the alarm on the delay in tackling with the facing problems and the progress of aggravation in the global environment. In 1987, the ozone layer protection protocol was adopted. The earth summit at Rio de Janeiro in 1992 adopted the Agenda 21, with which the participating nations, autonomous bodies, and civil organizations have prepared their own Agenda 21, and are now about to begin challenging the global environmental problems. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Problem solving environment for distributed interactive applications

    Rycerz, K.; Bubak, M.; Sloot, P.; Getov, V.; Gorlatch, S.; Bubak, M.; Priol, T.

    2008-01-01

    Interactive Problem Solving Environments (PSEs) offer an integrated approach for constructing and running complex systems, such as distributed simulation systems. To achieve efficient execution of High Level Architecture (HLA)-based distributed interactive simulations on the Grid, we introduce a PSE

  2. Radiations in space and global environment

    Oguti, Takasi

    1994-01-01

    It has been well known that the global environment of the earth is basically determined by the radiation equilibrium of the earth atmosphere system embedded in the solar radiation. However, the surface temperature of about 15 degC on average is much higher than that determined by the radiation equilibrium. This is due to the so-called greenhouse gases in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane and others. Also the global environment has evolved by interacting with the living things on the earth, for example, tree oxygen by photosynthesis, and a small amount of ozone protecting living things from the fetal damage due to solar ultraviolet radiation. The solar radiation of short wavelength, that is, ultraviolet to X-ray influences atmospheric constituents, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the atmosphere through chemical reaction. The solar energetic particles produced by solar flares precipitate in the polar regions, and the nitric oxides are produced by auroral X-ray. Auroral activities accelerate particles in the magnetosphere. All these radiations cause significant global changes. Human activities increase greenhouse gases rapidly and cause global warming, and atmospheric chloro-fluoro-carbon (CFC) makes the ozone hole. Now, human activities must be modified to match the natural cycle of materials. (K.I.)

  3. Modeling higher education attractiveness to stand global environment

    Leonel Cezar Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inabilities to deal with the changing environment may lead Higher Education Institutions (HEI to loose institutional attractiveness. Digital transformation requires global insertion as essential feature to institutional attractiveness. Processes for international education seem to lack the links between real environmental trends and the internal capabilities to global education. HEI managers may approach endeavors to internationalize education combining ambidextrous strategy supported by consolidated resilience capabilities. The latest ones refer to building internal value attributes to increase institutional attractiveness assuring solid standing in the global environment. In this article, a theoretical essay, we approach the problem of creating resilience as a way of backing up ambidexterity to generate institutional attractiveness. The set of value attributes, on the other hand, may originate strategic routes to strengthen internal competences and to make the institution more attractive, as a dynamic capability.

  4. Adjustment problems and residential care environment

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Residential care environment represents a specific social space that is associated with a number of negative consequences, covering most aspects of children and youth functioning. The paper analyzes of the presence of adjustment problems among adolescents from institutional care environment and compares this results with a population of adolescents who grew up in a family. Methods: The sample consisted of two groups of adolescents. The first group included 285 adolescents currently growing up in an residential care environment, aged 13 to 21 (M = 16.23, SD = 1.643. The second group consisted of 214 adolescents growing up in a family, aged 15 to 20 (M = 17.07, SD = 1.070. We used a questionnaire Youth Self Report. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and MANOVA. Results: Results showed that adolescents in residential care exhibit higher average values in all adjustment problems. Also, in the context of diagnostic categories are the residential care adolescents more frequently in non-normal range (borderline and clinical, primarily in the border range. The greatest differences were reflected in the Thought problems and Rule-breaking behavior. MANOVA showed a significant multivariate effect between groups of adolescents, Hotelling's T = .803, F(8, 490 = 49.202, p <.001, d = .445 (large effect. Univariate analysis further showed a significant effect for Withdrawn/depressed (p = .044, d = .089, small effect, Somatic complaints (p = .002, d = .139, medium effect, Social problems (p = 004, d = .127, a small effect, Thought problems (p <.001, d = .633, strong effect, Attention problems (p <.001, d = .320,strong effect, Rule-breaking behavior (p <.001 , d = .383, strong effect, and Aggressive behavior (p = 015, d = .110, small effect. Results for the dimension of Anxious/depressed were not significant (p = .159. Discussion: The results didn’t confirmed the assumption that more than 30% of residential care adolescents have adjustment

  5. Problem-solving in a Constructivist Environment

    Lee Chien Sing

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of an increasingly borderless world buoyed by advances in telecommunications and information technology has resulted in educational reform and subsequently, a reconceptualisation of what constitutes a learner, learning and the influence of the learning environment on the process of learning. In keeping up with the changing trends and challenges of an increasingly networked, dynamic and challenging international community, means to provide an alternative environment that stimulates inquiry and equips learners with the skills needed to manage technological change and innovations must be considered. This paper discusses the importance of interaction, cognition and context, collaboration in a networked computer-mediated environment, the problem-solving approach as a catalyst in stimulating creative and critical thinking and in providing context for meaningful interaction and whether the interactive environment created through computer-mediated collaboration will motivate learners to be responsible for their own learning and be independent thinkers. The sample involved learners from three schools in three different countries. Findings conclude that a rich interactive environment must be personally relevant to the learner by simulating authentic problems without lowering the degree of cognitive complexity. Review in curriculum, assessment and teacher training around constructivist principles are also imperative as these interrelated factors form part of the learning process system.

  6. Problems with Global Education: Conceptual Contradictions

    Young, J. Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Global education is concerned with social justice and student empowerment. However, an understanding of the word global as merely international and/or intercultural may fail to challenge existing mechanistic and compartmentalized views of knowledge and curriculum. Such a global education limits students' agency and reproduces the very systems it…

  7. Hydroelectric power and global environmental problems: benefits and environmental impacts

    Chabot, B.

    1992-01-01

    The risk of global warming is one of the most serious global environmental problems. It is due to the increase of greenhouse gases emissions, mainly because of the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector, particularly for electricity generation. At an international level, experts now agree that measures are to be taken to reduce this risk. In the energy sector, an improvement of energy efficiency and an increase of nuclear electricity generation are often presented as the best available solutions. Renewable energy sources are often presented as a solution with a negligible potential impact, and sometimes, hydro power is even forgotten, or its coasts and its potential impacts on local environment are presented as an obstacle to its positive contribution to the reduction of global warming risk. Without denying the positive impacts of other solutions, this paper explains the possibilities and the benefits of an increased use of hydroelectric power, when implemented with a minimum impact on local environment and with a synergistic effect with the rational use of generated energy, in order to have access to a sustainable development. 19 refs., 6 figs

  8. The global existence problem in general relativity

    Andersson, L

    2000-01-01

    We survey some known facts and open questions concerning the global properties of 3+1 dimensional space--times containing a compact Cauchy surface. We consider space--times with an $\\ell$--dimensional Lie algebra of space--like Killing fields. For each $\\ell \\leq 3$, we give some basic results and conjectures on global existence and cosmic censorship. For the case of the 3+1 dimensional Einstein equations without symmetries, a new small data global existence result is announced.

  9. Global World: A Problem of Governance

    Chumakov, Alexander Nikolayevich

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to include the following items: to show the absolute necessity of managing the international community, to explore the fundamental possibility of managing the global world, to prove or disprove such a possibility, to determine the real background of global governance in modern conditions and to show the…

  10. Insufficiencies in solving global environmental problems by specialized scientific expertise

    Hartwig, S.G.; Kra, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The most paradoxical and urgent problem faces the world today. We find ourselves between the horns of a dilemma. One horn represents the accelerating demand for energy, and the other, the irreversible degradation of our natural environment. There are two directions that we can take to solve our growing global crisis. The first step is to encourage scientific specialists to think in broader terms. The second necessary approach is to make decision makers aware of the complexity of the situation as well as the dangers of tunnel vision that experts often fall into. Therefore, to find a long-term holistic solution, decision makers, be they government officials or academics, must be, themselves, solution oriented and capable of directing scientists along broadened problem-solving pathways. Up till now, scientists have been required to research environmental problems, discover causal associations and determine effects. Contemporary scientists, in the truest sense of the meaning, are no longer generalists but are specialists in their own fields with great depth and accuracy of knowledge. However, experts of high standing may have difficulty visualizing adjacent sciences, which causes them to lose sight of topics peripheral to their main field of interest. The consequence of this can be that solutions to a problem will be sought only within particular and specialized areas, but it is, unfortunately, a fact of life that environmental problems do not come neatly packaged in scientific disciplines: they happen in their entirety, with all their synergistic implications. 5 refs., 5 figs

  11. School education on energy and environment problems

    Imakita, Manami

    2005-01-01

    In Japanese school, elementary and junior- and senior-high, it is widely agreed that teaching of energy and environment is desirable, as has been adopted in a course of study of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. This paper reports the present state of affairs on these problems from elementary schools to high schools, describing of each school year or grade and each lessons separately. It contains the results of the author's investigation on curriculum and syllabus including some classroom practices and measurement of natural radioactivity and radiation with the help of adequate measuring instruments and visits to some related facilities. Methods of learning and teaching are also studied together with some future prospect. (S. Ohno)

  12. Japanese policy on science and technology for the global environment

    Kawasaki, M.

    1994-01-01

    The current state of Japanese science and technology policy is discussed within the framework of overall global environmental policy. Principles of Japanese environmental policy include participation in international schemes for conservation of the global environment, promotion of Japanese research on the global environment, development and diffusion of technologies contributing to conservation of the global environment, contribution to conservation of the environment in developing countries, and maintenance of economic and social activities in Japan at an environmentally beneficial level. The Japanese environmental budget includes expenditures for earth observation and monitoring by satellite, energy-related research and development, and control of greenhouse gas emissions. The proportion of overall Japanese research and development (R ampersand D) expenditures which were spent on the global environment was about 2% in 1991. Of governmental research expenditures, ca 22% involve the global environment; however, some part of the expenditures on energy R ampersand D and on earth observation satellite R ampersand D are also environment-related. 5 figs

  13. Actual global problems of radiation protection

    Ninkovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Personal views on some actual problems in radiation protection are given in this paper. Among these problems are: evolution methodology used in radiation protection regulations; radiation protection, nuclear energy and safety, and new approaches to the process of the hazardous substances management. An interesting fact relating to the X-ray, radiation protection and Nikola Tesla are given also. (author)

  14. Problems in global fire evaluation: Is remote sensing the solution?

    Robinson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter the author critically examines the prospects for reducing uncertainties over global biomass burning using remote sensing. First he considers the global temporal, spatial, and intensity distributions of fires and the remotely sensible signals they create and discusses the opportunities and problems that exist for matching available sensors to fire signal. Then he considers problems relating to instrumentation and to atmospheric interference

  15. Global optima for the Zhou–Rozvany problem

    Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the minimum compliance topology design problem with a volume constraint and discrete design variables. In particular, our interest is to provide global optimal designs to a challenging benchmark example proposed by Zhou and Rozvany. Global optimality is achieved by an implementation o...... algorithms, we find global optimal designs for several values on the available volume. These designs can be used to validate other methods and heuristics for the considered class of problems....

  16. The Global Environment Radiation Monitoring Network (GERMON)

    Zakheim, B.J.; Goellner, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a group of experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) met in France to discuss and develop the basic principles of a global environmental radiation monitoring network (GERMON). The basic functions of this network were to provide regular reports on environmental radiation levels and to be in a position to provide reliable and accurate radiation measurements on a quick and accurate radiation measurements on a quick turnaround basis in the event of a major radiation release. By 1992, although 58 countries had indicated an interest in becoming a part of the GERMON system, only 16 were providing data on a regular basis. This paper traces the history of GERMON from its inception in 1987 through its activities during 1993-4. It details the objectives of the network, describes functions, lists its participants, and presents obstacles in the current network. The paper examines the data requirements for radiological emergency preparedness and offers suggestions for the current system. The paper also describes the growing need for such a network. To add a domestic perspective, the authors present a summary of the environmental monitoring information system that was used by the NRC in 1986 in its analyses of the Chernobyl incident. Then we will use this 1986 experience to propose a method for the use of GERMON should a similar occasion arise in the future

  17. Statistics and predictions of population, energy and environment problems

    Sobajima, Makoto

    1999-03-01

    In the situation that world's population, especially in developing countries, is rapidly growing, humankind is facing to global problems that they cannot steadily live unless they find individual places to live, obtain foods, and peacefully get energy necessary for living for centuries. For this purpose, humankind has to think what behavior they should take in the finite environment, talk, agree and execute. Though energy has been long respected as a symbol for improving living, demanded and used, they have come to limit the use making the global environment more serious. If there is sufficient energy not loading cost to the environment. If nuclear energy regarded as such one sustain the resource for long and has market competitiveness. What situation of realization of compensating new energy is now in the case the use of nuclear energy is restricted by the society fearing radioactivity. If there are promising ones for the future. One concerning with the study of energy cannot go without knowing these. The statistical materials compiled here are thought to be useful for that purpose, and are collected mainly from ones viewing future prediction based on past practices. Studies on the prediction is so important to have future measures that these data bases are expected to be improved for better accuracy. (author)

  18. Corporate environment protection as a legal problem

    Kloepfer, M.

    1993-01-01

    It is discussed what legal instruments companies have for integrating environment protection into their corporate policy: Industrial self-monitoring; the environmental health officer as an instrument of corporate environment protection (environmental health officer, radiation protection officer); obligations to disclose information on corporate organisation pursuant to Article 52 a of the Federal Emmission Control Act; corporate environment protection as a general obligation of the operator. Possible ways of strengthening corporate environment protection are considered de lege ferende, e.g. the additional instruments of corporate self-monitoring laid down in the General Part of the Environmental Code, audits on environment protection, corporate environment protection through quality assurance systems. (orig.) [de

  19. Energy problems in a global view

    Dubois, J.-E.

    1976-01-01

    Energy problems in general are examined, considering first the ecosystem of pre-Newtonian societies, then that of industrial societies and their resulting energy consumptions. Primary energy sources are listed and the manner in which they are used is described. New techniques (uranium isotope separation, energy conversion, solar energy, controlled fusion) are discussed as a function of their potential saving in energy expenditure. Solutions are proposed for the future of post-industrial societies [fr

  20. Key Trends Shaping the Global Logistics Environment

    Handfield, Robert; Straube, Frank; Pfohl, Hans-Christian

    A summary from the full study “Trends and Strategies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to Drive Market Advantage” (2013).......A summary from the full study “Trends and Strategies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to Drive Market Advantage” (2013)....

  1. A novel approach for the global localization problem

    Abraham Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe una metodología de planificación, localización y mapeo simultáneos enfocada en el problema de localización global, el robot explora el ambiente eficientemente y también considera los requisitos de un algoritmo de localización y mapeo simultáneos. El método está basado en la generación aleatoria incremental de una estructura de datos llamada árbol aleatorio basado en sensores, la cual representa un mapa de caminos del área explorada con su región segura asociada. Un procedimiento de localización continuo basado encaracterísticas B-splines de la región segura se integró en el esquema.This paper describes a simultaneous planning localization and mapping (SPLAM methodology focussed on the global localization problem, where the robot explores the environment efficiently and also considers the requisites of the simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm. The method is based on the randomized incremental generation of a data structure called Sensor-based Random Tree, which represents a roadmap of the explored area with an associated safe region. A continuous localization procedure based on B-Splines features of the safe region is integrated in the scheme.

  2. Exploiting coalbed methane and protecting the global environment

    Yuheng, Gao

    1996-12-31

    The global climate change caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission has received wide attention from all countries in the world. Global environmental protection as a common problem has confronted the human being. As a main component of coalbed methane, methane is an important factor influencing the production safety of coal mine and threatens the lives of miners. The recent research on environment science shows that methane is a very harmful GHG. Although methane gas has very little proportion in the GHGs emission and its stayed period is also very short, it has very obvious impact on the climate change. From the estimation, methane emission in the coal-mining process is only 10% of the total emission from human`s activities. As a clean energy, Methane has mature recovery technique before, during and after the process of mining. Thus, coalbed methane is the sole GHG generated in the human`s activities and being possible to be reclaimed and utilized. Compared with the global greenhouse effect of other GHGs emission abatement, coalbed methane emission abatement can be done in very low cost with many other benefits: (1) to protect global environment; (2) to improve obviously the safety of coal mine; and (3) to obtain a new kind of clean energy. Coal is the main energy in China, and coalbed contains very rich methane. According to the exploration result in recent years, about 30000{approximately}35000 billion m{sup 2} methane is contained in the coalbed below 2000 m in depth. China has formed a good development base in the field of reclamation and utilization of coalbed methane. The author hopes that wider international technical exchange and cooperation in the field will be carried out.

  3. The global existence problem and cosmic censorship in general relativity

    Moncrief, V.; Eardley, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Two global existence conjectures for the Einstein equations are formulated and their relevance to the cosmic censorship conjecture discussed. It is argued that the reformulation of the cosmic censorship conjecture as a global existence problem renders it more amenable to direct analytical attack. To demonstrate the facility of this approach the cosmological version of the global existence conjecture is proved for the Gowdy spacetimes on T 3 X R. (author)

  4. Marketing Management: Monitoring the International Environment Factors Using Global Maps

    Štěpán Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of the global marketing environment in line with the factors determining its external conditions. The aim is to specify the marketing-environment indicators in the international context and interpret the use of geographical maps illustratively documenting the differences of particular parameters in various parts of the global market. The research-results help update the theoretical framework of global environment factors. These data are also important for practice. Many enterprises consider the question of optimising their sources and directing their goals towards the opportunities available thanks to global markets. The global environment mapping is thereby an important basis for the marketing activities whose implementation across national boundaries is going to be mainly influenced by peculiarities of the environment involving foreign markets and their changes.

  5. The application of weight windows to 'Global' Monte Carlo problems

    Becker, T. L.; Larsen, E. W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes two basic types of global deep-penetration (shielding) problems-the global flux problem and the global response problem. For each of these, two methods for generating weight windows are presented. The first approach, developed by the authors of this paper and referred to generally as the Global Weight Window, constructs a weight window that distributes Monte Carlo particles according to a user-specified distribution. The second approach, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and referred to as FW-CADIS, constructs a weight window based on intuitively extending the concept of the source-detector problem to global problems. The numerical results confirm that the theory used to describe the Monte Carlo particle distribution for a given weight window is valid and that the figure of merit is strongly correlated to the Monte Carlo particle distribution. Furthermore, they illustrate that, while both methods are capable of obtaining the correct solution, the Global Weight Window distributes particles much more uniformly than FW-CADIS. As a result, the figure of merit is higher for the Global Weight Window. (authors)

  6. Problem free nuclear power and global change

    Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth's atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO 2 emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage

  7. Law in Transition Biblioessay: Globalization, Human Rights, Environment, Technology

    Michael Marien

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As globalization continues, many transformations in international and domestic laws areunderway or called for. There are too many laws and too few, too much law that is inadequateor obsolete, and too much law-breaking. This biblioessay covers some 100 recentbooks, nearly all recently published, arranged in four categories. 1 International Lawincludes six overviews/textbooks on comparative law, laws related to warfare and security,pushback against demands of globalization, and gender perspectives; 2 Human Rightsencompasses general overviews and normative visions, several books on how some statesviolate human rights, five items on how good laws can end poverty and promote prosperity,and laws regulating working conditions and health rights; 3 Environment/Resources coversgrowth of international environmental law, visions of law for a better environmental future,laws to govern genetic resources and increasingly stressed water resources, two books onprospects for climate change liability, and items on toxic hazards and problems of compliance;4 Technology, Etc. identifies eight books on global crime and the failed war on drugs,books on the response to terrorism and guarding privacy and mobility in our high-tech age,seven books on how infotech is changing law and legal processes while raising intellectualproperty questions, biomedical technologies and the law, and general views on the need forupdated laws and constitutions. In sum, this essay suggests the need for deeper and timelyanalysis of the many books on changes in law.

  8. Tectonique globale. Quelques difficultés Global Tectonics. a Few Problems

    Vitart M. J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On constate que malgré la brillante démonstration apportée par les forages dans le fond des océans, les praticiens de la géologie observent une certaine réserve face aux concepts de la Tectonique globale. C'est que d'une part, certaines hypothèses de base sont difficiles à comprendre et que d'autre part, la théorie aide assez peu à la résolution des problèmes qui se présentent au géologue praticien. Nous prendrons comme exemple - la difficulté de l'interprétation des anomalies magnétiques des océans; - le problème des « structures reliques » en milieu océanique; - le problème du changement de plaque et de l'inversion du mouvement; - les bassins intraplaques transverses aux ouvertures. Despite the brilliant demonstration of drilling into ocean beds, geologists seems ta be maintaining a certain reserve when confronted with concepts of global tectonics. On one hand, some basic assumptions are difficult ta understand, and on the other the theory is of relatively little help in solving the problems faced by practicing geologists. A few examples of such problems are - the difficulty in interpreting magnetic anomalies in oceans; - the problem of « relic structures » in on oceanic environment; - the problem of plate changes and inversion of movements; - intraplate basins bridging openings.

  9. The Future of the Global Environment: A Model-based Analysis Supporting UNEP's First Global Environment Outlook

    Bakkes JA; Woerden JW van; Alcamo J; Berk MM; Bol P; Born GJ van den; Brink BJE ten; Hettelingh JP; Langeweg F; Niessen LW; Swart RJ; United Nations Environment; MNV

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the scenario analysis in UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook, published at the same time as the scenario analysis. This Outlook provides a pilot assessment of developments in the environment, both global and regional, between now and 2015, with a further projection to

  10. Man's impact on his global environment

    Knox, J.B.

    1976-07-01

    The experience and awareness growing from research activities leads to several important concerns for policy makers: there is a need to move towards a policy of conservation of our global air resources in its totality from earth's surface to stratosphere; the technical data base and level of understanding should be systematically improved for the rational implementation of standards for the whole atmosphere; the U.S. should establish a focal point for regional and global environmental assessments responsive to policy-makers' needs and concerns, and interactive with the UN's Global Environmental Monitoring System; and the environmental consequences of increased U.S. dependence on coal should receive greater attention so that optimal choices between control technology, tall stacks, and synthetic fuels may be achieved with conservation of total air resources

  11. Global environment and activity of RITE

    Kondo, Jiro

    1991-01-01

    In the present paper, the author would like to discuss the relation between conventional energy and global warming. Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) was established in Japan, September 1990. The author would like to introduce what RITE is intending to achieve. This is the case when technology leads science. (J.P.N.)

  12. Global Sufficient Optimality Conditions for a Special Cubic Minimization Problem

    Xiaomei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some sufficient global optimality conditions for a special cubic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints by extending the global subdifferential approach proposed by V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006. The present conditions generalize the results developed in the work of V. Jeyakumar et al. where a quadratic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints was considered. In addition, a special diagonal matrix is constructed, which is used to provide a convenient method for justifying the proposed sufficient conditions. Then, the reformulation of the sufficient conditions follows. It is worth noting that this reformulation is also applicable to the quadratic minimization problem with box or binary constraints considered in the works of V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006 and Y. Wang et al. (2010. Finally some examples demonstrate that our optimality conditions can effectively be used for identifying global minimizers of the certain nonconvex cubic minimization problem.

  13. Electrical and electronic waste: a global environmental problem.

    Ramesh Babu, Balakrishnan; Parande, Anand Kuber; Ahmed Basha, Chiya

    2007-08-01

    The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing global manufacturing activities. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Rapid economic growth, coupled with urbanization and growing demand for consumer goods, has increased both the consumption of EEE and the production of WEEE, which can be a source of hazardous wastes that pose a risk to the environment and to sustainable economic growth. To address potential environmental problems that could stem from improper management of WEEE, many countries and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of material recovery from WEEE to reduce the amount and types of materials disposed in landfills. Recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment is important not only to reduce the amount of waste requiring treatment, but also to promote the recovery of valuable materials. EEE is diverse and complex with respect to the materials and components used and waste streams from the manufacturing processes. Characterization of these wastes is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sound recycling system. This paper offers an overview of electrical and e-waste recycling, including a description of how it is generated and classified, strategies and technologies for recovering materials, and new scientific developments related to these activities. Finally, the e-waste recycling industry in India is also discussed.

  14. Mapping Students Use of Technologies in Problem Based Learning Environments

    Rongbutsri, Nikorn; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Ryberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand how students use technology to enhance their learning in problem-based learning environments. The research methodology is based on both qualitative and quantitative studies. The results are based on students’ interviews, a survey and students’ reflections in course......-related blog posts; they show that students have positive perceptions toward using technologies in problem-based learning environments....

  15. Importing food damages domestic environment: Evidence from global soybean trade.

    Sun, Jing; Mooney, Harold; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Tong, Yuxin; Xu, Zhenci; Huang, Baorong; Cheng, Yeqing; Yang, Xinjun; Wei, Dan; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Jianguo

    2018-05-22

    Protecting the environment and enhancing food security are among the world's Sustainable Development Goals and greatest challenges. International food trade is an important mechanism to enhance food security worldwide. Nonetheless, it is widely concluded that in international food trade importing countries gain environmental benefits, while exporting countries suffer environmental problems by using land and other resources to produce food for exports. Our study shows that international food trade can also lead to environmental pollution in importing countries. At the global level, our metaanalysis indicates that there was increased nitrogen (N) pollution after much farmland for domestically cultivated N-fixing soybeans in importing countries was converted to grow high N-demanding crops (wheat, corn, rice, and vegetables). The findings were further verified by an intensive study at the regional level in China, the largest soybean-importing country, where the conversion of soybean lands to corn fields and rice paddies has also led to N pollution. Our study provides a sharp contrast to the conventional wisdom that only exports contribute substantially to environmental woes. Our results suggest the need to evaluate environmental consequences of international trade of all other major goods and products in all importing countries, which have significant implications for fundamental rethinking in global policy-making and debates on environmental responsibilities among consumers, producers, and traders across the world.

  16. Global Search Strategies for Solving Multilinear Least-Squares Problems

    Mats Andersson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The multilinear least-squares (MLLS problem is an extension of the linear least-squares problem. The difference is that a multilinear operator is used in place of a matrix-vector product. The MLLS is typically a large-scale problem characterized by a large number of local minimizers. It originates, for instance, from the design of filter networks. We present a global search strategy that allows for moving from one local minimizer to a better one. The efficiency of this strategy is illustrated by the results of numerical experiments performed for some problems related to the design of filter networks.

  17. Global Optimization of Nonlinear Blend-Scheduling Problems

    Pedro A. Castillo Castillo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The scheduling of gasoline-blending operations is an important problem in the oil refining industry. This problem not only exhibits the combinatorial nature that is intrinsic to scheduling problems, but also non-convex nonlinear behavior, due to the blending of various materials with different quality properties. In this work, a global optimization algorithm is proposed to solve a previously published continuous-time mixed-integer nonlinear scheduling model for gasoline blending. The model includes blend recipe optimization, the distribution problem, and several important operational features and constraints. The algorithm employs piecewise McCormick relaxation (PMCR and normalized multiparametric disaggregation technique (NMDT to compute estimates of the global optimum. These techniques partition the domain of one of the variables in a bilinear term and generate convex relaxations for each partition. By increasing the number of partitions and reducing the domain of the variables, the algorithm is able to refine the estimates of the global solution. The algorithm is compared to two commercial global solvers and two heuristic methods by solving four examples from the literature. Results show that the proposed global optimization algorithm performs on par with commercial solvers but is not as fast as heuristic approaches.

  18. The effective strategic leadership in the global competitive environment

    Miceski, Trajko

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on strategic leadership and its importance as a potential source of competitive advantage in today's era of globalization. Strategic leadership can be defined as ability to: influence without coercion, prediction, vision, maintaining flexibility, anticipation of positive change, mobilizing and effectuation of human resources and many other activities that allow the company to the forefront in the global competitive environment.

  19. Does nuclear energy save global environment?

    Matsui, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Since the ecological footprint analysis in 1970s suggested changing consumption patterns and overpopulation concerns, energy policy such as energy conservation and use of renewable energy has become of prime importance. Several results of the long-term energy demand and supply analysis in 2050 or 2100 to reduce drastically carbon dioxide emission as a measure against global warming, showed the necessity of nuclear power deployment as well as maximum efforts to save energy, exploitation of the separation and disposal of carbon dioxide, and shifting energy sources to fuels that emit less greenhouse gases or non-fossil fuels. As a promising means to contribute to long-term energy supply, nuclear power generation is expected with improving safety, economic efficiency, environmental adaptability, and nuclear proliferation resistance of the technologies. (T.Tanaka)

  20. Neighborhood Environment and Internalizing Problems in African American Children

    Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Whitaker, Damiya; Smart, Mieka; Leaf, Philip; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in the association between environment and internalizing problems in a sample of predominately African American schoolchildren. Internalizing problems was assessed using the Youth Self Report. Violence and alcohol and other drug (AOD) exposure subscales were created using observational assessments of neighborhood blocks. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between neighborhood environment and internalizing problems. For each A...

  1. Security environment and nuclear proliferation problems in East Asia

    Suh, Mark Byung-Moon

    1997-01-01

    East Asia was and still is divided into two conflicting ideological blocs. Because of the Cold War between these two blocs, two international wars were fought and tensions limited interactions among these countries. Despite these political constraints, in recent years East Asia has become economically one of the most dynamic regions in the world. Now that the Cold War between the USA and the Soviet Union is over, the danger of global nuclear war involving the nuclear powers in the region has been practically eliminated. Nonetheless, security has become more complex and demands a whole new set of arrangements. Yet the region lacks a cohesive multilateral framework for conflict resolution, and only recently have various attempts been made to create a political forum for the countries in the region. The problem and the danger of nuclear proliferation was vividly shown by the North Korean nuclear crisis in the last years. This issue not only halted the fragile process of normalization between the two Koreas, which started in 1988, but almost led to a new military conflict on the peninsula involving the two Koreas and the USA. It was defused only after the USA proved willing to offer security guarantees to North Korea. This problem still needs to be resolved, and it demands radical changes in the overall political environment in the region. Needless to say, proliferation in North Korea would have entailed grave consequences for the security of the region as well as for the international non-proliferation regime. This paper reviews the issue of nuclear proliferation of the three non-nuclear states in the region and deals with the non-introduction of nuclear weapons in the region by the nuclear powers. It discusses the prospects for a nuclear-weapon-free zone on the Korean peninsula. Perspectives of a sustainable security environment in East Asia will be briefly discussed

  2. The Future of the Global Environment: A Model-based Analysis Supporting UNEP's First Global Environment Outlook

    Bakkes JA; Woerden JW van; Alcamo J; Berk MM; Bol P; Born GJ van den; Brink BJE ten; Hettelingh JP; Langeweg F; Niessen LW; Swart RJ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenia; MNV

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the scenario analysis in UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook, published at the same time as the scenario analysis. This Outlook provides a pilot assessment of developments in the environment, both global and regional, between now and 2015, with a further projection to 2050. The study was carried out in support of the Agenda 21 interim evaluation, five years after 'Rio' and ten years after 'Brundtland'. The scenario analysis is based on only one scenario, Conventional...

  3. On global error estimation and control for initial value problems

    J. Lang (Jens); J.G. Verwer (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses global error estimation and control for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations. The focus lies on a comparison between a novel approach based onthe adjoint method combined with a small sample statistical initialization and the classical approach

  4. On global error estimation and control for initial value problems

    Lang, J.; Verwer, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. This paper addresses global error estimation and control for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations. The focus lies on a comparison between a novel approach based on the adjoint method combined with a small sample statistical initialization and the classical approach

  5. A numerical study for global atmospheric transport-chemistry problems

    E.J. Spee (Edwin); J.G. Verwer (Jan); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); J.G. Blom (Joke); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    1998-01-01

    htmlabstractAtmospheric air quality modeling relies in part on numerical simulation. Required numerical simulations are often hampered by lack of computer capacity and computational speed. This problem is most severe in the field of global modeling where transport and exchange of trace constituents

  6. A numerical study for global atmospheric transport-chemistry problems

    E.J. Spee (Edwin); J.G. Verwer (Jan); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); J.G. Blom (Joke); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAtmospheric air quality modeling relies in part on numerical simulation. Required numerical simulations are often hampered by lack of computer capacity and computational speed. This problem is most severe in the field of global modeling where transport and exchange of trace constituents

  7. The core of the global warming problem: energy

    Hu, E.

    2005-01-01

    From the thermodynamic point of view, the global warming problem is an 'energy balance' problem. The heat (energy) accumulation in the earth and its atmosphere is the cause of global warming. This accumulation is mainly due to the imbalance of (solar) energy reaching and the energy leaving the earth, caused by 'greenhouse effect' in which the CO 2 and other greenhouse gases play a critical role; so that balance of the energy entering and leaving the earth should be the key to solve the problem. Currently in the battle of tackling the global warming, we mainly focus on the development of CO 2 -related measures, i.e., emission reduction, CO 2 sequestration, and CO 2 recycle technologies. It is right in technical aspect, because they are attempting to thin the CO 2 'blanket' around the earth. However, 'Energy' that is the core of the problem has been overlooked, at least in management/policy aspect. This paper is proposing an 'Energy Credit' i.e., the energy measure concept as an alternative to the 'CO 2 credit' that is currently in place in the proposed emission trading scheme. The proposed energy credit concept has the advantages such as covering broad activities related to the global warming and not just direct emissions. Three examples are given in the paper to demonstrate the concept of the energy measure and its advantages over the CO 2 credit concept. (Author)

  8. Global environmental problems, voluntary action and government intervention

    Richter, A.; van Soest, D.P.; Brousseau, E.; Dedeurwaerdere, T.; Jouvet, P.A.; Willonger, M.

    2012-01-01

    The global community faces several very pressing environmental challenges such as climate change, depletion of the high-sea fisheries, and unprecedented rates of biodiversity loss. Governments are in the process of designing environmental policies to address these problems unilaterally, but also

  9. Solving Unconstrained Global Optimization Problems via Hybrid Swarm Intelligence Approaches

    Jui-Yu Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic global optimization (SGO algorithms such as the particle swarm optimization (PSO approach have become popular for solving unconstrained global optimization (UGO problems. The PSO approach, which belongs to the swarm intelligence domain, does not require gradient information, enabling it to overcome this limitation of traditional nonlinear programming methods. Unfortunately, PSO algorithm implementation and performance depend on several parameters, such as cognitive parameter, social parameter, and constriction coefficient. These parameters are tuned by using trial and error. To reduce the parametrization of a PSO method, this work presents two efficient hybrid SGO approaches, namely, a real-coded genetic algorithm-based PSO (RGA-PSO method and an artificial immune algorithm-based PSO (AIA-PSO method. The specific parameters of the internal PSO algorithm are optimized using the external RGA and AIA approaches, and then the internal PSO algorithm is applied to solve UGO problems. The performances of the proposed RGA-PSO and AIA-PSO algorithms are then evaluated using a set of benchmark UGO problems. Numerical results indicate that, besides their ability to converge to a global minimum for each test UGO problem, the proposed RGA-PSO and AIA-PSO algorithms outperform many hybrid SGO algorithms. Thus, the RGA-PSO and AIA-PSO approaches can be considered alternative SGO approaches for solving standard-dimensional UGO problems.

  10. Global Optimization for Bus Line Timetable Setting Problem

    Qun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines bus timetables setting problem during each time period divided in terms of passenger flow intensity; it is supposed that passengers evenly arrive and bus runs are set evenly; the problem is to determine bus runs assignment in each time period to minimize the total waiting time of passengers on platforms if the number of the total runs is known. For such a multistage decision problem, this paper designed a dynamic programming algorithm to solve it. Global optimization procedures using dynamic programming are developed. A numerical example about bus runs assignment optimization of a single line is given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology, showing that optimizing buses’ departure time using dynamic programming can save computational time and find the global optimal solution.

  11. The problems of peculiarity regeneration of architectural-spatial environment of demolished cities

    Babakhanyans Dalar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Boundaries of national and international, typical and peculiar, individual and mass are ignored in the present conditions of battles (globalization, leakage of information, loss of technology, fast programs and the observation and regeneration of architectural-spatial environments has become very important. The article observes the revelation of this problem with regeneration of architectural-spatial environment of Gyumri city. The goal is to determine modern approaches of observance of the peculiarity of cities. The problem is to study development demands of architectural-spatial environment in modern and historical cities, to study its perception mechanisms , the main factors and patterns.

  12. Global environment outlook GEO5. Environment for the future we want

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    The main goal of UNEP's Global Environment Outlook (GEO) is to keep governments and stakeholders informed of the state and trends of the global environment. Over the past 15 years, the GEO reports have examined a wealth of data, information and knowledge about the global environment; identified potential policy responses; and provided an outlook for the future. The assessments, and their consultative and collaborative processes, have worked to bridge the gap between science and policy by turning the best available scientific knowledge into information relevant for decision makers. The GEO-5 report is made up of 17 chapters organized into three distinct but linked parts. Part 1 - State and trends of the global environment; Part 2 - Policy options from the regions; Part 3 - Opportunities for a global response.

  13. Global environment outlook GEO5. Environment for the future we want

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    The main goal of UNEP's Global Environment Outlook (GEO) is to keep governments and stakeholders informed of the state and trends of the global environment. Over the past 15 years, the GEO reports have examined a wealth of data, information and knowledge about the global environment; identified potential policy responses; and provided an outlook for the future. The assessments, and their consultative and collaborative processes, have worked to bridge the gap between science and policy by turning the best available scientific knowledge into information relevant for decision makers. The GEO-5 report is made up of 17 chapters organized into three distinct but linked parts. Part 1 - State and trends of the global environment; Part 2 - Policy options from the regions; Part 3 - Opportunities for a global response.

  14. Production loss among employees perceiving work environment problems.

    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Hagberg, Jan; Bergström, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    The overall aim of this explorative study was to investigate the relationship between factors in the psychosocial work environment and work environment-related production loss. Employees at a Swedish university were invited to answer a workplace questionnaire and were selected for this study if they reported having experienced work environment-related problems in the past 7 days (n = 302). A stepwise logistic regression and a modified Poisson regression were used to identify psychosocial work factors associated with work environment-related production loss as well as to identify at what level those factors are associated with production loss. Employees who reported having experienced work environment problems but also fair leadership, good social climate, role clarity and control of decision had significantly lower levels of production loss, whereas employees who reported inequality and high decision demands reported significantly higher levels of production loss. Never or seldom experiencing fair leadership, role clarity, equality, decision demands and good social climate increase the risk of production loss due to work environment problems, compared to those who experience these circumstances frequently, always or most of the time. Several psychosocial work factors are identified as factors associated with a reduced risk of production losses among employees despite the nature of the work environment problem. Knowledge of these factors may be important not only to reduce employee ill-health and the corresponding health-related production loss, but also reduce immediate production loss due to work environment-related problems.

  15. RELEVANT PROBLEMS OF UKRAINE’S INTEGRATION INTO GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Yevheniia Duliba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the main problems that prevent Ukraine from integrating into the global economy and to determine correct focuses of the foreign economic policy of Ukraine against the background of strengthening of globalization tendencies throughout the world. The bases of this research are bases of business development of the foreign economic policy of Ukraine and improvement of Ukrainian economy against the background of international integration. At the heart of the research methodology is a dialectical method of scientific knowledge and, besides, special methods of research based on modern scientific bases of economic, management and related to them knowledge: economic and statistic method – for the assessment of the modern state of foreign trade and investment activity of Ukraine; method of analysis and synthesis – for the determination of tendencies of development of integration processed in Ukraine; comparative analysis – for comparison of information concerning development of specific indicators of foreign economic activities in Ukraine. Results. As a result of research, the main blocks of problems, which impede the integration of Ukraine into the global economy, and requirements for their complex solution are determined. Besides, interdependence and interdetermination of problems, which impede the integration of Ukraine into the global economy, and requirements for their complex solution are explained. Political and legal, economic, sociocultural, and infrastructural preconditions that are necessary for effective integration of Ukraine into the global economy are highlighted. Practical implications. Analysis of the existing problems related to the actual economy, investments, innovation processes gives the possibility to determine the vector of development of Ukraine’s economy taking to account recommendations concerning its improvement for the purposes of integration into global economy. Value

  16. E-business Environment in the Global Information Society

    Vymětal, Dominik; Suchánek, Petr

    2009-01-01

    In today´s digital 21st century, almost all businesses face intense competition from competitors all around the globe. There are no borders and business area for the all companies is almost unlimited. As the main supports of mentioned fact are globalization and ICT´s development. Influences such as globalization, increased popularity of outsourcing and offshoring have recently combined to produce an environment where ICT graduates need to have up-to-date and industry-relevant knowledge and sk...

  17. Problem of landfilling environments pollution by heavy metals

    Zilenina, V. G.; Ulanova, O. V.; Begunova, L. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article discusses the problems of snow and soil pollution by heavy metals. The results of physical and chemical special features of the deposit environment are given. Also, the results of snow mantle research in Irkutsk are described. The problem of manganese degradation from electrochemical cells disposed in the SMW areas is being discussed.

  18. The effects of monitoring environment on problem-solving performance.

    Laird, Brian K; Bailey, Charles D; Hester, Kim

    2018-01-01

    While effective and efficient solving of everyday problems is important in business domains, little is known about the effects of workplace monitoring on problem-solving performance. In a laboratory experiment, we explored the monitoring environment's effects on an individual's propensity to (1) establish pattern solutions to problems, (2) recognize when pattern solutions are no longer efficient, and (3) solve complex problems. Under three work monitoring regimes-no monitoring, human monitoring, and electronic monitoring-114 participants solved puzzles for monetary rewards. Based on research related to worker autonomy and theory of social facilitation, we hypothesized that monitored (versus non-monitored) participants would (1) have more difficulty finding a pattern solution, (2) more often fail to recognize when the pattern solution is no longer efficient, and (3) solve fewer complex problems. Our results support the first two hypotheses, but in complex problem solving, an interaction was found between self-assessed ability and the monitoring environment.

  19. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Using the Local Environment to Explore Global Issues.

    Simmons, Deborah

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that water pollution is a global problem and presents statistics indicating how much of the world's water is threatened. Presents three elementary school classroom activities on water quality and local water resources. Includes a figure describing the work of the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network. (CFR)

  20. A concept for global optimization of topology design problems

    Stolpe, Mathias; Achtziger, Wolfgang; Kawamoto, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    We present a concept for solving topology design problems to proven global optimality. We propose that the problems are modeled using the approach of simultaneous analysis and design with discrete design variables and solved with convergent branch and bound type methods. This concept is illustrated...... on two applications. The first application is the design of stiff truss structures where the bar areas are chosen from a finite set of available areas. The second considered application is simultaneous topology and geometry design of planar articulated mechanisms. For each application we outline...

  1. Arsenic in Drinking Water—A Global Environmental Problem

    Shaofen Wang, Joanna; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-02-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a global environmental problem affecting a large number of populations, especially in developing countries. The "blackfoot disease"that occurred in Taiwan more than half of a century ago was attributed to drinking arsenic-contaminated water from deep wells containing high concentrations of the trivalent arsenite species. Similar arsenic poisoning cases were reported later in Chinese Inner Mongolia, Bangladesh, and India—all related to drinking groundwater contaminated with arsenic. The maximum contaminant level (MCL) of arsenic in drinking water has been changed recently by the U.S. EPA from 50 ppb to 10 ppb; the compliance date is January 2006. This article summarizes documented global arsenic contamination problems, the regulatory controversy regarding MCL of arsenic in drinking water, and available technologies for removing arsenic from contaminated waters. Methods for analyzing total arsenic and arsenic species in water are also described.

  2. Problem-Based Learning and Problem-Solving Tools: Synthesis and Direction for Distributed Education Environments.

    Friedman, Robert S.; Deek, Fadi P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how the design and implementation of problem-solving tools used in programming instruction are complementary with both the theories of problem-based learning (PBL), including constructivism, and the practices of distributed education environments. Examines how combining PBL, Web-based distributed education, and a problem-solving…

  3. Global assessments of the state of the marine environment: Contemporary initiatives

    Bewers, J.M.; Boelens, R.G.V.

    1999-01-01

    A large number of assessments of regional marine areas have been conducted in recent years for a variety of purposes. Periodic reviews of the state of the marine environment have been undertaken by the United Nations Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP). The most recent of these global assessments was published in 1990. The international adoption of a Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities in 1995 has led to additional demand for regional assessments and a global review. The regional assessments are either completed or in train largely through mechanisms associated with the UNEP Regional Seas Programme. The global assessment has been assigned to GESAMP and incorporated into its plans for the preparation of a new global review to be completed in the year 2002. The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, (IOC) the Scientific Committee for Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) are collaborating in a review of ocean science. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) recently approved funding for a 'Global International Waters Assessment' (GIWA) partly as a means of determining priorities within its International Waters Portfolio. This paper outlines the nature of, and contemporary activities within, these various assessments. (author)

  4. Building problem solving environments with the arches framework

    Debardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sass, Ron [U NORTH CAROLINA; Stanzione, Jr., Daniel [ASU; Ligon, Ill, Walter [CLEMSON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The computational problems that scientists face are rapidly escalating in size and scope. Moreover, the computer systems used to solve these problems are becoming significantly more complex than the familiar, well-understood sequential model on their desktops. While it is possible to re-train scientists to use emerging high-performance computing (HPC) models, it is much more effective to provide them with a higher-level programming environment that has been specialized to their particular domain. By fostering interaction between HPC specialists and the domain scientists, problem-solving environments (PSEs) provide a collaborative environment. A PSE environment allows scientists to focus on expressing their computational problem while the PSE and associated tools support mapping that domain-specific problem to a high-performance computing system. This article describes Arches, an object-oriented framework for building domain-specific PSEs. The framework was designed to support a wide range of problem domains and to be extensible to support very different high-performance computing targets. To demonstrate this flexibility, two PSEs have been developed from the Arches framework to solve problem in two different domains and target very different computing platforms. The Coven PSE supports parallel applications that require large-scale parallelism found in cost-effective Beowulf clusters. In contrast, RCADE targets FPGA-based reconfigurable computing and was originally designed to aid NASA Earth scientists studying satellite instrument data.

  5. WHO global and regional strategies for health and environment

    Hisashi Ogawa

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the WHO global and regional strategies for health and environment and discusses research needs on environmental health to support the implementation of the strategies. Particular emphasis on applied researches which generate information, for decision making, on health effects of development and environmental changes in specific locations

  6. WHO global and regional strategies for health and environment

    Ogawa, Hisashi [World Health Organization, Manila (Philippines). Regional Office for the Western Pacific

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the WHO global and regional strategies for health and environment and discusses research needs on environmental health to support the implementation of the strategies. Particular emphasis on applied researches which generate information, for decision making, on health effects of development and environmental changes in specific locations.

  7. Modelling Global Pattern Formations for Collaborative Learning Environments

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Khaled, Rilla

    2012-01-01

    We present our research towards the design of a computational framework capable of modelling the formation and evolution of global patterns (i.e. group structures) in a population of social individuals. The framework is intended to be used in collaborative environments, e.g. social serious games...

  8. International Management: Creating a More Realistic Global Planning Environment.

    Waldron, Darryl G.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need for realistic global planning environments in international business education, introducing a strategic planning model that has teams interacting with teams to strategically analyze a selected multinational company. This dynamic process must result in a single integrated written analysis that specifies an optimal strategy for…

  9. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?

    Palacios, Cristina; Gonzalez, Lilliana

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide in all age groups, even in those residing in countries with low latitude, where it was generally assumed that UV radiation was adequate enough to prevent this deficiency, and in industrialized countries, where vitamin D fortification has been implemented now for years. However, most countries are still lacking data, particularly population representative data, with very limited information in infants, children, adolescents and pregnant women. Since the number of recent publications is escalating, with a broadening of the geographic diversity, the objective of the present report was to conduct a more recent systematic review of global vitamin D status, with particular emphasis in at risk groups. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed/Medline in April-June 2013 to identify articles on vitamin D status worldwide published in the last 10 years in apparently healthy individuals. Only studies with vitamin D status prevalence were included. If available, the first source selected was population-based or representative samples studies. Clinical trials, case-control studies, case reports or series, reviews, validation studies, letters, editorials, or qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 103 articles were eligible and included in the present report. Maps were created for each age group, providing an updated overview of global vitamin D status. In areas with available data, the prevalence of low vitamin D status is a global problem in all age groups, in particular in girls and women from the Middle East. These maps also evidenced the regions with missing data for each specific population groups. There is striking lack of data in infants, children and adolescents worldwide, and in most countries of South America and Africa. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem in all age groups, particularly in those from the Middle East. This article is part of a Special Issue

  10. Knowledge-inducing Global Path Planning for Robots in Environment with Hybrid Terrain

    Yi-nan Guo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In complex environment with hybrid terrain, different regions may have different terrain. Path planning for robots in such environment is an open NP-complete problem, which lacks effective methods. The paper develops a novel global path planning method based on common sense and evolution knowledge by adopting dual evolution structure in culture algorithms. Common sense describes terrain information and feasibility of environment, which is used to evaluate and select the paths. Evolution knowledge describes the angle relationship between the path and the obstacles, or the common segments of paths, which is used to judge and repair infeasible individuals. Taken two types of environments with different obstacles and terrain as examples, simulation results indicate that the algorithm can effectively solve path planning problem in complex environment and decrease the computation complexity for judgment and repair of infeasible individuals. It also can improve the convergence speed and have better computation stability.

  11. Proposal of Evolutionary Simplex Method for Global Optimization Problem

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    To make an agile decision in a rational manner, role of optimization engineering has been notified increasingly under diversified customer demand. With this point of view, in this paper, we have proposed a new evolutionary method serving as an optimization technique in the paradigm of optimization engineering. The developed method has prospects to solve globally various complicated problem appearing in real world applications. It is evolved from the conventional method known as Nelder and Mead’s Simplex method by virtue of idea borrowed from recent meta-heuristic method such as PSO. Mentioning an algorithm to handle linear inequality constraints effectively, we have validated effectiveness of the proposed method through comparison with other methods using several benchmark problems.

  12. Process competencies in a problem and project based learning environment

    Du, Xiangyun; Kolmos, Anette

    2006-01-01

    with the expected professional competencies. Based on the educational practice of PBL Aalborg Model, which is characterized by problem-orientation, project-organization and team work, this paper examines the process of developing process competencies through studying engineering in a PBL environment from...... process competencies through doing problem and project based work in teams? 2) How do students perceive their achievement of these process competencies?......Future engineers are not only required to master technological competencies concerning solving problems, producing and innovating technology, they are also expected to have capabilities of cooperation, communication, and project management in diverse social context, which are referred to as process...

  13. Integrated assessment of the global warming problem: A decision-analytical approach

    Van Lenthe, J.; Hendrickx, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    1994-12-01

    The multi-disciplinary character of the global warming problem asks for an integrated assessment approach for ordering and combining the various physical, ecological, economical, and sociological results. The Netherlands initiated their own National Research Program (NRP) on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP). The first phase (NRP-1) identified the integration theme as one of five central research themes. The second phase (NRP-2) shows a growing concern for integrated assessment issues. The current two-year research project 'Characterizing the risks: a comparative analysis of the risks of global warming and of relevant policy options, which started in September 1993, comes under the integrated assessment part of the Dutch NRP. The first part of the interim report describes the search for an integrated assessment methodology. It starts with emphasizing the need for integrated assessment at a relatively high level of aggregation and from a policy point of view. The conclusion will be that a decision-analytical approach might fit the purpose of a policy-oriented integrated modeling of the global warming problem. The discussion proceeds with an account on decision analysis and its explicit incorporation and analysis of uncertainty. Then influence diagrams, a relatively recent development in decision analysis, are introduced as a useful decision-analytical approach for integrated assessment. Finally, a software environment for creating and analyzing complex influence diagram models is discussed. The second part of the interim report provides a first, provisional integrated modeling of the global warming problem, emphasizing on the illustration of the decision-analytical approach. Major problem elements are identified and an initial problem structure is developed. The problem structure is described in terms of hierarchical influence diagrams. At some places the qualitative structure is filled with quantitative data

  14. A DE-Based Scatter Search for Global Optimization Problems

    Kun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid scatter search (SS algorithm for continuous global optimization problems by incorporating the evolution mechanism of differential evolution (DE into the reference set updated procedure of SS to act as the new solution generation method. This hybrid algorithm is called a DE-based SS (SSDE algorithm. Since different kinds of mutation operators of DE have been proposed in the literature and they have shown different search abilities for different kinds of problems, four traditional mutation operators are adopted in the hybrid SSDE algorithm. To adaptively select the mutation operator that is most appropriate to the current problem, an adaptive mechanism for the candidate mutation operators is developed. In addition, to enhance the exploration ability of SSDE, a reinitialization method is adopted to create a new population and subsequently construct a new reference set whenever the search process of SSDE is trapped in local optimum. Computational experiments on benchmark problems show that the proposed SSDE is competitive or superior to some state-of-the-art algorithms in the literature.

  15. Assessment of the environment-related problems and prospects of ...

    The study attempted to assess the environment-related problems and prospects of vegetable production in peri – urban areas of Lagos state, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) farmers were interviewed. Data collected were analyzed using frequency, percentages and Pearson Product Moment Correlation ...

  16. Actual problems of geo-environment and sounding systems

    Burakhovich, T. K.; Kobolev, V. P.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the conference "Actual problems of geo-environment and sounding systems", dedicated to the memory of outstanding scientists - Vladimir Nikolaevich Shuman and Sergei Nikolaevich Kulik, who made a great contribution to the theory, methodology and geological interpretation of deep electromagnetic electromagnetic sounding of the Earth.

  17. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    section. Global companies will need to organize cross-functional value capture teams focused on appropriating value from their know-how and reputation by combining different institutional, market, and non-market tools, depending on the institutional and business environment in a particular region.......This paper documents the strong growth in tools used by firms to protect their intellectual property (IP), develop their know-how, and build and maintain their reputation globally. We focus on three tools that have become increasingly important in the last several decades: patents, trademarks...... experiencing the most growth. These trends in applications are less evident when we study which applications are actually granted. For example, the shift in IP activity toward middle-income countries and Asia is less pronounced, and the most developed countries still lead globally. Moreover, there seems...

  18. Global regularization method for planar restricted three-body problem

    Sharaf M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, global regularization method for planar restricted three-body problem is purposed by using the transformation z = x+iy = ν cos n(u+iv, where i = √−1, 0 < ν ≤ 1 and n is a positive integer. The method is developed analytically and computationally. For the analytical developments, analytical solutions in power series of the pseudotime τ are obtained for positions and velocities (u, v, u', v' and (x, y, x˙, y˙ in both regularized and physical planes respectively, the physical time t is also obtained as power series in τ. Moreover, relations between the coefficients of the power series are obtained for two consequent values of n. Also, we developed analytical solutions in power series form for the inverse problem of finding τ in terms of t. As typical examples, three symbolic expressions for the coefficients of the power series were developed in terms of initial values. As to the computational developments, the global regularized equations of motion are developed together with their initial values in forms suitable for digital computations using any differential equations solver. On the other hand, for numerical evolutions of power series, an efficient method depending on the continued fraction theory is provided.

  19. Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership

    Matthews, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth

  20. CHANGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES RELATED TO THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT COMPLEXITY

    Elena DOVAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes in organizations appear as a reaction to the organizational environment changes. In order to manage these changes successfully, the managers need to anticipate and design alternative strategies by preparing different options.  Nevertheless, the complexity of the global environment forces the managers to adopt strategies for their organizations that are facilitating the creation of new strategic competences and competitive advantages to face the environmental rapid changes. In this context, this paper is aiming to illustrate the main directions the change management may consider to change the organization strategies in order to harmonize them to the external environment, such as: integration versus externalization, flexible specialization and flexible organization, standardization versus adaptation, market segmentation, relationship building and maintaining and communication integration.  However, the new strategies are based on a changed attitude of the managers towards the competitive advantage that is dynamic and focused on creation rather then to operations.

  1. Nuclear energy as a contribution to the solution of energetic and environmental global problems

    Huttl, A.

    1993-01-01

    The sharp population growth has turned energy and environment problems into global problems. The yearly consumption of primary energy in the world is currently 11 billion TCE (Tons of Coal Equivalent). At the present time 88.1% of energy supply is produced by fossil fuels and nuclear only 5.2%. Fossil fuels are responsible for air pollutants like SO 2 , NO, NO 2 , CO 2 , and VOC. Most of them are responsible of the Greenhouse effect and global warming. Only two solutions may avoid this situation: Renewable energies (sun, water and wind) and Nuclear Energy. At the end of 1990 there were 424 nuclear power plants in the world with 1800 million Tu/year of CO 2 avoided (8% of the total emitted). New future scenarios of CO 2 avoided may only be reached with nuclear power contribution

  2. Regional strategies for the accelerating global problem of groundwater depletion

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Gleeson, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater--the world's largest freshwater resource--is critically important for irrigated agriculture and hence for global food security. Yet depletion is widespread in large groundwater systems in both semi-arid and humid regions of the world. Excessive extraction for irrigation where groundwater is slowly renewed is the main cause of the depletion, and climate change has the potential to exacerbate the problem in some regions. Globally aggregated groundwater depletion contributes to sea-level rise, and has accelerated markedly since the mid-twentieth century. But its impacts on water resources are more obvious at the regional scale, for example in agriculturally important parts of India, China and the United States. Food production in such regions can only be made sustainable in the long term if groundwater levels are stabilized. To this end, a transformation is required in how we value, manage and characterize groundwater systems. Technical approaches--such as water diversion, artificial groundwater recharge and efficient irrigation--have failed to balance regional groundwater budgets. They need to be complemented by more comprehensive strategies that are adapted to the specific social, economic, political and environmental settings of each region.

  3. A person in a closed environment as a psychological problem

    YuliyaV. Klochko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses an ethically weighted problem which is related to modern psychology: when a person lives in a closed environment. A new approach to solving this problem is being examined. It is based on the finding of substantial new functional aspects of the cognitive processes of making and losing meaning. The study of this sub-discipline started with O.K. Tikhomirov’s theory of thinking. The phenomenon of “adaptability to changes in lifestyle” is being analyzed. The substantial characteristics of the notion of a “closed environment” as well as the psychological manifestations which appear when one is forced to live in a closed environment or choses to live in one of his or her own volition are being revealed. According to the author, the new approach will allow us to come closer to understanding and being able to explain the psychological mechanisms of the mental upheaval which prisoners in solitary confinement experience.

  4. Digital literacy and problem solving in technology-rich environments

    Vesna Dolničar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development and progress, as well as the growing presence of information and communications technologies dictate the need for more highly developed digital skills in individuals. The paper focuses on the concepts of digital skills and problem solving in technology-rich environments. It examines these on the basis of empirical data obtained in the international study PIAAC. The introductory part presents an overview of the literature and the results of previous research in the field of measurement of digital skills, and data on the use of information society services among the EU Member States. The second part of the article refers to the results obtained in the study PIAAC. The results, confirmed by the results of other studies, showed the impact of age and education level on the problem solving in technology-rich environments. Article concludes with suggestions for improving the current state of integration of all population groups in training programs in the field of digital skills.

  5. A Benchmark Environment Motivated by Industrial Control Problems

    Hein, Daniel; Depeweg, Stefan; Tokic, Michel; Udluft, Steffen; Hentschel, Alexander; Runkler, Thomas A.; Sterzing, Volkmar

    2017-01-01

    In the research area of reinforcement learning (RL), frequently novel and promising methods are developed and introduced to the RL community. However, although many researchers are keen to apply their methods on real-world problems, implementing such methods in real industry environments often is a frustrating and tedious process. Generally, academic research groups have only limited access to real industrial data and applications. For this reason, new methods are usually developed, evaluated...

  6. Radiation and global environment. Consideration for the influence on ecosystems

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Doi, Masahiro; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2003-09-01

    This book is based on presentations at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) symposium of the same title held by the NIRS Research Center for Radiation Safety in December, 2002, is edited with somehow enlightening intention as well, and is composed from 6 parts of; 1. Reasons for concern for influence on ecosystems, 2. Behavior of substances in ecosystems, 3. Changes of global environments and life, 4. Various environmental stresses and living/eco-systems, 5. New development of evaluation studies on radiation effects, and 6. For the radiation protection of environments. The 1st part involves 3 chapters concerning studies on effects on ecosystems and radiation protection of environments; 2nd part, 4 chapters concerning behavior of radioactive and/or stable cesium and iodine in forest and environmental microorganisms, and behavior and effects of acidic substances; 3rd part, 2 chapters concerning terrestrial history and evolution/adaptation of livings; 4th part, 5 chapters concerning radiation stress, active oxygen, radiodurance/radio-resistant microorganisms, ultraviolet, and environmental hormones; 5th part, 6 chapters concerning effects on cells of environmental toxic substance and radiation, environmental stress evaluation by DNA micro-array, effects on taxis, use of microcosm, simulation of computational model ecosystem, and aquatic ecosystems; 6th part, 5 chapters concerning environmental radioecology, safety measures in high-level radioactive waste disposal under the ground, radiation protection of environments from radiation biology aspect, effects of chemicals, and aspect and strategy for radiation effects on environments. (N.I.)

  7. DESIGN – AS A RESPONSE TO THE GLOBAL PROBLEMS OF CONTEMPORARY

    FLOREA ELEONORA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Now when mankind has stepped into the third Millennium, the evolution of design is marked by the most pressing problems of contemporaneity: the danger of an ecological crisis; the psychological impact of the technological civilization on the human individual; the globalization of culture with no trace of colour and ethnic national differentiation. The solution of the created problems is due, in a primordial and decisive mode, to design. Eco-design is oriented towards the protection of the environment. Ethnic design promotes the traditional culture of peoples and ethnic minorities. Psycho-design claims the elaboration of individual unique tailored psychological projects. The mission of design in contemporary civilization is the protection, „humanization” and environment „awareness” of human vitality. Thus, the main characteristic of design is the so-called „technological humanism”.

  8. Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World

    2010-09-15

    Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW

  9. Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World

    2010-09-01

    Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW

  10. Critical perspectives on changing media environments in the Global South

    Nielsen, Poul Erik

    the changes in the media landscape continuously alter the power balance between state, civil society and market. At the meso level, these changes will be discussed in relation to the development of the different media and of a variety of new locally specific media environments, which create new spaces......The main aim of this article is to give a general overview and theoretically discuss how significant changes in the media landscapes in Global South countries alter existing spaces and create new spaces for political and socio-cultural exchange, thus changing the complex interrelationship between...... media and society. Knowing that media is only one of many aspects in current societal changes, the focus will be more on the interrelationship between media and society and less on other aspects like globalization, education and political reforms. At the macro level, the article will discuss how...

  11. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Expanding Global Health Problem

    Amosy E. M'koma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a summary of the global epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. It is now clear that IBD is increasing worldwide and has become a global emergence disease. IBD, which includes Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, has been considered a problem in industrial-urbanized societies and attributed largely to a Westernized lifestyle and other associated environmental factors. Its incidence and prevalence in developing countries is steadily rising and has been attributed to the rapid modernization and Westernization of the population. There is a need to reconcile the most appropriate treatment for these patient populations from the perspectives of both disease presentation and cost. In the West, biological agents are the fastest-growing segment of the prescription drug market. These agents cost thousands of dollars per patient per year. The healthcare systems, and certainly the patients, in developing countries will struggle to afford such expensive treatments. The need for biological therapy will inevitably increase dramatically, and the pharmaceutical industry, healthcare providers, patient advocate groups, governments and non-governmental organizations should come to a consensus on how to handle this problem. The evidence that IBD is now affecting a much younger population presents an additional concern. Meta-analyses conducted in patients acquiring IBD at a young age also reveals a trend for their increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, since the cumulative incidence rates of CRC in IBD-patients diagnosed in childhood are higher than those observed in adults. In addition, IBD-associated CRC has a worse prognosis than sporadic CRC, even when the stage at diagnosis is taken into account. This is consistent with additional evidence that IBD negatively impacts CRC survival. A continuing increase in IBD incidence worldwide associated with childhood-onset of IBD coupled with the diseases’ longevity

  12. Tourism, globalization and the environment in the Mexican Caribbean Coast

    Juan Córdoba y Ordóñez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The terms globalization and tourism tend to be regarded as synonyms in the Mexican Caribbean, an area which shifted from a virtually uninhabited borderline territory to a tourism center receiving over six million visitors peryear. Territorial occupation patterns derived from tourism -identified during field work through a physiognomic analysiswere used to investigate some of the implications of the complex relationship between tourism and development, the latter including not only economic but human factors, as well as with the natural and cultural environment characterized by both a great diversity and a great fragility.

  13. Conducting network penetration and espionage in a global environment

    Middleton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    When it's all said and done, penetration testing remains the most effective way to identify security vulnerabilities in computer networks. Conducting Network Penetration and Espionage in a Global Environment provides detailed guidance on how to perform effective penetration testing of computer networks-using free, open source, and commercially available tools, including Backtrack, Metasploit, Wireshark, Nmap, Netcat, and Nessus. It also considers exploits and other programs using Python, PERL, BASH, PHP, Ruby, and Windows PowerShell.The book taps into Bruce Middleton's decades of experience wi

  14. Deterrence and the New Global Security Environment - Lecture note

    Sitt, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This lecture note makes an analysis of a collective publication entitled 'Deterrence and the New Global Security Environment', edited by Ian Kenyon and John Simpson (Routledge, New York, 2006). This collection of papers rigorously examines the current place of deterrence in international security relations, delivering the best of contemporary thinking. This is a special issue of the leading journal 'Contemporary Security Policy'. The present Lecture note emphasises a particular deterrence situation mentioned in this publication which is the one involving terrorist actors

  15. GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE): A Concurrent Engineering Application

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Kunkel, Matthew R.; Smith, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a client-server software application purpose-built to mitigate issues associated with real time data sharing in concurrent engineering environments and to facilitate discipline-to-discipline interaction between multiple engineers and researchers. GLIDE is implemented in multiple programming languages utilizing standardized web protocols to enable secure parameter data sharing between engineers and researchers across the Internet in closed and/or widely distributed working environments. A well defined, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Application Programming Interface (API) to the GLIDE client/server environment enables users to interact with GLIDE, and each other, within common and familiar tools. One such common tool, Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation), paired with its add-in API for GLIDE, is discussed in this paper. The top-level examples given demonstrate how this interface improves the efficiency of the design process of a concurrent engineering study while reducing potential errors associated with manually sharing information between study participants.

  16. Subterranean karst environments as a global sink for atmospheric methane

    Webster, Kevin D.; Drobniak, Agnieszka; Etiope, Giuseppe; Mastalerz, Maria; Sauer, Peter E.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2018-03-01

    The air in subterranean karst cavities is often depleted in methane (CH4) relative to the atmosphere. Karst is considered a potential sink for the atmospheric greenhouse gas CH4 because its subsurface drainage networks and solution-enlarged fractures facilitate atmospheric exchange. Karst landscapes cover about 14% of earth's continental surface, but observations of CH4 concentrations in cave air are limited to localized studies in Gibraltar, Spain, Indiana (USA), Vietnam, Australia, and by incomplete isotopic data. To test if karst is acting as a global CH4 sink, we measured the CH4 concentrations, δ13CCH4, and δ2HCH4 values of cave air from 33 caves in the USA and three caves in New Zealand. We also measured CO2 concentrations, δ13CCO2, and radon (Rn) concentrations to support CH4 data interpretation by assessing cave air residence times and mixing processes. Among these caves, 35 exhibited subatmospheric CH4 concentrations in at least one location compared to their local atmospheric backgrounds. CH4 concentrations, δ13CCH4, and δ2HCH4 values suggest that microbial methanotrophy within caves is the primary CH4 consumption mechanism. Only 5 locations from 3 caves showed elevated CH4 concentrations compared to the atmospheric background and could be ascribed to local CH4 sources from sewage and outgassing swamp water. Several associated δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values point to carbonate reduction and acetate fermentation as biochemical pathways of limited methanogenesis in karst environments and suggest that these pathways occur in the environment over large spatial scales. Our data show that karst environments function as a global CH4 sink.

  17. A phenomenological theory of world population growth and global problems

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1996-01-01

    Of all global problems world population growth is the most significant one. To describe this process in its past and project it into the future a mathematical model is worked out. It treats the world population as an entity, seen as an open and evolv The approach is phenomenological and growth over very many generations is assumed to be selfsimilar and described by scaling. In terms of kinetics, the growth rate is proportional to the square of the total number of people and the nonlinear hyperbol of all mechanisms that contribute to our development in a collective interactive process. The model gives an estimate of the beginning of human evolution c.a. 4.4 million years ago and of the total number of people who ever lived c.a. 100 billion. In the scope of the model large scale cycles defined by history and anthropology are shown to be uniformly spaced in time on a logarithmic scale, expressing and inherent periodicity. As we approach the present, this progression of cycles is now termo transition. This is a s...

  18. New energy technology cope with global environmental problems

    Tsuchimoto, Tatsuya

    1991-01-01

    At present, the national and private storage of oil is the quantity for about 140 days in total, and it can cope with the temporary fear of oil supply, but if the Gulf War was prolonged, the large effect should be exerted to the energy supply. The reduction of the degree of oil dependence and the increase of the dependence on nonfossil fuel are taken up as the basic idea of the long term energy demand and supply in Japan. Also in the action plan for preventing global warming, the further promotion of energy conservation and the adoption of clean energy were decided to be carried out for decreasing carbon dioxide. In this report, among clean energies, the technology of electric power generation by sun beam, wind force and geotherm is described. The power generation by sun beam has many features, but the energy density is low, and the area for installation becomes large. The cost of power generation is relatively high. The power generation by wind force is superior in its environmental characteristics, and has been already put in practical use in USA and Europe. The problem is the reliability of the system. The geothermal power generation is available also in Japan, and is important for the energy security. The plants of about 270 MW are installed in Japan. (K.I.)

  19. Professional problems: the burden of producing the "global" Filipino nurse.

    Ortiga, Yasmin Y

    2014-08-01

    This paper investigates the challenges faced by nursing schools within migrant-sending nations, where teachers and school administrators face the task of producing nurse labor, not only for domestic health needs but employers beyond national borders. I situate my research in the Philippines, one of the leading sources of migrant nurse labor in the world. Based on 58 interviews with nursing school instructors and administrators, conducted from 2010 to 2013, I argue that Philippine nursing schools are embedded within a global nursing care chain, where nations lower down the chain must supply nurse labor to wealthier countries higher up the chain. This paper shows how this process forces Filipino nurse educators to negotiate an overloaded curriculum, the influx of aspiring migrants into nursing programs, and erratic labor demand cycles overseas. These issues create problems in defining the professional knowledge needed by Filipino nurses; instilling professional values and standards; and maintaining proper job security. As such, these findings demonstrate how countries like the Philippines bear the burden of ensuring nurses' employability, where educational institutions constantly adjust curriculum and instruction for the benefit of employers within wealthier societies. My interviews reveal how such adjustments undermine the professional values and standards that define the nursing profession within the country. Such inequality is an outcome of nurse migration that current research has not fully explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The future of the global environment. A model-based analysis supporting UNEP's first global environment outlook

    Bakkes, J.; Van Woerden, J.; Alcamo, J.; Berk, M.; Bol, P.; Van den Born, G.J.; Ten Brink, B.; Hettelingh, J.P.; Niessen, L.; Langeweg, F.; Swart, R.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated assessments in support of environmental policy have been applied to a number of countries and regions, and to international negotiations. UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook (GEO-1) can be seen as a step towards making the tool of integrated assessment more widely available as a means for focusing action. This technical report documents RIVM's contribution to the GEO-1 report, focusing on the subject 'looking ahead'. It is illustrated that a 'what if' analysis helps to look beyond the delays in environmental and resource processes. This report illustrates that integrated assessment and modelling techniques can be excellent tools for environment and development policy-setting. The methodology, however, will need to be further developed and adapted to the realities and expectations of diverse regions, incorporating alternative policy strategies and development scenarios. This report focuses primarily on the period 1970-2015, because reliable historical data are often only generally available from 1970 onwards and the year 2015 is believed to match the time perspective of decision-makers. The findings of the analysis are reported in terms of six regions, corresponding with the division of the UNEP regional offices. Questions asked are: how will socioeconomic driving forces affect freshwater and land resources, and how will these changes mutually interact, and why are these changes important for society? Chapter 2 deals with the development of the social and economic driving forces. In the Chapters 3 and 4 it is discussed how this pressure influences selected aspects of the environment. Chapter 3 alone addresses the importance of selected elements of the interacting global element cycles for environmental quality, while Chapter 4 addresses land resources, their potential for food production and associated dependence on freshwater resources. The impacts on selected components of natural areas (Chapter 5) and society (Chapter 6) are subsequently addressed

  1. DEGAS: Dynamic Exascale Global Address Space Programming Environments

    Demmel, James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-02-23

    The Dynamic, Exascale Global Address Space programming environment (DEGAS) project will develop the next generation of programming models and runtime systems to meet the challenges of Exascale computing. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics.

  2. Perfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment

    Jabro, A.; Jabro, J.

    2012-04-01

    PPerfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-located research partners and diverse funding sources, dynamic economic and political environments, and a changing workforce. Today's scientists must be prepared to not only perform work in the virtual team environment, but to work effectively and efficiently despite physical and cultural barriers. Research supports that students who have been exposed to virtual team experiences are desirable in the professional and academic arenas. Research supports establishing and maintaining established protocols for communication behavior prior to task discussion provides for successful team outcomes. Research conducted on graduate and undergraduate virtual teams' behaviors led to the development of successful pedagogic practices and assessment strategies.

  3. Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

  4. A Global Optimization Algorithm for Sum of Linear Ratios Problem

    Yuelin Gao; Siqiao Jin

    2013-01-01

    We equivalently transform the sum of linear ratios programming problem into bilinear programming problem, then by using the linear characteristics of convex envelope and concave envelope of double variables product function, linear relaxation programming of the bilinear programming problem is given, which can determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem. Therefore, a branch and bound algorithm for solving sum of linear ratios programming problem is put forward, and the c...

  5. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our

  6. Design research and the globalization of healthcare environments.

    Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Song, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Global healthcare practice has expanded in the past 20 years. At the same time the incorporation of research into the design process has gained prominence as a best practice among architects. The authors of this study investigated the status of design research in a variety of international settings. We intended to answer the question, "how pervasive is healthcare design research outside of the United States?" The authors reviewed the international literature on the design of healthcare facilities. More than 500 international studies and conference proceedings were incorporated in this literature review. A team of five research assistants searched multiple databases comparing approximately 16 keywords to geographic location. Some of those keywords included: evidence-based design, salutogenic design, design research, and healthcare environment. Additional articles were gathered by contacting prominent researchers and asking for their personal assessment of local health design research studies. While there are design researchers in most parts of the world, the majority of studies focus on the needs of populations in developed countries and generate guidelines that have significant cost and cultural implications that prohibit their implementation in developing countries. Additionally, the body of literature discussing the role of culture in healthcare environments is extremely limited. Design researchers must address the cultural implications of their studies. Additionally, we need to expand our research objectives to address healthcare design in countries that have not been previous considered. © 2014 Vendome Group, LLC.

  7. A local-global problem for linear differential equations

    Put, Marius van der; Reversat, Marc

    2008-01-01

    An inhomogeneous linear differential equation Ly = f over a global differential field can have a formal solution for each place without having a global solution. The vector space lgl(L) measures this phenomenon. This space is interpreted in terms of cohomology of linear algebraic groups and is

  8. A local-global problem for linear differential equations

    Put, Marius van der; Reversat, Marc

    An inhomogeneous linear differential equation Ly = f over a global differential field can have a formal solution for each place without having a global solution. The vector space lgl(L) measures this phenomenon. This space is interpreted in terms of cohomology of linear algebraic groups and is

  9. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm

    Abdulhamid, Shafi’i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques. PMID:27384239

  10. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm.

    Abdulhamid, Shafi'i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques.

  11. Open and Distance Education in Global Environment: Opportunities for Collaboration

    S. K. PULIST

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance education system in India has undergone many stages and phases of evolution before it really reached the stage of what is called open education, ICT-enabled education and global education. During these phases, it has assimilated different aspects of ICT with all applauds and has been able to go hand-in-hand with it transcending the national and regional boundaries. The distance education institutions have now started giving a serious thought to explore the possibility of cross-boarder expansion. The educational needs of the present society are changing very fast. The education is now being seen as an enabling tool for empowerment and all-round development of individuals. It is difficult for an institution to come up to all the educational requirements of the society. It is, therefore, time to collaborate rather than compete. Quality concern becomes a serious issue in such a situation. Consequently, globalization, internationalization, collaboration, networking have become the buzzwords of the day in distance education. In furtherance of this journey, Indira National Open University, INDIA organized an international conference on the theme “Open and Distance Education in Global Environment: Opportunities for Collaboration” under the aegis of International Council for Distance Education. The articles of the renowned educationists presented in the Conference have reserved their place in the volume under review. The volume is a repository of their experiences in the becoming of distance education all these years. The volume is spread over 32 chapters summed up into four major streams– internationalization are: collaboration and networking; ICT-enabled education; quality assurance; and distance education for development. The canvas of the volume covers the present scenario of open and distance education from the global perspective.The first part discusses as to how collaboration can be tamed to develop joint curriculum and deliver

  12. Understanding students visions about environmental global problems. Experience and lessons learned of teaching in Lithuania.

    Pereira, Paulo; Siarova, Hanna; Misiūnė, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, environment is accepted to be an important element of our welfare. Our activities and societal status are strongly related with the quality of the environment where we live. On the other hand historical and cultural backgrounds shape importantly our views about the environment and how we act towards it in our daily life. In a context of globalization and increase of competition at international level, knowledge appears to be one of the key components for the advance of the word. Most of the knowledge produced comes from high level education institutions and research centres, which have responsibility to create and encourage critical thinking. Individuals aware of the problems can be more active and can push things forward. We think that environmental knowledge and awareness are fundamental for the future of the society. In order to develop better methodologies are developed if we have a better perception of students understanding of environmental problems. The objective of this work is to study the Lithuanian university level student's perception about some environmental challenges of our society. We selected several questions for the students rate according the relevance of the question, as "Air Pollution", "Waste Management", "Resources overexplotation", "Biodiversity reduction", "Human Overpopulation" "Poverty", "Global Warming/Climate change", Natural disasters", "Terrorism", "Economical crisis", "War and armed conflicts" and the "Spread of infectious diseases". We ask to the respondents to rate the importance using a likert scale (1=Not Important, 2= not so important, 3=important, 4=very important, 5=the most important). Among all the questions, the most rated where the Water pollution, the Spread of infectious diseases and Air Pollution and the less important where Biodiversity Reduction, Human overpopulation and climate change. These results helped us to identify where some efforts should be taken to raise student's awareness about global

  13. Energy and the environment. A global view and strategies

    Pasztor, J.

    1988-01-01

    It should be recognized that the key to the future is in the rational use of energy, that is, a more efficient use of energy rather than a continuous increase in the supply of energy. Every unit of energy saved is a unit of energy which does not have to be produced, and whose environmental impacts do not have to be dealt with. Massive reductions in the growth rates, and, where possible, in the absolute use of energy will help us to gain time to better understand and develop response strategies to problems like climate change on the acidification of the environment. In this sense the rational use of energy, including intensified energy efficiency measures is the most environmentally sound energy option with which we should move into the next century. 25 refs., 4 figs

  14. GLOBALIZATION, CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS AND TENDENCIES OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    Nicolae TAU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization phenomenon have a extremely actuality due to the fact that is a key factor on the increasing interdependence of national states as a result of the expansion and intensification of international relations. The paper aims at presenting and analyzing the main ways of economic development based on the pace of technological progress and expansion of globalization, using different research methods of economic science, especialy comparative analysis and statistical method. As a result, data demonstrate that national economic development depends on the participating of the countries to globalization processes at regional and international levels.

  15. A Global Optimization Algorithm for Sum of Linear Ratios Problem

    Yuelin Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We equivalently transform the sum of linear ratios programming problem into bilinear programming problem, then by using the linear characteristics of convex envelope and concave envelope of double variables product function, linear relaxation programming of the bilinear programming problem is given, which can determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem. Therefore, a branch and bound algorithm for solving sum of linear ratios programming problem is put forward, and the convergence of the algorithm is proved. Numerical experiments are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL MARKETING STRATEGY

    V. Savelyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns with essence of assessment of the business environment and specific directions of analysis during the working out of global marketing strategy. The classification of the global marketing environment researches and tasks sequence in the context of the decisions made on each stage of global marketing strategy is proposed.

  17. Rasch Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving in an Online Environment.

    Harding, Susan-Marie E; Griffin, Patrick E

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the assessment of human to human collaborative problem solving using a set of online interactive tasks completed by student dyads. Within the dyad, roles were nominated as either A or B and students selected their own roles. The question as to whether role selection affected individual student performance measures is addressed. Process stream data was captured from 3402 students in six countries who explored the problem space by clicking, dragging the mouse, moving the cursor and collaborating with their partner through a chat box window. Process stream data were explored to identify behavioural indicators that represented elements of a conceptual framework. These indicative behaviours were coded into a series of dichotomous items. These items represented actions and chats performed by students. The frequency of occurrence was used as a proxy measure of item difficulty. Then given a measure of item difficulty, student ability could be estimated using the difficulty estimates of the range of items demonstrated by the student. The Rasch simple logistic model was used to review the indicators to identify those that were consistent with the assumptions of the model and were invariant across national samples, language, curriculum and age of the student. The data were analysed using a one and two dimension, one parameter model. Rasch separation reliability, fit to the model, distribution of students and items on the underpinning construct, estimates for each country and the effect of role differences are reported. This study provides evidence that collaborative problem solving can be assessed in an online environment involving human to human interaction using behavioural indicators shown to have a consistent relationship between the estimate of student ability, and the probability of demonstrating the behaviour.

  18. Forum: Problems and Prospects for a Global LaborMovement

    Bradley Nash Jr.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What are the roles for local, national, and international labor and worker organizations in struggles against intensified global integration? How do we achieve these possibilities? Inside this issue are five PEWS members' answers.

  19. Problem of consciousness in learning systems and environments

    S. F. Sergeev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems that arise when a human is involved into a complexly training systems and the environment. A theoretical analysis of the infl uence of consciousness on the training mechanisms within the framework of post non-classical conceptions of human psyche functioning was conceived. We argue that consciousness is not intended to refl ect the objective reality and acquire knowledge, and solves the problem of the construction of the subjective world, which is the sum of compromises between the subject and the dynamic environments of his experience. In contrast, consciousness selects and harmonizes the information useful for human life.The role of consciousness in training is largely contradictory and confusing. It is also the source of the new information. The information is distorted in order to create a world view, which tends to objectively contradictive to the outside observer and consistent for refl ective being. We stressed the important role of human’s multimodal sensory experience in the process of interaction between conscious and unconscious forms of knowledge creation and processing. We consider the qualitative difference between physical reality and the model presented in the subjective world. We postulated the existence in the mind of a human dynamic virtual model. According to this model, the natural world is delimited by person and opposed to it being a source of events that make up the content of his life. The border which was built in the consciousness divides constructed reality into the inner and outer worlds. These worlds have different significance for the subject, defining the nature of its activities.We analyzed models the structure of reality and reality as a world’s refl ection offered by Karl Popper, K. K. Kolin, R. Redfield, G. Roth. The attention was paid to the neurobiological model of subjective reality by V. Sergin, which proposed a hypothesis of automatic identification postulating a

  20. Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change

    Risser, P.G.

    1990-02-01

    The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

  1. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Hancock, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  2. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Gustavo A. Lobos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last hundred years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent.

  3. CORPORATE COMMUNICATION BIASES IN THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT UNDER GLOBALIZATION TRENDS

    Ramona-Elena, Chiţu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the private sector, employers’ requirements of specific communication skills, the economic field division into numberless branches of activity – finance and banks, management, human resources, accounting, international relations, tourism – the presence of a certain literature in the field by means of translations, all such aspects represent grounded reasons for the existence of a global economic vocabulary in the Romanian language. Finding its origins in the structuralism philosophic principles and associated with the structuralism linguistic trends, economic language’s globalisation becomes obvious nowadays through the occurrence of a large number of linguistic borrowings. Classified into either needless or necessary borrowed lexical units, lexical units borrowed and completely or at all assimilated in the target language, such borrowings lay the foundation of what specialists in the field call corporate language. Considering that the total or partial lack of knowledge on such language can become a real barrier in achieving communication, this study aims at analysing the level to which such words are known by the employees in the business environments involved in economic international partnerships and in multinational organisations.

  4. Rethinking ethical issues in global business environment | Mirwoba ...

    In the wake of globalization and liberalization policy, business ethics ... a push for diversity that has resulted into corporate business cultures that are ... The impediment of global business ethics is the phenomenon that, unlike established laws ...

  5. General problems

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  6. The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments.

    Swinburn, Boyd A; Sacks, Gary; Hall, Kevin D; McPherson, Klim; Finegood, Diane T; Moodie, Marjory L; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2011-08-27

    The simultaneous increases in obesity in almost all countries seem to be driven mainly by changes in the global food system, which is producing more processed, affordable, and effectively marketed food than ever before. This passive overconsumption of energy leading to obesity is a predictable outcome of market economies predicated on consumption-based growth. The global food system drivers interact with local environmental factors to create a wide variation in obesity prevalence between populations. Within populations, the interactions between environmental and individual factors, including genetic makeup, explain variability in body size between individuals. However, even with this individual variation, the epidemic has predictable patterns in subpopulations. In low-income countries, obesity mostly affects middle-aged adults (especially women) from wealthy, urban environments; whereas in high-income countries it affects both sexes and all ages, but is disproportionately greater in disadvantaged groups. Unlike other major causes of preventable death and disability, such as tobacco use, injuries, and infectious diseases, there are no exemplar populations in which the obesity epidemic has been reversed by public health measures. This absence increases the urgency for evidence-creating policy action, with a priority on reduction of the supply-side drivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptive Global Innovative Learning Environment for Glioblastoma: GBM AGILE.

    Alexander, Brian M; Ba, Sujuan; Berger, Mitchel S; Berry, Donald A; Cavenee, Webster K; Chang, Susan M; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Jiang, Tao; Khasraw, Mustafa; Li, Wenbin; Mittman, Robert; Poste, George H; Wen, Patrick Y; Yung, W K Alfred; Barker, Anna D

    2018-02-15

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly disease with few effective therapies. Although much has been learned about the molecular characteristics of the disease, this knowledge has not been translated into clinical improvements for patients. At the same time, many new therapies are being developed. Many of these therapies have potential biomarkers to identify responders. The result is an enormous amount of testable clinical questions that must be answered efficiently. The GBM Adaptive Global Innovative Learning Environment (GBM AGILE) is a novel, multi-arm, platform trial designed to address these challenges. It is the result of the collective work of over 130 oncologists, statisticians, pathologists, neurosurgeons, imagers, and translational and basic scientists from around the world. GBM AGILE is composed of two stages. The first stage is a Bayesian adaptively randomized screening stage to identify effective therapies based on impact on overall survival compared with a common control. This stage also finds the population in which the therapy shows the most promise based on clinical indication and biomarker status. Highly effective therapies transition in an inferentially seamless manner in the identified population to a second confirmatory stage. The second stage uses fixed randomization to confirm the findings from the first stage to support registration. Therapeutic arms with biomarkers may be added to the trial over time, while others complete testing. The design of GBM AGILE enables rapid clinical testing of new therapies and biomarkers to speed highly effective therapies to clinical practice. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 737-43. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Global gradient estimates for divergence-type elliptic problems involving general nonlinear operators

    Cho, Yumi

    2018-05-01

    We study nonlinear elliptic problems with nonstandard growth and ellipticity related to an N-function. We establish global Calderón-Zygmund estimates of the weak solutions in the framework of Orlicz spaces over bounded non-smooth domains. Moreover, we prove a global regularity result for asymptotically regular problems which are getting close to the regular problems considered, when the gradient variable goes to infinity.

  9. Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment

    Longstreth, J.

    1993-06-01

    Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches

  10. Fighting Sweatshops: Problems of Enforcing Global Labor Standards

    Appelbaum, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we address the question of how sweatshop production can be opposed, given the globalization of the apparel industry and the dominance of retailers in its commodity chain. After briefly reviewing conditions in the industry, we discuss the role that consumer pressure might play. We discuss three different, but potentially complementary, approaches: agreements between nations, codes of conduct and monitoring, and worker empowerment. We conclude with an analysis of the Workers’ Ri...

  11. Nursery education: problems and the way forward | Ezugwu | Global ...

    No Abstract. Global Journal of Educational Research Vol. 3(1&2) 2004: 13-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjedr.v3i1.29403 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  12. Automobiles and environment - also an economic problem. Kraftfahrzeug und Umwelt - auch ein oekonomisches Problem

    Mager, N

    1981-01-01

    The proliferation of cars since the early 60's and the resulting increasing spatial mobility have contributed to a considerable rise of wealth in economies based on the division of labour, it also had an influence on the creation of new or extension of existing areas of liberty. These undisputably positive effects are of the widerspread private use of cars are correlated with harmful effects on our environment. In some areas they have increased so much as to necessitate when more intensive efforts are in order to reduce pollution. The present thesis aims at describing and discussing the economic problems connected with exhaust gas control. A comprehensive economic analysis of the enviromental damages caused by automobiles and of the corresponding counterstrategies of ecologic policy must by based on the state of pollution existing in reality. The thesis therefore starts with a brief survey on the effective pollution caused by road traffic and automobiles in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  13. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes...... of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the situation....

  14. Global Food Security Problems in the Modern World Economy

    Abdulkadyrova, Madina A.; Dikinov, Andzor H.; Tajmashanov, Hassan È.; Shidaev, Lomali A.; Shidaeva, Eliza A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Food problem at the present stage of development of mankind is that due to improper and overly intensive use of natural resources, increasing demand for livestock products, increasing per capita food consumption and other factors, there has been a steady rise in food prices, represents a threat to food security in the countries with…

  15. EDUCATION IN GLOBAL INFORMATION-COMMUNICATION AND ANTHROPOGENIC ENVIRONMENT: NEW OPPORTUNITIES AND LIMITS

    Sergey F. Sergeev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article answers the question of how to use global anthropogenic environments in order to create effective educational environment. We demonstrate both technological and didactic abilities and limits of modern environment-based technologies, and provide a new approach to the educational environment creation. 

  16. Globalization of problem-based learning (PBL): cross-cultural implications.

    Gwee, Matthew Choon-Eng

    2008-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is essentially a learning system design that incorporates several educational strategies to optimize student-centered learning outcomes beyond just knowledge acquisition. PBL was implemented almost four decades ago as an innovative and alternative pathway to learning in medical education in McMaster University Medical School. Since then, PBL has spread widely across the world and has now been adopted globally, including in much of Asia. The globalization of PBL has important cross-cultural implications. Delivery of instruction in PBL involves active peer teaching-learning in an open communication style. Consequently, this may pose an apparent serious conflict with the Asian communication style generally dominated by a cultural reticence. However, evidence available, especially from the PBL experience of some senior Korean medical students doing an elective in the University of Toronto Medical School and the cross-cultural PBL experience initiated by Kaohsiung Medical University, strongly suggests creating a conducive and supportive learning environment for students learning in a PBL setting can overcome the perceived cultural barriers; that is, nurture matters more than culture in the learning environment. Karaoke is very much an Asian initiative. The Karaoke culture and philosophy provide a useful lesson on how to create a conducive and supportive environment to encourage, enhance and motivate group activity. Some key attributes associated with Asian culture are in fact consistent with, and aligned to, some of the basic tenets of PBL, including the congruence between the Asian emphasis on group before individual interest, and the collaborative small group learning design used in PBL. Although there are great expectations of the educational outcomes students can acquire from PBL, the available evidence supports the contention the actual educational outcomes acquired from PBL do not really match the expected educational outcomes commonly

  17. Globalization of Problem-based Learning (PBL: Cross-cultural Implications

    Matthew Choon-Eng Gwee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem-based learning (PBL is essentially a learning system design that incorporates several educational strategies to optimize student-centered learning outcomes beyond just knowledge acquisition. PBL was implemented almost four decades ago as an innovative and alternative pathway to learning in medical education in McMaster University Medical School. Since then, PBL has spread widely across the world and has now been adopted globally, including in much of Asia. The globalization of PBL has important cross-cultural implications. Delivery of instruction in PBL involves active peer teaching-learning in an open communication style. Consequently, this may pose an apparent serious conflict with the Asian communication style generally dominated by a cultural reticence. However, evidence available, especially from the PBL experience of some senior Korean medical students doing an elective in the University of Toronto Medical School and the cross-cultural PBL experience initiated by Kaohsiung Medical University, strongly suggests creating a conducive and supportive learning environment for students learning in a PBL setting can overcome the perceived cultural barriers; that is, nurture matters more than culture in the learning environment. Karaoke is very much an Asian initiative. The Karaoke culture and philosophy provide a useful lesson on how to create a conducive and supportive environment to encourage, enhance and motivate group activity. Some key attributes associated with Asian culture are in fact consistent with, and aligned to, some of the basic tenets of PBL, including the congruence between the Asian emphasis on group before individual interest, and the collaborative small group learning design used in PBL. Although there are great expectations of the educational outcomes students can acquire from PBL, the available evidence supports the contention the actual educational outcomes acquired from PBL do not really match the expected

  18. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  19. The role of solar energy in resolving global problems

    Kendall, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy, and other alternate energy sources, including improved energy efficiency, can play a significant role in the solution of the cluster of ''great problems'' that face the present generation. These problems are related to, first, environmental damage, second, management of critical resources, and lastly, spiraling population growth. Some aspects of these linked difficulties are not yet well comprehended, even within the environmental community, though their neglect could prove to be very serious. It was the principal purpose of the paper to address those hidden risks. Seeking prompt and effective solutions to these problems is now a most urgent matter. On November 18, 1992, the Union of Concerned Scientists released a document called ''World Scientists'' ''Warning to Humanity''. The document outlined the most important challenges and set out the principal elements required to deal with them. It was signed by some 1,600 scientists from around the world, including the leaders of a substantial number of national honorary, scientific societies. In what follows, relevant elements of that statement are reviewed to set the stage for a description of solar energy's role in dealing with the situation that the world faces

  20. Implementation and verification of global optimization benchmark problems

    Posypkin, Mikhail; Usov, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    The paper considers the implementation and verification of a test suite containing 150 benchmarks for global deterministic box-constrained optimization. A C++ library for describing standard mathematical expressions was developed for this purpose. The library automate the process of generating the value of a function and its' gradient at a given point and the interval estimates of a function and its' gradient on a given box using a single description. Based on this functionality, we have developed a collection of tests for an automatic verification of the proposed benchmarks. The verification has shown that literary sources contain mistakes in the benchmarks description. The library and the test suite are available for download and can be used freely.

  1. A global health problem caused by arsenic from natural sources

    Ng, J.C.; Wang, J.P.; Shraim, A. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). National Research Center for Environmental Toxicology

    2003-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogen to both humans and animals. Arsenicals have been associated with cancers of the skin, lung, and bladder. Clinical manifestations of chronic arsenic poisoning include non-cancer end point of hyper- and hypo-pigmentation, keratosis, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Epidemiological evidence indicates that arsenic concentration exceeding 50 {mu}g l{sup -1} in the drinking water is not public health protective. The current WHO recommended guideline value for arsenic in drinking water is 10 {mu}g l{sup -1}, whereas many developing countries are still having a value of 50 {mu}g 1{sup -1}. It has been estimated that tens of millions of people are at risk exposing to excessive levels of arsenic from both contaminated water and arsenic-bearing coal from natural sources. The global health implication and possible intervention strategies were also discussed in this review article.

  2. Implementation and verification of global optimization benchmark problems

    Posypkin Mikhail

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the implementation and verification of a test suite containing 150 benchmarks for global deterministic box-constrained optimization. A C++ library for describing standard mathematical expressions was developed for this purpose. The library automate the process of generating the value of a function and its’ gradient at a given point and the interval estimates of a function and its’ gradient on a given box using a single description. Based on this functionality, we have developed a collection of tests for an automatic verification of the proposed benchmarks. The verification has shown that literary sources contain mistakes in the benchmarks description. The library and the test suite are available for download and can be used freely.

  3. Problems of the water environment and water consumption

    Raetsep, Aavo

    1999-01-01

    Water extraction and consumption in Ida-Viru County are based mainly on the groundwater and surface water. The major part of the surface water is consumed by power engineering, while households and industry are the main consumers of groundwater. The difference between water extraction and consumption shows that the unused mine water pumped up for draining the oil shale mines and open pits and discharged into rivers forms an essential part (on the average 86%, quantitatively 159-226 millions m 3 /yr.). Serious water supply problems have risen in connection with oil shale mining: numerous village and household wells have been depleted due to a deep drawdown cone, the groundwater of the upper aquifers is polluted with nitrates, phenols and oil products. The poor condition of water-pipes and great leakages (up to 60%) make it difficult to supply townspeople and villagers with high-grade drinking water meeting the Estonian general standard EVS 663:1995. Water pollution is conditioned by poorly treated wastewaters and sewage directed practically into all the major rivers and lakes of the county by industrial and power engineering enterprises and towns and rural settlements. The rivers of the Purtse basin have been continuously under a heavy pollution load: both the mine waters with high minerality and phenolic wastewaters (so-called ash hill waters) of the oil shale thermal processing have been discharged into the rivers. Various water contamination from land areas has led to excessive pollution of Northeast Estonian coastal waters of the Gulf of Finland with toxic organic compounds and nutrients, specially in the regions of Purtse, Saka, Sillamaee and Narva-Joesuu. Up to now, Estonia has not managed completely fulfil the recommendations of the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) of the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area. In 1998-2010, water management in Ida-Viru County should be directed towards achieving two Principal objectives

  4. Priorities in the field of international cooperation with the aim of solving global environmental problems

    Kondrat' ev, K.YA.

    1993-08-01

    Considerations on priorities are presented in connection with the broad development of bilateral and multilateral international cooperation to solve global environmental problems. Emphasis is placed on the problem of global climate change, on optimizing the global climate observation system, and on substantiating the (1) inadequacy of the 'greenhouse' stereotype of global climate warming which has long predominated in Russian cooperation programs, and (2) the need to realize real climatic prorities (the role of biosphere dynamics, the interaction of atmosphere and ocean, cloud cover and radiation, the colloidal nature of the atmosphere, etc.). The thermal balance of the earth and the dynamics of the biosphere are considered as the key problems of global ecodynamics. Particular attention is given to socio-economic aspects of ecology. 62 refs.

  5. China, India, South Africa, Brazil (BASIC): Crucial for the global environment

    2011-01-01

    The rising importance of the BASIC countries in a changing world Over the last decade the emerging economies have become increasingly important for the development of the global economy. This trend was reinforced by the global financial crisis which hit the developed economies the hardest, and after which the emerging economies emerged as crucial growth centres in the global economy. We are entering into a new era in global politics, and a broad process is currently taking place of restructuring global institutions and political processes to increasingly take into account the interests of the emerging economies. A global environmental crisis constitutes the backdrop for this change in global politics, as the current volume of production and consumption of the planets renewable resources (including the capacity to absorb greenhouse gas emissions) is beyond the planets regenerative capacity. The breakdown of the Doha Development Round in World Trade, the creation of the BRIC group and the G20, the emergence of the BASIC group of key emerging economies and the following developments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, all testify to the fact that China, India, South Africa and Brazil (BASIC) today have a decisive and increasing influence in world politics. With regards to the environment, this means that BASIC countries increasingly will set environmental standards in global markets as their economies to a greater extent come to represent global buying power, increasingly will influence to what extent environmental concerns are mainstreamed into international agreements (such as WTO) in general, and also will decide the scope and level of ambition and scope of international environmental agreements (as we see in UNFCCC). Among the emerging economies China, India, South Africa, and Brazil stand out as particularly important. China and India alone represent more than 35 per cent of the global population and are the most rapidly growing economies in the

  6. China, India, South Africa, Brazil (BASIC): Crucial for the global environment

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The rising importance of the BASIC countries in a changing world Over the last decade the emerging economies have become increasingly important for the development of the global economy. This trend was reinforced by the global financial crisis which hit the developed economies the hardest, and after which the emerging economies emerged as crucial growth centres in the global economy. We are entering into a new era in global politics, and a broad process is currently taking place of restructuring global institutions and political processes to increasingly take into account the interests of the emerging economies. A global environmental crisis constitutes the backdrop for this change in global politics, as the current volume of production and consumption of the planets renewable resources (including the capacity to absorb greenhouse gas emissions) is beyond the planets regenerative capacity. The breakdown of the Doha Development Round in World Trade, the creation of the BRIC group and the G20, the emergence of the BASIC group of key emerging economies and the following developments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, all testify to the fact that China, India, South Africa and Brazil (BASIC) today have a decisive and increasing influence in world politics. With regards to the environment, this means that BASIC countries increasingly will set environmental standards in global markets as their economies to a greater extent come to represent global buying power, increasingly will influence to what extent environmental concerns are mainstreamed into international agreements (such as WTO) in general, and also will decide the scope and level of ambition and scope of international environmental agreements (as we see in UNFCCC). Among the emerging economies China, India, South Africa, and Brazil stand out as particularly important. China and India alone represent more than 35 per cent of the global population and are the most rapidly growing economies in the

  7. Schoenfeld's problem solving theory in a student controlled learning environment

    Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes

  8. Problem-Based Learning in Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    Shimic, Goran; Jevremovic, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy in which students solve problems and reflect on their experiences. Different domains need different approaches in the design of PBL systems. Therefore, we present one case study in this article: A Java Programming PBL. The application is developed as an additional module for…

  9. Emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance: A global problem

    R Choudhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in clinical health settings. Interestingly the origin of many of antibiotic resistance mechanisms can be traced back to non-pathogenic environmental organisms. Important factors leading to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance include absence of regulation in the use of antibiotics, improper waste disposal and associated transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in the community through commensals. In this review, we discussed the impact of globalisation on the transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria through immigration and export/import of foodstuff. The significance of surveillance to define appropriate use of antibiotics in the clinic has been included as an important preventive measure.

  10. The causal texture of trade union environments | Iyayi | Global ...

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  11. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  12. Typology of person-environment fit constellations: a platform addressing accessibility problems in the built environment for people with functional limitations.

    Slaug, Björn; Schilling, Oliver; Iwarsson, Susanne; Carlsson, Gunilla

    2015-09-02

    Making the built environment accessible for all regardless of functional capacity is an important goal for public health efforts. Considerable impediments to achieving this goal suggest the need for valid measurements of acccessibility and for greater attention to the complexity of person-environment fit issues. To address these needs, this study aimed to provide a methodological platform, useful for further research and instrument development within accessibility research. This was accomplished by the construction of a typology of problematic person-environment fit constellations, utilizing an existing methodology developed to assess and analyze accessibility problems in the built environment. By means of qualitative review and statistical methods we classified the person-environment fit components covered by an existing application which targets housing accessibility: the Housing Enabler (HE) instrument. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used as a conceptual framework. Qualitative classification principles were based on conceptual similarities and for quantitative analysis of similarities, Principal Component Analysis was carried out. We present a typology of problematic person-environment fit constellations classified along three dimensions: 1) accessibility problem range and severity 2) aspects of functioning 3) environmental context. As a result of the classification of the HE components, 48 typical person-environment fit constellations were recognised. The main contribution of this study is the proposed typology of person-environment fit constellations. The typology provides a methodological platform for the identification and quantification of problematic person-environment fit constellations. Its link to the globally accepted ICF classification system facilitates communication within the scientific and health care practice communities. The typology also highlights how relations between aspects of functioning

  13. Integrated assessment of the global warming problem. A decision-analytical approach

    Van Lenthe, J.; Hendrickx, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The project on the title subject aims at developing a policy-oriented methodology for the integrated assessment of the global warming problem. Decision analysis in general and influence diagrams in particular appear to constitute an appropriate integrated assessment methodology. The influence-diagram approach is illustrated at a preliminary integrated modeling of the global warming problem. In next stages of the research, attention will be shifted from the methodology of integrated assessment to the contents of integrated models. 4 figs., 5 refs

  14. The Globalization of Higher Education as a Societal and Cultural Security Problem

    Samier, Eugenie A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I propose a theory of the globalization of higher education as societal and cultural security problems for many regions of the world. The first section examines the field of security studies for theoretical frameworks appropriate to critiquing globalized higher education, including critical human, societal and cultural security…

  15. THE INTEGRATION OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE AS A GLOBAL PROBLEM

    Anatoliy I. Rakitov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: mankind is on the edge of a new techno-technological and socio-economical revolution generated by robotization and automation in all spheres of individual and socio-economical activity. Among numerous conceptions of global development only the conception of the knowledge-based society is the most adequate to contemporary terms. As the higher education and science are the main source of knowledge adequate to contemporary terms then their integration should be investigated. Materials and Methods: the material for this investigation was gathered as from individual experience in science and pedagogical activity of the author which were earlier published in hundreds of articles and fifteen monograph translated in eleven languages, as the materials of Moscow city seminar, the results of which were published in annual “Science of science investigations”. This annual has been editing since 2004 and the author is the editor-in-chief of this edition. Also has been used other sources from different editions. The method of comparative analysis was used. Results: the author put forward the conception of inevitable integration of higher school and research institutions and forming a new structure – science-education consortium. Only such united structure can significantly rise both scientific researchers and higher education. And as a result, it will rise publishing activity and application of scientific researchers in real econ omy, social sphere, technological leadership. Discussion and Conclusions: conception put forward in this article fragmentary has been published by author earlier and initiated discussion in scientific press, which was reflected in home RISC and abroad citation indexes. The author proclaims the inevitability of realization of the suggested by him conception of the utmost integration of science and higher education.

  16. Humanity and Justice in Global Health: Problems with Venkatapuram's Justification of the Global Health Duty.

    Kollar, Eszter; Laukötter, Sebastian; Buyx, Alena

    2016-01-01

    One of the most ambitious and sophisticated recent approaches to provide a theory of global health justice is Sridhar Venkatapuram's recent work. In this commentary, we first outline the core idea of Venkatapuram's approach to global health justice. We then argue that one of the most important elements of the account, Venkatapuram's basis of global health duties, is either too weak or assumed implicitly without a robust justification. The more explicit grounding of the duty to protect and promote health capabilities is based on Martha Nussbaum's version of the capability approach. We argue that this foundation gives rise to humanitarian duties rather than duties of justice proper. Venkatapuram's second argument from the social determinants of health thesis is instead a stronger candidate for grounding duties of justice. However, as a justificatory argument, it is only alluded to and has not yet been spelled out sufficiently. We offer plausible justificatory steps to fill this gap and draw some implications for global health action. We believe this both strengthens Venkatapuram's approach and serves to broaden the basis for future action in the area of global health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    Executive Summary The authors argue that challenges to capturing value from know-how and reputation through the use of different IP tools will be an increasingly important matter of strategy for global enterprises. This has important implications for management practice. Global enterprises...... will need to combine different institutional, market and non-market mechanisms. The precise combination of tools will depend on the local and regional institutional and market conditions. Abstract: This paper documents the strong growth in tools used by firms to protect their intellectual property (IP......), develop their know-how, and build and maintain their reputation globally during the last decades. We focus on three tools: patents, trademarks, and industrial designs. We find that, although most IP applications come from a few countries (the United States, European Union, Japan, China, and South Korea...

  18. Capturing value from Intellectual Property (IP) in a global environment

    Alcácer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Globalization should provide firms with an opportunity to leverage their know-how and reputation across countries to create value. However, it remains challenging for them to actually capture that value using traditional Intellectual Property (IP) tools. In this paper, we document the strong growth...... in patents, trademarks, and industrial designs used by firms to protect their IP globally. We then show that IP protection remains fragmented; the quality of IP applications might be questionable; and developing a comprehensive IP footprint worldwide is very costly. Growing numbers of applications...

  19. Global public goods and the global health agenda: problems, priorities and potential

    MacKellar Landis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 'global public good' (GPG concept has gained increasing attention, in health as well as development circles. However, it has suffered in finding currency as a general tool for global resource mobilisation, and is at risk of being attached to almost anything promoting development. This overstretches and devalues the validity and usefulness of the concept. This paper first defines GPGs and describes the policy challenge that they pose. Second, it identifies two key areas, health R&D and communicable disease control, in which the GPG concept is clearly relevant and considers the extent to which it has been applied. We point out that that, while there have been many new initiatives, it is not clear that additional resources from non-traditional sources have been forthcoming. Yet achieving this is, in effect, the entire purpose of applying the GPG concept in global health. Moreover, the proliferation of disease-specific programs associated with GPG reasoning has tended to promote vertical interventions at the expense of more general health sector strengthening. Third, we examine two major global health policy initiatives, the Global Fund against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM and the bundling of long-standing international health goals in the form of Millennium Development Goals (MDG, asking how the GPG perspective has contributed to defining objectives and strategies. We conclude that both initiatives are best interpreted in the context of traditional development assistance and, one-world rhetoric aside, have little to do with the challenge posed by GPGs for health. The paper concludes by considering how the GPG concept can be more effectively used to promote global health.

  20. EXTERNAL BUSINESS ENVIRONEMENT PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN REZEKNE CITY

    Litavniece, Lienīe; Znotiņa, Daina

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is an essential driving force for the social and economic development of any city. Well-arranged external environment is a fundamental prerequisite in order to motivate local entrepreneurs and to attract investors for establishing new businesses and development of the existing ones. An important role in the development of the external business environment is played by the political position of the local government and the process regulations at the city. The paper aims to car...

  1. Accounting for Government in the Global South: do Global Solutions Match Local Problems?

    Stewart Lawrence

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of globalised accounting and economic reforms on the public sectors of lessdeveloped countries. Our interest is in the international institutions that have been instrumental inintroducing common, global remedies which appear to be based on theoretical understandings as opposed toexperience of the effects of their interventions. A growing concern is being expressed about suchinterventions, but there is a sparcity of reports from the field. We argue that a re-think is required of type ofthe public sector financial management reforms which the international financial institutions and the nationalaid agencies have been promoting across the Global South for the last decade or so.

  2. Eradication of Productivity Related Problems Through Lean Principles In Integrated Manufacturing Environment

    Rahul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this competitive era, manufacturing enterprises struggle to adopt cost-effective manufacturing systems. Overview of the recent manufacturing enterprises shows that successful global manufacturing enterprises have distributed their manufacturing capabilities over the globe. The successes of distributed integrated manufacturing enterprises depend upon the adaptation of appropriate manufacturing technologies like computer integrated manufacturing (CIM under the global collaborative environment along with the principles of lean manufacturing so that their corporate goals are achieved. CIM is an umbrella term which involves automated design, analysis, planning manufacturing, dispatching, customer-interaction, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control and factory floor functions, which are inter-linked through the computer, to control all the campus-wide manufacturing related operations. It helps to improve the performance of a firm by integrating various areas of manufacturing business in which most of lean ideas are embedded. These lean ideas cause work in a process to be performed with minimum of non-value adding activities and focus on customers’ needs by delivering them at minimum time, with high quality and at minimum cost by eliminating hidden waste. What happens at the shop floor of even an integrated industry is that proper and timely attention is not paid to the intangible lean principles in the manual part of the CIM system which results in substantial loss of the plant productivity. Therefore the objective of this research paper is to investigate the different poor productivity-related problems in a partially integrated manufacturing environment and lay down the remedial measures to eradicate them using ‘Juran’s problem solving techniques’ and various ‘lean tools’ which results in the reduced wastages and hence improved productivity.

  3. Shortest Path Problems in a Stochastic and Dynamic Environment

    Cho, Jae

    2003-01-01

    .... Particularly, we develop a variety of algorithms to solve the expected shortest path problem in addition to techniques for computing the total travel time distribution along a path in the network...

  4. Coastal and Marine Environment Problems in East Kalimantan Province

    Supriharyono

    2000-01-01

    Coastal and marine problems were collected from the coastal community in area of the Municipality of Balikpapan East Kalimantan Province, from fishermen, NGO's and government officials. The technique used was that of the Field Participatory Workshop's. the result of the study revealed some coastal community awarenees, coastal resources USAge, and governmental policy. The local government's failure to solve those problems was mainly due to lack of social awarenees for environmental coastal man...

  5. Globalization in a Religiously Pluralistic Environment: The Nigerian ...

    FIRST LADY

    Ways of assimilating the positive effects of globalization were considered while the .... appreciation of foreign goods including food items to the scorn of what they have. .... is verily not new among men but the current wind is also verily very fast that .... Like bad doctors, they could be said to treat the symptoms of the disease.

  6. Education and Development in a Globalized Environment: The Case ...

    Again, in the present globalized society in which every nation is connected to the other, education is perhaps the only instrument for people to adequately cope with the new trend. In most contemporary nation-states including Nigeria, the level of educational attainment vary across regions. Such discrepancy also exist within ...

  7. Educating Part-Time MBAs for the Global Business Environment

    Randolph, W. Alan

    2008-01-01

    To be successful managers in the business world of the 21st century, MBA students must acquire global skills of business acumen, reflection, cultural sensitivity, and multi-cultural teamwork. Developing these skills requires international experience, but educating part-time MBAs creates a special challenge demanding both rigor and efficiency. This…

  8. Meeting global needs via genetics x environment x management

    Global food needs are projected to double by 2050 to feed a projected 9 billion people and the challenge presented to agriculture is whether this is feasible. These goals will be faced with an increasing variability in climate and more extremes in temperature and precipitation in all parts of the w...

  9. Globalization in a Religiously Pluralistic Environment: The Nigerian ...

    Globalization has become one of the commonplace terms which describe the current world in which we live. The substantive ranks with such other adjectives like cybernetic, technological and democratic. Specifically the term points to the rallying together or homogeneity of world culture in its economic, technological and ...

  10. Radiation effects on man health, environment, safety, security. Global Chernobyl mapping

    Bebeshko, V.; Bazyka, D.; Volovik, S.; Loganovsky, K.; Sushko, V.; Siedow, J.; Cohen, H.; Ginsburg, G.; Chao, N.; Chute, J.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objectives: Ionizing radiation is a primordial terrestrial and extraterrestrial background and archetypal environmental stress-factor for life origin, evolution, and existence. We all live in radiation world inevitably involving nuclear energy production, nuclear weapon, nuclear navy, radioactive waste, pertinent medical diagnostics and treatment, etc with connected certain probability of relevant accidents and terrorist attack, space and jet travels, high natural background radiation, etc - actual and potential sources of radiation exposures and effects. State-of- the art integral fundamental research on radiation effects on man health, environment, safety, and security (REMHESS) is nowadays paramount necessity and challenge. Methods and results: In given generalized conceptual framework unique 20 years Chernobyl multidimensional research and databases for radiation effects on man's all organism systems represent invaluable original basis and resources for mapping Chernobyl data and REMHESS challenge. Granted by DOE brand new Chernobyl Research and Service Project based on 'Sarcophagus-II' (Object 'Shelter') workers only one in radiation history baseline cohort, corresponding biorepository prospective dynamic data, integrated conceptual database system, and 'state of the art' 'omics' (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics) analysis is designed specifically for coherent addressing global REMHESS problems. In this connection 'Sarcophagus-II' is only one unique universal model. Conclusions: The fundamental goals of novel strategic Project and global Chernobyl mapping are to determine specific 'omics' signatures of radiation for man depending of exposure peculiarity to understand ultimate molecular mechanisms of radiation effects, gene environment interactions, etiology of organisms systems disorders and diseases, and to develop new biomarkers and countermeasures to protect man health in the framework of global REMHESS challenge

  11. Cyanides in the environment-analysis-problems and challenges.

    Jaszczak, Ewa; Polkowska, Żaneta; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-07-01

    Cyanide toxicity and their environmental impact are well known. Nevertheless, they are still used in the mining, galvanic and chemical industries. As a result of industrial activities, cyanides are released in various forms to all elements of the environment. In a natural environment, cyanide exists as cyanogenic glycosides in plants seeds. Too much consumption can cause unpleasant side effects. However, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the most common source of cyanide. Live organisms have the ability to convert cyanide into less toxic compounds excreted with physiological fluids. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of knowledge on the behaviour of cyanide in the environment and its impact on the health and human life.

  12. Personalized learning Ecologies in Problem and Project Based Learning Environments

    Rongbutsri, Nikorn; Ryberg, Thomas; Zander, Pär-Ola

    2012-01-01

    is in contrast to an artificial learning setting often found in traditional education. As many other higher education institutions, Aalborg University aims at providing learning environments that support the underlying pedagogical approach employed, and which can lead to different online and offline learning.......g. coordination, communication, negotiation, document sharing, calendars, meetings and version control. Furthermore, the pedagogical fabric of LMSs/VLEs have recently been called into question and critiqued by proponents of Personal Learning Environments (PLEs)(Ryberg, Buus, & Georgsen, 2011) . In sum....... making it important to understand and conceptualise students’ use of technology. Ecology is the study of relationship between organisms in an environment which is the set of circumstances surrounding that organism. Learning ecologies are the study of the relationship of a learner or a group of learners...

  13. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems? On rationale, context, actors, impact and limitations

    Kolk, A.; Seitanidi, M.M; Crane, A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous

  14. Problem analysis of geotechnical well drilling in complex environment

    Kasenov, A K; Biletskiy, M T; Ratov, B T; Korotchenko, T V

    2015-01-01

    The article examines primary causes of problems occurring during the drilling of geotechnical wells (injection, production and monitoring wells) for in-situ leaching to extract uranium in South Kazakhstan. Such a drilling problem as hole caving which is basically caused by various chemical and physical factors (hydraulic, mechanical, etc.) has been thoroughly investigated. The analysis of packing causes has revealed that this problem usually occurs because of insufficient amount of drilling mud being associated with small cross section downward flow and relatively large cross section upward flow. This is explained by the fact that when spear bores are used to drill clay rocks, cutting size is usually rather big and there is a risk for clay particles to coagulate

  15. Uncertainty and learning in a strategic environment. Global climate change

    Baker, Erin

    2005-01-01

    Global climate change is rife with uncertainties. Yet, we can expect to resolve much of this uncertainty in the next 100 years or so. Therefore, current actions should reflect the value of flexibility. Nevertheless, most models of climate change, particularly game-theoretic models, abstract from uncertainty. A model of the impacts of uncertainty and learning in a non-cooperative game shows that the level of correlation of damages across countries is crucial for determining optimal policy

  16. COMPETITIVENESS OF PERU IN THE NEW GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT

    Gomero Gonzáles, Nicko Alberto

    2014-01-01

    It is important that a country develop strong competitive to gaing solid macroeconomic result and keep constant growing. In Peru has been achieving these past years, and that have been showing in the principals indicator of economic management. The public policies implemented have created favorable scenarios to bring in investments in all productive sectors, At the same time the national companies have been develop capabilities to achieve with successes of the market globalization. The divers...

  17. Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment

    Jone Corrales

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Because bisphenol A (BPA is a high production volume chemical, we examined over 500 peer-reviewed studies to understand its global distribution in effluent discharges, surface waters, sewage sludge, biosolids, sediments, soils, air, wildlife, and humans. Bisphenol A was largely reported from urban ecosystems in Asia, Europe, and North America; unfortunately, information was lacking from large geographic areas, megacities, and developing countries. When sufficient data were available, probabilistic hazard assessments were performed to understand global environmental quality concerns. Exceedances of Canadian Predicted No Effect Concentrations for aquatic life were >50% for effluents in Asia, Europe, and North America but as high as 80% for surface water reports from Asia. Similarly, maximum concentrations of BPA in sediments from Asia were higher than Europe. Concentrations of BPA in wildlife, mostly for fish, ranged from 0.2 to 13 000 ng/g. We observed 60% and 40% exceedences of median levels by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Europe and Asia, respectively. These findings highlight the utility of coordinating global sensing of environmental contaminants efforts through integration of environmental monitoring and specimen banking to identify regions for implementation of more robust environmental assessment and management programs.

  18. Problems of European inner cities and their residential environments

    Vaishar, Antonín; Zapletalová, Jana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2003), s. 24-35 ISSN 1210-8812 Grant - others:Evropská unie(XE) EVK4-CT-2002-00086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : inner city, residential environment, sustainibility, re- urbanization , Brno Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  19. Music Teachers in Turkey: Their Proficiency, Working Environments and Problems

    Otacioglu, Sena Gursen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was the collection of data concerning Turkish music teachers' proficiency and their place in the primary and secondary education system. In addition, information was collected regarding the teachers' working environment and professional complications. A total of 200 music teachers' opinions were compiled for the determination…

  20. PGDnet: A New Problem-Solving Virtual Learning Environment

    Gomez, Emilio; Rodriguez-Marciel, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to provide information about the virtual learning environment known as PGDnet (the Spanish acronym for "Plataforma de Gestion Docente" or Educational Management Platform in English), which was developed by the innovative education group at the Technical University of Madrid known as "Nuevas metodologias…

  1. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students' Achievements of Problem Solving

    Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…

  2. International Sport Movement in the Context of the Global Problems of Mankind

    Stafeev Dmitriy Valeryevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of globalization process the world becomes more and more integrated, the role of “hard” power becomes lower, while the role of “soft” power, vice versa, increases. Sport as one of the most important spheres of human activities, faces both positive and negative effects of globalization. Sport has an important function in the concept of “soft” security, and this importance is evidenced by serious attention, paid by the United Nations and other international organizations. The UN established the International Day of port, and it organizes regular meetings and conferences devoted to sport. Plenty of the UN Organizations officially use sport to achieve their aims. Sports diplomacy is believed to have reconciling, uniting role; sport must contribute to resolution of the most part of contemporary global problems. Abilities of the Information age allow using positive effect caused by sport events with maximal benefits. There is understanding in the UN, that sport alone cannot solve all global problems, but it can relieve their consequences. Therefore sport is used to struggle over such problems, as poverty; peace and security problems; disarmament necessity; human rights and democracy problems; demography, ecology and energy problems, difficulties with medical care and provision. On the other hand, sport suffers from globalization; it loses its initial function of competition due to politicization and commercialization. Even new issues of confrontation appear because of sports. Only global governance over sport, establishment of general rules and clear goals and their joint accomplishment can allow the international sports movement become a real force in fight against global problems.

  3. Changing world: Basic structure of global inter-relations between man and environment. Expert opinion for the year 1993

    1993-01-01

    A year after the environmental summit in Rio de Janeiro a turnabout in the alarming global environmental change is not within sight. Thoughtless economic activity and population growth threaten, damage or destroy many natural biospheres and biological communities world-wide. In the long term mankind is endangering its own survival. Global environmental changes have other causes and much more complex effects than most national environmental problems. In its first annual expertise of 1993, the scientific advisory council on ''Global Environmental Change'' describes the close global interknitting of man and nature, society and environment, in order to lay the foundation for future expertises. Global environmental targets and future economic development must be better matched to each other. In view of the following major trends: increase in world population, changing composition of the atmosphere in the long term, loss of biological variety and deterioration and loss of soils, the advisory committee gives some main recommendations: increase in German development aid to 1% of the GNP, rapid implementation of the climate convention, i.e., cuts in CO 2 emissions, and sensitization of citizens to global environmental problems as well as schemes for the promotion of environmentally-friendly practices. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Development of Digital Instruction for Environment for Global Warming Alleviation

    Praneetham, Chuleewan; Thathong, Kongsak

    2016-01-01

    Technological education and instruction are widely used in the present education trend. Using of digital instruction for environmental subject can encourage students in learning and raise their awareness and attitude on environmental issues. The purposes of this research were: 1) to construct and develop the digital instruction for environment for…

  5. Role of nuclear produced hydrogen for global environment and energy

    Tashimo, M.; Kurosawa, A.; Ikeda, K.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability on economical growth, energy supply and environment are major issues for the 21. century. Within this context, one of the promising concepts is the possibility of nuclear-produced hydrogen. In this study, the effect of nuclear-produced hydrogen on the environment is discussed, based on the output of the computer code 'Grape', which simulates the effects of the energy, environment and economy in 21. century. Five cases are assumed in this study. The first case is 'Business as usual by Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)', the second 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by ICE', the third 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Hybrid Car', the fourth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) with Hydrogen produced by conventional Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)' and the fifth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by FCV with Nuclear Produced-Hydrogen'. The energy used for transportation is at present about 25% of the total energy consumption in the world and is expected to be the same in the future, if there is no improvement of energy efficiency for transportation. On this point, the hybrid car shows the much better efficiency, about 2 times better than traditional internal combustion engines. Fuel Cell powered Vehicles are expected to be a key to resolving the combined issue of the environment and energy in this century. The nuclear-produced hydrogen is a better solution than conventional hydrogen production method using steam methane reforming. (author)

  6. Hazardous-environment problems: Mobile robots to the rescue

    Meieran, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a rationale for employing a spectrum of similar mobile robots to conduct appropriate common missions for the following five hazardous-environment issues: (1) dismantlement of nuclear weapons; (2) environmental restoration and waste management of US Department of Energy weapons sites; (3) operations in nuclear power plants and other facilities; (4) waste chemical site remediation and cleanup activities; and (5) assistance in handling toxic chemical/radiation accidents. Mobile robots have been developed for several hazardous-environment industries, the most visible ones being construction/excavation/tunneling, explosive ordnance/bomb disposal (EOD), fire-fighting, military operations, mining, nuclear, and security. A summary of the range of functions that mobile robots are currently capable of conducting is presented

  7. A retrospect of anthropogenic radioactivity in the global marine environment

    Aarkrog, A.

    1998-01-01

    . The IAEA's IASAP study has evaluated the radiological consequences of these dumpings. In a recent international study (MARDOS) by the IAEA it was concluded that the doses to man from anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment are generally one to two orders of magnitude less than the doses from......Man-made radionuclides were introduced into the marine environment in the mid forties with the exploitation of nuclear fission for military purposes. Plutonium production reactors at Hanford, USA, released radioactivity to the Pacific Ocean via the Columbia River. In the former Soviet Union (FSU......) the military nuclear establishment at Cheliabinsk (later MAYAK) a few years later began direct discharging of fission products to the nearby Techa River, which is a part of the Ob river system, and the Arctic Ocean received man made radioactivity. In the 1950s, when atmospheric testing of thermonuclear weapons...

  8. Transport and the global environment: Accounting for GHG reductions in policy analysis

    Halsnaes, K. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Markanday, A.; Boyd, R.; Hunt, A.; Taylor, T. [Univ. of Bath, (United Kingdom); Sathaye, J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (USS)

    2001-07-01

    That the transport sector is among the fastest growing economic sectors in both developed and developing countries is no surprise. The movement of people and goods is an essential part of modern society, and unlike some other economic goods the demand for transport largely coupled to income, so that as people become wealthier they demand ever more transport. Despite their many advantages of personal choice, convenience, and flexibility, modern transportation systems are not without problems, notably those that affect the environment and quality of life. The poor, even hazardous, air quality in many cities is often largely attributed to motor vehicle use, while the transport sector globally contributes one quarter of the greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere each year. Unfortunately, the environmental consequences of thransportation choices - both local and global - are often overlooked when transport planning decisions are made. This book attempts to remedy that deficiency by providing a guide to technical experts and policy makers concerned with environmental polices for the transport sector. It offers a consistent analytical structure for examining the environmental aspects of transport choices; defines the key economic and environmental concepts used in good policy analysis; and gives information on technologies, environmental impacts, and cost effectiveness of various policy options. The book also describes international financial mechanisms that can be used to support sustainable transportation policies and programmes. (au)

  9. Gas removal technique to maintain global environment. Chikyu kankyo hozen no tame no bojo gijutsu

    Yamada, K [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1992-10-12

    This paper describes the removal technique of gases such as CO2, SO2 and NOx which have the deep relation to the maintenance of global environment. This paper describes partially r SO2 and NOx which are the primary cause of acid rain. As for the removal of CO2 generated from fixed sources (thermal power stations and others), the separation technique and isolation-fixation technique have been researched on and developed. Of the separation method, the effect of the chemical absorption method and the adsorption method is proved with the preceding experiments. The isolation method is differently researched on as to store under deep sea or ground but may be urgent and temporary. The fixation of CO2 is a serious global problem which relates to the afforestation and forests. The fixation which uses coral reefs in ocean as the absorption source has a potential. As for the processing of substances causing acid rain, the desulfurization from petroleum and the flue gas desulfurization have the excellent results. The improvement of combustion method or the flue gas denitrification at the fixed sources are used to remove NOx. The removal of NOx from all diesel cars is difficult compared with the exhaust gas cleaning of gasoline cars and is not commercialized. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Problems of dynamics radionuclides behavior in environment of Belarus

    Basharin, A.V.; Matveev, S.A.; Pushkareva, T.L.; Sharovarov, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The experience of various methods application for radionuclide contaminated objects after the Chernobyl accident is considered. Methods useful to different objects, including kindergartens, are defined as a result of analysis. Methods of observation and control 134,137 Cs, 90 Sr and 238-240 Pu behavior in various environments are described. Value of the second air pollution after extraordinary situation at contaminated territories and object 'Ukryttia' is given. Dates of post-Chernobyl contamination of rivers and soils with radiocesium and radiostrontium, as well as deactivation of social objects are generalized

  11. Ionising radiations - an ecological problem of indoor architectural environment

    Djukanovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Architectural buildings are assessed not only for their esthetic characteristics but human settlements are considered now, as ecosystems and homes and flats as habitats (bio tops). Because of that healthy environment and influences of nonpolluting factors are of a great importance. The use of appropriate building materials harmless to health, contrary to the use of those that emit radon with its ionising effects and consequent health hazards, is of a great importance, too. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of investigation of building materials before their use, as well as the importance of quality control of soil where the construction is planned. (author)

  12. Executive Perceptions on International Education in a Globalized Environment: The Travel Industry's Point of View

    Munoz, J. Mark; Katsioloudes, Marios I.

    2004-01-01

    Research on globalization has determined travel executives' perceptions of the psychological implications brought about by an interconnected global environment and the implications on international education. With the concepts of Clyne and Rizvi (1998) and Pittaway, Ferguson, and Breen (1998) on the value of cross-cultural interaction as a…

  13. Communication Policies Reflection on Globalization Process and the Role of Advertisement in Integrated Communication Environment

    ÖZKAN, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Globalization process has created important changes and transformations across the world. These political, social, economic and cultural changes have considerably affected communication. The number of mass media instruments have increased, informatics has improved and also reaching information has become easier after the globalization of communication. New communication instruments and environments have been created. Globalised communication has also affected people, reaching the information ...

  14. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global market. This study assesses

  15. Measuring production loss due to health and work environment problems: construct validity and implications.

    Karlsson, Malin Lohela; Bergström, Gunnar; Björklund, Christina; Hagberg, Jan; Jensen, Irene

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to validate two measures of production loss, health-related and work environment-related production loss, concerning their associations with health status and work environment factors. Validity was assessed by evaluating the construct validity. Health problems related and work environment-related problems (or factors) were included in separate analyses and evaluated regarding the significant difference in proportion of explained variation (R) of production loss. health problems production loss was not found to fulfill the criteria for convergent validity in this study; however, the measure of work environment-related production loss did fulfill the criteria that were set up. The measure of work environment-related production loss can be used to screen for production loss due to work environment problems as well as an outcome measure when evaluating the effect of organizational interventions.

  16. Nurturing hostile environments: the problem of school violence.

    Fredland, Nina M

    2008-01-01

    Although school violence directly affects the overall health and well-being of children and adolescents, clear priorities have not been identified for dealing with the problem. Horrific events such as the 1999 Columbine High School shooting in Littleton, Colo, and recent shootings at Virginia Tech have focused the nation on high-profile, media-worthy school violence to the detriment of addressing everyday forms of violence in schools. Policies that have been developed to reduce school violence have mixed reviews. To raise the consciousness of healthcare professionals, educators, legislators, and the general public, the most salient issues are discussed.

  17. Modeling Multioperator Multi-UAV Operator Attention Allocation Problem Based on Maximizing the Global Reward

    Yuhang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the attention allocation problem (AAP in modeling multioperator multi-UAV (MOMU, with the operator model and task properties taken into consideration. The model of MOMU operator AAP based on maximizing the global reward is established and used to allocate tasks to all operators as well as set work time and rest time to each task simultaneously for operators. The proposed model is validated in Matlab simulation environment, using the immune algorithm and dynamic programming algorithm to evaluate the performance of the model in terms of the reward value with regard to the work time, rest time, and task allocation. The result shows that the total reward of the proposed model is larger than the one obtained from previously published methods using local maximization and the total reward of our method has an exponent-like relation with the task arrival rate. The proposed model can improve the operators’ task processing efficiency in the MOMU command and control scenarios.

  18. A new prospect on global environmental problems in the case of climate change: the impacts of strategic complementarity between countries

    Heugues, M.

    2009-06-01

    Among global environmental problems, climate change is one of the most serious. According to nearly all scientists, the roots of the problem is related to the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere and linked with human activities. The global character of this problem turns it into a big challenge. Within a framework of international trade liberalization, the analysis emphasizes the consequences of the inter-dependencies between economic agents, i.e. States, and of their strategic behaviours - when implementing national environmental policy - on natural environment. Starting with a deliberately conventional model and considering that countries' strategy can be complementary when emitting GHG, we bring new results in many respects and with regard to the existing ones. The thesis includes four chapters. The study highlights the impacts of the nature of the inter-dependencies between countries i) on the existence and the properties of equilibrium solutions - first, when no country cooperates and then from a globally optimal point of view -, ii) on the sequence of decisions, i.e. the circumstances under which a leader endogenously emerges when initiating its national environmental policy, iii) on profitability and stability of an international environmental agreement (IEA), iv) on the level of participation to an IEA and on the environmental impact of such a cooperation. A distinct feature of this research is to rely on the theorems of super-modular game theory. (author)

  19. Analysis of behavioral and emotional problems in children highlights the role of genotype × environment interaction

    Molenaar, D.; Middeldorp, C.; van Beijsterveldt, T.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested for Genotype × Environment (G × E) interaction on behavioral and emotional problems in children using new methods that do not require identification of candidate genes or environments, can distinguish between interaction with shared and unique environment, and are insensitive to

  20. Analysis of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Children Highlights the Role of Genotype 9 Environment Interaction

    Molenaar, D.; Middeldorp, C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested for Genotype × Environment (G × E) interaction on behavioral and emotional problems in children using new methods that do not require identification of candidate genes or environments, can distinguish between interaction with shared and unique environment, and are insensitive to

  1. Automatic, Global and Dynamic Student Modeling in a Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    Sabine Graf

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous learning allows students to learn at any time and any place. Adaptivity plays an important role in ubiquitous learning, aiming at providing students with adaptive and personalized learning material, activities, and information at the right place and the right time. However, for providing rich adaptivity, the student model needs to be able to gather a variety of information about the students. In this paper, an automatic, global, and dynamic student modeling approach is introduced, which aims at identifying and frequently updating information about students’ progress, learning styles, interests and knowledge level, problem solving abilities, preferences for using the system, social connectivity, and current location. This information is gathered in an automatic way, using students’ behavior and actions in different learning situations provided by different components/services of the ubiquitous learning environment. By providing a comprehensive student model, students can be supported by rich adaptivity in every component/service of the learning environment. Furthermore, the information in the student model can help in giving teachers a better understanding about the students’ learning process.

  2. Superconducting magnets in high radiation environments: Design problems and solutions

    St Lorant, S.J.; Tillmann, E.

    1989-11-01

    As part of the Stanford Linear Collider Project, three high-field superconducting solenoid magnets are used to rotate the spin direction of a polarized electron beam. The magnets are installed in a high-radiation environment, where they will receive a dose of approximately 10 3 rad per hour, or 10 8 rad over their lifetimes. This level of radiation and the location in which the magnets are installed, some 10 meters below ground in contiguous tunnels, required careful selection of materials for the construction of the solenoids and their ancillary cryogenic equipment, as well as the development of compatible component designs. This paper describes the materials used and the design of the equipment appropriate for the application. Included are summaries of the physical and mechanical properties of the materials and how they behave when irradiated. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  3. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  4. Instructional Designers' Media Selection Practices for Distributed Problem-Based Learning Environments

    Fells, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The design of online or distributed problem-based learning (dPBL) is a nascent, complex design problem. Instructional designers are challenged to effectively unite the constructivist principles of problem-based learning (PBL) with appropriate media in order to create quality dPBL environments. While computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools and…

  5. The dynamics of accounting terms in a globalized environment

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.; Nielsen, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    European accounting terminology is dynamic as term creation occurs on national, European Union and international levels. English is the lingua franca of accounting, which influences terminologies in other languages, usually through the work of translators, e.g. the translation of existing interna...... into Spanish; and the presence of novel metaphors in Spanish accounting. The data used in the discussion are taken from the accounting dictionaries, a collection of online dictionaries in three languages: Danish, English and Spanish.......European accounting terminology is dynamic as term creation occurs on national, European Union and international levels. English is the lingua franca of accounting, which influences terminologies in other languages, usually through the work of translators, e.g. the translation of existing...... international accounting standards. The combined influence of these forces is discussed in this chapter that explains the existence of a globalized trend towards a kind of cultural uniformity. This manifests itself in many ways, two of which are: the translation of English multiword accounting terms...

  6. The Global Environment Facility (GEF): Right mechanism for improved implementation?

    Andresen, Steinar; Rosendal, Kristin G.

    2012-11-01

    The purpose is to feed into the international discussions of environmental financial mechanisms such as for forestry and mercury by examining the performance of the GEF. We discuss performance against effectiveness and legitimacy and focus on institutional set-up and key actors as explanatory factors. Methodologically, we use document and literature analysis and interviews with key actors in organizations, state representatives and NGOs. The dominant position of the USA and the World Bank has probably contributed to the bias towards a northern environmental agenda and emphasis on effectiveness and climate change projects. The GEF has somewhat predictably diverted the flow of international money from the poorest countries to more rapidly developing countries. Still, despite turf battles between the organizations involved, the broad organisational and thematic composition of the GEF has comparative advantages. This enhances the score on legitimacy especially for biodiversity projects, although they receive less overall funding. The GEF may be seen as an indication of how, regardless of choosing established or new institutions, basic power structures and interests of dominating parties will be largely decisive for what can be achieved in global environmental governance.(auth)

  7. Global optimization for overall HVAC systems - Part I problem formulation and analysis

    Lu Lu; Cai Wenjian; Chai, Y.S.; Xie Lihua

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the global optimization technologies for overall heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The objective function of global optimization and constraints are formulated based on mathematical models of the major components. All these models are associated with power consumption components and heat exchangers for transferring cooling load. The characteristics of all the major components are briefly introduced by models, and the interactions between them are analyzed and discussed to show the complications of the problem. According to the characteristics of the operating components, the complicated original optimization problem for overall HVAC systems is transformed and simplified into a compact form ready for optimization

  8. Global environment action plant of Japan Society of Civil Engineers. ; Agenda 21 / Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Doboku gakkai chikyu kankyo kodo keikaku. ; Agenda 21 / doboku gakkai

    1994-04-15

    This paper explains the involvement of the global environment action plan of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Agenda 21, with civil engineerings and global environmental problems, as well as the global environment action plan. Global environmental problems require handling the matters in three ways: identification and elucidation of events, effect analysis estimation, and alleviation, avoidance and prevention of the effect. Settlement and proliferation of civil engineering technologies transferred to developing countries demand indispensably understanding such features of the developing countries as social and economic conditions, natural conditions, climates, histories, races, and cultures. Realizing the sustainable development requires the followings: formation of civil engineerings that contribute to improving global environments; development of civil engineerings that make coexistence of human being and other living organisms possible; analyses of effects and mechanisms of global warming and weather change and the corresponding technique and system development; and development of techniques to build resource circulating type national land and cities. It is also essential to move forward positively structuring civil engineerings that contribute to solving such global environmental problems as acid rains and marine pollution, and technical development thereof; providing guidelines on execution of international civil engineering constructions, and technical development thereof; developing civil engineerings in developing countries and assisting training of people.

  9. Insights for the third Global Environment Outlook from related global scenario anlayses. Working paper for GEO-3

    Bakkes JA; Goldewijk CGM; Meijer JR; Rothman DS; Vries HJM de; Woerden JW van; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); MNV

    2001-01-01

    This report relates to the ongoing development of scenarios for the third Global Environment Outlook (GEO-3) of UNEP. It illustrates the scale and type of environmental impacts that GEO-3 needs to consider. It does so by quantifying impacts using existing, recent studies whose scenarios come closest to the current tentative global storylines for GEO-3. With a view to GEO-3;s envisaged role as input for the Rio+10 Earth Summit in 2002, this report suggests a focus for the GEO-3 scenario analys...

  10. Nitrogen in the environment: sources, problems, and management.

    Follett, R F; Hatfield, J L

    2001-10-30

    Nitrogen (N) is applied worldwide to produce food. It is in the atmosphere, soil, and water and is essential to all life. N for agriculture includes fertilizer, biologically fixed, manure, recycled crop residue, and soil-mineralized N. Presently, fertilizer N is a major source of N, and animal manure N is inefficiently used. Potential environmental impacts of N excreted by humans are increasing rapidly with increasing world populations. Where needed, N must be efficiently used because N can be transported immense distances and transformed into soluble and/or gaseous forms that pollute water resources and cause greenhouse effects. Unfortunately, increased amounts of gaseous N enter the environment as N2O to cause greenhouse warming and as NH3 to shift ecological balances of natural ecosystems. Large amounts of N are displaced with eroding sediments in surface waters. Soluble N in runoff or leachate water enters streams, rivers, and groundwater. High-nitrate drinking water can cause methemoglobinemia, while nitrosamines are associated with various human cancers. We describe the benefits, but also how N in the wrong form or place results in harmful effects on humans and animals, as well as to ecological and environmental systems.

  11. Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems, and Management

    R.F. Follett

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is applied worldwide to produce food. It is in the atmosphere, soil, and water and is essential to all life. N for agriculture includes fertilizer, biologically fixed, manure, recycled crop residue, and soil-mineralized N. Presently, fertilizer N is a major source of N, and animal manure N is inefficiently used. Potential environmental impacts of N excreted by humans are increasing rapidly with increasing world populations. Where needed, N must be efficiently used because N can be transported immense distances and transformed into soluble and/or gaseous forms that pollute water resources and cause greenhouse effects. Unfortunately, increased amounts of gaseous N enter the environment as N2O to cause greenhouse warming and as NH3 to shift ecological balances of natural ecosystems. Large amounts of N are displaced with eroding sediments in surface waters. Soluble N in runoff or leachate water enters streams, rivers, and groundwater. High-nitrate drinking water can cause methemoglobinemia, while nitrosamines are associated with various human cancers. We describe the benefits, but also how N in the wrong form or place results in harmful effects on humans and animals, as well as to ecological and environmental systems.

  12. Developing Global Leaders: Building Effective Global- Intercultural Collaborative Online Learning Environments

    Ivy, Karen Lynne-Daniels

    2017-01-01

    This paper shares the findings of a study conducted on a virtual inter-cultural global leadership development learning project. Mixed Methods analysis techniques were used to examine the interviews of U.S. and Uganda youth project participants. The study, based on cultural and social constructivist learning theories, investigated the effects of…

  13. Energy and the environment as an optimization problem

    Walbeck, M.; Wagner, H.J.; Martinsen, D.; Bundschuh, V.

    1988-01-01

    The authors develop approaches and outline solutions leading to a more ecologically oriented strategy of energy utilisation, including outline solutions envisaging a possible change-over to a novel energy system. The frame of the study is set by the following conditions: Represent the energy systems as a combination of technologies; geographic area under review is the Federal Republic of Germany; the time period to be considered is 50 years; consider rates of change; compare currently available and novel energy systems to be set out and defined; cost (market criteria) and emissions (environmental criteria) are the criteria of comparison; energy supply and energy utilisation are the functions of the technology combinations of energy systems to be described. The book almost like a textbook explains the path from problem definition to model establishment and finally to description of possible applications, using as the leading example the MARNES model developed by the systems analysis project group of KfA Juelich. (orig./HSCH) With 52 figs., 27 tabs [de

  14. User Environment Tracking and Problem Detection with XALT

    Agrawal, Kapil [ORNL; Fahey, Mark R [ORNL; McLay, Robert [Texas Advanced Computing Center; James, Doug [Texas Advanced Computing Center

    2014-01-01

    This work improves our understanding of individual users software needs, then leverages that understanding to help stakeholders conduct business in a more efficient, effective, and systematic way. The product, XALT, builds on work that is already improving the user experience and enhancing support programs for thousands of users on twelve supercomputers across the United States and Europe. XALT will instrument individual jobs on high-end computers to generate a picture of the compilers, libraries, and other software that users need to run their jobs successfully. It will highlight the products our researchers need and do not need, and alert users and support staff to the root causes of software configuration issues as soon as the problems occur. A key objective of this work is generating the information needed to improve efficiency and effectiveness for an extensive community of stakeholders including users, sponsoring institutions, support organizations, and development teams. Efficiency, effectiveness, and responsible stewardship each require a clear picture of users needs. XALT is an important step in the quest to achieve that clarity.

  15. Fractal Eaarth: Visualizing the Global Environment in the Anthropocene

    Lekan, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay offers a postcolonial critique of recent environmentalist literature and exhibitions that frame the Anthropocene using the NASA Apollo mission’s Earthrise (1968 and Blue Marble (1972 photographs from space. Building on the work of Dennis Cosgrove and Donna Haraway, as well as historical evidence from the U.N. Environmental Summit in Stockholm in 1972, the essay explores how the attempt to depict Anthropos as a unitary geophysical agent resurrects the appeal to the Whole Earth environmentalism of the 1970s without attending to the U.S. imperialist and racist connotations of the disembodied “god trick” found in these extraterrestrial photographs. As evidenced already in the 1950s at the landmark Man and Nature conference at Princeton and in the wildlife documentaries of Bernhard and Michael Grzimek, moreover, the first decades of the Great Acceleration witnessed the growing use of aerial images to chart the “disappearance of the outside” and to advocate for wilderness areas in the Global South as a “cultural heritage of mankind.” The confluence of geophysical tipping points, universalist history, and political struggle over decolonization resulted in eco-images that subsumed all parts of the globe—most especially Africa—into a doomsday narrative of human profligacy that lost sight of a kaleidoscopic patchwork of cultural landscapes. Fractal topographies, by contrast, serve as more effective indices of the recursive layering found in digital representations such as Google Earth and help us to stretch our historical imagination and cultural criticism into scale-dependent and multi-agentic realms that lie beyond the Apollonian visions of the late Holocene.

  16. Inquiry, play, and problem solving in a process learning environment

    Thwaits, Anne Y.

    United States. This dissertation presents an account of the history of the institution and the continuing legacy of the early Exploratorium and its founder, Frank Oppenheimer. I argue that the institution is an early example of a constructivist learning museum. I then describe how art encourages learning in the museum. It provides means of presenting information that engage all of the senses and encourage emotional involvement. It reframes familiar sights so that viewers look more closely in search of recognition, and it presents intangible or dematerialized things in a tangible way. It facilitates play, with its many benefits. It brings fresh perspectives and processes to problem solving and the acquisition of new knowledge. This project is the study of an institution where art and science have always coexisted with equal importance, setting it apart from more traditional museums where art was added as a secondary focus to the original disciplinary concentration of the institution. Many of the exhibits were created by artists, but the real value the visual arts bring to the museum is in its contributions to processes such as inquiry, play, problem-solving, and innovation.

  17. Global existence and decay of solutions of the Cauchy problem in thermoelasticity with second sound

    Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2013-06-04

    We consider the one-dimensional Cauchy problem in non-linear thermoelasticity with second sound, where the heat conduction is modelled by Cattaneo\\'s law. After presenting decay estimates for solutions to the linearized problem, including refined estimates for data in weighted Lebesgue-spaces, we prove a global existence theorem for small data together with improved decay estimates, in particular for derivatives of the solutions. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  18. Global existence and decay of solutions of the Cauchy problem in thermoelasticity with second sound

    Kasimov, Aslan R.; Racke, Reinhard; Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2013-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional Cauchy problem in non-linear thermoelasticity with second sound, where the heat conduction is modelled by Cattaneo's law. After presenting decay estimates for solutions to the linearized problem, including refined estimates for data in weighted Lebesgue-spaces, we prove a global existence theorem for small data together with improved decay estimates, in particular for derivatives of the solutions. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  19. Global Military Operating Environments (GMOE) Phase I: Linking Natural Environments, International Security, and Military Operations

    2013-01-30

    diverse range of natural environments and will require that U.S. forces adapt to a wide range of terrain, climate, and associated hazards within these...Synthetic Environment Core Area), baseline terrain information, and application of remote‐sensing technologies for Warfighter and Chameleon . The

  20. Analysis of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Children Highlights the Role of Genotype × Environment Interaction.

    Molenaar, Dylan; Middeldorp, Christel; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-01-01

    This study tested for Genotype × Environment (G × E) interaction on behavioral and emotional problems in children using new methods that do not require identification of candidate genes or environments, can distinguish between interaction with shared and unique environment, and are insensitive to scale effects. Parental ratings of problem behavior from 14,755 twin pairs (5.3 years, SD = 0.22) indicated G × E interaction on emotional liability, social isolation, aggression, attention problems, dependency, anxiety, and physical coordination. Environmental influences increased in children who were genetically more predisposed to problem behavior, with ~20% of the variance due to G × E interaction (8% for anxiety to 37% for attention problems). Ignoring G × E interaction does not greatly bias heritability estimates, but it does offer a comprehensive model of the etiology for childhood problems. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Vectorization and parallelization of a numerical scheme for 3D global atmospheric transport-chemistry problems

    E.J. Spee (Edwin); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); J.G. Verwer (Jan); J.G. Blom (Joke); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractAtmospheric air quality modeling relies in part on numerical simulation. Required numerical simulations are often hampered by lack of computer capacity and computational speed. This problem is most severe in the field of global modeling where transport and exchange of trace constituents

  2. A Collection of Studies Conducted in Education about "Global Warming" Problem

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2011-01-01

    The studies global warming problem conducted in education discipline in the world and in Turkey were analysed for this study. The literature was reviewed extensively especially through the articles in the indexed journals of Ebsco Host, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis and Web of Science databases and this study was conducted according to the…

  3. On Global Solutions for the Cauchy Problem of a Boussinesq-Type Equation

    Taskesen, Hatice; Polat, Necat; Ertaş, Abdulkadir

    2012-01-01

    We will give conditions which will guarantee the existence of global weak solutions of the Boussinesq-type equation with power-type nonlinearity $\\gamma {|u|}^{p}$ and supercritical initial energy. By defining new functionals and using potential well method, we readdressed the initial value problem of the Boussinesq-type equation for the supercritical initial energy case.

  4. Existence of global solutions to free boundary value problems for bipolar Navier-Stokes-Possion systems

    Jian Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the free boundary value problem for one-dimensional compressible bipolar Navier-Stokes-Possion (BNSP equations with density-dependent viscosities. For general initial data with finite energy and the density connecting with vacuum continuously, we prove the global existence of the weak solution. This extends the previous results for compressible NS [27] to NSP.

  5. Dissociation of past and present experience in problem solving using a virtual environment.

    Sturz, Bradley R; Bodily, Kent D; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2009-02-01

    An interactive 3D desktop virtual environment task was created to investigate learning mechanisms in human problem solving. Participants were assessed for previous video game experience, divided into two groups (Training and Control), and matched for gender and experience. The Training group learned specific skills within the virtual environment before being presented a problem. The Control group was presented the problem only. Completion time was faster for the Training group and was affected by level of previous video game experience. Results indicated problem solving was a function of specific and general experience and demonstrated a method for dissociating these two facets of experience.

  6. Global optimization of discrete truss topology design problems using a parallel cut-and-branch method

    Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Højlund; Stolpe, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    the physics, and the cuts (Combinatorial Benders’ and projected Chvátal–Gomory) come from an understanding of the particular mathematical structure of the reformulation. The impact of a stronger representation is investigated on several truss topology optimization problems in two and three dimensions.......The subject of this article is solving discrete truss topology optimization problems with local stress and displacement constraints to global optimum. We consider a formulation based on the Simultaneous ANalysis and Design (SAND) approach. This intrinsically non-convex problem is reformulated...

  7. The problem of epistemic jurisdiction in global governance: The case of sustainability standards for biofuels.

    Winickoff, David E; Mondou, Matthieu

    2017-02-01

    While there is ample scholarly work on regulatory science within the state, or single-sited global institutions, there is less on its operation within complex modes of global governance that are decentered, overlapping, multi-sectorial and multi-leveled. Using a co-productionist framework, this study identifies 'epistemic jurisdiction' - the power to produce or warrant technical knowledge for a given political community, topical arena or geographical territory - as a central problem for regulatory science in complex governance. We explore these dynamics in the arena of global sustainability standards for biofuels. We select three institutional fora as sites of inquiry: the European Union's Renewable Energy Directive, the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials, and the International Organization for Standardization. These cases allow us to analyze how the co-production of sustainability science responds to problems of epistemic jurisdiction in the global regulatory order. First, different problems of epistemic jurisdiction beset different standard-setting bodies, and these problems shape both the content of regulatory science and the procedures designed to make it authoritative. Second, in order to produce global regulatory science, technical bodies must manage an array of conflicting imperatives - including scientific virtue, due process and the need to recruit adoptees to perpetuate the standard. At different levels of governance, standard drafters struggle to balance loyalties to country, to company or constituency and to the larger project of internationalization. Confronted with these sometimes conflicting pressures, actors across the standards system quite self-consciously maneuver to build or retain authority for their forum through a combination of scientific adjustment and political negotiation. Third, the evidentiary demands of regulatory science in global administrative spaces are deeply affected by 1) a market for standards, in which firms and states can

  8. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I. -I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas. PMID:25982028

  9. The Global Optimal Algorithm of Reliable Path Finding Problem Based on Backtracking Method

    Liang Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in finding a global optimal path in transportation networks particularly when the network suffers from unexpected disturbance. This paper studies the problem of finding a global optimal path to guarantee a given probability of arriving on time in a network with uncertainty, in which the travel time is stochastic instead of deterministic. Traditional path finding methods based on least expected travel time cannot capture the network user’s risk-taking behaviors in path finding. To overcome such limitation, the reliable path finding algorithms have been proposed but the convergence of global optimum is seldom addressed in the literature. This paper integrates the K-shortest path algorithm into Backtracking method to propose a new path finding algorithm under uncertainty. The global optimum of the proposed method can be guaranteed. Numerical examples are conducted to demonstrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  10. On the global "two-sided" characteristic Cauchy problem for linear wave equations on manifolds

    Lupo, Umberto

    2018-04-01

    The global characteristic Cauchy problem for linear wave equations on globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifolds is examined, for a class of smooth initial value hypersurfaces satisfying favourable global properties. First it is shown that, if geometrically well-motivated restrictions are placed on the supports of the (smooth) initial datum and of the (smooth) inhomogeneous term, then there exists a continuous global solution which is smooth "on each side" of the initial value hypersurface. A uniqueness result in Sobolev regularity H^{1/2+ɛ }_{loc} is proved among solutions supported in the union of the causal past and future of the initial value hypersurface, and whose product with the indicator function of the causal future (resp. past) of the hypersurface is past compact (resp. future compact). An explicit representation formula for solutions is obtained, which prominently features an invariantly defined, densitised version of the null expansion of the hypersurface. Finally, applications to quantum field theory on curved spacetimes are briefly discussed.

  11. Climate is the real challenge, not shortage. New problems arising for global energy supply

    Pestel, E.

    1988-11-01

    The author of the article is Professor E. Pestel who, as an executive member of the Club of Rome, belongs to the group of experts who first gave impetus to start thinking about the global problems of mankind. In his publications on the problems linked with CO/sub 2/ emission he explains the unavoidable dilemma created by the growing world population and the growing demand for energy on the one hand, and the resulting hazards to the global climate on the other. His analyses take away the soft cushion of hopeful make-believe still widespread in the Western World, and in his capacity as an expert and realist he decidedly calls for decisions and measures to tackle the problem.

  12. Towards high-performance symbolic computing using MuPAD as a problem solving environment

    Sorgatz, A

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the approach of developing MuPAD into an open and parallel problem solving environment for mathematical applications. It introduces the key technologies domains and dynamic modules and describes the current $9 state of macro parallelism which covers three fields of parallel programming: message passing, network variables and work groups. First parallel algorithms and examples of using the prototype of the MuPAD problem solving environment $9 are demonstrated. (12 refs).

  13. Laboratory and software applications for clinical trials: the global laboratory environment.

    Briscoe, Chad

    2011-11-01

    The Applied Pharmaceutical Software Meeting is held annually. It is sponsored by The Boston Society, a not-for-profit organization that coordinates a series of meetings within the global pharmaceutical industry. The meeting generally focuses on laboratory applications, but in recent years has expanded to include some software applications for clinical trials. The 2011 meeting emphasized the global laboratory environment. Global clinical trials generate massive amounts of data in many locations that must be centralized and processed for efficient analysis. Thus, the meeting had a strong focus on establishing networks and systems for dealing with the computer infrastructure to support such environments. In addition to the globally installed laboratory information management system, electronic laboratory notebook and other traditional laboratory applications, cloud computing is quickly becoming the answer to provide efficient, inexpensive options for managing the large volumes of data and computing power, and thus it served as a central theme for the meeting.

  14. Data on the global environment. The state of Denmark's environment compared with other industrial countries

    1995-01-01

    A summary, and a selection of significant information, taken from the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) documents: The State of the Environment (1991) and Environmental Indicators (1991) and the ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) report: The Environment in Europe and North America: Annotated Statistics 1992, and from a few other sources. The document is a translation of the Swedish publication: Miljoevaer(l)den. Statistics and other information relate to air pollution, flora and fauna, the condition of forests and of the North and Baltic Seas, water pollution, wastes, chemicals, oil spills, energy production and consumption, traffic, environmental hazards, public anxiety related to the environment, environmental protection, population densities during 1989 and international conventions on environmental protection. Most of the datas relate to the nineteen eighties. (AB)

  15. Memetic Algorithms to Solve a Global Nonlinear Optimization Problem. A Review

    M. K. Sakharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, evolutionary algorithms have proven themselves as the powerful optimization techniques of search engine. Their popularity is due to the fact that they are easy to implement and can be used in all areas, since they are based on the idea of universal evolution. For example, in the problems of a large number of local optima, the traditional optimization methods, usually, fail in finding the global optimum. To solve such problems using a variety of stochastic methods, in particular, the so-called population-based algorithms, which are a kind of evolutionary methods. The main disadvantage of this class of methods is their slow convergence to the exact solution in the neighborhood of the global optimum, as these methods incapable to use the local information about the landscape of the function. This often limits their use in largescale real-world problems where the computation time is a critical factor.One of the promising directions in the field of modern evolutionary computation are memetic algorithms, which can be regarded as a combination of population search of the global optimum and local procedures for verifying solutions, which gives a synergistic effect. In the context of memetic algorithms, the meme is an implementation of the local optimization method to refine solution in the search.The concept of memetic algorithms provides ample opportunities for the development of various modifications of these algorithms, which can vary the frequency of the local search, the conditions of its end, and so on. The practically significant memetic algorithm modifications involve the simultaneous use of different memes. Such algorithms are called multi-memetic.The paper gives statement of the global problem of nonlinear unconstrained optimization, describes the most promising areas of AI modifications, including hybridization and metaoptimization. The main content of the work is the classification and review of existing varieties of

  16. Understanding the determinants of problem-solving behavior in a complex environment

    Casner, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    It is often argued that problem-solving behavior in a complex environment is determined as much by the features of the environment as by the goals of the problem solver. This article explores a technique to determine the extent to which measured features of a complex environment influence problem-solving behavior observed within that environment. In this study, the technique is used to determine how complex flight deck and air traffic control environment influences the strategies used by airline pilots when controlling the flight path of a modern jetliner. Data collected aboard 16 commercial flights are used to measure selected features of the task environment. A record of the pilots' problem-solving behavior is analyzed to determine to what extent behavior is adapted to the environmental features that were measured. The results suggest that the measured features of the environment account for as much as half of the variability in the pilots' problem-solving behavior and provide estimates on the probable effects of each environmental feature.

  17. Globalization in the field of higher education in focus of macro-analysis: trends and problems

    O. A. Khomeriki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with globalization of higher education. Higher education is grouped around many of the key issues of globalization: the internationalization strategy; transnational education; providing international quality; entrepreneurial approaches for education; regional and interregional cooperation; information and communication technologies and virtual schools; the emergence of new educational mediators – education providers, the problems of equality and access to education and so on. More of globalization produce new relationships of exchange, the internationalization of trade, restructuring of the international labor market, reduce labor conflicts at the level of capital, international division of labor, the development of new forces of production and technology, capital­intensive production, increasing the number of women employed in industrial and economic processes, increasing the size and value of services. It should be noted that the higher education system is able to influence globalization, forming a line of future policy, and region. It is reported that leaders of the globalization process in general and in particular the integration processes and the processes of formation of the education market internationally are leading countries that embarked on the path of transformation of their education systems and consider an active part in shaping the world educational space as a factor in solving the existing problems national and international levels. These countries are the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia.

  18. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  19. Investigating Effects of Problem-Based versus Lecture-Based Learning Environments on Student Motivation

    Wijnia, Lisette; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Derous, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of two learning environments (i.e., problem-based learning [PBL] versus lecture-based [LB] environments) on undergraduates' study motivation. Survey results demonstrated that PBL students scored higher on competence but did not differ from LB students on autonomous motivation. Analyses of focus groups further…

  20. Students' Views about the Problem Based Collaborative Learning Environment Supported by Dynamic Web Technologies

    Ünal, Erhan; Çakir, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a problem based collaborative learning environment supported by dynamic web technologies and to examine students' views about this learning environment. The study was designed as a qualitative research. Some 36 students who took an Object Oriented Programming I-II course at the department of computer…

  1. Modeling Students' Problem Solving Performance in the Computer-Based Mathematics Learning Environment

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a quantitative model of problem solving performance of students in the computer-based mathematics learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: Regularized logistic regression was used to create a quantitative model of problem solving performance of students that predicts whether students can…

  2. Problem-Based Educational Game Becomes Student-Centered Learning Environment

    Rodkroh, Pornpimon; Suwannatthachote, Praweenya; Kaemkate, Wannee

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based educational games are able to provide a fun and motivating environment for teaching and learning of certain subjects. However, most educational game models do not address the learning elements of problem-based educational games. This study aims to synthesize and to propose the important elements to facilitate the learning process and…

  3. When Creative Problem Solving Strategy Meets Web-Based Cooperative Learning Environment in Accounting Education

    Cheng, Kai Wen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Facing highly competitive and changing environment, cultivating citizens with problem-solving attitudes is one critical vision of education. In brief, the importance of education is to cultivate students with practical abilities. Realizing the advantages of web-based cooperative learning (web-based CL) and creative problem solving…

  4. Investigating the Problem Solving Competency of Pre Service Teachers in Dynamic Geometry Environment

    Haja, Shajahan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the problem-solving competency of four secondary pre service teachers (PSTs) of University of London as they explored geometry problems in dynamic geometry environment (DGE) in 2004. A constructivist experiment was designed in which dynamic software Cabri-Geometre II (hereafter Cabri) was used as an interactive medium.…

  5. [Private foundations Global Health Philanthropy: the problem of conflicts of interest].

    2011-01-01

    Private foundations Global Health Philanthropy: the problem of conflicts of interest. Private foundations are in a position where they are granted several privileges and are very powerful and able to influence global health. A recent article published on Plos Medicine, analyzing five of the largest health foundations highlights the network of interests and conflicts. Many private health foundations have associations with private food and pharmaceutical corporations. In some instances, these corporations directly benefit from foundations grants, and foundations in turn are invested in the corporations to which they award these grants.

  6. Environmental market failures. Are there any local market-based corrective mechanisms for global problems?

    Ayres, R.U.

    1997-01-01

    The paper reviews various policy tools that have been discussed in the literature, including legal, administrative and fiscal (tax) schemes, as well as tradeable emission permits and concludes that none of them are really suitable for dealing with global problems. An alternative is suggested, namely the use of tradeable individual consumption quotas for traded commodities at the national level, to be extended later to the global level by trading quotas among nations (assuming agreement can be reached on the basis for determining quotas). 28 refs

  7. Climate change damage functions in LCA – (1) from global warming potential to natural environment damages

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    Energy use often is the most significant contributor to the impact category ‘global warming’ in life cycle impact assessment. However, the potential global warming effects on the climate at regional level and consequential effects on the natural environment are not thoroughly described within LCA...... methodology. The current scientific understanding of the extent of climate change impacts is limited due to the immense complexity of the multi-factorial environmental changes and unknown adaptive capacities at process, species and ecosystem level. In the presentation we argue that the global warming impacts...

  8. Reconstruction of Nanoindustry Institutes in the Russian Federation in the Unfavorable Global Environment

    Oleg Vasilyevich Inshakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoindustry evolution is caused by the global extension of new technological mode, which requires the construction of effective institutes and mechanisms of regulating its subjects’ relations. In the conditions of unfavorable external environment and unsolved internal problems of Russian nanoindustry development, not only the role of basic nanoindustrialization institutes increases, but the problem of reconstructing their activity and prospective updating of institutions arises. Regardless of level and scale, forms and content, the institutional reconstruction will become a part of a rapid response to external changes and a component of strategic programming of Russian nanoindustry. The Russian government acted as a main institute of national nanoindustry development and support. New special-purpose/universal, financial/nonfinancial, formal/informal institutes, which make up the structure of target investment and resource supply of nanoindustry at various stages of its formation, become active agents of state policy in this sphere. This institutional system should reflect the level and type structure of nanoindustry, corresponding to its strategic perspective. An important role in overcoming negative trends in nanoindustry now belongs not to formal and corporate development institutes but to associative, initiative and complementary ones partially replacing the state as its substitutes. The authors describe the options of international financial funds and integration-type institutes’ reconstruction for Russian nanoindustry in current situation. The feasibility of orienting the construction of nanoindustry institutes to basic relationships of its subjects that ensures their relevance and effectiveness, is argued. The authors’ version of nanoindustry institutes classification is suggested for applying as a testing analyzer of institutes functioning in order to determine their reconstruction directions, identify and supplement missing links

  9. VET workers problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments: European approach

    Hämäläinen, Raija

    2014-01-01

    The European workplace is challenging VET adults problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments (TREs). So far, no international large-scale assessment data has been available for VET. The PIAAC data comprise the most comprehensive source of information on adults skills to date. The present study (N=50 369) focuses on gaining insight into the problem-solving skills in TREs of adults with a VET background. When examining the similarities and differences in VET adults problem-solving sk...

  10. VET workers’ problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments: European approach

    Hämäläinen, Raija; Cincinnato, Sebastiano; Malin, Antero; De Wever, Bram

    2014-01-01

    The European workplace is challenging VET adults’ problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments (TREs). So far, no international large-scale assessment data has been available for VET. The PIAAC data comprise the most comprehensive source of information on adults’ skills to date. The present study (N=50 369) focuses on gaining insight into the problem-solving skills in TREs of adults with a VET background. When examining the similarities and differences in VET adults’ problem-solving...

  11. Education and working life: VET adults' problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments

    Hämäläinen, Raija; Wever, Bram De; Malin, Antero; Cincinnato, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly-advancing technological landscape in the European workplace is challenging adults’ problem-solving skills. Workers with vocational education and training need flexible abilities to solve problems in technology-rich work settings. This study builds on Finnish PIAAC data to understand adults’ (N=4503) skills for solving problems in technology-rich environments. The results indicate the critical issue that more than two thirds of adults with vocational education and train...

  12. The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale

    Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

    2009-01-01

    Background: The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. ...

  13. Correlation between Novel Potential Indoor Risk Factors and Frequency of Doctor's Visit for Respiratory Problem in Taiwan's Tropical Environment

    Yu-Hao Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With a global rising trend in prevalence of allergic diseases, more attention has been paid to investigation of environmental risk factors. Many risk factors have so far been identified. However, novel risk factors specific to Taiwanese environment and lifestyle were still relatively unknown. Objective: To investigate the potential effects of a number of little-known indoor risk factors on the frequency of doctor's visit for respiratory problems in context of Taiwanese environment and lifestyle. Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based study was performed on a 861 participants around Kaohsiung area, Taiwan. Survey investigation was employed to assess the household environment and the frequency of doctor's visit for respiratory problems. Results: Participants who performed “daily cleaning” was shown to have a significantly (p=0.007 higher mean number of doctor's visits in comparison to those who did not. Similar observation was made for participants who periodically took out beddings (p=0.042. Age had a significant positive correlation (linear regression β 0.089 with frequency of respiratory problems. Conclusion: The habit of daily cleaning was implicated as a potential indoor risk factor due to the unique nature of Taiwanese cleaning habit and close contact with cleaning supplies, which could serve as chemical irritants. Bedding takeout was predicted to be an indicator of chronic allergies rather than an actual risk factor. However, both were controversial in their role as potential indoor risk factor, and required further examination.

  14. Community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment: bridging research and practice

    Joan C. Durrance

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1 information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2 approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1 how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2 how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.

  15. Students’ Views about the Problem Based Collaborative Learning Environment Supported By Dynamic Web Technologies

    Erhan ÜNAL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design a problem based collaborative learning environment supported by dynamic web technologies and examine students’ views about this learning environment. The study was designed as a qualitative research. 36 students who took Object Oriented Programming I-II course from a public university at the department of computer programming participated in the study. During the research process, the Object Oriented Programming I-II course was designed with incorporating different dynamic web technologies (Edmodo, Google Services, and Mind42 and Nelson (1999’s collaborative problem solving method. At the end of the course, there were focus group interviews in regards to the students’ views on a learning environment supported by dynamic web technologies and collaborative problem solving method. At the end of the focus group interviews, 4 themes were obtained from the students’ views, including positive aspects of the learning environment, difficulties faced in the learning environment, advantages of the learning environment, and skills gained as a result of the project. The results suggest that problem based collaborative learning methods and dynamic web technologies can be used in learning environments in community colleges.

  16. The Association between Sleep Problems and Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Global Perspective.

    Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Community-based cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. 261,547 individuals aged ≥ 18 years from 56 countries. N/A. The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40-1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. A Guiding Evolutionary Algorithm with Greedy Strategy for Global Optimization Problems

    Leilei Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Guiding Evolutionary Algorithm (GEA with greedy strategy for global optimization problems is proposed. Inspired by Particle Swarm Optimization, the Genetic Algorithm, and the Bat Algorithm, the GEA was designed to retain some advantages of each method while avoiding some disadvantages. In contrast to the usual Genetic Algorithm, each individual in GEA is crossed with the current global best one instead of a randomly selected individual. The current best individual served as a guide to attract offspring to its region of genotype space. Mutation was added to offspring according to a dynamic mutation probability. To increase the capability of exploitation, a local search mechanism was applied to new individuals according to a dynamic probability of local search. Experimental results show that GEA outperformed the other three typical global optimization algorithms with which it was compared.

  18. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem for time-dependent Hartree equations

    Chadam, J.M.; Glassey, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    The existence of global solutions to the Cauchy problem for time-dependent Hartree equations for N electrons is established. The solution is shown to have a uniformly bounded H 1 (R 3 ) norm and to satisfy an estimate of the form two parallel PSI (t) two parallel/sub H 2 ; less than or equal to c exp(kt). It is shown that ''negative energy'' solutions do not converge uniformly to zero as t → infinity. (U.S.)

  19. Globalization and sovereignty decline: Regionalization problem in Serbia within the actual geopolitical context

    Brdar Milan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article author is about to maintain that discussion on regionalization asks for contextualisation within the currents of actual geopolitics, on the one hand, and wider process of globalisation and unification, on the other. In keeping with this, author in the first part deals with globalizing integrative processes with special attention played to the problem of nation-state survival. Point of analysis is given in the ambivalence of sovereignty: the very concept becomes outdated on the local level, but by the same token it is fully affirmed on the global level. On the global level we are encountered with revival of the classical concept of sovereignty. Problem of regionalization, in the second part of the article, is reconsidered as a phenomenon that is taking place between those two currents. Author maintains two related theses. First, designs of the regionalization less dependent of the authority of given state for they fall under the jurisdiction of global superpower and becomes dependant of its geostrategic planes and political demands. Second, that main reasons for Democratic Opposition of Serbia to work in favor of regionalization as a synonym for democracy is in lack of solid democratic reform and need to entrench itself in the precomposed structure of social and economic power. In this context one could forsake that we in Serbia are confronted with bright prospects of democracy at the cost of the 'hollowing out' of the state as main guarantee of it.

  20. New Challenges Facing Universities in the Internet-Driven Global Environment

    Rajasingham, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores some new challenges facing universities in a global multimediated Internet-based environment, as they seek alternative paradigms and options to remain true to their core business. At a time of rapid technological change, and contested, complex concepts associated with globalisation, knowledge is becoming a primary factor of…

  1. The EU's New Global Strategy : Its Implementation in a Troubled International Environment

    Buitelaar, T.; Larik, J.E.; Matta, A.; Vos, de B.

    2016-01-01

    Executive Summary In June 2016, High Representative Mogherini presented the EU’s new Global Strategy on Foreign and Security Policy (EUGS) to the European Council. With the Strategy now finalized, attention needs to turn to its implementation in an environment mired by crises both within Europe and

  2. Toward an Assessment of the Global Inventory of Present-Day Mercury Releases to Freshwater Environments

    David Kocman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems are an essential component of the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg, as inorganic Hg can be converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg in these environments and reemissions of elemental Hg rival anthropogenic Hg releases on a global scale. Quantification of effluent Hg releases to aquatic systems globally has focused on discharges to the global oceans, rather than contributions to freshwater systems that affect local exposures and risks associated with MeHg. Here we produce a first-estimate of sector-specific, spatially resolved global aquatic Hg discharges to freshwater systems. We compare our release estimates to atmospheric sources that have been quantified elsewhere. By analyzing available quantitative and qualitative information, we estimate that present-day global Hg releases to freshwater environments (rivers and lakes associated with anthropogenic activities have a lower bound of ~1000 Mg· a−1. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM represents the single largest source, followed by disposal of mercury-containing products and domestic waste water, metal production, and releases from industrial installations such as chlor-alkali plants and oil refineries. In addition to these direct anthropogenic inputs, diffuse inputs from land management activities and remobilization of Hg previously accumulated in terrestrial ecosystems are likely comparable in magnitude. Aquatic discharges of Hg are greatly understudied and further constraining associated data gaps is crucial for reducing the uncertainties in the global biogeochemical Hg budget.

  3. Genomic Microbial Epidemiology Is Needed to Comprehend the Global Problem of Antibiotic Resistance and to Improve Pathogen Diagnosis

    Wyrsch, Ethan R.; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Chapman, Toni A.; Charles, Ian G.; Hammond, Jeffrey M.; Djordjevic, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of waste effluent from hospitals and intensive food animal production with antimicrobial residues is an immense global problem. Antimicrobial residues exert selection pressures that influence the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in diverse microbial populations. Despite these concerns there is only a limited understanding of how antimicrobial residues contribute to the global problem of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, rapid detection of emerging...

  4. Development of the virtual research environment for analysis, evaluation and prediction of global climate change impacts on the regional environment

    Okladnikov, Igor; Gordov, Evgeny; Titov, Alexander; Fazliev, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Description and the first results of the Russian Science Foundation project "Virtual computational information environment for analysis, evaluation and prediction of the impacts of global climate change on the environment and climate of a selected region" is presented. The project is aimed at development of an Internet-accessible computation and information environment providing unskilled in numerical modelling and software design specialists, decision-makers and stakeholders with reliable and easy-used tools for in-depth statistical analysis of climatic characteristics, and instruments for detailed analysis, assessment and prediction of impacts of global climate change on the environment and climate of the targeted region. In the framework of the project, approaches of "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets will be developed on the technical platform of the Russian leading institution involved in research of climate change and its consequences. Anticipated results will create a pathway for development and deployment of thematic international virtual research laboratory focused on interdisciplinary environmental studies. VRE under development will comprise best features and functionality of earlier developed information and computing system CLIMATE (http://climate.scert.ru/), which is widely used in Northern Eurasia environment studies. The Project includes several major directions of research listed below. 1. Preparation of geo-referenced data sets, describing the dynamics of the current and possible future climate and environmental changes in detail. 2. Improvement of methods of analysis of climate change. 3. Enhancing the functionality of the VRE prototype in order to create a convenient and reliable tool for the study of regional social, economic and political consequences of climate change. 4. Using the output of the first three tasks, compilation of the VRE prototype, its validation, preparation of applicable detailed description of

  5. Research contributions for assessment of the state and evolution of the global environment

    Van Vuuren, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    A Global Environment Assessment (GEO) workshop was held in Brussels on September 15 and 16, 1998. During the preparation of policy-oriented reports of GEO, several gaps in data and expertise had been identified. The workshop elaborated on the issues where gaps had been signalled aimed to bring together scientists from different disciplines, representatives of the Directorate General XII and specialists from RIVM in integrated environmental assessment to locate information missing in UNEP's studies and make progress in filling up gaps. Research needs would be identified. The specific issues were categorised as: land-related issues, urban environment and implementation of policies. The workshop participants were able to identify several links between the activities for GEO and ongoing research in the context of the EU Research, Technology Development and the Demonstration programme. About 15 more specific research needs were formulated. For land-related issues, the following knowledge gaps and research implications were identified: (1) e.g. social and economic expertise in land-use analysis, (2) e.g. land-use planning and urban land use in integrated assessment, (3) modelling land degradation, and (4) modelling the driving forces of land degradation. For the urban environment, the major knowledge research areas identified from an integrative perspective were: (1) defining a core set of indicators for sustainable urban development, (2) quantifying the interlinkages between environmental stress and human health, (3) describing the effects of measures, (4) determining the role of institutional structures, and (5) ensuring data provision based on the physical city. Major problems were identified for implementation of policies that the degree of policy implementation is not often measured and that it is difficult to relate policy actions to changes in environmental pressures. In analysis it is first of all necessary to identify which definition of effectiveness will be

  6. Success in Global New Product Development: Impact of Strategy and the Behavioral Environment of the Firm

    de Brentani, U.; Kleinschmidt, E.J.; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Product innovation and the trend toward globalization are two important dimensions driving business today, and a firm's global new product development (NPD) strategy is a primary determinant of performance. Succeeding in this competitive and complex market arena calls for corporate resources...... America and Europe, business-to-business, services and goods), a structural model testing for the hypothesized mediation effects was substantially supported. Specifically, having an organizational posture that, at once, values innovation plus globalization, as well as a senior management that is active...... as primary determinants of competitive advantage and, thus, of superior performance through the strategic initiatives that these enable. In the study, global NPD programs are assessed in terms of three dimensions: (1) the organizational resources or behavioral environment of the firm relevant...

  7. Changes in the Global Energy System: Implications for China's International Strategic Environment

    Zhang Chi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly discusses major reasons for the slump of international oil prices and provides a prediction for the future development of international oil prices, before analyzing the three factors leading to significant changes of the global energy system, namely the eastward shift of the world energy consumption centre, the emergence of the United States as a major oil producer and the dramatic waning of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries’ (OPEC influence. These factors and developments are shaping a new order of the global energy strategic landscape and exerting profound influence on China’s international strategic environment. In the foreseeable future, these changes of the global energy system would bring China more uncertainties regarding the country’s oil imports from the Middle East, more strategic pressure from the United States, while promoting China’s leverage on the global energy system and international relations.

  8. Quality of institution and the FEG (forest, energy intensity, and globalization) -environment relationships in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin; Adom, Philip Kofi

    2017-07-01

    The current share of sub-Saharan Africa in global carbon dioxide emissions is negligible compared to major contributors like Asia, Americas, and Europe. This trend is, however, likely to change given that both economic growth and rate of urbanization in the region are projected to be robust in the future. The current study contributes to the literature by examining both the direct and the indirect impacts of quality of institution on the environment. Specifically, we investigate whether the institutional setting in the region provides some sort of a complementary role in the environment-FEG relationships. We use the panel two-step system generalized method of moments (GMM) technique to deal with the simultaneity problem. Data consists of 43 sub-Saharan African countries. The result shows that energy inefficiency compromises environmental standards. However, the quality of the institutional setting helps moderate this negative consequences; countries with good institutions show greater prospects than countries with poor institutions. On the other hand, globalization of the region and increased forest size generate positive environmental outcomes in the region. Their impacts are, however, independent of the quality of institution. Afforestation programs, promotion of other clean energy types, and investment in energy efficiency, basic city infrastructure, and regulatory and institutional structures, are desirable policies to pursue to safeguard the environment.

  9. Global measure for energy + environmental problems by thorium molten-salt nuclear energy synergetics

    Furukawa, K.; Lecocq, A.; Mitachi, K.; Kato, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The new global fission industry as a measure for energy and environmental problems of the next century should keep a strong public acceptance, which means to ensure an enough rational safety feature not only in the engineering issue but also in the all issues of integral fuel-cycle system. In these sense, the rational characteristics of the Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System (THORIMS-NES) is widely explained relating with a) resources and environmental problems, b) safety, c) nuclear-proliferation and -terrorism, d) breeding fuel-cycle, chemical processing and radio-wastes, and e) social acceptability and economy, including 'North-South' problems. The basic technology of Molten-Salt Reactor system has been established, and the practical and economical development program of THORIMS-NES is also proposed. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs

  10. Natural hazards education in global environment leaders education programme for designing a low-carbon society

    Lee, Han Soo; Yamashita, Takao; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2010-05-01

    Global environmental leader (GEL) education programme at graduate school for international development and cooperation (IDEC) in Hiroshima University is an education and training programme for graduate students especially from developing countries in Asian region to build and enhance their ability to become international environmental leaders. Through this programme, they will participate in regular course works and other activities to learn how to cope with the various environment and resource management issues from global to regional scales toward a low-carbon society via multi-disciplinary approaches considering sustainable development and climate change. Under this GEL programme, there are five different research sub-groups as follows assuming a cause-effect relationship among interacting components of social, economic, and environmental systems; 1) urban system design to prevent global warming, 2) wise use of biomass resources, 3) environmental impact assessment, 4) policy and institutional design, and 5) development of environmental education programs. Candidate students of GEL programme belong to one of the five research sub-groups, perform their researches and participate in many activities under the cross-supervisions from faculty members of different sub-groups. Under the third research group for environmental impact assessment, we use numerical models named as regional environment simulator (RES) as a tool for research and education for assessing the environmental impacts due to natural hazards. Developed at IDEC, Hiroshima University, RES is a meso-scale numerical model system that can be used for regional simulation of natural disasters and environmental problems caused by water and heat circulation in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. RES has three components: i) atmosphere-surface waves-ocean part, ii) atmosphere-land surface process-hydrologic part, and iii) coastal and estuarine part. Each part is constructed with state-of-the-art public

  11. Investigating Pre-service Mathematics Teachers’ Geometric Problem Solving Process in Dynamic Geometry Environment

    Deniz Özen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service elementary mathematics teachers’ open geometric problem solving process in a Dynamic Geometry Environment. With its qualitative inquiry based research design employed, the participants of the study are three pre-service teachers from 4th graders of the Department of Elementary Mathematics Teaching. In this study, clinical interviews, screencaptures of the problem solving process in the Cabri Geomery Environment, and worksheets included 2 open geometry problems have been used to collect the data. It has been investigated that all the participants passed through similar recursive phases as construction, exploration, conjecture, validate, and justification in the problem solving process. It has been thought that this study provide a new point of view to curriculum developers, teachers and researchers

  12. Dynamic supplier selection problem considering full truck load in probabilistic environment

    Sutrisno, Wicaksono, Purnawan Adi

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a mathematical model in a probabilistic dynamic optimization to solve a dynamic supplier selection problem considering full truck load in probabilistic environment where some parameters are uncertain. We determine the optimal strategy for this problem by using stochastic dynamic programming. We give some numerical experiments to evaluate and analyze the model. From the results, the optimal supplier and the optimal product volume from the optimal supplier were determined for each time period.

  13. Statistical surrogate model based sampling criterion for stochastic global optimization of problems with constraints

    Cho, Su Gil; Jang, Jun Yong; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Tae Hee [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min Uk [Romax Technology Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Su; Hong, Sup [Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Sequential surrogate model-based global optimization algorithms, such as super-EGO, have been developed to increase the efficiency of commonly used global optimization technique as well as to ensure the accuracy of optimization. However, earlier studies have drawbacks because there are three phases in the optimization loop and empirical parameters. We propose a united sampling criterion to simplify the algorithm and to achieve the global optimum of problems with constraints without any empirical parameters. It is able to select the points located in a feasible region with high model uncertainty as well as the points along the boundary of constraint at the lowest objective value. The mean squared error determines which criterion is more dominant among the infill sampling criterion and boundary sampling criterion. Also, the method guarantees the accuracy of the surrogate model because the sample points are not located within extremely small regions like super-EGO. The performance of the proposed method, such as the solvability of a problem, convergence properties, and efficiency, are validated through nonlinear numerical examples with disconnected feasible regions.

  14. Information Processing and Firm-Internal Environment Contingencies: Performance Impact on Global New Product Development

    Kleinschmidt, Elko; de Brentani, Ulrike; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    , functionally, geographically and culturally. To this end, an IT-communication strength is essential, one that is nested in an internal organizational environment that ensures its effective functioning. Using organizational information processing (OIP) theory as a framework, superior global NPD program......Innovation in its essence is an information processing activity. Thus, a major factor impacting the success of new product development (NPD) programs, especially those responding to global markets, is the firm's ability to access, share and apply NPD information, which is often widely dispersed...

  15. Gender and Diversity in a Problem and Project Based Learning Environment

    Du, Xiangyun

    Problem and Project Based Learning (PBL) has been well used as an educational philosophy and methodology in the construction of student centered and contextualized learning environment. PBL is also regarded as an effective method in producing engineering graduates who can not only meet the needs...... on the learning experiences of engineering students in the PBL environment in Denmark. This book also attempts to question the issue of diversity in engineering education via the exploration of whether or in which ways the PBL environment is friendly to diverse groups of learners such as women....

  16. Agency problems of global budget system in Taiwan's National Health Insurance.

    Yan, Yu-Hua; Yang, Chen-Wei; Fang, Shih-Chieh

    2014-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the agency problem presented by the global budget system followed by hospitals in Taiwan. In this study, we examine empirically the interaction between the principal: Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI) and agency: medical service providers (hospitals); we also describe actual medical service provider and hospital governance conditions from a agency theory perspective. This study identified a positive correlation between aversion to agency hazard (self-interest behavior, asymmetric information, and risk hedging) and agency problem risks (disregard of medical ethics, pursuit of extra-contract profit, disregard of professionalism, and cost orientation). Agency costs refer to BNHI auditing and monitoring expenditures used to prevent hospitals from deviating from NHI policy goals. This study also found agency costs negatively moderate the relationship between agency hazards and agency problems The main contribution of this study is its use of agency theory to clarify agency problems and several potential factors caused by the NHI system. This study also contributes to the field of health policy study by clarifying the nature and importance of agency problems in the health care sector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Innovative teaching: Using multimedia in a problem-based learning environment

    Mai Neo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Presently, traditional educational approaches have resulted in a mismatch between what is taught to the students and what the industry needs. As such, many institutions are moving towards problem-based learning as a solution to producing graduates who are creative, can think critically and analytically, and are able to solve problems. In this paper, we focus on using multimedia technology as an innovative teaching and learning strategy in a problem-based learning environment by giving the students a multimedia project to train them in this skill set. The purpose of this project was to access the students’ skills in framing and solving problems using multimedia technologies. The students worked in groups and each group had to pick a topic for their project, develop, design and present it in a CD-ROM. They were then surveyed on their attitudes toward the project and their skills as a team. Results showed that the students were very positive toward the project, enjoyed teamwork, able to think critically and became active participants in their learning process. Therefore, multimedia-oriented projects, like many other problem-based learning solutions, can be used alternatively as an innovative and effective tool in a problem-based learning environment for the acquisition of problem-solving skills.

  18. Mobile Learning for Higher Education in Problem-Based Learning Environments

    Rongbutsri, Nikorn

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the PhD project on Mobile Learning for Higher Education in Problem-Based Learning Environment which aims to understand how students gain benefit from using mobile devices in the aspect of project work collaboration. It demonstrates research questions, theoretical perspective...

  19. Learner-Controlled Scaffolding Linked to Open-Ended Problems in a Digital Learning Environment

    Edson, Alden Jack

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study reports on how students activated learner-controlled scaffolding and navigated through sequences of connected problems in a digital learning environment. A design experiment was completed to (re)design, iteratively develop, test, and evaluate a digital version of an instructional unit focusing on binomial distributions and…

  20. Alaska communities and forest environments: a problem analysis and research agenda.

    Linda E. Kruger; Rhonda L. Mazza

    2006-01-01

    This problem analysis describes a variety of human-resource interaction issues and identifies related social science research and development needs that serve as the foundation for the Alaska Communities and Forest Environments Team within the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The document lays out a research agenda that focuses on understanding relations between...

  1. VET Workers' Problem-Solving Skills in Technology-Rich Environments: European Approach

    Hämäläinen, Raija; Cincinnato, Sebastiano; Malin, Antero; De Wever, Bram

    2014-01-01

    The European workplace is challenging VET adults' problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments (TREs). So far, no international large-scale assessment data has been available for VET. The PIAAC data comprise the most comprehensive source of information on adults' skills to date. The present study (N = 50 369) focuses on gaining insight…

  2. A manufacturing problem solving environment combining evaluation, search, and generalisation methods

    Caskey, K.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper develops a general environment for suggesting good operating strategies for specific factory conditions at the time the strategies are needed. The characteristics of the problems addressed do not allow analysis of the alternatives at the time the suggestions are needed. This requires the

  3. Bringing Reality into Calculus Classrooms: Mathematizing a Real-life Problem Simulated in a Virtual Environment

    Olga V. Shipulina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores how students, who had completed the AP calculus course, mathematized the optimal navigation real-life problem simulated in the Second Life Virtual Environment. The particular research interest was to investigate whether/how students’ empirical activity in VE influences the way of their mathematizing.

  4. Motivating Students to Develop Satellites in a Problem and Project-Based Learning Environment

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Zhou, Chunfang

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, a total of three student satellites have been developed by engineering students in a Problem and Project-Based Learning (PBL) environment at Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark. As solving such a complex project, we emphasize that a high level of motivation is needed for the...

  5. Journey into the Problem-Solving Process: Cognitive Functions in a PBL Environment

    Chua, B. L.; Tan, O. S.; Liu, W. C.

    2016-01-01

    In a PBL environment, learning results from learners engaging in cognitive processes pivotal in the understanding or resolution of the problem. Using Tan's cognitive function disc, this study examines the learner's perceived cognitive functions at each stage of PBL, as facilitated by the PBL schema. The results suggest that these learners…

  6. Terrestrial Feedbacks Incorporated in Global Vegetation Models through Observed Trait-Environment Responses

    Bodegom, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    Most global vegetation models used to evaluate climate change impacts rely on plant functional types to describe vegetation responses to environmental stresses. In a traditional set-up in which vegetation characteristics are considered constant within a vegetation type, the possibility to implement and infer feedback mechanisms are limited as feedback mechanisms will likely involve a changing expression of community trait values. Based on community assembly concepts, we implemented functional trait-environment relationships into a global dynamic vegetation model to quantitatively assess this feature. For the current climate, a different global vegetation distribution was calculated with and without the inclusion of trait variation, emphasizing the importance of feedbacks -in interaction with competitive processes- for the prevailing global patterns. These trait-environmental responses do, however, not necessarily imply adaptive responses of vegetation to changing conditions and may locally lead to a faster turnover in vegetation upon climate change. Indeed, when running climate projections, simulations with trait variation did not yield a more stable or resilient vegetation than those without. Through the different feedback expressions, global and regional carbon and water fluxes were -however- strongly altered. At a global scale, model projections suggest an increased productivity and hence an increased carbon sink in the next decades to come, when including trait variation. However, by the end of the century, a reduced carbon sink is projected. This effect is due to a downregulation of photosynthesis rates, particularly in the tropical regions, even when accounting for CO2-fertilization effects. Altogether, the various global model simulations suggest the critical importance of including vegetation functional responses to changing environmental conditions to grasp terrestrial feedback mechanisms at global scales in the light of climate change.

  7. Scanning the Global Environment. A framework and methodology for UNEP's reporting functions

    Swart RJ; Bakkes JA; Niessen LW; Rotmans J; Vries HJM de; Weterings R; Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM; United Nations Environment Programme UNEP; MTV; ISC; VTV; CWM; SB4; TNO Centre for Technology and Policy Studies

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual framework for UNEP's reporting functions is proposed, aimed at supporting strategic environmental policy development. To this end information should be provided about the past, current and future state of the environment as a function of demographic and socio-economic developments. The policy relevance of the existing global environmental reporting functions may be improved considerably by introducing three new elements: (1) the application of integrated conceptual frameworks and...

  8. A Global Voice for Survival: An Ecosystemic Approach for the Environment and the Quality of Life

    Pilon, André Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In view of the overwhelming pressures on the global environment and the need to disrupt the systems that drive them, an ecosystemic theoretical and practical framework is posited for the evaluation and planning of public policies, research and teaching programmes, encompassing four dimensions of being-in-the-world (intimate, interactive, social and biophysical), as they combine, as donors and recipients, to induce the events (deficits/assets), cope with consequences (desired/undesired) and c...

  9. Business Efficiency - Ranking the Republic of Croatia as a Destination in Regional, European and Global Environment

    Mladen Verdris; Ruzica Simic

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of this decade, which corresponds to the processes of an accelerated political, social and economic opening to the European and global environment, the Republic of Croatia has become aware of the need for deep reforms to enable the creation of permanently sustained success of its national economy. In this context, the creation of conditions for efficiency in existing business entities, and the shaping of new and effective institutions, is becoming the central question for ...

  10. A new methodological development for solving linear bilevel integer programming problems in hybrid fuzzy environment

    Animesh Biswas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with fuzzy goal programming approach to solve fuzzy linear bilevel integer programming problems with fuzzy probabilistic constraints following Pareto distribution and Frechet distribution. In the proposed approach a new chance constrained programming methodology is developed from the view point of managing those probabilistic constraints in a hybrid fuzzy environment. A method of defuzzification of fuzzy numbers using ?-cut has been adopted to reduce the problem into a linear bilevel integer programming problem. The individual optimal value of the objective of each DM is found in isolation to construct the fuzzy membership goals. Finally, fuzzy goal programming approach is used to achieve maximum degree of each of the membership goals by minimizing under deviational variables in the decision making environment. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach, a numerical example is provided.

  11. GLOBAL-LOCAL ENVIRONMENT CERTIFICATION AT FIVE STAR HOTELS IN TOURISM AREA OF NUSA DUA, BALI

    Ni Gst Nym Suci Murni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to examine the various form of environment certification, ideology behind the practice of green tourism (global award and Tri Hita Karana (local award, and the implication of environment practice at five star hotel in Nusa Dua tourism area. The data of the reserach was assessed by postmodern critical theory (theory of discourse regarding power/knowledge, hegemony theory, practice theory, and theory of deep/shallow ecology. The method used in this cultural studies is the qualitative one, where the data collection were obtained through direct observation, in-depth interviews, and related documentation. The sample used 6 five star hotels which practise green award, of 14 established five star hotels (some hotel is not in full operation.  The results showed that (1 there are some variation of environment practice in five star hotel, (2 ideology working behind these practices can be seen from global ideology in the form of sustainable development deriving green tourism, and the local ideology, in the form of Tri Hita Karana (THK used in THK award, (3 implication of global-local invironment practice in tourism area and surrounding.

  12. Global Indicators Analysis and Consultancy Experience Insights into Correlation between Entrepreneurial Activities and Business Environment

    Jovan Krivokapić

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many researches and practical experiences clearly indicate the existence of a strong relationship between entrepreneurial activities and the business environment in which these activities are initiated. Although this topic has been quite ignored until the late twentieth century, a lot of studies and consulting practice have contributed to the fact that there are now a number of theories concerning mentioned correlation. These theories aim to offer a model that would provide better utilization of the possibilities from the business environment which could be very important for the development from both macroeconomic and microeconomic aspects. An increasing number of articles on this topic says enough about its importance, and numerous researches by many reputable globally recognized institutions go in favor of this claim. There are many indicators that observe the economic situation in a country or a region from different aspects, so the analyses of these indicators make it possible to determine the specific relationships between entrepreneurial activities and the local and the global business environment. Given the complexity of these relations, the impact cannot be observed partially, without taking into consideration other important factors, but more detailed analyses, however, result in some useful conclusions, which in the proper context can have a positive impact on many economic factors. It is very important to emphasize the fact that the correlation between the business environment and entrepreneurial activities is bidirectional, since this influence is mutual, so that changes in one of these factors can and usually cause some modifications in the other. Frequent series of such iterations actually lead to changes in the business environment, while entrepreneurial activity changes its shape and affects the economy of a country or a region, which is of particular importance for its competitiveness in the era of globalization.

  13. Adjoint-based global variance reduction approach for reactor analysis problems

    Zhang, Qiong; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.

    2011-01-01

    A new variant of a hybrid Monte Carlo-Deterministic approach for simulating particle transport problems is presented and compared to the SCALE FW-CADIS approach. The new approach, denoted by the Subspace approach, optimizes the selection of the weight windows for reactor analysis problems where detailed properties of all fuel assemblies are required everywhere in the reactor core. Like the FW-CADIS approach, the Subspace approach utilizes importance maps obtained from deterministic adjoint models to derive automatic weight-window biasing. In contrast to FW-CADIS, the Subspace approach identifies the correlations between weight window maps to minimize the computational time required for global variance reduction, i.e., when the solution is required everywhere in the phase space. The correlations are employed to reduce the number of maps required to achieve the same level of variance reduction that would be obtained with single-response maps. Numerical experiments, serving as proof of principle, are presented to compare the Subspace and FW-CADIS approaches in terms of the global reduction in standard deviation. (author)

  14. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Robbers, Sylvana; van Oort, Floor; Huizink, Anja; Verhulst, Frank; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina; Boomsma, Dorret; Bartels, Meike

    2012-10-01

    The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with married parents, and that externalizing problems in girls precede and predict later parental divorce. The aim of the current study was to investigate as to whether genetic and environmental influences on internalizing and externalizing problems were different for children from divorced versus non-divorced families. Maternal ratings on internalizing and externalizing problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist in 4,592 twin pairs at ages 3 and 12 years, of whom 367 pairs had experienced a parental divorce between these ages. Variance in internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 3 and 12 was analyzed with biometric models in which additive genetic and environmental effects were allowed to depend on parental divorce and sex. A difference in the contribution of genetic and environmental influences between divorced and non-divorced groups would constitute evidence for gene-environment interaction. For both pre- and post-divorce internalizing and externalizing problems, the total variances were larger for children from divorced families, which was mainly due to higher environmental variances. As a consequence, heritabilities were lower for children from divorced families, and the relative contributions of environmental influences were higher. Environmental influences become more important in explaining variation in children's problem behaviors in the context of parental divorce.

  15. Corporate tax in an international environmentProblems and possible remedies

    Kari Seppo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problems of corporate taxation in a globalized world. It first considers recent trends in international practices and then reviews the literature on the effects of corporate taxes in closed and open economies. The paper emphasizes the severity of the problems caused by current international tax rules. It compares various national and international policy alternatives and considers two recent Nordic tax reform proposals as examples of national-level solutions. The problems of current international corporate taxation are fundamental. Introducing increasingly tight antiavoidance measures could serve as a medium-term approach but does not provide any promising long-term solution. There should be more research concerning initiatives that would reform the fundamental principles of the international tax system.

  16. Metagenomes Reveal Global Distribution of Bacterial Steroid Catabolism in Natural, Engineered, and Host Environments

    Johannes Holert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are abundant growth substrates for bacteria in natural, engineered, and host-associated environments. This study analyzed the distribution of the aerobic 9,10-seco steroid degradation pathway in 346 publically available metagenomes from diverse environments. Our results show that steroid-degrading bacteria are globally distributed and prevalent in particular environments, such as wastewater treatment plants, soil, plant rhizospheres, and the marine environment, including marine sponges. Genomic signature-based sequence binning recovered 45 metagenome-assembled genomes containing a majority of 9,10-seco pathway genes. Only Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were identified as steroid degraders, but we identified several alpha- and gammaproteobacterial lineages not previously known to degrade steroids. Actino- and proteobacterial steroid degraders coexisted in wastewater, while soil and rhizosphere samples contained mostly actinobacterial ones. Actinobacterial steroid degraders were found in deep ocean samples, while mostly alpha- and gammaproteobacterial ones were found in other marine samples, including sponges. Isolation of steroid-degrading bacteria from sponges confirmed their presence. Phylogenetic analysis of key steroid degradation proteins suggested their biochemical novelty in genomes from sponges and other environments. This study shows that the ecological significance as well as taxonomic and biochemical diversity of bacterial steroid degradation has so far been largely underestimated, especially in the marine environment.

  17. Parental criticism and externalizing behavior problems in adolescents: the role of environment and genotype-environment correlation.

    Narusyte, Jurgita; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Andershed, Anna-Karin; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Reiss, David; Spotts, Erica; Ganiban, Jody; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Genetic factors are important for the association between parental negativity and child problem behavior, but it is not clear whether this is due to passive or evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE). In this study, we applied the extended children-of-twins model to directly examine the presence of passive and evocative rGE as well as direct environmental effects in the association between parental criticism and adolescent externalizing problem behavior. The cross-sectional data come from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (N = 909 pairs of adult twins) and from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (N = 915 pairs of twin children). The results revealed that maternal criticism was primarily due to evocative rGE emanating from their adolescent's externalizing behavior. On the other hand, fathers' critical remarks tended to affect adolescent problem behavior in a direct environmental way. This suggests that previously reported differences in caretaking between mothers and fathers also are reflected in differences in why parenting is associated with externalizing behavior in offspring.

  18. Parental criticism and externalizing behavior problems in adolescents– the role of environment and genotype-environment correlation

    Narusyte, Jurgita; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Andershed, Anna-Karin; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Reiss, David; Spotts, Erica; Ganiban, Jody; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors are important for the association between parental negativity and child problem behavior, but it is not clear whether this is dueto passive or evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE). In this study we applied the extended children-of-twins model to directly examine the presence of passive and evocative rGE as well as direct environmental effects in the association between parental criticism and adolescent externalizing problem behavior. The cross-sectional data come from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS) (N=909 pairs of adult twins) and from the Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) (N=915 pairs of twin children). The results revealed that maternal criticism was primarily due to evocative rGE emanating from their adolescent’s externalizing behavior. On the other hand, fathers’ critical remarks tended to affect adolescent problem behavior in a direct environmental way. This suggests that previously reported differences in caretaking between mothers and fathers also are reflected in differences in why parenting is associated with externalizing behavior in offspring. PMID:21280930

  19. A framework for interactive visual analysis of heterogeneous marine data in an integrated problem solving environment

    Liu, Shuai; Chen, Ge; Yao, Shifeng; Tian, Fenglin; Liu, Wei

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a novel integrated marine visualization framework which focuses on processing, analyzing the multi-dimension spatiotemporal marine data in one workflow. Effective marine data visualization is needed in terms of extracting useful patterns, recognizing changes, and understanding physical processes in oceanography researches. However, the multi-source, multi-format, multi-dimension characteristics of marine data pose a challenge for interactive and feasible (timely) marine data analysis and visualization in one workflow. And, global multi-resolution virtual terrain environment is also needed to give oceanographers and the public a real geographic background reference and to help them to identify the geographical variation of ocean phenomena. This paper introduces a data integration and processing method to efficiently visualize and analyze the heterogeneous marine data. Based on the data we processed, several GPU-based visualization methods are explored to interactively demonstrate marine data. GPU-tessellated global terrain rendering using ETOPO1 data is realized and the video memory usage is controlled to ensure high efficiency. A modified ray-casting algorithm for the uneven multi-section Argo volume data is also presented and the transfer function is designed to analyze the 3D structure of ocean phenomena. Based on the framework we designed, an integrated visualization system is realized. The effectiveness and efficiency of the framework is demonstrated. This system is expected to make a significant contribution to the demonstration and understanding of marine physical process in a virtual global environment.

  20. corrosion problems and their relationship with the environment in the Colombian productive system

    Arroyave P, Carlos E; Herrera B, Francisco J; Delgado L, Juan; Cuervo T, Joaquin

    1999-01-01

    As a part of a broad study on the corrosion problems in the Colombian industry, it was included an assessment of the effect of the main corrosive environments (atmosphere, soil, salad and drinking water, and chemicals), on materials stability. On the other hand, the impact of the corrosion processes on the environmental constituents (live species, atmosphere, soil, materials, and water) was also assessed. Main conclusions are: Atmosphere is the more extensively corrosive environment, and, all the environmental constituents are affected by corrosion without significant differences

  1. Problems in developing a rational approach to radiological protection of the environment from a regulatory viewpoint

    Sgrilli, E.; Tarroni, G.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline problems arising when trying to draw an obvious parallel between what is already extant for the radiation protection of man and the environment and what might further be thought feasible for the environment. For this purpose a brief summary will be made of the salient characteristics of the present radiation protection system, as recommended by ICRP and accepted inter alia in the IAEA basic safety standards and european directives, estimates of radiation effects on biota and trends in environmental protection will be briefly reviewed, as well as the main challenges to meet. (N.C.)

  2. The Theoretical Study of the Beams Supported on a Straining Environment as an Interaction Problem Soil - Structure - Infrastructure Interaction

    Ana-Raluca Chiriac

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Between structure, infrastructure (foundation and soil there is an effective interaction, which has to be taken into account as correctly as possible every time we do the calculation. This effective interaction can be analysed in a global form, considering on one hand the entire building, and on the other hand the soil -- establishment surface, or in an analytical form: we consider first the soil -- infrastructure (foundation interaction and then the structure -- infrastructure one. Without considering the interaction, we cannot make neither the calculation (for the soil according to the limiting deformation state which has to be compatible with the structure’s resistance system, nor calculation for the limiting resistance state, because the correct distribution of efforts along the contact surface between the soil and the structure is unknown, so we cannot determine the zones of plastical equilibrium in the soil massive and the conditions of limited equilibrium. Also, without considering the infrastructure, we cannot correctly calculate the efforts and the deformations which may occur in all resistance elements of the building. Therefore, we cannot talk about limiting state calculation without considering the interaction between the soil and the structure itself. The problem of interaction between building, on one hand and soil foundation, on the other hand, is not approached very much in the specialized literature, because of the big difficulties raised by summarizing all the factors that describe the structure and the environment, which would be more accessible to a practical calculation. A lot of buildings or elements of buildings standing on the soil or on another environment with finite rigidity can be taken into account as beams supported on a straining environment, (continuous foundations, resistance walls, longitudinal and transversal membranes of civil and industrial buildings, hydrotechnic works. Therefore, in the present paper we

  3. Just-in-time coding of the problem list in a clinical environment.

    Warren, J. J.; Collins, J.; Sorrentino, C.; Campbell, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Clinically useful problem lists are essential to the CPR. Providing a terminology that is standardized and understood by all clinicians is a major challenge. UNMC has developed a lexicon to support their problem list. Using a just-in-time coding strategy, the lexicon is maintained and extended prospectively in a dynamic clinical environment. The terms in the lexicon are mapped to ICD-9-CM, NANDA, and SNOMED International classification schemes. Currently, the lexicon contains 12,000 terms. This process of development and maintenance of the lexicon is described. PMID:9929226

  4. Global solutions to the electrodynamic two-body problem on a straight line

    Bauer, G.; Deckert, D.-A.; Dürr, D.; Hinrichs, G.

    2017-06-01

    The classical electrodynamic two-body problem has been a long standing open problem in mathematics. For motion constrained to the straight line, the interaction is similar to that of the two-body problem of classical gravitation. The additional complication is the presence of unbounded state-dependent delays in the Coulomb forces due to the finiteness of the speed of light. This circumstance renders the notion of local solutions meaningless, and therefore, straightforward ODE techniques cannot be applied. Here, we study the time-symmetric case, i.e., the Fokker-Schwarzschild-Tetrode (FST) equations, comprising both advanced and retarded delays. We extend the technique developed in Deckert and Hinrichs (J Differ Equ 260:6900-6929, 2016), where existence of FST solutions was proven on the half line, to ensure global existence—a result that had been obtained by Bauer (Ein Existenzsatz für die Wheeler-Feynman-Elektrodynamik, Herbert Utz Verlag, München, 1997). Due to the novel technique, the presented proof is shorter and more transparent but also relies on the idea to employ asymptotic data to characterize solutions.

  5. Agency problems in hospitals participating in self-management project under global budget system in Taiwan.

    Yan, Yu-Hua; Hsu, Shuofen; Yang, Chen-Wei; Fang, Shih-Chieh

    2010-02-01

    The main purposes of this study are to clarify the agency problems in the hospitals participating in self-management project within the context of Global Budgeting Payment System regulated by Taiwan government, and also to provide some suggestions for hospital administrator and health policy maker in reducing the waste of healthcare resources resulting from agency problems. For the purposes above, this study examines the relationships between two agency problems (ex ante moral hazard and ex post moral hazard) aroused among the hospitals and Bureau of National Health Insurance in Taiwan's health care sector. This study empirically tested the theoretical model at organization level. The findings suggest that the hospital's ex ante moral hazards before participating the self-management project do have some influence on its ex post moral hazards after participating the self-management project. This study concludes that the goal conflict between the agents and the principal certainly exist. The principal tries hard to control the expenditure escalation and keep the financial balance, but the agents have to subsist within limited healthcare resources. Therefore, the agency cost would definitely occur due to the conflicts between both parties. According to the results of the research, some suggestions and related management concepts were proposed at the end of the paper.

  6. The spectral problem of global microinstabilities in tokamak-like plasmas using a gyrokinetic model

    Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Fivaz, M.; Appert, K.

    1996-01-01

    Tokamak-like plasmas are modeled by a periodic cylindrical system with magnetic shear and realistic density and temperature profiles. Linear electrostatic microinstabilities in such plasmas are studied by solving the eigenvalue problem starting from gyrokinetic theory. The actual eigenvalue equation is then of integral type. With this approach, finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects to all orders are taken into account. FLR effects provide for the only radial coupling in a cylinder and to lowest order correspond to polarization drift. This effectively one-dimensional problem helped us to gain useful knowledge for solving gyrokinetic equations in a curved system. When searching for the eigenfrequencies of the global modes, two different methods have been tested and compared. Either the true eigenvalue problem is solved by finding the zeros of the characteristic equation, or one considers a system driven by an antenna and looks for resonances in the power response of the plasma. In addition, mode structures were computed as well in direct as in Fourier space. The advantages and disadvantages of these various approaches are discussed. Ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities are studied over a wide range of parameters and for wavelengths perpendicular to the magnetic field down to the scale of ion Larmor radii. Flute instabilities driven by magnetic curvature drifts are also considered. Some of these results are compared with a time evolution PIC code. Such comparisons are valuable as the convergence of PIC results is often questioned. Work considering true toroidal geometry is in progress

  7. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem.

    Williams, Patricia Ah; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat.

  8. Gene–Environment Correlation Underlying the Association Between Parental Negativity and Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    Marceau, Kristine; Horwitz, Briana N.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Narusyte, Jurgita; Spotts, Erica L.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adolescent or parent-based twins suggest that gene–environment correlation (rGE) is an important mechanism underlying parent–adolescent relationships. However, information on how parents′ and children’s genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors is needed to distinguish types of rGE. The present study used the novel Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of rGE underlying associations between negative parenting and adolescent (age 11–22 years) externalizing problems with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a U.S.-based sample of 405 adolescent siblings and their parents. Results suggest that evocative rGE, not passive rGE or direct environmental effects of parenting on adolescent externalizing, explains associations between maternal and paternal negativity and adolescent externalizing problems. PMID:23573986

  9. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem

    Williams, Patricia AH; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. PMID:26229513

  10. Global environment protection from the universe. Uchuu yori no chikyu kankyo hogo

    Iwasaki, N. (National Space Development Agency of Japan NASDA, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-15

    Two articles of 'Care of coppice in Wood Totoro' and 'Global environment protection from the universe' are included in this report. The former explains the necessity of coppice conservation through an example of Sayama Hill in Tokyo. Until the time 30 years ago, coppices are deeply related to people as the places which supply fuel and fertilizer to villagers, but they have been left or cut down by energy source conversion and development of home lots. Now we must learn the traditional methods of caring coppices again and find a new sense of values regarding the nature. The latter introduces satellite-used remote sensing which allows to continuously scan all the areas of the earth within a short period for global environment protection. This sensor uses a wide range of wavelengths from light to radiowave. In the U.S., it is operated in the name of LANDSAT since 1972, and Japan is also operating various kinds of satellites for environment research concerning, e.g., CO2 concentration and resource exploration. 10 figs.

  11. World in transition: basic structure of global people-environment interactions. 1993 annual report

    1994-01-01

    In spring 1992, increasingly concerned about the preservation of the natural basis for the life and development of humanity, the Federal Government of Germany established the German Advisory Council on Global Change. In its 1993 Annual Report, the Council endeavours to provide a holistic analysis of the Earth System, whereby the central focus is directed at the principal interactions between nature and society. The aim here is to demonstrate the complexity of environmental problems, on the one hand, and to create, on the other, the analytical basis for assessing the impact of current trends (increased greenhouse effect, declining biodiversity, loss of fertile soils, population growth, etc.) on the system as a whole. In-depth treatment of core topics will be related back continually to this global perspective, and vice versa, in order to contribute towards continuous improvement of our understanding of the system. The Report begins with a circumscription of its subject, i.e. a definition of what is meant by ''global environmental change''. This leads inevitably to the issue of ''sustainable development'', which will be dealt with in one of the Reports to follow. The highly condensed description of the ecosphere and the anthroposphere, and an analysis of the linkages between the two spheres in the Earth System, is followed by the examination of the main components and the relevant trends of global environmental change. (orig./UA)

  12. Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment

    Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

  13. The Near-Earth Orbital Debris Problem and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2012-01-01

    The near-Earth space environment has been gradually polluted with orbital debris (OD) since the beginning of space activities 55 years ago. Although this problem has been known to the research community for decades, the public was, in general, unaware of the issue until the anti-satellite test conducted by China in 2007 and the collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009. The latter also underlined the potential of an ongoing collision cascade effect (the "Kessler Syndrome") in the low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude). Recent modeling results have indicated that mitigation measures commonly adopted by the international space community will be insufficient to stabilize the LEO debris population. To better limit the OD population increase, more aggressive actions must be considered. There are three options for OD environment remediation-removal of large/massive intact objects to address the root cause of the OD population growth problem, removal of 5-mm-to-1 cm debris to mitigate the main mission-ending threats for the majority of operational spacecraft, and prevention of major debris-generating collisions as a temporary means to slow down the OD population increase. The technology, engineering, and cost challenges to carry out any of these three options are monumental. It will require innovative ideas, game-changing technologies, and major collaborations at the international level to address the OD problem and preserve the near-Earth environment for future generations.

  14. Uniqueness of global quasi-classical solutions of the Cauchy problems for first-order nonlinear partial differential equations

    Tran Duc Van

    1994-01-01

    The notion of global quasi-classical solutions of the Cauchy problems for first-order nonlinear partial differential equations is presented, some uniqueness theorems and a stability result are established by the method based on the theory of differential inclusions. In particular, the answer to an open problem of S.N. Kruzhkov is given. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig

  15. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  16. Picosecond scale experimental verification of a globally convergent algorithm for a coefficient inverse problem

    Klibanov, Michael V; Pantong, Natee; Fiddy, Michael A; Schenk, John; Beilina, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    A globally convergent algorithm by the first and third authors for a 3D hyperbolic coefficient inverse problem is verified on experimental data measured in the picosecond scale regime. Quantifiable images of dielectric abnormalities are obtained. The total measurement timing of a 100 ps pulse for one detector location was 1.2 ns with 20 ps (=0.02 ns) time step between two consecutive readings. Blind tests have consistently demonstrated an accurate imaging of refractive indexes of dielectric abnormalities. At the same time, it is shown that a modified gradient method is inapplicable to this kind of experimental data. This inverse algorithm is also applicable to other types of imaging modalities, e.g. acoustics. Potential applications are in airport security, imaging of land mines, imaging of defects in non-distractive testing, etc

  17. VACCINATION AGAINST HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION: A SAFE SOLUTION TO THE GLOBAL PROBLEM

    M.G. Galitskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases caused by human papilloma virus (HPV, in recent years has become more urgent, not only for physicians, scientists, but also for patients. This is due to the high contagiousness of HPV, its prevalence and, of course, proved oncogenicity. Creation and introduction of preventive vaccines against the most common HPV types played a definite role in the global health, and, of course, raised the attention of doctors and the public to human papillomavirus infection and associated diseases. At the same time propaganda against vaccination blocks the widespread adoption of this disease prevention in our country. In this paper, we introduce the American experience of monitoring vaccination adverse events.Key words: human papillomavirus infection, prevention, vaccination, adverse events, monitoring, children.

  18. The Business Environment and Problems of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kosovo

    MSc. Muhamet Hashani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A good business environment means a catalyst for small and medium enterprises, a good business environment facilitates development and sustainability of small and medium enterprises. The development of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME is very important to the economic development of a country, and intentionally, MSMEs are considered to be amongst the most efficient instruments for economies in transition, because of their production of sustainable economic growth, employment and poverty reduction. Small and medium enterprises are a generator of new products and technologies; they are are a source of new ideas and advanced strategies of management. Development and sustainability of small and medium enterprises depends on the business environment, which implies a series of social, legal, economic, political or institutional conditions, which are uncontrollable in nature, and affect the organizations’ functions. This study addresses the baseline documents which were taken into consideration by the Government of the Republic of Kosovo in developing economic policies, thereby analysing their advantages and disadvantages. By analysing reports, statistics on MSMEs and other documents, and further complementing the study by a research section (business survey, this paper aims at identifying the key problems faced by the MSMEs in Kosovo, and provide adequate recommendations which may be of service in resolving such problems, but also resulting into a better business environment, and economic development in general.

  19. Development of a global education environment to study the Equatorial Ionosphere with Cognitive Radars

    Urbina, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    The author has recently been awarded the NSF Career award to develop a radar with cognitive sensing capabilities to study Equatorial plasma instabilities in the Peruvian Andes. Educational research has shown that a rich learning environment contributes tremendously toward improvement in learning achievements and also attitudes toward studies. One of the benefits of this project is that it provides such an environment and a global platform to involve several students at both graduate and undergraduate levels from the US, Puerto Rico, and Peru, and who will benefit from designing, installing, and deploying a radar in multi-instrument science campaigns. In addition to working in the laboratories, students will gain invaluable real world experience building this complex instrument and making it work under challenging conditions at remote sites. The PI will describe how these components are being developed in a Freshman Seminar course and Graduate courses in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Penn State University, and how they are aligned well with the department's and university's strategy for greater global engagement through a network of Global Engagement Nodes in South America (GENSA). The issues of mentoring, recruitment, and retention become particularly important in consideration of the educational objective of this career project to involve underrepresented students with diverse backgrounds and interest them in research projects. The author is working very closely with the Office of Engineering Diversity to leverage existing programs at Penn State designed to increase the participation of women and minority students in science and engineering research: (a) WISER (Women In Science and Engineering Research), and (b) MURE (Minority Undergraduate Research Experience). The Electrical Engineering Department at Penn State is also currently an NSF REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) site. The PI will also present his efforts in connecting his career

  20. Complementary Constrains on Component based Multiphase Flow Problems, Should It Be Implemented Locally or Globally?

    Shao, H.; Huang, Y.; Kolditz, O.

    2015-12-01

    Multiphase flow problems are numerically difficult to solve, as it often contains nonlinear Phase transition phenomena A conventional technique is to introduce the complementarity constraints where fluid properties such as liquid saturations are confined within a physically reasonable range. Based on such constraints, the mathematical model can be reformulated into a system of nonlinear partial differential equations coupled with variational inequalities. They can be then numerically handled by optimization algorithms. In this work, two different approaches utilizing the complementarity constraints based on persistent primary variables formulation[4] are implemented and investigated. The first approach proposed by Marchand et.al[1] is using "local complementary constraints", i.e. coupling the constraints with the local constitutive equations. The second approach[2],[3] , namely the "global complementary constrains", applies the constraints globally with the mass conservation equation. We will discuss how these two approaches are applied to solve non-isothermal componential multiphase flow problem with the phase change phenomenon. Several benchmarks will be presented for investigating the overall numerical performance of different approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of different models will also be concluded. References[1] E.Marchand, T.Mueller and P.Knabner. Fully coupled generalized hybrid-mixed finite element approximation of two-phase two-component flow in porous media. Part I: formulation and properties of the mathematical model, Computational Geosciences 17(2): 431-442, (2013). [2] A. Lauser, C. Hager, R. Helmig, B. Wohlmuth. A new approach for phase transitions in miscible multi-phase flow in porous media. Water Resour., 34,(2011), 957-966. [3] J. Jaffré, and A. Sboui. Henry's Law and Gas Phase Disappearance. Transp. Porous Media. 82, (2010), 521-526. [4] A. Bourgeat, M. Jurak and F. Smaï. Two-phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in

  1. World Resources: A guide to the Global Environment, 1992-1993

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book, produced in collaboration with the U.N., is a basic information source on the impact humans have had on the earth's environment, with a theme of sustainable development. Part I is an essay on sustainable development, examined in the contest of industrial, industrializing, and non-industrial countries. Part II is a description of the environmental devastation in central Europe. Part III examines global environmental conditions and trends, and part IV consists of tables, each with an interductory text and citations, including such topics as population, development, land cover, food, forests, wildlife, habitats, energy, water, atmosphere, and climate

  2. Polygenic scores predict alcohol problems in an independent sample and show moderation by the environment.

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Aliev, Fazil; Edwards, Alexis C; Evans, David M; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Lewis, Glyn; Kendler, Kenneth S; Loukola, Anu; Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-04-10

    Alcohol problems represent a classic example of a complex behavioral outcome that is likely influenced by many genes of small effect. A polygenic approach, which examines aggregate measured genetic effects, can have predictive power in cases where individual genes or genetic variants do not. In the current study, we first tested whether polygenic risk for alcohol problems-derived from genome-wide association estimates of an alcohol problems factor score from the age 18 assessment of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4304 individuals of European descent; 57% female)-predicted alcohol problems earlier in development (age 14) in an independent sample (FinnTwin12; n = 1162; 53% female). We then tested whether environmental factors (parental knowledge and peer deviance) moderated polygenic risk to predict alcohol problems in the FinnTwin12 sample. We found evidence for both polygenic association and for additive polygene-environment interaction. Higher polygenic scores predicted a greater number of alcohol problems (range of Pearson partial correlations 0.07-0.08, all p-values ≤ 0.01). Moreover, genetic influences were significantly more pronounced under conditions of low parental knowledge or high peer deviance (unstandardized regression coefficients (b), p-values (p), and percent of variance (R2) accounted for by interaction terms: b = 1.54, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.33%; b = 0.94, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.30%, respectively). Supplementary set-based analyses indicated that the individual top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to the polygenic scores were not individually enriched for gene-environment interaction. Although the magnitude of the observed effects are small, this study illustrates the usefulness of polygenic approaches for understanding the pathways by which measured genetic predispositions come together with environmental factors to predict complex behavioral outcomes.

  3. From the Collaborative Environment of the Remote Laboratory NetLab to the Global Collaboration

    Jan Machotka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The remote laboratory (RL can be considered as a modern collaborative learning environment, where students acquire skills required for efficient collaboration and communication on a local and global scale, both today and in the near future. The majority of current existing RLs are not constructed to allow the involved participants to collaborate in real time. This paper describes the collaborative RL NetLab, developed at the University of South Australia (UniSA, which allows up to three onshore and/or offshore students to conduct remote experiments at the same time as a team. This allows the online RL environment to become very similar, if not nearly identical to its real laboratory counterpart. The collaboration in the real laboratory is replaced by the “global” on-line collaboration.

  4. Global environmental problems in the electric industry. Denki jigyo ni okeru chikyu kankyo mondai ni tsuite

    Sugi, T [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1992-09-30

    Since the electric industry has grappled with a prevention of the environmental pollution such as the air pollution and water contamination as a forerunner in case of construction and operation of the power facilities, and at the same time has conducted actively the environmental conservation countermeasures, it has consequently achieved the environmental conservation level as a top level in the world. On the other hand, as for the emission quantity of CO2 relating to the earth warming, the power field occupies about one fourth of total Japan. Therefore the electric industry should aim at the electric energy supply considering the influence on the environment, such as the power supply structure to restrain CO2 emission as less as possible, higher efficiency of equipments, higher efficiency of energy utilization by using the unused energy and so forth. In addition to it, the consumer side should aim at the social structure with a recycle type such as saving resources and saving energy, and aim at changeover of life style. It is hoped to conduct the overall measure including the items mentioned above. In this report, the recent trend of earth enviromental problems, grappling with the environmental problems as a forerunner such as the prevention measure of air pollution in the thermal power plant, etc., and the correspondence to the earth warming problems are outlined. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Global hierarchical classification of deepwater and wetland environments from remote sensing products

    Fluet-Chouinard, E.; Lehner, B.; Aires, F.; Prigent, C.; McIntyre, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    Global surface water maps have improved in spatial and temporal resolutions through various remote sensing methods: open water extents with compiled Landsat archives and inundation with topographically downscaled multi-sensor retrievals. These time-series capture variations through time of open water and inundation without discriminating between hydrographic features (e.g. lakes, reservoirs, river channels and wetland types) as other databases have done as static representation. Available data sources present the opportunity to generate a comprehensive map and typology of aquatic environments (deepwater and wetlands) that improves on earlier digitized inventories and maps. The challenge of classifying surface waters globally is to distinguishing wetland types with meaningful characteristics or proxies (hydrology, water chemistry, soils, vegetation) while accommodating limitations of remote sensing data. We present a new wetland classification scheme designed for global application and produce a map of aquatic ecosystem types globally using state-of-the-art remote sensing products. Our classification scheme combines open water extent and expands it with downscaled multi-sensor inundation data to capture the maximal vegetated wetland extent. The hierarchical structure of the classification is modified from the Cowardin Systems (1979) developed for the USA. The first level classification is based on a combination of landscape positions and water source (e.g. lacustrine, riverine, palustrine, coastal and artificial) while the second level represents the hydrologic regime (e.g. perennial, seasonal, intermittent and waterlogged). Class-specific descriptors can further detail the wetland types with soils and vegetation cover. Our globally consistent nomenclature and top-down mapping allows for direct comparison across biogeographic regions, to upscale biogeochemical fluxes as well as other landscape level functions.

  6. Observations of urban and suburban environments with global satellite scatterometer data

    Nghiem, S. V.; Balk, D.; Rodriguez, E.; Neumann, G.; Sorichetta, A.; Small, C.; Elvidge, C. D.

    A global and consistent characterization of land use and land change in urban and suburban environments is crucial for many fundamental social and natural science studies and applications. Presented here is a dense sampling method (DSM) that uses satellite scatterometer data to delineate urban and intraurban areas at a posting scale of about 1 km. DSM results are analyzed together with information on population and housing censuses, with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery, and with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) night-light data. The analyses include Dallas-Fort Worth and Phoenix in the United States, Bogotá in Colombia, Dhaka in Bangladesh, Guangzhou in China, and Quito in Ecuador. Results show that scatterometer signatures correspond to buildings and infrastructures in urban and suburban environments. City extents detected by scatterometer data are significantly smaller than city light extents, but not all urban areas are detectable by the current SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite. Core commercial and industrial areas with high buildings and large factories are identified as high-backscatter centers. Data from DSM backscatter and DMSP nighttime lights have a good correlation with population density. However, the correlation relations from the two satellite datasets are different for different cities indicating that they contain complementary information. Together with night-light and census data, DSM and satellite scatterometer data provide new observations to study global urban and suburban environments and their changes. Furthermore, the capability of DSM to identify hydrological channels on the Greenland ice sheet and ecological biomes in central Africa demonstrates that DSM can be used to observe persistent structures in natural environments at a km scale, providing contemporaneous data to study human impacts beyond urban and suburban areas.

  7. Public road infrastructure inventory in degraded global navigation satellite system signal environments

    Sokolova, N.; Morrison, A.; Haakonsen, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Recent advancement of land-based mobile mapping enables rapid and cost-effective collection of highquality road related spatial information. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) can provide spatial information with subdecimeter accuracy in nominal operation environments. However, performance in challenging environments such as tunnels is not well characterized. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) manages the country's public road network and its infrastructure, a large segment of which is represented by road tunnels (there are about 1 000 road tunnels in Norway with a combined length of 800 km). In order to adopt mobile mapping technology for streamlining road network and infrastructure management and maintenance tasks, it is important to ensure that the technology is mature enough to meet existing requirements for object positioning accuracy in all types of environments, and provide homogeneous accuracy over the mapping perimeter. This paper presents results of a testing campaign performed within a project funded by the NPRA as a part of SMarter road traffic with Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) (SMITS) program. The testing campaign objective was performance evaluation of high end commercial MMSs for inventory of public areas, focusing on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal degraded environments.

  8. [Child behaviour problems and parenting skills of mothers in environments of intimate partner violence].

    Rosser Limiñana, Ana; Suriá Martínez, Raquel; Mateo Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    To assess the behavioural problems of children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence situations, and the moderating effect of mother parenting. We analysed, using the Child Behavior CheckList, behavioural problems of 46 children between 6 and 16 years, and the relationship between the detected problems and parenting skills shown in the mother-child interaction in shelters. Increased behavioural problems were detected in children, compared with normative population. Difficulties in parenting skills in mother-child interaction especially connect with the manifestation of externalizing problems in children. Living in a gender violence environment affects children's psychosocial adjustment and it damages the victim's parental competence. Consequently, the intervention of socio-health professionals with Intimate partner violence victims should pay more attention to detect the difficulties of children and restore the parenting skills of the mothers in order to alleviate the repercussions of gender violence on their children. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old from public schools participate in science clubs outside of their regular school schedule. A comparison study was performed between different groups, in order to assess GLOBE's applicability as a learning science atmosphere and the motivation and interest it generates in students toward science. Internationally applied scales were used as tools for measuring such indicators, adapted to the Costa Rican context. The results provide evidence statistically significant that the students perceive the GLOBE atmosphere as an enriched environment for science learning in comparison with the traditional science class. Moreover, students feel more confident, motivated and interested in science than their peers who do not participate in the project. However, the results were not statistically significant in this last respect.

  10. The global resource balance table, an integrated table of energy, materials and the environment

    Tsuchiya, Haruki

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the Global Resource Balance Table (GRBT), which is an extension of the energy balance tables that expresses the relationships between energy, materials and the environment. The material division of the GRBT includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. In contrast, the environmental division of the GRBT includes oxygen, CO 2 and methane. The transaction division rows in the GRBT include production, conversion, end use and stock. Each cell of the GRBT contains the quantities of the respective resources that were generated or consumed. The relationships between the cells were constructed from the laws of conservation of the materials and energy. We constructed a GRBT for 2007 and discussed the increasing air temperature due to waste heat and the CO 2 equivalent from human breathing. The GRBT is a comprehensive integrated table that represents the resources that are consumed by human activities and is useful for energy and environmental studies. - Highlights: • We extended energy balance table and introduced Global Resource Balance Table. • It shows relationships between energy, materials and the environment. • The material division includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. • The environmental division includes oxygen, CO 2 and methane. • We discussed on waste heat and CO 2 emission by human breathing

  11. A review of the global emissions, transport and effects of heavy metals in the environment

    Friedman, J.R.; Ashton, W.B.; Rapoport, R.D.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the sources and quantities of heavy metal emissions, their transport and fate, their potential health and environmental effects, and strategies to control them. The approach is to review the literature on this topic and to consult with experts in the field. Ongoing research activities and research needs are discussed. Estimates of global anthropogenic and natural emissions indicate that anthropogenic emissions are responsible for most of the heavy metals released into the atmosphere and that industrial activities have had a significant impact on the global cycling of trace metals. The largest anthropogenic sources of trace metals are coal combustion and the nonferrous metal industry. Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway by which trace metals enter the environment. Atmospheric deposition varies according to the solubility of the element and the length of time it resides in the atmosphere. Evidence suggests that deposition is influenced by other chemicals in the atmosphere, such as ozone and sulfur dioxide. Trace metals also enter the environment through leaching. Existing emissions-control technologies such as electrostatic precipitators, baghouses, and scrubbers are designed to remove other particulates from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants and are only partially effective at removing heavy metals. Emerging technologies such as flue gas desulfurization, lignite coke, and fluidized bed combustion could further reduce emissions. 108 refs

  12. Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning

    Kawanaka, Takashi [Building Research Inst., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

  13. Polygenic Scores Predict Alcohol Problems in an Independent Sample and Show Moderation by the Environment

    Jessica E. Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol problems represent a classic example of a complex behavioral outcome that is likely influenced by many genes of small effect. A polygenic approach, which examines aggregate measured genetic effects, can have predictive power in cases where individual genes or genetic variants do not. In the current study, we first tested whether polygenic risk for alcohol problems—derived from genome-wide association estimates of an alcohol problems factor score from the age 18 assessment of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4304 individuals of European descent; 57% female—predicted alcohol problems earlier in development (age 14 in an independent sample (FinnTwin12; n = 1162; 53% female. We then tested whether environmental factors (parental knowledge and peer deviance moderated polygenic risk to predict alcohol problems in the FinnTwin12 sample. We found evidence for both polygenic association and for additive polygene-environment interaction. Higher polygenic scores predicted a greater number of alcohol problems (range of Pearson partial correlations 0.07–0.08, all p-values ≤ 0.01. Moreover, genetic influences were significantly more pronounced under conditions of low parental knowledge or high peer deviance (unstandardized regression coefficients (b, p-values (p, and percent of variance (R2 accounted for by interaction terms: b = 1.54, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.33%; b = 0.94, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.30%, respectively. Supplementary set-based analyses indicated that the individual top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contributing to the polygenic scores were not individually enriched for gene-environment interaction. Although the magnitude of the observed effects are small, this study illustrates the usefulness of polygenic approaches for understanding the pathways by which measured genetic predispositions come together with environmental factors to predict complex behavioral outcomes.

  14. Perceptions of sexual harassment in Swedish high schools: experiences and school-environment problems.

    Witkowska, Eva; Menckel, Ewa

    2005-02-01

    Sexual harassment in schools is recognized as a public-health problem detrimental to girls' psychosomatic health. This study examines the magnitude of sexual harassment and types of behaviours related to sexual harassment that female students are exposed to in a school environment, and their perceptions of them as problems in school. A random sample of 540 female high school students, from all over Sweden, responded to an anonymous self-report mail questionnaire consisting of items related to personal experiences of different behaviours related to sexual harassment during the previous school year. Sexual harassment was identified by 49% of the female students as a problem present in their schools. The most common types were verbal behaviours, such as: sexualized conversations, attractiveness rating, demeaning comments about gender, name-calling, and sexual personal comments. The most common non-verbal displays were: sexualized contact seeking and sexual looks. Behaviours in the sexual assault and teacher-to-student categories were less prevalent. In all four categories, the respondents who reported exposure to a particular behaviour were significantly more likely to identify that behaviour as a problem in their school. However, many non-exposed respondents also perceived such behaviours as problems in their school. Female high-school students in Sweden are exposed to a variety of inappropriate and/or unacceptable behaviours of a sexual nature, or based on sex, that may infringe their right to a supportive, respectful and safe learning environment or their dignity. Greater efforts are needed to analyse and prevent sexual harassment in schools.

  15. The global dimension of water governance: Nine reasons for global arrangements in order to cope with local water problems

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2006-01-01

    Where water problems extend beyond the borders of local communities, the catchment area or river basin is generally seen as the most appropriate unit for analysis, planning and institutional arrangements. In this paper it is argued that addressing water problems at the river basin level is not

  16. Modeling global mangrove soil carbon stocks: filling the gaps in coastal environments

    Rovai, A.; Twilley, R.

    2017-12-01

    We provide an overview of contemporaneous global mangrove soil organic carbon (SOC) estimates, focusing on a framework to explain disproportionate differences among observed data as a way to improve global estimates. This framework is based on a former conceptual model, the coastal environmental setting, in contrast to the more popular latitude-based hypotheses largely believed to explain hemispheric variation in mangrove ecosystem properties. To demonstrate how local and regional estimates of SOC linked to coastal environmental settings can render more realistic global mangrove SOC extrapolations we combined published and unpublished data, yielding a total of 106 studies, reporting on 552 sites from 43 countries. These sites were classified into distinct coastal environmental setting types according to two concurrent worldwide typology of nearshore coastal systems classifications. Mangrove SOC density varied substantially across coastal environmental settings, ranging from 14.9 ± 0.8 in river dominated (deltaic) soils to 53.9 ± 1.6 mg cm-3 (mean ± SE) in karstic coastlines. Our findings reveal striking differences between published values and contemporary global mangrove SOC extrapolation based on country-level mean reference values, particularly for karstic-dominated coastlines where mangrove SOC stocks have been underestimated by up to 50%. Correspondingly, climate-based global estimates predicted lower mangrove SOC density values (32-41 mg C cm-3) for mangroves in karstic environments, differing from published (21-126 mg C cm-3) and unpublished (47-58 mg C cm-3) values. Moreover, climate-based projections yielded higher SOC density values (27-70 mg C cm-3) for river-dominated mangroves compared to lower ranges reported in the literature (11-24 mg C cm-3). We argue that this inconsistent reporting of SOC stock estimates between river-dominated and karstic coastal environmental settings is likely due to the omission of geomorphological and geophysical

  17. Prompting in Web-Based Environments: Supporting Self-Monitoring and Problem Solving Skills in College Students

    Kauffman, Douglas F.; Ge, Xun; Xie, Kui; Chen, Ching-Huei

    2008-01-01

    This study explored Metacognition and how automated instructional support in the form of problem-solving and self-reflection prompts influenced students' capacity to solve complex problems in a Web-based learning environment. Specifically, we examined the independent and interactive effects of problem-solving prompts and reflection prompts on…

  18. Robust optimization model and algorithm for railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment.

    Liu, Xing-Cai; He, Shi-Wei; Song, Rui; Sun, Yang; Li, Hao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Railway freight center location problem is an important issue in railway freight transport programming. This paper focuses on the railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment. Seeing that the expected value model ignores the negative influence of disadvantageous scenarios, a robust optimization model was proposed. The robust optimization model takes expected cost and deviation value of the scenarios as the objective. A cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA) was presented. It combines adaptive clonal selection algorithm with Cloud Model which can improve the convergence rate. Design of the code and progress of the algorithm were proposed. Result of the example demonstrates the model and algorithm are effective. Compared with the expected value cases, the amount of disadvantageous scenarios in robust model reduces from 163 to 21, which prove the result of robust model is more reliable.

  19. Robust Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Location Problem in Uncertain Environment

    Xing-cai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway freight center location problem is an important issue in railway freight transport programming. This paper focuses on the railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment. Seeing that the expected value model ignores the negative influence of disadvantageous scenarios, a robust optimization model was proposed. The robust optimization model takes expected cost and deviation value of the scenarios as the objective. A cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA was presented. It combines adaptive clonal selection algorithm with Cloud Model which can improve the convergence rate. Design of the code and progress of the algorithm were proposed. Result of the example demonstrates the model and algorithm are effective. Compared with the expected value cases, the amount of disadvantageous scenarios in robust model reduces from 163 to 21, which prove the result of robust model is more reliable.

  20. Student’s perspectives on Education for Sustainable Development in a problem based learning environment

    Guerra, Aida; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2013-01-01

    at these PBL institutions experience the strength of this pedagogy when being educated for sustainability. This paper aims to investigate how students perceive and integrate ESD in a PBL environment. Results exemplify how PBL moves beyond awareness about sustainability as the problem based learning model......In a society characterized by fast technological advances and increasing pressure on economic, ecological as well as social systems, it is important to educate engineers with a broader, reflective and sustainable perspective in alignment with their professional practice. This poses challenges...... to most engineering programmes, and scholars argue that a paradigm shift is needed to developing engineering education (EE) to embrace education for sustainable development (ESD). However, some of the more innovative pedagogies as for example problem based and project organised learning (PBL) already seem...

  1. Gendered practices of constructing an engineering identity in a problem-based learning environment

    Du, Xiangyun

    2006-01-01

    of an engineering identity with masculinity and the culturally defined engineering competencies leads to different learning experiences for male and female students. The nature of hard-core engineering subjects, based on male interests, privileges men and acts as a barrier to women. The masculine culture......This article examines the learning experiences of engineering students of both genders in a problem-based and project-organized learning environment (PBL) at a Danish university. This study relates an amalgam of theories on learning and gender to the context of engineering education. Based on data...

  2. Realization of Anisotropic Diamagnetic Kepler Problem in a Solid State Environment

    Chen Zhanghai; Zhou Weihang; Zhang Bo; Yu, C. H.; Zhu Jingbing; Lu Wei; Shen, S. C.

    2009-01-01

    The anisotropic diamagnetic Kepler problem (ADKP) is realized experimentally by the orbital electrons of a P donor in Si under magnetic fields. The interference of electron wave packets which leads to quasi-Landau resonances (QLR) were observed. Applying the closed-orbit theory to an anisotropic solid state environment, we have identified orbits responsible for the QLR manifesting the quantum chaotic behavior in Rydberg atoms. The excellent consistency between the measured spectra and theoretical calculation provides unambiguous evidence of quantum chaotic dynamics of electrons in the ADKP.

  3. A Study on Efficiency Improvement of the Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Method for Global Transport Problems

    Kim, Jong Woo; Woo, Myeong Hyeon; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2017-01-01

    In this study hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic method is explained for radiation transport analysis in global system. FW-CADIS methodology construct the weight window parameter and it useful at most global MC calculation. However, Due to the assumption that a particle is scored at a tally, less particles are transported to the periphery of mesh tallies. For compensation this space-dependency, we modified the module in the ADVANTG code to add the proposed method. We solved the simple test problem for comparing with result from FW-CADIS methodology, it was confirmed that a uniform statistical error was secured as intended. In the future, it will be added more practical problems. It might be useful to perform radiation transport analysis using the Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic method in global transport problems.

  4. The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale.

    Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

    2009-11-11

    The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. To produce maps of the baseline and future bioclimate that allows a direct comparison of the differences in the vulnerability of populations to thermal stress across the world. The required climatological data fields are obtained from climate simulations with the global General Circulation Model ECHAM4 in T106-resolution. For the thermo-physiologically relevant assessment of these climate data a complete heat budget model of the human being, the 'Perceived Temperature' procedure has been applied which already comprises adaptation by clothing to a certain degree. Short-term physiological acclimatisation is considered via Health Related Assessment of the Thermal Environment. The global maps 1971-1980 (control run, assumed as baseline climate) show a pattern of thermal stress intensities as frequencies of heat. The heat load for people living in warm-humid climates is the highest. Climate change will lead to clear differences in health-related thermal stress between baseline climate and the future bioclimate 2041-2050 based on the 'business-as-usual' greenhouse gas scenario IS92a. The majority of the world's population will be faced with more frequent and more intense heat strain in spite of an assumed level of acclimatisation. Further adaptation measures are crucial in order to reduce the vulnerability of the populations. This bioclimatology analysis provides a tool for various questions in climate and climate change impact research. Considerations of regional or local scale require climate

  5. A non-linear branch and cut method for solving discrete minimum compliance problems to global optimality

    Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper present some initial results pertaining to a search for globally optimal solutions to a challenging benchmark example proposed by Zhou and Rozvany. This means that we are dealing with global optimization of the classical single load minimum compliance topology design problem with a fixed...... finite element discretization and with discrete design variables. Global optimality is achieved by the implementation of some specially constructed convergent nonlinear branch and cut methods, based on the use of natural relaxations and by applying strengthening constraints (linear valid inequalities...

  6. A non-linear branch and cut method for solving discrete minimum compliance problems to global optimality

    Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper present some initial results pertaining to a search for globally optimal solutions to a challenging benchmark example proposed by Zhou and Rozvany. This means that we are dealing with global optimization of the classical single load minimum compliance topology design problem with a fixed...... finite element discretization and with discrete design variables. Global optimality is achieved by the implementation of some specially constructed convergent nonlinear branch and cut methods, based on the use of natural relaxations and by applying strengthening constraints (linear valid inequalities......) and cuts....

  7. Escript: Open Source Environment For Solving Large-Scale Geophysical Joint Inversion Problems in Python

    Gross, Lutz; Altinay, Cihan; Fenwick, Joel; Smith, Troy

    2014-05-01

    The program package escript has been designed for solving mathematical modeling problems using python, see Gross et al. (2013). Its development and maintenance has been funded by the Australian Commonwealth to provide open source software infrastructure for the Australian Earth Science community (recent funding by the Australian Geophysical Observing System EIF (AGOS) and the AuScope Collaborative Research Infrastructure Scheme (CRIS)). The key concepts of escript are based on the terminology of spatial functions and partial differential equations (PDEs) - an approach providing abstraction from the underlying spatial discretization method (i.e. the finite element method (FEM)). This feature presents a programming environment to the user which is easy to use even for complex models. Due to the fact that implementations are independent from data structures simulations are easily portable across desktop computers and scalable compute clusters without modifications to the program code. escript has been successfully applied in a variety of applications including modeling mantel convection, melting processes, volcanic flow, earthquakes, faulting, multi-phase flow, block caving and mineralization (see Poulet et al. 2013). The recent escript release (see Gross et al. (2013)) provides an open framework for solving joint inversion problems for geophysical data sets (potential field, seismic and electro-magnetic). The strategy bases on the idea to formulate the inversion problem as an optimization problem with PDE constraints where the cost function is defined by the data defect and the regularization term for the rock properties, see Gross & Kemp (2013). This approach of first-optimize-then-discretize avoids the assemblage of the - in general- dense sensitivity matrix as used in conventional approaches where discrete programming techniques are applied to the discretized problem (first-discretize-then-optimize). In this paper we will discuss the mathematical framework for

  8. Leptin, An Adipokine With Central Importance in the Global Obesity Problem.

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Zhao, Shan; Garvey, W Timothy

    2017-12-13

    Leptin has central importance in the global obesity and cardiovascular disease problem. Leptin is principally secreted by adipocytes and acts in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and food intake, increase energy expenditure, and regulate body weight. Based on clinical translation of specific and networked actions, leptin affects the cardiovascular system and may be a marker and driver of cardiometabolic risk factors with interventions that are actionable by cardiologists. Leptin subnetwork analysis demonstrates a statistically significant role for ethnoculturally and socioeconomically appropriate lifestyle intervention in cardiovascular disease. Emergent mechanistic components and potential diagnostic or therapeutic targets include hexokinase 3, urocortins, clusterin, sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 6, C-reactive protein, platelet glycoprotein VI, albumin, pentraxin 3, ghrelin, obestatin prepropeptide, leptin receptor, neuropeptide Y, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1. Emergent associated symptoms include weight change, eating disorders, vascular necrosis, chronic fatigue, and chest pain. Leptin-targeted therapies are reported for lipodystrophy and leptin deficiency, but they are investigational for leptin resistance, obesity, and other chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictability problems of global change as seen through natural systems complexity description. 2. Approach

    Vladimir V. Kozoderov

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing the general statements of the proposed global change theory, outlined in Part 1 of the publication, Kolmogorov's probability space is used to study properties of information measures (unconditional, joint and conditional entropies, information divergence, mutual information, etc.. Sets of elementary events, the specified algebra of their sub-sets and probability measures for the algebra are composite parts of the space. The information measures are analyzed using the mathematical expectance operator and the adequacy between an additive function of sets and their equivalents in the form of the measures. As a result, explanations are given to multispectral satellite imagery visualization procedures using Markov's chains of random variables represented by pixels of the imagery. The proposed formalism of the information measures application enables to describe the natural targets complexity by syntactically governing probabilities. Asserted as that of signal/noise ratios finding for anomalies of natural processes, the predictability problem is solved by analyses of temporal data sets of related measurements for key regions and their background within contextually coherent structures of natural targets and between particular boundaries of the structures.

  10. On global solutions of the random Hamilton-Jacobi equations and the KPZ problem

    Bakhtin, Yuri; Khanin, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss possible qualitative approaches to the problem of KPZ universality. Throughout the paper, our point of view is based on the geometrical and dynamical properties of minimisers and shocks forming interlacing tree-like structures. We believe that the KPZ universality can be explained in terms of statistics of these structures evolving in time. The paper is focussed on the setting of the random Hamilton-Jacobi equations. We formulate several conjectures concerning global solutions and discuss how their properties are connected to the KPZ scalings in dimension 1  +  1. In the case of general viscous Hamilton-Jacobi equations with non-quadratic Hamiltonians, we define generalised directed polymers. We expect that their behaviour is similar to the behaviour of classical directed polymers, and present arguments in favour of this conjecture. We also define a new renormalisation transformation defined in purely geometrical terms and discuss conjectural properties of the corresponding fixed points. Most of our conjectures are widely open, and supported by only partial rigorous results for particular models.

  11. THE GLOBAL GOVERNANCE PROBLEM AND THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

    Sidorova E. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, globalization begins to permeate more and more areas of human activity, therefore it is important question of the complex mechanisms and principles of global governance formation.The article analyzes the essence, subjects and mechanisms for the implementation of the global economic governance. Moreover, it investigates the role and current state of the International Monetary Fund (IMF in the global economy. In conclusion, it clarifies the relationship of the IMF and processes of global governance. Research has shown that it is necessary to create within the IMF more representative, economically and politically balanced system of global governance of the world monetary and financial relations as part of the emerging mechanisms of global economic governance. This article extends the knowledge about the features of the IMF in the forming global governance.

  12. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem

    Williams PAH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Patricia AH Williams, Andrew J Woodward eHealth Research Group and Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. Keywords: cybersecurity, security, safety, wireless, risk, medical devices

  13. Perceived health and work-environment related problems and associated subjective production loss in an academic population.

    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Nybergh, Lotta; Jensen, Irene

    2018-02-14

    The aim was to investigate the prevalence of health problems and work environment problems and how these are associated with subjective production loss among women and men at an academic workplace. An additional aim was to investigate whether there were differences between women and men according to age group, years at current workplace, academic rank or managerial position. A questionnaire was sent in 2011 to all employees at a Swedish university (n = 5144). Only researchers and teachers were included in the study (n = 3207). Spearman correlations were performed to investigate differences in health and work environment problems. Employees who reported having experienced work environment or health problems in the previous seven days (n = 1475) were included in the analyses in order to investigate differences in subjective production loss. This was done using Student's t-test, One-way Anova and generalized linear models. The response rate was 63% (n = 2022). A total of 819 academic staff (40% of the population) reported experiencing either health problems, work environment problems or both during the previous seven days. The prevalence of health problems only or a combination of work environment and health problems was higher among women than men (p-value ˂0.05). This was especially the case for younger women, those in lower academic positions and those who had worked for fewer years at their current workplace. No difference was found for work environment problems. The majority of the employees who reported problems said that these problems affected their ability to perform at work (84-99%). The average production loss varied between 31 and 42% depending on the type of problem. Production loss due to health-related and work-environment related problems was highest among junior researchers and managers. No significant difference between men and women was found in the level of production loss. Subjective production loss in academia can be associated

  14. Green energy facilitated? The uncertain function of the global environment facility

    Young, Z.; Boehmer-Christiansen, S.

    1998-01-01

    The GEF remains the interim operating entity of the financial mechanism, the aid provider, for the Climate Change Convention (FCCC); It had 1.6 billion dollars to spend between 1994 and 1997 on the 'incremental costs' of implementing UN environmental conventions in eligible countries. The paper describes how this multilateral fund has functioned so far in the energy-environment arena, analyzing its governance and policies, decision-making criteria, project cycle and strategies for monitoring and evaluation. Through the patterns of GEF assistance to climate change related science, technologies and institutions, we explore the origins and wider purposes of the entity and in the process illuminate some assumptions and principles underlying the work of the GEF Secretariat and associated bureaucracies. What can realistically be expected should GEF become a more permanent fund for 'global environmental benefits' after current negotiations for its second replenishment? (author)

  15. Sensing the environment: regulation of local and global homeostasis by the skin's neuroendocrine system.

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zbytek, Blazej; Slominski, Radomir M; Steketee, Jeffery D

    2012-01-01

    Skin, the body's largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates, and responds to a diverse range of stressors including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuro-endocrine-immune organ that is tightly networked to central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones. Such production is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and noninfectious), and other physical and chemical agents. Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, beta-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid hormones, steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-delta steroids), secosteroids, opioids, and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid, and endocannbinoid systems. Dysregulation of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/ or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks are also addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve

  16. Using animation quality metric to improve efficiency of global illumination computation for dynamic environments

    Myszkowski, Karol; Tawara, Takehiro; Seidel, Hans-Peter

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, we consider applications of perception-based video quality metrics to improve the performance of global lighting computations for dynamic environments. For this purpose we extend the Visible Difference Predictor (VDP) developed by Daly to handle computer animations. We incorporate into the VDP the spatio-velocity CSF model developed by Kelly. The CSF model requires data on the velocity of moving patterns across the image plane. We use the 3D image warping technique to compensate for the camera motion, and we conservatively assume that the motion of animated objects (usually strong attractors of the visual attention) is fully compensated by the smooth pursuit eye motion. Our global illumination solution is based on stochastic photon tracing and takes advantage of temporal coherence of lighting distribution, by processing photons both in the spatial and temporal domains. The VDP is used to keep noise inherent in stochastic methods below the sensitivity level of the human observer. As a result a perceptually-consistent quality across all animation frames is obtained.

  17. Overview of IMAGE 2.0. An integrated model of climate change and the global environment

    Alcamo, J.; Battjes, C.; Van den Born, G.J.; Bouwman, A.F.; De Haan, B.J.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Klepper, O.; Kreileman, G.J.J.; Krol, M.; Leemans, R.; Van Minnen, J.G.; Olivier, J.G.J.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Toet, A.M.C.; Van den Wijngaart, R.A.; Van der Woerd, H.J.; Zuidema, G.

    1995-01-01

    The IMAGE 2.0 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model, designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system. In this paper the focus is on the scientific aspects of the model, while another paper in this volume emphasizes its political aspects. The objectives of IMAGE 2.0 are to investigate linkages and feedbacks in the global system, and to evaluate consequences of climate policies. Dynamic calculations are performed to the year 2100, with a spatial scale ranging from grid (0.5x0.5 latitude-longitude) to world political regions, depending on the sub-model. A total of 13 sub-models make up IMAGE 2.0, and they are organized into three fully linked sub-systems: Energy-Industry, Terrestrial Environment, and Atmosphere-Ocean. The fully linked model has been tested against data from 1970 to 1990, and after calibration it can reproduce the following observed trends: regional energy consumption and energy-related emissions, terrestrial flux of carbon dioxide and emissions of greenhouse gases, concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and transformation of land cover. The model can also simulate current zonal average surface and vertical temperatures. 1 fig., 10 refs

  18. Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.

    Haffeld, Just

    2013-11-01

    Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations

    Bruckmeier, K.

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  20. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  1. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  2. Stress and coping mediate relationships between contingent and global self-esteem and alcohol-related problems among college drinkers.

    Tomaka, Joe; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Shamaley, Angelee Gigi

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the hypotheses that contingent self-esteem would be positively associated with alcohol-related problems and that global self-esteem would be negatively associated with such problems. It also examined the hypothesis that high stress and maladaptive coping would mediate these relationships. A sample of college students (n = 399) who were predominantly Hispanic (89%) completed measures of global and contingent self-esteem; stress and coping; and alcohol-related problems. Correlational and latent variable analyses indicated that contingent self-esteem positively related to alcohol-related problems, with maladaptive coping mediating this relationship. In contrast, global self-esteem negatively related to such problems, a relationship that was also mediated by maladaptive coping and stress. Overall, the results highlight the potentially harmful consequences of contingent self-worth and the adaptive nature of non-contingent self-esteem. They also demonstrate the important role that coping plays in mediating self-esteem's associations with alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. VET workers’ problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments: European approach

    Raija Hämäläinen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The European workplace is challenging VET adults’ problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments (TREs. So far, no international large-scale assessment data has been available for VET. The PIAAC data comprise the most comprehensive source of information on adults’ skills to date. The present study (N=50 369 focuses on gaining insight into the problem-solving skills in TREs of adults with a VET background. When examining the similarities and differences in VET adults’ problem-solving skills in TREs across 11 European countries, two main trends can be observed. First, our results show that only a minority of VET adults perform at a high level. Second, there seems to be substantial variation between countries with respect to the proportion of VET adults that can be identified as “at-risk” or “weak” performers. For the future, our findings indicate the variations that can be used as a starting point to identify beneficial VET approaches.

  4. Global sensitivity analysis of computer-aided molecular design problem for the development of novel working fluids for power cycles

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    This study compares two methods for global sensitivity analysis as a new approach for the identification and ranking of target properties in molecular design problems: A modified Morris Screening technique and Monte Carlo based standard regression. The two methodologies are highlighted in a case ...

  5. Lagged life cycle structures for food products: Their role in global marketing, their determinants and some problems in their estimation

    Baadsgaard, Allan; Gede, Mads Peter; Grunert, Klaus G.

    cycles for different product categories may be lagged (type II lag) because changes in economic and other factors will result in demands for different products. Identifying lagged life cycle structures major importance in global marketing of food products. The problems in arriving at such estimates...

  6. Global solutions to the initial-boundary value problem for the quasilinear viscoelastic equation with a derivative nonlinearity

    Mitsuhiro Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence and uniqueness of a global decaying solution to the initial boundary value problem for the quasilinear wave equation with Kelvin-Voigt dissipation and a derivative nonlinearity. To derive the required estimates of the solutions we employ a 'loan' method and use a difference inequality on the energy.

  7. Conservation genetics in a globally changing environment : present problems, paradoxes and future challenges

    Pertoldi, Cino; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    Despite recent advances in conservation genetics and related disciplines and the growing impact that conservation genetics is having in conservation biology, our knowledge on several key issues in the field is still insufficient. Here we identify some of these issues together with addressing several

  8. Problems of Ensuring Complex Business Security in the Conditions of Modern Globalization

    Anatoliy Petrovich Sterkhov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of ensuring complex business security, the relevance of the present work is associated with the rationale of multilevel hierarchical approach to the classification of security threats in the age of globalization. The specificity of the threats specific to one or another level of the economy, helps to better understand and consequently to build an effective system of ensuring complex business security. For each of the nine hierarchical levels of the economy the author identifies the main threats to the business, as well as the objects and subjects of this study. It is noted that the performance of the business in the form of a complex hierarchical system depends on the principle of specification. The author gives examples of the use of the basic principles of specification. It is noted that the decomposition of the economic system from the viewpoint of its hierarchical nature is of great importance not only to the distribution of the goals and objectives of security of business levels of the system, but their subordination corresponding to each level. The result is the development of specific recommendations and elaboration of the main directions to ensure complex business security for mega-, macro-, micro-, mini-, nano - and mesoeconomic levels. Although the priority of action in multi-level hierarchical system is directed from the upper to the lower levels, the success of the system as a whole depends on the behavior of all system components. It is stated that the interaction with the environment in business occurs mainly in the lower levels of the hierarchy. The quality system of ensuring complex business security which deals with hierarchical positions, will depend not so much on top-level elements, but on response to intervention on the part of lower level, more precisely from their total effect. In other words, the quality of the system of integrated safety management business provides organized feedbacks in the system.

  9. Global-in-time smoothness of solutions to the vacuum free boundary problem for compressible isentropic Navier–Stokes equations

    Zeng, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we establish the global existence of smooth solutions to vacuum free boundary problems of the one-dimensional compressible isentropic Navier–Stokes equations for which the smoothness extends all the way to the boundaries. The results obtained in this work include the physical vacuum for which the sound speed is C 1/2 -Hölder continuous near the vacuum boundaries when 1 < γ < 3. The novelty of this result is its global-in-time regularity which is in contrast to the previous main results of global weak solutions in the literature. Moreover, in previous studies of the one-dimensional free boundary problems of compressible Navier–Stokes equations, the Lagrangian mass coordinates method has often been used, but in the present work the particle path (flow trajectory) method is adopted, which has the advantage that the particle paths and, in particular, the free boundaries can be traced. (paper)

  10. Education of a Future Human is the Key to Solving the Global Problems Facing Humanity

    Olga Khrystenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research considers two Global problems of the humanity:intercivilizational contradictions and the pandemic of abortion as serious conflicts, the solution of which depends on the relevant public educational policies. The tension in the relationship between the Islamic World and the West, caused by the so-called “caricature scandal”, encourages to understanding the conflict and the ways of its solution. There is also the problem of massive numbers of abortions in the world that requires a scientific analysis and relevant conclusions. The research revealed that both sides of intercivilizational conflicts are responsible for it. The freedom of speech as an ingredient of democracy cannot exist only for itself. It should be based on the human values, including respect for other nations, religions, cultures, as well as the protection of human life. The second part of the research concerns the pandemic of abortion. Based on the achievements of modern embryology, sociology and bioethics, four levels of this conflict were defined. The first level is a conflict concerning the life of the unborn child. The second one is a conflict concerning a mother. The third one is a conflict with the nation. The fourth one is a conflict with God. On these issues, the survey was conducted among the first year medical students at Ternopil State Medical University. It was also concluded that it would have been useful to present the model of state policy aimed to prevent conflictsbetween civilizations, aswellasthepandemicofabortiontothestudents. Thispolicy should include: information policy (promotion of the idea that human life is the highest value, and human relationships should be based on the principles of tolerance; education policy (education in today’s youth of the culture of interpersonal relationships based on honesty, responsibility; social policy (creation of the material conditions for young families, single mothers; policy in the health sector

  11. Report on an international joint research project for global environment technology in fiscal 1998; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo gijutsu kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo hokokusho

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to serve for measures against global problems taken by Japan, joint research was carried out with overseas research organizations. The research project selected ten themes considering urgency, internationality and economic proliferation effect in areas to serve for solution of global environment problems. These themes include removal or emission control of greenhouse effect gases, measures against atmospheric environment problems such as acid rains and ozone layer destruction, prevention of ocean contamination, development and effective utilization of energies and resources. When the feedback of these themes to the NEDO projects is considered, the research achievements in relation with development of the acid rain monitoring system in particular support indirectly development of carbon dioxide fixation technologies. The research achievements in developing an environmentally friendly biomass energy manufacturing process and environmental effect evaluation thereon contribute as an effective process to carbon dioxide reduction using biomass as raw materials. The achievements in research of nonlinear interfacial properties and mixed phase turbulence of low-purity carbon dioxide bubbles contribute to a project related to storage of carbon dioxide in oceans. (NEDO)

  12. A hybrid multiple attribute decision making method for solving problems of industrial environment

    Dinesh Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate alternative in the industrial environment is an important but, at the same time, a complex and difficult problem because of the availability of a wide range of alternatives and similarity among them. Therefore, there is a need for simple, systematic, and logical methods or mathematical tools to guide decision makers in considering a number of selection attributes and their interrelations. In this paper, a hybrid decision making method of graph theory and matrix approach (GTMA and analytical hierarchy process (AHP is proposed. Three examples are presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed GTMA-AHP method and the results are compared with the results obtained using other decision making methods.

  13. Feasibility of integrating other federal information systems into the Global Network of Environment and Technology, GNET{reg_sign}

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Global Environment and Technology Enterprise (GETE) of the Global Environment and Technology Foundation (GETF) has been tasked by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to assist in reducing DOE`s cost for the Global Network of Environment and Technology (GNET{reg_sign}). As part of this task, GETE is seeking federal partners to invest in GNET{reg_sign}. The authors are also seeking FETC`s commitment to serve as GNET`s federal agency champion promoting the system to potential agency partners. This report assesses the benefits of partnering with GNET{reg_sign} and provides recommendations for identifying and integrating other federally funded (non-DOE) environmental information management systems into GNET{reg_sign}.

  14. Macroeconomic environment during infancy as a possible risk factor for adolescent behavioral problems.

    Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Natarajan; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care.

  15. Multiobjective Order Assignment Optimization in a Global Multiple-Factory Environment

    Rong-Chang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to radically increasing competition, many manufacturers who produce time-sensitive products have expanded their production plants to worldwide sites. Given this environment, how to aggregate customer orders from around the globe and assign them quickly to the most appropriate plants is currently a crucial issue. This study proposes an effective method to solve the order assignment problem of companies with multiple plants distributed worldwide. A multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA is used to find solutions. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, this study employs some real data, provided by a famous garment company in Taiwan, as a base to perform some experiments. In addition, the influences of orders with a wide range of quantities demanded are discussed. The results show that feasible solutions can be obtained effectively and efficiently. Moreover, if managers aim at lower total costs, they can divide a big customer order into more small manufacturing ones.

  16. Childhood socioeconomic status and risk in early family environments: predictors of global sleep quality in college students.

    Counts, Cory J; Grubin, Fiona C; John-Henderson, Neha A

    2018-06-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood associates with poor sleep quality in adulthood. Separately, childhood family environments shape health into adulthood. Here, we investigated whether these early life factors independently or interactively inform global sleep quality in college students. Cross-sectional. College students at a state university (N = 391). As a measure of childhood SES, we asked participants to consider their families' socioeconomic standing relative to the rest of the society during their childhood. We used the Risky Family questionnaire to measure adversity and the presence of warmth and affection in the family environment during childhood, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index as a measure of current global sleep quality. We used linear regressions adjusting for age and sex to examine relationships between childhood SES, risk in childhood family environments, and global sleep quality. Lower childhood SES and greater risk in childhood family environments independently predicted poor sleep quality. Importantly, in low-risk family environments, there was no significant difference in sleep quality as a function of childhood SES. However, students who were from low childhood SES backgrounds who also reported high levels of risk in their early family environments had the worst sleep quality. Findings highlight the importance of considering socioeconomic and family environments in childhood as informants of sleep quality across the lifespan. Compromised sleep quality in college students could affect academic performance and health over time. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interplay between Individual Creativity and Group Creativity in Problem and Project-Based Learning (PBL) Environment in Engineering Education

    Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies regard Problem and Project Based Learning (PBL) as providing a learning environment which fosters both individual and group creativity. This paper focuses on the question: In a PBL environment, how do students perceive the interplay between individual and group creativity? Empirica...

  18. Nuclear EMP simulation for large-scale urban environments. FDTD for electrically large problems.

    Smith, William S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilcox, Trevor [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Randall J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shao, Xuan-Min [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goorley, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costigan, Keeley R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-13

    In case of a terrorist nuclear attack in a metropolitan area, EMP measurement could provide: (1) a prompt confirmation of the nature of the explosion (chemical or nuclear) for emergency response; and (2) and characterization parameters of the device (reaction history, yield) for technical forensics. However, urban environment could affect the fidelity of the prompt EMP measurement (as well as all other types of prompt measurement): (1) Nuclear EMP wavefront would no longer be coherent, due to incoherent production, attenuation, and propagation of gamma and electrons; and (2) EMP propagation from source region outward would undergo complicated transmission, reflection, and diffraction processes. EMP simulation for electrically-large urban environment: (1) Coupled MCNP/FDTD (Finite-difference time domain Maxwell solver) approach; and (2) FDTD tends to be limited to problems that are not 'too' large compared to the wavelengths of interest because of numerical dispersion and anisotropy. We use a higher-order low-dispersion, isotropic FDTD algorithm for EMP propagation.

  19. Student perceptions of a virtual learning environment for a problem-based learning undergraduate medical curriculum.

    de Leng, Bas A; Dolmans, Diana H J M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a virtual learning environment (VLE) on group interaction and consultation of information resources during the preliminary phase, self-study phase and reporting phase of the problem-based learning process in an undergraduate medical curriculum. A questionnaire was administered to 355 medical students in Years 1 and 2 to ask them about the perceived usefulness of a virtual learning environment that was created with Blackboard for group interaction and the use of learning resources. The students indicated that the VLE supported face-to-face interaction in the preliminary discussion and in the reporting phase but did not stimulate computer-mediated distance interaction during the self-study phase. They perceived that the use of multimedia in case presentations led to a better quality of group discussion than if case presentations were exclusively text-based. They also indicated that the information resources that were hyperlinked in the VLE stimulated the consultation of these resources during self-study, but not during the reporting phase. Students indicated that the use of a VLE in the tutorial room and the inclusion of multimedia in case presentations supported processes of active learning in the tutorial groups. However, if we want to exploit the full potential of asynchronous computer-mediated communication to initiate in-depth discussion during the self-study phase, its application will have to be selective and deliberate. Students indicated that the links in the VLE to selected information in library repositories supported their learning.

  20. Metallic structural materials in the nuclear environment: some problems illustrating new methods

    Brechet, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The structural components of the nuclear industry are submitted to a number of aggressions, mechanical, chemical and physical (irradiation). As a consequence, the problem of durability and ageing of such structures is a key issue. The understanding of the phenomena involved implies the description and modelling of atomic scale events (irradiation point defects) resulting in fluxes of matter (diffusion under irradiation), in the dynamic evolution of structural defects (dislocation loops, cavities,...), with major consequences on mechanical properties (yield stress, fracture behaviour), with, in addition, phenomena coupled between mechanical behaviour and chemical environment. It is therefore the totality of materials science which is involved in understanding the behaviour of metallic structural materials in the nuclear environment. The aim of the present paper is to illustrate some examples currently under investigation, and some of the new approaches involved in the understanding of mechanical behaviour (a scale transition from the atomic to the macroscopic). The input from large computer simulations as well as the value of simple 'back of the envelope' calculations, plus the need for cautious experimental studies will be illustrated. The theme of the ageing of materials, central to this paper, finds applications in many industrial situations. (author)

  1. Antimicrobial biocides in the healthcare environment: efficacy, usage, policies, and perceived problems.

    Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2005-12-01

    Biocides are heavily used in the healthcare environment, mainly for the disinfection of surfaces, water, equipment, and antisepsis, but also for the sterilization of medical devices and preservation of pharmaceutical and medicinal products. The number of biocidal products for such usage continuously increases along with the number of applications, although some are prone to controversies. There are hundreds of products containing low concentrations of biocides, including various fabrics such as linen, curtains, mattresses, and mops that claim to help control infection, although evidence has not been evaluated in practice. Concurrently, the incidence of hospital-associated infections (HAIs) caused notably by bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains high. The intensive use of biocides is the subject of current debate. Some professionals would like to see an increase in their use throughout hospitals, whereas others call for a restriction in their usage to where the risk of pathogen transmission to patients is high. In addition, the possible linkage between biocide and antibiotic resistance in bacteria and the role of biocides in the emergence of such resistance has provided more controversies in their extensive and indiscriminate usage. When used appropriately, biocidal products have a very important role to play in the control of HAIs. This paper discusses the benefits and problems associated with the use of biocides in the healthcare environment and provides a constructive view on their overall usefulness in the hospital setting.

  2. An Analysis of Global Problems Issues in Sixth and Seventh Grade Science Textbooks.

    Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis

    The study examines the extent to which the global issues of population growth, world hunger, air quality and atmosphere, and water resources were treated in sixth and seventh grade science textbooks. Ten textbooks were examined by five raters to determine the amount of content presented by different textbooks on global issues, the number of pages…

  3. Four Scenarios for Europe. Based on UNEP's third Global Environment Outlook

    Bakkes, J.; Gaponenko, N.; Mnatsakanian, R.

    2003-01-01

    The third Global Environment Outlook (GEO-3) was published on the eve of the Johannesburg summit (autumn 2002). GEO-3 looked back thirty years and forward thirty years. A set of what-if scenarios was used to explore the ways our society can advance, including implications for environmental and social goals. Characteristically, GEO-3 examines in a relatively deep fashion how its global scenarios can be interpreted in the context of each of the world's regions. This brochure presents the pan-European elaboration of the four GEO-3 scenarios. It focusses on the scenarios proper and their impacts in environmental terms. The scenarios are: The Markets First scenario envisages a world in which market-driven developments converge on the currently prevailing values and expectations in industrialized countries; In a Policy First world, strong actions are undertaken by governments in an attempt to achieve specific social and environmental goals; The Security First scenario assumes a world full of large disparities, where inequality and conflict, brought about by socio-economic and environmental stresses, prevail: and Sustainability First pictures a world in which a new development paradigm emerges in response to the challenge of sustainability supported by new, more equitable values and institutions. The second section describes 'the pan-European tale of the four futures' in a predominantly qualitative manner. Section 3 presents a regionally differentiated examination of the environmental implications of the scenarios. Details on input material, assumptions and methodologies applied, and actual results, can be found in Chapter 4 of GEO-3 'Outlook 2002-32' and in the Technical Background Report on GEO-3 Scenario Work

  4. FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environments Experiment): Measurements of Nitrogen Containing Volatile Organic Compounds

    Warneke, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Yokelson, R. J.; Roberts, J. M.; Koss, A.; Coggon, M.; Yuan, B.; Sekimoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A combination of a warmer, drier climate with fire-control practices over the last century have produced a situation in which we can expect more frequent fires and fires of larger magnitude in the Western U.S. and Canada. There are urgent needs to better understand the impacts of wildfire and biomass burning (BB) on the atmosphere and climate system, and for policy-relevant science to aid in the process of managing fires. The FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environment Experiment) research effort is a multi-year, multi-agency measurement campaign focused on the impact of BB on climate and air quality from western North American wild fires, where research takes place on scales ranging from the flame-front to the global atmosphere. FIREX includes methods development and small- and large-scale laboratory and field experiments. FIREX will include: emission factor measurements from typical North American fuels in the fire science laboratory in Missoula, Montana; mobile laboratory deployments; ground site measurements at sites influenced by BB from several western states. The main FIREX effort will be a large field study with multiple aircraft and mobile labs in the fire season of 2019. One of the main advances of FIREX is the availability of various new measurement techniques that allows for smoke evaluation in unprecedented detail. The first major effort of FIREX was the fire science laboratory measurements in October 2016, where a large number of previously understudied Nitrogen containing volatile organic compounds (NVOCs) were measured using H3O+CIMS and I-CIMS instruments. The contribution of NVOCs to the total reactive Nitrogen budget and the relationship to the Nitrogen content of the fuel are investigated.

  5. Problem-based learning: Dental student's perception of their education environments at Qassim University.

    Alkhuwaiter, Shahad S; Aljuailan, Roqayah I; Banabilh, Saeed M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess perceptions of the Saudi dental students of the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum and to compare their perceptions among different sex and academic years. Data was collected through a questionnaire-based survey at Qassim College of dentistry. The questionnaire consisted of 19 questions regarding the perception of PBL curriculum and was distributed to 240 students. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis of the data. Out of the 240 students recruited for this study, 146 returned a complete questionnaire (the response rate was 60.8%). The majority of the students perceived that PBL enhances the ability to speak in front of people (91.1%); improved the ability to find the information using the internet/library (81.5%); enhances the problem-solving skills (71.3%); increases the practice of cooperative and collaborative learning (69.2%); improves the decision-making skills (66.4%). Sixty-five percent ( n = 96) noted that some students dominate whereas others are passive during PBL discussion session. Statistically, significant differences were found in the following variables according to the academic year students assuming before responsibility for their own learning ( P learning ( P knowledge and learning to elaborate and organize their knowledge ( P weakness for improvement ( P learning environment and to take the students recommendations into consideration.

  6. Millennial medical anthropology: from there to here and beyond, or the problem of global health.

    Gaines, Atwood D

    2011-03-01

    While much of Medical Anthropology was and is what we can call "Normal" (following Kuhn) Medical Anthropology, I coined the term Millennial Medical Anthropology for that branch of the discipline that, in the 1990s, was departing from the Normal research paradigms and was deserving of a distinct sobriquet. This paper considers the Strong Program in Medical Anthropology's Millennial Medical Anthropology and its key subdivisions, the Cultural Studies of Science and Cultural Bioethics. Specifically it considers Medical Anthropology's movement from the past into an ethical future wherein Normal Biomedicine, Bioethics and Global Health are problematized. This provides the basis for the construction of a truly anthropological global health (i.e., Global, Global Health or Global Health 2.0).

  7. Encrypted Objects and Decryption Processes: Problem-Solving with Functions in a Learning Environment Based on Cryptography

    White, Tobin

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces an applied problem-solving task, set in the context of cryptography and embedded in a network of computer-based tools. This designed learning environment engaged students in a series of collaborative problem-solving activities intended to introduce the topic of functions through a set of linked representations. In a…

  8. Investigating Plane Geometry Problem-Solving Strategies of Prospective Mathematics Teachers in Technology and Paper-and-Pencil Environments

    Koyuncu, Ilhan; Akyuz, Didem; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate plane geometry problem-solving strategies of prospective mathematics teachers using dynamic geometry software (DGS) and paper-and-pencil (PPB) environments after receiving an instruction with GeoGebra (GGB). Four plane geometry problems were used in a multiple case study design to understand the solution strategies…

  9. ISS-studio: a prototype for a user-friendly tool for designing interactive experiments in problem solving environments

    Zhao, Z.; van Albada, G.D.; Tirado-Ramos, A.; Zajac, K.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In Problem Solving Environments (PSE), Interactive Simulation Systems (ISS) are an important interactive mode for studying complex scientific problems. But efficient and user-friendly tools for designing interactive experiments lack in many PSEs. Mechanisms, such as data flow and control flow

  10. Engineering and Implementing an Executive-Level Communication Plan in a Global Professional Environment: A Case Study

    Bridgette Lipman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication within organisations in a global environment requires effective internal and strategic planning at the executive level. Previous studies indicate that measurement is a key factor in assessing the needs and success of global communication within an organisation. Survey questions were used to measure satisfaction responses from 650 local and 110 global employees in a technology division of a large manufacturing company. In this case study, employees expressed the need to connect team members through face-to-face meetings, employee webcast meetings, web chat forums, and an updated employee networking site. The findings formed the foundations for recommendations for strategy, objectives, and tactics within the organisation.

  11. Expansion of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism under global environment change

    Yu, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Collins, S. L.; Carr, D.

    2016-12-01

    contrast to the case of the strong competitive effect from B. mollis. Overall, these research improves understanding of mechanisms underlying the expansion of CAM plants with important implications on shifts in dryland vegetation composition, bioenergy production, food security, and adaptation to global environment change.

  12. Innovative Use of the Law to Address Complex Global Health Problems Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings toGlobal Health Governance?"

    Walls, Helen L; Ooms, Gorik

    2017-05-20

    Addressing the increasingly globalised determinants of many important problems affecting human health is a complex task requiring collective action. We suggest that part of the solution to addressing intractable global health issues indeed lies with the role of new legal instruments in the form of globally binding treaties, as described in the recent article of Nikogosian and Kickbusch. However, in addition to the use of international law to develop new treaties, another part of the solution may lie in innovative use of existing legal instruments. A 2015 court ruling in The Hague, which ordered the Dutch government to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 25% within five years, complements this perspective, suggesting a way forward for addressing global health problems that critically involves civil society and innovative use of existing domestic legal instruments. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  13. Impact of Domestic, Foreign, and Global Environments on International Business Decisions of Multinational Firms: A Systematic Study

    Sreeramana Aithal

    2017-01-01

    International business decisions to be taken by executive managers of multinational firms are becoming more challenging due to uncertainties in business environment which is due to fast changing and unpredictable domestic, foreign, and global environment for long term sustainability. Even though firms are cautious and take precautions while taking decisions on international investment for production and marketing, their sustainability for a long time in a given business is shaking due to cont...

  14. Adaptation and evolution in marine environments. Vol. 2. The impacts of global change on biodiversity

    Verde, Cinzia; Di Prisco, Guido (eds.) [CNR, Napoli (Italy). Inst. of Protein Biochemistry

    2013-02-01

    Offers a regionally focussed approach. Describes research on adaptive evolution. State-of-the-art content. The second volume of ''Adaptation and Evolution in Marine Environments - The Impacts of Global Change on Biodiversity'' from the series ''From Pole to Pole'' integrates the marine biology contribution of the first tome to the IPY 2007-2009, presenting overviews of organisms (from bacteria and ciliates to higher vertebrates) thriving on polar continental shelves, slopes and deep sea. The speed and extent of warming in the Arctic and in regions of Antarctica (the Peninsula, at the present) are greater than elsewhere. Changes impact several parameters, in particular the extent of sea ice; organisms, ecosystems and communities that became finely adapted to increasing cold in the course of millions of years are now becoming vulnerable, and biodiversity is threatened. Investigating evolutionary adaptations helps to foresee the impact of changes in temperate areas, highlighting the invaluable contribution of polar marine research to present and future outcomes of the IPY in the Earth system scenario.

  15. A global review of cumulative pressure and impact assessments in marine environment

    Samuli Korpinen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ever more extensive use of marine space by human activities and greater demands for marine natural resources has led to increases in both duration and spatial extent of pressures on the marine environment. In parallel, the global crisis of decreasing biodiversity and loss of habitats has revitalized scientific research on human impacts and lead to methodological development of cumulative pressure and impact assessments (CPIA. In Europe alone, almost twenty CPIAs have been published in the past 10 years and some more in other sea regions of the world. In this review, we have analysed 36 recent marine CPIAs and focused on their methodological approaches. We were especially interested in uncovering methodological similarities, identifying best practices and analysing whether the CPIAs have addressed the recent criticism. The review results showed surprisingly similar methodological approaches in >50% of the studies, raising hopes for finding coherence in international assessment efforts. Although the CPIA methods showed relatively few innovative approaches for addressing the major caveats of previous CPIAs, the most recent studies indicate that improved approaches may be soon found.

  16. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE

    Mark ADAMS

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS. The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains on-board satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC Weather Office for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE. The goal of the GEMSTONE project was to build and field-test a small system of prototype probes in the Earth’s atmosphere. This paper summarizes the 9-month GEMSTONE project (Sep 2006 – May 2007 including probe and system engineering as well as experiment design and data analysis from laboratory and field tests. These tests revealed issues with reliability, sensor accuracy, electronics miniaturization, and sub-system optimization. Nevertheless, the success of the third and final free flight test provides a solid foundation to move forward in follow on projects addressing these issues as highlighted in the technology roadmap for future GEMS development.

  17. Teaching about the Global Environment at a Jesuit Liberal Arts University

    Dahl, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about global environmental issues is often reserved to courses in environmental and/or geoscience departments. Universities that do not have departments that fall into these categories may be missing out on educating both science and non-science students about these important and timely issues. Loyola University Maryland is a private Jesuit liberal arts University with no environmental or geoscience department and prior to 2008 had no courses that focused on the science of global environmental issues. Global Environment in a course offered by the Chemistry Department that fills this niche. The course is designed for a general non-science audience, though the course content is also appropriate for science students. The primary goal of the course is for students to learn the basics about how the Earth system works and how our changing climate is related to biodiversity, pollution, water availability and society. The course is designated a diversity course which is a course that fulfills the University's call "to prepare students … to pursue justice by making an action-oriented response to the needs of the world." All students at Loyola University Maryland are required to take one diversity course. For this class, the diversity focus is environmental justice which is brought into the course through lectures, discussions and student projects. By bringing societal impacts into a science course the students can better understand why the environment is important and our actions affect both ourselves and others. The course has also evolved over four iterations into a course that maximizes student involvement while minimizing student angst. One way that this is accomplished is by eliminating tests and substituting daily quizzes using a student response system (clickers). Clickers are also used to poll students and to review what information the students are retaining. Students are able to self-guide their own learning in the course by creating a portfolio

  18. Design and performance analysis of global path planning techniques for autonomous mobile robots in grid environments

    Imen Chaari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the 2-year iroboapp research project that aims at devising path planning algorithms for large grid maps with much faster execution times while tolerating very small slacks with respect to the optimal path. We investigated both exact and heuristic methods. We contributed with the design, analysis, evaluation, implementation and experimentation of several algorithms for grid map path planning for both exact and heuristic methods. We also designed an innovative algorithm called relaxed A-star that has linear complexity with relaxed constraints, which provides near-optimal solutions with an extremely reduced execution time as compared to A-star. We evaluated the performance of the different algorithms and concluded that relaxed A-star is the best path planner as it provides a good trade-off among all the metrics, but we noticed that heuristic methods have good features that can be exploited to improve the solution of the relaxed exact method. This led us to design new hybrid algorithms that combine our relaxed A-star with heuristic methods which improve the solution quality of relaxed A-star at the cost of slightly higher execution time, while remaining much faster than A* for large-scale problems. Finally, we demonstrate how to integrate the relaxed A-star algorithm in the robot operating system as a global path planner and show that it outperforms its default path planner with an execution time 38% faster on average.

  19. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old…

  20. The effects of a shared, Intranet science learning environment on the academic behaviors of problem-solving and metacognitive reflection

    Parker, Mary Jo

    This study investigated the effects of a shared, Intranet science environment on the academic behaviors of problem-solving and metacognitive reflection. Seventy-eight subjects included 9th and 10th grade male and female biology students. A quasi-experimental design with pre- and post-test data collection and randomization occurring through assignment of biology classes to traditional or shared, Intranet learning groups was employed. Pilot, web-based distance education software (CourseInfo) created the Intranet learning environment. A modified ecology curriculum provided contextualization and content for traditional and shared learning environments. The effect of this environment on problem-solving, was measured using the standardized Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal test. Metacognitive reflection, was measured in three ways: (a) number of concepts used, (b) number of concept links noted, and (c) number of concept nodes noted. Visual learning software, Inspiration, generated concept maps. Secondary research questions evaluated the pilot CourseInfo software for (a) tracked user movement, (b) discussion forum findings, and (c) difficulties experienced using CourseInfo software. Analysis of problem-solving group means reached no levels of significance resulting from the shared, Intranet environment. Paired t-Test of individual differences in problem-solving reached levels of significance. Analysis of metacognitive reflection by number of concepts reached levels of significance. Metacognitive reflection by number of concept links noted also reach significance. No significance was found for metacognitive reflection by number of concept nodes. No gender differences in problem-solving ability and metacognitive reflection emerged. Lack of gender differences in the shared, Intranet environment strongly suggests an equalizing effect due to the cooperative, collaborative nature of Intranet environments. Such environments appeal to, and rank high with, the female

  1. Violence a global public health problem Violência como um problema global de saúde pública

    Linda L. Dahlberg

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a version of the Introduction to the World Report on Violence and Health, published by the World Health Organization (WHO. It presents a general description about this phenomenon and points some basic questions: concepts and definitions about the theme; the state of knowledge about it; nature and typology on violence; proposal of a quantitative and qualitative approach of an ecological model; responsibilities and functions of the public health sector and its potentiality to prevent and reduce violence in the world; the responsibilities of the nations and the policy makers in a intersetorial point of view; difficulties and obstacles for actuation and challenges for the health sector.Este artigo é uma versão do que foi publicado no Informe Mundial sobre Violência e Saúde da Organização Mundial de Saúde, como introdução ao tema. Apresenta uma descrição geral da problemática e a posição da OMS. Nele os autores se dedicam a responder algumas questões básicas: o estado do conhecimento sobre o assunto; os conceitos e definições com os quais a OMS trabalha; a natureza e a tipologia sobre violência; as formas de abordagem quantitativa e qualitativa em um modelo ecológico; o lugar e o papel da saúde pública e sua potencialidade com vistas a contribuir para prevenir e diminuir a violência no mundo; as responsabilidades das nações e dos gestores em todos os níveis; os obstáculos para atuação e os desafios para o setor.

  2. Combined influences of genes, prenatal environment, cortisol, and parenting on the development of children’s internalizing vs. externalizing problems

    Marceau, Kristine; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki; Fisher, Philip A.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that genetic, prenatal, endocrine, and parenting influences across development individually contribute to internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The present study tests the combined contributions of genetic risk for psychopathology, prenatal environments (maternal drug use and internalizing symptoms), child cortisol at age 4.5 years, and overreactive parenting influences across childhood on 6-year-old children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. We used data from an adoption design that included 361 domestically adopted children and their biological and adopted parents prospectively followed from birth. Only parenting influences contributed (independently) to externalizing problems. However, genetic influences were indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through increased prenatal risk and subsequent morning cortisol), and parenting factors were both directly and indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through morning cortisol). Results suggest that prenatal maternal drug use/symptoms and children’s morning cortisol levels are mechanisms of genetic and environmental influences on internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems, in childhood. PMID:25355319

  3. Combined Influences of Genes, Prenatal Environment, Cortisol, and Parenting on the Development of Children's Internalizing Versus Externalizing Problems.

    Marceau, Kristine; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Fisher, Philip A; Leve, Leslie D

    2015-05-01

    Research suggests that genetic, prenatal, endocrine, and parenting influences across development individually contribute to internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The present study tests the combined contributions of genetic risk for psychopathology, prenatal environments (maternal drug use and internalizing symptoms), child cortisol at age 4.5 years, and overreactive parenting influences across childhood on 6-year-old children's internalizing and externalizing problems. We used data from an adoption design that included 361 domestically adopted children and their biological and adopted parents prospectively followed from birth. Only parenting influences contributed (independently) to externalizing problems. However, genetic influences were indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through increased prenatal risk and subsequent morning cortisol), and parenting factors were both directly and indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through morning cortisol). Results suggest that prenatal maternal drug use/symptoms and children's morning cortisol levels are mechanisms of genetic and environmental influences on internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems, in childhood.

  4. Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas—Part I: Theory of relaxed problems

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    the case of discrete areas. This problem is of major practical relevance if the truss must be built from pre-produced bars with given areas. As a special case, we consider the design problem for a single bar area, i.e., a 0/1-problem. In contrast to heuristic methods considered in other approaches, Part I....... The main issue of the paper and of the approach lies in the fact that the relaxed nonlinear optimization problem can be formulated as a quadratic program (QP). Here the paper generalizes and extends the available theory from the literature. Although the Hessian of this QP is indefinite, it is possible...

  5. Global approach to the n-dimensional traveling salesman problem: Application to the optimization of crystallographic data collection

    Weinrach, J.B.; Bennett, D.W.

    1987-12-01

    An algorithm for the optimization of data collection time has been written and a subsequent computer program tested for diffractometer systems. The program, which utilizes a global statistical approach to the traveling salesman problem, yields reasonable solutions in a relatively short time. The algorithm has been successful in treating very large data sets (up to 4000 points) in three dimensions with subsequent time savings of ca 30%.

  6. FOREWORD: Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications

    Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kaltenbacher, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Inverse problems can usually be modelled as operator equations in infinite-dimensional spaces with a forward operator acting between Hilbert or Banach spaces—a formulation which quite often also serves as the basis for defining and analyzing solution methods. The additional amount of structure and geometric interpretability provided by the concept of an inner product has rendered these methods amenable to a convergence analysis, a fact which has led to a rigorous and comprehensive study of regularization methods in Hilbert spaces over the last three decades. However, for numerous problems such as x-ray diffractometry, certain inverse scattering problems and a number of parameter identification problems in PDEs, the reasons for using a Hilbert space setting seem to be based on conventions rather than an appropriate and realistic model choice, so often a Banach space setting would be closer to reality. Furthermore, non-Hilbertian regularization and data fidelity terms incorporating a priori information on solution and noise, such as general Lp-norms, TV-type norms, or the Kullback-Leibler divergence, have recently become very popular. These facts have motivated intensive investigations on regularization methods in Banach spaces, a topic which has emerged as a highly active research field within the area of inverse problems. Meanwhile some of the most well-known regularization approaches, such as Tikhonov-type methods requiring the solution of extremal problems, and iterative ones like the Landweber method, the Gauss-Newton method, as well as the approximate inverse method, have been investigated for linear and nonlinear operator equations in Banach spaces. Convergence with rates has been proven and conditions on the solution smoothness and on the structure of nonlinearity have been formulated. Still, beyond the existing results a large number of challenging open questions have arisen, due to the more involved handling of general Banach spaces and the larger variety

  7. The future role of nuclear power in addressing global environmental problems

    Stumpf, W.

    1995-01-01

    Decision makers have to increasingly balance the costs versus benefits of various energy choices against a background of global environmental deterioration. This is particularly so in the choice of long term electricity production strategies where these have to be balanced against the potential of a very severe disruption of the world's climate due to global warming. In this presentation, the threat of global warming is quantified and scenarios are developed of future predicted energy consumption patterns and their impact on international policies to curb global warming, are analyzed. The conclusion is reached that the threat of global warming is so severe that, on the macro level, an international accepted strategy of utilising a proper balance between all forms of electricity production, is a matter of priority and that all national energy choices should be taken against this framework. Such strategic decisions on the macro level must, however, also translate into the micro level of energy production on topics which include: - more efficient plant utilisation; - more effective risk management; correct choice and application of technology; and - better understanding of issues concerning safety, quality and environmental impact. (author)

  8. Consumption, Ecological Footprints and Global Inequality: A Lesson in Individual and Structural Components of Environmental Problems

    Obach, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    As evidence of the growing ecological crisis mounts, it is imperative that sociologists speak to this social problem and incorporate a sociological perspective on environmental issues into the curriculum. Central to understanding how social issues relate to environmental problems is an examination of the ties between consumption and its ecological…

  9. A Novel Discrete Global-Best Harmony Search Algorithm for Solving 0-1 Knapsack Problems

    Wan-li Xiang

    2014-01-01

    is applied to decide whether or not a new randomly generated harmony is included into the HM. The proposed DGHS is evaluated on twenty knapsack problems with different scales and compared with other three metaheuristics from the literature. The experimental results indicate that DGHS is efficient, effective, and robust for solving difficult 0-1 knapsack problems.

  10. Designing, implementing and evaluating an online problem-based learning (PBL) environment--a pilot study.

    Ng, Manwa L; Bridges, Susan; Law, Sam Po; Whitehill, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been shown to be effective for promoting student competencies in self-directed and collaborative learning, critical thinking, self-reflection and tackling novel situations. However, the need for face-to-face interactions at the same place and time severely limits the potential of traditional PBL. The requirements of space and for meeting at a specific location at the same time create timetabling difficulties. Such limitations need to be tackled before all potentials of PBL learning can be realized. The present study aimed at designing and implementing an online PBL environment for undergraduate speech/language pathology students, and assessing the associated pedagogical effectiveness. A group of eight PBL students were randomly selected to participate in the study. They underwent 4 weeks of online PBL using Adobe Connect. Upon completion of the experiment, they were assessed via a self-reported questionnaire and quantitative comparison with traditional PBL students based on the same written assignment. The questionnaire revealed that all participating students enjoyed online PBL, without any perceived negative effects on learning. Online PBL unanimously saved the students travel time to and from school. Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in assignment grades between the online and traditional PBL groups, indicating that online PBL learning appears to be similarly effective as traditional face-to-face PBL learning.

  11. Study on Photon Transport Problem Based on the Platform of Molecular Optical Simulation Environment

    Peng, Kuan; Gao, Xinbo; Liang, Jimin; Qu, Xiaochao; Ren, Nunu; Chen, Xueli; Ma, Bin; Tian, Jie

    2010-01-01

    As an important molecular imaging modality, optical imaging has attracted increasing attention in the recent years. Since the physical experiment is usually complicated and expensive, research methods based on simulation platforms have obtained extensive attention. We developed a simulation platform named Molecular Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to simulate photon transport in both biological tissues and free space for optical imaging based on noncontact measurement. In this platform, Monte Carlo (MC) method and the hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem are used to simulate photon transport in biological tissues and free space, respectively, so both contact and noncontact measurement modes of optical imaging can be simulated properly. In addition, a parallelization strategy for MC method is employed to improve the computational efficiency. In this paper, we study the photon transport problems in both biological tissues and free space using MOSE. The results are compared with Tracepro, simplified spherical harmonics method (S P n), and physical measurement to verify the performance of our study method on both accuracy and efficiency. PMID:20445737

  12. Study on Photon Transport Problem Based on the Platform of Molecular Optical Simulation Environment

    Kuan Peng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important molecular imaging modality, optical imaging has attracted increasing attention in the recent years. Since the physical experiment is usually complicated and expensive, research methods based on simulation platforms have obtained extensive attention. We developed a simulation platform named Molecular Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE to simulate photon transport in both biological tissues and free space for optical imaging based on noncontact measurement. In this platform, Monte Carlo (MC method and the hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem are used to simulate photon transport in biological tissues and free space, respectively, so both contact and noncontact measurement modes of optical imaging can be simulated properly. In addition, a parallelization strategy for MC method is employed to improve the computational efficiency. In this paper, we study the photon transport problems in both biological tissues and free space using MOSE. The results are compared with Tracepro, simplified spherical harmonics method (SPn, and physical measurement to verify the performance of our study method on both accuracy and efficiency.

  13. Study on photon transport problem based on the platform of molecular optical simulation environment.

    Peng, Kuan; Gao, Xinbo; Liang, Jimin; Qu, Xiaochao; Ren, Nunu; Chen, Xueli; Ma, Bin; Tian, Jie

    2010-01-01

    As an important molecular imaging modality, optical imaging has attracted increasing attention in the recent years. Since the physical experiment is usually complicated and expensive, research methods based on simulation platforms have obtained extensive attention. We developed a simulation platform named Molecular Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to simulate photon transport in both biological tissues and free space for optical imaging based on noncontact measurement. In this platform, Monte Carlo (MC) method and the hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem are used to simulate photon transport in biological tissues and free space, respectively, so both contact and noncontact measurement modes of optical imaging can be simulated properly. In addition, a parallelization strategy for MC method is employed to improve the computational efficiency. In this paper, we study the photon transport problems in both biological tissues and free space using MOSE. The results are compared with Tracepro, simplified spherical harmonics method (SP(n)), and physical measurement to verify the performance of our study method on both accuracy and efficiency.

  14. The Effects of Case Libraries in Supporting Collaborative Problem-Solving in an Online Learning Environment

    Tawfik, Andrew A.; Sánchez, Lenny; Saparova, Dinara

    2014-01-01

    Various domains require practitioners to encounter and resolve ill-structured problems using collaborative problem-solving. As such, problem-solving is an essential skill that educators must emphasize to prepare learners for practice. One potential way to support problem-solving is through further investigation of instructional design methods that…

  15. On globally static and stationary cosmologies with or without a cosmological constant and the dark energy problem

    Buchert, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of spatially averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies in classical general relativity, effective Einstein equations govern the regional and the global dynamics of averaged scalar variables of cosmological models. A particular solution may be characterized by a cosmic equation of state. In this paper, it is pointed out that a globally static averaged dust model is conceivable without employing a compensating cosmological constant. Much in the spirit of Einstein's original model we discuss consequences for the global, but also for the regional properties of this cosmology. We then consider the wider class of globally stationary cosmologies that are conceivable in the presented framework. All these models are based on exact solutions of the averaged Einstein equations and provide examples of cosmologies in an out-of-equilibrium state, which we characterize by an information-theoretical measure. It is shown that such cosmologies preserve high-magnitude kinematical fluctuations and so tend to maintain their global properties. The same is true for a Λ-driven cosmos in such a state despite exponential expansion. We outline relations to inflationary scenarios and put the dark energy problem into perspective. Here, it is argued, on the grounds of the discussed cosmologies, that a classical explanation of dark energy through backreaction effects is theoretically conceivable, if the matter-dominated universe emerged from a non-perturbative state in the vicinity of the stationary solution. We also discuss a number of caveats that furnish strong counter arguments in the framework of structure formation in a perturbed Friedmannian model

  16. Evolution of the concentration PDF in random environments modeled by global random walk

    Suciu, Nicolae; Vamos, Calin; Attinger, Sabine; Knabner, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of concentrations of chemical species transported in random environments is often modeled by ensembles of notional particles. The particles move in physical space along stochastic-Lagrangian trajectories governed by Ito equations, with drift coefficients given by the local values of the resolved velocity field and diffusion coefficients obtained by stochastic or space-filtering upscaling procedures. A general model for the sub-grid mixing also can be formulated as a system of Ito equations solving for trajectories in the composition space. The PDF is finally estimated by the number of particles in space-concentration control volumes. In spite of their efficiency, Lagrangian approaches suffer from two severe limitations. Since the particle trajectories are constructed sequentially, the demanded computing resources increase linearly with the number of particles. Moreover, the need to gather particles at the center of computational cells to perform the mixing step and to estimate statistical parameters, as well as the interpolation of various terms to particle positions, inevitably produce numerical diffusion in either particle-mesh or grid-free particle methods. To overcome these limitations, we introduce a global random walk method to solve the system of Ito equations in physical and composition spaces, which models the evolution of the random concentration's PDF. The algorithm consists of a superposition on a regular lattice of many weak Euler schemes for the set of Ito equations. Since all particles starting from a site of the space-concentration lattice are spread in a single numerical procedure, one obtains PDF estimates at the lattice sites at computational costs comparable with those for solving the system of Ito equations associated to a single particle. The new method avoids the limitations concerning the number of particles in Lagrangian approaches, completely removes the numerical diffusion, and

  17. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  18. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  19. E-Waste and Harm to Vulnerable Populations : A Growing Global Problem

    Heacock, Michelle; Kelly, Carol B; Asante, Kwadwo A; Birnbaum, Linda S; Bergman, Ake L; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Carpenter, David O; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia; Kamel, Mostafa; Landrigan, Philip J; Magalini, Federico; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Neira, Maria; Omar, Magdy; Pascale, Antonio; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D; Van den Berg, Martin; Suk, William A

    BACKGROUND: Electronic waste (e-waste) is produced in staggering quantities, estimated globally to be 41.8 million tonnes in 2014. Informal e-waste recycling is a source of much-needed income in many low- to middle-income countries. However, its handling and disposal in underdeveloped countries is

  20. National water resource management as a global problem: The example of Egypt

    Elshorbagy, A. A.; Abdelkader, A. A.; Tuninetti, M.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.; Fahmy, H.

    2017-12-01

    The engineering redistribution of water remains limited in its spatial scope, when compared with the socioeconomic redistribution of water in its virtual form. Virtual water (VW) embedded in products has its own human-induced cycle by moving across the globe. There is a significant body of literature on global VW trade networks (VWTN), with most studies focused on the network structure and the variables controlling its behavior. It was shown that the importing nations will play an important role in the evolution of the network dynamics. The increased connectivity of the global network highlights the risk of systemic disruptions and the vulnerability of the global food, especially when exporting countries change to non-exporting ones. The existing models of VWTN characterize the properties of the network, along with its nodes and links. Acknowledging its contribution to understand the global redistribution of virtual water, hardly can this approach attract potential users to adopt it. The VW trade (VWT) modeling needs to be repositioned to allow resource managers and policy makers at various scales to benefit from it and link global VW dynamics to their local decisions. The aim of this research is to introduce a new modeling approach for the VWT where detailed national scale water management is nested within the coarser global VWTN. The case study of Egypt, the world biggest importer of wheat, is considered here because its population growth and limitations of water and arable land position it as a significant node in the global network. A set of potential scenarios of Egypt's future, driven by population growth, development plans, consumption patterns, technology change, and water availability are developed. The annual national food and water balance in every scenario is calculated to estimate the potential for VW export and import of Egypt. The results indicate that Egypt's demand for food might cause unexpectedly higher demands on other countries' water resources

  1. Promotional operation for developing industrial technologies for global environment in fiscal 1998. International research exchange operation; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kokusai kenkyu koryu jigyo

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective of creating a new scope of study intended of solving global environment problems and structuring a new technical system, exchanges with overseas researchers and research institutions have been carried out subsequent to those in last year. In fiscal 1998, six researchers from different countries were invited to implement joint researches, and two overseas researchers were invited to an international conference on industrial technologies for global environment. In addition, in order to identify trends of research and development in overseas countries, two researchers were sent to universities in Germany and the U.S.A., and three researchers to international conferences and symposiums on the industrial technologies for global environment. It was intended to exchange technological information between overseas researchers and Japanese researchers who are performing the advanced researches on the industrial technologies for global environment, and to proliferate the latest items of technological information. Therefore, seven international seminars have been held, including the '98 Japan-China Global Environment Protection Symposium, 'substance migration and carbon circulation in coral reefs', 'plant bio-technologies in the 21st century', and the Fourth International Forum for Environmental Catalysts. (NEDO)

  2. Promotional operation for developing industrial technologies for global environment in fiscal 1998. International research exchange operation; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kokusai kenkyu koryu jigyo

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective of creating a new scope of study intended of solving global environment problems and structuring a new technical system, exchanges with overseas researchers and research institutions have been carried out subsequent to those in last year. In fiscal 1998, six researchers from different countries were invited to implement joint researches, and two overseas researchers were invited to an international conference on industrial technologies for global environment. In addition, in order to identify trends of research and development in overseas countries, two researchers were sent to universities in Germany and the U.S.A., and three researchers to international conferences and symposiums on the industrial technologies for global environment. It was intended to exchange technological information between overseas researchers and Japanese researchers who are performing the advanced researches on the industrial technologies for global environment, and to proliferate the latest items of technological information. Therefore, seven international seminars have been held, including the '98 Japan-China Global Environment Protection Symposium, 'substance migration and carbon circulation in coral reefs', 'plant bio-technologies in the 21st century', and the Fourth International Forum for Environmental Catalysts. (NEDO)

  3. The Formation of the Urban Environment in the West Siberian Oil and Gas Region: Problems and Challenges

    Bauer, N. V.; Speranskaya, N. I.; Shabatura, L. N.; Iatsevich, O. E.

    2016-10-01

    The article deals with the problems faced by the person in relation to the culture of creating a sustainable urban environment. The urban environment is seen as space of human existence, influencing its spiritual and physical health. All the experts involved in the urban environment, think about the culture of its formation, unfortunately, only from a departmental point of view. Differently organized human environment inevitably affects behavior, emotional state of a man, his perception and understanding of space. The cultural heritage of society fits in the space of an artificial environment created by a man, and determines the behavior of people.For the solution of problems of formation of the urban environment, it is necessary to apply a set of interrelated technical, social, environmental, aesthetic and other measures. In this capacity, landscape design as a set of methods has to build a sustainable urban environment to ensure harmonious living.Current trends, methods, and techniques of landscape design are to create sustainable environment for a person - creative, spiritual, comfortable, attractive, safe, harmonious.

  4. Present status of seawater desalination and problems of nuclear utilization. Aiming at coping with global shortage of water

    2006-07-01

    With recent global population increase and economic and life level improvement, water demand increases tremendously and in 2025 water scarcity will occur in almost the half of countries and regions in the world. Nuclear desalination is highly expected to cope with this issue. The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) established special committee on seawater desalination problems to discuss possibilities of nuclear desalination introduction. Present status of seawater desalination and problems of nuclear utilization were reviewed and the committee recommended the necessity of establishing medium and long-term plan on international business development of nuclear desalination and also the start of basic research on problems of nuclear utilization such as technical and institutional limits and efficient applicability of nuclear energy. (T. Tanaka)

  5. How scientific experiments are designed: Problem solving in a knowledge-rich, error-rich environment

    Baker, Lisa M.

    bias in earlier studies using science-like tasks, in which characteristics of the alternate hypothesis space may have made it unfeasible for participants to generate and test alternate hypotheses. In general, scientists and science undergraduates were found to engage in a systematic experimental design process that responded to salient features of the problem environment, including the constant potential for experimental error, availability of alternate hypotheses, and access to both theoretical knowledge and knowledge of experimental techniques.

  6. To the problem of control methods unification of natural and artificial radionuclide admission into environment

    Gedeonov, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    Radioactive substances (RAS) released into the environment during NPP operation form the fields of increased radiation level as compared with the natural background. Preservation of the environment from intolerable contamination requires deter-- mination of the effluent norm by concentration and quantity of RAS released to the environment for every source. The necessity of unification of the methods for radioactive nuclide control of the environment as well as means and conditions of this control are discussed [ru

  7. Assessing Global Learning in Short-Term Study Abroad: Population, Environment, and Society in Shanghai

    Core, Rachel S.

    2017-01-01

    This teaching note suggests that a short-term study abroad program embedded within a longer course can be a tool for enhancing global learning. The work uses the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) Global Learning VALUE rubric to evaluate student work from a spring break seminar to Shanghai, China. The seminar was…

  8. Problems in the Relationship between CO2 Emissions and Global Warming

    Ferenc Kovács

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis of environmental conditions and impacts, the viewpoint that greenhouse gases, primarily anthropogenic (industrial, human carbon dioxide, play a determining role in the change of global temperatures, ( the increase experienced in the last one and a half decade, has been given widespread publicity recently. Coal-fired power plants are the first to blame for the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the last two centuries. The study indicates possibilities to increase the efficiency of coal-fired power plants, which would involve a considerable reduction in CO2 emissions with an identical production volume of electrical energy. On the basis of the analysis of the amount of fossil fuels used, the amount of CO2 emissions and changes in the concentrations of atmospheric CO2, it is shown that no correlation can be proved between the factors investigated and changes in global temperatures.

  9. Problems of Ensuring Complex Business Security in the Conditions of Modern Globalization

    Anatoliy Petrovich Sterkhov

    2015-01-01

    From the viewpoint of ensuring complex business security, the relevance of the present work is associated with the rationale of multilevel hierarchical approach to the classification of security threats in the age of globalization. The specificity of the threats specific to one or another level of the economy, helps to better understand and consequently to build an effective system of ensuring complex business security. For each of the nine hierarchical levels of the economy the author identi...

  10. Global approach to the spectral problem of microinstabilities in tokamak plasmas using a gyrokinetic model

    Brunner, S.

    1997-08-01

    Ion temperature gradient (ITG)-related instabilities are studied in tokamak-like plasmas with the help of a new global eigenvalue code. Ions are modelled in the frame of gyrokinetic theory so that finite Larmor radius effects of these particles are retained to all orders. Non-adiabatic trapped electron dynamics is taken into account through the bounce-averaged drift kinetic equation. Assuming electrostatic perturbations, the system is closed with the quasineutrality relation. Practical methods are presented which make this global approach feasible. These include a non-standard wave decomposition compatible with the curved geometry as well as adapting an efficient root finding algorithm for computing the unstable spectrum. These techniques are applied to a low pressure configuration given by a large aspect ratio torus with circular, concentric magnetic surfaces. Simulations from a linear, time evolution, particle in cell code provide a useful benchmark. Comparisons with local ballooning calculations for different parameter scans enable further validation while illustrating the limits of that representation at low toroidal wave numbers or for non-interchange-like instabilities. The stabilizing effect of negative magnetic shear is also considered, in which case the global results show not only an attenuation of the growth rate but also a reduction of the radial extent induced by a transition from the toroidal- to the slab-ITG mode. Contributions of trapped electrons to the ITG instability as well as the possible coupling to the trapped electron mode are clearly brought to the fore. (author) figs., tabs., 69 refs

  11. What's the Right Answer? Team Problem-Solving in Environments of Uncertainty

    Jameson, Daphne A.

    2009-01-01

    Whether in the workplace or the classroom, many teams approach problem-solving as a search for certainty--even though certainty rarely exists in business. This search for the one right answer to a problem creates unrealistic expectations and often undermines teams' effectiveness. To help teams manage their problem-solving process and communication…

  12. Gene-Environment Interplay between Parent-Child Relationship Problems and Externalizing Disorders in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Samek, Diana R.; Hicks, Brian M.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Bailey, Jennifer; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that genetic risk for externalizing (EXT) disorders is greater in the context of adverse family environments during adolescence, but it is unclear whether these effects are long-lasting. The current study evaluated developmental changes in gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between parent-child relationship problems and EXT at ages 18 and 25. Method The sample included 1,382 twin pairs (48% male) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, participating in assessments at ages 18 (M = 17.8 years, SD = 0.69) and 25 (M = 25.0 years, SD = 0.90). Perceptions of parent-child relationship problems were assessed using questionnaires. Structured interviews were used to assess symptoms of adult antisocial behavior and nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drug dependence. Results We detected a gene-environment interaction at age 18, such that the genetic influence on EXT was greater in the context of more parent-child relationship problems. This moderation effect was not present at age 25, nor did parent-relationship problems at age 18 moderate genetic influence on EXT at age 25. Rather, common genetic influences accounted for this longitudinal association. Conclusions Gene-environment interaction evident in the relationship between adolescent parent-child relationship problems and EXT is both proximal and developmentally limited. Common genetic influence, rather than a gene-environment interaction, accounts for the long-term association between parent-child relationship problems at age 18 and EXT at age 25. These results are consistent with a relatively pervasive importance of gene-environmental correlation in the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood. PMID:25066478

  13. The communication of the risk of coastal erosion in Portugal: a global problem, a local trouble

    Eduardo BASTO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades a set of instruments has been devised by the Portuguese authorities to handle the issue of coastal erosion. We argue that this legal apparatus not only lacks the internal integration necessary for its effectiveness, but it also fails to recognise the ways in which the problem materialises in the everyday life of coastal areas. Through a case study in the village of Furadouro in Western Portugal, we demonstrate how this top-down implementation of policies does not promote a true communication of risks, in the sense that the problem of coastal erosion is not “put in common” across levels of governance.

  14. Problems posed by the development of the Oklo phenomenon: tentative global interpretation

    Naudet, R.

    This paper discusses the basic problems posed by the development of the Oklo phenomenon: the conditions in which the reactions are triggered and propagated and how they have been controlled. The reactions were maintained by the destruction of neutron poisons in the ore and were controlled by temperature. Oklo is made up of a large number of contiguous reactors. Geological problems of the origin of the clays, desilification, and uranium concentration are discussed. Oklo is shown to be a very complex phenomenon which developed in space and time. Besides the thermal, neutron, and geochemical coupling, there is also a tectonic coupling

  15. Energy Policy and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach to a Global Problem

    Vincenzo Dovì

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period between the end of the Second World War and the oil crises of 1973 and 1979, the most critical issues in the energy debate were the impending depletion of non-renewable resources and the level of pollution that the environment is able to sustain. [...

  16. Modified Approach for Optimization of Real Life Transportation Problem in Neutrosophic Environment

    Akanksha Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge, there is only one approach for solving neutrosophic cost minimization transportation problems. Since neutrosophic transportation problems are a new area of research, other researchers may be attracted to extend this approach for solving other types of neutrosophic transportation problems like neutrosophic solid transportation problems, neutrosophic time minimization transportation problems, neutrosophic transshipment problems, and so on. However, after a deep study of the existing approach, it is noticed that a mathematical incorrect assumption has been used in these existing approaches; therefore there is a need to modify these existing approaches. Keeping the same in mind, in this paper, the existing approach is modified. Furthermore, the exact results of some existing transportation problems are obtained by the modified approach.

  17. Genomic Microbial Epidemiology Is Needed to Comprehend the Global Problem of Antibiotic Resistance and to Improve Pathogen Diagnosis.

    Wyrsch, Ethan R; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Chapman, Toni A; Charles, Ian G; Hammond, Jeffrey M; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of waste effluent from hospitals and intensive food animal production with antimicrobial residues is an immense global problem. Antimicrobial residues exert selection pressures that influence the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in diverse microbial populations. Despite these concerns there is only a limited understanding of how antimicrobial residues contribute to the global problem of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, rapid detection of emerging bacterial pathogens and strains with resistance to more than one antibiotic class remains a challenge. A comprehensive, sequence-based genomic epidemiological surveillance model that captures essential microbial metadata is needed, both to improve surveillance for antimicrobial resistance and to monitor pathogen evolution. Escherichia coli is an important pathogen causing both intestinal [intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC)] and extraintestinal [extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)] disease in humans and food animals. ExPEC are the most frequently isolated Gram negative pathogen affecting human health, linked to food production practices and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. Cattle are a known reservoir of IPEC but they are not recognized as a source of ExPEC that impact human or animal health. In contrast, poultry are a recognized source of multiple antibiotic resistant ExPEC, while swine have received comparatively less attention in this regard. Here, we review what is known about ExPEC in swine and how pig production contributes to the problem of antibiotic resistance.

  18. A life history approach to delineating how harsh environments and hawk temperament traits differentially shape children's problem-solving skills.

    Suor, Jennifer H; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante

    2017-08-01

    Harsh environments are known to predict deficits in children's cognitive abilities. Life history theory approaches challenge this interpretation, proposing stressed children's cognition becomes specialized to solve problems in fitness-enhancing ways. The goal of this study was to examine associations between early environmental harshness and children's problem-solving outcomes across tasks varying in ecological relevance. In addition, we utilize an evolutionary model of temperament toward further specifying whether hawk temperament traits moderate these associations. Two hundred and one mother-child dyads participated in a prospective multimethod study when children were 2 and 4 years old. At age 2, environmental harshness was assessed via maternal report of earned income and observations of maternal disengagement during a parent-child interaction task. Children's hawk temperament traits were assessed from a series of unfamiliar episodes. At age 4, children's reward-oriented and visual problem-solving were measured. Path analyses revealed early environmental harshness and children's hawk temperament traits predicted worse visual problem-solving. Results showed a significant two-way interaction between children's hawk temperament traits and environmental harshness on reward-oriented problem-solving. Simple slope analyses revealed the effect of environmental harshness on reward-oriented problem-solving was specific to children with higher levels of hawk traits. Results suggest early experiences of environmental harshness and child hawk temperament traits shape children's trajectories of problem-solving in an environment-fitting manner. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Additional Insights Into Problem Definition and Positioning From Social Science Comment on "Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face".

    Quissell, Kathryn

    2017-09-10

    Commenting on a recent editorial in this journal which presented four challenges global health networks will have to tackle to be effective, this essay discusses why this type of analysis is important for global health scholars and practitioners, and why it is worth understanding and critically engaging with the complexities behind these challenges. Focusing on the topics of problem definition and positioning, I outline additional insights from social science theory to demonstrate how networks and network researchers can evaluate these processes, and how these processes contribute to better organizing, advocacy, and public health outcomes. This essay also raises multiple questions regarding these processes for future research. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  20. Voicing as an Essential Problem of Communication: Language and Education of Chinese Immigrant Children in Globalization

    Dong, Jie; Dong, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article explores voicing processes of identity construction among labor immigrants both inside China and in the Dutch Chinese Diaspora. We provide ethnographically grounded data oriented toward a theoretical point: voicing is an essential problem in communication. Whether one is able to achieve his voice--an outcome of a communicative…

  1. On the Role of Situational Stressors in the Disruption of Global Neural Network Stability during Problem Solving.

    Liu, Mengting; Amey, Rachel C; Forbes, Chad E

    2017-12-01

    When individuals are placed in stressful situations, they are likely to exhibit deficits in cognitive capacity over and above situational demands. Despite this, individuals may still persevere and ultimately succeed in these situations. Little is known, however, about neural network properties that instantiate success or failure in both neutral and stressful situations, particularly with respect to regions integral for problem-solving processes that are necessary for optimal performance on more complex tasks. In this study, we outline how hidden Markov modeling based on multivoxel pattern analysis can be used to quantify unique brain states underlying complex network interactions that yield either successful or unsuccessful problem solving in more neutral or stressful situations. We provide evidence that brain network stability and states underlying synchronous interactions in regions integral for problem-solving processes are key predictors of whether individuals succeed or fail in stressful situations. Findings also suggested that individuals utilize discriminate neural patterns in successfully solving problems in stressful or neutral situations. Findings overall highlight how hidden Markov modeling can provide myriad possibilities for quantifying and better understanding the role of global network interactions in the problem-solving process and how the said interactions predict success or failure in different contexts.

  2. Are Changes in Students' Perceptions of the Learning Environment Related to Changes in Emotional and Behavioural Problems?

    Thuen, Elin; Bru, Edvin

    2009-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional based research suggests that students' perceptions of the learning environment are associated with emotional and behavioural problems (EBP). However, it is not clear to what extent the associations identified are merely reflections of individual student characteristics. The present study explored this issue by utilizing a…

  3. On the role of individual human abilities in the design of adaptive user interfaces for scientific problem solving environments

    Zudilova-Seinstra, E.V.

    2007-01-01

    A scientific problem solving environment should be built in such a way that users (scientists) might exploit underlying technologies without a specialised knowledge about available tools and resources. An adaptive user interface can be considered as an opportunity in addressing this challenge. This

  4. A Life History Approach to Delineating How Harsh Environments and Hawk Temperament Traits Differentially Shape Children's Problem-Solving Skills

    Suor, Jennifer H.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2017-01-01

    Harsh environments are known to predict deficits in children's cognitive abilities. Life history theory approaches challenge this interpretation, proposing stressed children's cognition becomes specialized to solve problems in fitness-enhancing ways. The goal of this study was to examine associations between early environmental harshness and…

  5. A Global Navigation Management Architecture Applied to Autonomous Robots in Urban Environments

    Kenmogne , Ide-Flore; Alves De Lima , Danilo; Corrêa Victorino , Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a global behavioral architecture used as a coordinator for the global navigation of an autonomous vehicle in an urban context including traffic laws and other features. As an extension to our previous work, the approach presented here focuses on how this manager uses perceived information (from low cost cameras and laser scanners) combined with digital road-map data to take decisions. This decision consists in retrieving the car's state regarding th...

  6. Some global problems in gauge theories (Variations on a theme of Aharonov and Bohm)

    Wilczek, F.

    1989-12-01

    Several situations are discussed, in which the sort of global considerations made famous by Aharonov and Bohm in their discussion of the interaction of charged particles with magnetic flux tubes have important physical implications. It is argued that discrete gauge symmetries in the continuum make sense, and manifest themselves most clearly in Aharonov-Bohm type scattering of charged particles off string singularities. The existence of such discrete symmetries has important implications for the quantum mechanics of topologically non-trivial space-times in general and black holes in particular. It is argued that in the non-abelian case essentially new features arise, most notably that the symmetry group of the homogeneous ground state generally ceases to be globally defined in the presence of a string. When continuous rather than discrete symmetries are involved, a variety of fascinating and as yet poorly understood dynamical effects occur. Perhaps the most striking is a new form of string superconductivity, that exists for purely topological reasons, and is not well modeled by regarding the string as a superconducting wire. 8 refs., 2 figs

  7. Existence and Global Asymptotic Behavior of Positive Solutions for Nonlinear Fractional Dirichlet Problems on the Half-Line

    Imed Bachar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We are interested in the following fractional boundary value problem: Dαu(t+atuσ=0, t∈(0,∞, limt→0⁡t2-αu(t=0, limt→∞⁡t1-αu(t=0, where 1<α<2, σ∈(-1,1, Dα is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, and a is a nonnegative continuous function on (0,∞ satisfying some appropriate assumptions related to Karamata regular variation theory. Using the Schauder fixed point theorem, we prove the existence and the uniqueness of a positive solution. We also give a global behavior of such solution.

  8. The environmental problems in urban communities and the protection of the environment in Korea.

    Kim, I K

    1994-07-01

    Korea's urban environmental problems, specifically air and water pollution, government environmental policies, and the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in protecting the environment are described and discussed. Korea's rapid industrialization and urbanization between 1961 and 1985 led to an increased volume of waste and air pollution. Automobiles increased in number from 29,234 in 1961 to 1,113,430 in 1985. In the same period, the number of factories with at least five employees rose from 15,204 to 44,037. The volume of chemical materials and agricultural chemicals dramatically increased. Household wastes in urban areas increased from 26,831 tons per day in 1978 to 61,072 tons per day in 1985. Industrial waste rose from 13,130 to 33,349 tons per day in 1985. Respiratory diseases are precipitated by exposure to sulphur dioxide, which is produced during cooking and heating with coal briquets; to nitrogen dioxide from automobile exhaust; and to carbon monoxide from coal briquets. Indoor air pollution from particles such as radon, asbestos, cigarette smoke, fungus, and bacteria also impacts on health. Tolerance limits have been reached or surpassed in many cities, particularly in Seoul. Air pollution is worse during the winter. The poor are particularly affected because of the continued use of coal briquets for heating. Industry contributes to water pollution. The volume of industrial waste water quadrupled between 1980 and 1990. In Seoul, however, population size directly contributes to 64.3% of water pollution, and the remaining 35.2% is from factories. Although livestock contributes to only 0.5% of water pollution, livestock drainage contributes to 36.3% of chemical materials in polluted water. Biological oxygen demand has also exceeded tolerance limits. Water reservoirs contain toxic chemicals such as lead, copper, mercury, arsenic, phenol, phosphorus, and nitrogen, which take a longer time to affect health. The Anti-Pollution Law of 1963 and the

  9. An investigation into electromagnetic force models: differences in global and local effects demonstrated by selected problems

    Reich, Felix A.; Rickert, Wilhelm; Müller, Wolfgang H.

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the implications of various electromagnetic force models in macroscopic situations. There is an ongoing academic discussion which model is "correct," i.e., generally applicable. Often, gedankenexperiments with light waves or photons are used in order to motivate certain models. In this work, three problems with bodies at the macroscopic scale are used for computing theoretical model-dependent predictions. Two aspects are considered, total forces between bodies and local deformations. By comparing with experimental data, insight is gained regarding the applicability of the models. First, the total force between two cylindrical magnets is computed. Then a spherical magnetostriction problem is considered to show different deformation predictions. As a third example focusing on local deformations, a droplet of silicone oil in castor oil is considered, placed in a homogeneous electric field. By using experimental data, some conclusions are drawn and further work is motivated.

  10. Solving non-standard packing problems by global optimization and heuristics

    Fasano, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    This book results from a long-term research effort aimed at tackling complex non-standard packing issues which arise in space engineering. The main research objective is to optimize cargo loading and arrangement, in compliance with a set of stringent rules. Complicated geometrical aspects are also taken into account, in addition to balancing conditions based on attitude control specifications. Chapter 1 introduces the class of non-standard packing problems studied. Chapter 2 gives a detailed explanation of a general model for the orthogonal packing of tetris-like items in a convex domain. A number of additional conditions are looked at in depth, including the prefixed orientation of subsets of items, the presence of unusable holes, separation planes and structural elements, relative distance bounds as well as static and dynamic balancing requirements. The relative feasibility sub-problem which is a special case that does not have an optimization criterion is discussed in Chapter 3. This setting can be exploit...

  11. Legislative provisions related to marriage and divorce of persons with mental health problems: a global review.

    Bhugra, Dinesh; Pathare, Soumitra; Nardodkar, Renuka; Gosavi, Chetna; Ng, Roger; Torales, Julio; Ventriglio, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Realization of right to marry by a person is an exercise of personal liberty, even if concepts of marriage and expectations from such commitment vary across cultures and societies. Once married, if an individual develops mental illness the legal system often starts to discriminate against the individual. There is no doubt that every individual's right to marry or remain married is regulated by their country's family codes, civil codes, marriage laws, or divorce laws. Historically mental health condition of a spouse or intending spouse has been of interest to lawmakers in a number of ways from facilitating divorce to helping the individual with mental illness. There is no doubt that there are deeply ingrained stereotypes that persons with mental health problems lack capacity to consent and, therefore, cannot enter into a marital contract of their own free will. These assumptions lead to discrimination both in practice and in law. Furthermore, the probability of mental illness being genetically transmitted and passed on to offspring adds yet another dimension of discrimination. Thus, the system may also raise questions about the ability of persons with mental health problems to care, nurture, and support a family and children. Internationally, rights to marry, the right to remain married, and dissolution of marriage have been enshrined in several human rights instruments. Domestic laws were studied in 193 countries to explore whether laws affected the rights of people with mental illness with respect to marriage; it was found that 37% of countries explicitly prohibit marriage by persons with mental health problems. In 11% (21 countries) the presence of mental health problems can render a marriage void or can be considered grounds for nullity of marriage. Thus, in many countries basic human rights related to marriage are being flouted.

  12. A fuzzy approach to the generation expansion planning problem in a multi-objective environment

    Abass, S. A.; Massoud, E. M. A.; Abass, S. A.)

    2007-01-01

    In many power system problems, the use of optimization techniques has proved inductive to reducing the costs and losses of the system. A fuzzy multi-objective decision is used for solving power system problems. One of the most important issues in the field of power system engineering is the generation expansion planning problem. In this paper, we use the concepts of membership functions to define a fuzzy decision model for generating an optimal solution for this problem. Solutions obtained by the fuzzy decision theory are always efficient and constitute the best compromise. (author)

  13. Using a computer learning environment for initial training in dealing with social - communicative problems.

    Holsbrink-Engels, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    The most widely practised instructional method for the development of interpersonal skills is role-play. Role-play is supposed to be a complex learning environment for novices to develop interpersonal skills. The learning environment is complex because of two factors. Firstly, the cognitive load is

  14. Gene-Environment Correlation Underlying the Association between Parental Negativity and Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    Marceau, Kristine; Horwitz, Briana N.; Narusyte, Jurgita; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of adolescent or parent-based twins suggest that gene-environment correlation (rGE) is an important mechanism underlying parent-adolescent relationships. However, information on how parents' and children's genes and environments influence correlated parent "and" child behaviors is needed to distinguish types of rGE. The present…

  15. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene–environment interaction

    Robbers, S.C.C.; van Oort, F.V.; Huizink, A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bartels, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with

  16. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction

    S.C.C. Robbers (Sylvana); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); A.C. Huizink (Anja); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt (Toos); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Bartels (Meike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than

  17. Integrating Worked Examples into Problem Posing in a Web-Based Learning Environment

    Hsiao, Ju-Yuan; Hung, Chun-Ling; Lan, Yu-Feng; Jeng, Yoau-Chau

    2013-01-01

    Most students always lack of experience and perceive difficult regarding problem posing. The study hypothesized that worked examples may have benefits for supporting students' problem posing activities. A quasi-experiment was conducted in the context of a business mathematics course for examining the effects of integrating worked examples into…

  18. Audit in Belarus under new law and in new environment: first results, problems, prospects

    S.L. Korotayev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the first results of application of the new law of the Republic of Belarus «On audit activity» since the 01.01.2014. The authors identify the problems inherent in auditing, propose specific measures to solve these problems, and to create the necessary conditions for the further development of audit.

  19. Knowledge-Based Instruction: Teaching Problem Solving in a Logo Learning Environment.

    Swan, Karen; Black, John B.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of computer programming and knowledge-based instruction focuses on three studies of elementary and secondary school students which show that five particular problem-solving strategies can be developed in students explicitly taught the strategies and given practice applying them to solve LOGO programming problems. (Contains 53…

  20. Internalizing problem behavior and family environment of children with burns: A Dutch pilot study

    Liber, J.M.; List, D.; van Loey, N.E.E.; Kef, S.

    2006-01-01

    The psychosocial development of children with burns is at risk. Children with health care issues tend to develop internalizing problems. Several areas of protective or risk factors were composed into a conceptual model on how internalizing problems might develop or might be prevented after getting