WorldWideScience

Sample records for global defense industry

  1. The Impact of Globalization on the U.S. Defense Industry

    2013-04-01

    the prism of international trade, White House staff have argued that the impact of increased job exportation, offshoring ( Mankiw referred to it as...muddles over outsourcing. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(4), 93–114. Defense Science Board. (1999). Final report of the Defense Science Board on...and economic merging of geographically dispersed groups of people across geopolitical lines. • Globalization as a concept has existed for

  2. The Impact of Globalization on the U.S. Defense Industrial Base

    2013-10-01

    companies like IBM have been more reluctant to publicize their global workforce. Of the approximately 430,000 employees working for IBM, less than a...quarter are located in the United States. In fact, it is estimated that the number of IBM employees in India exceeds 110,000 (Thibodeau, 2012). Due... franchised or authorized suppliers. It is typically less expensive to find part substitutions and aftermarket manufacturing for needed electronic parts

  3. COMPETITIVENESS OF DEFENSE INDUSTRY IN TURKEY

    Hakki BILGEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has created some opportunities for the organisations in the defense industry to generate a suitable business and to ensure its sustainability. The domestic coverage ratio of defense system need in 2010 is aimed as 50%. To achieve this target depends on the defense industry competitiveness. In this study, the development plans, strategies and foreign trade are examined. Its contribution which has an important place in the research and development investment, is not at the level expected in Turkey’s economy. Turkey occupies 47th position in World Competitiveness Scoreboard, and 61st position in Global Competitiveness Index in 2009. The index factors are investigated to understand the competitiveness according to the Porter’s diamond model, applied in Turkey for the first time. As a result, the competitiveness analysis of Turkish defense industry is carried out and its global place and competitive advantage are exposed. Therefore, a framework is made to introduce a guide for decision-making by using a widely-accepted model, and to contribute to the plans and strategies

  4. Analysis of Defense Industry Consolidation Effects on Program Acquisition Costs

    Hoff, Russell V

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis examines whether cost changes are evident following consolidation within the defense industry by conducting a regression analysis of Major Defense Acquisition Programs across 13 broad defense market sectors...

  5. Basic Dimensions of Financial Condition within the Defense Industry

    Bowden, Craig

    1998-01-01

    .... The primary purpose of this thesis was to analyze financial data from a sample of defense industry firms in order to determine the basic dimensions of financial condition in the defense industry...

  6. Competition: A Means to Transform the Defense Industrial Base

    Hansen, Richard

    2003-01-01

    .... The defense acquisition process and its industrial base comprise a significant economic institution in need of transformation to ensure that research, development, and acquisition efforts remain...

  7. The global fur industry

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2014-01-01

    with regards to the fur sector, and the price of fur is volatile in the short and long run. A new world trade pattern and international specialization have emerged in recent years. The comparative advantages of the fur sector change along the fur value chain, while China’s position on the global fur market has...... and international statistics about the fur sector. This article analyzes the production and international trade in fur based on information from official statistics, trade associations, companies, scientific papers and reports, interviews with experts, etc.. Markets and market conditions play a very important role...

  8. Foresight Model of Turkey's Defense Industries' Space Studies until 2040

    Yuksel, Nurdan; Cifci, Hasan; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Being advanced in science and technology is inevitable reality in order to be able to have a voice in the globalized world. Therefore, for the countries, making policies in consistent with their societies' intellectual, economic and political infrastructure and attributing them to the vision having been embraced by all parties of the society is quite crucial for the success. The generated policies are supposed to ensure the usage of countries' resources in the most effective and fastest way, determine the priorities and needs of society and set their goals and related roadmaps. In this sense, technology foresight studies based on justified forecasting in science and technology have critical roles in the process of developing policies. In this article, Foresight Model of Turkey's Defense Industries' Space Studies, which is turned out to be the important part of community life and fundamental background of most technologies, up to 2040 is presented. Turkey got late in space technology studies. Hence, for being fast and efficient to use its national resources in a cost effective way and within national and international collaboration, it should be directed to its pre-set goals. By taking all these factors into consideration, the technology foresight model of Turkey's Defense Industry's Space Studies was presented in the study. In the model, the present condition of space studies in the World and Turkey was analyzed; literature survey and PEST analysis were made. PEST analysis will be the inputs of SWOT analysis and Delphi questionnaire will be used in the study. A two-round Delphi survey will be applied to the participants from universities, public and private organizations operating in space studies at Defense Industry. Critical space technologies will be distinguished according to critical technology measures determined by expert survey; space technology fields and goals will be established according to their importance and feasibility indexes. Finally, for the

  9. Global Operations at Aalborg Industries

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    to successfully reconfigure its operations set-up to meet new contextual conditions. This case was prepared in 2009, through a number of interviews and managers from all business functions as well as top management. The authors do not intend to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a managerial......The aim of this case is to describe the development of Aalborg Industries into a global company. Aalborg Industries has been an example to many companies, as it has managed to maintain a leading market position in a highly competitive and increasingly globalized marked and has managed...

  10. Globalization and the Military Industrial Base: Where Should U.S. Policy Go?

    Sundell, Dennis R

    2007-01-01

    .... military industrial base. While the prospects of globalization have provided the defense industrial base with rewards including reduced costs as a result of competition and greater access to foreign technologies it has also created some threats...

  11. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  12. Changing Manufacturing Technology and Jobs in Defense Industries.

    Oliver, Richard P.

    1983-01-01

    Provides information on the current status of computer-assisted manufacturing, current employment, and plans for new technology in three defense-related industries: aircraft, shipbuilding, and ordnance. (SK)

  13. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Viorel Pop

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the wor...

  14. The globalization of the arms industry: The next proliferation challenge

    Bitzinger, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The globalization of the arms industry entails a significant shift away from traditional, single-country patterns of weapons production toward internationalization of the development, production, and marketing of arms. While wholly indigenous armaments production may be on the decline, multinational arms production - through collaboration on individual weapon systems and increasingly via interfirm linkages across the international arms industry - appears actually to be expanding. In several instances, in fact, multinational armaments production is increasingly supplementing or even supplanting indigenous or autonomous weapons production or arms imports. The emergence of an increasingly transnational defense technology and industrial base is fundamentally affecting the shape and content of much of the global arms trade. This changing defense market, in turn, will have a profound impact on a number of national security issues concerning the Western industrialized nations. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The Impact of the Defense Industry Consolidation on the Aerospace Industry

    Davis, Judy B

    2006-01-01

    ... (SIC) codes. Using the structure-conduct- performance paradigm, a method in industrial organization, this thesis focused on how the defense consolidation affected the structure and behavior of the aerospace industry...

  16. The emerging global energy industry

    Churchill, A. [Washington International Energy Group, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The global focus of the electric power industry was discussed. The shift from small regional monopolies to internationally competitive firms has been the driving force for change in industrial or market structures. The financial forces behind these changes were examined. The changes at the firm level and the implications of these changes for the North American market were explored. Changes in the North American market have influenced and are influenced by changes in international markets. The well established public and private monopolies in North America have been slow to welcome competition. However, with growing pressure from consumers, North America is becoming a major leader of global market trends. The following predictions regarding a deregulated electric power industry can be made with some confidence: (1) prices will fall, (2) customer choice will become a reality, (3) debt ridden public dinosaurs are not likely to survive, and (4) the same big firms in international markets will be the dominant players in the North American market. Canadian companies were warned that unless they can compete on equal terms with their American competitors, they may find themselves at a disadvantage in the new, competitive market.

  17. The emerging global energy industry

    Churchill, A [Washington International Energy Group, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The global focus of the electric power industry was discussed. The shift from small regional monopolies to internationally competitive firms has been the driving force for change in industrial or market structures. The financial forces behind these changes were examined. The changes at the firm level and the implications of these changes for the North American market were explored. Changes in the North American market have influenced and are influenced by changes in international markets. The well established public and private monopolies in North America have been slow to welcome competition. However, with growing pressure from consumers, North America is becoming a major leader of global market trends. The following predictions regarding a deregulated electric power industry can be made with some confidence: (1) prices will fall, (2) customer choice will become a reality, (3) debt ridden public dinosaurs are not likely to survive, and (4) the same big firms in international markets will be the dominant players in the North American market. Canadian companies were warned that unless they can compete on equal terms with their American competitors, they may find themselves at a disadvantage in the new, competitive market.

  18. Managing Change: Converting the Defense Industry

    1993-04-01

    concerned 16 BuzzeUl, Robert D., John A. Quelch, and Christopher Bartlett, Global Marketing Management, Cases and Readings, (Reading, Massachusetts...Christopher Bartlett. 1992. Global Marketing Management, Cases and Readings. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Byrne, John A

  19. In defense of industry-physician relationships.

    Nakayama, Don K

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to examine the economic, ethical, and legal foundations for conflict of interest restrictions between physicians and pharmaceutical and medical device industries ("industry"). Recently academic medical centers and professional organizations have adopted policies that restrict permissible interactions between industry and physicians. The motive is to avoid financial conflicts of interest that compromise core values of altruism and fiduciary relationships. Productive relationships between industry and physicians provide novel drugs and devices of immense benefit to society. The issues are opposing views of medical economics, profit motives, medical professionalism, and extent to which interactions should be lawfully restricted. Industry goals are congruent with those of physicians: patient welfare, safety, and running a profitable business. Profits are necessary to develop drugs and devices. Physician collaborators invent products, refine them, and provide feedback and so are appropriately paid. Marketing is necessary to bring approved products to patients. Economic realities limit the extent to which physicians treat their patients altruistically and as fiduciaries. Providing excellent service to patients may be a more realistic standard. Statements from industry and the American College of Surgeons appropriately guide professional behavior. Preservation of industry-physician relationships is vital to maintain medical innovation and progress.

  20. Defense Industrial Base Capabilities Study: Battlespace Awareness

    2004-01-01

    not production capacity or workforce issues. It considers the best capabilities in both the domestic and foreign components of the industrial base...www.maliburesearch.com Ground Penetrating Radar MARIMATECH 1989 Aarhus, Denmark n.a. n.a. www.marimatech.com Sonar Maser Technology (NZ) Ltd. 1983 Auckland , New

  1. National Security and the Industrial Policy Debate: Modernizing Defense Manufacturing

    1991-05-01

    47. 49. Michael Schroeder and Walecia Konrad, " Nucor : Rolling Right Into Steel’s Big Time," Business Week 19 Nov. 1990: 76. 50. Clyde V. Prestowitz...Defense." The I Industrial Policy Debate. Ed. Chalmers Johnson. San Francisco: ICS Press, 1984. i 74I Schroeder, Michael and Walecia Konrad. " Nucor

  2. Should bioengineering graduates seek employment in the defense industry?

    Johnson, Arthur T

    2014-01-01

    They say that the difference between a mechanical engineer and a civil engineer is that the mechanical engineer develops weapons whereas a civil engineer designs targets. The implication is that some engineers are involved with building peaceful infrastructure whereas others contribute to destruction. This brings to mind the question: what is the proper role for engineers in the creation of weapons and defenses against them? In particular, should engineers specializing in biology or medicine be involved in the defense industry? After all, bioengineers are supposed to be builders or healers rather than warriors or destroyers.

  3. Current situation and countermeasures of the defense technology industry intellectual property management

    Fan Fei

    2014-01-01

    In Defense technology industry is a strategic industry of our country, is an important foundation for China to achieve modernization of national defense, is also important driving force of our national economy. Intellectual property plays a very important role in the defense industry ' strengthen the basis of capacity, combining military and civilian, leapfrog development' strategy. Defense-related science, technology and industry advanced nature of intellectual property management and its ownership is a direct reflection of the capability of independent innovation and sustainable development of the defense industry. Therefore, how to make the effective protection and management of intellectual property rights in the Defense Industry has also become a new issue that we face. In this paper, by analyzing the status of the defense technology industry intellectual property management, at home and abroad, and other industry advanced experience in intellectual property management, put forward recommendations to strengthen our national defense science and technology industry intellectual property management. (author)

  4. Defense and Regional Integration: Brazil’s Weapons Industry Case

    Suzeley Kalil Mathias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper works with the relation between technological development and weapons industry in Brazil, pointing out the dependence of this to that one. One reveals as the changes in the commerce of armaments that currently privileges the production of small weapons for exportation. The conclusion is that to keep projects of this nature, is using to advantage the industrial park for the dual production, that is, that one takes care the civil and the military demands. At last, it defends the possibility of the defense industry works as mechanism of regional integration.

  5. UNIPOLAR, BIPOLAR OR MULTIPOLAR INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM? THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY FACTOR

    ÖZKAN, Gökhan

    2008-01-01

    International system can be defined as a complex system of systems that is comprised of economic, political, scientific, technological and military systems. It is hard to analyze this complex system. It is even harder to forecast its future. Nonetheless, there are factors such as the defense industry and military power that affect the dynamics of the international system much more than other factors. After the Revolution in Military Affairs, which transformed the military paradigm, significa...

  6. Analysis of Government Policies to Support Sustainable Domestic Defense Industries

    2015-06-01

    the form of tax receipts from home and overseas sales, such as income taxes , corporate taxes , as well as avoiding unemployment pay (if workers are...Economic Co-Operation and Development [ OECD ], 2015) .............................................................30 Figure 3. Classification of Offset...domestic defense industry, the end result may be an unacceptably high cost to the government and the population. To avoid this outcome, the main function

  7. Consolidation of the U.S. Defense Industrial Base: Impact on Research Expenditures

    Linster, Bruce G; Slate, Stephen; Waller, Robert L

    2002-01-01

    ...: Boeing, Raytheon, Litton Industries, Lockheed Martin, and Northrop Grumman. The battle for the shrinking defense budget has resulted in not only mergers, but also an increased emphasis on the formation of partnerships among defense contractors...

  8. On the Globalization of the Film Industry

    Lorenzen, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents stylized facts about the economic organisation of the film industry, arguing that while we know a lot about production, specialization and internationalization, the complex processes of globalization are still under-researched. The paper concludes with a research agenda of how to address globalization.

  9. The global alcohol industry: an overview.

    Jernigan, David H

    2009-02-01

    To describe the globalized sector of the alcoholic beverage industry, including its size, principal actors and activities. Market research firms and business journalism are the primary sources for information about the global alcohol industry, and are used to profile the size and membership of the three main industry sectors of beer, distilled spirits and wine. Branded alcoholic beverages are approximately 38% of recorded alcohol consumption world-wide. Producers of these beverages tend to be large multi-national corporations reliant on marketing for their survival. Marketing activities include traditional advertising as well as numerous other activities, such as new product development, product placement and the creation and promotion of social responsibility programs, messages and organizations. The global alcohol industry is highly concentrated and innovative. There is relatively little public health research evaluating the impact of its many marketing activities.

  10. Cluster as a Tool to Increase the Competitiveness and Innovative Activity of Enterprises of the Defense Industry Complex

    Katrina B. Dobrova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main goal of the publication is to make a comprehensive study of the possible application of the cluster approach to improve the competitiveness and innovation activity of enterprises of the defense industry complex.Methods: the methodology of the research is based on the collection and analysis of initial data and information, the article uses a systematic approach to the study of socio-economic processes and phenomena. The research is based on modern theory of competition, innovation, as well as the modern paradigm of cluster development of the economy. In preparing the study, practical materials from Corporation “Rostec”.Results: the article gives the notion of cluster, the prospects for the use of the cluster approach to enhance competitiveness and innovation enterprises of the military-industrial complex. It is noted that the activation of interaction with the “civil sector” is particularly relevant in the context of the reduction of the state defense order, and the theory and practice of cluster management offers a number of forms of cluster interaction between the enterprises of the defense industry and the civil sector. It is emphasized that the development of cluster mechanisms can solve a number of problems related to the insufficient financial stability of defense industry enterprises in the context of a reduction in the state defense order, low innovation activity and the lack of developed models of interaction with small innovative enterprises. Ultimately, the use of cluster mechanisms in the development of defense enterprises is intended to enhance the competitiveness of the complex, both nationally and globally. It is stated that the existing clusters are not able to fully solve a number of specific tasks related to the diversification of integrated defense industry structures. Attention is drawn to the fact that existing clusters are not able to fully solve a number of specific tasks related to the

  11. Trends in the global aluminum fabrication industry

    Das, Subodh; Yin, Weimin

    2007-02-01

    The aluminum fabrication industry has become more vital to the global economy as international aluminum consumption has grown steadily in the past decades. Using innovation, value, and sustainability, the aluminum industry is strengthening its position not only in traditional packaging and construction applications but also in the automotive and aerospace markets to become more competitive and to face challenges from other industries and higher industrial standards. The aluminum fabrication industry has experienced a significant geographical shift caused by rapid growth in emerging markets in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Market growth and distribution will vary with different patterns of geography and social development; the aluminum industry must be part of the transformation and keep pace with market developments to benefit.

  12. Industrial global brand leadership : a capabilities view

    Beverland, M.; Napoli, J.; Lindgreen, A.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the global branding programs of five New Zealand industrial firms and identify the salient components and capabilities underpinning these programs. The cases built their respective brand identities around adaptability to customer needs and the provision of a total solution. This identity

  13. An Initial Look at Technology and Institutions on Defense Industry Consolidation

    Driessnack, John

    2004-01-01

    .... We take an initial look at the industry, and highlight how these changes influenced transaction costs in the defense industry, more fully explain the forces driving consolidation, and provide greater...

  14. How Might Civilian Technology Firms Play A Role In The Defense Industrial Base Going Forward

    2017-12-01

    CIVILIAN TECHNOLOGY FIRMS PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE GOING FORWARD? by Daniel J. Shipman December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Mie...2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HOW MIGHT CIVILIAN TECHNOLOGY FIRMS PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL...the competitive business environment of Department of Defense (DOD) vendors and whether the market is favorable for non-traditional, technology

  15. Defense Industry Mergers and Monopoly Power: Analysis of Abnormal Earnings Using the Edwards-Bell-Ohlson Model

    Heisey, J

    1997-01-01

    Recent defense industry consolidation has created several large defense firms. As a result of merger activity with their suppliers and competitors, these firms account for an increasing percentage of sales to the Department of Defense...

  16. Defense Industry of the Russian Federation at the End of 20th-Beginning of the 21st Century

    Leonovich Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developed countries claiming for global leadership permanent military and industrial complexes were formed. These complexes produce high-tech products and play the key system-forming role in the economies of their states. Country’s position in world economy as well as its position at the weapons and military equipment market depends on the military and industrial complexes development. At the end of the 20th century, there had been great changes in the military and industrial complex of the Russian Federation. Drastic remission and demerger accompanied these changes unlike those in the Unites States and Western Europe. These processes were determined by inconsiderate defense conversion, reduction of expenses and the loss of weapons and military equipment production. At the beginning of the 21st century, Russian Federation government has changed its attitude towards the military and industrial complex. Main directions of surmounting the crisis were found through creation of military and industrial corporations, increase of state defense order in the favor of national Armed Forces. Development of state-owned corporations and significant increase in financial allocations for state defense order promoted the growth of military and industrial companies’ activity and rise in weapons and military equipment export. All above-listed processes of Russian military and industrial complexes predetermined the scientific and pragmatic interest for this research.

  17. THE PROGNOSIS OF RUSSIAN DEFENSE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTED THROUGH REGRESSION ANALYSIS

    L.M. Kapustina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article illustrates the results of investigation the major internal and external factors which influence the development of the defense industry, as well as the results of regression analysis which quantitatively displays the factorial contribution in the growth rate of Russian defense industry. On the basis of calculated regression dependences the authors fulfilled the medium-term prognosis of defense industry. Optimistic and inertial versions of defense product growth rate for the period up to 2009 are based on scenario conditions in Russian economy worked out by the Ministry of economy and development. In conclusion authors point out which factors and conditions have the largest impact on successful and stable operation of Russian defense industry.

  18. Marketing and Globalization of the Brewing Industry

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    The globalization of the brewing industry after the turn of the century through a large wave of mergers and acquisitions has changed the structure of the world beer markets. The chapter tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012 and points to high transportation costs...... for beers and economies of scale at the firm level in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale at the firm level in marketing...... significant economies of scale benefits at the firm level to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....

  19. Global alcohol policy and the alcohol industry.

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The WHO is preparing its global strategy on alcohol, and, in so doing, has been asked to consult with the alcohol industry on ways it could contribute in reducing the harm done by alcohol. This review asks which is more effective in reducing harm: the regulatory approaches that the industry does not favour; or the educational approaches that it does favour. The current literature overwhelmingly finds that regulatory approaches (including those that manage the price, availability, and marketing of alcohol) reduce the risk of and the experience of alcohol-related harm, whereas educational approaches (including school-based education and public education campaigns) do not, with industry-funded education actually increasing the risk of harm. The alcohol industry should not be involved in making alcohol policy. Its involvement in implementing policy should be restricted to its role as a producer, distributor, and marketer of alcohol. In particular, the alcohol industry should not be involved in educational programmes, as such involvement could actually lead to an increase in harm.

  20. Global petrochemical industry experiencing cyclic downturn

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The current deterioration of the petrochemical industry-particularly in the U.S. and Western Europe-is a cause of great concern to operators and analysts alike. Although the rapidly developing Asian market will continue to be a major factor into the next century, the immediate global outlook is for a weak market. Chem Systems Inc., Tarrytown, N.Y., discussed these issues at its annual petrochemical conference, held Jan. 13-14 in Houston. One of the few optimistic predictions of the meetings gas that the harbingers of the next industry cycle already can be seen in the U.S. economic recovery, and slow-down in new project planning, and a reduction in fixed costs. The paper describes the US market; market structure; the trend toward capacity integration; product forecasts; factors affecting the prices of propylene, aromatics, and benzene; the Asian market (Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Asian countries); regional trade; and the European market

  1. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas.

  2. Defense Industry Restructuring: Updated Cost and Savings Information

    1998-01-01

    ...) the restructuring costs were allowable under the Federal Acquisition Regulation and (2) a DOD contracting officer determined the business combination would result in overall reduced costs to DOD or preserve a critical defense capability...

  3. Rosoboroneksport: Arms Sales and the Structure of Russian Defense Industry

    Blank, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    .... Although Russian observers believe that Washington did so because of these firms arms sales to Venezuela, these sales to such dangerous states oblige us to analyze the Russian defense export program...

  4. Impact of Defense Industry Mergers on The Cost of Military Weapons Systems

    Alfonso, Grisko R

    2007-01-01

    .... The Selected Acquisition Reports (SARs) provided the data for this research. The analysis of the data suggests that the defense industry's consolidation did not result in higher costs for DoD's military weapons in the post-merger period...

  5. Global warming and the insurance industry

    Berz, G. A.

    1992-06-01

    In the last few decades, the international insurance industry has been confronted with a drastic increase in the scope and frequency of great natural disasters. The trend is primarily attributable to the continuing steady growth of the world population and the increasing concentration of people and economic values in urban areas. An additional factor is the global migration of populations and industries into areas like the coastal regions which are particularly exposed to natural hazards. The natural hazards themselves, on the other hand, have not yet shown any significant increase. In addition to the problems the insurance industry has with regard to pricing, capacity and loss reserves, the assessment of insured liabilities, preventive planning and the proper adjustment of catastrophe losses are gaining importance. The present problems will be dramatically aggravated if the greenhouse predictions come true. The increased intensity of all convective processes in the atmosphere will force up the frequency and severity of tropical cyclones, tornados, hailstorms, floods and storm surges in many parts of the world with serious consequences for all types of property insurance. Rates will have to be raised and in certain coastal areas insurance coverage will only be available after considerable restrictions have been imposed, e.g., significant deductibles and/or liability or loss limits. In areas of high insurance density the loss potential of individual catastrophes can reach a level where the national and international insurance industries run into serious capacity problems. Recent disasters showed the disproportionately high participation of reinsurers in extreme disaster losses and the need for more risk transparency if the insurance industry is to fulfill its obligations in an increasingly hostile environment.

  6. Natural gas industry and global warming

    Staropoli, R.; Darras, M.

    1997-01-01

    Natural gas has a very good potential compared to other fossil fuels as regard to global warming because of its high content of hydrogen, and its versatility in uses. To take full advantage of this potential, further development of gas designed boilers and furnaces, gas catalytic combustion, fuel cells are needed, but progresses in the recent years have been very promising. The natural gas industry' environmental potential is discussed. Regarding methane emission, progresses have been done is Western Europe on the distribution network, and some improvement are underway. It is however important to rationalize the effort by acting on the most emitting subsystem: this can be achieved by cooperation along the whole gas chain. (R.P.)

  7. An analysis of the effect of STEM initiatives on socially responsible diversity management in the US aerospace and defense industry

    Johnson-Oliver, Patrick

    Workforce diversity is a growing concern at a global level and enlightened economic self-interest and corporate image compels industries to leverage it as a competitive advantage. The US aerospace and defense industry (US ADI) addresses workforce diversity through socially responsible diversity management. Prior research into the topic of approaching workforce diversity as a business rationale and a moral imperative has been limited. Scharmer and Kaufer's (2013) Theory U guided this longitudinal explanatory quantitative study, leading from the future as it emerged relative to socially responsible diversity management to compel industry to remove blind spots and co-create an economy that benefits all by promoting workforce diversity as a dual agenda. This study filled a research gap investigating the business case for diversity as a dual agenda in aerospace industry science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. The study also investigated the America COMPETES Act as a moderator of the relationship between historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and industry. Data was retrieved for secondary data analysis from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and other public government services and agency websites. Two hypotheses were tested using quantitative analysis including descriptive statistics, linear regression, ANOVA, and two factor analysis. The statistical results were analyzed and deductive logic employed to develop conclusions for the study. There was a significant relationship found between both predictors and socially responsible diversity management. The results reinforce the necessity for the aerospace defense industry to promote the dual agenda of the business case for diversity as complementary; not as competing mandates.

  8. Implications of nuclear industry globalization for chinese nuclear industry: opportunities and challenges

    Guo Zhifeng; Ding Qihua; Wang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, globalization of the world nuclear industry has developed into a new phase. Chinese nuclear industry will be inevitably integrated into this trend. Globalization will bring both positive and adverse effects on Chinese nuclear industry. Facing the fierce competition, Chinese companies must rise to many challenges to enter the global nuclear market. And China need to make scientific decisions and take effective measures in various fields of nuclear industry to realized the goal of global development. (authors)

  9. Network Attack Detection and Defense: Securing Industrial Control Systems for Critical Infrastructures (Dagstuhl Seminar 14292)

    Dacer, Marc; Kargl, Frank; König, Hartmut; Valdes, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14292 “Network Attack Detection and Defense: Securing Industrial Control Systems for Critical Infrastructures”. The main objective of the seminar was to discuss new approaches and ideas for securing industrial control systems. It

  10. Tendencies of development of defensive-industrial complex of lead nations of the world

    O. F. Salnikova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of development of defensive-industrial complex of lead nations of the world is conducted , namely the United States of America and countries-participants of European Union and NATO. Also in the the article control system of the defensive-industrial policy of the USA is schematically represented. The analysed materials gave an opportunity to draw conclusion, that guidance of military industrial concerns of the USA managed clearly to define acceptable strategies of restructuring and successfully to realize them, integrating new enterprises with the use of front-rank methods of organizational management that became the basic engine of development of defensive industry of the USA. To the number of basic progress of defensive-industrial complex of lead nations-participants of NATO and EU trends it is possible to take the following: creation of the large defensive-industrial integrated structures on development and production of modern armament and military technique on national, transnational and transatlantic levels; rapprochement of military and civil sectors of economy; large corporations go across from mass to the «flexible» production, due to what it is possible to arrive at high efficiency of production of weapons and military equipment even at small series; through diminishing of volumes of assignations on the purchase of defensive products and considerable complication of the modern systems of armament, some leading defensive firms-contractors began to work from the production of armament and military technique to scientific research-and-developments.

  11. Defense Industrial Base (DIB): Munitions Realignment for 2020

    2013-03-01

    munitions DIB by companies like Coca Cola , Quaker Oats, and Eastman Kodak. As industrial mobilization quickly increased, the requirements decreased...industry and the munitions DIB. This report documented the volatility associated with the production of munitions and financial risks to which

  12. Japan's shift to a proactive defense architecture: Challenges faced by industry, government, and society

    Chung, Hoyoon

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited As a result of the changing security environment in the Asia-Pacific, Japan is shifting to a more proactive defense policy, as outlined in the National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG). This thesis investigates the challenges faced by Japan's industry, government, and society in meeting the NDPG objectives. To do this, this thesis probes the following problem areas: difficulties with indigenous production of weapons systems, inability...

  13. IMPROVING THE STRATEGIC PLANNING OF THE DEFENSE-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX CORPORATIONS OF RUSSIA

    Katrina B. Dobrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop proposals to improve the strategic planning of Russian corporations of the defense-industrial complex. The relevance of the study due to the fact that the methodology for the adaptation of the strategic management of the military-industrial enterprises with substantial scientifi c and technical potential, should take into account a number of features, such as the identifi cation of the features of competition in the future; understanding of the prospects and development opportunities in the medium and long term; assessment of resource potential; impact assessment and risk in the implementation of promising strategies. In the more precise understanding of the strategy as a pattern of behavior aimed at achieving these goals, a set of rules for search and opportunities; strategic plan is seen as a series of specifi c steps and actions that are integrated in space and time, which lead to the transformation of the current position to the desired. We consider the practice of corporate transformation strategies of the world defense industry using a system method. To improve the strategic planning of Russian defense industry corporations it is recommended to apply the strategy of adapting the defense industry companies and their diversifi cation with the civilian sectors. The key vectors of the development strategy of the defense-industrial complex of Russian corporations are defi ned: providing an acceptable investment climate in the sphere of military-technical cooperation; neutralization of threats by the activities of DIC TNCs; creation of their own TNK defense industry and others.

  14. Economic Sanctions as a Factor of Modernizing of Russian Defense Industry Complex

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the defense-industrial complex (DIC of Russia in the conditions of economic sanctions. And although the center was the oil and gas industry, as well as the banking sector, economic sanctions against Russia affected the DCI. They touched first of all on such large Russian defense concerns as air defense "Almaz- Antey", "Sirius", "Stankoinstroment", "Kalashnikov", "Tula Arms Factory", NGO "Oriental Complexes", as well as "Dobrolyte". The prohibition of debt financing has affected such major enterprises of the defense industry as "Uralvagonzavod", "Oboronprom", "United Aircraft Corporation". The article shows, in general, the favorable impact of sanctions on the industry. At the end of 2016, Russia took the second place in world arms exports with a share of 23%, the US became the leader – their share was 33%. But the structure of the share capital in the defense industry companies is completely different if we compare these two countries: in the US, private companies dominate the market, in Russia – the largest enterprises are owned by the state. In the course of the analysis, it turned out that Russian defense industry enterprises are unprofitable or unprofitable, they do not have stability in financial performance, since they are highly dependent on government spending. To improve the current situation in this sector, it is advisable for the state to modernize the military-industrial complex companies in order to enhance the role of market mechanisms that will stimulate R & D, as under modern conditions of competition in any market, innovations represent an exclusive advantage for enterprise prosperity.

  15. Globalization, crises and industrial policy; Globalizacion, crisis y politica industrial

    Vives, X.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we review the fundamentals of industrial policy and its implementation in the European context. We also analyze the relationship between industrial policy and competition policy. (Author) 6 refs.

  16. Defense and Regional Integration: Brazil’s Weapons Industry Case

    Suzeley Kalil Mathias; Eduardo Lucas de Vasconcelos Cruz

    2009-01-01

    This paper works with the relation between technological development and weapons industry in Brazil, pointing out the dependence of this to that one. One reveals as the changes in the commerce of armaments that currently privileges the production of small weapons for exportation. The conclusion is that to keep projects of this nature, is using to advantage the industrial park for the dual production, that is, that one takes care the civil and the military demands. At last, it defends the poss...

  17. Global Networks: Emerging Constraints on Strategy (Defense Horizons, July 2004)

    Fonow, Bob

    2004-01-01

    .... This shift is problematic for U.S. national security, because the global telecommunications infrastructure is becoming an important strategic battlespace the physical battlefield of information warfare...

  18. Global Cooperation and Competition in the Defense and Aerospace Industries

    2010-04-26

    Tuzla), then regional headquarters (Sarajevo, Bosnia), and, finally, headquarters for UN forces in former Yugoslavia ( Zagreb ). At Zagreb , air... Zagreb , the request would then be 11 A Model I (microeconomic) theorist would hypothesize this came about...Despite staff recommendations for an immediate strike, the UNPROFOR commander at Zagreb chose to include the Dutch government and the regional

  19. Defense Industry Consolidation and Weapon Systems Cost Growth

    2008-06-01

    consolidation in the industry. Year Buyer Target Price ($Billions) 1988 Kohlberg Kravis RJR Nabisco 25.1 1984 Chevron Gulf Oil 13.3 1988 Philip Morris Kraft...Steel Marathon Oil 6.6 1988 Campeau Federated Stores 6.5 1986 Kohlberg Kravis Beatrice 6.2 Table 7. Ten Largest Acquisitions 1981 – 1989 (Aftrer54

  20. Late Globalization and Evolution and Metamorphoses of Industries

    Boujarzadeh, Behnam; Turcan, Romeo V.; Dholakia, Nikhilesh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore the effect of late globalization on evolution of industries. Specifically we investigate the impact of late globalization on the evolution and metamorphoses of Danish Textile and Fashion Industry (DTFI). Using historical data, we survey the development of DTFI between 1945...

  1. Defense Industrial Base: An Overview of an Emerging Issue

    1993-03-01

    supplies it needs to rapidly increase the production of weapons and supporting equipment in wartime. This lack of access is primarily considered a...ommittete on Technology and Securily , ,Joint Econonue Committee, we are attempting Io develop a proposed analytical framework for assessing the national...industry’s continuing ability to develop and produce weapon systems using the most advanced technology. According to recent studies, a growing number

  2. Global Aerospace Industries: Rapid Changes Ahead? (Abridged)

    2012-04-30

    Understanding the Situation: Contestable Markets • Central idea: the extent to which markets are “contestable” causes monopolists and oligopolists to behave...find useful explanatory models for Boeing?s success, discussed in Chapter II. In Chapter III, we consider the narrow-body airliner market , currently...families have provided resources for a number of wide-body developments some of which have become part of the defense marketplace. The narrow-body market

  3. Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base

    2012-04-01

    hp) 2- and 4- stroke RC/modeler engines are O.S. Engine (Japan), Thunder Tiger (Taiwan), and Saito (Japan). E. Global Nature of the Supply Chain...Mexico). • The 115-HP 4- stroke Rotax 914 class engine (Austria/Germany) found in the Predator (MQ-1B) is also found in many other systems, including...Equipment 43 Pumps and Compressors 44 Furnace/Steam Plant/Drying Equipment, Nuclear Reactors 45 Plumbing, Heating , and Sanitation Equipment 49

  4. Transportation Industry 2004

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    .... Because the defense sector relies on commercial transportation for both peacetime activities and for power projection, senior military leaders must understand the global transportation industry...

  5. Defense Industrial Base: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    2007-01-01

    This Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Sector-Specific Plan (SSP), developed in collaboration with industry and government security partners, provides sector-level critical infrastructure and key resources (CI/KR...

  6. Echoes Across the Pond: Understanding EU-US Defense Industrial Relationships

    2009-08-05

    Paul, MN: Zenith Press. Hammond, G.T. (1990). Countertrade , offsets and barter in international political economy. New York: St. Martin’s Press...industrial cooperation: Spain’s changing strategies on Arms Importing, in S. Martin (ed.), The Economics of Offsets: defense procurement and countertrade ... countertrade (pp. 357-379). Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers. Udis, B., & Maskus, K.E. (1991). Offsets as industrial policy: Lessons from aerospace

  7. Globalization of the natural gas industry

    Deyirmendjan, J.

    1997-01-01

    After presenting a panorama of the international gas industry, a description of changes affecting the world gas industry, and an analysis of how environment-related demands give gas an opportunity to become the leading source of energy in the 21. century, Mr Jacques Deyirmendjan, Senior Executive-Vice-President of Gaz de France, tells his interviewer how French industry and national companies are designing their strategies to respond effectively to these changes

  8. SIMULATION OF STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT PRODUCTION IN DEFENSE-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX1

    Alexandr M. Batkovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the methodological frameworkand tools for manag-ing the strategic development ofproduction created by the defense-industrial complexof Russia. A model of the development strategy ofproducing the products is worked out, the backgroundand stability of the simulation results are analyzed.

  9. Global Wood Pellet Industry and Trade Study 2017

    Thrän, D.; Peetz, D.; Schaubach, K.; Mai-Moulin, T.; Junginger, H.M.; Lamers, P.; Visser, L.

    2017-01-01

    The report Global Wood Pellet Industry Market published in 2011 has always been the most downloaded document of IEA Bioenergy Task 40. We have decided to update the report and bring new insights on market trends and trade of the global wood pellets. The global wood pellet market has increased

  10. The impact of globalization on the industrial growth of developing ...

    This paper is an attempt to investigate the impact of globalization on the industrial growth of developing economies with special reference to Nigeria. Globalization has facilitated the increased flow of ideas; people, goods and services across national frontiers. Some developing countries as a result of globalization have ...

  11. Identifying and Mitigating the Impact of the Budget Control Act on High Risk Sectors and Tiers of the Defense Industrial Base: Assessment Approach to Industrial Base Risks

    2016-04-30

    Ü~åÖÉ= - 351 - products, similar to those found in a bill of material. Figure 3 provides an example of the relationship between sectors , sub- sectors ...defense aircraft. Defense aircraft are divided in three main sub- sectors : fixed-wing, rotary wing, and unmanned systems. The fixed-wing sub- sector ...Risk Sectors and Tiers of the Defense Industrial Base: Assessment Approach to Industrial Base Risks Lirio Avilés, Engineer, MIBP, OUSD(AT&L) Sally

  12. Globalisation of tobacco industry influence and new global responses

    Yach, D.; Bettcher, D.

    2000-01-01

    The globalisation of tobacco marketing, trade, research, and industry influence represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Drawing upon tobacco industry strategy documents prepared over several decades, this paper will demonstrate how the tobacco industry operates as a global force, regarding the world as its operating market by planning, developing, and marketing its products on a global scale. The industry has used a wide range of methods to buy influence and power, and penetrate markets across the world. It has an annual turnover of almost US$400 billion. In contrast, until recently tobacco control lacked global leadership and strategic direction and had been severely underfunded. As part of moving towards a more sustainable form of globalisation, a global enabling environment linked to local actions should focus on the following strategies: global information management; development of nationally and locally grounded action; global regulation, legal instruments, and foreign policy; and establishment of strong partnerships with purpose. As the vector of the tobacco epidemic, the tobacco industry's actions fall far outside of the boundaries of global corporate responsibility. Therefore, global and local actions should not provide the tobacco industry with the two things that it needs to ensure its long term profitability: respectability and predictability.


Keywords: globalisation of tobacco marketing PMID:10841858

  13. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF INVESTMENTS INTO THE ENTERPRISES OF DEFENSE INDUSTRY COMPLEX

    S. Sitnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the foreign arms market dramatically increases competition among manufacturers. Countries such as China and India began to produce some types of weapons that deserve the attention of a potential consumer countries. To execute an order of the President of the Russian Federation "not to lose position in the global market and to supply the Russian army with weapons of the next generation" it is necessary to introduce into production a new technology. The specifi city of enterprises of the military-industrial complex, one cannot expect help in this direction from abroad. It is therefore necessary to rely on their own strength. But, unfortunately, we are currently producing new technologies practically are not engaged. One of the reasons is the lack of modern production facilities.Actively developing the process of the revival of the defence and scientifi c-technological sphere requires the development of fundamentally new models of functioning of enterprises of the military-industrial complex, market-based relationships between government and business. One of the Central problems of defence building is the development and introduction into the daily operations of criteria (indicators related to the performance of weapons systems in General and each of its subsystems separately, with the costs of maintaining an adequate level of defensibility of the country, and the correlation of this level with the cost, because this shows the effi ciency of the system and its separate links.Annotation. The article investigates the process of innovative development programs for enterprises of the military-industrial complex, which is associated with the necessity of taking into account a signifi cant portion of specifi c factors and indicators that diff erentiate these businesses from the main mass of industrial enterprises.The goal / task. The main purpose of the presentation of material in this article is to analyze the indicators (criteria of

  14. REASONS FOR JAPAN AND SOUTH KOREA AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY GLOBAL SUCESS

    Marek Rutka

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the story of both Japan and South Korean automotive industry development. Author points out the political, social and economical success factors of this branch in the global market. He also mentions major industry barriers which influen-tial the development of the automotive industry in both countries. Finally he presents the probable development perspectives for both Japan and South Korea automotive industry.

  15. REASONS FOR JAPAN AND SOUTH KOREA AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY GLOBAL SUCESS

    Marek Rutka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the story of both Japan and South Korean automotive industry development. Author points out the political, social and economical success factors of this branch in the global market. He also mentions major industry barriers which influen-tial the development of the automotive industry in both countries. Finally he presents the probable development perspectives for both Japan and South Korea automotive industry.

  16. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy. - Highlights: ► The global industrial sector and its industries are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. ► Global industrial sector efficiencies are evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. ► Exergy analysis shows global industrial energy to be less efficient than does energy analysis. ► A misleadingly low margin for efficiency improvement is indicated by energy analysis. ► A significant and rational margin for efficiency improvement exists from an exergy perspective

  17. Software testing and global industry future paradigms

    Casey, Valentine; Richardson, Ita

    2009-01-01

    Today software development has truly become a globally sourced commodity. This trend has been facilitated by the availability of highly skilled software professionals in low cost locations in Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Far East. Organisations

  18. Globalization and the Hotel Industry in Slovakia

    ALENA DUBCOVÁ; JOZEF PETRIKOVIE; LUCIA ŠOLCOVÁ

    2013-01-01

    The development of tourism in the world and thus in Slovakia is influenced by globalization, which is one of the landmarks of the 21st century. Globalization starts when the internationalization of economic life develops in t he space across the planet. Closely related to internationalization, it enforces the strict territ orial framework that later grew into a wider world of space. The development of globali...

  19. Globalization and the Hotel Industry in Slovakia

    ALENA DUBCOVÁ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism in the world and thus in Slovakia is influenced by globalization, which is one of the landmarks of the 21st century. Globalization starts when the internationalization of economic life develops in t he space across the planet. Closely related to internationalization, it enforces the strict territ orial framework that later grew into a wider world of space. The development of globalization processe s stimulated by the scientific-technical revolution, the growing efforts to promote free trad e through out the world, a principal change in many countries, which are accompanied by expansion o f free business, capital,investment, the impressive development of telecommunications and tr ansport networks, the option on fast- traveling to long distances, watching foreign televi sion programs, understanding and using of foreign experience and practices contributed to the convergence of the world not only economically but also in other spheres.

  20. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition.

  1. Adjusting to Chinese Ascendancy in the Global Clothing Industry ...

    Adjusting to Chinese Ascendancy in the Global Clothing Industry (Africa South of Sahara) ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development. ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive ...

  2. Impact of the Internet on Globalization : Industrial Internet

    Jukics, Márk

    2016-01-01

    The thesis consists of two main parts. The first part is the theoretical framework, the second part is about assisting in a project of Centria University of Applied Sciences. The theoretical part of the thesis expounds the evolution and the benefits of the industrial internet. It explains the roots of globalization, internet, and industries. Lean manufacturing and management is also involved in the theory, as this way of management is successfully spreading by the help of globalization. I...

  3. Globalization, industrialization, and labor markets in Vietnam

    Nørlund, Irene; Tran, *Angie Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    exports in 2013. Evidence shows that the ‘high road’ to industrialization model – with domestic linkages and skills upgrading – does not accompany growth in exports, as low-skilled assembly, mostly young female workers join the labor force with non-liveable wages and substandard working conditions...

  4. Global industry with regional significance. Social perspectives

    2005-05-01

    As the world's third largest exporter of oil, Norway is an energy superpower in an international context. 2004 was a record-breaking year on the Norwegian Shelf. Never before did production reach such heights. The oil and gas industry is Norway's largest and most important industry. It is responsible for one-third of the State's revenues, and nearly half of Norway's total export revenues. The report provides an overview of the Norwegian Shelf today, and facts about Norway concerning the economy and standard of living. The industry's role in regional business development is also analysed, as well as expertise and technological development. Aspects on the environment and co-existence at sea are reviewed, with information on emissions to air and discharges to sea. Environmental considerations and technological challenges are briefly reported. The petroleum industry has set the standard within Health, Safety and the Environment (HSE). The work has been based on close cooperation between the authorities and the operating companies, their organizations and the employee organizations on the Shelf. Details on these activities are reported. Finally, responsibility for the community and issues concerning corporate social responsibility are mentioned (ml)

  5. Assessment of global industrial-age anthropogenic arsenic contamination.

    Han, Fengxiang X; Su, Yi; Monts, David L; Plodinec, M John; Banin, Amos; Triplett, Glover E

    2003-09-01

    Arsenic, a carcinogenic trace element, threatens not only the health of millions of humans and other living organisms, but also global sustainability. We present here, for the first time, the global industrial-age cumulative anthropogenic arsenic production and its potential accumulation and risks in the environment. In 2000, the world cumulative industrial-age anthropogenic arsenic production was 4.53 million tonnes. The world-wide coal and petroleum industries accounted for 46% of global annual gross arsenic production, and their overall contribution to industrial-age gross arsenic production was 27% in 2000. Global industrial-age anthropogenic As sources (as As cumulative production) follow the order: As mining production>As generated from coal>As generated from petroleum. The potential industrial-age anthropogenic arsenic input in world arable surface in 2000 was 2.18 mg arsenic kg(-1), which is 1.2 times that in the lithosphere. The development of substitute materials for arsenic applications in the agricultural and forestry industries and controls of arsenic emissions from the coal industry may be possible strategies to significantly decrease arsenic pollution sources and dissipation rates into the environment.

  6. Pricing Strategy, Pricing Stability and Financial Condition in the Defense Aerospace Industry

    Johnstone, Jeffrey Carl; Keavney, Patrick Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The purpose of this research is to determine if pricing strategy and pricing stability for products in the defense aerospace industry can be predicted based on a firm's financial condition. The sample for this research includes 17 contractors and 52 missile and aircraft programs. Two separate issues are addressed. The first issue concerns the relationship between financial condition and contractor pricing strategy. The second concerns the...

  7. Global Commodity Chains in Crisis : The Garment Industry in Malaysia

    Vicki Crinis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the garment industry in Malaysia from the 1970s to the present. It looks at the strategies employed by manufacturers to cope with both the end of the Multi-fibre Arrangement (MFA) and the effects of the global economic crisis on the industry in Malaysia. The garment industry in Malaysia is situated on the periphery and is almost totally reliant on contracts from the United States (US) and Europe for its survival. Since the global economic recession, contraction in the cons...

  8. Defense, basic, and industrial research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center: Proceedings

    Longshore, A.; Salgado, K. [comps.

    1995-10-01

    The Workshop on Defense, Basic, and Industrial Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss the use of neutrons in science-based stockpile stewardship, The workshop began with presentations by government officials, senior representatives from the three weapons laboratories, and scientific opinion leaders. Workshop participants then met in breakout sessions on the following topics: materials science and engineering; polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials; fundamental neutron physics; applied nuclear physics; condensed matter physics and chemistry; and nuclear weapons research. They concluded that neutrons can play an essential role in science-based stockpile stewardship and that there is overlap and synergy between defense and other uses of neutrons in basic, applied, and industrial research from which defense and civilian research can benefit. This proceedings is a collection of talks and papers from the plenary, technical, and breakout session presentations. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector.

    Rosen, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Creative Industries: Development Processes Under Contemporary Conditions of Globalization

    Valerija Kontrimienė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the processes of developing creative industries under conditions of a growth in the worldwide economy and globalization, discloses the role of the sector of creative industries and shows its place in the system of the modern global economy. The paper presents a comparative analysis of theories and theoretical approaches intended for the sector of creative industries and its development as well as defines regularities and specificities characteristic of the development of creative industries. Particular attention is shifted on the growth and development of creative industries considering the current challenges of globalization and on the most important specificities of the developing sector in the context of the challenges of economic globalization. The paper examines the trends reflecting the place of the sector of creative industries in the economy of the modern world, including the tendencies indicating changes in the export of the products created in this sector. The article considers the issues of developing creative industries and reveals priorities of future research.

  11. Global gene mining and the pharmaceutical industry

    Knudsen, Lisbeth Ehlert

    2005-01-01

    for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) having issued a position paper, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) having a working group on this issue, and the European Society of Human Genetics preparing background paper on 'Polymorphic sequence variants in medicine: Technical...... may stigmatize patients leading to poor quality of life. This has raised the issue of 'genetic exceptionalism' justifying specific regulation of use of genetic information. Discussions on how to handle sampling and data are ongoing within the industry and the regulatory sphere, the European Agency......, social, legal and ethical issues. Pharmacogenetics as an example'. Within the European project Privacy in Research Ethics and Law (PRIVIREAL), recommendations for common European guidelines for membership in research ethical committees have been discussed, balancing the interests and assuring...

  12. Global gene mining and the pharmaceutical industry

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2005-01-01

    Worldwide efforts are ongoing in optimizing medical treatment by searching for the right medicine at the right dose for the individual. Metabolism is regulated by polymorphisms, which may be tested by relatively simple SNP analysis, however requiring DNA from the test individuals. Target genes for the efficiency of a given medicine or predisposition of a given disease are also subject to population studies, e.g., in Iceland, Estonia, Sweden, etc. For hypothesis testing and generation, several bio-banks with samples from patients and healthy persons within the pharmaceutical industry have been established during the past 10 years. Thus, more than 100,000 samples are stored in the freezers of either the pharmaceutical companies or their contractual partners at universities and test institutions. Ethical issues related to data protection of the individuals providing samples to bio-banks are several: nature and extent of information prior to consent, coverage of the consent given by the study person, labeling and storage of the sample and data (coded or anonymized). In general, genetic test data, once obtained, are permanent and cannot be changed. The test data may imply information that is not beneficial to the patient and his/her family (e.g., employment opportunities, insurance, etc.). Furthermore, there may be a long latency between the analysis of the genetic test and the clinical expression of the disease and wide differences in the disease patterns. Consequently, information about some genetic test data may stigmatize patients leading to poor quality of life. This has raised the issue of 'genetic exceptionalism' justifying specific regulation of use of genetic information. Discussions on how to handle sampling and data are ongoing within the industry and the regulatory sphere, the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) having issued a position paper, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) having a working

  13. A Relationship on the Rocks: Industry-Government Partnership for Cyber Defense

    Larry Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber security is a complex issue that requires a smart, balanced approach to public-private partnership. However, there is not a simple gold standard or mandatory minimum standard of cyber security, which can cause friction in the relationship between government and private industry. There are fundamental differences in these two unevenly yoked partners: government's fundamental role under the U.S. Constitution is to provide for the common defense; industry's role, backed by nearly a hundred years of case law, is to maximize shareholder value. Further differences are that government partners and industry players often assess risk differently, based on their differing missions and objectives. To be successful, both government and industry need to remain committed to the relationship and continue working on it by understanding the complexity of the situation, adapting where appropriate to their partner's perspective. For the public-private partnership to endure and grow, an appreciation of these differing perspectives—born from different legally mandated responsibilities—must be reached. Ultimately, the government should compensate private entities for making investments that align with the government's perspective, such as the social contract, rather than mandating that the shareholders subsidize the government function of providing for the common defense.

  14. Global health: the ethical responsibility of the pharmaceutical industry.

    Lassen, Lars Christian; Thomsen, Mads Krogsgaard

    2007-02-01

    Health as a global issue concerns all and clearly manifests global inequality. All stakeholders of the healthcare systems and disease treatment--including the pharmaceutical industry--have an ethical obligation to contribute to promoting global health. At Novo Nordisk we primarily focus on providing our contribution to global health through defeating diabetes. At the same time we stand by being a private company required to deliver a financial profit, which is why we must create positive results on the financial, the environmental and the social bottom lines. In this article we attempt to provide a brief overview of some of the initiatives that we think business companies can take--and therefore are also obliged to in promoting global health. Further, we have pointed out a number of dilemmas within research and development as well as business ethics that all companies face when they convert the ethical principles to daily practice globally.

  15. Achieving Carbon Neutrality in the Global Aluminum Industry

    Das, Subodh

    2012-02-01

    In the 21st century, sustainability is widely regarded as the new corporate culture, and leading manufacturing companies (Toyota, GE, and Alcoa) and service companies (Google and Federal Express) are striving towards carbon neutrality. The current carbon footprint of the global aluminum industry is estimated at 500 million metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), representing about 1.7% of global emissions from all sources. For the global aluminum industry, carbon neutrality is defined as a state where the total "in-use" CO2eq saved from all products in current use, including incremental process efficiency improvements, recycling, and urban mining activities, equals the CO2eq expended to produce the global output of aluminum. This paper outlines an integrated and quantifiable plan for achieving "carbon neutrality" in the global aluminum industry by advocating five actionable steps: (1) increase use of "green" electrical energy grid by 8%, (2) reduce process energy needs by 16%, (3) deploy 35% of products in "in-use" energy saving applications, (4) divert 6.1 million metric tonnes/year from landfills, and (5) mine 4.5 million metric tonnes/year from aluminum-rich "urban mines." Since it takes 20 times more energy to make aluminum from bauxite ore than to recycle it from scrap, the global aluminum industry could set a reasonable, self-imposed energy/carbon neutrality goal to incrementally increase the supply of recycled aluminum by at least 1.05 metric tonnes for every tonne of incremental production via primary aluminum smelter capacity. Furthermore, the aluminum industry can and should take a global leadership position by actively developing internationally accepted and approved carbon footprint credit protocols.

  16. Globalization of the automobile industry: traditional locations under pressure?

    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  17. Canada's nuclear industry - a leader in the global market

    Saint-Pierre, G.

    1994-01-01

    The successes of the Canadian nuclear industry at home and abroad are recounted and extolled in this address. It is argued that the industry must become more global in order to compete more effectively in the export market. This means not only setting up operating bases (rather than mere marketing offices) abroad, but also employing nationals of prospective overseas purchasing countries in the headquarters of Canadian companies. Partnership with one or more Asian country may be the key to success

  18. GLOBAL CRISIS’ IMPACT UPON THE EMPLOYED NUMBER IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    MARIAN ZAHARIA; ANIELA BALACESCU; RODICA MANUELA GOGONEA

    2014-01-01

    TThe globalization, complex interconnection process of the economies of states, is a reality of the XXI century. However, at the end of the first decade of this century, besides the positive effects of this process, due to the economic interconnections created, it has favored also a rapid propagation of a negative economic phenomenon: the global economic crisis. Its impact significantly influenced the hospitality industry, important component of modern economies. This paper examines over a pe...

  19. Tobacco industry globalization and global health governance: towards an interdisciplinary research agenda

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Shifting patterns of tobacco production and consumption, and the resultant disease burden worldwide since the late twentieth century, prompted efforts to strengthen global health governance through adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. While the treaty is rightfully considered an important achievement, to address a neglected public health issue through collective action, evidence suggests that tobacco industry globalization continues apace. In this article, we provide a systematic review of the public health literature and reveal definitional and measurement imprecision, ahistorical timeframes, transnational tobacco companies and the state as the primary units and levels of analysis, and a strong emphasis on agency as opposed to structural power. Drawing on the study of globalization in international political economy and business studies, we identify opportunities to expand analysis along each of these dimensions. We conclude that this expanded and interdisciplinary research agenda provides the potential for fuller understanding of the dual and dynamic relationship between the tobacco industry and globalization. Deeper analysis of how the industry has adapted to globalization over time, as well as how the industry has influenced the nature and trajectory of globalization, is essential for building effective global governance responses. This article is published as part of a thematic collection dedicated to global governance. PMID:28458910

  20. Tobacco industry globalization and global health governance: towards an interdisciplinary research agenda.

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Shifting patterns of tobacco production and consumption, and the resultant disease burden worldwide since the late twentieth century, prompted efforts to strengthen global health governance through adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. While the treaty is rightfully considered an important achievement, to address a neglected public health issue through collective action, evidence suggests that tobacco industry globalization continues apace. In this article, we provide a systematic review of the public health literature and reveal definitional and measurement imprecision, ahistorical timeframes, transnational tobacco companies and the state as the primary units and levels of analysis, and a strong emphasis on agency as opposed to structural power. Drawing on the study of globalization in international political economy and business studies, we identify opportunities to expand analysis along each of these dimensions. We conclude that this expanded and interdisciplinary research agenda provides the potential for fuller understanding of the dual and dynamic relationship between the tobacco industry and globalization. Deeper analysis of how the industry has adapted to globalization over time, as well as how the industry has influenced the nature and trajectory of globalization, is essential for building effective global governance responses. This article is published as part of a thematic collection dedicated to global governance.

  1. Outlook: directed development: catalysing a global biotech industry.

    Sun, Anthony; Perkins, Tom

    2005-09-01

    Governments are increasingly relying on directed development tools or proactive public-policy approaches to stimulate scientific and economic development for their biotechnology industries. This article will discuss the four main tools of directed development in biotechnology and the lessons learned from current global efforts utilizing these tools.

  2. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  3. The dynamics of the global competitiveness of Chinese industries

    Zhang, J.; Ebbers, H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a two-dimensional multi-variable approach, this article investigates the competitiveness and dynamics of Chinese industries from the perspective of the international marketplace. The study reveals the step-by-step transformation of the degree of global competitiveness across 97 Chinese

  4. Industry and development: Global report 1991/92

    1991-01-01

    In the 1980s, but increasingly so within the past two years, opinion has swung decisively in favour of an open, market-oriented economy, for the greater part privately owned and managed, as a way of achieving sustained industrial growth. It is with this knowledge that the Global Report focuses once again on providing detailed, concrete and up-to-date information on the global prospects for industrial growth. This year, special attention is devoted to the issues of efficiency in the use of energy and to the new financial instruments available for manufacturing industries in the global financial markets. An overview of industrial energy consumption and efficiency in the manufacturing sector is presented. Industry is the most important end-user sector in total final energy consumption in most countries. Given the dominant share of manufacturing energy consumption, it is not difficult to see the enormous potential for energy savings through improved energy efficiency in the manufacturing sector, and the substantial economic and environmental benefits to be derived therefrom in both developing and developed countries. The widespread decoupling of output and energy in OECD countries in the past two decades has already been noted, while the opposite phenomenon of energy consumption increasing in step with output has been observed in developing countries during the same period. Conservation and improvements in energy efficiency are therefore of crucial importance in developing countries. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Cyber Professionals in the Military and Industry-Partnering in Defense of the Nation: A Conversation between Maj Gen Suzanne Vautrinot, Commander, Twenty-Fourth Air Force, and Mr. Charles Beard, Chief Information Officer, Science Applications International Corporation

    2013-01-01

    what truly had to be protected and where we would establish trust. The results of that exercise materially changed our defense-in-depth strategy...vice president for Global Transportation and Industrial Markets at KPMG Consulting (later BearingPoint), leading the company’s strat- egy and

  6. Differential Globalization of Industry- and Non-Industry-Sponsored Clinical Trials.

    Atal, Ignacio; Trinquart, Ludovic; Porcher, Raphaël; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the international landscape of clinical trials may inform global health research governance, but no large-scale data are available. Industry or non-industry sponsorship may have a major influence in this mapping. We aimed to map the global landscape of industry- and non-industry-sponsored clinical trials and its evolution over time. We analyzed clinical trials initiated between 2006 and 2013 and registered in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We mapped single-country and international trials by World Bank's income groups and by sponsorship (industry- vs. non- industry), including its evolution over time from 2006 to 2012. We identified clusters of countries that collaborated significantly more than expected in industry- and non-industry-sponsored international trials. 119,679 clinical trials conducted in 177 countries were analysed. The median number of trials per million inhabitants in high-income countries was 100 times that in low-income countries (116.0 vs. 1.1). Industry sponsors were involved in three times more trials per million inhabitants than non-industry sponsors in high-income countries (75.0 vs. 24.5) and in ten times fewer trials in low- income countries (0.08 vs. 1.08). Among industry- and non-industry-sponsored trials, 30.3% and 3.2% were international, respectively. In the industry-sponsored network of collaboration, Eastern European and South American countries collaborated more than expected; in the non-industry-sponsored network, collaboration among Scandinavian countries was overrepresented. Industry-sponsored international trials became more inter-continental with time between 2006 and 2012 (from 54.8% to 67.3%) as compared with non-industry-sponsored trials (from 42.4% to 37.2%). Based on trials registered in the WHO ICTRP we documented a substantial gap between the globalization of industry- and non-industry-sponsored clinical research. Only 3% of academic trials but 30% of industry trials are

  7. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES OF MODELING OF THE EFFICIENCY OF LABOR IN THE RUSSIAN DEFENSE INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES

    Sokolov A. V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights main factors affecting productivity of enterprises in the defense industry. With the elimination of a number of factors, we determined functional dependence form between the change in productivity (at the company level in comparison to the industry average and relative wages (at the company level in comparison to the industry average taking into account regional fac tor. It is shown that dependence is of exponential character and is marked by inelasticity of productivity with respect to wages. This means that the growth of employees’ wages in comparison to average levels for the industry to which the enterprise belongs, as well as average levels for the federal subject in which the enterprise is located, leads to workforce productivity increase, however, the rate of increase slows down with further wage growth. Levels of wage growth (in relation to industry averages adjusted for regional factor maximizing enterprises’ target values are determined with specific features of such enterprises (manufacturing of both military and civilian products taken into account.

  8. Strategic Engagement in Global S&T: Opportunities for Defense Research

    2014-01-01

    ameliorating global chal- lenges, such as natural and engineered disasters (e.g., Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster ) and pandemic disease outbreaks (e.g...importance of both maintaining awareness of global S&T advances and increasing engagement with other parts of the U.S. government, industry, academia...perspectives on the following themes: mission, mechanisms for technology awareness , relationship building, enterprise coordination and connectivity, and

  9. Late Globalization and Evolution, Episodes and Epochs of Industries

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Boujarzadeh, Behnam; Dholakia, Nikhilesh

    While the empirical focus of this paper is the Danish Textile and Fashion Industry (DTFI) – specifically the episodes and epochs in the emergence and evolution of DTFI, in essence the micro and macro time-slices – the theoretical intent is wider. We aim to explore the conceptual terrain of what we...... for further exploration of the late globalization phenomenon. To get to the empirical case study, we follow a macro-conceptual to a micro-empirical path. We discuss the multidisciplinary and multifaceted field of late globalization and employing the historic-analytic approach to study DTFI we draw out very...... specific, empirically derived, conceptual themes about the patterns of global interactions that characterized the evolutionary trajectory of DTFI. We return to a final macro-conceptual section on late globalization where the particular DTFI case study advances the knowledge register only slightly; and we...

  10. Integrating developing country manufacturing industries into global supply chain

    Fasika Bete Georgise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to globalization of manufacturing activities, the arena of competition and competitiveness advantage is moving from firms towards supply chains and networks. With the recent advancement of information and communication technologies this participation are becoming as common business practice in developed countries firms. Companies were more integrated into the world market for the global nature of the sourcing, manufacturing and distribution. These changes create both challenges and opportunities for the manufacturing industries in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to examine the level of inter-organizational and intra-organizational supply chain integration practices in developing country, Ethiopia.Design/methodology/approach: An industrial questionnaires survey was used to collect the current practices of the manufacturing industries in Ethiopia as an example of the developing countries. Descriptive statistics is primarily used for the analysis.Findings: Results show a low level of supply chain relationship both in intra and inter organizational supply chain integration level among members. Accordingly, such issues require much attention to facilitate a greater integration within the supply chains in the Ethiopian manufacturing industries.Research limitations/implications: The paper focuses on examining the practices of Ethiopian manufacturing industries empirical data. The interpretation of results should be taken with prudence.Originality/Value: The manufacturing industry in developing countries (MIDC has been a part of the global supply chains for long time as a supplier of raw material and manufacturer of primary products. Currently, the MIDC is trying to access the different markets segment of the world even with new products starting from their local market to the complex and dynamic international market. Nevertheless, their supply chains are inefficient and hence, their competitiveness level far from the

  11. Identify: Improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    Lazarus, M.; Hill, D.; Cornland, D.W.; Heaps, C.; Hippel, D. von; Williams, R.

    1997-07-01

    The use of energy in the industrial sectors of nations with both industrialized and developing economies will continue to be, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The patterns of industrial-sector energy use--energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels-have shifted both within the between countries in recent decades. Projections of future energy use and carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions suggest continued shifts in these patterns, as industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, while industrial output in the developing world continues to expand. This expansion of industrial-sector activity and CO{sub 2} emissions in developing countries presents both a challenge and an opportunity. To seize this opportunity and contribute to international efforts to mitigate global climate change, the United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) recently initiated a two-phase effort to help improve the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals, refining, paper and pulp, and cement) in developing countries. As part of the Phase I, the authors reviewed industrial sector scenarios and to initiated development of a software-based toolkit for identifying and assessing GHG mitigating technologies. This toolkit, called IDENTIFY, is comprised of a technology inventory and a companion economic analysis tool. In addition, UNIDO commissioned institutions in India, South Africa, and Argentina to review energy use patterns and savings opportunities in selected industries across nine developing countries, and contribute to the development of the IDENTIFY toolkit. UNIDO is now preparing to launch Phase 2, which will focus on full development and dissemination of the IDENTIFY toolkit through seminars and case studies around the world. This paper describes Phase 1 of the UNIDO project.

  12. Identify: Improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    Lazarus, M.; Hill, D.; Cornland, D.W.; Heaps, C.; Hippel, D. von; Williams, R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of energy in the industrial sectors of nations with both industrialized and developing economies will continue to be, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The patterns of industrial-sector energy use--energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels-have shifted both within the between countries in recent decades. Projections of future energy use and carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions suggest continued shifts in these patterns, as industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, while industrial output in the developing world continues to expand. This expansion of industrial-sector activity and CO 2 emissions in developing countries presents both a challenge and an opportunity. To seize this opportunity and contribute to international efforts to mitigate global climate change, the United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) recently initiated a two-phase effort to help improve the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals, refining, paper and pulp, and cement) in developing countries. As part of the Phase I, the authors reviewed industrial sector scenarios and to initiated development of a software-based toolkit for identifying and assessing GHG mitigating technologies. This toolkit, called IDENTIFY, is comprised of a technology inventory and a companion economic analysis tool. In addition, UNIDO commissioned institutions in India, South Africa, and Argentina to review energy use patterns and savings opportunities in selected industries across nine developing countries, and contribute to the development of the IDENTIFY toolkit. UNIDO is now preparing to launch Phase 2, which will focus on full development and dissemination of the IDENTIFY toolkit through seminars and case studies around the world. This paper describes Phase 1 of the UNIDO project

  13. Industrial Upgrading in Global Production Networks: The Case of the Chinese Automotive Industry

    Yansheng LI; Xin Xin KONG; Miao ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the development of China’s automotive industry. The evidence shows that integration in global production networks has stimulated upgrading of technological capabilities among automotive firms. However, the competitiveness and intra-industry analyses show mixed results. Although intraindustry trade in automotive products has improved since 2000, the trade competitiveness of completely built up vehicles has largely remained in low value added activities. Nevertheless, firm...

  14. Energy Transition for Industry: India and the Global Context

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication further develops the analysis presented in the India chapter of Energy Technology Perspectives 2010 and provides insights on the implications of achieving deep energy and CO2 emission cuts in the industrial sector both for India and globally. It investigates the least-cost combination of options that can significantly reduce energy and CO2 emissions in India's industrial sector, while enabling the Indian economy to continue to grow and alleviate energy poverty. For India to play its part in helping to realise deep cuts in global CO2 emissions by the middle of the 21st century, it will need to achieve rapid economic development over the next 40 years with only a very small increase in emissions. Currently there is no precedent for such a low-CO2 development path. The challenge for India will be to achieve strong economic growth while improving energy security, but without locking in high emissions.

  15. China’s impact on the global wind power industry

    Lema, Rasmus; Berger, Axel; Schmitz, Hubert

    China’s economic rise has transformed the global economy in a number of manufacturing industries. This paper investigates whether China’s transformative influence extends to the new green economy. Drawing on the debate about how China is driving major economic changes in the world – the ‘Asian...... firms. While the combined impact of Chinese market and production power is already visible, other influences are beginning to be felt – arising from China’s coordination, innovation and financing power....

  16. China’s Impact on the Global Wind Power Industry

    Lema, Rasmus; Berger, Axel; Schmitz, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    China’s economic rise has transformed the global economy in a number of manufacturing industries. This paper investigates whether China’s transformative influence extends to the new green economy. Drawing on the debate about how China is driving major economic changes in the world – the “Asian....... While the combined impact of Chinese market and production power is already visible, other influences are beginning to be felt – arising from China’s coordination, innovation and financing power....

  17. The global energy industry: is competition among suppliers ensured?

    Regibeau, P.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, many factors have affected the effective degree of competition in coal, electricity, gas and oil. This paper concentrates on the effects of globalization, regulatory reform, privatization and inter-fuel mergers. While demand side globalization has led to increased competition, greater supply side globalization might lead to more collusive behaviour in sectors such as coal and electricity. Regulatory reform has helped foster competition in the US gas market and in several electricity markets. Still, regulators have imposed insufficient vertical separation and the regulation of international electricity transmission remains problematic. Privatization is very useful in enforcing initial changes in industry structure. Inter-fuel mergers might entail efficiency gains but they also raise significant issues for competition policy authorities. (orig.)

  18. Strategic imperatives for globalization of industries in developing countries: an Indian pharmaceutical industry example.

    Srivastava, Rajesh; Chandra, Ashish; Kumar, Girish

    2004-01-01

    The annual global pharmaceutical sales have grown over 466 billion dollars, almost 50% of which comes from North America. Among developing countries, India, with 16% of the world population, accounts for only a small percentage of the global pharmaceutical industry. Until recently, India has had virtually no pharmaceutical industry worth the name producing drugs from basic raw materials and it used to rely mostly on the imports from countries like the USA and England for all its requirements of drugs. On the other hand, India has seen a plethora of multinational pharmaceutical companies come and do business in India. This paper develops a matrix which provides a broad guidance to the mid- to large-size Indian pharmaceutical domestic companies, which should embark on the path to global expansion to establish their might as well.

  19. The impact of global warming on the automotive industry

    Hannappel, Ralf

    2017-08-01

    One cause of global warming of the earth's atmosphere is the emission of human made gases (methane, CO2, nitrous oxygen, etc.) into the environment. Of the total global CO2 emissions the transportation sector contributes to about 14%. In order to control the emissions of the automotive sector, in all major countries (USA, Europe, China, Japan) of the world, tough emissions targets were being set to reduce the vehicle traffic's contribution of CO2. These are derived from the global climate conference' target to limit the maximum temperature increase of the earth of 2 degrees Celsius until 2100. In order to achieve these stringent targets the automotive industry will face a major change in its drivetrain. It will move from combustion to electrical engines. The technical realization of these engines will most likely be battery and fuel cell driven propulsion systems. In order to achieve that transition a major effort is required in 4 industrial areas, i.e. growing electrical charging infrastructure, lowering battery cost, increasing the battery-electric vehicle ranges and developing new environmental friendly hydrogen production methods.

  20. Fusion connection: contributions to industry, defense, and basic science resulting from scientific advances made in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program

    Finn, T.; Woo, J.; Temkin, R.

    1985-10-01

    Fusion research has led to significant contributions in many different areas of industry, defense, and basic science. This diversity is represented visually in the introductory figure which shows both a radio galaxy, and a microchip produced by plasma etching. Some of these spin-off technologies are discussed

  1. Visualizing Consolidation in the Global Seed Industry: 1996–2008

    Philip H. Howard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The commercial seed industry has undergone tremendous consolidation in the last 40 years as transnational corporations entered this agricultural sector, and acquired or merged with competing firms. This trend is associated with impacts that constrain the opportunities for renewable agriculture, such as reductions in seed lines and a declining prevalence of seed saving. To better characterize the current structure of the industry, ownership changes from 1996 to 2008 are represented visually with information graphics. Since the commercialization of transgenic crops in the mid-1990s, the sale of seeds has become dominated globally by Monsanto, DuPont and Syngenta. In addition, the largest firms are increasingly networked through agreements to cross-license transgenic seed traits.

  2. African women, industrialization and another development. A global perspective.

    Steady, F C

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the women of Africa have been differentially integrated into the world economic system, serving primarily as a labor reserve and a mainstay for the subsistence and reproductive sectors. If and when necessary, female proletarianization can come into effect. African women, by virtue of their strategic role in traditional food systems, have acquired certain skills compatible with labor intensive food processing industries. Consequently, in some countries they have been involved in the handling, processing, and packing of food. In many 3rd world nations regulations protecting minimum wage levels do not exist and collective bargaining activities are not strongly in force. Economic hardship and the desperate need to survive can lead some groups to accept even lower wages. Consequently, although the employment of women at lower wages violates the principle of equal pay for equal work, agroindustries with monopolies can deliberately and with impunity hire women at lower wages than men. In general, when women are hired in industries the nature of their employment is precarious, frequently being of a casual and seasonal nature and in greatest demand during peak periods. In an effort to understand the implications of industrialization for African women a global perspective is necessary, for at present the incorporation of the African women in direct industrialization is minimal. Racism has played an important role in the exploitation of the African continent, and no serious study of class and gender inequality in Africa can overlook that important fact. Numerous studies have shown how industry perpetuates the sexual division of labor. Even in the industrialized nations, women often have held the least paid and most precarious jobs in industry. Women's vulnerability is further worsened by several factors, the most obvious being their reproductive capabilities. In addition to being more vulnerable to industrial hazards, their employment can be truncated by

  3. The deadly business of an unregulated global stem cell industry.

    Lysaght, Tamra; Lipworth, Wendy; Hendl, Tereza; Kerridge, Ian; Lee, Tsung-Ling; Munsie, Megan; Waldby, Catherine; Stewart, Cameron

    2017-11-01

    In 2016, the Office of the State Coroner of New South Wales released its report into the death of an Australian woman, Sheila Drysdale, who had died from complications of an autologous stem cell procedure at a Sydney clinic. In this report, we argue that Mrs Drysdale's death was avoidable, and it was the result of a pernicious global problem of an industry exploiting regulatory systems to sell unproven and unjustified interventions with stem cells. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Global Sectoral Industry Approaches to Climate Change. The Way Forward

    Stigson, B.; Egenhofer, C.; Fujiwara, N.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of some industrial sectors is so highly concentrated that just a handful of companies are responsible for producing a significant share of that sector's total greenhouse gases emissions worldwide. These sectors are thus a 'natural' focus of policy-makers concerned with climate change and have attracted keen interest from the EU. So-called 'sectoral approaches' are seen as having the potential to broaden the range of contributions by all parties, including emerging economies, to greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and to help moderate competitiveness concerns in trade-exposed industries. In particular, such approaches may help to quantify emissions on a sector-by-sector basis, building confidence that policies and measures can be put in place to reduce emissions. They can also help identify national or global commitments through the aggregation of sectoral data. While sectoral approaches allow policy-makers to concentrate on those individual sectors that contribute significantly to global emissions, they also pose a number of challenges. This CEPS Task Force Report identifies the principal issues associated with sectoral approaches - their rationale and the associated political dynamics - and gives an overview of existing approaches, the formulation of preconditions that would allow sectoral approaches to be implemented and an analysis of the potential interaction of sectoral approaches with existing climate change policies. The concluding chapter sketches a possible way forward

  5. Global Health Engagement and The Department of Defense as a Vehicle for Security and Sustainable Global Health.

    Moten, Asad; Schafer, Daniel; Burkett, Edwin K

    2018-01-01

    The Unites States Department of Defense (DoD) is viewed by many in the general public as a monolithic government entity whose primary purpose is to coordinate this country's ability to make war and maintain a military presence around the world. However, the DoD is in fact a multidimensional organization whose global impact is as expansive as it is varying and is responsible for far-reaching global health interventions. The United States has worked toward providing long-term care among host nation populations by providing training in several areas related to medicine, with positive results. These efforts can be built upon with substantial positive effects. Building health infrastructure and capacity around the world is essential. The DoD is the most generously funded agency in the world, and the resources at its disposal provide the opportunity to make great gains in the long term in terms of both health and security worldwide. With efficient and careful use of DoD resources, and partnerships with key non-governmental organizations with specialized knowledge and great passion, partnerships can be forged with communities around the world to ensure that public health is achieved in even the most underserved communities. A move toward creating sustainable health systems with long-term goals and measurable outcomes is an essential complement to the already successful disaster and emergency relief that the United States military already provides. By ensuring that communities around the world are both provided with access to the sustainable health care they need and that emergency situations can be responded to in an efficient way, the United States can serve its duty as a leader in sharing expertise and resources for the betterment and security of all humankind. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Defense Science Board 1988 Summer Study on the Defense Industrial and Technology Base. Volume 2. Subgroup Appendices

    1988-12-01

    XMZ.r :LOM "Wmum SZU2 (3) : e IMCO GMM * WM &an rymflf 55 AALI a" Of~ ~ mvaum 08AU MOUmr (7) WO uuK m.2a ACM MOM VAP = SPC UM (2) MN * 5 .~zC (2...Japan’s industrial and technology progress is impressive and persuasive in suggesting that nations with aspirations for economic and industrial

  7. Global process industry initiatives to reduce major accident hazards

    Pitblado, Robin [DNV Energy Houston, TX (United States). SHE Risk Management; Pontes, Jose [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Americas Region; Oliveira, Luiz [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Since 2000, disasters at Texas City, Toulouse, Antwerp, Buncefield, P-36 and several near total loss events offshore in Norway have highlighted that major accident process safety is still a serious issue. Hopes that Process Safety Management or Safety Case regulations would solve these issues have not proven true. The Baker Panel recommended to BP several actions mainly around leadership, incentives, metrics, safety culture and more effective implementation of PSM systems. In Europe, an approach built around mechanical integrity and safety barriers, especially relating to technical safety systems, is being widely adopted. DNV has carried out a global survey of process industry initiatives, by interview and by literature review, for both upstream and downstream activities, to identify what the industry itself is planning to implement to enhance process safety in the next 5 - 10 years. This shows that an approach combining Baker Panel and EU barrier approaches and some nuclear industry real-time risk management approaches might be the best means to achieve a factor of 3-4 improvement in process safety. (author)

  8. The Globalization of Innovation in the Danish Food Industry

    Haakonsson, Stine Jessen

    2012-01-01

    The internationalization of innovation in the food industry is becoming increasingly oriented towards emerging markets. Innovative lead firms express a need for ‘tapping into knowledge’ by collaborating with research facilities, customers and suppliers in these new locations. European firms...... experience a push towards market expansion and knowledge generation directed at emerging markets. This results in new network constructs: global innovation networks. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it identifies and outlines the determining factors behind the internationalization of innovation due...... to the need to access new markets and knowledge. This unfolds through strategies of exploitation and exploration. Second, it investigates the extent to which these strategies connect to position in the value chain and factors in the host economy. In this, the potential impact at the receiving end...

  9. Transnationalism and the Decentralization of the Global Film Industry

    Jordi Codó Martínez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other aspects of society (politics, economics, the film industry appears to be undergoing a process of decentralization (still in its infancy by which Asia is, if not overtaking, at least matching its level of influence with that of European and American powers. Much of the impetus shifting this balance corresponds to China. The spectacular growth of China‟s domestic market is concentrating a substantial part of the global film business within this Asian giant, resulting in the still sector leader, the United States, conditioning its production in order to maximize profits in that territory. Resolute internationalization policies are also helping Chinese companies gain a foothold in Western countries conditioning film content there, although paradoxically their audiences remain unwilling to consume cinema that is culturally foreign. This essay will attempt to explain how all this has occurred.

  10. Financial Policies of Turkish Industrial Companies during the Global Crisis

    Cenk Gokce Adas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Latest global financial crisis that shrank the credit market affected the companies’ financial policies since the credit contraction led the firms to rely more on their own resources rather than external financing. The expectation during such crises is more equity issues along with less borrowing. In economic literature there are some evidence supporting this fact for developed countries. As an emerging country Turkey’s case is different than that of advanced countries. The era commenced with Lehman turmoil by passed Turkish economy in the first years due to the solid, strong and healthy banking sector due to the measurements taken after 2001 banking crisis of Turkey. Therefore, international lenders did not hesitate directing their funds to Turkish banks. As a result, Turkish companies did not suffer in financing their investments through bank loans. Moreover, the growth policy of Turkey based on current account deficit supported Turkish economy and in turn the firms due to the abundance of liquidity after the peak of the crisis. In this work we examined 164 industrial firms that are traded on Borsa Istanbul to see if there happened to be a shift in their financing preferences during the recent global crisis. We found that the importance of borrowing had not decreased and that contradicts the expectations. As of equity issues, before and after 2009 no radical change has been observed. In 2009 where the crisis hit worst Turkish economy leading a 4.7% GDP decrease, the equity issues were doubled.

  11. Fighting windmills? EU industrial interest and global climate negotiations

    Steiner Brand, U.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    2003-01-01

    Why has the EU been so eager to continue the climate negotiations? Can it be solely attributed to the EU feeling morally obliged to be the main initiator of continued progress on the climate change negotiations, or can industrial interests in the EU, at least partly, explain the behaviour of the EU? We suggest that the EU has a rational economic interest in forcing the technological development of renewable energy sources to get a fast-mover advantage, which will only pay if a sufficient number of countries implement sufficiently stringent GHG reductions. The Kyoto Protocol, which imposes binding reductions on 38 OECD countries, implies that, as a first-mover, the EU will be to sell the necessary new renewable technologies, most prominently wind mills, to other countries, when they ratify and implement the Kyoto target levels. In the latest EU proposal made in Johannesburg, the EU pushed for setting a target of 15% of all energy to come from sources such as windmills, solar panels and waves by 2015. Such a target would further the EU's interests globally, and could explain, in economic terms, why the EU eagerly promotes GHG trade at a global level whereas the US has left the Kyoto agreement to save the import costs of buying the EU's renewable systems. (au)

  12. An Empirical Analysis of the Patterns in Defense Industry Consolidation and Their Subsequent Impact

    Hensel, Nayantara

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper explores the causes of the wave of defense mergers, as well as their impact. The analysis finds that the frequency of defense mergers is more strongly correlated with overall merger activity in the economy than with DoD outlays...

  13. Globalization, Competitiveness, International Trade, Industrial Policy and Employement

    Joaquín Novella

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness is presented as a variable key in the present context of a worldwide economy and extends its influence over the international trade tendencies, industrial policies and employment.The variations which trade relations at international level have undergone throughout the second half of the twentieth century have been accompanied by successive theoretical contributions, which have evolved from the traditional theories of the nineteenth century concerning comparative advantages and which introduce more complex factors.The product cycle model expounded by Vernon offers an explanation for the continual flow of sectors at international level as well as the characteristics of the most adequate industrial policy and the commercial patterns of each State revealing the importance of technology, human capital and international marketing as key factors for international competitiveness.This article explains the appearance of news procedures of international competitiveness based on product diferentiation, quality and brand image which, nowadays, coexist with traditional models such as costs and prices reductions.At every stage of a country’s development, a sectorial production structure together with some specific demand characteristics, salary and productivity levels correspond to it. All these latter aspects are interelated and should be analysed all together. With globalization, the speed with which a product passes from one phase to another has accelerated as well as the time it travels from the central countries to those intermediate ones and from there successively to those in the South, in such a way that these sectorialswings in international trade should be considered as a normal effect of it. Competition via salary reductions and social security benefits is not the only nor the most recommendable solution given that, in the long term, it affects the quality of production and social stability degrading as it does the standard of

  14. RAND Research Brief: Lean Manufacturing and the Defense Industry. Lessons for Cost Analysts

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the Department of Defense (DoD) has launched a number of initiatives whose common objective has been to reduce the costs of weapon systems that are planned, under development, or in production...

  15. Task Group on a Strategic Relationship Model Between the Department of Defense and the Industrial Base

    2008-01-01

    ...) to evaluate and make recommendations to the Department of Defense (DoD) regarding actions that could improve the strategic relationship between the Department and its manufacturer and service suppliers...

  16. RAND Research Brief: Lean Manufacturing and the Defense Industry. Lessons for Cost Analysts

    2001-01-01

    .... Largely in response to these measures, U.S. defense firms have in recent years begun to embrace lean manufacturing, a broad collection of principles and practices whose aim is to refashion the production process in a manner that includes...

  17. Defense Industry: Restructuring Costs Paid, Savings Realized, and Means to Ensure Benefits

    1998-01-01

    ...) the restructuring costs were allowable under the Federal Acquisition Regulation and (2) a DOD contracting officer determined that the business combination was expected to result in overall reduced costs to DOD or preserve a critical defense capability...

  18. An Analysis of the Competitive Strategy in the Industry Providing a Defense System of Systems

    Melone, James

    2000-01-01

    .... Both the 1996 Defense Science Board Report on Vertical Integration and DoD's 1999 report on Price Based Acquisition recommend that DoD take steps to further understanding of competitive conditions...

  19. Strategy for the Long Haul: The U.S. Defense Industrial Base, Past, Present and Future

    Watts, Barry D

    2008-01-01

    .... The other was North Korea's invasion of South Korea in June 1950, which precipitated the large increases in defense spending called for in Paul Nitze's formulation of containment in April 1950...

  20. Challenges in Building a Global Supply Chain in the Apparel Industry

    Vidyaranya B. Gargeya

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The last decade of the twentieth century has been characterized with the growth of global supply chains in a wide variety of industries. Global supply chain management in the apparel industry presents a wide variety of challenges. This paper presents a framework elaborating the challenges associated with communication, cultural relationships, technology, production processes, supplier arrangements, and transportation infrastructure in building a global supply chain in the apparel industry catering primarily to the U.S. market. The paper, in the concluding section, makes a few suggestions for future research in global supply chain management in the apparel industry.

  1. The U.S. Arms Embargo of 1975-1978 and Its Effects on the Development of the Turkish Defense Industry

    2014-09-01

    Turkish Defense Industry 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 93 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Organization CPI consumer price inflation DIEC Defense Industry Executive Committee DP Democrat Party EEC European Economic Community EOKA...sugar, and flour . With the return of men to their homes after World War I and the Independence War, Turkey experienced a dramatic increase in

  2. Global War on Terrorism: Reported Obligations for the Department of Defense

    Pickup, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Section 1221 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 20066 requires us to submit quarterly updates to Congress on the costs of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom...

  3. Global War on Terrorism: Reported Obligations for the Department of Defense

    Pickup, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Section 1221 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006 requires us to submit quarterly updates to Congress on the costs of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom...

  4. Local industry in global networks : changing competitiveness, corporate strategies and pathways of development in Singapore and Malaysia's garment industry

    Smakman, Floortje

    2004-01-01

    The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies

  5. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Teacher Strategies. Experimental Edition.

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Designed to assist teachers and supervisors in the implementation of the global history course, this bulletin presents learning activities which include the rationale, performance objectives, and teaching strategies related to Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." This theme has seven subthemes: (1)…

  6. Fighting windmills? EU industrial interests and global climate negotiations

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    for setting a target of 15% of all energy to come from sources such as windmills, solar panels and waves by 2015. Such a target would further the EU's interests globally, and could explain, in economic terms, why the EU eagerly promotes GHG trade at a global level whereas the US has left the Kyoto agreement...

  7. Globalization Revisited: The Case of Uniqueness and "Creative Industries"

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Choi, C.J.; Chen, Shu

    2005-01-01

    AbstractThe debate about the extent of globalization of firms and markets continues to be a major research area within international business (Rugman 2000). Rugman and Verbeke (2003) have provided compelling evidence for a tendency to regionalization rather than globalization for the large majority

  8. Japan’s Shift to a Proactive Defense Architecture: Challenges Faced by Industry, Government, and Society

    2017-06-01

    DEW Directed-Energy Weapons DOD Department of Defense DPJ Democratic Party of Japan EM Electro-magnetic FMS Foreign Military Sales GSDF Ground...data.oecd.org/japan.htm. 75 Chris Matthews, “Forget Greece, Japan is the World’s Real Economic Time Bomb ,” Fortune, February 26, 2015, http...fortune.com/2015/02/26/japan-economic-time- bomb /. 25 to fund repair facilities, buy parts, or pay contractors? In terms of operating costs, will the JSDF

  9. Globalization : the challenge of the 1990s for the chemical industry

    Wilcock, D.

    1992-01-01

    The challenges facing the chemical industry in Canada were discussed. In recent years, Canada has scored low in polls measuring public confidence in the chemical industry. The industry is also suffering from continuing recession, global competition, increased environmental demands and strict legislation. The impact of globalization, total quality management, free trade, environmental concerns, and government policies on the chemical industry were reviewed. In the view of this author (President and CEO of Dow Chemicals) globalization is not a matter of choice, it is an industry imperative. Survival in the globalized economy will require not only to be successful competitors, but even more importantly to be successful cooperators with other stakeholders, and successful in forming partnerships with customers

  10. Effects of the M&A Wave in the Global Brewing Industry 2000-2010

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewing groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. Industry consolidation has taken the shape of merger...... and acquisition activity more than organic growth or international joint ventures. Based on a major data base the paper traces some causes and assesses the effects of M&A strategies in the global beer industry....

  11. M&A as a driver of global competition in the brewing industry

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewer groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. The paper describes the development and puts it into an ...... it into an industrial economics framework. Based on a major data base the paper further assesses the effects of M&A strategies in the global beer industry....

  12. Pemberdayaan Pendidikan Teknik Busana Di Perguruan Tinggi Untuk Pengembangan Industri Garmen Di Pasar Global

    Fitrihana, Noor

    2005-01-01

    Indonesian garment industries have been sluggishness. Since economic crisis incoming, Indonesian garment products loose ofthe competitiveness until now. In the last five years, perfonnance oftextile industry got decrease because many domestic probleII\\'l. The problems are skills ofworkforce, out ofdate technology and poor of-fashion product inovation. Facing the global market ifnot good plan anticipate, gannent industries are cannot running growthand become sunset industry. To solve the probl...

  13. Hollywood, The American Image And The Global Film Industry

    Andrew Ali Ibbi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of indigenous film industries across the world has been seen by many as a threat to the influence of Hollywood on the movie scene. This paper tries to look at the ideological influence of Hollywood on movies the world over. the paper considered the Chinese, Indian and Nigerian film industries. the three industries were chosen because of their influence on their continents and some parts of the world. The Theory of cultural Imperialism is chosen as the supporting theory for the paper.

  14. Innovation and technology transfer through global value chains: Evidence from China's PV industry

    Zhang, Fang; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2016-01-01

    China's success as a rapid innovation follower in the infant Photovoltaic (PV) industry surprised many observers. This paper explores how China inserted itself into global clean energy innovation systems by examining the case of the solar PV industry. The paper decomposes the global PV industrial value chain, and determines the main factors shaping PV technology transfer and diffusion. Chinese firms first entered PV module manufacturing through technology acquisition, and then gradually built their global competitiveness by utilizing a vertical integration strategy within segments of the industry as well as the broader PV value chain. The main drivers for PV technology transfer from the global innovation system to China are global market formation policy, international mobilization of talent, the flexibility of manufacturing in China, and belated policy incentives from China's government. The development trajectory of the PV industry in China indicates that innovation in cleaner energy technologies can occur through both global and national innovation processes, and knowledge exchange along the global PV value chain. - Highlights: •The value chain analytical approach is synergized with the theories of technology transfer and innovation systems. •A detailed review of how China integrated itself into the global solar PV innovation system is provided. •Four main factors shape PV technology transfer to China across various value chain segments. •Innovation in cleaner energy technologies is a combination of global and national innovation processes.

  15. Globalization of fluid power industry; Fluid power sangyokai no global ka

    Ogasawara, F. [Kayaba Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-15

    This paper takes a view of hydraulic and pneumatic industry. The United States accounts for 33% of hydraulic and pneumatic device shipment, while Japan accounts for 16% and Germany 14%. Japan has recorded the highest shipment record in 1991, but the shipment decreased largely in 1992 as a result of the collapse of the bubble economy. Thereafter, pneumatic devices recovered production in 1995, and continuing smooth growth since then. However, hydraulic devices have not reached the level of 1989. Pneumatic devices have achieved great progress as a result of making them lighter, thinner, shorter and smaller to meet users` strong demands, development of energy saving, space saving and life extending technologies and control technologies, function combination, and diversification. International competition is so intense that, in order to survive this mega-competition age, efforts must be made in areas of noise, oil leakage, positioning control and energy conservation as substantial technological issues. Measures against global environmental problems may include prevention of pollution and disaster caused from working oils and development of hydraulic devices. Transferring the excellent Japanese technologies and know-hows to developing countries constitutes international contribution. Progress in hydraulic and pneumatic technologies combined with electronics technologies is also desired. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Automobile industry and globalization in Asian market; Asia ni okeru jidosha sangyo to globalization

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Asian countries are now attracting attention of automobile manufacturers of the world for their capabilities of buying, producing, and assembling of automobiles, and producing and supplying of parts, which means that the Asian market is now exposed to globalization. As for the automobile and part manufacturers of Japan, in the presence of economic depression lingering in Asia affecting motorization and rapid changes in the circumstances Japan`s automobile industry finds itself under, are pressed to work out new strategies as a member of the Asian community. A panel discussion of the same name as the subject held in 1997 won favor as a fine initiative to suitably cope with the difficult situation. Useful suggestions and proposals were made concerning the panel discussion, calling the event a new type of round-table talks well responding to the rapid changes in the world economy since 1997, by learned and experienced people, the government offices concerned, staffers of manufacturers in charge of overseas marketing, and international information analysts. They related to the current state and tasks of automobile manufacturing in Asia, trends of regulations and standardization, rolls of technical assistance and the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Ltd., expressed from a wide angle covering various problems relative to environmental protection, safety, etc. (NEDO)

  17. globalization of the fashion industry and its effects on Ghanaian

    User

    as a growing integration of the world's econ- omy. To Walters ... facturers produce and distribute their economic wealth in ..... Regular organization of Fashion Trade Fairs, shows and. Exhibition at .... vulnerable local industries to collapse. The.

  18. Industry structure and the performance of the Global System for ...

    telecommunication operators in Nigeria. ... This study investigates industry structure and its relationship with the performance of GSM network operators in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey research design was adopted with the use of primary data, ...

  19. Global climate change due to the hydrocarbon industry

    Almasi, M.; Racz, L.

    1999-01-01

    An overview is presented on the industry's response to the agreements of the Rio de Janeiro (1992) and Kyoto (1987) conventions on climate change, and to other international agreements. The announcements by large petroleum companies on the changes introduced according to the international commitments in order to fight climatic impacts of hydrocarbon fuels. The problems and foreseeable future of the Hungarian hydrocarbon industry with environmental protection are discussed. Finally, emission abatement and control possibilities of hydrocarbon combustion are considered. (R.P.)

  20. Local industry in global networks : changing competitiveness, corporate strategies and pathways of development in Singapore and Malaysia's garment industry

    Smakman, Floortje

    2004-01-01

    The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies adopted by both countries. However, since incorporation, changing competitiveness due to both international, regional end local pressures, has meant local garment firms have had to implement a range ...

  1. How did the Global Financial Crisis Influence the Automobile Industry: Comparison between the US and Japanese Auto Industry

    SUN, YAN

    2013-01-01

    The 2008 global financial crisis was the worst one in seventy-five years and had great negative impact on the economy worldwide. Automobile industry, the pillar to the economic development, was hit most by the recession among the sectors. The purpose of this study is to analyze the financial crisis impacts on the automobile industry and find out strategies to decrease the occurrence rate and the loss if a similar crisis occurs. The study, firstly, describes the impact of financial crisis...

  2. Functional Demand Satiation and Industrial Dynamcis - The Emergence of the Global Value Chain for the U.S. Footwear Industry

    Alexander Frenzel Baudisch

    2006-01-01

    Around 1940 Schumpeter draws on an analysis of the U.S. footwear industry as an exemplar case to formulate his famous hypothesis about the positive relation between market concentration and innovative activity. Starting in the 1970s the value chain of U.S. footwear producers disintegrates, eventually separating the process of product innovation from manufacturing in this industry. Studies testing Schumpeter’s hypothesis commonly do not account for the modularity and globalization of an indust...

  3. Present Global Situation of Amino Acids in Industry.

    Tonouchi, Naoto; Ito, Hisao

    At present, amino acids are widely produced and utilized industrially. Initially, monosodium glutamate (MSG) was produced by extraction from a gluten hydrolysate. The amino acid industry started using the residual of the lysate. The discovery of the functions of amino acids has led to the expansion of their field of use. In addition to seasoning and other food use, amino acids are used in many fields such as animal nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. On the other hand, the invention of the glutamate fermentation process, followed by the development of fermentation methods for many other amino acids, is no less important. The supply of these amino acids at a low price is very essential for their industrial use. Most amino acids are now produced by fermentation. The consumption of many amino acids such as MSG or feed-use amino acids is still rapidly increasing.

  4. Competing in the Global LED Industry: The Case of Taiwan

    Yu-Shan Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Light-emitting diode (LED is a very essential application for energy-savings nowadays. The revenue of the Taiwan LED components industry is ranked top one in the world, followed by that of Japan and South Korea. Based on the advantage of their electronics industry, Taiwanese LED companies create a unique model to compete with the international firms. Large international LED companies achieve economies of scale by vertically integrating their operations. Taiwanese LED companies specialize and achieve an optimal efficiency by vertically disintegrating across the upstream, midstream, and downstream sectors in the value chains. Taiwanese LED companies create economies of scale and economies of scope through a complete industrial value chain.

  5. R&D investment and impact in the global construction industry

    Hampson, Keith

    2014-01-01

    "R&D Investment and Impact in the Global Construction Industry brings together contributions from leading academics in a diverse group of countries to investigate the role of research and development (R&D...

  6. Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment in the Grocery Industry and Defense Commissary Agency

    Smith, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    ... possible cost to authorized patrons (2002: 2). This project looks at DeCA's current business processes as well as the relatively new business process of CPFR used by some of the major supermarket chains in the commercial grocery industry...

  7. Industry to benefit from India's global projects tie-ups

    2007-01-01

    "Indian Industry should take advantage of the country's involvement in prestigious international projects like ITER and work with top scientific institutions to meet the huge demand for ultra vacuum systems, S. Banerjee of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre said here on Wednesday. (1/2 page)

  8. From Confrontation to Coopetition in the Globalized Semiconductor Industry

    van de Gevel, A.J.W.

    2000-01-01

    The silicon chip is not only a symbol of marvellous technologies that are transforming industrial production and leisure time in society, but also of trade and technology conflicts while at the same time offering the potential for cooperation.The purpose of this paper is to show that the

  9. Global Credit Risk: World, Country and Industry Factors

    Schwaab, B.; Koopman, S.J.; Lucas, A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic properties of systematic default risk conditions for firms in different countries, industries and rating groups. We use a high-dimensional nonlinear non-Gaussian state-space model to estimate common components in corporate defaults in a 41 country samples between 1980:Q1

  10. The Evolution of a Creative Industry : The industrial dynamics and spatial evolution of the global fashion design industry

    Wenting, R.

    2008-01-01

    The recent growth of creative industries has raised the interest of both policy makers and academic scholars. However, we know very little about the forces that drive the development and geography of these industries. This dissertation provides an in-depth study of the industrial dynamics and

  11. Ukrainian defense industry under economic sanctions is within the Russia's interests

    Victor Andreyevich Mal’gin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze a correlation between the Russian and the Ukrainian militaryindustrial complexes MIC as well as to determine possibilities for product substitution under economic sanctions. nbsp Methods analysis and synthesis statistical abstract logic methods. Results аn interdependence of Ukrainian and Russian militaryindustrial complexes is revealed the role of economic sanctions as one of the important instruments and twoedged instruments of foreign policy is shown the means of acceleration of development of defenseindustrial complex of Russia are proposed. Scientific novelty the article proves that the Ukrainian defenseindustrial complex under economic sanctions represents serious threat to Russian militaryindustrial complex. The most effective ways of substituting the Ukrainian defense production by the Russian production are determined. Practical value the proposed measures for substituting the Ukrainian military production by the Russian production will under economic sanctions contribute to Russia39s further strengthening of militaryindustrial complex and the enhancement of operational capability of its armed forces. nbsp

  12. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Student Worksheets. Experimental Edition.

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The worksheets contained in this bulletin are designed for use in conjunction with the teaching strategies for Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." The worksheets correspond to specific strategies with accompanying questions on the appropriate strategy page. Included are activities for the seven subthemes: (1)…

  13. Globalization of the natural gas industry; La mondialisation de l`industrie du gaz naturel

    Deyirmendjan, J. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-05-01

    After presenting a panorama of the international gas industry, a description of changes affecting the world gas industry, and an analysis of how environment-related demands give gas an opportunity to become the leading source of energy in the 21. century, Mr Jacques Deyirmendjan, Senior Executive-Vice-President of Gaz de France, tells his interviewer how French industry and national companies are designing their strategies to respond effectively to these changes.

  14. The sequential patterning of tactics: Activism in the global sports apparel industry, 1988–2002

    den Hond, F.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; de Haan, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Activist groups apply a range of tactics in order to improve labour conditions in the global sports and apparel industry. The accumulation of these tactics leads to the build-up of pressure on firms within this industry (brands, retailers) to change their policies and activities on labour

  15. Do company strategies and structures converge in global markets? Evidence from the computer industry

    Duysters, G.M.; Hagedoorn, J.

    2001-01-01

    This note examines isomorphism and diversity in a global industry. We study how the ongoing internationalisation process has affected companies from various regions of the world. Empirical research is focussed on the international computer industry. We find that companies in this sector have become

  16. A Future-Oriented, Globally Based Curriculum Model for Industrial Technology.

    Hacker, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Presents a future-oriented curriculum approach for industrial technology programs. Major global issues provide the basic structure for curriculum development. These issues include energy management, resource management, technological advancement, and international relations. Rationales for industrial technology are discussed and a curriculum…

  17. Biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored global clinical trials in emerging countries.

    Alvarenga, Lenio Souza; Martins, Elisabeth Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials placed in countries previously described as emerging regions for clinical research, and potential differences for those placed in Brazil. Data regarding recruitment of subjects for clinical trials were retrieved from www.clinicaltrials.gov on February 2nd 2009. Proportions of sites in each country were compared among emerging countries. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate whether trial placement in Brazil could be predicted by trial location in other countries and/or by trial features. A total of 8,501 trials were then active and 1,170 (13.8%) included sites in emerging countries (i.e., Argentina, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, and South Africa). South Korea and China presented a significantly higher proportion of sites when compared to other countries (pattractiveness for biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials.

  18. A global strategy for the European PV industry

    Viaud, M.; Despotou, E.; Latour, M.; Hoffmann, W.; Macias, E.; Cameron, M.; Laborde, E.

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to develop a comprehensive strategy that answers to the need of today European PV industry. Namely: - Develop PV markets in Europe - Develop export markets. - Position the European PV industry within the European political environment and support the effort of national actors in their local objectives. This method lends itself to brainstorming to create actions and synergies, on order to achieve strategy objectives. The whole work is based on working groups clearly defined on the purpose, where all EPIA members are invited to participate. The overall first results are presented during the 19. EU PV Conference in Paris and EPIA will do recommendations on actions to be undertaken in the future. This strategy is co-financed by EPIA members and the 6. Framework Programme for research of the European Commission through the PV Catapult project. (authors)

  19. The Magnesium Industry Today…The Global Perspective

    Patzer, Greg

    World demand for magnesium will show a decline in 2009. The outlook for 2010, which is guardedly optimistic, will be for a resumption of slow growth. The industry has seen marked changes in the sources of supply for primary and alloyed magnesium in recent years. Technological advances in magnesium continue at a strong pace as does interest in the material as a substitute for other light metals. The automotive segment remains the end-use area with the largest growth potential, if for no other reason than the size and quantity of the potential materials substitution applications. However, the shrinkage of that market, particularly in North America will have a definite impact on expectations for magnesium. The 3C market (computers, communications & consumer electronics) will continue to show above average growth. Other niche markets related to medical and construction industries also offer potential.

  20. Global change: The new challenge for the fossil carbon industries

    Fyfe, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Human population growth, at 90 million more per year and at least 10 billion next century, is forcing a re-examination of our values and technologies. Technology concerns are energy, food production, water and air quality, and waste disposal. All of these involve exact knowledge of the outer few km of our planet because this film forms the basis of all our resources. A great new challenge faces people with expertise in the fine structure and dynamics of the porous-cracked outer layers of earth. Much of this expertise is centered in the fossil carbon industries. All must be involved in the problems of water supply, soil conservation, waste disposal, and clean energy production. Perhaps the greatest question facing the fossil fuel industry concerns whether greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced

  1. Trends driving the hotel industry global evolution. Case of Romania

    Codruţa-Adina BĂLTESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tourism field is well known for the dynamic of changes over recent years. We witness the continous growth of the number of tourists, the increase of consumers demands, the development of new markets and the changes determined by information technologies implementation and adaptations and innovations supported at the level of tourism business. Being a defining component in the tourism industry, the hotel field is individualized through specific evolutions and significant adjustments in relation to the general rate of changes and development trends recorded. In this framework, through this article, the author aims to assess which are the most relevant changes recorded in the Romanian hotel industry and the degree in which this specific activity field follow the trend of changes recorded at international level.

  2. Global warming and the energy efficiency of Spanish industry

    Feijoo, Maria L.; Hernandez, Jose M.; Franco, Juan F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses a stochastic frontier production function model to analyze the energy efficiency of Spanish industry. We used minimum cost input demand equations as the reference in order to calculate the demand for electricity, gas and other fuels. On this basis, we found that there is no inherent conflict between the objectives of achieving productive efficiency and reducing energy consumption. Indeed, it is possible to reduce the industrial emissions of CO 2 by up to 29.4% by means of a bottom-up energy efficiency policy. However, if the government wants firms to reduce their emissions even further, then it would be necessary to implement some form of energy regulatory policy. In this respect, we estimate the cost of reducing CO 2 emissions by 20%

  3. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  4. Industrial Wage Inequality in Latin America in Global Perspective, 1900-2000

    Frankema, E.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Standard economic theories of wage inequality focus on the factor-biased nature of technological change and globalization. This paper examines the long-run development of industrial wage inequality in Latin America from a global comparative perspective. We find that wage inequality was comparatively

  5. The Triumph of the Industrial-Consumer Paradigm and English as the Global Language

    Spring, Joel

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the role of English as the global language within the industrial-consumer paradigm. In the 21st century, the English language plays a different function in the global economy than it did during the 19th century when it was used as an instrument of cultural imperialism. Today, English serves as a vehicle for participation in…

  6. RoHS Compliance - Is the Global Electronics Industry Ready?

    Head, Marieke; Hróarsson, Hallur

    2006-01-01

    RoHS is an EU directive that was proposed along with the WEEE Directive in 2002 as a part of a plan to promote extended producer responsibility within the electronics industry. Together, these two directives seek to make electrical and electronic equipment easier to manage both in terms of environmental impacts and recycling. The RoHS Directive seeks to remove lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium and two brominated flame retardants from all consumer electrical equipment. This paper dea...

  7. The energy industries reorganization in the economic globalization

    Amouroux, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The author wonders on the energy supply evolution since thirty years and more specially the fossil fuels industries reconstruction. The energy panorama has been completely modified by a serial of processes which stopped the nuclear energy expansion and replaced the fossil fuels in the front of the energy scene. The processes are examined to evaluate the consequences of theses transformations on the model of economic development developed by the capitalism. (A.L.B)

  8. Foreign subsidiary development of furniture industry in the context of global recession: case of Vietnam

    Hoang, Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    Wooden furniture industry is a traditional low-technology based and labor intensive industry (Kaplinsky & Readman, 2000), which is highly recommended for global outsourcing. Besides, the raising of “China plus one” manufacturing strategy made Southeast Asian countries became new investment destinations. In case of Vietnam, the largest exporter of wood products in Southeast Asian, wooden furniture industry is highly export-oriented with a fast growing rate especially since 2008 (MARD, 2012). W...

  9. Dilip Subramanian, Telecommunications Industry in India: State, Business and Labour in a Global Economy

    David Picherit

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1948, Indian Telephone Industries (ITI, a telecommunications equipment manufacturer, became India’s first State-run enterprise. In 2009, the company was privatized. Dilip Subramanian’s book provides a remarkable in-depth history of the journey of this Indian State-owned factory in post-colonial India, from the birth of the Nehruvian model of industrialization to the contemporary deregulation of the telecommunications industry. In a context of global neoliberal policies and discourses agai...

  10. Organizing Global IS Management to Meet Competitive Challenges: Experiences from the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Bettina Schwarzer

    1995-01-01

    Despite the widely acknowledged importance information technology plays in multinational corporations, many companies lack an understanding of when and how to (re)organize global IS management. The issues of timing and organization of global IS management, however, seem to be of utmost importance in a company’s attempt to implement a new, global business strategy. Based on three case studies from the pharmaceutical industry, this paper analyzes the sequence in which business strategy, organ...

  11. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Globalization and Security

    Hicks, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Globalization-the integration of the political, economic and cultural activities of geographically and/or nationally separated peoples-is not a discernible event or challenge, is not new, but it is...

  12. The present effect of global warming on U.S. industry

    Bendel, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss how global warming issues are currently affecting U.S. industry. Global climate models are projecting global temperature increases in the 1.5-4.5 degrees C range within the next 50-60 years. This increase is based on the assumption that CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere will continue to increase 1-2% per year, resulting in a doubling of preindustrial CO 2 levels by mid twenty-first century. These projections may cause U.S. industry to readjust its thinking with respect to the benefits of pollution prevention as they relate to global warming, corporate image enhancement, global competitiveness and risk assessment or balance. Real or perceived impacts of global warming are already influencing U.S. competitiveness within the global economy because Japan and the European countries are taking the global warming threat more seriously than is the U.S. Mitigation of CO 2 emissions through carbon taxes or permitting will be discussed. Options available to U.S. industry to deal with the current uncertainties of global warming will be presented. Examples of how specific companies are coping with this issue will be given. Finally, recommendations are presented for proactive planning to determine which segments, divisions or facilities in a multinational company would be most sensitive to CO 2 stabilization regulations

  13. The global methanol industry -- Is it deja vu all over again?

    Crocco, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The author reviews the methanol industry in the 1980's and uses this to forecast the future of the industry, attempting to be as realistic as possible. Data are presented on the global methanol supply and demand, anticipated new methanol production capacity, and the 1995 worldwide methanol capacity. Although the global methanol industry, and most especially the producers, are entering some stormy seas, they are not completely uncharted. Those who were around ten or more years ago can see some similarities between current and anticipated market conditions. The similarities and differences are discussed

  14. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    Green, L.

    2004-01-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA Regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both, the regulator and the transporter, can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they co-operate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated - there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. I suggest, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  15. Industrial applications of high-performance computing best global practices

    Osseyran, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    ""This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the rapidly expanding field of the industrial use of supercomputers. It is just a pleasure reading through informative country reports and in-depth case studies contributed by leading researchers in the field.""-Jysoo Lee, Principal Researcher, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information""From telescopes to microscopes, from vacuums to hyperbaric chambers, from sonar waves to laser beams, scientists have perpetually strived to apply technology and invention to new frontiers of scientific advancement. Along the way, they hav

  16. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    Green, L.

    2004-01-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated-the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both the regulator and the transporter can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they cooperate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated-there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. It is suggested, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  17. Cross Border EU Defence Industry Consolidation between Globalization and Europeanization

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    as it constitute a rendezvous of traditional market-based efficiency logics and concerns over sovereignty. Moreover, the defence industry has been an institutional island still exhibiting all the national protectionist mechanisms that European integration mostly has done away with in other sectors. The paper...... will depart from these institutional peculiarities drawing on the varieties of capitalism literature. Different patterns in ownership, public-private R&D links and business promotion policies are a key constraint in cross-border mergers. This is compounded by sovereignty concerns hosted by the national...

  18. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    Green, L. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA Regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both, the regulator and the transporter, can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they co-operate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated - there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. I suggest, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  19. Emerging Powers and Future Threats: Implications for the U.S. and Global Defense Industry

    2017-01-01

    unctad.org/sections/dite_dir/docs/wir2016/wir16_fs_ tr_en.pdf. 67 75. “Erdogan: Ankara bombing ‘collective terrorist act’,” Deutsche Welle, October 22...2015, available from www.dw.com/en/ erdogan-ankara- bombing -collective-terrorist-act/a-18799878. 76. Cenk Sidar and Emre Tuncalp, “Who’s Going to Save...1432640795; Staff Writer, “Uncovering SA em - ployment by race,” Business Tech, September 18, 2014, available from businesstech.co.za/news/general/68842

  20. Effects of Economic Globalization on the United States' Defense Industrial Base

    Lazar, John M

    2007-01-01

    .... The critical vulnerability determined by the center of gravity analysis is education. Further review of this vulnerability determined that intellectual capital is the key component of education...

  1. Imagining Global Health with Justice: In Defense of the Right to Health.

    Friedman, Eric A; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2015-12-01

    The singular message in Global Health Law is that we must strive to achieve global health with justice--improved population health, with a fairer distribution of benefits of good health. Global health entails ensuring the conditions of good health--public health, universal health coverage, and the social determinants of health--while justice requires closing today’s vast domestic and global health inequities. These conditions for good health should be incorporated into public policy, supplemented by specific actions to overcome barriers to equity. A new global health treaty grounded in the right to health and aimed at health equity--a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH)--stands out for its possibilities in helping to achieve global health with justice. This far-reaching legal instrument would establish minimum standards for universal health coverage and public health measures, with an accompanying national and international financing framework, require a constant focus on health equity, promote Health in All Policies and global governance for health, and advance the principles of good governance, including accountability. While achieving an FCGH is certainly ambitious, it is a struggle worth the efforts of us all. The treaty’s basis in the right to health, which has been agreed to by all governments, has powerful potential to form the foundation of global governance for health. From interpretations of UN treaty bodies to judgments of national courts, the right to health is now sufficiently articulated to serve this role, with the individual’s right to health best understood as a function of a social, political, and economic environment aimed at equity. However great the political challenge of securing state agreement to the FCGH, it is possible. States have joined other treaties with significant resource requirements and limitations on their sovereignty without significant reciprocal benefits from other states, while important state interests would

  2. Nuclear English: Language skills for a globalizing industry

    Gorlin, S

    2005-07-01

    Nuclear English is a new course designed for English language learners working in the nuclear industry and in other fields of nuclear science and technology. The textbook is composed of 12 units, each covering a different aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle or a relevant topic such as non-proliferation, safety and the use of radioisotopes in medicine. Nuclear English offers a flexible approach, allowing learners to: Study the units in any order according to professional need or interest; Focus on listening, grammar and pronunciation tasks, which are clearly signposted; Work independently or with other students in a classroom. The other main features of the course are: A audio CD containing authentic interviews with industry specialists. The course covers various accents, including British, American, Australian, South African and Indian; Transcripts of the listening materials; A language orientation test, which learners can take at the start of the course to identify their grammar weaknesses; Teacher-led exercises for working in pairs or groups; A glossary of key terms; An answer key; a downloadable teacher's guide to help teachers maximize the learning potential of the materials (available at: www.world-nuclear-university.org)

  3. Nuclear English: Language skills for a globalizing industry

    Gorlin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear English is a new course designed for English language learners working in the nuclear industry and in other fields of nuclear science and technology. The textbook is composed of 12 units, each covering a different aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle or a relevant topic such as non-proliferation, safety and the use of radioisotopes in medicine. Nuclear English offers a flexible approach, allowing learners to: Study the units in any order according to professional need or interest; Focus on listening, grammar and pronunciation tasks, which are clearly signposted; Work independently or with other students in a classroom. The other main features of the course are: A audio CD containing authentic interviews with industry specialists. The course covers various accents, including British, American, Australian, South African and Indian; Transcripts of the listening materials; A language orientation test, which learners can take at the start of the course to identify their grammar weaknesses; Teacher-led exercises for working in pairs or groups; A glossary of key terms; An answer key; a downloadable teacher's guide to help teachers maximize the learning potential of the materials (available at: www.world-nuclear-university.org)

  4. 2. Industrial countries: Promoting sustainable growth in a global economy

    Hammond, A.; MacKenzie, J.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter discusses the following topics: dimensions of sustainable development; energy resources (energy transitions, energy efficiency, renewable energy resources, economic and regulatory policies); agricultural and forest resources (effects of present policies, unsustainable practices, needed policy reform); waste, pollution, and sustainable technologies (cleanup strategies, more efficient manufacturing, emerging technologies); and a global context. It is concluded that the US could markedly improve its efficiency in using energy and other natural resources and, at the same time, reduce local and regional pollution, avoid waste, and lower its contribution to the threat of global warming. With appropriate, market-based policies, these steps need not carry heavy economic penalties and could indeed improve the country's economic competitiveness. To a large degree, similar steps could be taken, with equal benefit, in other OECD countries. Many promising new technologies exist that are both more efficient and more sustainable. The US and other OECD countries will need to move toward such technologies, and toward policies that encourage their development and use, to improve not only their own destinies but also those of other countries

  5. Globalization of the nuclear industry: Developing technology - Framatome ANP's experience

    Kaluzny, Y.; Dams, W.; Reynolds, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the last 15 years, Framatome ANP has moved from being a purely national player to being a global market leader. This is due to a series of successful mergers and acquisitions, including the acquisition of the nonmilitary nuclear activity of Babcock and Wilcox in the late 1980s and, more recently, the merger with Siemens-KWU's nuclear activities. Integration presented a number of challenges. There were undeniable cultural differences, reorganization was required to bring the business under control and a number of activities, such as finance, sales, R and D, marketing, engineering and manufacturing, and information systems had to be rationalized and integrated. The key factors that contributed to the success of this integration included a management team that was clearly committed to the success of the merger and the quick and clear definition of the strategy, vision and values of the new company, which had to be effectively communicated. A global organization which was not simply a group of three companies, each working in its own corner, was quickly established and multiregional task forces were appointed to identify possible synergies and propose how they could be put into practice. One of the key issues is R and D, which will be discussed as an example of what has been achieved. This activity is essential when preparing the future of the company as a whole, and one of the major challenges that had to be met was to find the best way of making use of all the skills available in it. A special multiregional, multi-activity organization has identified the existing skills and potential synergies in each of the technical areas and core businesses. A global R and D management process has been put in place under the strong leadership of the corporate R and D function. This process involves all the business units worldwide and has made it possible to set R and D objectives and identify the action to be taken in line with the group's strategic objectives

  6. Report of the Defense Science Board 1980 Summer Study Panel on Industrial Responsiveness

    1981-01-01

    incentives , as discussed earlier. They have "made-do" with obsolete and aging tools. The government machine tool base contains about 115,000 tools of...critical materials when the U.S has substantial dependence on imports. Under Title III the government can help establish or support mining and...INDUSTRIES CAN BE CHARACTERIZED INTO THREE SEGMENTS: 1. MINING 2. REFINING, SMELTING, AND SCRAP RECLAIMATION 3. FABRICATION BAUXITE MINING IS 95% OFF

  7. The Importance of Enhancing Worldwide Industry Cooperation in Radiological Protection, Waste Management and Decommissioning - Views from the Global Nuclear Industry

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2008-01-01

    The slow or stagnant rate of nuclear power generation development in many developed countries over the last two decades has resulted in a significant shortage in the population of mid-career nuclear industry professionals. This shortage is even more pronounced in some specific areas of expertise such as radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning. This situation has occurred at a time when the renaissance of nuclear power and the globalization of the nuclear industry are steadily gaining momentum and when the industry's involvement in international and national debates in these three fields of expertise (and the industry's impact on these debates) is of great relevance.This paper presents the World Nuclear Association (WNA) approach to building and enhancing worldwide industry cooperation in radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning, which is manifested through the activities of the two WNA working groups on radiological protection (RPWG) and on waste management and decommissioning (WM and DWG). This paper also briefly describes the WNA's participatory role, as of Summer 2005, in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard development committees on radiation safety (RASSC), waste safety (WASSC) and nuclear safety (NUSSC). This participation provides the worldwide nuclear industry with an opportunity to be part of IAEA's discussions on shaping changes to the control regime of IAEA safety standards. The review (and the prospect of a revision) of IAEA safety standards, which began in October 2005, makes this WNA participation and the industry's involvement at the national level timely and important. All of this excellent industry cooperation and team effort is done through 'collegial' exchanges between key industry experts, which help tackle important issues more effectively. The WNA is continuously looking to enhance its worldwide industry representation in these fields of expertise through the RPWG and WM and DWG

  8. Logistics Concepts at the Industrial Enterprise under Conditions of the Globalization of Markets

    Trushkina Nataliia V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the dynamics of indicators of Ukraine’s foreign trade in goods and services; conduct a comparative analysis of logistics concepts used at industrial enterprises under conditions of the globalization of markets; determine the ways to improve the management of international production and distribution activities of industrial enterprises. The study analyzes the dynamics of volumes of exports–imports of goods and transport services in Ukraine; freight traffic by mode of transport; export, import and transit of goods; foreign direct investment from countries of the world in the Ukrainian economy. Modern information systems and logistics concepts used at industrial enterprises under conditions of the globalization of markets are considered. The ways to improve the management of international production and distribution activities of industrial enterprises are defined and systematized. Prospects for further research in this direction are the development of proposals for information support of providing services for customers of the industrial enterprise.

  9. Competing in the Global Solar Photovoltaic Industry: The Case of Taiwan

    Yu-Shan Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The top five solar cell supply countries in the world in sequential order are China, Taiwan, the United States of America, Japan, and Germany. The capacity of Taiwanese solar cell production is ranked top two in the globe. The competitive advantage of the Taiwanese electronics firms has facilitated the rapid developments to its solar photovoltaic industry. The Taiwanese solar photovoltaic industry possesses a large size and a complete value chain of upstream, midstream, and downstream sectors. In this study, I analyzed the trends and developments of the solar photovoltaic industry in Taiwan and in the globe. And I also investigated the positioning and competitive advantage of Taiwanese firms in the value chain of the global solar photovoltaic industry. I found that Taiwanese firms continue to have an important and indispensable role in the global solar photovoltaic industry by either differentiation or cost advantage.

  10. OCP TECD Report - TARDEC Blast Mitigation Program (BMP) and National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) Michigan (MI) Chapter Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Summary

    2017-09-26

    Standard, MIL-STD-3058, Occupant-Centric Protection for Military Ground Vehicles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Occupant Centric Platform Technology-Enabled...Capability Demonstration (OCP TECD), Occupant-centric, Occupant Protection , Underbody Blast, National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA...Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF

  11. Energy use and CO2 emissions of China's industrial sector from a global perspective

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China's final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of China's per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO 2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO 2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095. - Highlights: • Eleven industrial subsectors in China are detail analyzed from a global perspective. • Industrial energy use and CO 2 emissions will approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040. • Industrial CHP and CCS are truly encouraged by carbon tax. • Some degree of industrial sector electrification are observed by carbon tax

  12. A Snapshot of the World of Global Multinationals – An Industry Based Analysis of Fortune Global 500 Companies

    Ogrean Claudia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For better or for worse, the “corporations rule the world” assertion is nowadays more actual and accurate than ever before, as multinational companies represent the undisputable engine of the globalization process, and the latter continuously (recreates the background against which global multinationals are flourishing, while reinforcing their “domination”. Since 1995, the Fortune Global 500 ranking (FG 500 annually provides a comprehensive and eloquent image of the world of global multinationals; the merits of the FG 500 ranking go beyond the synchronic approach of the characteristics of global multinationals (in terms of revenues, profits, assets and employees - by sector, industry and country, as it also favors diachronic analysis and comparisons - which are essential for strategists in identifying evolving trends and substantiating corporate strategies able to lead to sustainable competitiveness. The paper aims to determine the contribution of sectors to FG 500 ranking in 2016, on one hand, and to emphasize on some industry-based dynamics in FG 500 - by comparatively analyzing the 2016 and 1996 rankings, on the other hand.

  13. Nuclear energy industry in Russia promoting global strategy

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2001-01-01

    Since former USSR disintegrated to birth new Russia on December, 1991, it already passed ten years. As Russian economic hardship affected its nuclear energy development, No.1 reactor of the Rostov nuclear power station (VVER-1000) established its full power operation on September, 2001 after passing eight years of pausing period as a Russian nuclear power station, at dull development of nuclear energy in the world. When beginning of its commercial operation, scale of nuclear power generation under operation in Russia will reach to the fourth one in the world by getting over the one in Germany. Russia also begins international business on reprocessing of spent fuel and intermittent storage. And, Russia positively develops export business of concentrated uranium and nuclear fuel, too. Furthermore, Russia shows some positive initiatives on export of nuclear power station to China, Iran and India, and development on advanced nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle forecast to future. Here was introduced on international developmental development of nuclear energy industry activated recently at delayed time for this ten years. (G.K.)

  14. The global tantalum industry and Sons of Gwalia Ltd

    Paull, D.

    2002-01-01

    Sons of Gwalia Ltd., in Perth Australia is a long-term supplier of tantalum (Ta), a valuable rare metal with adequate supply. Tantalum is soft and ductile with high melting and boiling points and a low co-efficient of thermal expansion. It has excellent capacity to store and release electrical charge and offers exceptional resistance to corrosion. Its' main use is in consumer electronics such as mobile phones, laptop computers, DVD players, personal video recorders and MP-3 players. For automotive electronics, tantalum is used for air-bags, audio systems, navigation systems, anti-lock break systems and under the hood vehicle management systems. The super alloy is also in demand by the aerospace industry and for turbine blades for power stations. The total demand of Tantalum in 2000 was 5 million lbs. Demand growth has increased steadily since 1993 with perhaps a slight increase in the past 5 years. Resources are estimated at a 125 year supply based on year 2000 production rates. 41 per cent of the world supply of tantalum is obtained from Australia, 13 per cent from Africa, 16 per cent from America, 22 per cent from Asia. The Greenbushes mine in Australia is the world's largest tantalum mine with 80 million lbs Ta, followed by Australia's Wodgina Mine with 50 million lbs Ta. Both mines are expected to be operational for the next 25 years. 12 figs

  15. Spatial lifecycles of cleantech industries – The global development history of solar photovoltaics

    Binz, Christian; Tang, Tian; Huenteler, Joern

    2017-01-01

    New industries develop in increasingly globalized networks, whose dynamics are not well understood by academia and policy making. Solar photovoltaics (PV) are a case in point for an industry that experienced several shifts in its spatial organization over a short period of time. A lively debate has recently emerged on whether the spatial dynamics in new cleantech sectors are in line with existing industry lifecycle models or whether globalization created new lifecycle patterns that are not fully explained in the literature. This paper addresses this question based on an extensive analysis of quantitative data in the solar PV sector. Comprehensive global databases containing 86,000 patents as well as manufacturing and sales records are used to analyze geographic shifts in the PV sector’s innovation, manufacturing and market deployment activities between 1990 and 2012. The analysis reveals spatial lifecycle patterns with lower-than-expected first mover advantages in manufacturing and market activities and an earlier entry of firms from emerging economies in manufacturing and knowledge creation. We discuss implications of these findings for the competitive positions of companies in developed and emerging economies, derive new stylized hypotheses for industry lifecycle theories, and sketch policy approaches that are reflexive of global interdependencies in emerging cleantech industries. - Highlights: • The global spatial lifecycle of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry is analyzed. • Our data partly contradicts existing industry lifecycle theories. • Latecomers in China started manufacturing and deployment earlier than expected. • Pioneers in the US and EU retained significant first-mover advantages in patenting. • Industry lifecycle theory needs updates in the production and market dimensions.

  16. Multinationals and global climate change. Issues for the automotive and oil industries

    Kolk, A.; Levy, D.

    2003-07-01

    This chapter analyzes the strategic responses by U.S. and European multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the oil and automobile industries to the global climate change issue. We examine and attempt to explain the differences across regions, across industries, and the changes over time. Traditional economic drivers of strategy do not provide a satisfactory account for these differences, and the chapter focuses instead on the conflicting institutional pressures on MNEs and the implications for their climate strategy. The home-country institutional context and individual corporate histories can create divergent pressures on strategy for MNEs based in different countries. At the same time, the location of MNEs in global industries and their participation in 'global issues arenas' such as climate change generate institutional forces for strategic convergence. It appears that local context influenced initial corporate reactions, but that convergent pressures predominate as the issue matures.

  17. Multinationals and global climate change. Issues for the automotive and oil industries

    Kolk, A.; Levy, D.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter analyzes the strategic responses by U.S. and European multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the oil and automobile industries to the global climate change issue. We examine and attempt to explain the differences across regions, across industries, and the changes over time. Traditional economic drivers of strategy do not provide a satisfactory account for these differences, and the chapter focuses instead on the conflicting institutional pressures on MNEs and the implications for their climate strategy. The home-country institutional context and individual corporate histories can create divergent pressures on strategy for MNEs based in different countries. At the same time, the location of MNEs in global industries and their participation in 'global issues arenas' such as climate change generate institutional forces for strategic convergence. It appears that local context influenced initial corporate reactions, but that convergent pressures predominate as the issue matures

  18. Global product development interaction between local networks: A study of the Danish food industry

    Kristensen, Preben Sander

    A study of the Danish foods industry shows that producers of food products largely ignore home marekt demand in their product development activities. They have built up and maintain development of end-user products in interaction with customers in distant sophisticated markets. Concurrently...... view of actors in the global end-user customer market and companies' euclidean view of actors in thelocal business-to-business market. In pr companies combine these two market views by interacting in networks: The global industrial network links various functions which again are each part of a local...... their development of end-user pr through global interaction. It is precisely by not interacting with home market end-user demand, but rather by deriving an industrial home market demand from changing end-user markets that the complex has avoided being insulated....

  19. GLOBALIZATION AND THE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE EUROPEAN TEXTILE AND CLOTHING INDUSTRY

    Girneata Adriana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the competitiveness of the European textile and clothing industry under the influence of globalization and recent economic crisis. The textile and clothing industry is an important part of the European manufacturing industry, playing a vital role in the economy and social welfare in many regions of Europe. The European textile and clothing industry has undergone significant changes in recent decades due to the technological advances, developments in production costs, the emergence major international competitors and the elimination import quotas after 2005. In response to the competitive challenges, this sector of activity has undertaken a lengthy process of restructuring and modernization. Globalization and technological progress have led to rethinking the strategy of the companies in the industry. In a competitive global market, European organizations producing textiles and garments have as main competitive advantage research and continuous innovation. Using methods of qualitative research, this paper analyses the evolution of the main financial indicators concerning this sector of activity in the period 2007 – 2013, including domestic consumption, turnover, number of employees, number of companies, imports and exports. The globalization of markets, international outsourcing and development of the Internet had a major impact on the structure and dynamics of the textile and clothing industry in Europe, and in particular on small and medium enterprises. Also, relocation, subcontracting and outsourcing of large brands in this domain have contributed significantly to the increase of imports from low-cost countries. A growing number of apparel retailers have emerged on the market, organizing supply chains globally. At the same time, producers have transferred part of their activities to low-cost countries in order to maintain market competitiveness. This was determined by the major differences in salaries across

  20. Ontario's petroleum legacy : the birth, evolution and challenges of a global industry

    Gray, E.

    2008-01-01

    This book provided a historical account of Ontario's role in the global oil industry, from the coming in of the first wells at Oil Springs in the mid-19th century when the primary fuel sources were wood, coal, and water. In 1858, oil seeps in Enniskillen Township, Lambton County, Ontario revealed the existence of petroleum, which encouraged the first drilling of wells and the development of the global industry. The book explored issues related to imperialism, resource development, local history and the colonial land policies surrounding the oil boom. Details of the Petrolia oil discovery were included along with the accomplishments of the entrepreneurs who were instrumental in developing the petroleum industry in Ontario. The major elements surrounding the development of Canada's oil and gas industry were presented, beginning with the coal-oil-refining industry which paved the way for the development of the oil industry; the early oilmen from Oil Springs and Petrolia who drilled for oil; the development of the oil and gas industry's position today as a major strength of the Canadian economy; and the environmental and climate change issues that currently confront the industry. After 150 years, the oil fields at Petrolia and Oil Springs still produce commercial quantities of crude oil from at least 650 active wells. refs., figs

  1. The concentration of the global alcohol industry and its penetration in the African region.

    Jernigan, David H; Babor, Thomas F

    2015-04-01

    To describe the penetration and expansion of the global alcohol industry into the African region, as a context for exploring the implications for public health. Source materials for this study came primarily from market research and the business press. This was supplemented by industry sources (from websites, company annual reports), World Health Organization reports and the scientific literature. Drinking in Africa is characterized by high rates of abstention and a high prevalence of heavy episodic consumption among those who drink. Much of the region is currently experiencing a rapid rise in consumption. Rising populations and income and the rapid pace of urbanization make Africa very attractive to the global alcohol industry, and industry leaders have identified Africa as a key area for growth. The shift from collaboration to competition in Africa among the global alcohol companies has prompted increasing alcohol production, promotion, new product development, pricing schemes and stakeholder lobbying. Beer consumption has increased across most of the continent, and global brewers view themselves as legitimate players at the alcohol policy table. Weak alcohol policy environments may be compromised further in terms of public health protections by alcohol industry opposition to effective measures such as marketing regulations, availability controls and taxation. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. INDUSTRIAL REGIONS OF RUSSIA IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS

    B.L. Kuznetsov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers reasons and consequences of the global economic crisis from the point of view of Russian regions development. The focus of an article is on the socio-economic situation of the Republic of Tatarstan – the territory with a large machine-building industry. Authors explain a need for the clear and efficient industrial policy both at the federal and regional levels of government. It should be oriented for the innovative development, resource saving and import replacement.

  3. How Sustainable are Benefits from Global Production Networks? Malaysia's Upgrading Prospects in the Electronics Industry

    Dieter Ernst

    2003-01-01

    The paper introduces an operational definition of industrial upgrading (IU and documents the emergence of complex, multi-tier "networks of networks" which provide new opportunities for IU, but which also raise threshold requirements for participating in these networks. I highlight structural weaknesses of the Malaysian electronics industry that constrain its upgrading prospects; assess current policies that try to link cluster development and global network integration; discuss adjustments in...

  4. Global Impact Estimation of ISO 50001 Energy Management System for Industrial and Service Sectors

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Therkelsen, Peter L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rao, Prakash [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    A methodology has been developed to determine the impacts of ISO 50001 Energy Management System (EnMS) at a region or country level. The impacts of ISO 50001 EnMS include energy, CO2 emissions, and cost savings. This internationally recognized and transparent methodology has been embodied in a user friendly Microsoft Excel® based tool called ISO 50001 Impact Estimator Tool (IET 50001). However, the tool inputs are critical in order to get accurate and defensible results. This report is intended to document the data sources used and assumptions made to calculate the global impact of ISO 50001 EnMS.

  5. Taiwanese Consumers’ Perceptions of Local and Global Brands: An Investigation in Taiwan Computer Industry

    Hsieh, Ya-Yun

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how consumers in a newly developed country, Taiwan, perceive local brands and global brands in the computer industry. To access an in-depth understanding and evaluate factors that influence consumers’ assessment of local and global brands, the country-of-origin effect and the association of brand origin are investigated; the effect of consumer ethnocentrism is addressed; and the cultural aspects on collectivism and face concept are examined. The study adopts...

  6. The impact of climate change on the global wine industry: Challenges & solutions

    Michelle Renée Mozell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of climate change upon the global production of winegrapes and wine. It includes a review of the literature on the cause and effects of climate change, as well as illustrations of the specific challenges global warming may bring to the production of winegrapes and wine. More importantly, this paper provides some practical solutions that industry professionals can take to mitigate and adapt to the coming change in both vineyards and wineries.

  7. Global trends in milk quality: implications for the irish dairy industry

    More SJ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The quality of Irish agricultural product will become increasingly important with the ongoing liberalisation of international trade. This paper presents a review of the global and Irish dairy industries; considers the impact of milk quality on farm profitability, food processing and human health, examines global trends in quality; and explores several models that are successfully being used to tackle milk quality concerns. There is a growing global demand for dairy products, fuelled in part by growing consumer wealth in developing countries. Global dairy trade represents only 6.2% of global production and demand currently outstrips supply. Although the Irish dairy industry is small by global standards, approximately 85% of annual production is exported annually. It is also the world's largest producer of powdered infant formula. Milk quality has an impact on human health, milk processing and on-farm profitability. Somatic cell count (SCC is a key measure of milk quality, with a SCC not exceeding 400,000 cells/ml (the EU milk quality standard generally accepted as the international export standard. There have been ongoing improvements in milk quality among both established and emerging international suppliers. A number of countries have developed successful industry-led models to tackle milk quality concerns. Based on international experiences, it is likely that problems with effective translation of knowledge to practice, rather than incomplete knowledge per se, are the more important constraints to national progress towards improved milk quality.

  8. Measuring the Prevalence and Incidence of Low Back Pain Disorders Among American Workers in the Aerospace and Defense Industry.

    Goetzel, Ron Z; D'Arco, Malinda; Thomas, Jordana; Wang, Degang; Tabrizi, Maryam J; Roemer, Enid Chung; Prasad, Aishwarya; Yarborough, Charles M

    2015-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of low back pain (LBP) among workers in the aerospace and defense industry and in a specific company. Claims and demographic data from the Truven Health MarketScan normative database representing more than 1 million workers were drawn from a group of 18 US benchmark companies and compared with one particular company, Lockheed Martin Corporation. The prevalence of LBP in the MarketScan normative group was 15.6% in the final study year (2012), whereas the incidence of new cases was 7.2% and 7.3% in years 2011 and 2012, respectively. Compared with the normative group, the company's prevalence and incidence rates were lower. Women and older workers were more likely to experience LBP compared with men and younger workers. The analysis was used to inform the company's leadership about the health burden of the condition and evaluate alternative treatment options to prevent the incidences and reduce the prevalence of clinical back pain among workers.

  9. Current trends in the global tourism industry: evidence from the United States

    Nejdet Delener

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the largest U.S. industries, serving millions of international and domestic tourists yearly. Tourists visit the U.S. to see natural wonders, cities, historic landmarks, and entertainment venues. Americans seek similar attractions as well as recreation and vacation areas. Tourism competes in the global market, so it is important to understand current trends in the U.S. travel industry. Therefore, this article offers insight into important trends and suggests strategies for policy makers involved in the travel and tourism industry.

  10. Global media industry in postmodernism: Domination of broadcasting and the tradition of publishing

    Lozić Joško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out the changes brought by the postmodernism in the global media industry. Modernism was crated simultaneously with the development of the publishing and it lasted several hundred years. Postmodernism was formed in the womb of broadcasting and in just a few years it took over the global market which has been under the control of the publishing houses for several hundred years. The two economic crises at the beginning of the 21st century marked the entry of the global media industry into the mature phase. By entering the mature phase, the media markets of the most economically developed countries had stabilized. Revenues were no longer recording high growth rates and some countries have started to record a negative growth rates in the past five years. In the global market, several global vertically integrated corporations positioned themselves by employing the takeover strategies, which pushed out the smaller competitors from the market. The period of maturity had revealed the specifics of the media industry and the need for interdisciplinary scientific approach. Analyzing the development of certain categories of the medial industry in different geographic areas it is clear that threw are significant differences in the degree of their development. This was influenced by various factors of which the most important ones are recognized in the historical development and the cultural diversities of the certain geographical areas. Economies, as a scientific discipline, gave its significant contribution to the study of the media industry relatively late, at the end of the twentieth century and become an equal partner to other sciences that were already represented in the analyses. The media industry, as a typical representative of postmodernism, requires a holistic approach in order to find answers to the asked questions.

  11. Global scope assessment: A novel method and its application to the Chinese paper industry

    Wang, X.W.; Hua, B.

    2007-01-01

    We strongly suggest an idea we call Global Scope Assessment (GSA) on the basis of popular Life Cycle Assessment and Environomics. It is used to justify the industry development pattern in a region (country) considering the specific regional resources conditions. In terms of GSA, the greatest synthetic benefit is expected while taking full advantage of regional comparative superiority and the worldwide distribution of related industry links. As an example, we choose Chinese paper industry to be the subject for application of GSA and the optimal industry links distribution among related countries is obtained. Our study indicates that the adjustment of industry structure should be a fair approach to relieve the pressure from environment and resources and to balance the contradiction between development and resources

  12. Globalni izzivi v svetovni industriji bele tehnike = Global Challenges in the Domestic Appliances Industry

    Dušan Gošnik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available bal Challenges in the Domestic Appliances IndustryAbstract: The domestic appliances industry is a mature industry. Changes in the business environment such as political, law, cultural, social, ecological and technological influences have an effect on the future development of this industry. Challenges to producers in this industry are oriented towards the further globalisation of the business, managing processes, new product and innovations development, and towards establishing and empowerment of the product brands. Global trends in the use of some natural sources, technological break-through, fulfilment of the market and strong competition direct us towards new innovations which will in their development consider also the social and environmental aspect as well.

  13. Firm entry and institutional lock-in: An organizational ecology analysis of the global fashion design industry

    Wenting, R.; Frenken, K.

    2011-01-01

    Few industries are more concentrated geographically than the global fashion design industry. We analyze the geography and evolution of the fashion design industry by looking at the yearly entry rates at the city level. In contrast to other industry studies, we find that legitimation processes

  14. Firm entry and institutional lock-in : an organizational ecology analysis of the global fashion design industry

    Wenting, R.; Frenken, K.

    2011-01-01

    Few industries are more concentrated geographically than the global fashion design industry. We analyze the geography and evolution of the fashion design industry by looking at the yearly entry rates at the city level. In contrast to other industry studies, we find that legitimation processes

  15. Ethnography of epidemiologic transition: Avian flu, global health politics and agro-industrial capitalism in Thailand.

    Chuengsatiansup, Komatra

    2008-04-01

    This paper situates the ethnography of avian flu within the geo-political context of a new epidemiologic transition. Drawing on anthropological experience and insight, this paper examines areas of enquiry in which an ethnographic approach could contribute to a better implementation of prevention and control measures. Within the context of newly emerging diseases and accelerated globalization, the task of ethnography needs to extend far beyond the local. This paper reveals two major global issues that the ethnography of epidemiologic transition must take into consideration: (1) Global agro-industrial capitalism, and (2) global politics in the context of international health organizations and multi-national drug companies. The case of Thailand poses a question of how the strength of ethnographic practice could be deployed to account for the reality of the global-local interface of the new epidemiologic transition.

  16. The formation of the global natural gas industry: definition, constraints and challenges; A formacao da industria global de gas natural: definicao, condicionantes e desafios

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires

    2008-03-15

    This study aims to investigate the real possibilities for the natural gas industry to become a global energy industry. So, it is necessary to define what global energy industry really means. In order to do a comparative analysis between the oil and natural gas industries, it is necessary to define three distinct stages of the evolution of an energy industry, namely internationalization, mundialization and globalization. This study analyzes the evolution of the oil industry trying to identify the main aspects that promoted changes and transformed the oil business into a global industry. Then, the evolution of the natural gas industry is analyzed, looking for similarities between the structural changes in both industries, and trying to determine what is the current stage of the natural gas industry. Despite the increase in the natural gas international trade and the prospects of growth of natural gas demand, there are still some challenges for this industry to effectively become global. Some of the challenges are the need of investments in production infrastructure, transportation and distribution sectors, the access to the main reserves, the uncertainty related to the demand evolution and the possible creation of a natural gas producers cartel, like the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (author)

  17. Differential Globalization of Industry- and Non-Industry–Sponsored Clinical Trials

    Atal, Ignacio; Trinquart, Ludovic; Porcher, Raphaël; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Mapping the international landscape of clinical trials may inform global health research governance, but no large-scale data are available. Industry or non-industry sponsorship may have a major influence in this mapping. We aimed to map the global landscape of industry- and non-industry–sponsored clinical trials and its evolution over time. Methods We analyzed clinical trials initiated between 2006 and 2013 and registered in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We mapped single-country and international trials by World Bank's income groups and by sponsorship (industry- vs. non- industry), including its evolution over time from 2006 to 2012. We identified clusters of countries that collaborated significantly more than expected in industry- and non-industry–sponsored international trials. Results 119,679 clinical trials conducted in 177 countries were analysed. The median number of trials per million inhabitants in high-income countries was 100 times that in low-income countries (116.0 vs. 1.1). Industry sponsors were involved in three times more trials per million inhabitants than non-industry sponsors in high-income countries (75.0 vs. 24.5) and in ten times fewer trials in low- income countries (0.08 vs. 1.08). Among industry- and non-industry–sponsored trials, 30.3% and 3.2% were international, respectively. In the industry-sponsored network of collaboration, Eastern European and South American countries collaborated more than expected; in the non-industry–sponsored network, collaboration among Scandinavian countries was overrepresented. Industry-sponsored international trials became more inter-continental with time between 2006 and 2012 (from 54.8% to 67.3%) as compared with non-industry–sponsored trials (from 42.4% to 37.2%). Conclusions Based on trials registered in the WHO ICTRP we documented a substantial gap between the globalization of industry- and non-industry–sponsored clinical research. Only 3% of

  18. IT Investment Guidelines in Taiwan's IT Industry under a Global Economic Downturn

    Cha, Un Un

    2011-01-01

    The current qualitative phenomenological study focused on how information technology (IT) leaders managed IT investment during the global economic downturn in the Taiwan IT industry. Organizations around the world spend billions of dollars on IT-related products and services every year. Determining an effective IT investment plan is a complex task…

  19. Labour-Intensive Industrialization in Global History – A Review Essay

    Frankema, E.H.P.

    2015-01-01

    Labour-Intensive Industrialization in Global History, 11 leading economic historians explore whether East Asia's pathway into modern economic growth can be meaningfully characterized as a trajectory of ‘labour-intensive industrialization’, a route distinct from the North Atlantic capital-intensive

  20. Pfizer and the Challenges of the Global Pharmaceutical Industry 2013 (B)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This is part of a case series. The case focuses on describing and analysing the environment, profitability and competitiveness of the global pharmaceutical industry, and to evaluate the current and future strategy of Pfizer. It features a large number of tables with quantitative data that help...... initiatives and responses to the market changes....

  1. The Emerging Global Education Industry: Analysing Market-Making in Education through Market Sociology

    Verger, Antoni; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; Lubienski, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the rise and consequences of an emerging global education industry (GEI), which represents new forms of private, for profit involvement in education across the globe. The paper explores the emergence within the GEI of new and varied, largely transnational, markets in education by focusing on three examples of the GEI at work.…

  2. Industrialization in Globalizing World and The Changing Role Of The State

    Berna Balcı İzgi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available World economies are an integral part of a whole system that are inseperable . It is not wise to think the future of these economies seperately. If we assume that developed countries are going in the same trajectories, the outcomes for developing countries should be considered in economic policies. The scope of this study is to argue the industrialization concept with the globalization and to define the limits of government in developed and developing countries. In globalizing world the limits of the governments are also discussed. However states continue their position in governance and economy. In order to achieve a sustained and powerfull industrialization countries need a weel arranged industrial policiy and state intervention. However the important thing is to define the limits and responsibilities of the government.

  3. Defensive Liberal Wars’: The Global War on Terror and the Return of Illiberalism in American Foreign Policy

    Rashmi Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the illiberal practices and discourse of the Global War on Terror (GWoT and demonstrates how the United States of America used the liberal argument as a qualitative metric of its success and failure in the GWoT. I argue that ‘the othering’ of Salafi Jihadists as well the full military involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq were both philosophically rooted in the liberal thinking of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill, which have traditionally guided US foreign policy. More significantly, these liberal philosophies of history and international relations hold within them the seeds of illiberalism by depicting non-liberal, undemocratic societies/organisations as ‘barbaric’ – and as such prime candidates for intervention and regime change. Predicated upon this logic, the discourse of the GWoT framed Al Qaeda as a key existential threat to not only the United States but also the ‘civilised world’ in general and one which required a ‘liberal defensive war’ in response. It was the successful securitisation of Al Qaeda that essentially enabled the United States to adopt deeply illiberal policies to counter this so-called existential threat by using any means at its disposal.

  4. Development, transition and globalization in China's coal industry

    Rui, H.C. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    The coal industry has proved to be one of the most strategically important but also one of the most problematic industries in China. Closing small township and village owned (TVE) coalmines, declaring loss-making state-owned (SOE) mines bankrupt, and building up modern coal corporations are all causing huge difficulties for the government. The main reason for the problems now facing the industry is the fact that TVEs, SOEs and coal corporations were encouraged to meet different needs at different times and now all face different challenges from development, transition and globalization. This article uses research from the three major categories of coal companies in China to demonstrate that, while these three parallel challenges do necessitate reform in the industry, this reform must be handled cautiously, innovatively and in a balanced way.

  5. Globalization of the pharmaceutical industry and the growing dependency of developing countries: the case of Turkey.

    Semin, Semih; Güldal, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, the effect of globalization on the pharmaceutical sector has resulted in a decrease in exportation and domestic production, accompanied by an increase in importation of pharmaceuticals and a rise in prices and expenditures. As an example of a developing country, Turkey has been facing the long-standing and increasing pressure of global regulations placed on its pharmaceutical sector. This has led to an increasing dependency on multinational companies and a gradual deterioration of an already weakened domestic pharmaceutical sector. This case study of Turkey offers points to consider in the world of increasing globalization, as it offers lessons on ways of examining the effects of globalization on the pharmaceutical industry of developing countries.

  6. The transformation of the global oil industry and its impact on international relations

    Appleyard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The transformations of ownership and control in the global oil industry since the first oil shock of 1974 are discussed and the impact of that change on several interconnected issues is explored. It is argued that structural changes in the industry affect interstate relations in ways that are of central concern to the discipline of international relations. Any likely future oil industry scenario will have considerable political and economic repercussions for both producer and consumer states, with a concommitant impact on the relations between those states more generally. There is a danger that interstate conflicts among oil producers will increase with perodic changes in the global supply and demand conditions for oil. Ways are suggested for international relations studies to take into account the change in the global oil industry and its impact on the distribution of power and on international order and justice. It is contended that a growing number of states must be considered as behaving much like firms in a competitive market, and the new international oil order both constrains and provides opportunities for those firm-like states. 20 refs

  7. 77 FR 11157 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change...

    2012-02-24

    ... the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change in Start Time of Public Hearing AGENCY... investigation No. 332-525, Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Project Leader Alan Treat (202-205- 3426 or [email protected] ), Deputy Project Leader...

  8. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: Creating a global corporate network to undermine public health

    Malone Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Methods Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. Results The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. Conclusion The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when

  9. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: creating a global corporate network to undermine public health.

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-17

    The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI) was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when threatened by the globalization of public health, sidestep competitive

  10. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: Creating a global corporate network to undermine public health

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    Background The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Methods Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. Results The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI) was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. Conclusion The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when threatened by the globalization of

  11. KT&G: From Korean monopoly to 'a global name in the tobacco industry'.

    Lee, Kelley; Gong, Lucy; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Lee, Sungkyu

    2017-03-01

    Until the late 1980s, the former South Korean tobacco monopoly KT&G was focused on the protected domestic market. The opening of the market to foreign competition, under pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative, led to a steady erosion of market share over the next 10 years. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, this paper examines the adaptation of KT&G to the globalization of the South Korean tobacco industry since the 1990s. It is argued that KT&G has shifted from a domestic monopoly to an outward-looking, globally oriented business in response to the influx of transnational tobacco companies. Like other high-income countries, South Korea has also seen a decline in smoking prevalence as stronger tobacco control measures have been adopted. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, KT&G initially focused on exporting Korean-manufactured cigarettes. Since the mid-2000s, a broader global business strategy has been adopted including the building of overseas manufacturing facilities, establishing strategic partnerships and acquiring foreign companies. Trends in KT&G sales suggest an aspiring transnational tobacco company poised to become a major player in the global tobacco market. This article is part of the special issue 'The emergence of Asian tobacco companies: Implications for global health governance'.

  12. What do global warming impacts really mean to U.S. industry?

    Bendel, W.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will explore real-world impacts that global warming could have on US industry. The question of dealing with global warming is, to some extent, an exercise in probability or relative risk management. The difficult part is separating fact from fiction. There is another issue that arises in this intense debate regarding impacts on business and policy. This is the question of whether the impacts are real or only perceived. As the authors have been seen in several environmental situations, the difference between a real or perceived impact can be academic, since a perceived risk often produces real impacts. This paper presents a discussion on what companies can and should do to minimize the perceived risk of global warming on their bottom lines. That is, the basic question is, how can businesses today manage this risk so that objective business decisions can be made? Problems that could be directly or indirectly embedded in the global warming controversy are examined. These include financial, engineering, and international aspects of global climate change. This discussion will include possible impacts on the utility, agricultural, insurance, and financial industries

  13. Supply Chain and Blade Manufacturing Considerations in the Global Wind Industry (Presentation)

    James, Ted [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goodrich, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-12

    This briefing provides an overview of supply chain developments in the global wind industry and a detailed assessment of blade manufacturing considerations for U.S. end-markets. The report discusses the international trade flows of wind power equipment, blade manufacturing and logistical costs, and qualitative issues that often influence factory location decisions. To help guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, this report offers a comprehensive perspective of both quantitative and qualitative factors that affect selected supply chain developments in the growing wind power industry.

  14. Introduction: corporate restructuring of the global energy industry, driving forces and implications

    Radetzki, M.

    2000-01-01

    The introductory note briefly summarizes the major aspects discussed in the following individual contributions to this issue of the International Journal of Global Energy Issues which comprises the proceedings of the 1999 SNS Energy Day. The main theme is the dramatic changes in the corporate structure of the energy industries worldwide, i.e the liberalization of investment flows and international trade in the energy sector, the explosive development of information technology, providing novel market opportunities, and the novel structures that have emerged since the deregulation of power industries. (orig./CB)

  15. Developing global health technology standards: what can other industries teach us?

    Masum, Hassan; Lackman, Rebecca; Bartleson, Karen

    2013-10-17

    There is a lack of effective and affordable technologies to address health needs in the developing world. One way to address problems of innovation and affordability is to design global health technologies to follow agreed-upon standards. This Debate article argues that we can better develop standards for global health technologies if we learn lessons from other industries. The article's Background section begins by explaining why standards are needed in global health. For example, if global health technologies can be modularized into independent interfacing parts, these parts can then interact via well-defined standards in a "plug and play" fashion. This can avoid development of mutually incompatible solutions by different organizations, speed the pace of innovation, unlock health systems from single providers and approaches, and lower barriers to entry. The Background then gives a brief primer on standards and discusses incentives for health standards. The article's Discussion section begins with brief relevant cases of standards development from other industries, including electricity, container shipping, CD standards, Universal Serial Bus (USB), and the Internet. It then explores lessons from these and other industries that suggest how to develop standards for global health technologies. The remainder of the Discussion considers intellectual property and regulatory issues and standards-based global health business models, and ends with a checklist of considerations for health standards development leaders. (The associated Additional file discusses observations from standards development for cell phones and semiconductors, as well as challenges in the standards development process itself.) Throughout the article, point-of-care diagnostics are used as an illustrative example. An initiative is already underway to explore standardized diagnostics platforms. This Debate article aims to convince the reader that standards can benefit global health technologies if we

  16. Growth of the Asian health-care market: global implications for the pharmaceutical industry.

    Epstein, Richard J

    2007-10-01

    The global economy is being transformed by an explosion of information unleashed by the internet, the digital revolution, communications and increased international mobility. This transformation is manifesting in many ways, including rapid development of countries such as China, commoditization of public services, mobilization of workforces, shifting of market control from suppliers to consumers, interlinked rises in product demand and customer expectations, and problems regulating international business competition. As Asia is home to half of the world's population, and offers both a large relatively low-cost workforce in some countries and a potentially huge retail market, this region could be central to the future of the global economy. Like other industries, the pharmaceutical industry faces a new array of Asia-specific opportunities and challenges. Success in meeting these challenges will go to those pharmaceutical companies that best understand the unique strengths and constraints of Asia's diverse cultures, talents and markets.

  17. Industrialization and Global Value Chain Participation: An Examination of Constraints Faced by the Private Sector in Nepal

    Basnett, Yurendra; Pandey, Posh Raj

    2014-01-01

    The world’s trade landscape is being shaped by global value chains, which present new opportunities as well as challenges to developing countries. While large developing countries are leveraging the benefits of global value chains, smaller economies have been less successful. In this paper we examine the constraints faced by Nepal, a land-locked least developed country, in participating in global value chains. We find that weak and ineffective industrial policy has led to de-industrialization...

  18. Global economic recessions and the maritime industry 1980-2009 Impact on South African shipping 2000-2012

    Lunga Jacobs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The maritime industry is the major enabler of international trade. Major economic events in the international arena such as global recessions affect world trade and therefore the maritime industry as well. South Africa imports and exports major commodities and products therefore such events will also affect the country's economy. This paper explores how different industries within the South African maritime industry have been affected by global economic recessions. As some of them are of great significance to the country's economy, it is imperative to look at how these industries are affected so as to be able to see the national impact.

  19. Chinese Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense Senior Vice Minister CHEN Qiufa exchanging gifts at luncheon and signing the Guest Book on 1st November 2007 with CERN Director-General R. Aymar.

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Chinese Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense Senior Vice Minister CHEN Qiufa exchanging gifts at luncheon and signing the Guest Book on 1st November 2007 with CERN Director-General R. Aymar.

  20. Türk Savunma Sanayi Firmaları Vizyon ve Misyon İfadelerinin İçerik Analizi (The Content Analysis of Vision and Mission Statements in Turkish Defense Industry Firms

    Metin OCAK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, components used in mission and vision statements by Turkish Defense Industry Firms and their relations with national defense industry guidance documents are examined. For this reason 87 vision and 79 mission statements which mentioned on the web pages of 148 Turkish Defense Industry Firms’ are taken into consideration. A qualitative research design phenomenology was used and the data were analyzed through content analysis in this study. At the end of the analysis, it is identified that there are common 14 components in vision statements and 13 common components in mission statements. Also it is discovered that some of the components are relevant with components mentioned in the national defense industry guidance documents.

  1. eHealth and Global Health: Investments Opportunities and Challenges for Industry in Developing Countries

    Iluyemi, Adesina; Briggs, Jim

    eHealth investments from developed countries to developing countries are expected to follow the emerging trend of eHealth for meeting global health problems. However, eHealth industry from developed countries will need to learn to make this impending venture a ‘win-win’ situation with profitable return on investments. This short paper highlights some of these challenges that must be overcome in order to achieve these objectives.

  2. Increasing Globalization and AFTA in 2003: What are the Prospects for the Philippine Automotive Industry?

    Aldaba, Rafaelita M.

    2000-01-01

    The Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme represents the main mechanism to remove barriers to intra-ASEAN trade. Its adoption will entail intraregional tariffs ranging from zero to five percent. AFTA and the increasing globalization (which occurs through trade and foreign direct investment) of the automotive industry poses both risks and opportunities for us. The opportunities would come from the effects of a bigger market and liberalization combined with the cost advantages that...

  3. Implications of the Biofuels Boom for the Global Livestock Industry: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    Taheripour, Farzad; Hertel, Thomas W.; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a general equilibrium analysis of the impacts of US and EU biofuel mandates for the global livestock sector. Our simulation boosts biofuel production in the US and EU from 2006 levels to mandated 2015 levels. We show that mandates will encourage crop production in both biofuel and non biofuel producing regions, while reducing livestock and livestock production in most regions of the world. The non-ruminant industry curtails its production more than other livestock indu...

  4. Energy and cost total cost management discussion: The global gas industry

    Batten, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Gas has emerged as one of the most desirable fuels for a wide range of applications that previously have been supplied by oil, coal, or nuclear energy. Compared to these, it is environmentally clean and burns at efficiencies far in excess of competitive fuels. The penetration of gas as the fuel of choice in most parts of the world is still modest. This is particularly true in newly-developed countries that are engaged in rapid industrialization and where rates of growth in the gross domestic products are two or three times greater than in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. I will not attempt here to survey the world gas scene comprehensively. I will, however, attempt to focus on some aspects of the industry that could be the trigger points for global development. These triggers are occurring all along the gas chain, by which I mean the entire process of bringing gas to the customer from discovery through delivery. The chain includes exploration and production, power generation, transmission, and distribution. I describe an industry that is on the verge of truly global status, which is fast overcoming the remaining obstacles to transnational trade, and which has unusually exciting long-term prospects. It does have a good way to go before it achieves the maturity of the international oil industry, but in the last few years there has been a tremendous growth of confidence among both investors and users. The global gas industry is certainly developing at a fast pace, and the world can only benefit from the wider availability of this clean, economic, and efficient hydrocarbon

  5. ANALISIS PAKET TEKNOLOGI LOKAL DALAM PENGELOLAAN PRODUKSI MADU ORGANIK UNTUK PASAR GLOBAL DAN INDUSTRI

    Rudi Hilmanto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Production of honey conventionally by community do generate constraint at marketing to global market and industry. Model local technological packet is hoped improve the value sell honey commodity to go in global market and industry. Activity of production organic honey use local technological packet is hoped able to face Free Trade Agreement (FTA for local farmer. Local Technological packet at activity produce honey commodity, is expected be able to develop and strengthen production quality commodity. The objective of this research was to analyse the local technological packet at activity produce organic honey commodity to industrial and the global market in the form of technological model of management produce honey. The research method use Knowledge Base Creation constructively computer program of Agroekological Knowledge Toolkit 5 (AKT5. Result of research indicate that application local technological packet at activity produce organic honey had to watched five activity, namely: (a system agroforestry as source of nectar and pollen; (b to improve the stock honeybee; (c select, breeder, making bee hive honey; (d give meal artificial (e time and technique of cropping, till the product was sold. The result of reseach showed that the responder group applying activity produce honey organic at species Apis cerana yield 2,5 kg each stup, rate moisture content 20%, not turbid, and cleared at yielded honey. Result Interpretation was showed fulfill ideal technology management target

  6. The Globalization of Indian Hindi Movie Industry = Globalizacija hindujske filmske industrije

    Rajesh K. Pillania

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian movie industry, notably Bollywood, has come a long way in the last two centuries. All in all, it has been a long story of nearly nine decades, with the early shaky screen images having been turned into a multi-pronged and vast economic empire. Today it is the biggest movie industry in the world in terms of number of films. The industry has produced approximately 27,000 feature films and thousands of documented short films. Having established itself as an industry and being duly recognized as one, the Indian popular cinema has over its course made a lot of progress in almost all areas, such as retail infrastructure, financing, marketing and distribution. With a huge spread of Indian diaspora and the growth of Brand India, it has made inroads in the international market. In fact, in the recent past, the export sales of many Indian movies were higher than the domestic sales. The industry has made progress in all four aspects of globalization, (i.e., goods/services, capital, technology and people. In the future in order to get a big market share and give Hollywood a run for its money, however, the industry needs to put in a lot of money and effort, particularly in the international marketing and distribution.

  7. Reassessing policy paradigms: A comparison of the global tobacco and alcohol industries.

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris; Eckhardt, Jappe; Lee, Kelley

    2018-01-01

    Tobacco is widely considered to be a uniquely harmful product for human health. Since the mid-1990s, the strategies of transnational tobacco corporations to undermine effective tobacco control policy has been extensively documented through internal industry documents. Consequently, the sale, use and marketing of tobacco products are subject to extensive regulation and formal measures to exclude the industry from policy-making have been adopted in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. In contrast to tobacco, alcohol is subject to less stringent forms of regulation, and the alcohol industry continues to play a central role in policy-making in many countries and at the global level. This article examines whether there is a sufficient rationale for such different regulatory approaches, through a comparative analysis of the political economy of the tobacco and alcohol industries including the structure of the industries, and the market and political strategies they pursue. Despite some important differences, the extensive similarities which exist between the tobacco and alcohol industries in terms of market structure and strategy, and political strategy, call into question the rationale for both the relatively weak regulatory approach taken towards alcohol, and the continued participation of alcohol corporations in policy-making processes.

  8. The Steel and Shipbuilding Industries of South Korea: Rising East Asia and Globalization

    Kyoung-ho Shin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the roles of the steel and shipbuilding industries as generative sectors in Korea’s rapid economic ascent. We argue that a world-systems analysis focusing on these generative sectors provides a more complete understanding of Korea’s rapid economic ascent than do other theoretical models. We outline the similarities between this case and those analyzed by Bunker and Ciccantell (2005, 2007 both in terms of the central role of generative sectors in raw materials and transport industries and how the creation and growth of these two industrial sectors shaped institutional patterns and the broader economic ascent of South Korea and East Asia. Even though South Korea has not and may never become a challenger for global hegemony, its rapid ascent has helped reshape East Asia and the capitalist world-economy. We use the model of generative sectors to analyze the critical industries that underlay and shaped South Korea’s ascent from a low wage, light industry base to a world leader in electronics, automobiles, and other advanced industries.

  9. The international space station: An opportunity for industry-sponsored global education

    Shields, Cathleen E.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station provides an excellent opportunity for industry sponsorship of international space education. As a highly visible worldwide asset, the space station already commands our interest. It has captured the imagination of the world's researchers and connected the world's governments. Once operational, it can also be used to capture the dreams of the world's children and connect the world's industry through education. The space station's global heritage and ownership; its complex engineering, construction, and operation; its flexible research and technology demonstration capability; and its long duration make it the perfect educational platform. These things also make a space station education program attractive to industry. Such a program will give private industry the opportunity to sponsor space-related activities even though a particular industry may not have a research or technology-driven need for space utilization. Sponsors will benefit through public relations and goodwill, educational promotions and advertising, and the sale and marketing of related products. There is money to be made by supporting, fostering, and enabling education in space through the International Space Station. This paper will explore various ISS education program and sponsorship options and benefits, will examine early industry response to such an opportunity, and will make the case for moving forward with an ISS education program as a private sector initiative.

  10. Bibliography on Saskatchewan uranium inquiries and the northern and global impact of the uranium industry

    Harding, J.; Forgay, B.; Gianoli, M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years Saskatchewan, Canada has become the major site for the expansion of the world-wide uranium industry. Largely due to the higher concentration of ore in the province and reduced exploitation elsewhere, by 1984 Canada had become the world's leading non-communist producer of uranium. This expansion has remained one of the most controversial political and ecological issues in Saskatchewan for nearly a decade. What follows is a comprehensive bibliography on the Saskatchewan uranium mining inquiries that paralleled the growth of this industry in the province and on the northern and global impact of the uranium industry. It is the culmination of more than three years of research including in-depth content analysis of transcripts of uranium mining inquiries held in Saskatchewan between 1977-1980

  11. The Spanish Food Industry on Global Supply Chains and Its Impact on Water Resources

    Rosa Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the impact of economic activities on natural resources through global supply chains is increasingly demanded in the context of the growing globalization of economies and product fragmentation. Taking Spain as a case study and a sector with significant economic and environmental impacts, the agri-food industry, the objective of this work is two-fold. First, we estimate the associated water impact, both from the production and consumption perspectives, paying special attention to the water embodied in production exchanges among countries and sectors. To that aim, we use an environmentally-extended multiregional input-output model (MRIO. Second, we assess the main driving factors behind changes in direct and embodied water consumption between the years 1995 and 2009 by means of a structural decomposition analysis. The MRIO model provides a comprehensive estimate of the economic linkages among regions and economic sectors and, therefore, allows calculating the environmental impacts over international value chains. The results indicate that the food industry exerts large impacts on global water resources, particularly given the remarkable interactions with the domestic and foreign agricultural sectors, These growing linkages show how consumption patterns, and, therefore, lifestyles, involve large environmental impacts through the whole and global supply chains.

  12. Political Ecologies of Global Health: Pesticide Exposure in Southwestern Ecuador's Banana Industry.

    Brisbois, Ben Wesley; Harris, Leila; Spiegel, Jerry M

    2018-01-01

    Pesticide exposure in Ecuador's banana industry reflects political economic and ecological processes that interact across scales to affect human health. We use this case study to illustrate opportunities for applying political ecology of health scholarship in the burgeoning field of global health. Drawing on an historical literature review and ethnographic data collected in Ecuador's El Oro province, we present three main areas where a political ecological approach can enrich global health scholarship: perceptive characterization of multi-scalar and ecologically entangled pathways to health outcomes; critical analysis of discursive dynamics such as competing scalar narratives; and appreciation of the environment-linked subjectivities and emotions of people experiencing globalized health impacts. Rapprochement between these fields may also provide political ecologists with access to valuable empirical data on health outcomes, venues for engaged scholarship, and opportunities to synthesize numerous insightful case studies and discern broader patterns.

  13. An innovation-focused roadmap for a sustainable global photovoltaic industry

    Zheng, Cheng; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    The solar photovoltaic (PV) industry has undergone a dramatic evolution over the past decade, growing at an average rate of 48 percent per year to a global market size of 31 GW in 2012, and with the price of crystalline-silicon PV module as low as $0.72/W in September 2013. To examine this evolution we built a comprehensive dataset from 2000 to 2012 for the PV industries in the United States, China, Japan, and Germany, which we used to develop a model to explain the dynamics among innovation, manufacturing, and market. A two-factor learning curve model is constructed to make explicit the effect of innovation from economies of scale. The past explosive growth has resulted in an oversupply problem, which is undermining the effectiveness of “demand-pull” policies that could otherwise spur innovation. To strengthen the industry we find that a policy shift is needed to balance the excitement and focus on market forces with a larger commitment to research and development funding. We use this work to form a set of recommendations and a roadmap that will enable a next wave of innovation and thus sustainable growth of the PV industry into a mainstay of the global energy economy. - Highlights: • We construct a two-factor learning curve model to quantify the effect of innovation. • We identify the industry-wide oversupply a barrier for incentivizing innovations. • We build a conceptual framework to inform an innovation-focused roadmap for the PV industry. • We recommend open data model for PV to accelerate policy and market innovations

  14. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    The 1993 policy to promote the consolidation of the United States defense industry began a series of acquisitions and mergers that went beyond the intent of the policy and left the Department of Defense (DoD...

  15. Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

    Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1985-03-01

    Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.

  16. Nature-based solutions for urban landscapes under post-industrialization and globalization: Barcelona versus Shanghai.

    Fan, Peilei; Ouyang, Zutao; Basnou, Corina; Pino, Joan; Park, Hogeun; Chen, Jiquan

    2017-07-01

    Using Barcelona and Shanghai as case studies, we examined the nature-based solutions (NBS) in urban settings-specifically within cities experiencing post-industrialization and globalization. Our specific research questions are: (1) What are the spatiotemporal changes in urban built-up land and green space in Barcelona and Shanghai? (2) What are the relationships between economic development, exemplified by post-industrialization, globalization, and urban green space? Urban land use and green space change were evaluated using data derived from a variety of sources, including satellite images, landscape matrix indicators, and a land conversion matrix. The relationships between economic development, globalization, and environmental quality were analyzed through partial least squares structural equation modeling based on secondary statistical data. Both Barcelona and Shanghai have undergone rapid urbanization, with urban expansion in Barcelona beginning in the 1960s-1970s and in Shanghai in the last decade. While Barcelona's urban green space and green space per capita began declining between the 1950s and 1990s, they increased slightly over the past two decades. Shanghai, however, has consistently and significantly improved urban green space and green space per capita over the past six decades, especially since the economic reform in 1978. Economic development has a direct and significant influence on urban green space for both cities and post-industrialization had served as the main driving force for urban landscape change in Barcelona and Shanghai. Based on secondary statistical and qualitative data from on-site observations and interviews with local experts, we highlighted the institution's role in NBS planning. Furthermore, aspiration to become a global or globalizing city motivated both cities to use NBS planning as a place-making tool to attract global investment, which is reflected in various governing policies and regulations. The cities' effort to achieve a

  17. Amelioration of cognitive, motor and endogenous defense functions with silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid in the cerebral global ischemic rat model.

    Muley, Milind M; Thakare, Vishnu N; Patil, Rajesh R; Bafna, Pallavi A; Naik, Suresh R

    2013-07-19

    The neuroprotective activities of silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (PCA) on cerebral global ischemic/reperfusion were evaluated in a rat model. A midline ventral incision was made in the throat region. The right and left common carotid arteries were located and a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) was performed for 30min using atraumatic clamps followed by a 24h period of reperfusion. Neurological/behavioral functions (cognitive and motor), endogenous defense systems (lipid peroxidation, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase), reduced water content and infarct size and histopathological alterations were then studied. Silymarin and PCA treatments significantly improved cognitive, motor and endogenous defense functions, histopathological alterations, and, reduced both water content and infarct size compared to the vehicle-treated ischemic control group. Piracetam treatment improved neurological and histopathological alterations, reduced water content and infarct size, but failed to restore/prevent the impaired endogenous defense functions significantly. Silymarin showed better neuroprotection than piracetam and PCA in experimentally induced global ischemic/reperfusion and was able to facilitate mnemonic performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Globalization of Japanese steel industry. Part 1. Materials; Tekkogyo no kokusaika. 1. Zairyo

    Aramaki, T. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the globalization of the Japanese steel industry from the viewpoint of maintenance of international competitive potential. In the steel industry, remarkable technology innovation is currently occurring in the production process. The direct iron ore smelting process and strip caster process are being developed. These innovative technologies are characterized by processes having simplified facilities and lower fixed costs. A large problem of Japanese steel industry is the maintenance of competitive potential in the international price. For the purpose of the cost reduction, profitability improvement efforts have been made, as for the cut of research and development cost, consolidation of standards, intensive production, specialization among undertakings, cooperations, etc. Additionally, accompanied with the overseas production of steel consumers, the overseas steel production has been conducted. The overseas production is currently focused on Asia. Significance of the Japanese steel industry in Asia is provided from the viewpoint of accumulating technological know-how, establishment of new technologies, acquisition of operation technologies, promotion of talented persons for industries, etc. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. The role of industrial nitrogen in the global nitrogen biogeochemical cycle

    Gu, Baojing; Chang, Jie; Min, Yong; Ge, Ying; Zhu, Qiuan; Galloway, James N.; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Haber-Bosch nitrogen (N) has been increasingly used in industrial products, e.g., nylon, besides fertilizer. Massive numbers of species of industrial reactive N (Nr) have emerged and produced definite consequences but receive little notice. Based on a comprehensive inventory, we show that (1) the industrial N flux has increased globally from 2.5 to 25.4 Tg N yr−1 from 1960 through 2008, comparable to the NOx emissions from fossil fuel combustion; (2) more than 25% of industrial products (primarily structural forms, e.g., nylon) tend to accumulate in human settlements due to their long service lives; (3) emerging Nr species define new N-assimilation and decomposition pathways and change the way that Nr is released to the environment; and (4) the loss of these Nr species to the environment has significant negative human and ecosystem impacts. Incorporating industrial Nr into urban environmental and biogeochemical models could help to advance urban ecology and environmental sciences. PMID:23999540

  20. The global biopharma industry and the rise of Indian drug multinationals: implications for Australian generics policy.

    Löfgren, Hans

    2007-06-01

    This article provides a synopsis of the new dynamics of the global biopharma industry. The emergence of global generics companies with capabilities approximating those of 'big pharma' has accelerated the blurring of boundaries between the innovator and generics sectors. Biotechnology-based products form a large and growing segment of prescription drug markets and regulatory pathways for biogenerics are imminent. Indian biopharma multinationals with large-scale efficient manufacturing plants and growing R&D capabilities are now major suppliers of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) and generic drugs across both developed and developing countries. In response to generic competition, innovator companies employ a range of life cycle management techniques, including the launch of 'authorised generics'. The generics segment in Australia will see high growth rates in coming years but the prospect for local manufacturing is bleak. The availability of cheap generics in international markets has put pressure on Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) pricing arrangements, and a new policy direction was announced in November 2006. Lower generics prices will have a negative impact on some incumbent suppliers but industrial renewal policies for the medicines industry in Australia are better focused on higher value R&D activities and niche manufacturing of sophisticated products.

  1. From technology transfer to local manufacturing: China's emergence in the global wind power industry

    Lewis, Joanna Ingram

    This dissertation examines the development of China's large wind turbine industry, including the players, the status of the technology, and the strategies used to develop turbines for the Chinese market. The primary goals of this research project are to identify the models of international technology transfer that have been used among firms in China's wind power industry; examine to what extent these technology transfers have contributed to China's ability to locally manufacture large wind turbine technology; and evaluate China's ability to become a major player in the global wind industry. China is a particularly important place to study the opportunities for and dynamics of clean energy development due to its role in global energy consumption. China is the largest coal consuming and producing nation in the world, and consequently the second largest national emitter of carbon dioxide after only the United States. Energy consumption and carbon emissions are growing rapidly, and China is expected to surpass the US and become the largest energy consuming nation and carbon dioxide emitter in coming decades. The central finding of this dissertation is that even though each firm involved in the large wind turbine manufacturing industry in China has followed a very different pathway of technology procurement for the Chinese market, all of the firms are increasing the utilization of locally-manufactured components, and many are doing so without transferring turbine technology or the associated intellectual property. Only one fully Chinese-owned firm, Goldwind, has succeeded in developing a commercially available large wind turbine for the Chinese market. No Chinese firms or foreign firms are manufacturing turbines in China for export overseas, though many have stated plans to do so. There already exists a possible niche market for the smaller turbines that are currently being made in China, particularly in less developed countries that are looking for less expensive

  2. Industry

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  3. Perspectives of the electric power industry amid the transforming global power generation markets

    Makarov, A. A.; Mitrova, T. A.; Veselov, F. V.; Galkina, A. A.; Kulagin, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    A scenario-based prognosis of the evolution of global power generation markets until 2040, which was developed using the Scaner model-and-information complex, was given. The perspective development of fuel markets, vital for the power generation industry, was considered, and an attempt to predict the demand, production, and prices of oil, gas, coal, and noncarbon resources across various regions of the world was made. The anticipated decline in the growth of the global demand for fossil fuels and their sufficiency with relatively low extraction expenses will maintain the fuel prices (the data hereinafter are given as per 2014 prices) lower than their peak values in 2012. The outrunning growth of demand for electric power is shown in comparison with other power resources by regions and large countries in the world. The conditions of interfuel competition in the electric power industry considering the changes in anticipated fuel prices and cost indicators for various power generation technologies were studied. For this purpose, the ratios of discounted costs of electric power production by new gas and coal TPPs and wind and solar power plants were estimated. It was proven that accounting the system effects (operation modes, necessary duplicating and reserving the power of electric power plants using renewable energy sources) notably reduces the competitiveness of the renewable power industry and is not always compensated by the expected lowering of its capital intensity and growth of fuel for TPPs. However, even with a moderate (in relation to other prognoses) growth of the role of power plants using renewable energy sources, they will triple electric power production. In this context, thermal power plants will preserve their leadership covering up to 60% of the global electric power production, approximately half using gas.

  4. Pfizer and the Challenges of the Global Pharmaceutical Industry 2013 (A)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This is part of a case series. The case focuses on describing and analysing the environment, profitability and competitiveness of the global pharmaceutical industry, and to evaluate the current and future strategy of Pfizer. It features a large number of tables with quantitative data that help...... solving the case study. The case starts with a short description of recent important events that might mark a turning point for the whole industry. It then focuses on the overall market on drugs - structure, growth, blockbusters, and the influence of national health care systems. Furthermore, firms’ R...... a number of strategic manoeuvres of major players in the last years. At the end, the reader is referred back to the Pfizer situation and Pfizer’s recent strategic initiatives and responses to the market changes....

  5. The role of GLOBAL G.A.P.: In improving competitiveness of agro-food industry

    Bešić Cariša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of food safety, standards and food quality represent a challenge for every food company which has to cope with in order to survive. The change in consumers attitudes has considerably been influenced by certain incidents related to food safety which clearly showed that more attention should be paid to food safety. Different actors should work together on this issue, from food producers (primary and final, consumer associations, international organizations, big retailers to the state. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current situation in implementation of certification schemes for agro-food industry in which GLOBAL G.A.P. has been recognized as a perspective one. A special attention is paid to two directions: (1 Comparison of implementing GLOBAL G.A.P. standard and other Certification schemes and (2 Overview and opportunities for Serbia and neighboring countries, in relation to its EU food law and food safety certification schemes harmonization efforts.

  6. Concurrent Engineering with IT-Tools for successful industrial products in a global market

    Conrad, Finn

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses research results concerning Concurrent Engineering with IT-Tools for Successful Industrial Products on a Global Market. Concurrent Engineering, often is called just ¿CE¿, that is a systematic approach to the integrated, concurrent design of products and related...... on the world market and the increasing global public demands, requirements and regulations for protection of the environment are both driving forces and challenges for improving the development of control and engineering design. There has always been an ongoing desire to develop and design systems to improve...... performance of products, productivity and efficiency of process operations. Smart use of simulation and modelling IT tools can improve many enterprises ability to compete and survive on the market. European Enterprises developing, designing and manufacturing hydraulic components and hydraulic systems...

  7. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    Broeren, M.L.M.; Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock turnover. The model determines the global production capacity placement, implementation of energy-efficient Best Practice Technology (BPT) and global carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions for the period 2010–2030. Subsequently, the effects of energy and climate policies on these parameters are quantified. About 60% of new basic chemical production capacity is projected to be placed in non-OECD regions by 2030 due to low energy prices. While global production increases by 80% between 2010 and 2030, the OECD's production capacity share decreases from 40% to 20% and global emissions increase by 50%. Energy pricing and climate policies are found to reduce 2030 CO 2 emissions by 5–15% relative to the baseline developments by increasing BPT implementation. Maximum BPT implementation results in a 25% reduction. Further emission reductions require measures beyond energy-efficient technologies. The model is useful to estimate general trends related to basic chemicals production, but improved data from the chemical sector is required to expand the analysis to additional technologies and chemicals. - Highlights: • We develop a global cost-driven forecasting model for the basic chemical sector. • We study regional production, energy-efficient technology, emissions and policies. • Between 2010 and 2030, 60% of new chemicals capacity is built in non-OECD regions. • Global CO 2 emissions rise by 50%, but climate policies may limit this to 30–40%. • Measures beyond energy efficiency are needed to prevent increasing CO 2 emissions

  8. Impacts of the Global Crisis Period 2007- 2010 on the Automotive Industry in the Czech Republic

    Sedlacek Marek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article was to analyse the possible intensity of dependency of the Czech Republic, or more precisely, its total economic indicator Gross Domestic Product on realized Sales sector of the automotive industry before crisis, during the crisis period (2007-2010 as well as after the crisis. There was also used the development analysis of individual total economic indicators in the Czech automotive industry in time. On the other hand, in the article there were found and analysed impacts of the global recession on the functioning of several chosen companies associated in the Automotive Industry Association of the Czech Republic at their interaction with this way developed macroeconomic surroundings. The investigation was based on the development of company result indicator value (Sales of the selected companies and the chosen macro indicator (Gross Domestic Product when looking for their reciprocal dependency in the period mainly connected with the financial and economic crisis. In the contribution, an elementary analysis of the chosen indicator Sales was carried out. With the help of regress and correlation analysis there were further researched the relationships among this chosen indicator of company performance reciprocally with all the companies, the Automotive Industry Association of the Czech Republic as a whole, and the chosen macro-indicator representing the development of selected markets. For the following calculation of tested criteria, Cohen’s Coefficient was used to be able to assess the effect of the group on the value variability of studied random quantity.

  9. The performance of the Indian Tourism Industry in the era of globalization – a conventional study

    K. Padmasree

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the growth of foreign tourist arrivals and foreign exchange earnings into India through the Indian tourism industry. It also examines the share of the Indian Tourism Industry in the World in general and especially the Asia Pacific region. How stable us India’s tourism industry in terms of foreign tourist arrivals, foreign exchange earnings, domestic tourist visits within India and the number of Indian tourists going abroad? The article suggests measures for increasing the growth of foreign tourist arrivals and foreign exchange earnings into India via tourism. It is evident from this study that the India Tourism Industry is growing significantly each year at a rate of 7% in foreign tourist arrivals. In addition, India is currently experiencing a steep jump in its position in terms of tourism growth and has moved from its recent 50th global position to position 40 in tourist receipts. In the Asia Pacific Region India is now 11th in terms of tourist arrivals. Had it none been for terrorism in Mumbai and political disturbances, as well as minor domestic violence which compromised the internal security of foreigners, Indian tourism would have grown at an even faster rate.

  10. Nutrition labelling: a review of research on consumer and industry response in the global South

    Jessie Mandle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To identify peer-reviewed research on consumers’ usage and attitudes towards the nutrition label and the food industry's response to labelling regulations outside Europe, North America, and Australia and to determine knowledge gaps for future research. Design: Narrative review. Results: This review identified nutrition labelling research from 20 countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. Consumers prefer that pre-packaged food include nutrition information, although there is a disparity between rates of use and comprehension. Consumer preference is for front-of-pack labelling and for information that shows per serving or portion as a reference unit, and label formats with graphics or symbols. Research on the food and beverage industry's response is more limited but shows that industry plays an active role in influencing legislation and regulation. Conclusions: Consumers around the world share preferences with consumers in higher income countries with respect to labelling. However, this may reflect the research study populations, who are often better educated than the general population. Investigation is required into how nutrition labels are received in emerging economies especially among the urban and rural poor, in order to assess the effectiveness of labelling policies. Further research into the outlook of the food and beverage industry, and also on expanded labelling regulations is a priority. Sharing context-specific research regarding labelling between countries in the global South could be mutually beneficial in evaluating obesity prevention policies and strategies.

  11. Nutrition labelling: a review of research on consumer and industry response in the global South.

    Mandle, Jessie; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Michalow, Julia; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To identify peer-reviewed research on consumers' usage and attitudes towards the nutrition label and the food industry's response to labelling regulations outside Europe, North America, and Australia and to determine knowledge gaps for future research. Narrative review. This review identified nutrition labelling research from 20 countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. Consumers prefer that pre-packaged food include nutrition information, although there is a disparity between rates of use and comprehension. Consumer preference is for front-of-pack labelling and for information that shows per serving or portion as a reference unit, and label formats with graphics or symbols. Research on the food and beverage industry's response is more limited but shows that industry plays an active role in influencing legislation and regulation. Consumers around the world share preferences with consumers in higher income countries with respect to labelling. However, this may reflect the research study populations, who are often better educated than the general population. Investigation is required into how nutrition labels are received in emerging economies especially among the urban and rural poor, in order to assess the effectiveness of labelling policies. Further research into the outlook of the food and beverage industry, and also on expanded labelling regulations is a priority. Sharing context-specific research regarding labelling between countries in the global South could be mutually beneficial in evaluating obesity prevention policies and strategies.

  12. Nutrition labelling: a review of research on consumer and industry response in the global South

    Mandle, Jessie; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Michalow, Julia; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify peer-reviewed research on consumers’ usage and attitudes towards the nutrition label and the food industry's response to labelling regulations outside Europe, North America, and Australia and to determine knowledge gaps for future research. Design Narrative review. Results This review identified nutrition labelling research from 20 countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. Consumers prefer that pre-packaged food include nutrition information, although there is a disparity between rates of use and comprehension. Consumer preference is for front-of-pack labelling and for information that shows per serving or portion as a reference unit, and label formats with graphics or symbols. Research on the food and beverage industry's response is more limited but shows that industry plays an active role in influencing legislation and regulation. Conclusions Consumers around the world share preferences with consumers in higher income countries with respect to labelling. However, this may reflect the research study populations, who are often better educated than the general population. Investigation is required into how nutrition labels are received in emerging economies especially among the urban and rural poor, in order to assess the effectiveness of labelling policies. Further research into the outlook of the food and beverage industry, and also on expanded labelling regulations is a priority. Sharing context-specific research regarding labelling between countries in the global South could be mutually beneficial in evaluating obesity prevention policies and strategies. PMID:25623608

  13. Industrial lightning. Towards a global cost approach of an industrial lightning installation; Eclairage industriel. Pour une approche en cout global d'une installation d'eclairage industriel

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document proposes an approach of the global cost of an industrial lightning installation and provides information on the benefits and its associated performance of a good industrial lightning, examples of applications, the available products and the regulation texts of the domain. (A.L.B.)

  14. Upgrading to lead firm position via international acquisition: learning from the global biomass power plant industry

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Fold, Niels; Hansen, Teis

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the case of a Chinese firm that has upgraded to lead firm position in the global biomass power plant industry mainly through acquisitions of technological frontier firms in Denmark. Sustaining the lead firm position was, however, challenged by difficulties in developing...... innovative capability. Drawing on the literature on (i) firm-level technological capability and (ii) knowledge transfer in international acquisitions, we explain the reasons for insufficient innovative capability building. Based on these empirical findings, we suggest maintaining the existing upgrading...

  15. Talking my language [As the nuclear industry goes global, communication becomes a bigger challenge

    Gorlin, S.

    2007-01-01

    'It's like the United Nations here' has become a familiar cry in offices and industrial plants around the world. Today, companies competing in global marketplaces seek the most talented staff and local knowledge by employing from an international rather than a local labour pool. This shift towards multinational personnel has been facilitated by the emergence of English as a global common language, which, unlike previous 'world languages', has penetrated all continents and all levels of society. The nuclear industry has been no exception to this internationalizing trend, despite its roots in many countries in national military programmes. Contributory factors have been the worldwide liberalization of energy markets and the slowdown in nuclear power development during the 1980s and 1990s, following the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. With economic pressures driving the globalization of the nuclear industry, and with internationalization of certain proliferation sensitive fuel cycle facilities being strongly advocated, cross-cultural and English-language competence will become evermore important for managers and engineers at nuclear facilities. This is related to economic pressures driving the globalization of the nuclear industry, and the strong advocacy for internationalization of certain proliferation-sensitive fuel cycle facilities. Those working in international organizations sometimes forget that such competences are still not the norm in industry, and can be difficult to acquire working on an isolated nuclear facility, remote from multicultural urban centres. They will become more common, as the English language assumes the importance of a basic skill alongside numeracy and literacy in education systems, and foreign travel and migration become more common. In the interim, it is essential that human resource managers offer appropriate training, and that professional translation and interpreting services be provided where necessary. A good way for

  16. On the relationship between financial measures and contractor pricing strategy: Empirical tests in the defense aerospace industry

    Moses, O. Douglas

    1987-01-01

    This report includes two separate but related empirical studies of the relationship between financial measures for defense aerospace contractors and pricing strategies adopted by contractors. Two pricing strategies are identified: skimming and penetration. Collectively the findings indicate that the adoption of a particular pricing strategy is associated with the financial condition of the contractor as reflected in measures of risk, asset utilization and organizational slack. Keywords: Finan...

  17. Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water: a methodology and application

    Ward, P.J.; Strzepek, K.; Pauw, W.P.; Brander, L.M.; Hughes, G.; Aerts, J.C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of climate change adaptation, few global estimates of the costs involved are available for the water supply sector. We present a methodology for estimating partial global and regional adaptation costs for raw industrial and domestic water supply, for a

  18. Energy use and implications for efficiency strategies in global fluid-milk processing industry

    Xu Tengfang; Flapper, Joris

    2009-01-01

    The fluid-milk processing industry around the world processes approximately 60% of total raw milk production to create diverse fresh fluid-milk products. This paper reviews energy usage in existing global fluid-milk markets to identify baseline information that allows comparisons of energy performance of individual plants and systems. In this paper, we analyzed energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on fluid-milk processing across a number of countries and regions. The study has found that the average final energy intensity of individual plants exhibited significant large variations, ranging from 0.2 to 12.6 MJ per kg fluid-milk product across various plants in different countries and regions. In addition, it is observed that while the majority of larger plants tended to exhibit higher energy efficiency, some exceptions existed for smaller plants with higher efficiency. These significant differences have indicated large potential energy-savings opportunities in the sector across many countries. Furthermore, this paper illustrates a positive correlation between implementing energy-monitoring programs and curbing the increasing trend in energy demand per equivalent fluid-milk product over time in the fluid-milk sector, and suggests that developing an energy-benchmarking framework, along with promulgating new policy options should be pursued for improving energy efficiency in global fluid-milk processing industry.

  19. Encouraging Women Entrepreneurship to Join the Global Market (Case study on Fashion Industry in West Java

    Heriyanni Mashithoh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration of global market has opened today for the foreign products to entry any countries and has threatened the future of women entrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs have to compete with foreign businessmen who have superiority in terms of funds, technology, infrastructure, market information and government support. Indonesia is one of developing country who encourages the development of rural areas. Women entrepreneurship in rural areas indicated will increase the local economy, creating employment opportunities, and decreasing the poverty currently. One province in Indonesia that successfully promotes the fashion industries to local and international tourist is West Java. This study aims to analyze the effect of network development strategy toward the women entrepreneurs’ satisfaction. Hypothesis were tested by multivariate statistics- Partial Least Square. The population is owners or managers of SMEs in fashion or garment industries. Stratified random sampling is occupied to get 78 women entrepreneurs in West Java. This study shows that network strategy is significantly influenced the women entrepreneurs’ satisfaction Proactive entrepreneur is proved to positively strengthen the impact of network strategy on the women entrepreneurs’ satisfaction. This result becomes a guide for SMEs, especially in fashion or garment industry to support the tourism of West Java.

  20. GLOBAL CHALLENGES AND TRENDS IN THE TOURISM INDUSTRY; ROMANIA, WHERE TO?

    FIROIU DANIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an increasingly dynamic global society, adapting to new market conditions becomes a necessity, so that mutations in the tourism industry, as the economic sector to record the fastest ascent, become part of worldwide change. Tourism in the 21st century meets new dimensions as a result of unprecedented economic and technological expansion, the implications of these changes being profound and sometimes even difficult to explain or quantify. Therefore, defining an adequate tourism offer and adapting to market requirements become real challenges for economic agents, challenges that must be managed carefully in order to attain success. Currently, the focus is mainly on the technological factor and the sustainability of tourist activities, which become real progress binders, with strong influence on the entire supply chain. Global outlined trends define new ways to practice tourism, so that the technological evolution marks the transition of the entire travel experience from the offline to the online environment. The mobile segment is the one currently creating the newest opportunities for the development of tourist services, which is based on an increasingly close relationship between operators and tourists. It is to be seen whether Romania, as an emerging tourism market, which owns all necessary assets for a rapid and strong ascent, will be able to turn challenges offered by global dynamics into opportunities or will face the risks induced by it.

  1. Future global manpower shortages in nuclear industries with special reference to india including remedial measures

    Ghosh Hazra, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    -2050. Service sector in India accounts for about 50% of GDP which will continue to increase further and will provide more jobs and better paid jobs than core industries and there will be continued shift of choice of employment towards service sector creating deep gap of manpower resource requirement in basic and core industries. There are reports that some countries may have to abandon some future projects because of non availability skilled manpower in core industries. The installed capacity of nuclear power in India in the year 2052 will be about 200 G We from the present about 4 G We which will be a manifold increase. This will need about estimated 1,30,000 skilled manpower from the present about 12,000 persons in nuclear industries. Moreover, the need for competent persons in nuclear industries because of high safety requirements of nuclear installations will further add to the problem. The following short-term strategies to retain and attract new employees in nuclear industries may be envisaged amongst others: - Recruit employees prior to the departure of experienced technical staff to facilitate knowledge transfer in time. - Increase compensation and the number of higher level positions. - Increase permanent entry-level intake of skilled manpower taking into account historical turn-over rate. - Implement attractive student loan repayment programs by tying up with banks and financial institutions. - Implement well researched strategies and measures including reassessing the practical capacity which nations including India can achieve in power generation in future taking practical aspects of manpower shortage. - Implement advanced technology which requires lesser manpower. - Implement higher level of automation in nuclear industries. The paper aims to highlight the acute problems of future manpower shortages in nuclear industries globally with special reference to India and discusses some remedial measures which may be taken to address the issue. (author)

  2. Industry and provinces fight global warming agreement: Canada still expected to ratify

    Marchildon, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian government is under intense pressure from the provinces, industry and the United States not to ratify the Kyoto Agreement and to abandon its international commitment to reduce green house gas emissions. Opponents of the treaty claim that it will badly harm the economy, a misconception that is also at the root of the United States government's refusal to seriously address global warming. This belief rests on refusal to accept the scientific evidence. The Suzuki Foundation, and environmental groups in general claim that it is irresponsible for industry and certain provinces to continue to fight against Kyoto. With the documented findings of the world's top climate scientists, it is high time for Ottawa to stop listening to the special interests of the polluters and to stand up on behalf of all Canadians. To refute these ill-conceived claims of polluters a study which appeared in the October 2001 issue of 'Nature' is cited, according to which Italy could save about $2.9 billion annually by cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The study found that compliance with the Kyoto protocols would require 3.1 per cent more industrial spending, but reduce other costs by 35 per cent. Similar expert analysis show comparable savings and gains for other industrialized countries such as Canada and the United States. The principal means of achieving the Kyoto targets will be through reduction of fossil fuel energy consumption and general improvement in energy efficiency. These moves not only protect the climate, they also save money and create jobs. The Foundation is convinced that it is time to make the first step in the right direction, and Kyoto is that essential first step

  3. An Analysis of Second-Tier Arms Producing Countries' Offset Policies: Technology Transfer and Defense Industrial Base Establishment

    Confer, Brian S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine if offsets are an effective means of second-tier countries acquiring technology and if offsets enhance their ability to establish and maintain an industrial...

  4. Review and Implementation Status of Prior Defense Business Board Recommendations

    2007-04-01

    key recommendation to appoint a single Fund Manager – Improved training programs, including eLearning , underway – Capabilities-Based Budgeting allowed...framework focused on et. al. enterprise enhancements, support for the Global War on Terror, progress on implementation of the Quadrennial Defense...Improve Global Mail Operations – MPSA in receipt of all industry responses by Aug 2006 – On December 12th MPSA will brief the Postal Oversight Board on

  5. The meat industry: do we think and behave globally or locally?

    Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Delmore, R J; Tatum, J D; Yang, H; Sofos, J N

    2014-11-01

    For generations, those that produce livestock and meat generally felt that their country or geographical region (i.e., provenance) reflected a basis for product differentiation. This occurs to the extent that geography of production often is considered a "brand." For example, there exists "U.S. Grain-Fed Beef" or "Kobe Black Wagyu" or "Uruguayan Grass-Fed Lamb" or "Danish Pork." However, for most meat trade, industry has evolved beyond this. With the exception perhaps of farms onto which livestock are born, meat company's profits are not generally tied to geographical considerations. Most major companies (e.g., JBS, Marfrig, Tyson, Cargill, Danish Crown, Nippon Meat Packers, etc.) operate in multiple countries and represent to consumers the production of a number of locations. However, there also now exist entrepreneurial options for meat production and "local" sales, albeit at lesser volumes. This discussion explores "global" and "local" meat marketing options. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. ISO-9000: Effects on the Global Marketplace and Contract Relations With the U.S. Department of Defense

    1998-12-01

    is affecting business procedures both internally (operations) and externally ( global marketing ). A methndology for determining current opinions and...perceptions of certified companies and the effects that lS0-9000 has had on global marketing of products. The range of data were analyzed and

  7. Observability-in-depth: An essential complement to the defense-in-depth safety strategy in the nuclear industry

    Favaro, Francesca M.; Saleh, Joseph H. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Defense-in-depth is a fundamental safety principle for the design and operation of nuclear power plants. Despite its general appeal, defense-in-depth is not without its drawbacks, which include its potential for concealing the occurrence of hazardous states in a system, and more generally rendering the latter more opaque for its operators and managers, thus resulting in safety blind spots. This in turn translates into a shrinking of the time window available for operators to identify an unfolding hazardous condition or situation and intervene to abate it. To prevent this drawback from materializing, we propose propose in this work a novel safety principle termed 'observability-in-depth'. We characterize it as the set of provisions technical, operational, and organizational designed to enable the monitoring and identification of emerging hazardous conditions and accident pathogens in real-time and over different time-scales. Observability-in-depth also requires the monitoring of conditions of all safety barriers that implement defense-in-depth; and in so doing it supports sense making of identified hazardous conditions, and the understanding of potential accident sequences that might follow (how they can propagate). Observability-in-depth is thus an information-centric principle, and its importance in accident prevention is in the value of the information it provides and actions or safety interventions it spurs. We examine several 'event reports' from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission database, which illustrate specific instances of violation of the observability-in-depth safety principle and the consequences that followed (e.g., unmonitored releases and loss of containments). We also revisit the Three Mile Island accident in light of the proposed principle, and identify causes and consequences of the lack of observability-in-depth related to this accident sequence. We illustrate both the benefits of adopting the observability

  8. Major advances in globalization and consolidation of the artificial insemination industry.

    Funk, D A

    2006-04-01

    The artificial insemination (AI) industry in the United States has gone through many consolidations, mergers, and acquisitions over the past 25 yr. There are 5 major AI companies in the United States today: 3 large cooperatives, 1 private company, and 1 public company. The latter 2 have majority ownership outside of the United States. The AI industry in the United States progeny-tests more than 1,000 Holstein young sires per year. Because healthy, mature dairy bulls are capable of producing well over 100,000 straws of frozen semen per year, only a relatively small number of bulls are needed to breed the world's population of dairy cows. Most AI companies in the United States do not own many, if any, females and tend to utilize the same maternal families in their breeding programs. Little differences exist among the selection programs of the AI companies in the United States. The similarity of breeding programs and the extreme semen-production capabilities of bulls have contributed to difficulties the AI companies have had in developing genetically different product lines. Exports of North American Holstein genetics increased steadily from the 1970s into the 1990s because of the perceived superiority of North American Holsteins for dairy traits compared with European strains, especially for production. The breeding industry moved towards international genetic evaluations of bulls in the 1990s, with the International Bull Evaluation Service (Interbull) in Sweden coordinating the evaluations. The extensive exchange of elite genetics has led to a global dairy genetics industry with bulls that are closely related, and the average inbreeding level for the major dairy breeds continues to increase. Genetic markers have been used extensively and successfully by the industry for qualitative traits, especially for recessive genetic disorders, but markers have had limited impact for quantitative traits. Selection emphasis continues to migrate away from production traits and

  9. The evolution of corporate governance in the global financial crisis: the case of Russian industrial firms

    Ichiro Iwasaki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using a unique dataset of industrial firms obtained from enterprise surveys conducted across the Russian Federation in 2005 and 2009, we trace back structural changes in the corporate governance system before and after the global financial crisis. We also empirically examine the impacts of the crisis on the organization of boards of directors and audit systems. Our survey results reveal that, in the Russian industrial sector, the quality of corporate governance has been improved through the crisis. Furthermore, we found that, corresponding to the alignment hypothesis, in firms that decisively reformed their management and supervisory bodies in response to the 2008 financial shock, the total number of worker representative directors significantly declined, as did their proportion to all board members. On the other hand, we also found that, in firms that substantially reorganized their audit system to cope with the crisis, the independence of the audit system was undermined remarkably, corresponding to the expropriation hypothesis. Findings that management behaviors predicted by the two conflicting hypotheses are simultaneously detected—and that their targets are significantly different—deserve special mention.

  10. The Transition from Alliance Networks to Multilateral Alliances in the Global Airline Industry

    Sergio G. Lazzarini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines conditions in which alliance networks (informal webs of bilateral entanglements between firms may or may not evolve into multilateral alliances (broad, formal multiple-firm arrangements. I offer a theory to explain the formation of multilateral alliances based on both the resource profile and the structure of existing interfirm networks, and provide an initial test of that theory in the context of the global airline industry. Using data from 75 global airlines and their alliances, I propose a methodology to retrieve samples of alliance networks and then use regression analysis to assess how the resource profile and the structure of these networks influence their formalization into multilateral alliances. I find that multilateral alliances are more likely to emerge when alliance networks exhibit high resource diversity and network structure characterized by moderate density and high centralization. Apparently, while highly sparse networks reduce actors’ awareness of their potential joint collaboration, highly dense or embedded networks substitute for the need for formal controls accompanying multilateral agreements. The effect of centralization suggests that the formation of multilateral alliances tends to be triggered by leading actors directly connected to other network members.

  11. Trade brokerage property of industrial sectors on the global value chain

    Xing, Lizhi; Xu, Xiaoyu; Guan, Jun; Dong, Xianlei

    2017-08-01

    ICIO data have proven itself to be a reliable source for the analysis of economic globalization, with which sectors all over the world could be constructed into a sophisticated GVC, bringing the advantages of simultaneous study on international and domestic economies in detail as a holistic network. This paper uses OECD-WTO TiVA data to set up GIVCN-TiVA networks as the general analytical framework, depicting the transferring process of intermediate goods among sectors of various countries/regions. Secondly, the conception of brokerage roles in SNA has been adopted to redefine sector’s function while linkage exists between its upstream providers and downstream consumers, referred to as “Trade Brokerage Property”, as well as to quantify the ratio of each types of the roles. Thirdly, a set of simulations have been defined to testify the contribution that different TBPs incur to the robustness of global economic system. Finally, analyses on TBPs and NTBPs have been carried out in the levels of industry and country/region, respectively.

  12. The Impact of Globalization on the Changes in Industrial Relations and Development of Employee Participation – Evidence from Poland

    Katarzyna Skorupinska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization influences not only economic relations but also causes significant changes in the area of industrial relations and employee participation. The answer to the challenges of globalization has been the emergence of new transnational institutions of participation in the form of European Works Councils (EWCs and European Companies (SEs and the concluding of transnational company agreements. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of globalization on the development of employee participation in Polish industrial relations. The paper argues that globalization leads to dissemination of forms of employee participation in Polish companies but the scope of the forms of participation is still lower than in companies in the old EU countries. The slow growth of participation in Poland has primarily resulted from an indifferent or even hostile attitude to participation on the part of the state and social partners.

  13. EFFECTIVE CRISIS MANAGEMENT FOR ISLAMIC FINANCIAL INDUSTRY AND THE INSTITUTION OF HISBAH: LESSONS FROM GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Najeeb Zada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis resulted destructive effects on finance industry. Islamic financial industry (IFI is still naïve and largely untested in the face of a major financial turmoil. Major issues and uncertainties of the insolvency of IFI include the issue of moral hazard, government bailouts, excessive risk taking and deposit insurance. This paper addresses the issue of crisis management in IFI from the perspective of al-Siyasah al-Shar’iyyah and attempts to derive public policy guidelines that are useful in developing a timely and efficient crises management framework for Islamic finance industry. By using qualitative methods, the study found that the global financial crisis resulted in great destruction of financial institution. Although Islamic finance was quite immune to the global crisis as compared to its conventional peer, concerns still exist. It is time that Islamic finance industry learns from the financial woes of the rest of the world. =========================================== Krisis keuangan baru-baru ini mengakibatkan efek destruktif pada industri keuangan. Industri keuangan Islam (IKI masih naif dan sebagian besar belum teruji dalam menghadapi gejolak keuangan besar. Isu utama dan ketidakpastian dari kebangkrutan IKI meliputi moral hazard, dana talangan pemerintah, pengambilan risiko yang berlebihan dan asuransi deposito. Makalah ini membahas isu manajemen krisis dalam IKI dari perspektif al-Siyasah al-Shar'iyyah dan berusaha mendapatkan pedoman kebijakan publik yang bermanfaat dalam mengembangkan kerangka kerja manajemen krisis yang tepat waktu dan efisien bagi IKI. Dengan menggunakan metode kualitatif, studi ini menemukan bahwa krisis keuangan global mengakibatkan kehancuran besar bagi industri keuangan. Meskipun keuangan Islam cukup kebal terhadap krisis global dibandingkan dengan keuangan konvensional, kekhawatiran masih ada. Sudah saatnya industri keuangan Islam belajar dari krisis keuangan dari seluruh dunia.

  14. Socio-Economic Correlates of Information Security Threats and Controls in Global Financial Services Industry: An Analysis

    Princely Ifinedo

    2015-01-01

    Threats to data and information assets of Global Financial Services Industry (GFSI) are ever-present; such problems, if not well understood, could lead to huge negative impact. To some extent, the environment where a business operates does matter for its success. This study presents information about the relationships between selected socio-economic factors and information security threats and controls in the financial services industry. Essentially, it seeks to enrich the information provide...

  15. Offices of Industrial Security International: A Review

    Sands, W

    1998-01-01

    The Defense Security Service (DSS), formerly the Defense Investigative Service (DIS), handles many of its overseas industrial security issues through its Offices of Industrial Security International...

  16. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  17. Effects of the M&A Wave in the Global Brewing Industry 2000-2010

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt; Lund-Thomsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The international beer brewing industry has experienced massive changes over the last decade. Industry concentration has increased dramatically, and the leading brewing groups have globalised their operations across virtually all continents. Industry consolidation has taken the shape of merger an...

  18. Findings From Existing Data on the Department of Defense Industrial Base: Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Manufacturing Example

    2015-04-30

    intermediaries (INSEAD Working Paper). Bitran, G. R., Gurumurthi, S., & Sam, S. L. (2006). Emerging trends in supply chain governance ( MIT Sloan School of...environment: Review of the literature since 2007. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management , 6(3), 751–760. Moore, N. Y., Grammich, C. A...burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  19. Proceedings of the GLOBAL 2009 congress - The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Sustainable Options and Industrial Perspectives

    2009-06-01

    GLOBAL 2009 is the ninth bi-annual scientific world meeting on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) that started in 1993 in Seattle. This meeting has established itself as a dedicated international forum for experts, to provide an overall review of the status and new trends of research applications and policies related to the fuel cycle. The international nuclear community is actively developing advanced processes and innovative technologies that enhance economic competitiveness of nuclear energy and ensure its sustainability, through optimized utilization of natural resources, minimization of nuclear wastes, resistance to proliferation and compliance with safety requirements. In this context, and under the profound evolutions concerning energy supply, GLOBAL 2009 is a great opportunity for sharing ideas and visions on the NFC. Special emphasis are placed on the results of the international studies for developing next generation systems. GLOBAL 2009 highlights the technical challenges and successes involved in closing the NFC and recycling long lived nuclear waste. It is also an excellent occasion to review and discuss social and regulatory aspects as well as national plans and international policies and decision affecting the future of nuclear energy. This meeting provides a forum for the exchange of the newest ideas and developments related to the initiatives at of establishing an acceptable, reliable and universal international non proliferation regime. The congress, organized by the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), under the aegis of the IAEA, NEA of the OECD and the UE Commission with the basic sponsorships of ANS, ENS and AESJ, combines plenary sessions, general panel sessions, parallel sessions and technical visits. The program has full length technical papers, which are peer reviewed and published in conference proceedings. A large industrial exhibition takes place to complement the congress. The GLOBAL 2009 congress is organized in coordination with the 2009

  20. Proceedings of the GLOBAL 2009 congress - The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Sustainable Options and Industrial Perspectives

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    GLOBAL 2009 is the ninth bi-annual scientific world meeting on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) that started in 1993 in Seattle. This meeting has established itself as a dedicated international forum for experts, to provide an overall review of the status and new trends of research applications and policies related to the fuel cycle. The international nuclear community is actively developing advanced processes and innovative technologies that enhance economic competitiveness of nuclear energy and ensure its sustainability, through optimized utilization of natural resources, minimization of nuclear wastes, resistance to proliferation and compliance with safety requirements. In this context, and under the profound evolutions concerning energy supply, GLOBAL 2009 is a great opportunity for sharing ideas and visions on the NFC. Special emphasis are placed on the results of the international studies for developing next generation systems. GLOBAL 2009 highlights the technical challenges and successes involved in closing the NFC and recycling long lived nuclear waste. It is also an excellent occasion to review and discuss social and regulatory aspects as well as national plans and international policies and decision affecting the future of nuclear energy. This meeting provides a forum for the exchange of the newest ideas and developments related to the initiatives at of establishing an acceptable, reliable and universal international non proliferation regime. The congress, organized by the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), under the aegis of the IAEA, NEA of the OECD and the UE Commission with the basic sponsorships of ANS, ENS and AESJ, combines plenary sessions, general panel sessions, parallel sessions and technical visits. The program has full length technical papers, which are peer reviewed and published in conference proceedings. A large industrial exhibition takes place to complement the congress. The GLOBAL 2009 congress is organized in coordination with the 2009

  1. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts

    M. Crippa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3 and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon air pollutants for the period 1970–2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and region-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport, which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3 higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27, demonstrating the large

  2. The Development of Strategic Bank Lending Industries in the Context of Globalization

    Oksana Markovna Kramarenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that, in the context of globalization, improved credit support for strategic sectors of the economy (for example, shipbuilding can be achieved through the creation of a banking consortium based around leasing. A dialectical method of resolution of system tasks is selected as the methodological approach. Methods used include: comparative cost analysis of the strategic lending industry supporting the formation and development of a banking consortium; integrated method at the condition modeling of making and implementation of a lease agreement, which allowed to accommodate the interests for both parties of such agreement; optimization method to select the conditions of a lease agreement; classification and analytical method to clarify the classification of lease. The study proved and developed a plan of creation a banking consortium, including options of interaction of such consortium with potential customers based on a lease agreement. The process of functioning of the lease agreement in order to optimize it for both a bank consortium-lessor and a lessee is modeled. The significant advantages of leasing compared to the traditional lending for both parties of leasing, especially when ensuring long-term projects are summarized. The results of the research can be applied in the strategic lending industries development and can reduce the level of banking risks. Applying the results of the research in the social aspect can maintain and increase the number of jobs including the banking sector. The value of the work leis in the fact that the author has developed a new approach to achive the credit support for strategic sectors of the economy through the creation of the banking consortium based around leasing, which allows to protect the interests of both parties.

  3. Environmental Defense Fund Oil and Gas Methane Studies: Principles for Collaborating with Industry Partners while Maintaining Scientific Objectivity

    Hamburg, S.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) launched a series of 16 research studies in 2012 to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas (O&G) supply chain. In addition to EDF's funding from philanthropic individuals and foundations and in-kind contributions from universities, over forty O&G companies contributed money to the studies. For a subset of studies that required partner companies to provide site access to measure their equipment, five common principles were followed to assure that research was objective and scientifically rigorous. First, academic scientists were selected as principal investigators (PIs) to lead the studies. In line with EDF's policy of not accepting money from corporate partners, O&G companies provided funding directly to academic PIs. Technical work groups and steering committees consisting of EDF and O&G partner staff advised the PIs in the planning and implementation of research, but PIs had the final authority in scientific decisions including publication content. Second, scientific advisory panels of independent experts advised the PIs in the study design, data analysis, and interpretation. Third, studies employed multiple methodologies when possible, including top-down and bottom-up measurements. This helped overcome the limitations of individual approaches to decrease the uncertainty of emission estimates and minimize concerns with data being "cherry-picked". Fourth, studies were published in peer-reviewed journals to undergo an additional round of independent review. Fifth, transparency of data was paramount. Study data were released after publication, although operator and site names of individual data points were anonymized to ensure transparency and allow independent analysis. Following these principles allowed an environmental organization, O&G companies, and academic scientists to collaborate in scientific research while minimizing conflicts of interest. This approach can serve as a model for a scientifically rigorous

  4. Unfolding Green Defense

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  5. Export Controls and the U.S. Defense Industrial Base. Volume 1. Summary Report, and Volume 2. Appendices

    2007-01-01

    el que se aprueba el reglamento del comercio exterior de material de defensa y de doble uso • Ley Orgánica 12...export restrictions. A-63 S T P I 60 Supplying Other Primes • India (ISRO), Israel ( El -Opt, Israel Aircraft Industries), Japan...200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 A lg er ia Ar ge nt in a A us tra lia B el ar us Br az il C an ad a C hi le Eg yp t In do ne si a Ira n Is ra el

  6. Assessment of the Impact of Globalization on the Introduction of Innovative Technology Companies in the Hospitality Industry

    Zaitseva, Natalia A.; Larionova, Anna A.; Yumatov, Konstantin V.; Korsunova, Natalia M.; Dmitrieva, Nina V.

    2016-01-01

    The importance and relevance of the study of the globalization effects on the introduction of innovative technologies in the hotel industry is difficult to overestimate, as only those hotels that are able to change with demographic, technological and economic changes, and to adapt to occurring changes, will be able to succeed. The aim of this work…

  7. Do economic globalization and industry growth destabilize careers? An analysis of career complexity and career patterns over time

    Biemann, T.; Fasang, A.E.; Grunow, D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the impact of economic globalization and industry growth on the complexity of early work careers in Germany. We conceptualize complexity as the absolute number of employer changes, the regularity in the order of job changes, and the variability of the durations spent in different

  8. 76 FR 81965 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade...

    2011-12-29

    ... the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Submission of Questionnaire for OMB Review AGENCY..., Markets, and Trade, instituted under the authority of section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C... leader Alan Treat ( [email protected] or (202) 205-3426) or deputy project leader Jeremy Wise ( jeremy...

  9. Defense Primer: DOD Contractors

    2017-02-10

    functions, from intelligence analysis or software development to landscaping or food service. Why does DOD use individual contractors? Going back to...that provide professional services, from research to management support. The bulk of contractors—more than 70%—provide products, and these include...10 U.S.C. Part IV: Service, Supply, and Procurement. CRS Products CRS In Focus IF10548, Defense Primer: U.S. Defense Industrial Base, by Daniel

  10. Cacao diseases: a global perspective from an industry point of view.

    Hebbar, Prakash K

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Diseases of cacao, Theobroma cacao, account for losses of more than 30% of the potential crop. These losses have caused a steady decline in production and a reduction in bean quality in almost all the cacao-producing areas in the world, especially in small-holder farms in Latin America and West Africa. The most significant diseases are witches' broom, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa, which occurs mainly in South America; frosty pod rot, caused by M. roreri, which occurs mainly in Central and northern South America; and black pod disease, caused by several species of Phytophthora, which are distributed throughout the tropics. In view of the threat that these diseases pose to the sustainability of the cacao crop, Mars Inc. and their industry partners have funded collaborative research involving cacao research institutes and governmental and nongovernmental agencies. The objective of this global initiative is to develop short- to medium-term, low-cost, environmentally friendly disease-management strategies until disease tolerant varieties are widely available. These include good farming practices, biological control and the rational or minimal use of chemicals that could be used for integrated pest management (IPM). Farmer field schools are used to get these technologies to growers. This paper describes some of the key collaborative partners and projects that are underway in South America and West Africa.

  11. Sharing tools and best practice in Global Sensitivity Analysis within academia and with industry

    Wagener, T.; Pianosi, F.; Noacco, V.; Sarrazin, F.

    2017-12-01

    We have spent years trying to improve the use of global sensitivity analysis (GSA) in earth and environmental modelling. Our efforts included (1) the development of tools that provide easy access to widely used GSA methods, (2) the definition of workflows so that best practice is shared in an accessible way, and (3) the development of algorithms to close gaps in available GSA methods (such as moment independent strategies) and to make GSA applications more robust (such as convergence criteria). These elements have been combined in our GSA Toolbox, called SAFE (www.safetoolbox.info), which has up to now been adopted by over 1000 (largely) academic users worldwide. However, despite growing uptake in academic circles and across a wide range of application areas, transfer to industry applications has been difficult. Initial market research regarding opportunities and barriers for uptake revealed a large potential market, but also highlighted a significant lack of knowledge regarding state-of-the-art methods and their potential value for end-users. We will present examples and discuss our experience so far in trying to overcome these problems and move beyond academia in distributing GSA tools and expertise.

  12. Global industrial impact coefficient based on random walk process and inter-country input-output table

    Xing, Lizhi; Dong, Xianlei; Guan, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Input-output table is very comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with lots of economic relationships, which contains supply and demand information among industrial sectors. The complex network, a theory and method for measuring the structure of complex system, can describe the structural characteristics of the internal structure of the research object by measuring the structural indicators of the social and economic system, revealing the complex relationship between the inner hierarchy and the external economic function. This paper builds up GIVCN-WIOT models based on World Input-Output Database in order to depict the topological structure of Global Value Chain (GVC), and assumes the competitive advantage of nations is equal to the overall performance of its domestic sectors' impact on the GVC. Under the perspective of econophysics, Global Industrial Impact Coefficient (GIIC) is proposed to measure the national competitiveness in gaining information superiority and intermediate interests. Analysis of GIVCN-WIOT models yields several insights including the following: (1) sectors with higher Random Walk Centrality contribute more to transmitting value streams within the global economic system; (2) Half-Value Ratio can be used to measure robustness of open-economy macroeconomics in the process of globalization; (3) the positive correlation between GIIC and GDP indicates that one country's global industrial impact could reveal its international competitive advantage.

  13. The Pricing Evolution in the Air Transportation Industry. Implication for the Romanian Tourism Sector in the Era of Globalization

    Andreea Marin-Pantelescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The globalization process involves the liberalization of the services and the air transportation industry is responsive to this reality. There is a developing tendency for global alliances and strategies in major airline companies. The globalization implies extending service networks in the whole world. Currently we are witnessing lower prices for domestic and foreign airline flights with benefits for the tourists’ business and leisure activities. The last minute offers and early booking prices provide a win-win situation, for the airline companies on one side and for the customers on the other side. The positive online reviews influence people buying decision because customers are more sensitive than ever to the services prices. Under this condition it is very interesting to see the evolution of pricing in the air transportation industry and the implication for the Romanian tourism sector.

  14. Clustering and firm performance in project-based industries : the case of the global video game industry, 1972-2007

    Vaan, de M.; Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2013-01-01

    Explanations of spatial clustering based on localization externalities are being questioned by recent empirical evidence showing that firms in clusters do not outperform firms outside clusters. We propose that these findings may be driven by the particularities of the industrial settings chosen in

  15. Clustering and firm performance in project-based industries: the case of the global video game industry, 1972-2007

    Vaan, M. de; Boschma, R.; Frenken, K.

    2013-01-01

    Explanations of spatial clustering based on localization externalities are being questioned by recent empirical evidence showing that firms in clusters do not outperform firms outside clusters. We propose that these findings may be driven by the particularities of the industrial settings chosen

  16. Transforming Defense

    Lamb, Christopher J; Bunn, M. E; Lutes, Charles; Cavoli, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Despite the resources and attention consumed by the war on terror, and recent decisions by the White House to curtail the growth of defense spending, the senior leadership of the Department of Defense (DoD...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: National Security Missions: Defense Systems

    ; Technology Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Assessments Program Areas Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology Transfer Browse Technology Portfolios ; Culture Work-Life Balance Special Programs Nuclear Weapons Defense Systems Global Security Energy Facebook

  18. Industry

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  19. Global value chains: an analysis of the overflow effect of the Brazilian auto industry for the years 2000 and 2014

    Gustavo Henrique Leite de Castro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to map, analyze and compare the production multipliers and the overflow effect related to the manufacturing sector of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers to 43 countries plus the rest of the world - focusing on Brazil - for the years of 2000 and 2014. For this purpose, a theoretical and empirical discussion was held that contemplates theories about the Global Value Chains and a retrospective of the Brazilian automobile industry. The work used the global input-output analysis to estimate the production multipliers based on data available from WIOD (2017. As the main result the research indicates an increase of the multipliers of global production, occurring the same for this sector in Brazil. Another important result was the reduction of the overflow effect for Brazil going against the global effect, that is, this sector, which is supported by the State, decreased its external dependence

  20. Positioning in the Global Value Chain as a Sustainable Strategy: A Case Study in a Mature Industry

    Jose Albors-Garrigos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the development of new industrialized countries, such as Brazil, China and other Southern Asian economies, as well as a globalized economy, traditional competitive paradigms based on advantages associated with costs and quality efficiencies or even innovation are no longer sufficient. These previous classical paradigms related competitiveness either to costs or technology innovation and the resources of industry incumbents. However, the combination of adequate knowledge and relationship management with marketing efforts brings forth a reconsideration of the present competitive models that go beyond those analyses from the point of view of global value chains. The objective of this investigation will analyze the governance structure of the territorial value chain in the Spanish and Italian ceramic tile industry, through the understanding of the previous and current roles of several industries involved in the value creation system. By way of both a case study and quantitative methodology approach, we will explore the paradigm change where traditional chain actors are losing their grip on their contribution to the territorial value creation system as new actors appear with a more stable status. The article concludes that proper positioning in the global value chain is a key strategy for the sustainability of the involved firms, especially Small and Medium Enterprises (SME.

  1. Decision making in Global Product Development: Case studies from Danish industry

    Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation leads engineering firms to replace traditional co-located development with global distributed development activities. They make decisions regarding global product development; often with limited experience and information available. Previous research points towards a need for better...

  2. Sheila Jeffreys: The Industrial Vagina. The Political Economy of the Global Sex Trade. London: Routledge 2008.

    Susanne Hofmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sheila Jeffreys analysiert die Prozesse, die zu einer Industrialisierung und Globalisierung von Prostitution im späten 20. und 21. Jahrhundert geführt haben. Hauptverantwortlich für die gegenwärtige Diskursverschiebung um Prostitution ist für Jeffreys zum einen die sexuelle Revolution der 1970er Jahre und zum anderen die massive Finanzierung von Unterstützer/-innen der Sexarbeiterinnen zur HIV-Prävention in den 1980ern. Jeffreys legt wie in früheren Arbeiten ihre radikal-feministische Position dar und fordert eine Abschaffung der Prostitution. In ihrer Abrechnung mit dem liberalen feministischen Diskurs, für den eine Unterstützung von Sexarbeiterinnen prioritär ist, ignoriert sie die Widersprüchlichkeiten und Komplexitäten der gelebten Realitäten. An vielen Stellen ihres Buches bekräftigt Jeffreys stereotypische Männlichkeitsvorstellungen, was durch einen Blick über den Tellerrand des ihr vertrauten wissenschaftlichen Bezugsrahmens hätte vermieden werden können.Sheila Jeffreys analyzes the processes that led to the industrialization and globalization of prostitution in the late 20th and 21th centuries. Jeffreys considers those primary factors responsible for the current shift in discourse on prostitution, which can be attributed to the sexual revolution of the 1970s on the one hand, and to massive financing of HIV prevention in the 1980s by sex worker supporters on the other. As in earlier studies, Jeffreys presents readers with her radical-feminist position and demands prostitution be abolished. In her confrontation with liberal-feminist discourse, in which the support of sex workers takes priority, she ignores the inconsistencies and complexities of real lived experience. At many points throughout her book, Jeffreys affirms stereotypical male conceptions, which could have been avoided had she looked beyond the theoretical frame of reference that makes up her comfort zone.

  3. Integration with the Global Economy: The Case of Turkish Automobile and Consumer Electronics Industries

    Erol Taymaz; Kamil Yılmaz

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an extensive case study of the Turkish automotive and the consumer electronics industries. Despite a macroeconomic environment that inhibits investment and growth, both industries have achieved remarkable output and productivity growth since the early 1990s. Although there are similarities between the performances of the two industries, there are significant differences...

  4. Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water: a methodology and application

    Ward, Philip J; Pauw, W Pieter; Brander, Luke M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Strzepek, Kenneth M; Hughes, Gordon A

    2010-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of climate change adaptation, few global estimates of the costs involved are available for the water supply sector. We present a methodology for estimating partial global and regional adaptation costs for raw industrial and domestic water supply, for a limited number of adaptation strategies, and apply the method using results of two climate models. In this paper, adaptation costs are defined as those for providing enough raw water to meet future industrial and municipal water demand, based on country-level demand projections to 2050. We first estimate costs for a baseline scenario excluding climate change, and then additional climate change adaptation costs. Increased demand is assumed to be met through a combination of increased reservoir yield and alternative backstop measures. Under such controversial measures, we project global adaptation costs of $12 bn p.a., with 83-90% in developing countries; the highest costs are in Sub-Saharan Africa. Globally, adaptation costs are low compared to baseline costs ($73 bn p.a.), which supports the notion of mainstreaming climate change adaptation into broader policy aims. The method provides a tool for estimating broad costs at the global and regional scale; such information is of key importance in international negotiations.

  5. Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water: a methodology and application

    Ward, Philip J; Pauw, W Pieter; Brander, Luke M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University Amsterdam (Netherlands); Strzepek, Kenneth M [Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA (United States); Hughes, Gordon A, E-mail: philip.ward@ivm.vu.nl [School of Economics, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of climate change adaptation, few global estimates of the costs involved are available for the water supply sector. We present a methodology for estimating partial global and regional adaptation costs for raw industrial and domestic water supply, for a limited number of adaptation strategies, and apply the method using results of two climate models. In this paper, adaptation costs are defined as those for providing enough raw water to meet future industrial and municipal water demand, based on country-level demand projections to 2050. We first estimate costs for a baseline scenario excluding climate change, and then additional climate change adaptation costs. Increased demand is assumed to be met through a combination of increased reservoir yield and alternative backstop measures. Under such controversial measures, we project global adaptation costs of $12 bn p.a., with 83-90% in developing countries; the highest costs are in Sub-Saharan Africa. Globally, adaptation costs are low compared to baseline costs ($73 bn p.a.), which supports the notion of mainstreaming climate change adaptation into broader policy aims. The method provides a tool for estimating broad costs at the global and regional scale; such information is of key importance in international negotiations.

  6. An exploratory study of services marketing in global markets: major areas of inquiry for the health care services industry.

    Young, S; Erdem, S A

    1996-01-01

    It has been stated that one of the major challenges for the international marketer is the design of an efficient strategy for marketing services to international markets. This paper reviews some of the issues associated with services marketing in global markets along with the basic variables of service industries. An exploratory assessment of the health care services industry results in a list composed of several inquiry areas which should be examined by multinational companies. It is hoped that the review of the issues raised in this paper provides a basis for decision making and further research.

  7. The petroleum industry's response to climate change: The role of the IPIECA Global Climate Change Working Group

    Lemlin, J.S.; Graham Bryce, I.

    1994-01-01

    IPIECA formed the Global Climate Change Working Group in 1988 to coordinate members' efforts to understand the global climate change issue, to promote support for education and research, and to serve as the focus for engaging with international activities. The working group has sponsored a number of activities, including seminars and workshops. The Lisbon Experts Workshop on Socio-Economic Assessment of Climate Change in 1993 represents the most recent IPIECA forum for interaction between industry experts and those involved in the production of the IPCC 1995 Second Assessment Report. This workshop is described in the article. (author)

  8. COP21: defense stakes

    Coldefy, Alain; Hulot, Nicolas; Aichi, Leila; Tertrais, Bruno; Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre; Piodi, Jerome; Regnier, Serge; Volpi, Jean-Luc; Descleves, Emmanuel; Garcin, Thierry; Granholm, Niklas; Wedin, Lars; Pouvreau, Ana; Henninger, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The 21. Conference of the Parties (COP21) from the UN Framework Convention took place in Paris between November 30 and December 11, 2015. The challenge is to reach a universal agreement of fight against global warming and to control the carbon footprint of human activities. This topic is in the core of the Defense Ministry preoccupations. This special dossier takes stock of the question of defense issues linked with global warming. The dossier comprises 13 papers dealing with: 1 - COP21: defense stakes (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Warfare climate, a chance for peace (Hulot, N.); 3 - COP21 and defense (Aichi, L.); 4 - A war climate? (Tertrais, B.); 5 - Challenges the World has to face in the 21. century (Paillard, C.A.); 6 - Desertification: a time bomb in the heart of Sahel (Piodi, J.); 7 - The infrastructure department of defense in the fight against climate disturbance (Regnier, S.); 8 - Fight against global warming, a chance for the forces? (Volpi, J.L.); 9 - Sea and sustainable development (Descleves, E.); 10 - Rationales of Arctic's surrounding powers (Garcin, T.); 11 - Arctic: strategic stake (Granholm, N.; Wedin, L.); 12 - Strategic impact of Turkey's new energy choices (Pouvreau, A.); 13 - Climate and war: a brief historical outlook (Henninger, L.)

  9. China’s role in global competition in the wine industry: A new contestant and future trends

    Darryl J Mitry; David E Smith; Per V Jenster

    2009-01-01

    Darryl J Mitry1,2, David E Smith2,3, Per V Jenster3,41Norwich University, Graduate School Faculty, Northfield, VT, USA; 2National University, San Diego, California, USA; 3Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4China Europe International Business School, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The producers in the wine industry are competing in an increasingly global marketplace. More specifically this article is interested in China’s wine market and the ro...

  10. Sensemaking and politics in MNCs: A comparative analysis of vocabularies within the global manufacturing discourse in one industrial sector

    Geppert, M

    2003-01-01

    This article compares sensemaking processes in multinational corporations (MNCs) situated in the same industrial sector. Our comparative analysis of three MNCs and their subsidiaries in Germany and the United Kingdom aims to shed light on the contextual dimension (institutions, culture, and politics) of the sensemaking process. First, I discuss ideologies related to the discourse about global restructuring of manufacturing. Second, I compare similarities and differences in vocabularies of the...

  11. Global trade in environmental goods and services Performance and Challenges of Mexican Industry

    René Lara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the environmental industries of Mexico and the United States Within the framework of the North American Free Trade NAFTA, where Mexican industry lags behind lack of funds due to recurring economic crises. Should this situation not be overcome, the benefits of foreign trade for the Mexican environmental industry will remain low.

  12. Global nuclear industry views: challenges arising from the evolution of the optimisation principle in radiological protection

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2012-01-01

    pursuing further improvements in the international RP system, it should be clearly borne in mind that the system is generally based on protection against the risk of cancer and hereditary diseases. The system also protects against deterministic non-cancer effects on tissues and organs. In seeking refinements of such protective notions, ICRP is invited to pay increased attention to the fact that a continued balance must be struck between beneficial activities that cause exposures and protection. The global nuclear industry is committed to help overcome these key RP issues as part of the RP community’s upcoming international deliberations towards a more efficient international RP system.

  13. Global nuclear industry views: challenges arising from the evolution of the optimisation principle in radiological protection.

    Saint-Pierre, S

    2012-01-01

    further improvements in the international RP system, it should be clearly borne in mind that the system is generally based on protection against the risk of cancer and hereditary diseases. The system also protects against deterministic non-cancer effects on tissues and organs. In seeking refinements of such protective notions, ICRP is invited to pay increased attention to the fact that a continued balance must be struck between beneficial activities that cause exposures and protection. The global nuclear industry is committed to help overcome these key RP issues as part of the RP community's upcoming international deliberations towards a more efficient international RP system. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Industrialization

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  15. Industrialization

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  16. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  17. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  18. The Industrial Revolution and Birth of the Anti-Mercantilist Idea:Epistemic Communities and Global Leadership

    Daniel J. Whiteneck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to offer a new perspective on the linkage between global leadership and the role of epistemic communities in international relations. The issue of bilateral trade liberalization between Great Britain and its trading partners rose to prominence on the global agenda in the 1700s by the efforts of British political economists and merchants. These efforts were prompted by changes in economic relations brought about by the Industrial Revolution and its impact on the mercantile system. While this group was small in number and its interactions rudimentary by 20th Century standards, it nonetheless met the qualifications specified by many scholars. It is further argued that such communities are linked to the exercise of global leadership in the long cycle model's phases of agenda setting and coalition building. They arc started and based in the global leader, and arc nurtured by the relatively open social and political structures of that leader. Evidence supporting this argument strengthens the long cycle model's explanatorypower with regard to agenda setting, coalition creation, and the role of innovative solutions to global problems, and makes preeminence in knowledge -based communities another dimension of global leadership.

  19. Exploring the Upgrading of Chinese Automotive Manufacturing Industry in the Global Value Chain: An Empirical Study Based on Panel Data

    Fucai Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the age of globalization, the upgrading of China’s manufacturing industries has attracted great attention from both academicians and practitioners, as it certainly has great implications for the development of China and, even further, for the development of the whole world. To address this issue, the study clarifies the effects of the internal technological innovation capability (ITIC and external linkages (ELs on upgrading the Chinese automotive manufacturing industry (CAMI in the global value chain, in order to indicate the appropriate way for the CAMI to be further upgraded and provide references for the formulation of regional automotive industrial policies. Based on Chinese panel data, the results confirm that both ITIC and EL are important for the upgrading of the CAMI, with ITIC being the more important. Improvement of ITIC facilitates the industry’s cooperation with the EL, resulting in better knowledge access. Furthermore, the results of cluster analysis reveal that regions with relatively developed automotive industries place emphasis on both the ITIC and EL. However, in some regions (e.g., Shanghai and Chongqing, the utility of EL seems insufficient. Therefore, the results of this paper, on the one hand, suggest policies should be directed towards increasing the ITIC of CAMI. On the other hand, in some regions, managers and policymakers need to explore further the advantage of clustering.

  20. LINKING LOCAL AND GLOBAL: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR SMES – THE CASE OF THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY IN MEXICO

    Lalita Kraus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the article is on global-local interrelation in a globally integrated system of production, analysed through the Global Value Chain (GVC framework. The unit of analysis is the small and medium enterprise (SME as relevant unit when dealing with poverty reduction and distribution. The GVC allows to determine how the SMEs insert themselves in this system and what are the factors that cause a potential suboptimal insertion. The picture is further complicated by specific international agreements (for exemple, TRIPs and TRIMs and market liberalization. The case of the automotive industry in Mexico exemplifies these risks and helps to better identify the potential role of governmental policies if a better insertion want to be guaranteed and a more equal development promoted.

  1. An overview of industrial tree plantation conflicts in the global South: conflicts, trends, and resistance struggles

    W. Overbeek (Wilfridus); M. Kröger (Markus); J. Gerber (Julien-François)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstractOver the past two decades, industrial tree plantations (ITPs), typically large-scale, intensively managed, even-age monoculture plantations, mostly exotic trees like fast-growing eucalyptus, pine and acacia species, but also rubber and oil palm, all destined for industrial processe s

  2. Energy efficiency improvement potentials and a low energy demand scenario for the global industrial sector

    Kermeli, Katerina; Graus, Wina H J; Worrell, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of energy efficiency measures can significantly reduce industrial energy use. This study estimates the future industrial energy consumption under two energy demand scenarios: (1) a reference scenario that follows business as usual trends and (2) a low energy demand scenario that takes

  3. Local outcomes of globalization: manufacturing decline and labor response in the Philippine garment and shoe industries

    Beerepoot, N.

    2008-01-01

    In the past few decades, globalisation has led to major international shifts in labour intensive manufacturing generating ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ among countries, industries and workers. This paper uses case studies of the shoe industry in Marikina City and the garments sector in Metro Manila in

  4. Impact of defense conversion and US response

    Montanarelli, N.

    1994-01-01

    Conversion from military to civilian products due to defense conversion after the end of the Cold War takes a long as 20 years. In USA there are over 50 government programs funded to assist in defence conversion. This paper concentrates on the three major programs that will have the greatest impact on the economy, in the framework of the issues and needs of American industry. Federal government and US industry are making a considerable effort to transform how to do business today. One of the most important emerging themes in the federal program is international competitiveness. Large federal expenditures are made to support research and development that will increase productivity, thereby helping industry in global economic competition. This, in turn will play a key role in absorbing a large quantity od resources affected by the end of the Cold War

  5. Executive Perceptions on International Education in a Globalized Environment: The Travel Industry's Point of View

    Munoz, J. Mark; Katsioloudes, Marios I.

    2004-01-01

    Research on globalization has determined travel executives' perceptions of the psychological implications brought about by an interconnected global environment and the implications on international education. With the concepts of Clyne and Rizvi (1998) and Pittaway, Ferguson, and Breen (1998) on the value of cross-cultural interaction as a…

  6. Converging divergences? An international comparison of the impact of globalization on industrial relations and employment careers

    Mills, Melinda; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Buchholz, Sandra; Hofaecker, Dirk; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Hofmeister, Heather

    Profound social and economic transformations have taken place over the last two decades in modern societies. These changes are often referred to as globalization. The aim of this article is to examine whether processes of globalization have produced increasing convergence of employment-related

  7. Global Market Access in the Internet Era: South Africa's Wood Furniture Industry.

    Moodley, Sagren

    2002-01-01

    Explores the link between Internet connectivity and access to global markets, and uses the South African wood furniture producers as they are integrated into global value chains and exposed to the demands of more sophisticated markets. Articulates policy recommendations to promote greater diffusion of e-commerce technologies in the wood furniture…

  8. Proactive Self Defense in Cyberspace

    Caulkins, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    ... and standards to properly secure and defend the Global Information Grid (GIG) from cyber attacks. This paper will discuss the strategic requirements for enacting a proactive self-defense mechanism in cyberspace...

  9. Globalization processes of value chains in clothing industry in Portugal: implication in the working structures

    Moniz, António Brandão; V. Silva, Ana; Woll, Tobias; J. Sampaio, José

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Some of the phenomena where the “globalization” concept is applied include the internationalization of markets, globalization of culture, polítical hegemony of world by some states, or groups of states, the increasing power of supranational institutions, and the development of a global division of labour. A starting point to understand the global division of work is the study of how companies are re-structuring, once they are the key-actors in the decision on which wor...

  10. CO_2 emissions reduction of Chinese light manufacturing industries: A novel RAM-based global Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index

    Emrouznejad, Ali; Yang, Guo-liang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has become one of the most challenging issues facing the world. Chinese government has realized the importance of energy conservation and prevention of the climate changes for sustainable development of China's economy and set targets for CO_2 emissions reduction in China. In China industry contributes 84.2% of the total CO_2 emissions, especially manufacturing industries. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Malmquist productivity (MP) index are the widely used mathematical techniques to address the relative efficiency and productivity of a group of homogenous decision making units, e.g. industries or countries. However, in many real applications, especially those related to energy efficiency, there are often undesirable outputs, e.g. the pollutions, waste and CO_2 emissions, which are produced inevitably with desirable outputs in the production. This paper introduces a novel Malmquist–Luenberger productivity (MLP) index based on directional distance function (DDF) to address the issue of productivity evolution of DMUs in the presence of undesirable outputs. The new RAM (Range-adjusted measure)-based global MLP index has been applied to evaluate CO_2 emissions reduction in Chinese light manufacturing industries. Recommendations for policy makers have been discussed. - Highlights: •CO_2 emissions reduction in Chinese light manufacturing industries are measured. •A novel RAM based Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index has been developed. •Recommendation to policy makers for reducing CO_2 reduction in China are given.

  11. A CRITICAL REVIEW ON THE EFFECT OF HOUSING INDUSTRY TO THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS: THE CASE OF TURKEY

    Cem BERK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of the research presented is to investigate the relationship between the macroeconomic factors linked with financial crises and housing industry in Turkey. The research includes empirical investigation in a regression based model using mostly the Turkish market data. The ability of public intervention, indicated by central bank reserves and corporate bankruptcies are statistically effective in the performance of housing market. There is weak statistical dependence of housing on financial crisis. The research is based on Turkish market data between the period 2002-2009. The research can be extended with global market data especially from the emerging market for a comparative study. Research in this field should focus more to industry dynamics rather than macroeceonomic variables explaining crisis to explore housing sector dynamics. The real estate managers should look to central bank reserves and corporate bankruptcies more closely as a macroeceonomic variable affecting housing industry. The effect of macroeceonomic variables in the period of financial volatility is limited in the housing market, whereas industry factors should be analized. Central bank reserves and corporate bankruptcies are important indicators of housing industry growth that can be used as an instrument. To to the author’s knowledge, the paper is the first study to investigate the link between financial crisis and housing market in Turkey.

  12. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  13. The Evolving Relationship Between Technology and National Security in China: Innovation, Defense Transformation, and China’s Place in the Global Technology Order

    2016-02-12

    Stockmann, Xiao Qiang. Changing Media, Changing China , New York: Oxford University Press, (01 2011) Dieter Ernst. Indigenous Innovation and...2211 China , science, technology, dual use, defense, security, innovation REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10...ABSTRACT Final Report: The Evolving Relationship Between Technology and National Security in China : Innovation , Defense Transformation, and China’s

  14. Local Design & Global Dreams - Emerging Business Models creating the Emergent Electric Vehicle Industry

    Rask, Morten; Andersen, Poul Houman; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    Electric cars hold the potential to completely alter the interrelationship among actors in the automobile industry architecture. As such they may not only be able to alleviate environmental externalities but also revolutionise the automobile industry as such. This paper is concerned...... with the processes of industry creation for the electric car industry, which is a particular fascinating topic matter as it allows the analysis to provide an understanding of the processes of innovation and of some of its inventors in concert. In continuation of this, the aim of this paper is to describe and analyse...... which emergent business models and corresponding value capturing capabilities can be found in the emerging market for electric cars....

  15. Bienvenidos a Canadá? Globalization and the Migration Industry Surrounding Temporary Agricultural Migration in Canada

    Jenna L. Hennebry

    2008-12-01

    participant observation in Ontario, and interviews with migrant workers and their families, farmers, government representatives and other intermediaries, this paper examines the extent to which a migration industry has formed around the Mexican-Canadian Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program.

  16. The Global Petrochemical Industry: the market. Market Analysis - 2017-2023 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    2017-02-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview, The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Environment, Demand, Supply, Trade; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Environment, Structure of Competition, Business Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Statistical Appendix; 6. Sources; 7. Annexes

  17. Windy Prospects: An approach to strategic foresight in the global wind turbine industry

    Wied, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This report explores the forces of change which will influence the competitive environment of the wind turbine industry over the coming decade. It further explores the strategic consequences of such change for wind turbine manufacturers and investigates possibilities for adaptation, pre-emption and early warning. This report explores the forces of change which will influence the competitive environment of the wind turbine industry over the coming decade. It further explores the strategic c...

  18. THE ASSISTANCE TO DEVELOP GLOBAL BRANCH OF LOW-TEMPERATURE INDUSTRIAL GASES

    Лавренченко, Г. К.

    2014-01-01

    The Ukrainian Association of industrial gases manufacturers «UA-SIGMA» will be ten years in this year. The Association currently includes 33 companies from Ukraine, Russia and Kazakhstan. The main purpose of the Association — to develop scientific and technical recommendations to improve systems of air separation plants for the production of various low-temperature industrial gases, to ensure their safe and efficient operation. The Association provides training and skills development of cryog...

  19. Leading Players of the Global Petrochemical Industry. Overview of Groups - SWOTs - Benchmarking - Company Profiles and Financials

    2017-02-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Overview: The Sector, Ranking, Performance Analysis; 2. Company Profiles: ExxonMobil, Total, BASF, Dow Chemical, Reliance Industries, Sabic, LyondellBasell, Mitsubishi Chemical, LG Chem, Sumitomo Chemical; 3. Sources; 4. Annexes

  20. SMEs in the Philippine Manufacturing Industry and Globalization: Meeting the Development Challenges

    Aldaba, Rafaelita M.

    2008-01-01

    In recognition of their substantial contribution to the economy both in terms of number of enterprises and workers, the Philippine government has put in place a number of policies and programs designed specifically to boost SME productivity and competitiveness in the country. However, the performance of SMEs in the last decade has not been vigorous enough to boost the Philippine manufacturing industry. As such, the deepening of high technology industries in terms of the creation of backward l...

  1. Competing in the Global Solar Photovoltaic Industry: The Case of Taiwan

    Yu-Shan Su

    2013-01-01

    The top five solar cell supply countries in the world in sequential order are China, Taiwan, the United States of America, Japan, and Germany. The capacity of Taiwanese solar cell production is ranked top two in the globe. The competitive advantage of the Taiwanese electronics firms has facilitated the rapid developments to its solar photovoltaic industry. The Taiwanese solar photovoltaic industry possesses a large size and a complete value chain of upstream, midstream, and downstream sectors...

  2. The Global Oil and Gas Industry: the Market. Market Analysis - 2017-2020 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    2017-07-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Overview, Supply, Demand, Prices, Trade; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Environment, Leaders' Recent Performances, Corporate Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Statistical Appendix; 6. Sources; 7. Annexes

  3. The Global Renewable Energy Equipment Industry: the Market. Market Analysis - 2017-2035 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    2017-08-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview, The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Overview, Demand, Supply; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Forces, Structure of Competition, Corporate Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Statistical Appendix; 6. Sources; 7. Annexes

  4. Vogue and the possibility of cosmopolitics: race, health and cosmopolitan engagement in the global beauty industry

    Kuipers, G.M.M.; Chow, Y.F.; van der Laan, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of cosmopolitics, using the global magazine franchise Vogue as our starting point. Drawing on Saito's conceptualizations of cosmopolitanism, we investigate whether Vogue promotes cosmopolitan engagement, which we define as promotion of human diversity, cultural

  5. Patent challenges for standard-setting in the global economy : lessons from information and communication industry

    Maskus, K.; Merrill, S.A.; Bekkers, R.N.A.; Sandy Block, Marc; Contreras, Jorge; Gilbert, Richard; Goodman, David; Marasco, Amy; Simcoe, Tim; Smoot, Oliver; Suttmeier, Richard; Updegrove, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Patent Challenges for Standard-Setting in the Global Economy: Lessons from Information and Communication Technology examines how leading national and multinational standard-setting organizations (SSOs) address patent disclosures, licensing terms, transfers of patent ownership, and other issues that

  6. Target salt 2025: a global overview of national programs to encourage the food industry to reduce salt in foods.

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-08-21

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods-the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target.

  7. A Case Study of the Global Group for Sharing Knowledge and Efforts in Human Resources within the Nuclear Industry

    Thomas, C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: One of the main conclusions from the IAEA’s HRD Conference in 2014 was that people and organisations in the global nuclear industry could cooperate more in sharing information and efforts. This was an inspiring conclusion, and there seemed an especially great opportunity for such sharing of information and efforts related to the attraction, recruitment, development and retention of people within the nuclear workforce. Founding members include people from the IAEA, WNA, WANO, EDF and OPG amongst others, the global working group for Human Resource matters aimed at “Building and Sustaining a Competent Nuclear Workforce” was established. This global working group is free to join and is open to anyone concerned with Building and Sustaining a Competent NuclearWorkforce. The objectives of the group are to share useful information, find others with similar objectives to cooperate with, ask questions, share opinions and crucially to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. The group already has 160 members from more than 15 countries and is currently hosted as a group on the LinkedIn website. The vision for the group is that it will become an invaluable resource for people across the world in the nuclear industry for sharing information and efforts. (author

  8. Nuclear fuel cycle industry. A responsible approach supporting non proliferation efforts in global perspective

    Jorant, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the reasons why and the manner in which nuclear industry is a stakeholder in non proliferation efforts. It then presents some recent proposals on multinational approaches to the fuel cycle industry and offers some comments and an industry view on these issues. A parallel is established with fundamental concepts in the field of radiation protection. Our industry, involved in 'nuclear technology development' (activities) qualified of 'sensitive' from a non proliferation standpoint, has major interests at stake in the evolution of the international non proliferation regime and is genuinely committed to the spreading of a non proliferation culture. The international community and in particular the nuclear community have been recently reflecting on ways to strengthen the non-proliferation regime in reaction to new threats or the perception thereof. Multilateral approaches regarding the nuclear fuel cycle are being discussed or proposed in this regard. Our approach as an industrial may be illustrated using the three basic principles developed in the field of radiation protection, namely limitation, justification and optimization. a) an overall limitation of sensitive facilities worldwide may be judicious, b) however no prohibition should be imposed if justified needs can be demonstrated on objective criteria, c) optimized used for existing facilities should be promoted through strengthened guarantees of supply where it may be necessary. (author)

  9. Exploring the Technological Collaboration Characteristics of the Global Integrated Circuit Manufacturing Industry

    Yun Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of international competition, there are many international technological collaborations in the integrated circuit manufacturing (ICM industry. The importance of improving the level of international technological collaboration is becoming more and more prominent. Therefore, it is vital for a country, a region, or an institution to understand the international technological collaboration characteristics of the ICM industry and, thus, to know how to enhance its own international technological collaboration. This paper depicts the international technological collaboration characteristics of the ICM industry based on patent analysis. Four aspects, which include collaboration patterns, collaboration networks, collaboration institutions, and collaboration impacts, are analyzed by utilizing patent association analysis and social network analysis. The findings include the following: first, in regard to international technological collaboration, the USA has the highest level, while Germany has great potential for future development; second, Asia and Europe have already formed clusters, respectively, in the cooperative network; last, but not least, research institutions, colleges, and universities should also actively participate in international collaboration. In general, this study provides an objective reference for policy making, competitiveness, and sustainability in the ICM industry. The framework presented in this paper could be applied to examine other industrial international technological collaborations.

  10. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    Gan Lin

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis

  11. Pfizer and the Challenges of the Global Pharmaceutical Industry 2013 (B)

    Kratochvil, Renate; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This is part of a case series. The overall case focuses on the overall pharmaceutical market, such as industry structure and trends, as well as the strategic position of innovative (R&D intensive) pharmaceutical companies. Case A starts with a description of Pfizer struggling to hold its position...... as an industry leader and questions whether this is indicative for the current developments of the entire industry, putting big pharmaceutical companies’ power and influence under pressure. Such trends are, for example, slower sales growth, expiring patents, increasing competition from generics, shorter product...... pharmaceutical companies’ (and in particular Pfizer's) strategic moves (such as mega M&As) to conquer recent trends. The reader is then referred back to Pfizer's situation, its recent strategic initiatives, and competitor’s behaviour. Both cases feature comprehensive information and a large number of tables...

  12. Pfizer and the Challenges of the Global Pharmaceutical Industry 2013 (A)

    Kratochvil, Renate; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2018-01-01

    This is part of a case series. The overall case focuses on the overall pharmaceutical market, such as industry structure and trends, as well as the strategic position of innovative (R&D intensive) pharmaceutical companies. Case A starts with a description of Pfizer struggling to hold its position...... as an industry leader and questions whether this is indicative for the current developments of the entire industry, putting big pharmaceutical companies’ power and influence under pressure. Such trends are, for example, slower sales growth, expiring patents, increasing competition from generics, shorter product...... pharmaceutical companies’ (and in particular Pfizer's) strategic moves (such as mega M&As) to conquer recent trends. The reader is then referred back to Pfizer's situation, its recent strategic initiatives, and competitor’s behaviour. Both cases feature comprehensive information and a large number of tables...

  13. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Gan, Lin

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  14. Measuring macro-level effects of the global economic recession on university-industry research cooperation

    Azagra-Caro, J.M.; Tijssen, R.J.W.; Yegros-Yegros, A.

    2016-07-01

    The 2007/2008 financial crisis, and ensuing economic recession, had a direct negative effect on university-industry research cooperation in the OECD countries and other economies – it diminished the number of university-industry co-authored research publications (UICs) during the period 2008-13 by 7%. It also changed the relationship between national business expenditure on R&D and UIC output levels. Before the recession the relationship was negative, but became positive during the years 2008-2013. The few countries where business expenditure on R&D increased during recession saw UIC numbers rise. This moderating effect of the recession applies only to ‘domestic UICs’, where universities cooperated with business companies located in the same country. Micro-level research is needed to assess the contributing effects on large university-industry R&D consortia on both domestic and international collaboration patterns. (Author)

  15. IDENTIFY: opportunities for improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    Cornland, Deborah Wilson; Lazarus, Michael; Heaps, Charles; Hippel, David von; Hill, David [Stockholm Environment Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Williams, Robert [United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Vienna (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    In response to a formal request by the Group of 77 and China, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) initiated a study to identify opportunities to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from energy-intensive industries in developing countries. The study resulted in the development of the IDENTIFY software tool which can be useful for evaluating projects under consideration for investment through Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ). IDENTIFY consists of an Analysis tool which enables the user to evaluate and compare the costs, energy requirements, and greenhouse-gas emissions associated with scenarios of specific technology, and process options and a Technology Inventory which provides information describing energy-efficient, best-available technologies and processes that can be used to abate greenhouse-gas emissions in the most energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors as well as cross-cutting measures applicable in a range of sub-sectors. (author)

  16. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    Lin Gan [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway)

    2003-05-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analysed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis. (author)

  17. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    Gan Lin E-mail: lin.gan@cicero.uio.no

    2003-05-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis.

  18. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  19. Energy-climate-manufacturing nexus: New insights from the regional and global supply chains of manufacturing industries

    Kucukvar, Murat; Cansev, Bunyamin; Egilmez, Gokhan; Onat, Nuri C.; Samadi, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi region input–output sustainability assessment model is developed. • Energy-climate-manufacturing nexus within the context of global supply chains is investigated. • Electricity, Gas, and Water Supply sector is the main contributor to energy and carbon impacts. • Turkish regional manufacturing accounts for approximately 40–60% of total carbon emissions. • China, USA, and Rest-of-the World have the largest shares in the Turkish global energy footprint. - Abstract: The main objectives of this research are to improve our understanding of energy-climate-manufacturing nexus within the context of regional and global manufacturing supply chains as well as show the significance of full coverage of entire supply chain tiers in order to prevent significant underestimations, which might lead to invalid policy conclusions. With this motivation, a multi region input–output (MRIO) sustainability assessment model is developed by using the World Input–Output Database, which is a dynamic MRIO framework on the world’s 40 largest economies covering 1440 economic sectors. The method presented in this study is the first environmentally-extended MRIO model that harmonizes energy and carbon footprint accounts for Turkish manufacturing sectors and a global trade-linked carbon and energy footprint analysis of Turkish manufacturing sectors is performed as a case study. The results are presented by distinguishing the contributions of five common supply chain phases such as upstream suppliers, onsite manufacturing, transportation, wholesale, and retail trade. The findings showed that onsite and upstream supply chains are found to have over 90% of total energy use and carbon footprint for all industrial sectors. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply sector is usually found to be as the main contributor to global climate change, and Coke, Refined Petroleum, and Nuclear Fuel sector is the main driver of energy use in upstream supply chains. Overall, the

  20. New strategies for innovation in global health: a pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    Witty, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries play a large role in stalling economic and social development. Pharmaceutical companies are driving crucial research into new vaccines and medicines; however, although there is an imperative for industry to research new therapies for diseases of the poor, the financial returns are often seen as limited. This is beginning to change. The pharmaceutical industry and the public sector are thinking differently than before about how to improve access to medicines and advance research and development for neglected diseases. The public and private sectors must work together to develop a wide range of innovative tools, partnerships, and approaches.

  1. Powerful agent of change? The global insurance industry as a driver for greenhouse mitigation and adaptation

    Phelan, Liam; Taplin, Ros

    2007-01-01

    Full text: This paper explores the potential for the gloPal insurance industry to play a powerful and constructive role towards significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions as well as in climate change adaptation. Climate change presents a formidable public policy challenge (IPCC 2001) and one to which sections of the insurance industry have been responsive (Mills 2005). The industry can be expected to play a further constructive role for three reasons: the industry has core capacities in risk management and loss prevention; the industry is the world's largest with annual income in the order of US$3.4 trillion derived from premiums and US$1 trillion derived from investments; and anthropogenic climate change is constricting limits to insurability, with implications for the ongoing functioning of the insurance sector (Mills and Lecomte 2006). Insurance understood as a social institution is both a crucial component of contemporary socio-economic systems and a powerful agent of socio-economic change (Pfeffer and Klock 1974, Denenberg et al. 1964). The ability to transfer risk historically has played a major facilitative role in economic and social development at the broadest scales of human socio-economic systems (Supple 1984; Clark 1999). Governments historically and currently explicitly harness the potential of insurance in support of specific public policy outcomes. The creation of the modern welfare state is a public policy objective on a grand scale achieved in part through application of insurance, in the form of universal health care and pensions (Lengwiler2003). The insurance industry itself also initiates significant socioeconomic change in three ways: direct engagement, for example by establishing the first fire brigades (Kline 1964a); loss prevention research, for example by conducting and financing research into building and vehicle safety (Mills and Lecomte 2006; Kline 1964b); and engaging in lobbying for implementation of safety standards (Kline

  2. Prospects for global market expansion of China’s wind turbine manufacturing industry

    Gosens, Jorrit; Lu, Yonglong

    2014-01-01

    Emerging economies are increasingly contributing to global innovation, including clean-tech innovation. The development of China’s wind power sector has often been used to illustrate this point. China’s domestic wind power market is the largest in the world and is largely supplied by domestic manufacturers. Competition for market share in the domestic market may pressure firms to innovate, which consecutively improves prospects for global expansion. This paper reviews developments in China’s domestic wind turbine market using the Technological Innovation System framework. We analyze the pressure to innovate arising from market competition and assess the prospects for global expansion of Chinese wind turbine manufacturers. We conclude that domestic customers are not pressured or incentivized to perform with respect to power output, such that turbine manufacturers are not pressured to perform with respect to turbine efficiency or maintenance needs. Pressure to innovate is further reduced by formalizing connections between wind farm developers and turbine manufacturers. Chinese turbine manufacturers cannot yet compete with leading global brands in technological leadership. The prospects for exports are improved, however, by the preferential supply of project financing from institutional investors, such as the China Development Bank, from Chinese utilities that seek global expansion and from the manufacturers themselves. - Highlights: • We assess the pressure to innovate in the Chinese wind turbine market. • Customer demand is focused more strongly on turbine cost than quality. • Formalizing connections between users and suppliers reduce pressure to innovate. • Chinese manufacturers cannot yet compete globally in technological quality. • Preferential supplies of project finance may provide a vehicle for exports

  3. Industry Study, Weapons Industry, Spring 2009

    2009-01-01

    Agencies Sdn. Bhd.; Malaysia Aircraft Inspection, Repair, and Overhaul Depot; Malaysia American Malaysian Chamber of Commerce; Malaysia Samsung Techwin...Ministry of Defense: Defense Science and Technology Agency; Singapore Ministry of Defense: Industrial Affairs Office; Malaysia Boustead Shipping...Singapore, Malaysia , and Korea). Recommended policy changes included in the conclusion will strengthen these conditions, given that government goals and

  4. Industrial College of the Armed Forces Industry Studies 2002: Biotechnology

    2002-01-01

    The biotechnology industry is critically important to the development of products that will improve health care, agriculture, industrial processes, environmental remediation, and biological defense...

  5. Globalization, Superstars, and the Importance of Reputation: Theory and Evidence from the Wine Industry

    Gibbs, Mike; Tapia, Mikel; Warzynski, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    widely traded as a result of globalization. We then provide some empirical analysis of these ideas using data on prices and Robert Parker's ratings of wines. Wine prices are strongly related to ratings, and even more so for higher quality wine categories. In addition, changes in Parker ratings...... for the same wine result in large price changes. Price elasticities with respect to ratings have risen dramatically since 1993. One plausible explanation for this is the growing globalization of the fine wine market, which increases the prevalence of naive wine consumers....

  6. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-01-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

  8. Flexible mechanisms in the corporate greenhouse: implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the globalization of the electric power industry

    Schreuder, Y.; Sherry, C. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Policy

    2001-07-01

    The contradictions and unresolved tensions between economic globalization and climate change negotiations have added urgency to the climate change debate. The paper argues that the declining role of the nation state in the global economy and the increasing reach of transnational corporations throughout the world present a serious challenge to the environmental integrity and success of international environmental treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. In particular efficacy and equity of the flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol are questioned as illustrated by the patterns of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) of the US electric power industry in the developing world. US FDI in the electric power sectors of developing countries supports continued carbon-intensive development patterns which will make the long-term goals of the Kyoto Protocol more difficult to achieve. Consequently, FDI raises questions about justifiability of giving credit to Annex I countries through CDM projects undertaken by transnational electric power corporations. 13 refs.

  9. Model for calculating regional energy use, industrial production and greenhouse gas emissions for evaluating global climate scenarios

    Vries, H.J.M. de; Olivier, J.G.J.; Wijngaart, R.A. van den; Kreileman, G.J.J.; Toet, A.M.C.

    1994-01-01

    In the integrated IMAGE 2.0 model the 'Energy-Industry System' is implemented as a set of models to develop global scenarios for energy use and industrial processes and for the related emissions of greenhouse gases on a region specific basis. The Energy-Economy model computes total energy use, with a focus on final energy consumption in end-use sectors, based on economic activity levels and the energy conservation potential (end-use approach). The Industrial Production and Consumption model computes the future levels of activities other than energy use, which lead to greenhouse gas emissions, based on relations with activities defined in the Energy-Economy model. These two models are complemented by two emissions models, to compute the associated emissions by using emission factors per compound and per activity defined. For investigating energy conservation and emissions control strategy scenarios various techno-economic coefficients in the model can be modified. In this paper the methodology and implementation of the 'Energy-Industry System' models is described as well as results from their testing against data for the period 1970-1990. In addition, the application of the models is presented for a specific scenario calculation. Future extensions of the models are in preparation. 59 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs

  10. The Integration Aspects of Activities of the Companies in the Oil and Gas Industry Sector in the Context of Globalization

    Panevnyk Tetiana M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers both the dynamics and the structure of oil and gas production in Ukraine, situation of the oil and gas companies at the current stage of globalization of the world economy have been covered. The main problems impacting the functioning of the domestic industry sector have been identified, including the lack of effectiveness of the existing integration processes. The world trends and patterns of integration processes have been considered. It has been determined that the oil and gas industry sector leaders are the multinational companies that actively use integration in their practices. The current trends in creating integration linkages in different parts of the process chain in the oil and gas industry have been identified. Influence by large corporations of the innovative type on the creation of a favorable investment climate has been confirmed, as well as conducting their own policies of expansion in the overseas markets. On the basis of studying the foreign experience, expediency of development of the oil and gas sector enterprises by activating integration processes has been substantiated. Priorities and possibilities for further functioning of enterprises in the the oil and gas industry sector have been identified

  11. BRIEF CONSIDERATIONS ON THE RIGHTS AND WORKING CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYEES IN THE TEXTILE AND CLOTHING INDUSTRY GLOBALLY AND IN ROMANIA

    DOCIU Maria-Ariana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the textile and clothing industry plays an extremely important role in the global context, being one of the most powerful industries, which is capable of generating a turnover of billions of EUR. A fundamental part of the manufacturing process is represented by the employees that have an essential place in each step of the value chain, from fibre to fabric to ready-to-use product. The majority of the companies in this domain use the “lohn” system, which means that, first of all, that they redirect their attention to the countries which offer a cheap manpower. As a consequence, countries such as Romania lose their own identity regarding their own brands, becoming just a so considered minor player in the textile and clothing industry, but having the significant role of producing for the big companies of the world. The aim of this paper is to point out the great importance of the people who work in this industry, from the unqualified personnel to the qualified one, because each of one has a specific role in the manufacturing process, and also to emphasize that companies should not minimize this fact; on the contrary, besides worrying only about the profit, attention should be focused primarily on employees, in order to create optimal working conditions, to respect the fundamental human rights and to provide wages proportionally with the work-hours.

  12. Assessment of knowledge and awareness of global warming among inhabitants of industrial areas of an urban community in Nigeria

    Ruth Ochanya Adio-Moses

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming with its attendant consequences such as extreme heat, natural disasters, poor air quality and allergens has increased health problems. The risk of injury, illness and resulting death among inhabitants are expected to be frequent and intense especially in areas with heavy industrial presence. The current low level of literacy and the socio-economic situation of Nigerians could be responsible for their low consciousness of this unpreventable changes in our climate in one hand and lack of willingness on the part of people to seek environmental health and safety information on the causes, effect and how to mitigate global warming on the other hand. This study focuses on assessment of knowledge and awareness of causes, effects and mitigating measures of global warming among inhabitants of industrial areas of Ibadan southwestern Nigeria. In this descriptive survey, purposive sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents from among the inhabitants of this area. A questionnaire with reliability co-efficient (r of 0.78 was used for data collection. Two research questions were answered and three hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Statistical methods such as Chi-square, frequency count, simple percentage and pie chart were used for data analysis. Results showed that only 20% had 34.0% had negative attitude while 81 (40.5% were indifferent, all the three hypotheses were rejected. Consequently, it was deduced that respondents have significant knowledge of global warming. In recommendation, people’s environmental health seeking behaviour should be promoted through multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research and the development of inclusive environmental health and safety intervention strategies.

  13. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    Broeren, M.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371687438; Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock

  14. Modafusion on the global catwalk: a narrative approach toy je studying of ethical fashion industry

    Poldner, K.; Veenswijk, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on discursive responses which emerge in the backstage of globalised ecopreneurship industries during the process of identity formation. The focal organisation is ModaFusion, a young international fashion organisation, based in Rio de Janeiro. The central question of the paper

  15. The antecedents and consequences of restrictive age-based ratings in the global motion picture industry

    Leenders, M.A.A.M.; Eliashberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes one key characteristic shared by a growing number of industries. Specifically, their products and services are continuously monitored and evaluated by local third-party ratings systems. In this study, we focus on understanding the local drivers of restrictive age-based ratings

  16. The impacts of global oil price shocks on China's fundamental industries

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Chuanguo

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the impacts of oil price shocks on China's fundamental industries. In order to analyze the reactions of different industries to oil price shocks, we focused on four fundamental industries: grains, metals, petrochemicals and oil fats. We separated the oil price shocks into two parts, positive and negative parts, to investigate how commodity markets react when oil prices go up and down. We further studied the extreme price movements, called jumps, existing in the oil markets and how jump behavior has affected China's commodity markets. Our results suggest that asymmetric effects of oil price shocks did exist in the four markets and the negative oil price shocks had stronger influences on the four markets in China. The petrochemicals market suffered most from the oil price shocks, and the grains market was least sensitive to the shocks. When jumps occurred in the crude oil market, the four commodity markets would be affected differently. The oil fats market and petrochemicals market tended to “overreact” to jumps. - Highlights: • We investigate the impacts of oil price shocks on China's fundamental industries. • Jump behavior does exist in the crude oil market. • The impacts of oil price shocks are asymmetric. • China's four commodity markets are affected by the jump behavior

  17. Global connectivity and the evolution of industrial clusters : From tires to polymers in Northeast Ohio

    Mudambi, R.; Mudambi, S.M.; Mukherjee, D.; Scalera, V.G.

    Industrial clusters are a critical component of the competitive viability of economies around the world. However, clusters are not static but evolve in response to technology and competition. This process has garnered interest from scholars and from practitioners, with the focus primarily on local

  18. Mergers and acquisitions in the global food processing industry in 1986–2006

    Muehlfeld, K.; Weitzel, G.U.; Witteloostuijn, A. van

    2011-01-01

    Food systems around the world experienced increased merger and acquisition (M&A) activity over the past decades. Based on a sample of 13,911M&A attempts worldwide during 1986–2006, this study provides an analysis of major determinants of M&A completion in the food processing industry. Friendly

  19. Gradual catch up and enduring leadership in the global wine industry

    Morrison, A.; Rabellotti, Roberta

    The wine industry is an extremely interesting sector from a catch -up point of view because the latecomers in the international market have changed how wine is produced, sold and consumed and, in doing so, they have challenged the positions of incumbents. Until the end of the 1980s, the European

  20. Missile defense in the United States

    Heurlin, Bertil

    2004-01-01

    The basic arguments of this paper are, first, that the current US-missile defense, being operative from fall 2004, is based upon the former experiences with missile defense, second, that missile defense closely associated with weapons of mass destruction has gained the highest priority in American national security policy due to the 9.11 attacks, and third, that the superior argument for establishing an American missile defense is to maintain global, long term political-strategic superiority....

  1. Corporate restructuring of the global energy industry, the next steps: the case of gas in Europe

    Roland, K.; Soerensen, E.S.

    2000-01-01

    The European energy sector will undergo a wave of restructuring and reorganization in the next 12 to 36 months. Deregulation at both the EU and national levels provides a catalyst, creating a range of new commercial forces that will require actors fundamentally to reappraise their business strategies. Companies will look for efficiency gains, economies of scale and scope, new approaches to risk management and a strategic positioning in the pan-European market. This will result in far-reaching structural changes in the industry, leading to a small number of large, vertically integrated energy companies with a wide spread of geographical interests. In this paper, we analyse these trends with reference to the European gas industry. (orig.)

  2. Benchmarking the global nuclear industry 2012. Heading for a fast recovery

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The study on the title subject is based on a series of 50 interviews in 13 countries, including vendor companies, utilities, manufacturers of nuclear and conventional island equipment, national regulatory authorities and international agencies as well as scientific experts. The report identifies challenges and the bargaining position of countries within the nuclear industry in the wake of the Japan Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. One outcome that has been of paramount importance to all is nuclear safety. Decisions, changes and choices were to be made; Germany announced it would shut down all nuclear power plants by 2022. However, the big players in the nuclear industry Russia, France, China, United States of America, Canada, Japan and South Korea have seen little disruption in commitment to providing nuclear power since the disaster.

  3. A University-Industry Collaborative Response to the Growing Global Demand for Student Talent: Using Interpretive Phenomenology to Discover Life-World Knowledge

    Vauterin, Johanna Julia; Linnanen, Lassi; Michelsen, Karl-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The supply of student talent is now taking on an increasingly global dimension and this has extended the breadth of university-industry interaction. Set in the context of a rapidly growing international student market, knowledge transfer between academia and business through global student talent supply is an emerging practice. This paper…

  4. Corporate restructuring of the global energy industry: an overview of events and issues

    Lillis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Before 1980, outside of the world's few major integrated oil companies, only a handful of energy companies could be considered multinational. In 1999, in addition to the scores of petroleum companies that can be classified as multinational, the scope of many electricity companies and natural gas transmission companies, has become increasingly global. Through mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, and strategic alliances, many of the world's energy companies have also become more integrated - and most recently, much larger. Natural gas pipeline companies have become electricity companies; regional domestic electric utilities have become multinational electricity companies; electricity distribution and transmission companies have become generation companies; generation companies have become distribution and transmission companies; and big oil companies have become even bigger oil companies. What have been the driving forces behind these transformations? It is in part due to a number of policy and market related developments such as: deregulation, rising environmental concerns, privatization, technological advances, and an evolution in global finance. (orig.)

  5. The Comprehensive Approach to Assessing the Economic Security of the Industry Sector in Conditions of Globalization

    Denysov Oleg Ye.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The author carries out an empirical study of the level of economic security of the chemical industry sector of Ukraine in the direction of «production of polyvinyl chlorides». For this purpose the integral index of economic security has been calculated according to the model of functional-component blocks of economic security of sector, developed by the author. Application of this model allowed to research the algorithm of action of the model on the factual basis and to analyze the obtained indicators. This, in turn, made possible to draw a conclusion about the constructiveness and expediency of application of the model of basic functional-component blocks for calculating the level of economic security of the industry sector. With the help of this approach, with application of the complex, system-structural, dynamic and functional approaches, the level of economic security has been defined and the process of monitoring the status and level of economic security of the industry sector has been ensured.

  6. Tracking occupational hearing loss across global industries: A comparative analysis of metrics

    Peter M Rabinowitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational hearing loss is one of the most prevalent occupational conditions; yet, there is no acknowledged international metric to allow comparisons of risk between different industries and regions. In order to make recommendations for an international standard of occupational hearing loss, members of an international industry group (the International Aluminium Association submitted details of different hearing loss metrics currently in use by members. We compared the performance of these metrics using an audiometric data set for over 6000 individuals working in 10 locations of one member company. We calculated rates for each metric at each location from 2002 to 2006. For comparison, we calculated the difference of observed-expected (for age binaural high-frequency hearing loss (in dB/year for each location over the same time period. We performed linear regression to determine the correlation between each metric and the observed-expected rate of hearing loss. The different metrics produced discrepant results, with annual rates ranging from 0.0% for a less-sensitive metric to more than 10% for a highly sensitive metric. At least two metrics, a 10dB age-corrected threshold shift from baseline and a 15dB nonage-corrected shift metric, correlated well with the difference of observed-expected high-frequency hearing loss. This study suggests that it is feasible to develop an international standard for tracking occupational hearing loss in industrial working populations.

  7. Tracking occupational hearing loss across global industries: a comparative analysis of metrics.

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Galusha, Deron; McTague, Michael F; Slade, Martin D; Wesdock, James C; Dixon-Ernst, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most prevalent occupational conditions; yet, there is no acknowledged international metric to allow comparisons of risk between different industries and regions. In order to make recommendations for an international standard of occupational hearing loss, members of an international industry group (the International Aluminium Association) submitted details of different hearing loss metrics currently in use by members. We compared the performance of these metrics using an audiometric data set for over 6000 individuals working in 10 locations of one member company. We calculated rates for each metric at each location from 2002 to 2006. For comparison, we calculated the difference of observed-expected (for age) binaural high-frequency hearing loss (in dB/year) for each location over the same time period. We performed linear regression to determine the correlation between each metric and the observed-expected rate of hearing loss. The different metrics produced discrepant results, with annual rates ranging from 0.0% for a less-sensitive metric to more than 10% for a highly sensitive metric. At least two metrics, a 10dB age-corrected threshold shift from baseline and a 15dB nonage-corrected shift metric, correlated well with the difference of observed-expected high-frequency hearing loss. This study suggests that it is feasible to develop an international standard for tracking occupational hearing loss in industrial working populations.

  8. Planetary Defense

    2016-05-01

    4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world . Millions of asteroids and...helps make Planetary Defense viable because defending the Earth against asteroids benefits from all the above technologies. So if our planet security...information about their physical characteristics so we can employ the right strategies. It is a crucial difference if asteroids are made up of metal

  9. 2008 Industrial Technologies Market Report, May 2009

    Energetics; DOE

    2009-07-01

    The industrial sector is a critical component of the U.S. economy, providing an array of consumer, transportation, and national defense-related goods we rely on every day. Unlike many other economic sectors, however, the industrial sector must compete globally for raw materials, production, and sales. Though our homes, stores, hospitals, and vehicles are located within our borders, elements of our goods-producing industries could potentially be moved offshore. Keeping U.S. industry competitive is essential to maintaining and growing the U.S. economy. This report begins with an overview of trends in industrial sector energy use. The next section of the report focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors. The report also highlights several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry. Finally, the report presents policies, incentives, and drivers that can influence the competitiveness of U.S. industrial firms.

  10. The Local Structure of Globalization. The Network Dynamics of Foreign Direct Investments in the International Electricity Industry

    Koskinen, Johan; Lomi, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    We study the evolution of the network of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the international electricity industry during the period 1994-2003. We assume that the ties in the network of investment relations between countries are created and deleted in continuous time, according to a conditional Gibbs distribution. This assumption allows us to take simultaneously into account the aggregate predictions of the well-established gravity model of international trade as well as local dependencies between network ties connecting the countries in our sample. According to the modified version of the gravity model that we specify, the probability of observing an investment tie between two countries depends on the mass of the economies involved, their physical distance, and the tendency of the network to self-organize into local configurations of network ties. While the limiting distribution of the data generating process is an exponential random graph model, we do not assume the system to be in equilibrium. We find evidence of the effects of the standard gravity model of international trade on evolution of the global FDI network. However, we also provide evidence of significant dyadic and extra-dyadic dependencies between investment ties that are typically ignored in available research. We show that local dependencies between national electricity industries are sufficient for explaining global properties of the network of foreign direct investments. We also show, however, that network dependencies vary significantly over time giving rise to a time-heterogeneous localized process of network evolution.

  11. Global carbon benefits of material substitution in passenger cars until 2050 and the impact on the steel and aluminum industries.

    Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Løvik, Amund N; Müller, Daniel B

    2014-09-16

    Light-weighting of passenger cars using high-strength steel or aluminum is a common emissions mitigation strategy. We provide a first estimate of the global impact of light-weighting by material substitution on GHG emissions from passenger cars and the steel and aluminum industries until 2050. We develop a dynamic stock model of the global car fleet and combine it with a dynamic MFA of the associated steel, aluminum, and energy supply industries. We propose four scenarios for substitution of conventional steel with high-strength steel and aluminum at different rates over the period 2010-2050. We show that light-weighting of passenger cars can become a "gigaton solution": Between 2010 and 2050, persistent light-weighting of passenger cars can, under optimal conditions, lead to cumulative GHG emissions savings of 9-18 gigatons CO2-eq compared to development business-as-usual. Annual savings can be up to 1 gigaton per year. After 2030, enhanced material recycling can lead to further reductions: closed-loop metal recycling in the automotive sector may reduce cumulative emissions by another 4-6 gigatons CO2-eq. The effectiveness of emissions mitigation by material substitution significantly depends on how the recycling system evolves. At present, policies focusing on tailpipe emissions and life cycle assessments of individual cars do not consider this important effect.

  12. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  13. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  14. Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Development and Global Competitiveness of US Space Transportation Industry: Critical Success Factors Assessment

    Enyinda, Chris I.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the unrelenting call in both public and private sectors fora to reduce the high cost associated with space transportation, many innovative partially or fully RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicles) designs (X-34-37) were initiated. This call is directed at all levels of space missions including scientific, military, and commercial and all aspects of the missions such as nonrecurring development, manufacture, launch, and operations. According to Wertz, tbr over thirty years, the cost of space access has remained exceedingly high. The consensus in the popular press is that to decrease the current astronomical cost of access to space, more safer, reliable, and economically viable second generation RLVs (SGRLV) must be developed. Countries such as Brazil, India, Japan, and Israel are now gearing up to enter the global launch market with their own commercial space launch vehicles. NASA and the US space launch industry cannot afford to lag behind. Developing SGRLVs will immeasurably improve the US's space transportation capabilities by helping the US to regain the global commercial space markets while supporting the transportation capabilities of NASA's space missions, Developing the SGRLVs will provide affordable commercial space transportation that will assure the competitiveness of the US commercial space transportation industry in the 21st century. Commercial space launch systems are having difficulty obtaining financing because of the high cost and risk involved. Access to key financial markets is necessary for commercial space ventures. However, public sector programs in the form of tax incentives and credits, as well as loan guarantees are not yet available. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussion and assess the critical success factors germane for RLVs development and US global competitiveness.

  15. The impact of global oil price shocks on China’s bulk commodity markets and fundamental industries

    Zhang, Chuanguo; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the reaction of aggregate commodity market to oil price shocks and also explored the effects of oil price shocks on China's fundamental industries: metals, petrochemicals, grains and oilfats. We separated the volatilities of oil price into expected, unexpected and negatively expected categories to identify how oil prices influence bulk commodity markets. We contrasted the results between different periods and among classified indices, in order to discover the significant changes in recent years and the differences at an industry level. Our results indicate that the aggregate commodity market was affected by both expected and unexpected oil price volatilities in China. The impact of unexpected oil price volatilities became more complex after 2007. The metals and grains indices did not significantly respond to the expected volatility in oil prices, in contrast to the petrochemicals and oilfats indices. These results not only contribute to advancing the existing literature, but also merit particular attention from policy makers and market investors in China. - Highlights: • We investigated the impact of global oil price shocks on China’s bulk commodity markets and fundamental industries. • The aggregate commodity market was affected by both expected and unexpected oil price volatilities. • The impact of unexpected oil price volatilities became more complex after 2007. • The metals and grains indices did not significantly respond to the expected volatility in oil prices

  16. A global approach to risk management: lessons from the nuclear industry

    Lazo, T.; Kaufer, B.

    2003-01-01

    The industry's nuclear safety experts are continuously striving to minimise the possible risk and extent of a nuclear accident, while nuclear regulatory, authorities work to ensure that all safety requirements are met. Relying on a combination of deterministic and probabilistic approaches, they are obtaining positive results in terms of both risk-informed regulation and nuclear safety management. This article addresses this aspect of risk management, as well as the management of radiation exposure risk. It looks into nuclear emergency planning, preparedness and management, and stresses the importance of coordinating potential protection approaches and providing effective communication should a nuclear accident occur. (authors)

  17. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization. PMID:28873432

  18. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    Xing, Lizhi

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  19. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    Lizhi Xing

    Full Text Available The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  20. The incoming global technological and industrial revolution towards competitive sustainable manufacturing

    Jovane, F.; Yoshikawa, H.; Alting, Leo

    2008-01-01

    , knowledge-based, competitive sustainable manufacturing (CSM) has been widely considered as main enabler. This paper presents the necessary steps from economic growth to sustainable development. The reference model for proactive action (RMfPA) is proposed to develop and implement CSM, at national and global...... levels. Furthermore, we also review strategies to pursue CSM at the macro-meso-field level in addition to ongoing national initiatives in different countries and by international organizations. A case study concerning the European Manufuture initiative is cited. The overall results conclude that RMf...

  1. Corporate social responsibility, decent work and global framework agreements: a textile industry case study

    Caroline da Graça Jacques; Maria João Nicolau dos Santos; Maria Soledad Etcheverry Orchard

    2016-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2016v15n33p160 The article discusses how the notion of decent work proposed by the International Labour Organization (ILO) is present on corporate social responsibility programs since the development of global commodity chains. Based on Economic Sociology Theory, discusses the formation of the International Framework Agreements (IFA) involving the union leadership and enterprises to create decent work in the supply chains. The empirical focus was the...

  2. Global EDGAR v4.1 emissions of air pollutants: analysis of impacts of emissions abatement in industry and road transport on regional and global scale

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Doering, U. M.; van Aardenne, J.; Monni, S.; Pagliari, V.; Peters, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The new version v4.1 of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) compiled by JRC and PBL provides independent estimates of the global anthropogenic emissions and emission trends of precursors of tropospheric ozone (CO, NMVOC, NOx) and acidifying substances (NOx, NH3, SO2) for the period 1970-2005. All emissions are detailed at country level consistently using the same technology-based methodology, combining activity data (international statistics) from publicly available sources and to the extent possible emission factors as recommended by the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. By using high resolution global grid maps per source category of area sources and point sources, we also compiled datasets with annual emissions on a 0.1x0.1 degree grid, as input for atmospheric models. We provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries. Moreover, the time series back in time to 1970 provides for the trends in official national inventories a historic perspective. As part of our objective to contribute to more reliable inventories by providing a reference emissions database for emission scenarios, inventory comparisons and for atmospheric modellers, we strive to transparently document all data sources used and assumptions made where data was missing, in particular for assumptions made on the shares of technologies where relevant. Technology mixes per country or region were taken from other data sources (such as the Platts database) or estimated using other sources or countries as proxy. The evolution in the adoption of technologies world-wide over the 35 years covered by EDGAR v4.1 will be illustrated for the power industry and the road transport sectors, in particular for Europe and the US. Similarly the regional and global impacts of implemented control measures and end-of pipe abatements will be illustrated by the examples of - NOx and SO2 end-of pipe abatements being implemented since the late

  3. Best in class: hot competition makes Canada an 'incredibly innovative environment' by global industry standards

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-01-01

    The highly innovative environment in the field service sector of the oil and natural gas industry and the intense competition generated by it are discussed. Despite the fact that Canada produces only 3.5 per cent of the world's oil and 7.0 per cent of its natural gas, Canada is a world leader in the development of field service systems and equipment. On a return on investment basis the field service sector outperformed the exploration and production sector, and while many of them are small compared to the giants like Haliburton and Schlumberger, small field service companies frequently outperform the giants, if only because below 100 million dollars in revenues, investors expect a 25 to 30 per cent return on equity. Constant cost cutting and an eye on the bottom line, combined with products and services of high quality, and the intense rivalry and competition keeps the industry constantly on its toes to do more with less, to come up with innovative business practices and to stay on the cutting edge of new technology. Progress by several of the field service companies, large and small, are reviewed by way of illustration

  4. THE ROMANIAN COAL INDUSTRY IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT

    DINA IONELA-CLAUDIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last century, the world has seen an acceleration of technological development in almost all the fields related to human life, leading to rapid improvement of living standards in most countries. Electricity industry is a basic economic branch, and is also a branch with high importance to the economy and social life of any country. This branch, which currently is the base of industrial, agricultural, transportation and telecommunications activities, and which characterizes the entire modern world civilization, began to develop only towards the late of the XXth century. Electricity is an energy form easily usable in production, household consumption, transport, telecommunications etc. It was the one that revolutionized manufacturing resources and equipment used in all fields. Electricity production worldwide has increased about 30 times since 1938. Coal maintained a vital role in the total energy sources, especially by ensuring price stability which is a major and indispensable factor for stability and further economic growth, and also by its distribution around the globe.

  5. Global environmental problems in the electric industry. Denki jigyo ni okeru chikyu kankyo mondai ni tsuite

    Sugi, T [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1992-09-30

    Since the electric industry has grappled with a prevention of the environmental pollution such as the air pollution and water contamination as a forerunner in case of construction and operation of the power facilities, and at the same time has conducted actively the environmental conservation countermeasures, it has consequently achieved the environmental conservation level as a top level in the world. On the other hand, as for the emission quantity of CO2 relating to the earth warming, the power field occupies about one fourth of total Japan. Therefore the electric industry should aim at the electric energy supply considering the influence on the environment, such as the power supply structure to restrain CO2 emission as less as possible, higher efficiency of equipments, higher efficiency of energy utilization by using the unused energy and so forth. In addition to it, the consumer side should aim at the social structure with a recycle type such as saving resources and saving energy, and aim at changeover of life style. It is hoped to conduct the overall measure including the items mentioned above. In this report, the recent trend of earth enviromental problems, grappling with the environmental problems as a forerunner such as the prevention measure of air pollution in the thermal power plant, etc., and the correspondence to the earth warming problems are outlined. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Exploring Effects of Organizational Culture upon Implementation of Information Security Awareness and Training Programs within the Defense Industry Located in the Tennessee Valley Region

    Grant, Robert Luther

    2017-01-01

    Data breaches due to social engineering attacks and employee negligence are on the rise. The only known defense against social engineering attacks and employee negligence is information security awareness and training. However, implementation of awareness and training programs within organizations are lagging in priority. This research used the…

  7. IBM Industry Practice: Challenges in Offshore Software Development from a Global Delivery Center

    Musio, Ilario

    Offshore software development has greatly influenced competitiveness among IT companies in the last decade. Despite the fact that there are matured and developed offshoring methodologies, there is an ongoing tendency to look for new ways of improving them. Major IT corporations successfully rely on their offshore delivery centers for bridging the gap between communication and infrastructure boundaries. However, projects tend to fail, so problems have to be considered that arise between on- and offshore parts within the same corporation. Based on seven case studies from the industry, this paper describes experiences and challenges faced during the execution of offshore application development between IBM Switzerland and IBM India. Additionally, approaches on how they can be solved are proposed.

  8. Supply Chain and Blade Manufacturing Considerations in the Global Wind Industry

    James, Ted [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goodrich, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-12

    Over the past decade, significant wind manufacturing capacity has been built in the United States in response to an increasingly large domestic market. Recent U.S. manufacturing production levels exceed anticipated near-term domestic demand for select parts of the supply chain, in part due to policy uncertainty, and this is resulting in some restructuring in the industry. Factor location decisions are influenced by a combination of quantitative and qualitative factors; proximity to end-markets is often a key consideration, especially for manufacturers of large wind turbine components. Technology advancements in the wind sector are continuing, and larger blade designs are being pursued in the market, which may increase U.S.-based manufacturing opportunities.

  9. Corporate social responsibility, decent work and global framework agreements: a textile industry case study

    Caroline da Graça Jacques

    2016-11-01

    Organization (ILO is present on corporate social responsibility programs since the development of global commodity chains. Based on Economic Sociology Theory, discusses the formation of the International Framework Agreements (IFA involving the union leadership and enterprises to create decent work in the supply chains. The empirical focus was the multinational Inditex fast fashion retailier. Interviews have been made with social and economic actors in the production chain in Portugal and Brazil. In conclusion, it is emphasized that the new corporate social responsibility tools, such as IFAs, favor the guidelines of decent work. However, the survey revealed that if there are no changes in the management of productive fast fashion retalier chain, the IFA has little effectiveness in reducing sweatshops and precarious labour.

  10. Business integration unit (BIU adapter for industrial global value chain on the web

    Adel Ghannam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today's manufacturing enterprises rarely live in isolation. They need to be connected in order to create products from which a group of enterprises, called global-value-chain (GVC, can derive value. Service-oriented architecture (SOA and event-driven architecture (EDA are two different paradigms that address complex integration challenges. Enterprise service bus (ESB allows for the implementation of both the SOA and the EDA concepts. This paper addresses the development of an enterprise service bus (ESB to grant the operation of GVC. A proposed business-integrator-unit (BIU is designed to be plugged in each enterprise system. The BIU contains a “business collaboration map configurator” that allows real time allocation of roles to members’ enterprises.

  11. GLOBAL WOOD PELLET INDUSTRY AND MARKET – CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS AND OUTLOOK

    Thrän, Daniela; Peetz, David; Schaubach, Kay; Trømborg, Erik; Pellini, Alessandro; Lamers, Patrick; Hess, J. Richard; Schipfer, Fabian; Hektor, Bo; Olsson, Olle; Bruce, Lena; Stelte, Wolfgang; Proskurina, Svetlana; Heinimo, Jussi; Benedetti, Luca; Mai-Moulin, Thuy; Junginger, Martin; Craggs, Laura; Wild, Michael; Murray, Gordan; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio; Thiermann, Ute; Escobar, F. J.; Goldemberg, J.; Coelho, S. T.

    2017-06-01

    The wood pellet use in the heating and electricity sector has recorded a steady growth in the last years. IEA bioenergy task 40 carried out an update of the situation on the national pellet markets in the most relevant pellet producing countries and the global development as well. Various country specific data is collected and compiled for more than 30 countries, containing updated information about regulatory framework, production, consumption, price trends, quality standards and trade aspects. The analysis confirmed the positive development in terms of production and consumption of wood pellets in almost all countries. In 2015 more than 26 Mt of wood pellets have been produced and consumed worldwide. Technologies and markets become more mature. Increased international pellet trade needs to be supported by adequate frame condition not only for commerce, but also with regard to sustainability issues.

  12. Global plants introductory session. Modern training meeting the future needs of the nuclear industry

    Ramdohr, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    For the AREVA group training is more than just transferring knowledge skills. It also means developing attitudes and meeting the changing challenges of people development, of its customer's employees and of its own employees. AREVA wants to meet the world's energy challenges and has therefore taken on the mission of enabling as many as possible to have access to energy that is clean, safe and economical. In order to meet this greatest challenge of the 21 st century with its growing demand for energy, AREVA requires a rapid increase of its global workforce. This means that 45.000 new recruits must be hired by 2012. In particular the rapid growth of AREVA's Reactors and Services division due to its business development produces an increasing demand for effective training services in order to prepare the newly recruited employees for their professional activities. (orig.)

  13. Defense Business Board

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Business Board Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Defense Business Board Business Excellence in Defense of the Nation Defense Business Board Home Charter Members Meetings Studies Contact Us The Defense

  14. The US-Russia missile defense dialogue as a factor of the Russian defense policy

    Dmitry Suslov

    2013-01-01

    To a big extent the Russian defense policy and, as a consequence, development of the Russian defense industrial complex, is determined by the prospects of the US missile defense policy and fate of the US-Russia negotiations in this area. As a cooperative solution seems improbable in the observable future, Russia plans to develop certain response measures of military nature, including creation of a new heavy ICBM, and to create its own missile defense by 2015. However, this policy does not see...

  15. Far Eastern Mission: One Fiercely Committed Choir Director at a Defense Department School in Japan Wants to Make a Global Difference

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    Tim Black, choral director at the Department of Defense's Kadena High School in Okinawa, Japan, might just be the closest thing to a new-millennium embodiment of that early '70s idealism. Not only does Black lead three choirs and teach advanced placement music theory to children of those serving in the U.S. armed forces, but he also is…

  16. Innovation in Photovoltaic Science, Engineering, and Policy: A Potential Trillion-Dollar Global Industry for Sustainable Energy

    Zheng, Cheng

    The solar photovoltaic (PV) technology was an expensive niche energy source only for satellite applications, hallmarked by the Bell Lab's launch of the Telstar satellite with PV cells in 1962. Over the past decades, the accumulation of vast amount of effort across various disciplines in science, engineering, and policy has enabled the phenomenal growth of the solar PV industry into a global enterprise with about 140 gigawatt (GW) of cumulative installations by the end of 2013. Further cost reduction through innovation holds the promise in deploying terawatt (TW)-scale solar PV systems globally in both developed and developing countries, meeting growing energy demand and mitigating climate change. Chapter 1 presents a big picture view of the unsustainable path, heavily relying on fossil fuels, in the current global energy landscape. The main body of the dissertation examines the solar PV technology from a holistic and interdisciplinary perspective: from the basic research, to innovations in manufacturing and installing PV modules, to the driving energy policies. Chapter 2 offers a fundamental understanding of the PV technology and a review on recent scientific advances in improving PV efficiency (W/m 2). Chapter 3 reviews the state-of-the-art process flow in manufacturing commercial PV modules. In the context of pursuing further reduction in manufacturing cost (/m2), the thin Si film concept and its recent research effort are reviewed. Aiming to explore novel ways to produce high-quality seed crystals for thin Si film deposition, the key findings of the laser crystallization experiment is presented in Chapter 4. The fundamental thermophysics of nucleation and crystal growth is first reviewed, which highlights the importance of temperature evolution and heat transport in modelling the ultrafast laser crystallization process. Laser crystallization of a range of Si nanostructures are then carried out to study the nucleation and crystal growth behavior under some novel

  17. Reestructuración industrial, social y de los cuerpos en el capitalismo global

    Pedro Robertt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo, particularmente, nos interesa rescatar los cambios en el mundo del trabajo y el impacto sobre los cuerpos, los sentimientos y las emociones de los trabajadores. En la fase actual de capitalismo global se ha instalado una racionalidad dominante que define el trabajo como un costo económico que debe ser reducido sin cesar. En ese sentido se expande la empresa de tipo “lean production”, resultado de esa racionalidad, que pretende disminuir todo lo que se considere sobrante, principalmente, trabajadores. Esa racionalidad capitalista de corte de costos va acompañada de la propuesta de un régimen económico flexible en que los trabajadores son movilizados, allí donde la empresa considere necesario (flexibilidad cuantitativa, y de un discurso que pasa a llamar el trabajador como colaborador. A seguir veremos el impacto de esos procesos en los sentimientos y emociones de los trabajadores.

     

     

    Fecha de recepción: 02 noviembre 2009. Fecha de aceptación: 25 de noviembre 2009.

  18. Reestructuración industrial, social y de los cuerpos en el capitalismo global

    Pedro Robertt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, particularmente, nos interesa rescatar los cambios en el mundo del trabajo y el impacto sobre los cuerpos, los sentimientos y las emociones de los trabajadores. En la fase actual de capitalismo global se ha instalado una racionalidad dominante que define el trabajo como un costo económico que debe ser reducido sin cesar. En ese sentido se expande la empresa de tipo “lean production”, resultado de esa racionalidad, que pretende disminuir todo lo que se considere sobrante, principalmente, trabajadores. Esa racionalidad capitalista de corte de costos va acompañada de la propuesta de un régimen económico flexible en que los trabajadores son movilizados, allí donde la empresa considere necesario (flexibilidad cuantitativa, y de un discurso que pasa a llamar el trabajador como colaborador. A seguir veremos el impacto de esos procesos en los sentimientos y emociones de los trabajadores.  Fecha de recepción: 02 noviembre 2009. Fecha de aceptación: 25 de noviembre 2009.

  19. Globalization of Japanese steel industry. Part 2. Welding materials; Tekkogyo no kokusaika. 2. Yozai

    Aida, I. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the current status and problems of arc welding materials. The domestic production of welding materials has decreased. The recent trend of demand is characterized by the change of form make-up of welding materials. Various technologies for welding materials and their operation in Japan have developed with the progress of steel materials. The high quality and high-grade welding technologies, highly efficient production processes, laborsaving, and robotization have been promoted in various fields. In response to the rapid strong yen, quality and cost have to be further pursued, and amenity and cleanliness of welding have to be realized. The welding technologies have to be developed for large structures, such as ultra high-rise buildings, energy and chemical plants, ships, marine structures, etc. For the welding materials which are applied to robots and robot systems, obstruction factors for the operation have to be removed, which include the unsteady arc, re-arc badness, spattering, wear of chip, slag formation, etc. These measures promote the globalization of welding materials. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  1. China’s role in global competition in the wine industry: A new contestant and future trends

    Darryl J Mitry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Darryl J Mitry1,2, David E Smith2,3, Per V Jenster3,41Norwich University, Graduate School Faculty, Northfield, VT, USA; 2National University, San Diego, California, USA; 3Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4China Europe International Business School, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The producers in the wine industry are competing in an increasingly global marketplace. More specifically this article is interested in China’s wine market and the role of China in global competitive strategies. The phenomenal growth of the Chinese economy over the past decade has encouraged international suppliers to enter the Chinese market. International wine suppliers lust after a huge potential market in a country of over 1,300,000,000 people. Simultaneously, there has also been a significant growth of production and marketing of wines by Chinese-owned wineries. This contribution explores the implications of China’s marketplace and also China as a creative and strategic producer.Keywords: China, wine, competition

  2. Towards greater harmonization of the system of radiological protection: views from the global nuclear industry

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2008-01-01

    The international system of radiological protection is currently under revision. At the governmental level, this is formally achieved through the revision of the IAEA Radiation Safety Standards. This process accounts for scientific developments on health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation as reported by UNSCEAR and by ICRP. In view of achieving a greater harmonization of the IAEA Global Safety Regime by integrating all safety fields, the novelty is that the revision needs to be driven in a top-down manner from the IAEA Safety Fundamentals (SF-1). This paper shows that IAEA BSS draft 1.0 was revised mainly using a bottom-up approach, from the new 2007 ICRP recommendations and upward. As this approach overwhelmed the benefits that come from the agreed top-down approach, BSS draft 1.0 contains many inconsistencies which do not lead to greater harmonization. This starts from the new ICRP approach on exposure situations, which cannot be common to all safety fields. Next, the new text on the Principles of Optimization and of Limitations is not fully consistent with SF-1. For planned exposure, dose constraint (DC) remains the No.1 issue as it cannot be clearly differentiated from limit or sub-limit. We see a continuously constructive role for DC only as a flexible tool that is part of Optimization. We noted that most of ICRP's guidance on emergency and existing exposure has not been integrated in BSS draft 1.0. The same applies to ICRP's guidance on non-human species. Behind this side step, there are considerable new and rather idealistic ICRP's concepts under development that pose issues. We advise caution before considering taking on board any of this new ICRP guidance. On the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance, we noted that BSS draft 1.0 departs from the current international consensus that led to IAEA Safety Standards (RS-G-1.7), thus requiring re-alignment. (author)

  3. Defense radioactive waste management

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  4. Measuring the Total-Factor Carbon Emission Performance of Industrial Land Use in China Based on the Global Directional Distance Function and Non-Radial Luenberger Productivity Index

    Wei Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Industry is a major contributor to carbon emissions in China, and industrial land is an important input to industrial production. Therefore, a detailed analysis of the carbon emission performance of industrial land use is necessary for making reasonable carbon reduction policies that promote the sustainable use of industrial land. This paper aims to analyze the dynamic changes in the total-factor carbon emission performance of industrial land use (TCPIL in China by applying a global directional distance function (DDF and non-radial Luenberger productivity index. The empirical results show that the eastern region enjoys better TCPIL than the central and western regions, but the regional gaps in TCPIL are narrowing. The growth in NLCPILs (non-radial Luenberger carbon emission performance of industrial land use in the eastern and central regions is mainly driven by technological progress, whereas efficiency improvements contribute more to the growth of NLCPIL in the western region. The provinces in the eastern region have the most innovative and environmentally-friendly production technologies. The results of the analysis of the influencing factors show implications for improving the NLCPIL, including more investment in industrial research and development (R&D, the implementation of carbon emission reduction policies, reduction in the use of fossil energy, especially coal, in the process of industrial production, actively learning about foreign advanced technology, properly solving the problem of surplus labor in industry and the expansion of industrial development.

  5. Information Management Principles Applied to the Ballistic Missile Defense System

    Koehler, John M

    2007-01-01

    .... Similarly several military systems with the single mission of missile defense have evolved in service stovepipes, and are now being integrated into a national and global missile defense architecture...

  6. Acidovorax citrulli: generating basic and applied knowledge to tackle a global threat to the cucurbit industry.

    Burdman, Saul; Walcott, Ron

    2012-10-01

    Acidovorax citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbit plants. In recent years, the disease has spread to many parts of the world, mainly via the inadvertent distribution of contaminated commercial seeds. Because of the costly lawsuits filed by growers against seed companies and the lack of efficient management methods, BFB represents a serious threat to the cucurbit industry, and primarily to watermelons and melons. Despite the economic importance of the disease, little is known about the basic aspects of A. citrulli pathogenesis. Nevertheless, the release of the genome of one A. citrulli strain, as well as the optimization of molecular manipulation and inoculation methods, has prompted basic studies and allowed advances towards an understanding of A. citrulli pathogenicity. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge about this important pathogen, with emphasis on its epidemiology and the factors involved in its pathogenicity and virulence. Bacteria; Betaproteobacteria; order Burkholderiales; family C omamonadaceae; genus Acidovorax; species citrulli. Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped; average dimensions of 0.5 μm × 1.7 μm; motile by means of an ~5.0-μm-long polar flagellum; colonies on King's medium B are round, smooth, transparent and nonpigmented; optimal temperatures for growth around 27-30 °C; induces a hypersensitive response on nonhost tobacco and tomato leaves. Acidovorax citrulli strains are pathogenic to various species of the Cucurbitaceae family, including watermelon, melon, squash, pumpkin and cucumber. Significant economic losses have been reported in watermelon and melon. Watermelon and melon seedlings and fruits are highly susceptible to A. citrulli. Typical seedling symptoms include water-soaked lesions on cotyledons that are often adjacent to the veins and later become necrotic, lesions on the hypocotyl, and seedling collapse and death. On watermelon fruits, symptoms begin as small

  7. Annual Industrial Capabilities Report to Congress

    2006-01-01

    .... Stable robust Department of Defense (DoD) funding is the primary factor in sustaining those industrial capabilities supporting defense because such funding focuses market demand across a broad spectrum of industry segments to meet emerging...

  8. Tobacco industry's elaborate attempts to control a global track and trace system and fundamentally undermine the Illicit Trade Protocol.

    Gilmore, Anna B; Gallagher, Allen W A; Rowell, Andy

    2018-06-13

    The Illicit Trade Protocol (ITP) requires a global track and trace (T&T) system to reduce tobacco smuggling. Given the tobacco industry's (TI) historical involvement in tobacco smuggling, it stipulates that T&T 'shall not be performed by or delegated to the tobacco industry'. This paper explores the rationale for & nature of the TI's effors to influence the ITP & its T&T system. Analysis of leaked TI documents and publicly available data; ,investigation of front groups, trademark and patent ownership. Growing & diverse sources of evidence indicate that the TI remains involved in tobacco smuggling and that TI cigarettes account for around two-thirds of the illicit cigarette market. The TI therefore has a vested interest in controlling the global T&T system aimed to curtail this behaviour. To this end, Philip Morris International (PMI) adapted its pack marker system, Codentify, to meet T&T requirements, licensed it for free to its three major competitors who then collectively promoted it to governments using front groups and third parties including companies claiming to be independent despite clear TI links. PMI also sought to suggest Codentify was independent by selling some parts of its intellectual property on Codentify while retaining others, leaving a complex web of shared interests. In Africa, British American Tobacco used payments to obtain data suggesting its smaller competitor companies were evading taxes and secure influence with tax authorities. Regulatory capture has been enhanced by a public relations effort involving TI funding for conferences, training, research, and international police and anti-corruption organisations. Collectively this has created public messaging and a powerful network of organisations supportive of the TI's misleading postion on illicit. Governments should assume the TI seeks to control T&T systems in order to avoid scrutiny and minimise excise tax payments and that any T&T system based on Codentify, on intellectual property

  9. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: Impetus Behind the Globalization Process(SANAYİ DEVRİMİ: Küreselleşme Sürecinin Arkasındaki İtici Güç

    Davut ATEŞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many arguments related to the origins of globalization process that we are more blatantly experiencing for the last few decades. But few of them focus on the effects of industrial revolution. In this paper, I will try to set a direct connection between industrial revolution and globalization process. For this aim, transformations as a result of industrial revolution in Europe will be reviewed within the context of capitalist mode of production, marketing and consumption. Thus, I will argue that industrial revolution that resulted in the emergence of industrial capitalism is one the most important factors behind globalization.

  10. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  11. Lease vs. Purchase in Defense Acquisition

    Hensley, Carlton L; Tinjum, Archie L

    2008-01-01

    With declining budgets and consolidation in the defense industry, should competition between prime and sub-prime contractors be fostered through innovative lease arrangements similar to the Navy's TAKX...

  12. Strategic Defense Initiative Organization: Corporate Plan

    1992-01-01

    ... requires a flexible yet focused approach to attain its mission; namely, to research, develop, acquire, and deploy systems and technologies which provide ballistic missile defense to include Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (OPALS...

  13. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  14. Design and Acquisition of Software for Defense Systems

    2018-02-14

    embrace of iterative development has benefited bottom lines and cost , schedule, and testing performance, while the Department and its defense industrial...February 2018 CLEARED FOR OPEN PUBLICATION February 14, 2018 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE OFFICE OF PREPUBLICATION AND SECURITY REVIEW...Force concluded that the Department of Defense would benefit from the implementation of continuous iterative development best practices as software

  15. IEA Annex 21. Global environmental benefits of industrial heat pumps; IEA Annex 21. Globala miljoefoerdelar med industriella vaermepumpar

    Westermark, M. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1996-12-01

    Industrial heat pumps uses heat from an industrial process as heat source (e.g. cooling water, waste steam, or flue gas). The study thus excludes heat pumps using natural heat sources as sea water or ambient air. The advantage of industrial heat pumps are high heat source temperature (often 30-100 deg C) and high operational time (industries are often operated during the whole year). Produced heat from the heat pump replaces oil or other fuels for process heating or is exported to a district heating network. The total number of industrial heat pumps in the 8 participating countries was approx. 4600. About 2700 are used for drying of wood products and are small by Swedish standards (50-150 kW/unit). Other sectors with large numbers of heat pumps are food industry (1100 units) and chemical industry (350 units). The remaining 460 units are used in textile industry, steel industry and pulp and paper industry. Sweden has relatively few industrial heat pumps (150 units). However, the produced heat is about 500 MW and in terms of installed capacity Sweden is among the leading countries for upgrading of industrial heat sources. The energy saving potential for industrial heat pumps was computed to 2-4 % of the industrial fuel consumption (if profitability has to be obtained). About the same reductions can be reached for carbon dioxide as well as sulphur dioxide, dust, nitric oxide and hydrocarbons. In Sweden heating alternatives with low carbon dioxide emission is already common (hydro power, nuclear power, biofuels, and heat pumps). The potential for further carbon dioxide savings by industrial heat pumps is therefore relatively less than in most other countries. 16 figs, 6 tabs

  16. Chinese Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense Senior Vice Minister CHEN Qiufa visiting ALICE experiment on 1st November 2007 with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and Adviser J.-P. Revol. Thursday, 1st and Friday, 2nd November 2007

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Chinese Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense Senior Vice Minister CHEN Qiufa visiting ALICE experiment on 1st November 2007 with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and Adviser J.-P. Revol. Thursday, 1st and Friday, 2nd November 2007

  17. Defense Acquisition Reform: Background, Analysis, and Issues for Congress

    2014-05-23

    provided to CRS by Semiconductor Industry, October, 2013. 33 Zachary Fryer- Biggs , “Looking Beyond Defense: Firms Grow Revenue—By Diversifying,” DefenseNews...was chartered based on the authority set forth in Section 854 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for 2007 (P.L. 109-364). See...Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics John Young echoed this sentiment, stating “the enterprise will often pressure acquisition

  18. Advancing Malaysia’s Aerospace Industry: A Review of Governing Behaviors Required in Overcoming the Barriers in Global Aerospace Supply Chain Integration

    Jones, David A

    2006-01-01

    The global aerospace manufacturing industry is defined by original equipment manufacturers (OEM’s) consisting of major manufacturers of aircraft or aircraft systems as well as their principal and sub-tier suppliers. It is dominated by large manufacturers known as primes supported by system integrators and numerous component, parts and material suppliers. These are focused on meeting the diverse and differing capital equipment needs of these sectors. These supply products and services in direc...

  19. Malaria and Other Vector-Borne Infection Surveillance in the U.S. Department of Defense Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Program: Review of 2009 Accomplishments

    2011-03-04

    Vector borne infections (VBIs) such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, scrub typhus , and plague comprise a significant proportion of the global...a VBI: scrub typhus (19), murine typhus (three), Japanese encephalitis (JE) (two), primary dengue infection (12), secondary dengue infection (nine...prioritized by GSRI, half are VBIs (malaria, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, Chikungunya, CCHF, sandfly fever, O’nyong-nyong, Sindbis virus, scrub typhus

  20. The Dynamics of Interfirm Networks along the Industry Life Cycle: The Case of the Global Video Game Industry 1987-2007

    Balland, P.M.A.; Vaan, M. de; Boschma, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we study the formation of network ties between firms along the life cycle of a creative industry. We focus on three mechanisms that drive network formation: (i) network endogeneity which stresses a path-dependent change originating from previous network structures, (ii) five

  1. LINKING LOCAL AND GLOBAL: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR SMES – THE CASE OF THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY IN MEXICO

    Lalita Kraus

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the article is on global-local interrelation in a globally integrated system of production, analysed through the Global Value Chain (GVC) framework. The unit of analysis is the small and medium enterprise (SME) as relevant unit when dealing with poverty reduction and distribution. The GVC allows to determine how the SMEs insert themselves in this system and what are the factors that cause a potential suboptimal insertion. The picture is further complicated by specific internatio...

  2. Technology and globalization: the 15th World Petroleum Congress as viewed by German industry; Technologie und Globalisierung: Der 15. Welt-Erdoel-Kongress aus deutscher Sicht

    Weitkamp, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie I

    1998-03-01

    For the 15th World Petroleum Congress, held from 12 to 16 October 1997 in Peking, the programme committee had chosen the following central motto: `Technology and globalization - Leading the Petroleum Industry into the 21st Century`. For the petroleum and natural gas industry, this congress represents the most important international forum for discussing technical, economic, and increasingly also ecological issues. (orig./HS) [Deutsch] Fuer den 15. Welt-Erdoel-Kongress, der vom 12. bis 16. Oktober 1997 in Peking abgehalten wurde, hatte das Programmkomitee als Leitthema `Technology and Globalisation - Leading the Petroleum Industry into the 21st Century` gewaehlt. Der Kongress stellt fuer die Erdoel- und Erdgasindustrie das bedeutendste internationale Forum fuer eine Diskussion technischer, oekonomischer und zunehmend auch oekologischer Fragen. (orig./HS)

  3. Bridging Innovation and Outreach to Overcome Global Gaps in Radiation Oncology Through Information and Communication Tools, Trainee Advancement, Engaging Industry, Attention to Ethical Challenges, and Political Advocacy.

    Dad, Luqman; Royce, Trevor J; Morris, Zachary; Moran, Meena; Pawlicki, Todd; Khuntia, Deepak; Hardenbergh, Patricia; Cummings, Bernard; Mayr, Nina; Hu, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    An evolving paradigm in global outreach in radiation oncology has been the implementation of a more region-specific, needs-based approach to help close the gap in radiation services to low- and middle-income countries through the use of innovative tools in information and communication technology. This report highlights 4 information and communication technology tools in action today: (1) the NCCN Framework for Resource Stratification of NCCN guidelines, (2) ASTRO e-Contouring, (3) i.treatsafely.org, and (4) ChartRounds.com. We also render special consideration to matters related to global outreach that we believe require distinct attention to help us meet the goals established by the 2011 United Nations׳ Declaration on noncommunicable diseases: (1) trainee advancement toward careers in global health, (2) ethical challenges of international outreach, (3) critical importance of political advocacy, and (4) collaboration with Industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporary Service? A Global Perspective on Domestic Work and the Life Cycle from Pre-Industrial Times to the Present

    Nederveen Meerkerk, van E.J.V.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, labor history has taken a “global turn”, increasingly focusing on labor relations in the non-Western world. This article aims to challenge existing perceptions of the history of domestic work in Europe from a global labor history perspective by comparing them with the histories of

  5. The energy industries reorganization in the economic globalization; La restructuration des industries de l'energie dans la mondialisation economique

    Amouroux, J.M

    2003-07-01

    The author wonders on the energy supply evolution since thirty years and more specially the fossil fuels industries reconstruction. The energy panorama has been completely modified by a serial of processes which stopped the nuclear energy expansion and replaced the fossil fuels in the front of the energy scene. The processes are examined to evaluate the consequences of theses transformations on the model of economic development developed by the capitalism. (A.L.B)

  6. Home - Defense Technology Security Administration

    by @dtsamil Defense Technology Security Administration Mission, Culture, and History Executive Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration OFFICE of the SECRETARY of DEFENSE Defense Technology Security Administration

  7. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  8. Awareness and enforcement of guidelines for publishing industry-sponsored medical research among publication professionals: the Global Publication Survey.

    Wager, Elizabeth; Woolley, Karen; Adshead, Viv; Cairns, Angela; Fullam, Josh; Gonzalez, John; Grant, Tom; Tortell, Stephanie

    2014-04-19

    To gather information about current practices and implementation of publication guidelines among publication professionals working in or for the pharmaceutical industry. Web-based survey publicised via email and social media to members of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) and other organisations from November 2012 to February 2013. 469 individuals involved in publishing industry-sponsored research in peer-reviewed journals, mainly working in pharmaceutical or device companies ('industry', n=144), communication agencies ('agency', n=238), contract research organisations (CRO, n=15) or as freelancers (n=34). Most respondents (78%) had worked on medical publications for ≥5 years and 62% had a PhD/MD. Over 90% of industry, agency and CRO respondents routinely refer to Good Publication Practice (GPP2) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' Uniform Requirements. Most respondents (78% industry, 79% agency) received mandatory training on ethical publication practices. Over 90% of respondents' companies had publication guidelines or policies and required medical writing support to be acknowledged in publications (96% industry, 99% agency). Many industry respondents used publication management tools to monitor compliance with company guidelines and about half (46%) stated that their company had formal publication audits. Fewer agencies audited adherence to guidelines but 20% of agency respondents reported audits of employees and 6% audits of freelancers. Of concern, 37% of agency respondents reported requests from authors or sponsors that they believed were unethical, although 93% of these requests were withdrawn after respondents explained the need for compliance with guidelines. Most respondents' departments (63% industry, 58% agency, 60% CRO) had been involved in publishing studies with negative or inconclusive results. Within this sample, most publication professionals working in or for industry were aware of

  9. SOURCES OF FINANCING INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX ENTERPRISES

    Anzhela Zakhitovna Namitulina

    2016-01-01

    conditions. Currently, only a low percentage of civilian goods produced at the enterprises of the military-industrial complex (MIC, is exported. This preserves the low investment activity in the sectors of the military-industrial complex, which is the most high-tech part of the industry. In modern conditions in the Russian Federation military-industrial complex includes industrial companies and research organizations involved in defense research and creation of weapons and military equipment, governments and federal bodies of executive power. Under these circumstances, current CMO exit from the crisis is a problem of formation of an investment to ensure its development system. Objectives. The aim of the article is to study sources of financing and investment enterprises of the military-industrial complex, study and analysis of the financing of investment sphere of defense industry enterprises; Development of the best ways of functioning of the integrated companies with a view to achieving high economic efficiency in the military and economic cooperation on the basis of military technology, defense industry places on its analysis of the global market. Methods. The methodological basis of this article are the economic and statistical analysis methods, regulatory documents in the fi eld of economic security, publications in the fi eld of economic and financial security, public analyzes in the fi eld of development of military-industrial complex. Results. To improve the financial and investment attractiveness of the enterprises of the military-industrial complex need to improve conditions for attracting investments in the defense sector and expand the powers of enterprise credit and financial sector to actively participate in their financing processes of new projects of defense enterprises. State financing of Russian investment sector is characterized by the following features: the source of the reproduction process started only natural resources, many of which are irreplaceable

  10. Optimizing Active Cyber Defense

    Lu, Wenlian; Xu, Shouhuai; Yi, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Active cyber defense is one important defensive method for combating cyber attacks. Unlike traditional defensive methods such as firewall-based filtering and anti-malware tools, active cyber defense is based on spreading "white" or "benign" worms to combat against the attackers' malwares (i.e., malicious worms) that also spread over the network. In this paper, we initiate the study of {\\em optimal} active cyber defense in the setting of strategic attackers and/or strategic defenders. Specific...

  11. Awareness and enforcement of guidelines for publishing industry-sponsored medical research among publication professionals: the Global Publication Survey

    Wager, Elizabeth; Woolley, Karen; Adshead, Viv; Cairns, Angela; Fullam, Josh; Gonzalez, John; Grant, Tom; Tortell, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To gather information about current practices and implementation of publication guidelines among publication professionals working in or for the pharmaceutical industry. Design/setting Web-based survey publicised via email and social media to members of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) and other organisations from November 2012 to February 2013. Participants 469 individuals involved in publishing industry-sponsored research in peer-reviewed journals, mainly working in pharmaceutical or device companies (‘industry’, n=144), communication agencies (‘agency’, n=238), contract research organisations (CRO, n=15) or as freelancers (n=34). Most respondents (78%) had worked on medical publications for ≥5 years and 62% had a PhD/MD. Results Over 90% of industry, agency and CRO respondents routinely refer to Good Publication Practice (GPP2) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ Uniform Requirements. Most respondents (78% industry, 79% agency) received mandatory training on ethical publication practices. Over 90% of respondents’ companies had publication guidelines or policies and required medical writing support to be acknowledged in publications (96% industry, 99% agency). Many industry respondents used publication management tools to monitor compliance with company guidelines and about half (46%) stated that their company had formal publication audits. Fewer agencies audited adherence to guidelines but 20% of agency respondents reported audits of employees and 6% audits of freelancers. Of concern, 37% of agency respondents reported requests from authors or sponsors that they believed were unethical, although 93% of these requests were withdrawn after respondents explained the need for compliance with guidelines. Most respondents’ departments (63% industry, 58% agency, 60% CRO) had been involved in publishing studies with negative or inconclusive results. Conclusions Within this sample

  12. EFFECTIVE CRISIS MANAGEMENT FOR ISLAMIC FINANCIAL INDUSTRY AND THE INSTITUTION OF HISBAH: LESSONS FROM GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Najeeb Zada; Ahcene Lahsasna; Muhammad Yusuf Saleem

    2016-01-01

    The recent financial crisis resulted destructive effects on finance industry. Islamic financial industry (IFI) is still naïve and largely untested in the face of a major financial turmoil. Major issues and uncertainties of the insolvency of IFI include the issue of moral hazard, government bailouts, excessive risk taking and deposit insurance. This paper addresses the issue of crisis management in IFI from the perspective of al-Siyasah al-Shar'iyyah and attempts to derive public policy guidel...

  13. Cooperating to Compete in the Global Air Cargo Industry: The Case of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo A.G. Joint Venture Airline ‘AeroLogic’

    Glenn Baxter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo strategic joint venture cargo airline ‘AeroLogic’, the global air cargo industry’s largest operative joint venture between an airline and a leading international express and logistics provider. The study used a qualitative research approach. The data gathered for the study was examined by document analysis. The strategic analysis of the AeroLogic joint venture was based on the use of Porter’s Five Forces framework. The study found that the AeroLogic joint venture airline has provided synergistic benefits to both partners and has allowed the partners to access new markets and to participate in the evolution of the air cargo industry. The new venture has also enabled both joint venture partners to enhance their competitive position in the global air cargo industry through strengthened service offerings and has provided the partners with increased cargo capacities, a larger route network, and greater frequencies within their own route networks. The study also found that the AeroLogic business model is unique in the air cargo industry. A limitation of the study was that AeroLogic’s annual revenue or freight traffic data was not available. It was, therefore, not possible to analyse the business performance of the joint venture.

  14. Local systems, global impacts. Using life cycle assessment to analyse the potential and constraints of industrial symbioses

    Sokka, L.

    2011-08-15

    Human activities extract and displace different substances and materials from the earthAEs crust, thus causing various environmental problems, such as climate change, acidification and eutrophication. As problems have become more complicated, more holistic measures that consider the origins and sources of pollutants have been called for. Industrial ecology is a field of science that forms a comprehensive framework for studying the interactions between the modern technological society and the environment. Industrial ecology considers humans and their technologies to be part of the natural environment, not separate from it. Industrial operations form natural systems that must also function as such within the constraints set by the biosphere. Industrial symbiosis (IS) is a central concept of industrial ecology. Industrial symbiosis studies look at the physical flows of materials and energy in local industrial systems. In an ideal IS, waste material and energy are exchanged by the actors of the system, thereby reducing the consumption of virgin material and energy inputs and the generation of waste and emissions. Companies are seen as part of the chains of suppliers and consumers that resemble those of natural ecosystems. The aim of this study was to analyse the environmental performance of an industrial symbiosis based on pulp and paper production, taking into account life cycle impacts as well. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for quantitatively and systematically evaluating the environmental aspects of a product, technology or service throughout its whole life cycle. Moreover, the Natural Step Sustainability Principles formed a conceptual framework for assessing the environmental performance of the case study symbiosis (Paper 1). The environmental performance of the case study symbiosis was compared to four counterfactual reference scenarios in which the actors of the symbiosis operated on their own. The research methods used were process-based life cycle

  15. The role of global economic policy uncertainty in long-run volatilities and correlations of U.S. industry-level stock returns and crude oil.

    Yu, Honghai; Fang, Libing; Sun, Boyang

    2018-01-01

    We investigate how Global Economic Policy Uncertainty (GEPU) drives the long-run components of volatilities and correlations in crude oil and U.S. industry-level stock markets. Using the modified generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity mixed data sampling (GARCH-MIDAS) and dynamic conditional correlation mixed data sampling (DCC-MIDAS) specifications, we find that GEPU is positively related to the long-run volatility of Financials and Consumer Discretionary industries; however, it is negatively related to Information Technology, Materials, Telecommunication Services and Energy. Unlike the mixed role of GEPU in the long-run volatilities, the long-run correlations are all positively related to GEPU across the industries. Additionally, the rankings of the correlations of Energy and Materials are time-invariant and classified as high, with the little exception of the latter. The Consumer Staples industry is time-invariant in the low-ranking group. Our results are helpful to policy makers and investors with long-term concerns.

  16. Smoke filtration in the glass industry. Thomson Videoglass` global approach with closed loop recycling; Fitration des fumees dans l`industrie du verre. L`approche globale avec recyclage en boucle fermee de thomson videoglass

    Mocek, L. [Thomson Videoglass, 77 - Bagneaux-sur-Loing (France)

    1996-12-31

    Thomson Videoglass, an ISO 9002 certified manufacturer of glass components for Tv sets in France, has introduced a global closed-loop recycling dust filtration system for glass kilns; electrostatic filters and bag filters (for the lead-containing flat glass kiln) have been selected and collected dusts are recycled in the cone glass kiln. Energy savings, operating conditions, investment and operating costs are discussed together with filter corrosion, clogging-up and service life issues and dust extraction performances

  17. Inter-firm R&D networks in the global software industry : An overview of major trends and patterns

    Cloodt, M.M.A.H.; Hagedoorn, J.; Roijakkers, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of some major historical trends in inter-firm R&D partnering in the international software industry during the period 1970–1999. Our research demonstrates an overall growth pattern of newly made R&D partnerships and reveals the important role played by leading firms.

  18. Report on achievement in the preceding research related to global industry technologies for the global industry technology research and development project. Research on gas systems substituting global warming gases such as PFC used in manufacturing semiconductors; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu. Handotai seizo nado ni shiyosuru PFC nado no chikyu ondanka gas no daitai gas system no kenkyu

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The present semiconductor manufacturing process uses a great amount of PFC having large global warming coefficients and extremely long atmospheric life. A research was made particularly on reduction of its emission from etching processes. After introducing how the semiconductor industry has been working conventionally on protection of the global environment, this paper makes clear the purpose and positioning of this preceding research, as well as how it is moved forward. The paper also reports the results of analyzing and discussing the exhaust gases from etching devices using several kinds of substitute PFC gases. Survey results are reported on the possibilities of new substitute gases, plasma decomposition and treatment of exhaust gases, reaction process simulation, and in-situ analyzing and evaluating technologies. Investigations were made on the possibility of using no PFC in wiring processes which consume greater amount of PFC, as well as on wiring techniques using inter-layer insulation film with low dielectric rate, a new wiring structure forming technology, new functional elements, circuits and systems in a wide range. Proposals were given on specific research and development themes and plans that begin in fiscal 1999. (NEDO)

  19. WTO/GATS and the Education Service Industry: Global Strategy--Local Responses. Routledge Research in Education

    Robertson, Susan, Ed.; Bonal, Xavier, Ed.; Dale, Roger, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a considerable and growing interest in globalisation as a phenomenon. Education at all levels has been deeply implicated in the processes of globalization, partly as a product that can be made more efficient in the name of competitive advantage and partly as a beneficiary of investment in a hazily defined…

  20. Wine: the increasing risk of a highly vulnerable industry globally to natural disasters and climate change (NH Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    Daniell, James E.; Daniell, Trevor M.; Daniell, Katherine A.; Wenzel, Friedemann; Schäfer, Andreas M.; Kunz, Michael; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Khazai, Bijan; Girard, Trevor; Burford, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Globally, well over 10 trillion in economic losses and over 10 million deaths can be attributed directly to natural disaster events from floods, earthquakes, storms, volcanoes and climatic effects historically (CATDAT - Daniell et al., 2016). When looking at the most vulnerable industries to natural disasters for each dollar invested the wine industry rates very highly, thus showing the risky and vulnerable nature of the wine business. Some effects of climate change will be shifting climates so that new grape growing areas are discovered and some traditional locations will require a change of grape variety to be planted, or will unsatisfactory for quality grape production. As new grape types are developed, some other grape types will become less viable leading to a global shift relative to the current state of the industry. The wine industry has been shown to have major losses via sudden shocks such as earthquakes in Chile (2010), Christchurch (2011) and Napa (2014) and hail through Burgundy (2012-2014). Wineries are often prone to other major disasters such as flood, storms, frost, fire or disease causing structural failure of assets, and significant production losses. Natural and man-made disasters play a key role in wine industry losses, and the variability of seasonal shifts and sudden natural shocks can often play a major role in the lifecycle and indeed the lifetime of wineries. Lessons learnt from winery disasters and climate impacts in Australia, Chile, New Zealand and USA are used as well as a comparison with those in Europe and other vulnerable centralised industries, such as cheese in Italy (2012 earthquake). For various natural disasters the structural engineering issues associated with wineries are examined with respect to infrastructure such as elevated steel tanks, as well as the importance of planning for earthquakes. The potential risk mitigation solutions are often simple to implement and are cost-effective in reducing significantly the risk